Timeline Armenia

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Embassy: http://www.armeniaemb.org/  

Armenia’s capital is Yerevan.
    (WSJ, 3/31/97, p.A10)  

The theory most favored by Armenian historians claims that they descended from a Thracian-Phrygian group, that originated in the Balkan Peninsula and by the pressure of Illyrians migrated to eastern Anatolia in the sixth century BC.

4000BC    In 2011 it was reported that the earliest known winery, dating to about this time, had been discovered in Armenia.
    (SFC, 1/11/11, p.A2)

3627BC-3377BC    In Armenia a leather shoe dating to this period was found in 2010 in a pit outside a cave.
    (AP, 6/10/10)

782BC        Urartian king Argishti the First founded Erebuni, the military and administrative center of the state of Urartu, situated in the location of present-day Yerevan, Armenia.
    (www.anahit.am/regions/yerevan/)(SSFC, 10/17/04, p.D8)

700BC-600BC      A migration of the Cimmerians and Scythians took place in the seventh century BC. These were nomadic tribes from the Russian steppes, who made their way round the eastern end of the Caucasus, burst through into the Moghan plains and the basin of Lake Urmia, and terrorized Western Asia for several generations, till they were broken by the power of the Medes and absorbed in the native population. It was they who made an end of the Kingdom of Urartu, and the language they brought with them was probably an Indo-European dialect answering to the basic element in modern Armenian.
700BC-600BC     The Armenians, an Indo-European people, migrate from the west to mingle with the people of URARTU. It was ruled by kings of the Orontid dynasty as a satrapy of the Persian empire until the defeat of Persia by Alexander the Great.
    (CO Enc. / Armenia)

521BC         The name Armenian was mentioned for the first time in the Behistan (Behistun) inscription of the Mede (Persian) Emperor Darius from this year: "I defeated the Armenians."
    (http://www.atmg.org/ArmenianFAQ.html#q6)(ON, 4/04, p.7)

94BC-56BC    Tigranes (Dikran) the Great, a scion of the Eastern Dynasty, ruled. He welded the two Armenian satrapies into one kingdom, and so created the first strong native sovereignty that the country had known since the fall of Urartu five centuries before.

52        Trdat I received his crown from the Roman emperor Nero and began the Arsacid (Arshakuni) monarchy.
    (MH, 12/96)

286-336    King Trdat III ruled Armenia.
    (MH, 12/96)

301        King Trdat III declared Christianity to be the state religion. Armenia became the first country to adopt Christianity. Not long after the Armenians adopted Christianity in their homeland around the biblical Mt. Ararat, on the eastern border of modern-day Turkey, they dispatched priests to Jerusalem.
    (MH, 12/96)(SFEC, 3/22/98, p.A25)(AP, 5/12/11)

387        The Parthians and Romans agreed to settle the Armenian question by the drastic expedient of partition. The Sassanid kings of Persia (who had superseded the Parthians in the Empire of Iran) secured the lion's share of the spoils, while the Romans only received a strip of country on the western border which gave them Erzeroum and Diyarbakir for their frontier fortresses.

405        The Armenian alphabet was invented.
    (MH, 12/96)

410        The Bible was translated into Armenian. [see 422-432]

422-432    The Bible and the works of the church fathers were translated into Armenian. [see 410]
    (MH, 12/96)

428        The Arsacid (Arshakuni) monarchy of Armenia ended and control fell to the rule of the Persian Sassanids.
    (MH, 12/96)

438-457    The Persian King Yazdegird II ruled. He pressured the Armenians to accept Zoroastrianism and worship the supreme god Ahura Mazda. Mihr-Nerseh, the Persian grand vizier, promulgated an edict that enjoined the Armenians to convert.
    (MH, 12/96)

449        The Armenians held a General Assembly to ponder the Persian edict that demanded conversion to Zoroastrianism. They chose to remain Christian and their leaders were summoned to Persia to answer to the king. The leaders opted to yield under heavy pressure but were renounced on their return home.
    (MH, 12/96)

451        Apr 13, A Persian Army of 300,000 men under Mushkan Nusalavurd arrived at a place between her and Zarevand (now Khoy and Salmast in Iran) to face the Armenian forces.
    (MH, 12/96)

451        May 26, The Battle of Avarair. Vardan Mamikonian, son of Sparapet (general) Hamazasp Mamikonian and Sahakanush, daughter of the Catholicos Sahak Bartev, led a force of 66,000 Armenians to face the Persians. Prior to battle Vardan read aloud the story of the Jewish Maccabees. Persian losses tripled the Armenian dead, but Mushkan won and Vardan was killed.
    (MH, 12/96)

451        The Armenians were the first Christians to take up arms in defending their right to worship.
    (HN, 7/25/98)

451-484    Vahan Mamikonian led the Armenians in a 33-year guerrilla war. The Persian Sassanids underwent 3 rulers and pressure from the Ephthalites, White Huns, and when King Peroz was killed by the White Huns, his successor, Balash, sued for peace. Vahan demanded and was granted religious freedom.
    (MH, 12/96)

478-490    The Catholicos Hovhan I Mandakuni.
    (MH, 12/96)

484        A treaty was signed in the village of Nuwarsak with the Persians and Vahan Mamikonian was appointed marzban of Armenia.
    (MH, 12/96)

485-505    Vahan Mamikonian began his rule with services at the Cathedral of Dvin with the Catholicos Hovhan I Mandakuni presiding.
    (MH, 12/96)

552        Jul 10, Origin of Armenian calendar.
    (MC, 7/10/02)

628        Apr 3, In Persia, Kavadh sued for peace with the Byzantines. He handed back Armenia, Byzantine Mesopotamia, Syria, Palestine and Egypt.
    (HN, 4/3/99)

632-661    The Rashidun Caliphate, also known as the Rightly Guided Caliphate, comprising the first four caliphs in Islam's history, was founded after Muhammad's death. At its height, the Caliphate extended from the Arabian Peninsula, to the Levant, Caucasus and North Africa in the west, to the Iranian highlands and Central Asia in the east. It was the one of the largest empires in history up until that time.

683-685     Khazars invaded Transcaucasia and inflicted much damage and stole much booty. The Khazar invaders killed the rulers of Armenia and Georgia.
(TJOK, p.159)

730         Khazar commander Barjik led Khazar troops through the Darial Pass to invade Azerbaijan. At the Battle of Ardabil, the Khazars defeated an entire Arab army. The Battle of Ardabil lasted three days, and resulted in the death of a major Arab general named Jarrah. The Khazars then conquered Azerbaijan and Armenia and northern Iraq for a brief time.
    (TJOK, pages 160-161)

820        Dec 25, Leo V, the Armenian, Byzantine gen and Emperor (813-20), was murdered.
    (MC, 12/25/01)

895        The Tatev Monastery was built near the village of Tatev, Armenia. The construction on the Church of Peter and Paul was completed in 906.

921        In Turkey the Armenian Akdamar church, called the Church of Surp Khach, or Holy Cross, was inaugurated. Written records say the church was near a harbor and a palace on the island on Lake Van, but only the church survived. Turkey restored the church in 2007.
    (AP, 3/25/07)

961        Ani became the capital of Armenia. At its height it had over 100,000 inhabitants. Within a century it began falling victim to waves of conquerors including Seljuk Turks, Georgians and Mongols.
    (Econ, 6/17/06, p.59)

989-1020    Ani, a medieval city-site situated in the Turkish province of Kars, beside the border with Armenia, attained the peak of its power during the long reign of King Gagik I (989-1020). It was the capital of a medieval Armenian kingdom that covered much of present day Armenia and eastern Turkey. Armenian chroniclers such as Yeghishe  and Ghazar Parpetsi first mentioned Ani in the 5th century AD.

1003        Gregory of Narek (b.951) died in Armenia. He was later is considered one of the most important figures of medieval Armenian religious thought and literature. His Book of Prayers, also called the Book of Lamentations, is his best-known work. In 2015 Pope Francis named St. Gregory named a doctor of the church.
    (AP, 2/23/15)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gregory_of_Narek)

1198        Fleeing from the Turks, a group of Armenian nobles and their followers settled in Byzantine Cilicia where they established a state know as Lesser or Little Armenia. In this year the area attained the status of kingdom and survived to 1375.

1319        Ani, capital of Armenia, was devastated by an earthquake.
    (Econ, 6/17/06, p.59)

1350        Sargis Pitsak, Armenian artist, produced illuminated manuscripts of the bible. Color picture "Souls Ascending the Heavenly Ladder to Christ," featured in:
    ( SF Chronicle, 5/12/1994, p. E-1)

1720        Handel composed his opera "Radamisto." It dealt with the tyrant Tiridate, King of Armenia, and his insatiable pursuit of a woman who is not his wife.
    (LGC-HCS, p.41)(WSJ, 7/5/00, p.A20)

1828        Russia conquered the Armenian provinces of Persia, and this brought within her frontier the Monastery of Etchmiadzin, in the Khanate of Erivan, which was the seat of the Katholikos of All the Armenians.

1868        Tigran Tcukhatjian (Tchukhadjian) composed "Arshak II," a pseudo-European grand opera.
    (WSJ, 1/25/00, p.A18)(WSJ, 10/9/01, p.A20)

1869-1955    Calouste Gulbenkian, Armenian oil merchant. By 1907 he combined Royal Dutch Oil and Shell Oil and emerged with a large block of stock in the combined company. He later brokered all the oil sold in Iran to the West for a 5% commission and earned the nickname Mr. Five percent. He collected old master paintings, Turkish carpets, illuminated manuscripts and left a fortune valued at $1 billion.
    (WSJ, 1/11/98, p.R18)

1877        Nov 17, Russians launched a surprise night attack that overran Turkish forces at Kars, Armenia.
    (HN, 11/17/98)

1887        The Marxist Hunchakian Revolutionary Party, called the Hunchaks, was founded in Geneva, Switzerland by Armenians from Russia.

1890        The Marxist Armenian Revolutionary Federation, called the Dashnaks, was founded in the Russian Empire, in Tiflis.

1894        Nov 16, 6,000 Armenians were massacred by Turks in Kurdistan.
    (MC, 11/16/01)

1894-1896    Thousands of Armenians were massacred by the Turks after attempts for autonomy and self-defense failed. This issue was then referred to as the "Armenian Question."
    (Compuserve Online Enc. / Armenia)

1904        Apr 15, Arshile Gorky (d.1948), artist, was born as Vostanig Adoian of Armenian parents in Eastern Turkey. (The actual year was between 1902 and 1905). He came to the US in 1920 and assumed a new name in admiration of Russian writer Maxim Gorky.
    (WSJ, 5/12/99, p.A20)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arshile_Gorky)

1909        The Adana massacre occurred in Adana Province, in the Ottoman Empire. A religious-ethnic clash in the city of Adana amidst governmental upheaval resulted in a series of anti-Armenian pogroms throughout the district. Reports estimated that the massacres in Adana Province resulted in 15,000 to 30,000 deaths.

1912        Arshile Gorky’s 1926 painting, "The Artist and His Mother," was based on a photograph taken in Armenia in 1912, not long before his mother died of starvation. The work took ten years to complete.
    (WSJ, 4/9/98, p.A21)

1914        Fall, Armenian volunteer bands organized themselves and fought against the Turks. "The Protestant missionaries distributed... propaganda in favor of England and stirred the Armenians to desire autonomy under British protection."
    (History of Armenia, Horen Ashikian)

1914        A Dashnaktsutiun Party Congress was held in Erzurum, which the Dashnaks regarded as the capital of a future "Greater Armenia."

1915        Apr 11, The Armenians of Van began a general revolt, massacring all the Turks in the vicinity so as to make possible its quick and easy conquest by the Russians.

1915        Apr 20, The Turks fired the first shot at Van; the first Armenians were deported from Zeitoun on the 8th April, and there is a record of their arrival in Syria as early as the l9th.

1915        Apr 24-May 14, Turkey said Armenians had sided with Russia and issued a deportation order for the mass deportation of Armenians. Armenian organizations in Istanbul were closed and 235 members were arrested for treason. Turkish police arrested some 800 of the most prominent Armenians in Constantinople, took them into the hinterlands and shot them. With that the terror spread through "Turkish Armenia" spearheaded by the "Special Organization" of soldiers of the Turkish leader Enver. In 2006 Taner Akcam authored “A Shameful Act: The Armenian Genocide and the Question of Turkish Responsibility."
    (AP, 4/24/97)(SFC, 4/27/99, p.A10)(HNQ, 5/30/99)(Econ, 10/21/06, p.95)(AP, 4/24/10)

1915        May 12, Croatians plundered Armenia and killed 250.
    (MC, 5/12/02)

1915        Jun 1, A forced exodus [of Armenians] from Baibourt [Turkey] took place. All the villages, as well as three-fourths of the town, had already been evacuated. A 3rd convoy included from 4,000 to 5,000 people. Within six or seven days from the start, all males down to below fifteen years of age had been murdered.

1915        Nov 6, An order from Constantinople reached the local authorities, at any rate in the Cilician plain, directing them to refrain from further [Armenian] deportations.

1915        In 2003 Peter Balakian, Prof. at Colgate Univ., authored "The Burning Tigris: The Armenian Genocide and America's Response," a one-sided account of the 1915 Armenian genocide and the Turkish massacres of Armenians in the 1890s.
    (SSFC, 10/11/03, p.M4)
1915        Kurdish tribes took part in the mass slaughter by the Ottomans of around 1 million Armenians. Tens of thousands of Syriacs fell with them.
    (Econ, 12/4/10, p.64)(Econ, 11/3/12, p.52)

1915-1917    Of the 1.75 million Armenians in Turkey at the outset of World War I, 250,000 fled into Russia. Some 600,000 starved to death in the Mesopotamian desert. Henry Morgenthau, US ambassador to the Ottoman Empire, alerted Pres. Wilson of a massacre of Armenians by the Turks. Evidence and photographs of the camps were provided to Morgenthau by Armin Wegner, German Red Cross official and Johannes Lepsius, a German missionary. British diplomat Lord Bryce hired Arnold Toynbee to document the slaughter. In 2004 Turkey's Culture Ministry allowed the film "Ararat" by Atom Egoyan, which recalled the plight of Armenians in Ottoman Turkey during this time, to be shown in Turkey with one rape scene cut. In 2004 Armenian descendants of some of the dead, who held 2,400 insurance policies, reached a $20 million settlement with New York Life Insurance Co.
    (AP, 4/24/97)(HN, 4/24/98)(SFC, 4/27/99, p.A10)(HNQ, 5/30/99)(PC, 1992, p.711)(SFC, 1/2/04, p.D15)(SFC, 1/29/04, p.A3)

1916        Feb 16, Russian troops conquered Erzurum, Armenia.
    (MC, 2/16/02)

1916        C.F. Dixon-Johnson authored "The Armenians," with the aim of "presenting the public an opportunity of judging whether or not 'the Armenian Question' has another side than that which has been recently so assiduously promulgated throughout the Western World."

1916        Arnold Toynbee edited a document titled: "The Treatment of the Armenians in the Ottoman Empire: 1915-1916."

1918        Mar, The Bolshevik government in Baku was established. In that period, the Bolshevik-Dashnak coalition came to power on the backs of thousands of corpses of innocent Turko-Moslems.

1918        Jun, The Ottomans became the first to recognize the first and short-lived Republic of Armenia.
    (Econ., 4/18/15, p.76)

1918        Dec 2, Armenia proclaimed independence from Turkey. An independent Republic of Armenia was established in Russian Armenia under Dashnak administration.
    (HN, 12/2/98)(Compuserve Online Enc. / Armenia)

1918        The Yazidis of Sinjar (Iraq) saved hundreds of Armenians and Assyrian Christians as they were being slaughtered by Ottoman Turks and their Kurdish proxies.  The Ottomans retaliated by sending a small army to Sinjar and capturing the revered Yazidi leader, Hamo Sharro, who was sentenced to five years of har labor.
    (Econ, 8/23/14, p.38)

1919        May 28, The Armenian National Council declared the independence of Armenia under the leadership of Aram Manukian. [see Dec 2, 1918]

1920        Jan 15, The United States approved a $150 million loan to Poland, Austria and Armenia to aid in their war with the Russian communists.
    (HN, 1/15/99)

1920        Aug 10, The Ottoman sultanate at Constantinople signed the Treaty of Sevres with the Allies and associated powers. It promised a homeland for the Kurds, but the nationalist government in Ankara did not sign the treaty. It set the borders of Turkey recognized Armenia as an independent state. France and Britain backed the treaty and a Kurdish state, but refused to allow Kurds in Iraq and Syria to join it.
    (SFC, 2/17/99, p.A10)(www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/versa/sevres1.html) (EWH, 4th ed, p.1086)(Econ, 7/13/13, SR p.5)

1921        Oct 13, In the Treaty of Kars Turkey formally recognized the Armenian Soviet Republic.
    (EWH, 4th ed, p.1086)

1921        The borders of the region were gerrymandered when the Caucasus territories were made part of the Soviet Union. This made the area of Nagorno-Karabakh, a mountainous enclave of mostly Armenians surrounded by Azerbaijan dependent on Moscow. The site of Ani, former capital of Armenia, was ceded to Turkey.
    (SFC, 2/4/98, p.C2)(WSJ, 3/18/98, p.A18)(Econ, 6/17/06, p.59)

1922        May 29, Jevgeni B. Vachtangov (39), Armenian-Russian actor, director, died.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1923        Jul 24, The Treaty of Lausanne, which settled the boundaries of modern Greece and Turkey, was concluded in Switzerland. It replaced the Treaty of Sevres and divided the lands inhabited by the Kurds between Turkey, Iraq and Syria. Article 39 allowed Turkish nationals to use any language they wished in commerce, public and private meetings, and publications. The treaty specifically protected the rights of the Armenian, Greek and Jewish communities. The former provinces of Baghdad, Basra and Mosul were lumped together to form Iraq. Both countries agreed to a massive exchange of religious minorities. Christians were deported from Turkey to Greece and Muslims from Greece to Turkey. A Muslim community of at least 100,000 was allowed in northern Greece. In 2006 Bruce Clark authored “Twice a Stranger: The Mass Expulsions that Forged Modern Greece and Turkey."
    (WSJ, 3/20/97, p.A17)(AP, 7/24/97)(SSFC, 12/22/02, p.A14)(Econ, 3/19/05, Survey p.9)(Econ, 10/14/06, p.50)(Econ, 12/9/06, p.92)(Econ, 10/16/10, p.72)

1924        Jul 25, Greece announced the deportation of 50,000 Armenians.
    (HN, 7/25/98)

1924        Sep 6, Forty teenagers from Armenia, who had escaped from the Armenian genocide in Turkey, arrived in Addis Ababa. They along with their bandleader Kevork Nalbandian became the first official orchestra of Ethiopia. Nalbandian composed the music for Ethiopia’s Imperial National Anthem, Marsh Teferi (words by Yoftahé Negusé), official from 1930 to 1974.

1925        The Ghazir rug, created by orphans of the Armenian genocide (1915-1917), was donated to US Pres. Calvin Coolidge.
    (SFC, 10/16/14, p.A10)

1928        Jul 4, Cathy Berberian, US singer, was born in Armenia.
    (MC, 7/4/02)

1933         Franz Werfel (1890-1945), Czech-born Austrian writer, authored "The Forty Days of Musa Dagh," an account of the 1915 Armenian resistance to Turkey. The author's friend, Rabbi Albert Amateau, testified in 1989 that Werfel was ashamed for having written the book, learning that he had extensively relied on the forgeries of Aram Andonian, which provides the only "evidence" of extermination orders.

1936        Dec 5, Armenian SSR, Azerbaijan SSR, Georgian SSR, Kazakh SSR & Kirghiz SSR became constituent republics of Soviet Union.
    (MC, 12/5/01)

1949        Oct 29, George Ivanovich Gurdjieff (b.~1866), a Greek-Armenian mystic and spiritual teacher, died in France. His books included “Meetings with Remarkable Men," the 2nd volume of his “All and Everything" trilogy.

1976        In Armenia the Metzamor nuclear power plant opened. It featured two VVER nuclear reactors, a design that continues to be used throughout the former Soviet Union and eastern Europe. The plant was shut down in 1988 following the Spitak earthquake, which killed 25,000 people and caused widespread devastation. But Armenian authorities restarted one reactor unit at the plant in 1993 following energy shortages that were causing heavy deforestation.
    (AP, 10/4/10)

1978        May 1, Aram Khachaturian (b.1903), Georgia-born Armenian composer, died in Moscow.

1981        Sep 24, Four Armenian gunmen seized the Turkish consulate in Paris, holding 60 hostages for 15 hours before surrendering.
    (AP 9/24/01)

1983        Jul 15, In France a bomb explodes in front of the THY counter at Orly airport. 8 people were killed and more than sixty injured. A 29 years old Syrian-Armenian named Varadjian Garbidjian (d.2019) confessed to having planted the bomb. He admitted that the bomb was intended to have exploded once the plane was airborne. Karapetian (d.2019), who headed the French branch of the Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation of Armenia, later confessed to paying a passenger to check a bomb-carrying bag for him onto a Turkish Airlines flight, claiming he had too much luggage himself. Karapetian was sentenced to life imprisonment in France, but was released in 2001 on condition of his being deported to Armenia.
    (http://armenians-1915.blogspot.com/2006/12/1273-this-month-in-history-armenian.html)(AP, 1/29/19)

1988        Feb 28, Ethnic unrest broke out between Armenians and Azerbaijanis in the city of Sumgait. There was an anti-Armenian pogrom in the town of Sumgait. A national awakening occurred in Azerbaijan when conflict erupted over the Armenian enclave of Nagorno-Karabakh, included by the Soviets in the Republic of Azerbaijan. The Armenian population in Nagorno-Karabakh began fighting for independence.
    (WSJ, 8/7/96, p.A15)(AP, 2/28/98)(SFC, 11/27/96, p.A13)(WSJ, 5/14/97, p.A22)

1988        May 21, The Soviet news agency Tass reported that the Communist Party leaders of Armenia and Azerbaijan had been dismissed after fresh outbreaks of ethnic tensions in the two southern Soviet republics.
    (AP, 5/21/98)

1988        Jul 7, The European Parliament adopted a resolution condemning brutalities against Armenians in Nagorno-Karabakh.

1988        Jul 14, The Soviet press agency Tass reported that Azerbaijan has rejected an attempt by Nagorno-Karabakh, a predominantly Armenian enclave, to secede and join Armenia. Some 200,000 demonstrated in Soviet Armenia for the incorporation of Nagorno-Karabakh.

1988        Dec 7, A magnitude 6.9-8.0 earthquake devastated Spitak in northern Armenia; an estimated 25,000-55,000 people died with some $14 billion in losses.
    (www.who.int/archives/inf-pr-1997/en/pr97-08.html)(AP, 12/7/97)(AP, 6/22/02)

1988        Dec 9, In the wake of the Armenian earthquake that claimed tens of thousands of lives, countries around the world began sending emergency supplies and offering pledges of relief funds.
    (AP, 12/9/98)

1988        Dec 10, Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev visited the republic of Armenia, the scene of a devastating earthquake that had killed an estimated 25,000 people.
    (AP, 12/10/98)

1988        Dec 11, A Soviet military transport plane crashed, killing nearly 80 people involved in Armenian earthquake relief efforts.
    (AP, 12/11/98)

1988        Dec 14, Sixty more survivors were pulled from rubble of earthquake that rocked Armenia.
    (AP, 12/14/02)

1990        Jan 15, Soviet leader Gorbachev and the Soviet Presidium declared a state of emergency in parts of Azerbaijan and Armenia in the wake of escalating ethnic violence.
    (AP, 1/15/00)

1990        Jan 16, The Soviet Union sent more than 11,000 reinforcements to the Caucasus to halt a civil war between Armenians and Azerbaijanis.
    (AP, 1/16/00)

1990        Jan 20, The Soviets attacked Baku, leaving dozens dead and wounded. Gen’l. Lebed led Russian forces in Baku to crush the nationalist Azeri Popular Front. 62 civilians were killed and more than 200 wounded when the Soviet army stormed into the city of Baku to end what Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev called fratricidal killing between Muslim Azerbaijanis and Christian Armenians.
    (WSJ, 12/18/96, p.A21)(CO, Grolier’s Amer. Acad. Enc./ Azerbaijan)(WSJ, 8/7/96, p.A15)(AP, 1/20/00)

1990        Aug 4, In Armenia Levon Ter-Petrosyan (52) was elected Chairman of the Armenian Supreme Soviet.

1990        Aug 23, Armenia declared independence.

1991        Sep 21, Armenia gained independence and was immediately involved in a territorial dispute with Azerbaijan over the Nagorny Karabakh region.
    (WSJ, 5/2/97, p.A15)(http://aua.am/history-of-the-university/)
1991        Sep 21, The American University of Armenia began instruction with 101 students enrolled.

1991        Sex selective abortions began increasing in the Caucasus region as ultrasound equipment became available from the West. By 2013 over 115 boys were born in Armenia and Azerbaijan for every 100 girls. In Georgia the ration was 120 to 100.
    (Econ, 9/21/13, p.54)

1992        Feb 11, US Secretary of State James A. Baker III, on a tour of six former Soviet republics, visited Armenia, where he heard an appeal from the republic's president for U.S. help in resolving a bloody feud with neighboring Azerbaijan.
    (AP, 2/11/02)

1992        Feb 26, According to Azerbaijani authorities 613 Azerbaijanis were killed when Armenian troops rushed into the village of Khodzhaly (Khojali).
    (AP, 2/26/12)(Econ., 10/31/20, p.48)

1992        The Azerbaijanis under a new nationalist government tried to reconquer Nagorno-Karabakh, but were soon repulsed.
    (WSJ, 3/18/98, p.A18)

1993        The film "Calendar" was directed by Canadian Atom Egoyan. It was shot in Armenia with funds won from the Moscow Prize for "The Adjustor." It was a memory piece of himself as a photographer.
    (SFC,12/26/97, p.C18)

1993        Turkey sealed its land frontier with Armenia after it seized the province of Nagorno-Karabakh from their Azeri cousins. Direct air travel was still allowed.
    (Econ, 6/17/06, p.59)(Econ, 11/18/06, p.53)

1994        May, A cease-fire was declared between Armenia and Azerbaijan. Azerbaijan Pres. Geidar Aliyev negotiated a cease-fire with Armenian forces in the conflict over Nagorno-Karabakh. More than 35,000 people had died in 6 years of fighting.
    (WSJ, 5/14/97, p.A22)(WSJ, 3/18/98, p.A18)(SFC, 12/13/03, p.A20)

1994        Pres. Levon Ter-Petrossian outlawed the Dashnaksitun political party.
    (SFC, 12/11/96, p.C1)

1994-1996    Russia’s Defense Minister, Pavel Grachev, approved the transfer of more than $1 billion worth of weaponry to Armenia.
    (WSJ, 5/14/97, p.A22)

1995        Apr, Patriarch Catholicos Garegin I  (born as Nshan Sarkisian in Kassab Syria), was elected leader of the Armenian Apostolic Church. He succeeded Vazgen I who held the post for 40 years.
    (SFC, 6/30/99, p.C2)

1996        Sep 23, Pres. Levon Ter-Petrossian claimed victory in elections as did his opponent former Prime Minister Vazgen Manukian. The next day the Pres. claimed victory and the PM claimed fraud. Int’l. observers claimed serious irregularities.
    (SFC, 9/24/96, p.A14)(WSJ, 9/25/96, p.A1)

1996        Sep 26, Tanks were called in after 59 people were injured in protests over the re-election of the president.
    (SFC, 9/27/96, p.A12)

1996        Dec 10, The Supreme Court sentenced 3 members of the outlawed Dashnaksitun political party to death on terrorism charges.
    (SFC, 12/11/96, p.C1)

1996        Dec, The Lisbon Summit of Organization of Security and Cooperation in Europe chose Azerbaijan’s argument for territorial integrity over Armenia’s argument for self-determination in Nagorno-Karabakh.
    (WSJ, 3/18/98, p.A18)

1997        Mar 31, Pres. Levon Ter-Petrossian chose war-hero Robert Kocharian as the new prime minister.
    (WSJ, 3/31/97, p.A10)

1997        Jul 22, In San Francisco, Ca., the .38 acres of the Mt. Davidson cross was auctioned off for $26,000 to a group of Armenian organizations who proposed to dedicate it as a memorial to Armenians massacred during WW I. The sale was approved in a US Court of Appeals in 2001.
    (SFC, 7/22/97, p.A1)(SFC, 1/5/00, p.A18)(SFC, 9/6/01, p.A1)

1997        Sep 2, Ethnic Armenians in Nagorno-Karabakh elected Arkady Gukasian as president with an 89% vote. Azerbaijan called the vote invalid.
    (SFC, 9/3/97, p.C3)

1997        The book "The History of the Armenia Genocide" appeared in Turkey, but copies were confiscated and the publisher Aysenur Zarakolu was arrested and fined.
    (SFC, 3/6/98, p.A12)

1997        In Armenia the game of Bingo was introduced and became a big hit.
    (SFEC, 3/22/98, p.A25)
1997        Armenia’s population was about 3 mil. The enclave of Nagorno-Karabakh in Azerbaijan had 150,000 Armenians.
    (WSJ, 3/31/97, p.A10)

1998        Feb 3, Armenia Pres. Levon Ter-Petrosyan (52) resigned after 7 years of leadership. His support for a compromise settlement over the Nagorno-Karabakh caused backers to defect to the opposition.
    (SFC, 2/4/98, p.C2)

1998        Feb 26, Azerbaijan accused Armenia of launching fresh attacks over the disputed Nagorno-Karabakh.
    (WSJ, 2/27/98, p.A1)

1998        Mar 16, In Armenia elections for president were held and the voting was marred by fraud. Prime Minister Robert Kocharian led the vote over former Communist boss Karen Demirchian, but failed to get a majority and a runoff was planned for Mar 30.
    (SFC, 3/17/98, p.B3)(WSJ, 3/18/98, p.A1)

1998        Mar 30, Prime Minister Robert Kocharian won the runoff vote with 59%.
    (SFC, 3/31/98, p.B5)(WSJ, 4/1/98, p.A1)(SFC, 4/2/98, p.C2)

1998        Dec 9, Vagram Khorkhoruni, deputy defense minister, was shot dead outside his home in Yerevan.
    (SFC, 12/10/98, p.C7)

1999        Jun 29, Patriarch Catholicos Garegin I, leader of the Armenian Apostolic Church, died at age 66.
    (SFC, 6/30/99, p.C2)

1999        Jun, Pres. Robert Kocharian appointed Vazgen Sarkisian as Prime Minister after Armen Darbinian resigned.
    (SFC, 10/28/99, p.A14)

1999        Oct 27, In Armenia gunmen burst into the parliament and killed Prime Minister Vazgen Sarkisian and 7 other officials. They then took a number of hostages and declared their intent to topple the government.
    (SFC, 10/28/99, p.A1)
1999        Oct 27, Garegin Nersesian (48) was elected as the new spiritual leader, Catholicos Garegin II, of the Armenian Apostolic Church.
    (SFC, 11/5/99, p.A17)

1999        Oct 28, In Armenia the assassins of the prime minister surrendered following negotiations with Pres. Robert Kocharian. Nairi Unanian, his younger brother Karen, their uncle Vram Galstian were 3 of the 5 arrested.
    (SFC, 10/28/99, p.A1)(SFC, 10/29/99, p.A14)

1999        In Armenia a court in Gyumri sentenced two soldiers from a Russian base to 14 and 15 years in jail for killing two people and wounding several more in indiscriminate firing in the city.
    (Reuters, 1/19/15)

2000        Mar 22, Gunmen ambushed Arkady Gukasyan, the president of Nagorno-Karabakh, an Armenian enclave in Azerbaijan. 28 suspects were arrested.
    (SFC, 3/23/00, p.D2)

2000        May 2, Pres. Robert Kocharian fired Prime Minister Aram Sarkisian and his government for allowing the economy to deteriorate and for ignoring discord in the military. Police security was tightened around government buildings.
    (SFC, 5/3/00, p.A14)

2000        Jun 30, Vahe Oshagan, poet, died at age 78 in Philadelphia. His work included 8 volumes of poetry and 6 volumes of fiction along with short stories, plays and commentaries.
    (SFC, 7/11/00, p.A23)

2000        California passed a law allowing heirs of victims of the Armenian genocide to sue in state courts for unpaid insurance benefits. In 2012 the Ninth US Circuit Court of Appeals ruled the law invalid.
    (SFC, 2/24/12, p.C5)

2001        Mar 22, Sabiha Gokcen, Turkey's 1st woman pilot and the adopted daughter of Ataturk, died. Armenians held that she was Armenian by birth.
    (Econ, 3/27/04, p.52)

2001        Apr 5, Presidents Robert Kocharian of Armenia and Heydar Aliyev of Azerbaijan met in Key West, Fla., for negotiations on Nagorno-Karabakh.
    (SFC, 4/4/01, p.A10)

2001        Jul 6, Armenia reported that almost 25% of the 3.4 million population had left the country. A census was scheduled for October.
    (WSJ, 7/6/01, p.A6)

2001        Sep 25, Pope John Paul cut short a speech in Armenia due to symptoms of his Parkinson’s disease. His visit coincided with celebrations marking the 1,700 anniversary of Christianity as the state’s religion.
    (SFC, 9/26/01, p.C2)

2002        Oct 9, In Armenia Aram Petrosian and Akop Khachatrian were sentenced to death for leading an armed band that terrorized Vanadzor, killing 5 people, robbing homes and racketeering. The government prepared to ask parliament to abolish the moratorium on the death penalty.
    (AP, 10/9/02)

2002         Oct, Mark Grigorian, deputy head of the Caucasus Institute for Mass Media, suffered lung and head injuries in a grenade attack.
    (AP, 12/29/02)

2002        Nov 23, Azerbaijan Pres. Geidar Aliev said that he and Armenian Pres. Robert Kocharian have agreed to seek a peaceful settlement of the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict.
    (AP, 11/23/02)

2002        Dec 28, In Yerevan, Armenia, Tigran Nagdalian, chief of the leading TV station was shot and killed.
    (AP, 12/29/02)

2003          Feb 19, Armenia held national elections. Pres. Kocharian was being challenged by 8 contenders who criticized his failure to secure a final deal with Azerbaijan over the Armenian-populated enclave of Nagorno-Karabakh. He also faced accusations over about 30 unresolved political killings in recent years and the widening gap between rich and poor in this nation of 3.3 million people. Kocharian failed to win the necessary 50 % of votes for re-election, forcing a runoff in balloting that the opposition complained was rigged.
    (AP, 2/19/03)(AP, 2/20/03)

2003          Mar 5, In Armenia Pres. Robert Kocharian won Armenia’s presidential runoff. The opposition claimed he was trying to fix the outcome. Kocharian had 67.5 percent and challenger Stepan Demirchian had 32.5 percent,
    (AP, 3/6/03)

2003        May 25, Armenians went to the polls to select a parliament.
    (AP, 5/25/03)

2003        Armenia decriminalized homosexuality, but many in the country resisted recognizing LGBT rights.
    (AP, 4/27/19)

2004        Dec 24, Armenia’s parliament voted to send 46 noncombat troops to Iraq.
    (SFC, 12/25/04, p.A10)

2004        In Hungary Ramil Safarov of Azerbaijan killed fellow-student Gurgen Margarjan of Armenia while both men studied at a NATO English language course for military officers of non-member countries. Safarov was sentenced to life in prison, but was released to Azerbaijan on Aug 31, 2012.
    (Economist, 9/8/12, p.51)

2005        Jun 15, Armenia said Azerbaijan was stockpiling more arms than permitted by treaty.
    (WSJ, 6/16/05, p.A1)

2005        Sep 24, Turkish scholars at a twice-canceled conference on the massacre of Armenians in the early 20th century cautiously discussed the politically charged topic, avoiding inflammatory language as protesters denounced the gathering as traitorous.
    (AP, 9/24/05)

2005        Oct 10, Election officials said Armen Keshishian, the mayor of Nor-Achin a small Armenian town jailed on murder charges, was re-elected to his post. Keshishian has been charged in the Sept. 24 shooting death of Ashot Mkhitarian, the head of a local electric utility. The pistol that allegedly killed the utility chief had been presented to Keshishian by PM Andranik Markarian. Keshishian will govern his town from behind bars pending trial.
    (AP, 10/10/05)

2006        Jan 22, Explosions hit pipelines running through southern Russia, cutting the natural gas supply to Georgia and Armenia during a cold snap.
    (AP, 1/22/06)

2006        Feb 10, The presidents of Armenia and Azerbaijan negotiated one-on-one on ways to end the 18-year conflict over the enclave of Nagorno-Karabakh, but reached no conclusion and planned more talks.
    (AP, 2/10/06)

2006        Feb 11, The presidents of Armenia and Azerbaijan failed to reach agreement after two days of talks on how to end the bloody conflict over the enclave of Nagorno-Karabakh.
    (AP, 2/11/06)

2006        Mar 6-2006 Mar 7, Armenian and Azerbaijani forces exchanged heavy gunfire and mortars at several points along their border in the most serious fighting in months.
    (AP, 3/7/06)

2006        May 3, An Armenian Airbus A-320 crashed in stormy weather off Russia's Black Sea coast while readying to land at the Sochi resort, killing all 113 people on board, most of them Armenians.
    (AP, 5/3/06)(WSJ, 5/3/06, p.A1)

2006        Jun 14, Azerbaijan and Armenia promised to continue talks over Nagorno-Karabakh despite two failed efforts this year by the Caucasus nations' presidents to resolve the status of the disputed enclave.
    (AP, 6/14/06)

2006        Oct 3, Russia suspended all transport and postal links with Georgia until further notice, sharply escalating their dispute. The blockade caused economic problems for Armenia, Georgia's landlocked southern neighbor, since Russia is its main trading partner.
    (AP, 10/3/06)(AP, 10/7/06)

2006        Oct 12, French lawmakers approved a bill making it a crime to deny that the 1915-1919 mass killings of Armenians in Turkey amounted to genocide. It was thought unlikely that Jacques Chirac’s government would forward the bill to the Senate.
    (AP, 10/12/06)(SFC, 10/13/06, p.A21)

2006        Nov 10, Asian nations reached their first international agreement to implement what has been dubbed the "Iron Silk Road." Armenia, Azerbaijan, Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Iran, Kazakhstan, Laos, Russia, South Korea, Turkey and seven other nations agreed to meet at least every two years to identify vital rail routes, coordinate standards and financing and plan upgrades and expansions, among other measures. The UN first conceived the Trans-Asian Railway Network in 1960.
    (AP, 11/10/06)

2006        Dec 7, In Armenia 3 teenagers and their grandmother set themselves on fire in Yerevan to protest what they said was authorities' inaction on investigating a relative's death, a family member said. Two of them were injured. They argued that the case was not being investigated because of discrimination against the Yazidi, a Kurdish ethnic group. About 50,000 Yazidi live in Armenia.
    (AP, 12/8/06)

2007        Jan 19, Hrant Dink (53), a Turkish citizen of Armenian descent, was shot to death at the entrance to his newspaper's offices. The journalist had faced constant threats and legal proceedings as one of the most prominent voices of Turkey's shrinking Armenian community. Dink had called the 1915 massacre of Armenians by Ottoman Turks a genocide. In 2012 Yasin Hayal was sentenced to life in prison for masterminding the killing, while another 19 were acquitted of charges of acting under a terrorist organization's orders.
    (AP, 1/19/07)(AP, 1/19/12)(Econ, 1/21/12, p.58)

2007        Jan 20, Istanbul police arrested Ogun Samast, a teenage boy (16-17) and nationalist hardliner, for the Jan 19 fatal shooting of Hrant Dink, an ethnic Armenian journalist. Samast confessed to the murder. In July, 2011, a juvenile court sentenced Samast to nearly 23 years in prison for killing Dink. A prosecutor demanded life imprisonment for 7 other men accused of involvement in the killing. 19 other people were on trial, accused of instigating the killing.
    (AP, 1/20/07)(AP, 9/19/11)

2007        Mar 25, Armenia’s PM Andranik Margarian (55) died of heart failure. Serzh Sarkisian (Sargsyan), defense minister, was appointed prime minister.
    (AP, 3/25/07)(www.eurasianet.org/armenia/parties/serzh.html)

2007        May 12, Armenia held a general election. Acting PM Serzh Sarkisian was elected prime minister.
    (Econ, 5/19/07, p.58)

2007        Jul 19, The Armenian-controlled breakaway region of Nagorno-Karabakh held a presidential election amid a rumbling dispute with Azerbaijan over the mountainous enclave's unrecognized independence.
    (AP, 7/19/07)

2007        Jul 20, An election committee said Bako Saakian, Nagorno-Karabakh's former security chief, won the presidency of the Armenian-controlled breakaway region with 85% of the vote.
    (AP, 7/20/07)

2007        Sep 4, A skirmish near the disputed territory of Nagorno-Karabakh killed two Azerbaijani soldiers and three Armenian troops.
    (AP, 9/5/07)

2007        Sep 7, Bako Saakian, the former security chief of Nagorno-Karabakh, was sworn as the new president of the Armenian-controlled breakaway region.
    (AP, 9/7/07)

2007        Oct 10, The US House Foreign Affairs Committee voted 27-21 to label as genocide the deaths of Armenians a century ago at the end of the Ottoman Empire. The Bush administration planned to pressure Democratic leaders not to schedule a vote, though it is expected to pass.
    (AP, 10/11/07)

2007        Oct 11, Turkey swiftly condemned a US House panel's approval of a bill describing the World War I-era mass killings of Armenians as genocide, and newspapers blasted the measure on their front pages. Turkey also recalled its ambassador to Washington and warned of serious repercussions if Congress labels the killing of Armenians by Turks a century ago as genocide.
    (AP, 10/11/07)(AP, 10/12/07)

2007        Nov 29, Armenia approved a plan to shut down its lone nuclear power plant, following years of pressure from foreign nations concerned about its Soviet-era design and safety.
    (AP, 11/30/07)

2008        Feb 19, Armenians voted for a new president. PM Serzh Sarkisian (Sargsyan), given credit for rising living standards, won with 53% of the vote, enough to avert a runoff with rival Levon Ter-Petrosian (21%).
    (Reuters, 2/19/08)(Econ, 2/23/08, p.70)(Econ, 10/18/08, p.38)

2008        Feb 20, In Armenia thousands of opposition supporters marched through the capital after an election official said complete results showed that the prime minister had won the presidential election. On Jan 19, 2010, a court sentenced Nikola Pashinian, editor of the Armenian Times opposition newspaper, to seven years in prison for organizing mass unrest in the wake of the 2008 presidential elections.
    (AP, 2/20/08)(AP, 1/19/10)

2008        Mar 1, Armenian police forcefully dispersed a demonstration by several hundred opposition supporters who had camped out in the capital for more than a week to protest the results of presidential elections. The violent protests left eight dead and more than 100 injured and prompted Armenian President Robert Kocharian to declare a sweeping, 20-day state of emergency.
    (AP, 3/1/08)(AP, 3/2/08)

2008        Mar 4, Ethnic Armenian and Azerbaijani forces exchanged fire for hours near the disputed territory of Nagorno-Karabakh. Azerbaijan warned it could try to reclaim the disputed region. Soldiers were killed and wounded on both sides. Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty said in a statement that its two Armenian affiliates halted the broadcasts to comply with an emergency decree that allows media to only report news that is sanctioned by the government.
    (AP, 3/5/08)(WSJ, 3/5/08, p.A1)

2008        Mar 14, The UN General Assembly adopted a resolution demanding the "immediate, complete and unconditional" withdrawal of all Armenian forces from Azerbaijan's territory in a vote in which more than 100 countries abstained.
    (AFP, 3/15/08)

2008        Mar 15, Azerbaijan warned it would review relations with France, Russia and the US after they voted against a UN resolution calling on Armenia to pull out of Azerbaijani territory.
    (AFP, 3/15/08)

2008        Sep 6, Thousands of Armenians lined the streets of the Yerevan to protest the first-ever visit by a Turkish leader and to demand that Turkey acknowledge the World War I massacres of Armenian civilians as genocide.

2008        Nov 2, The leaders of Armenia and Azerbaijan agreed to intensify talks to end a 20-year conflict over the disputed territory of Nagorno-Karabakh.
    (AP, 11/2/08)

2008        Nov 25 Armenia won its second straight gold medal at the Chess Olympiad in Germany by defeating China 2.5-1.5 in the 11th and final round.
    (AP, 11/26/08)

2008        Dec 15, A group of about 200 Turkish intellectuals issued an apology on the Internet for the World War I-era massacres of Armenians in Turkey.
    (AP, 12/16/08)

2008         In Armenia Levon Arakelyan (67) died from a heart attack. In 1995 he had begun building by hand a twisting network of subterranean caves and tunnels known as "Levon's divine underground" beneath the family home in Arinj.
    (AFP, 7/29/18)

2009        Feb 4, Russia sought to bolster its security alliance with six other ex-Soviet nations (Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan) by forming a joint rapid reaction force in a continuing effort to curb US influence in energy-rich Central Asia.
    (AP, 2/4/09)

2009        Apr 22, The Turkish Foreign Ministry said Turkey and Armenia have agreed on a roadmap for normalizing relations and reaching reconciliation, but it wasn't immediately clear how they would tackle their bitter dispute over Ottoman-era killings of ethnic Armenians.
    (AP, 4/22/09)

2009        May 7, The European Union extended its hand to former Soviet republics, holding a summit to draw them closer into the EU orbit despite Russia's deep misgivings. Presidents, premiers and their deputies from 33 nations signed an agreement meant to extend the EU's political and economic ties. The six ex-Soviet republics to whom the “eastern partnership" would apply are Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine.
    (AP, 5/7/09)(Econ, 1/10/15, p.49)

2009        Jul 15, In Iran a Russian-made Caspian Airlines TU-154 jet plane carrying nearly 170 people crashed shortly after takeoff from Tehran's Imam Khomeini International Airport. It was headed to the Armenian capital Yerevan. All on board were killed.
    {Iran, Air Crash, Armenia}
    (AP, 7/15/09)

2009        Oct 2, In France Armenia's President Serge Sarkisian started his tour of Armenian communities worldwide amid violent protests from members of a diaspora angry over plans to establish ties with Turkey.
    (AP, 10/2/09)

2009        Oct 10, Armenia and Turkey signed a deal in Switzerland to establish diplomatic ties ending a century of enmity. To take effect, the agreements must be ratified by the Turkish and Armenian parliaments, but it faced stiff opposition in both countries.
    (AP, 10/11/09)

2009        Oct 11, Turkish PM Erdogan called on Armenia to withdraw from the disputed enclave of Nagorno-Karabakh, saying that a deal to establish diplomatic ties, signed a day earlier, cannot come into force until that happens.
    (AP, 10/11/09)

2009        Oct 14, Armenian President Serzh Sarkisian arrived in Turkey to attend a World Cup football game as the two nations pressed ahead with painstaking efforts to overcome a bloody history.
    (AFP, 10/14/09)

2010        Mar 4, A US congressional panel voted to label as "genocide" the World War One-era massacre of Armenians by Ottoman Turkish forces, prompting Turkey to recall its ambassador from Washington.
    (Reuters, 3/4/10)

2010        Mar 11, Sweden's parliament narrowly approved a resolution recognizing the 1915 mass killing of Armenians in Turkey as genocide, prompting the Turkish government to recall its ambassador in protest.
    (AP, 3/11/10)

2010        Apr 22, Armenia suspended ratification of peace accords with Turkey, setting back to square one US-backed efforts to bury a century of hostility between the neighbors.
    (Reuters, 4/22/10)

2010        Jun 18-2010 Jun 19, A firefight between Armenia and Azerbaijan left 5 people dead in northern Karabakh.
    (Econ, 7/10/10, p.54)(www.eurasianet.org/node/61373)

2010        Aug 20, Russia secured a long-term foothold in the energy-rich and unstable Caucasus region by signing a deal with Armenia that allows a Russian military base to operate until 2044 in exchange for a promise of new weaponry and fresh security guarantees.
    (AP, 8/20/10)

2010        Oct 13, US authorities said a vast network of Armenian gangsters and their associates used phantom health care clinics and other means to try to cheat Medicare out of $163 million, the largest fraud by one criminal enterprise in the program's history. Federal prosecutors in New York and elsewhere charged 73 people. The reputed boss, Armen Kazarian (46), was in custody in Los Angeles.
    (AP, 10/13/10)

2010        Oct 16, Armenia's president has opened an aerial tramway that the country claims is the world's longest. The tramway across the Vorotan River gorge in the country's south spans 5.7 km (3.5 miles), longer than the 4.5 km (2.8 mile) Sandia Peak Tramway in New Mexico, known as the world's longest passenger tramway. The $45 million tramway links the highway from the capital of Yerevan with the 9th century Tatev Monastery.
    (AP, 10/16/10)

2010        Oct 26, Armenian police arrested Georg Avanesov (27). He allegedly operated the “Bredolab" botnet of nearly 30 million PCs. Investigators alleged that Avanesov made up to US$139,000 each month renting the botnet to criminals who used it for sending spam and for installing password-stealing malicious software.

2010        Thomas de Waal authored “The Caucasus: An Introduction."
    (Econ, 10/23/10, p.102)

2011        Jan 9, In Turkey PM Erdogan visited Kars and called for the destruction of a local monument near the Armenian border. The monument featured a divided human figure, with one half extending a hand to the other half. It was meant to symbolize the pain of division and the hope of reconciliation, and was sculpted from stone by Mehmet Aksoy, a prominent Turkish artist. Local authorities halted its construction on grounds that it was built on a historic military site, Timur Pasha emplacement, used to defend the city in the 16th century.
    (AP, 1/10/11)(Econ, 1/15/11, p.56)(http://tinyurl.com/4g4kpya)

2011        Jan 11, It was reported that the earliest known winery, dating back some 6,000 years, has been discovered in Armenia.
    (SFC, 1/11/11, p.A2)

2011        Apr 26, Turkey began to demolish the 100-foot "Peace and Brotherhood" monument near its eastern border dedicated to friendship with Armenia after PM Erdogan called it a "monstrosity" on Jan 9. The statue was commissioned in 2006 to highlight friendship between Turkey and Armenia, two countries with a history of enmity and suspicion.
    (AFP, 4/26/11)

2011        Jun 24, The presidents of Armenia and Azerbaijan failed to approve a set of basic principles for a peaceful settlement to their long-standing dispute over the breakaway territory of Nagorno-Karabakh, despite US and Russian efforts to mediate the conflict in the strategic Caucasus region.
    (AP, 6/24/11)

2011        Sep 3, In Tajikistan leaders from eight former Soviet states (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan) gathered to celebrate enduring cooperation over the two decades since their nations collectively gained independence, but mutual acrimony and recriminations cast a shadow over the event.
    (AP, 9/3/11)

2011        Nov 19, Azeri snipers fired into the disputed breakaway enclave of Nagorno-Karabakh killing one Armenian soldier. A 2nd soldier was killed the next day.
    (AP, 11/21/11)

2011        Nov 21, Armenia said it will retaliate for the weekend killings of two ethnic Armenian soldiers by Azeri snipers who fired into a disputed breakaway enclave.
    (AP, 11/21/11)

2011        Dec 23, Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad made a visit to Armenia that saw the Islamic republic and its small Christian neighbor sign a series of agreements to boost ties.
    (AFP, 12/23/11)

2012        Jan 23, Turkey threatened more sanctions for France if the Senate in Paris votes later today to make it a crime to deny the 20th-century killing of Armenians by Ottoman Turks constitutes a genocide. France's parliament approved the bill later in the day.
    (AP, 1/23/12)(AP, 1/24/12)

2012        Jan 24, Turkey warned the French president against signing a law that makes it a crime to deny that the killings of Armenians by Ottoman Turks nearly a century ago constituted genocide, saying such a move would deal a heavy blow to the relations between the two countries.
    (AP, 1/24/12)

2012        May 6, Armenians voted for a new parliament. President Serge Sarkisian's party won a majority of seats in a parliamentary election that international observers said were competitive and peaceful. The Republican Party won at least 68 of the parliament's 131 seats.
    (AP, 5/6/12)(AP, 5/7/12)

2012        Jun 4, Three Armenian soldiers were killed in clashes along its border with Azerbaijan.
    (SFC, 6/6/12, p.A4)

2012        Jun 5, Five Azerbaijan soldiers were killed near Gazakh in clashes along its border with Armenia. Each nation blamed the other for the violence.
    (SFC, 6/6/12, p.A4)

2012        Aug 31, Armenia broke off diplomatic ties with Hungary after an Azerbaijani military officer sentenced to life in prison here for killing an Armenian officer was sent back to his homeland and, despite assurances, immediately pardoned and freed. Lt. Ramil Safarov (35) was given a life sentence in 2006 by the Budapest City Court after he confessed to killing Lt. Gurgen Markarian of Armenia while both were in Hungary for a 2004 NATO language course.
    (AP, 9/1/12)

2012        Armenia’s population was about 3.3 million.
    (AP, 5/6/12)

2013        Jan 31, Armenian Paruir Airikian (63), one of eight candidates in the Feb. 18 presidential race, was shot and wounded by an unidentified assailant outside his home in Yerevan, just before midnight. two suspects were arrested on Feb 7.
    (AP, 2/1/13)(AP, 2/8/13)

2013        Feb 18, Armenia held elections. President Serge Sarkisian (58) easily won a second term with nearly 59% of the vote, but international observers said the vote "lacked competition." The closest of his six rivals, American-born Raffi Hovanessian, got 37% of the vote.
    (AP, 2/19/13)

2013        Dec 2, In Armenia some 500 people marched through Yerevan to denounce visiting Russian President Vladimir Putin and to protest against plans to join a Moscow-led customs union.
    (Reuters, 12/2/13)

2013        In Armenia the American Univ. of Armenia, largely run by the Univ. of California, opened to undergraduates.
    (SFC, 9/8/14, p.A1)

2014        Jan 22, Azerbaijan said it had repelled a cross-border raid by Armenian forces in the latest outbreak of violence over the disputed Nagorny Karabakh region.
    (AFP, 1/22/14)

2014        Apr 11, Turkey condemned a US Senate committee resolution branding the massacre of Armenians by Ottoman forces during World War One as genocide and warned Congress against taking steps that would harm Turkish-American ties.
    (Reuters, 4/11/14)

2014        Apr 23, Turkish PM Tayyip Erdogan offered what the government said were unprecedented condolences on Wednesday to the grandchildren of Armenians killed in World War One by Ottoman soldiers on the eve of the 99th anniversary of the deeply contested deaths.
    (Reuters, 4/23/14)

2014        Aug 1, In Azerbaijan at least 10 people were killed in skirmishes between Azeri government forces and ethnic Armenian separatists controlling the breakaway Nagorno-Karabakh enclave of Azerbaijan.
    (Reuters, 8/1/14)

2014        Aug 2, In Azerbaijan 5 more soldiers were killed in overnight skirmishes between Azeri government forces and ethnic Armenian separatists controlling the breakaway Nagorno-Karabakh enclave.
    (AP, 8/2/14)

2014        Aug 4, Azerbaijan and Armenia both reported more losses in a sharp escalation of fighting over the South Caucasus region Nagorno-Karabakh, with 18 soldiers now confirmed dead.
    (AP, 8/4/14)

2014        Aug 9, Russian President Vladimir Putin began talks with the leaders of arch-foes Armenia and Azerbaijan after recent clashes that have left 22 soldiers dead and fueled fears that one of the bloodiest post-Soviet wars is restarting.
    (AFP, 8/9/14)

2014        Nov 11, The armed forces of Azerbaijan shot down and destroyed an Armenian military helicopter in the Nagorno-Karabakh region. Azerbaijan said its forces shot down the Russian-made Mi-24 helicopter gunship after it tried to attack its positions.
    (AP, 11/12/14)

2014        Nov 22, The Armenian enclave of Nagorno-Karabakh said its forces killed two Azerbaijani soldiers in an overnight operation to recover the bodies of three helicopter crew members whose craft was shot down by Azerbaijan on Nov 11.
    (AP, 11/22/14)

2014        Dec 10, Russia’s lower house of parliament voted unanimously to approved a treaty allowing Armenia to join the Eurasian Economic Union, a trade block that already includes Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan.
    (SFC, 12/11/14, p.A2)

2014        Dec 23, Russia and four other ex-Soviet nations completed the creation of a new economic alliance intended to bolster their integration. The Eurasian Economic Union, which includes Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Armenia and Kyrgyzstan, comes to existence on Jan 1. Belarus President Alexander Lukashenko cracked the ceremonial veneer of the meeting by launching a harsh attack on Moscow for damaging Belarus' economic interests with moves to restrict its exports to Russia.
    (AP, 12/23/14)

2014        Meline Toumani, Armenian-American journalist, authored “There Was and There Was Not: A Journey Through Hate and Possibility in Turkey, Armenia, and Beyond."
    (Econ, 1/3/15, p.68)

2015        Jan 2, The Eurasian Economic Union, a trade bloc of former Soviet states, expanded to four nations when Armenia formally joined, a day after the union between Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan began.
    (AP, 1/2/15)

2015        Jan 3, In Azerbaijan the Armenian defense ministry of the separatist Nagorno-Karabakh region said two of its soldiers were killed while repelling Azerbaijani infiltrators.
    (AP, 1/3/15)

2015        Jan 12, In Armenia a family of six was killed by machine gun at their home in the city of Gyumri. Suspect Valery Permyakov, a Russian soldier who deserted his unit at a Russian military base, was detained the next day while trying to cross from Armenia into Turkey. On Jan 19 a six-month-old boy became the 7th member the Avetisyan family to die. On August 23, 2016, a Russian military court sentenced Permyakov to life in prison.
    (AP, 1/13/15)(Reuters, 1/19/15)(AP, 8/23/16)

2015        Jan 20, The Armenian defense ministry of the separatist Nagorno-Karabakh region said one of its soldiers has been killed while repelling an Azerbaijani incursion over the last 24 hours.
    (AP, 1/20/15)

2015        Jan, At least 12 people were reported killed and 18 wounded this month in border clashes between Armenia and Azerbaijan.
    (AFP, 3/4/15)

2015        Feb 16, The Armenian president asked the country's parliament speaker to withdraw his signature from a groundbreaking 2009 agreement with Turkey meant to restore ties between the two nations due to "preconditions" that Turkey put in place before it ratifies its part of the deal.
    (AP, 2/16/15)

2015        Apr 2, The Cyprus parliament legislated to criminalize the denial of the massacre of an estimated 1.5 million Armenians by Ottoman Turks a century ago.
    (AP, 4/2/15)

2015        Apr 7, Armenian police detained and raided the offices and homes of four opposition activists suspected of plotting riots on the centennial of the massacre of 1.5 million Armenians that Armenia describes as genocide. The arrested activists of the Founding Parliament opposition group, included its leader, Jirair Sefilian.
    (AP, 4/7/15)

2015        Apr 12, In the Vatican Pope Francis described the 1915 massacre of as many as 1.5 million Armenians as "the first genocide of the 20th century" at a 100th anniversary Mass. Turkey swiftly summoned the Vatican's ambassador in Ankara to protest.
    (Reuters, 4/12/15)

2015        Apr 22, Austrian lawmakers condemned as "genocide" for the first time the massacre of Armenians by Ottoman Turks during World War I, ahead of the 100th anniversary of the violence.
    (AFP, 4/22/15)

2015        Apr 23, The Armenian Church began a ceremony making saints of up to 1.5 million Armenians massacred by Ottoman forces as tensions over Turkey's refusal to recognize the killings as genocide reached boiling point.
    (AFP, 4/23/15)

2015        Apr 24, In Armenia the leaders of France and Russia joined ceremonies marking the centenary of the massacre of some 1.5 million Armenians by Ottoman forces.
    (AFP, 4/24/15)
2015        Apr 24, Turkey hosted leaders from the former Allied powers of World War I to pay tribute to the tens of thousands killed in the Battle of Gallipoli, drawing accusations from Armenians that it was deliberately overshadowing the Yerevan ceremonies.
    (AFP, 4/24/15)

2015        Jun 15, In Armenia a Russian soldier was found stabbed to death near the Russian military base where he served. This was the second fatal incident involving a Russian soldier at the base this year. He was believed to have been killed by a fellow Russian soldier, who was taken into custody.
    (AP, 6/15/15)

2015        Jun 23, Armenian police detained nearly 240 people in the capital Yerevan after using water cannon to disperse a protest against electricity hikes.
    (AFP, 6/23/15)

2015        Jun 24, Hundreds of Armenians staged a third day of demonstrations in Yerevan against a hike in electricity prices.
    (Reuters, 6/24/15)

2015        Jun 26, In Armenia protests against a hike in electricity prices continued for a fifth straight day.
    (AP, 6/26/15)
2015        Jun 26, Azerbaijani troops killed an Armenian soldier in the latest border clash between the arch-foes who are locked in a longstanding conflict over the disputed Nagorny Karabakh region.
    (AFP, 6/27/15)

2015        Jun 27, Armenian President Serzh Sarkisian suspended a controversial hike in electricity prices but the move failed to appease protesters who vowed to keep up with the largest anti-government demonstrations the ex-Soviet nation has seen in years.
    (AFP, 6/27/15)

2015        Jun 28, Armenian demonstrators protesting higher household electricity rates blocked the capital's main avenue for a seventh straight day.
    (AP, 6/28/15)

2015        Jul 6, Armenian police cleared away barricades to unblock a central avenue in the Yerevan that demonstrators had occupied for two weeks to protest hikes in electricity prices in the impoverished former Soviet nation.
    (AP, 7/6/15)

2015        Jul 24, Armenian army units reportedly shelled Azerbaijani positions at the Karabakh frontline and the Azerbaijani-Armenian state border. One Azeri serviceman was killed in the crossfire. Armenia denied that it had sustained any casualties and accused Azerbaijan of violating a 1994 ceasefire.
    (AFP, 7/25/15)

2015        Aug 22, Clashes erupted between troops from Azerbaijan and the breakaway Nagorno-Karabakh region. 5 Armenian soldiers were killed and eight wounded.
    (Reuters, 8/24/15)

2015        Sep 26, Azerbaijan said one soldier was killed over the past day by Armenian artillery, and the Nagorno-Karabakh defense ministry said four of its fighters died from an Azerbaijan barrage.
    (AP, 9/26/15)

2015        Oct 15, The European Court of Human Rights ruled Switzerland had violated Turkish politician Dogu Perincek's right to freedom of speech by convicting him for denying that the killing of Armenians by Ottoman Turks in 1915 amounted to genocide.
    (Reuters, 10/15/15)

2015        Dec 6, Armenia held a referendum on proposed constitutional changes that would give more powers to the prime minister and parliament at the expense of the president, who would become largely a figurehead. Armenians voted to curb presidential powers in the disputed referendum.
    (AP, 12/6/15)(AFP, 12/7/15)

2015        Dec 9, Armenia said it has arrested Garik Marutyan (38), a former senior army officer, on suspicion of spying for Azerbaijan and selling state secrets.
    (AFP, 12/9/15)
2015        Dec 9, Azerbaijani tanks shelled positions in the breakaway Nagorny Karabakh region for the first time in more than 20 years killing one rebel soldier.
    (AFP, 12/9/15)

2015        Dec 10, Azerbaijan said 3 of its troops have been killed in the past ten days as the conflict in its separatist region of Nagorno-Karabakh escalates.
    (AP, 12/10/15)

2015        Dec 19, The leaders of Armenia and Azerbaijan met in Switzerland to discuss their long-running dispute over Nagorno-Karabakh.
    (AP, 12/19/15)

2015        Thomas de Waal authored “Great Catastrophe: Armenians and Turks in the Shadow of Genocide."
    (Econ., 4/18/15, p.75)

2016        Feb 20, Russia said it has reinforced its military base in Armenia with fourth-generation fighter jets and a modernized helicopter.
    (Reuters, 2/20/16)

2016        Apr 2, Heavy fighting erupted between Armenian and Azerbaijani forces over the separatist region of Nagorno-Karabakh. Azerbaijan said 12 of its soldiers were killed and claimed to have inflicted heavy casualties on the Armenian forces.
    (AP, 34/2/16)

2016        Apr 3, Azerbaijan's Defense Ministry announced a unilateral cease-fire against the separatist region of Nagorno-Karabakh, but rebel forces in the area said that they continued to come under fire from Azerbaijani forces.
    (AP, 4/3/16)

2016        Apr 4, Fighting raged around the separatist region of Nagorno-Karabakh, with Azerbaijan saying three of its troops have been killed in the past 24 hours and the Armenian president warning that the hostilities could slide into a full-scale war.
    (AP, 4/4/16)

2016        Apr 5, Azerbaijan and Armenian separatists in Nagorny Karabakh said they had halted fighting after four days of bloodshed, as international powers scramble to resolve the worst violence in decades over the disputed region. The ceasefire was brokered in Moscow. The 4-day war left an estimated 200 people dead.
    (AFP, 4/5/16)(Econ, 4/9/16, p.53)(Econ, 5/21/16, p.46)

2016        Apr 8, Two ethnic Armenian troops died in fighting with Azerbaijani forces as the archfoes accused each other of breaching a ceasefire that halted the worst outbreak of violence in decades over a disputed breakaway region.
    (AFP, 4/8/16)

2016        Apr 14, Azerbaijan said one of its soldiers had been killed in fighting over the breakaway region of Nagorno-Karabakh.
    (Reuters, 4/14/16)

2016        Apr 19, A soldier from the Armenian-backed Nagorno-Karabakh region was reportedly killed by gunfire from Azerbaijan.
    (Reuters, 4/19/16)

2016        Apr 25, In Armenia an explosion devastated a bus Yerevan, killing two people and injuring seven. One of the passengers had reportedly quarreled with relatives and told friends that he planned to seek revenge by handing them an explosive device.
    (AP, 4/26/16)

2016        May 5, Armenia's government gave the go-ahead to legislation that calls for recognizing the independence of Nagorno-Karabakh, a separatist region which is officially part of neighboring Azerbaijan. The step appeared intended mainly as a warning to Azerbaijan following a sudden increase in fighting.
    (AP, 5/5/16)

2016        May 17, An Azerbaijani soldier and an ethnic Armenian fighter for the breakaway Nagorny Karabakh region's army died in fresh clashes, hours after Baku and Yerevan agreed to respect a ceasefire in the disputed territory.
    (AFP, 5/17/16)

2016        Jun 2, Turkey recalled its ambassador to Germany in protest against a parliament resolution declaring the 1915 massacre of Armenians by Ottoman forces a "genocide" at a time when Europe is looking for Ankara's help in the migrant crisis.
    (Reuters, 6/2/16)

2016        Jun 20, In Armenia Jirair Sefilian, a leader of the opposition group Founding Parliament, was arrested and charged with illegal acquisition and possession of weapons. Investigators said he and his supporters were planning to seize government buildings and the television transmission tower.
    (AP, 7/17/16)

2016        Jun 24, Pope Francis set off for a three-day visit to Armenia, just over a year after he enraged Turkey by using the term genocide to describe the mass killings of Armenians under the Ottoman Empire.
    (AFP, 6/24/16)

2016        Jun 25, In Armenia Pope Francis issued a rallying cry to protect memory at the genocide memorial in Yerevan, on day two of his trip there.
    (AFP, 6/25/16)

2016        Jul 17, In Armenia 31 armed supporters of a jailed opposition leader attacked a police station in Yerevan, killing one officer, wounding three and taking several others hostage. They demanded the release of Jirair Sefilian, who was arrested last month. The opposition group repeated its call for the government to resign.
    (AP, 7/17/16)(AP, 7/31/16)

2016        Jul 18, Armenian authorities called on gunmen holed up in a police station in the Yerevan to lay down their arms and release four people they were holding hostage.
    (Reuters, 7/18/16)

2016        Jul 30, In Armenia  one of the gunmen locked in a protracted siege with police in Yerevan shot an officer dead, hours after authorities issued an ultimatum to resolve the hostage drama.
    (AFP, 7/30/16)

2016        Jul 31, In Armenia two more gunmen barricaded inside a police compound in Armenia's capital surrendered and one more was shot and wounded by security forces who are trying to end the two-week standoff. Twenty remaining gunmen also surrendered after security forces used armored vehicles to enter the compound.
    (AP, 7/31/16)(SFC, 8/1/16, p.A2)

2016        Aug 3, Armenia's top investigative body said that 23 people are now in custody on suspicion of organizing riots in Yerevan, during a two-week armed standoff.
    (AP, 8/3/16)

2016        Dec 29, At least three soldiers were reported killed in a border skirmish between Armenian and Azerbaijani troops.
    (AP, 12/29/16)

2017        Feb 25, Five Azerbaijani soldiers were killed during fighting in the disputed Nagorno-Karabakh region. Azerbaijan and neighboring Armenia traded blame for the outbreak of violence.
    (AP, 2/25/17)(Reuters, 2/27/17)

2017        Apr 2, Armenia held legislative polls for the first time since the 2015 adoption of constitutional reforms. Opposition parties denounced electoral violations. The pro-Russian ruling Republican Party beat the main opposition coalition, led by wealthy politician Gagik Tsarukyan, by 49.15 percent to 27.37 percent. On April 3 European observers said there was "credible information" that the parliamentary elections were marred by "vote-buying" and pressure on voters.
    (AFP, 4/2/17)(AP, 4/3/17)

2017        Jun 17, Four Armenian soldiers in Nagorno-Karabakh were reported killed in fighting with Azerbaijan over the last 24 hours.
    (AP, 6/17/17)

2017        Jul 4, An Azeri woman and a child were reportedly killed and another civilian wounded from shelling by Armenian-backed rebels near the boundary with the breakaway Nagorno-Karabakh region.
    (Reuters, 7/5/17)

2017        Nov 23, Armenia's foreign-language film submission to the Academy Awards for this year, “Yeva" directed by Anahid Abad, premiered in Tehran. Her film is a joint production between the National Cinema Center of Armenia and the Iranian Farabi Cinema Foundation.
    (AP, 11/24/17)

2017        Nov 24, The EU pledged to deepen ties with six former Soviet states (Ukraine, Georgia, Moldova, Armenia, Azerbaijan and Belarus), as part of efforts to counter Russian influence, but warned them they had no chance of joining the bloc any time soon.
    (AP, 11/24/17)

2018        Mar 1, Armenia scrapped a peace agreement it signed with Turkey in 2009 in what turned out to be a failed attempt to normalize relations between the two countries.
    (Reuters, 3/1/18)

2018        Mar 2, Armenia’s parliament voted to make Armen Sarkisian the new president as of April 9. He was prime minister in 1996-97 and served in diplomatic posts, including ambassador to the United Kingdom. Critics said the change will allow current President Serzh Sargsyan to de-facto remain in power as prime minister.
    (AP, 3/2/18)

2018        Mar 29, In Azerbaijan at least three people working for the HALO Trust landmine clearing charity were killed and two more wounded when an anti-tank mine hit their vehicle in the breakaway Nagorno-Karabakh region.
    (Reuters, 3/28/18)

2018        Apr 9, Armenia's new President Armen Sarkisian (64) was sworn in but power is expected to remain with his predecessor, who will likely become premier as the ex-Soviet republic shifts to a parliamentary form of government.
    (AFP, 4/9/18)

2018        Apr 16, In Armenia an opposition leader and several dozen other protesters were injured as thousands of people rallied against a move by ex-president Serzh Sarkisian to maintain a chokehold on power. The pro-Moscow politician ended his second and final presidential term last week but has been nominated by the ruling party for the post of prime minister.
    (AFP, 4/16/18)

2018        Apr 17, Armenia's former president Serzh Sarkisian was elected prime minister in a move the opposition says is designed to extend his chokehold on power despite protests. Lawmakers backed the candidacy of the Kremlin-supported veteran politician with 77 to 17 votes.
    (AFP, 4/17/18)

2018        Apr 19, Armenian police in Yerevan detained dozens of anti-government demonstrators -- the seventh day of large-scale protests against ex-president Serzh Sarkisian's election as prime minister.
    (AFP, 4/19/18)

2018        Apr 20, In Armenia dozens were arrested as hundreds of opposition supporters staged sit-ins and attempted to block road traffic in Yerevan to protest ex-president Serzh Sarkisian's election as prime minister.
    (AFP, 4/20/18)

2018        Apr 21, In Armenia thousands of demonstrators closed off streets in Yerevan during a march pressing demands for the prime minister to resign. At least 70 demonstrators were detained, including two people suspected of building bombs.
    (AP, 4/21/18)

2018        Apr 22, Armenian police detained three opposition leaders including Nikola Pashinian, leader of the protests, and detained at least 230 protesters during the latest demonstrations against the appointment of the former President Serzh Sarksyan as prime minister.
    (Reuters, 4/22/18)(SFC, 4/23/18, p.A2)

2018        Apr 23, Armenian PM Serzh Sarksyan (63) said he was resigning to help safeguard civic peace following almost two weeks of mass street protests that have plunged the impoverished ex-Soviet republic into political crisis. Former PM Karen Karapetian was asked to step back into the job he held before Sargsyan's appointment last week.
    (Reuters, 4/23/18)(AP, 4/23/18)

2018        Apr 24, Tens of thousands of Armenians, led by opposition leader Nikol Pashinyan, marched to honor 1.5 million of their kin killed by Ottoman forces in 1915.
    (AFP, 4/24/18)

2018        Apr 25, In Armenia several thousand protesters took to the streets of Yerevan after talks between the opposition and the acting prime minister were called off.
    (AP, 4/25/18)

2018        Apr 27, Armenia's acting head of government Karen Karapetyan rebuffed talks proposed by opposition leader Nikol Pashinyan, further escalating tensions after two weeks of protests.
    (AFP, 4/27/18)

2018        Apr 28, Armenian opposition leader Nikol Pashinyan called for more demonstrations against the country's ruling elite, days before the South Caucasus nation's parliament is due to pick a new prime minister.
    (Reuters, 4/28/18)

2018        Apr 29, In Armenia supporters of protest leader Nikol Pashinyan rallied in Yerevan, hoping that a massive show of force two days ahead of a key election will help propel the opposition leader to power.
    (AFP, 4/29/18)

2018        May 1, In Armenia tens of thousands rallied in Yerevan ahead of a crucial vote to elect a new prime minister as protest leader Nikol Pashinyan warned of a "political tsunami" if lawmakers don't back him to lead the country.
    (AFP, 5/1/18)

2018        May 2, In Armenia protesters blocked roads and railways across the country, responding to a call from opposition leader Nikol Pashinyan for a campaign of civil disobedience to force the ruling elite to relinquish its grip on power.
    (Reuters, 5/2/18)

2018        May 3, In Armenia Daniel Danielyan, a senior traffic police officer in Yerevan, shot and killed a security guard and injured two other people - one of whom died of his wounds hours later - when he robbed a branch of the British HSBC bank.
    (Reuters, 5/3/18)

2018        May 8, Armenia's parliament elected opposition leader Nikol Pashinyan (42) as prime minister. Tens of thousands of people poured onto the streets of Yerevan to celebrate his election.
    (AFP, 5/8/18)

2018        May 10, Armenian President Armen Sarkissian dismissed the heads of the security service and police at the request of newly elected PM Nikol Pashinyan.
    (Reuters, 5/10/18)

2018        May 14, New Armenian premier Nikol Pashinyan (42) assured Russia's Vladimir Putin that Yerevan's ties with Moscow will remain close following his rise to power on the back of mass anti-government protests.
    (AFP, 5/14/18)

2018        Jun 10, In Armenia lawyer Kyaw Hia Aung of Myanmar received the $1.1-million Aurora Prize for humanitarianism, which was established on behalf of Armenian survivors of a mass killing by Ottoman Turks. Aung has worked for decades for decades to promote the rights of Myanmar's Rohingyas.
    (AP, 6/10/18)

2018        Jun 16, In Armenia Parliament member Manvel Grigorian was detained in the city of Echmiadzin as part of an investigation into a kidnapping case against a businessman alleged to be a top organized-crime figure, who was also arrested. Grigorian was arrested on suspicion of illegally storing firearms and explosives.
    (AP, 6/17/18)

2018        Jul 5, Spanish police and Interpol said they have smashed an organized crime network stretching from the Caucasus to Spain and France. The arrests were made last week in Spain and France. 129 people, most of them Armenian, were arrested on suspicion of crimes including possession of weapons and stolen jewelry.
    (AP, 7/5/18)

2018        Jul 27, An Armenian court ordered former President Robert Kocharyan (1998-2008) detained on charges of usurping power.
    (Reuters, 7/27/18)

2018        Aug 13, In Armenia an appeals court in Yerevan released former Pres. Robert Kocharian on the grounds of constitutional immunity for actions as president. Kocharian was jailed July 27 on charges of violating constitutional order for sending police and soldiers to break up a demonstration in Yerevan in March 2008. Eight demonstrators and two police died in the clash.
    (AP, 8/13/18)

2018        Sep 23, In Armenia an election was held to replace Taron Margaryan, an influential member of the former ruling Republican Party, who resigned as mayor of Yerevan in July. The My Step Alliance, which includes PM Nikol Pashinyan's Civil Contract Party, won 81.05 percent of the vote. That means its candidate Hayk Marutyan, a comedian who plays a harried father and shop owner on a sitcom on Armenian television, will become the mayor.
    (Reuters, 9/24/18)

2018        Oct 6, In Armenia Karo Karapetian, a former member of parliament, and Arutyun Karagezian, also a former lawmaker, met in a restaurant in Yerevan. A quarrel over unspecified financial issues broke out. Karapetian was shot and pronounced dead at a hospital. Karagezian was found dead the next day in a suspected suicide.
    (AP, 10/7/18)

2018        Nov 30, In the Netherlands a rotating roster of preachers continued to lead a non-stop, round-the-clock service at a small Protestant chapel in The Hague in an attempt to shield a family of Armenian asylum-seekers from deportation. The Tamrazyan family has been living in the Netherlands for nearly nine years, as their asylum application and various appeals proceeded slowly through the courts. The Council of State, the country's highest administrative court, has ruled they must return to their home country, which is considered safe by the Dutch government.
    (AP, 11/30/18)

2018        Dec 4, In Armenia an Su-25 two-seat combat jet crashed during a regular training mission. The Su-25 is a twin-engine ground attack aircraft designed in the Soviet Union in the 1970s.
    (AP, 12/4/18)

2018        Dec 9, Armenians cast ballots in an early parliamentary election that is expected to further consolidate the power of PM Nikol Pashinian (43). Allies of PM Pashinian won an overwhelming majority of seats in the country's early parliamentary election.
    (AP, 12/9/18)(AP, 12/10/18)

2019        Jan 30, In the Netherlands a round-the-clock prayer service to stop an Armenian family being deported was ended after 96 days, after the government agreed to make an exception to immigration rules. Hundreds of supporters of the Tamrazyan family have held rites non-stop at the Bethel church in The Hague since Oct. 26 to block their deportation.
    (Reuters, 1/30/19)

2019        Feb 27, Iranian Foreign Minister Mohammad Javad Zarif signed two agreements in Tehran with Armenia, television footage showed, continuing his duties as Iran's top diplomat.
    (Reuters, 2/27/19)

2019        Apr 5, In Armenia Lilit Martirosian, a transgender woman, told members of parliament's human rights committee that the group she founded, Right Side, had recorded 283 cases of transgender rights violations. The next day, hundreds of people protested outside the parliament building, demanding fumigation of the podium at which Martirosian spoke. Death threats soon followed.
    (AP, 4/27/19)

2019        Apr 24, France held its first "national day of commemoration of the Armenian genocide." French PM Edouard Philippe declared France wanted to contribute to having the massacre internationally recognized as a crime against humanity.
    (AP, 4/27/19)   

2019        May 20, Armenian premier Nikol Pashinyan announced sweeping judiciary reforms as protesters blockaded court buildings in Yerevan, heeding his call for a demonstration against judges he accuses of political bias.
    (AFP, 5/20/19)

2019        Aug 19, The Anglo-American operator of the Amulsar gold mine in Armenia, that has been blocked for a year by environmental protesters, said the government has given it the green light to restart work after a study found it posed no threat.
    (Reuters, 8/20/19)

2019        Oct 30, Turkey summoned the US ambassador in protest at votes in Congress the previous day to recognize the Turkish genocide against Armenians and to sanction Ankara for its military offensive in northeast Syria.
    (The Telegraph, 10/30/19)

2019        Dec 4, Armenia's special investigation service said it is investigating former president Serzh Sarksyan on suspicion of exceeding his authority and embezzling of around $1 million in state funds.
    (Reuters, 12/4/19)

2019        Dec 12, The US Senate voted unanimously on a resolution that recognizes as genocide the mass killings of Armenians by Ottoman Turks a century ago. The following day Turkey summoned the ambassador from the US to protest the approval.
    (AP, 12/13/19)

2020        Jan 25, Armenia's PM Prime Minister Nikol Pashinyan called for environmental protesters to end their 18-month-old blockade of the Amulsar gold mine, owned by Anglo-American mining firm Lydian International, saying the protest was not in the national interest.
    (Reuters, 1/25/20)

2020        Mar 2, Andorra, Armenia, Czech Republic, Dominican Republic, Iceland and Indonesia confirmed their first cases of coronavirus.
    (AP, 3/2/20)

2020        Mar 16, Armenia's government announced a state of emergency for one month to slow the spread of the coronavirus. An April 5 referendum on constitutional reforms was postponed.
    (Reuters, 3/16/20)

2020        Apr 7, Armenia reported 853 confirmed cases of the coronavirus as of today with 87 people having recovered from the infection and eight deaths.
    (Reuters, 4/7/20)

2020        Apr 11, Armenia extended by another 30 days the state of emergency that it declared last month to curb the spread of the novel coronavirus. The country has recorded 966 infections, with 13 deaths.
    (Reuters, 4/11/20)

2020        Apr 24, Armenia has recorded 1,596 coronavirus infections, with 27 deaths. Armenia began allowing certain business activities, including fishing, mining, financial and insurance services, agriculture and cigarette production.
    (AP, 4/24/20)

2020        Jul 12, Armenia and Azerbaijan engaged in skirmishes on their volatile border that left four Azerbaijani soldiers dead and several troops wounded on both sides.
    (AP, 7/13/20)

2020        Jul 14, Armenia and Azerbaijan forces fought with heavy artillery and drones, leaving at least 16 people killed on both sides, including an Azerbaijani general, in the worst outbreak of hostilities in years.
    (AP, 7/14/20)

2020        Jul 16, Clashes resumed between Armenian and Azerbaijani forces on their shared border, with both sides blaming each other for attacks that continue the worst outbreak of hostilities in years. Azerbaijan said it has lost 11 servicemen and one civilian in three days of fighting. Armenia said four of its troops were killed on July 14.
    (AP, 7/16/20)

2020        Jul 24, In Russia groups of Azerbaijanis beat up Armenians in Moscow early today and later assailed Armenian-owned stores. Azerbaijanis and Armenians have engaged in a series of fights and violent rampages in Moscow, venting their anger over recent cross-border clashes between the two ex-Soviet nations.
    (AP, 7/25/20)

2020        Sep 27, Fighting erupted anew between Armenian and Azerbaijani forces over the disputed separatist region of Nagorno-Karabakh, within Azerbaijan, and a top territorial official said 16 people were killed and more than 100 wounded.
    (AP, 9/27/20)

2020        Sep 28, Armenia and Azerbaijani forces continued fighting over the disputed separatist region of Nagorno-Karabakh after hostilities broke out the day before. According to Nagorno-Karabakh officials, 59 servicemen on their side have been killed so far.
    (AP, 9/28/20)

2020        Sep 29, Armenia said one of its warplanes was shot down by a fighter jet from Azerbaijan’s ally Turkey, killing the pilot, in fighting over the separatist territory of Nagorno-Karabakh. Both Turkey and Azerbaijan denied it. The Nagorno-Karabakh Defense Ministry reported 84 servicemen killed, while Azerbaijan President Ilham Aliyev said 10 civilians were killed on its side.
    (AP, 9/29/20)

2020        Oct 1, Armenia and Azerbaijan rejected calls for a ceasefire and accused each other of targeting civilians in Nagorno-Karabakh, as Russia and France repeated calls for peace talks amid the worst fighting in the breakaway region since the 1990s. Azerbaijan said 16 people killed following Armenian shelling of densely populated areas. Armenia has reported the deaths of 104 soldiers, alongside seven civilians killed and 31 wounded.
    (The Telegraph, 10/1/20)

2020        Oct 2, Officials in Armenia said the country is ready to discuss a cease-fire in the separatist region of Nagorno-Karabakh, where heavy fighting between Armenian and Azerbaijani forces has continued for six straight days, killing dozens and leaving scores wounded.
    (AP, 10/2/20)

2020        Oct 3, Heavy fighting between Armenia and Azerbaijan continued in their conflict over the separatist territory of Nagorno-Karabakh. Azerbaijan’s President Ilham Aliyev criticized the international mediators who have tried for decades to resolve the dispute.
    (AP, 10/3/20)

2020        Oct 5, Armenia accused Azerbaijan of firing missiles into the capital of the separatist territory of Nagorno-Karabakh, while Azerbaijan said several of its towns and its second-largest city were attacked. Armenia and Azerbaijan fired large-caliber rockets, bombarding Stepanakert, the capital of Nagorno-Karabakh, an ethnic Armenian enclave. At least 250 people have died in the recent fighting, including dozens of civilians on both sides.
    (AP, 10/5/20)(NY Times, 10/6/20)

2020        Oct 7, Armenian Defense Ministry spokesman Artsrun Ovannisian said that Stepanakert was being targeted once again by Azerbaijan along with other settlements. Nagorno-Karabakh officials said that non-military facilities in Stepanakert have been hit with missiles and drones.
    (AP, 10/7/20)

2020        Oct 8, Armenia accused Azerbaijan of shelling a historic cathedral in the separatist territory of Nagorno-Karabakh, where nearly two weeks of heavy fighting has killed hundreds of people. According to the Nagorno-Karabakh military, 350 of its servicemen have been killed since Sept. 27. Azerbaijan hasn't provided details on its military losses.
    (AP, 10/8/20)
2020        Oct 8, Russian President Vladimir Putin issued a statement calling for a break in the fighting between the Armenian and Azerbaijani forces that have raged for nearly two weeks over the region. Putin invited their foreign ministers to visit Moscow for peace talks.
    (AFP, 10/8/20)(AP, 10/9/20)

2020        Oct 10, Armenia and Azerbaijan agreed early today to a Russia-brokered cease-fire in Nagorno-Karabakh starting at noon, after two weeks of heavy fighting that marked the worst outbreak of hostilities in the separatist region in more than a quarter-century. Shortly after the truce took force, the Armenian military accused Azerbaijan of shelling the area near the town of Kapan in southeastern Armenia, killing one civilian.
    (AP, 10/10/20)(SFC, 10/10/20, p.A2)

2020        Oct 11, Azerbaijan accused Armenia of attacking large cities overnight in violation of the cease-fire deal brokered by Russia that seeks to end the worst outbreak of hostilities in the separatist Nagorno-Karabakh region. Nine civilians were reported killed and over 30 wounded after Armenian forces fired missiles overnight on Ganja.
    (AP, 10/11/20)

2020        Oct 12, Armenia and Azerbaijan accused each other of attacks over the separatist territory of Nagorno-Karabakh despite a cease-fire deal brokered by Russia in an effort to end the worst outbreak of hostilities in the region in decades.
    (AP, 10/12/20)

2020        Oct 13, Fighting between Armenian and Azerbaijani forces raged for a third week over the separatist territory of Nagorno-Karabakh, and the United States urged both sides to adhere to a cease-fire reached over the weekend. Nagorno-Karabakh military officials said 16 servicemen were killed, bringing the total number of dead among troops to 532 since Sept. 27, when the fighting flared up. Azerbaijani authorities said 42 civilians have been killed on their side since the start of the fighting.
    (AP, 10/13/20)

2020        Oct 16, Azerbaijani authorities accused Armenia of expanding the conflict over Nagorno-Karabakh by shelling a different region in Azerbaijan, a claim rejected by Armenian officials. Armenia, in turn, charged that the Azerbaijani troops executed two Armenian war prisoners.
    (AP, 10/16/20)

2020        Oct 17, Azerbaijan accused Armenia of striking its second-largest city with a ballistic missile that killed at least 13 civilians and wounded 50 others in a new escalation of their conflict over Nagorno-Karabakh. Azerbaijani officials said the Soviet-made Scud missile destroyed or damaged about 20 residential buildings in Ganja overnight. Pres. Ilham Aliyev announced that Azerbaijani forces have taken the town of Fizuli and seven villages around it.
    (AP, 10/17/20)
2020        Oct 17, A new cease-fire agreement was announced between Armenia and Azerbaijan, effective at midnight, following Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov’s calls with his counterparts, in which he strongly urged them to abide by the Moscow deal.
    (AP, 10/18/20)

2020        Oct 18, Armenia and Azerbaijan traded accusations of violating the new truce in their destructive conflict over the separatist region of Nagorno-Karabakh.
    (AP, 10/18/20)

2020        Oct 20, Armenia and Azerbaijan reported more fighting over the separatist territory of Nagorno-Karabakh, where clashes have continued for over three weeks despite two attempts at establishing a cease-fire.
    (AP, 10/20/20)

2020        Oct 21, Armenia's PM Nikol Pashinian said that Azerbaijan's aggressive stance in the 25-day fighting over Nagorno-Karabakh leaves no room for diplomacy, and urged citizens to sign up as military volunteers to protect their country. According to Nagorno-Karabakh officials, 834 of their troops have been killed, and more than 30 civilians. Azerbaijan hasn’t disclosed its military losses, but says 63 civilians have died and 292 have been wounded.
    (AP, 10/21/20)
2020        Oct 21, It was reported that fighting between Armenia and Azerbaijan has diverted the scarce resources in the Nagorno-Karabakh region from containing the virus, which spread unchecked amid artillery fire and drone attacks that have people spending many hours in overcrowded bunkers, whether they are sick or healthy. Contact tracing has ground to a halt.
    (AP, 10/21/20)

2020        Oct 22, Heavy fighting over Nagorno-Karabakh continued with Armenia and Azerbaijan trading blame for new attacks, hostilities that raised the threat of Turkey and Russia being drawn into the conflict.
    (AP, 10/22/20)
2020        Oct 22, Russian President Vladimir Putin said that weeks of fighting over the mountainous Nagorno-Karabakh province had left close to 5,000 people dead as world leaders scrambled to broker a truce.
    (AFP, 10/22/20)

2020        Oct 23, Heavy fighting raged over Nagorno-Karabakh even as top diplomats from Armenia and Azerbaijan visited Washington for negotiations on settling the neighboring countries' decades-long conflict.
    (AP, 10/23/20)

2020        Oct 24, Rocket and artillery barrage hit residential areas in Nagorno-Karabakh on hours after the United States hosted top diplomats from Armenia and Azerbaijan for talks on settling their decades-long conflict over the region.
    (AP, 10/24/20)

2020        Oct 26, Armenia and Azerbaijan accused each other of violating a third cease-fire announced the day before in a bid to halt the fighting over the separatist region of Nagorno-Karabakh that has killed hundreds, and possibly thousands, in just four weeks.
    (AP, 10/26/20)

2020        Oct 27, Armenia and Azerbaijan exchanged more accusations of shelling, with fighting over the separatist territory of Nagorno-Karabakh in its fifth week and largely unhindered by a US-brokered cease-fire that was announced over the weekend.
    (AP, 10/27/20)

2020        Oct 28, Deadly fighting between Armenian and Azerbaijani forces over the separatist region of Nagorno-Karabakh showed no signs of abating. According to Nagorno-Karabakh officials, 1,068 of their troops and 39 civilians have been killed in the clashes so far, while 122 civilians have been wounded. Azerbaijani authorities haven’t disclosed their military losses, but say the fighting has killed 69 civilians and wounded 322.
    (AP, 10/28/20)

2020        Oct 29, Fighting over the separatist territory of Nagorno-Karabakh ground on for a fifth week as top diplomats from Armenia and Azerbaijan prepared for more talks on a peaceful settlement of the conflict.
    (AP, 10/29/20)

2020        Oct 30, Azerbaijani forces pushed deeper into Nagorno-Karabakh as top diplomats from Armenia and Azerbaijan attended talks in Geneva intended to help broker an end to more than a month of heavy fighting over the separatist territory.
    (AP, 10/30/20)

2020        Oct 31, Armenia’s PM Nikol Pashinian urged Russia to consider providing security assistance to end the fighting over Nagorno-Karabakh, the biggest escalation in the decades-long conflict between his country and Azerbaijan. The request came as Azerbaijani troops forged deeper into Nagorno-Karabakh and both sides accused each of breaking a mutual pledge not to target residential areas hours after it was made.
    (AP, 10/31/20)

2020        Nov 1, Fighting over the separatist territory of Nagorno-Karabakh entered sixth week, with Armenian and Azerbaijani forces blaming each other for new attacks.
    (AP, 11/1/20)

2020        Nov 3, Russia's top diplomat said that about 2,000 fighters from the Middle East have joined the fighting over Nagorno-Karabakh.
    (AP, 11/3/20)

2020        Nov 6, At least three civilians were killed in the latest shelling of Nagorno-Karabakh cities as Azerbaijan pushed its offensive to reclaim control over the separatist territory for a sixth straight week.
    (AP, 11/6/20)

2020        Nov 8, President Ilham Aliyev said Azerbaijani forces have taken control of the strategically key city of Shushi in Nagorno-Karabakh where fighting with Armenia has raged for more than a month.
    (AP, 11/8/20)

2020        Nov 9, The spokesman for the president of the separatist government in Nagorno-Karabakh confirmed that Azerbaijani forces have taken control of Shushi, a strategically key city, and said they were nearing Stepanakert, the region’s capital. Armenia and Azerbaijan signed a Russian-brokered deal to end the war in the border region of Nagorno-Karabakh. The agreement calls for Armenia’s army to withdraw from the region and to be replaced by Russian peacekeepers, and gives Azerbaijan what it has sought for years in negotiations.
    (AP, 11/9/20)(NY Times, 11/10/20)

2020        Nov 11, In Armenia thousands of people gathered in Yerevan to protest the country's agreement with Azerbaijan to halt weeks of fighting over Nagorno-Karabakh. The deal calls for the deployment of nearly 2,000 Russian peacekeepers and territorial concessions.
    (AP, 11/11/20)

2020        Nov 14, In Azerbaijan kilometers-long (miles-long) columns of cars and trucks jammed the road to Armenia as residents fled Nagorno-Karabakh.
    (AP, 11/14/20)

2020        Nov 15, Azerbaijan postponed taking control of a territory ceded by Armenian forces in a cease-fire agreement, but denounced civilians leaving the area for burning houses and committing what it called "ecological terror." Azerbaijan agreed to delay the takeover until Nov 25 after a request from Armenia.
    (The Telegraph, 11/15/20)

2020        Nov 17, Turkey’s parliament granted President Recep Tayyip Erdogan’s government permission to deploy peacekeepers to Azerbaijan to monitor a cease-fire deal between Azerbaijan and Armenia that aims to end the conflict in the region.
    (AP, 11/17/20)

2020        Nov 20, Azerbaijani forces entered the war-ravaged ghost town of Aghdam, regaining a once-beloved city over a quarter of a century after being driven out by Armenian forces.
    (AP, 11/20/20)
2020        Nov 20, Russia said it has sent troops to reinforce its border guards in Armenia and secure a peace settlement with Azerbaijan over Nagorno-Karabakh.
    (Reuters, 11/20/20)

2020        Nov 25, Azerbaijan's President Ilham Aliyev vowed to rebuild and revive the Kalbajar region, the latest territory that Armenian forces have ceded in a truce that ended six weeks of intense fighting over Nagorno-Karabakh.
    (AP, 11/25/20)

2020        Dec 3, Azerbaijan said it lost 2,783 soldiers in 44 days of fighting with Armenian forces over Nagorno-Karabakh. More than 100 were still missing. A day earlier Armenia's health ministry said that at least 2,718 Armenian servicemen were killed.
    (SFC, 12/4/20, p.A4)

2020        Dec 5, In Armenia tens of thousands of opposition supporters marched across Yerevan to push for the resignation of PM Nikol Pashinyan over his handling of the conflict with Azerbaijan over Nagorno-Karabakh.
    (AP, 12/5/20)

2020        Dec 8, In Armenia crowds of protesters took to the streets of Yerevan, demanding the resignation of the country’s PM Nikol Pashinyan over his handling of the conflict with Azerbaijan over Nagorno-Karabakh.
    (AP, 12/8/20)

2020        Dec 9, In Armenia thousands of protesters converged on the parliament building in Yerevan to push for the resignation of the ex-Soviet nation's PM Nikol Pashinyan over his handling of the fighting with Azerbaijan over Nagorno-Karabakh.
    (AP, 12/9/20)

2020        Dec 19, In Armenia both opponents and supporters of PM Nikol Pashinyan rallied as the nation paid tribute to the thousands who died in fighting with Azerbaijan over the region of Nagorno-Karabakh. Critics demanded that the leader resign and tried to pelt him with eggs.
    (AP, 12/19/20)

2020        Dec 24, In Armenia police in Yerevan detained dozens of people during protests against the PM Nikol Pashinyan, who is being pressured to resign over his handling of the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict with Azerbaijan.
    (AP, 12/24/20)

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