Timeline Arctic

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ArcticCircle: http://arcticcircle.uconn.edu/HistoryCulture/

150Mil BC    In 1999 Norwegian scientists discovered an undersea meteor crater in the Arctic Ocean 125 miles north of Norway that dated to this time. It measured 25 miles wide. The meteor was estimated at 1 1/4 mile wide traveling at 18,600 mph.
    (SFC, 2/9/99, p.A10)
150Mil BC    In 2006 researchers in Norway announced the discovery of the remains of a short-necked plesiosaur, a prehistoric marine reptile the size of a bus, that they believe is the first complete skeleton ever found. The 150 million year old remains of the 33-foot ocean going predator were found on the remote Svalbard Islands of the Arctic.
    (AP, 10/5/06)

55Mil BC    Arctic temperatures averaged 74 degrees. This was part of a planet-wide warming period called the Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM).
    (SFC, 6/1/06, p.A5)

49Mil BC    A giant bloom of the Azolla fern at this time coincided with one of the biggest climate shifts known. Surface sea temperature in the Arctic dropped from 13°C to -9°C. In 2014 scientists suspected that the fern bloom was responsible for the temperature drop as it pulled CO2 from the atmosphere.
    (Econ, 6/21/14, p.78)

45Mil BC    A planet-wide cooling period began that led to cycles of ice ages.
    (SFC, 6/1/06, p.A5)

3.5Mil BC    A brief period of global warming took place about this time warming the Bering Strait and allowing hundreds of species of marine life to migrate from the Pacific through the ice-free Arctic to colonize the Atlantic.
    (SSFC, 8/10/08, p.A6)

125k BC    A long period of global warming began that lasted to about 11.5k BC. Polar meltwater raised the sea level by 4-6 meters.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Ice_Age_Temperature.png)(Econ, 6/16/12, SR p.7)

28000BC    In 2001 Russian and Norwegian archeologists reported evidence that date to about this time of humans camped at Mamontovaya Kurya on the Usa River at the Arctic circle. A tusk was dated at 36,600 years of age and plant remains at 30,000.
    (SFC, 9/6/01, p.E2)
28000BC    In 2003 Russian scientists reported evidence of a hunting site on the Yana River, Siberia, 300 miles north of the Arctic Circle that dated to about this time.
    (SFC, 1/2/04, p.A2)

15000 BC    The Barents Sea ice sheet , stretching from northern England to Siberia, disintegrated in a period perhaps less than 1000 years, probably because of warming seas.
    (Econ, 6/16/12, SR p.7)

1594        Willem Barents, Dutch explorer, sailed to the Arctic pursuing the dream of a warm northern ocean first posited by the Greeks.
    (Econ., 1/9/21, p.73)

1596        May 18, Willem Barents left Amsterdam for Novaya Zemlya (Nova Zembla), an archipelago in the Arctic Ocean in northern Russia.
    (SC, 5/18/02)(Econ., 1/9/21, p.73)

1596        Sep, Willem Barents, Dutch explorer, and his crew resigned themselves to overwintering in the Arctic after their ship froze fast. 13 of 17 men survived an 8-month ordeal. In 2021 Andrea authored "Icebound: Shipwrecked at the Edge of the World," an account of Barents' three missions to the Arctic.
    (Econ., 1/9/21, p.73)

1597        Jun 20, Willem Barents, Dutch explorer who discovered Spitsbergen & Bereneil, died at sea. In 1995 Rayner Unwin authored “A Winter Away from Home," an account of Barents’ Arctic voyages.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Willem_Barentsz)(SSFC, 12/10/00, p.C17)

1773        Jun 4, The British Royal Navy's set out on its first attempt at reaching the North Pole. Two ships were forced back by the ice and returned to Orford Ness on 17 September. In 2019 Peter Goodwin authored "Nelson's Arctic Voyage: The Royal Navy’s First Polar Expedition 1773."

1800        Apr 15, James Ross discovered the North Magnetic pole.
    (HN, 4/15/98)

1831        May 31, Captain John Ross, English explorer, identified the magnetic north pole on the west coast of the Boothia Peninsula, Netsilik territory.

1833        Feb 17, Lt. George Back (1796-1878) departed Liverpool, England, on the packet ship Hibernia with 4 men to search for missing Arctic explorer Captain John Ross. Ross had left England in 1829 to seek a Northwest Passage by way of the Arctic Ocean.
    (ON, 5/04, p.10)(www.britannica.com/eb/article?tocId=9011650)

1833        Oct, Capt. John Ross (1877-1856), Arctic explorer, returned to England.

1845        May 19, The HMS Erebus and Terror sailed from England under Sir John Franklin to navigate through the Arctic and find the elusive Northwest passage. Sir John Franklin and his 128-member crew all died on the journey and the ships vanished. By 1847 the British Admiralty had received no reports of Franklin. [see Franklin Jun 11, 1847]
    (WSJ, 2/10/95,  p.A-7)(www.coolantarctica.com)(Reuters, 8/23/12)

1846-1854    John Rae (b.1813), Scottish-born explorer, helped map the western shore of Hudson’s Bay and the Arctic over this period. He discovered the last link of the Northwest Passage. In 2002 Ken McGoogan authored “Fatal Passage," an account of Rae’s explorations.
    (WSJ, 4/19/02, p.W10)

1847        Jun 11, A written record was found in 1859, indicating that Sir John Franklin died on this day, and that Erebus and Terror were abandoned in April 1848. The crews' deaths have been attributed to either scurvy or lead poisoning originating from the solder on food tins. Both ships and the remains of most of the 129 crewmen have never been found. After commissioning three unsuccessful search expeditions, the British Admiralty posted a reward for anyone who could ascertain the fate of the crewmen of the HMS Erebus and Terror, who had sailed from England in May 1845 to navigate through the Arctic and find the elusive Northwest passage. Success was anticipated with Franklin commanding well-equipped crews and ships, but by 1847, the British Admiralty had received no reports of Franklin. Subsequent expeditions found evidence of the Franklin Expedition. Three graves dug into the permafrost were discovered in 1850 on Devon Island, their headstones dated 1846. In 2010 Anthony Brandt authored “The Man Who Ate His Boots: The Tragic History of the Search for the Northwest Passage." The book pivoted around explorer John Franklin (1786-1847).
    (HNQ, 6/11/98)(HN, 6/11/99)(ON, 11/03, p.12)(SFC, 4/9/10, p.F6)

1848        Apr, The British ships Erebus and Terror of the Franklin Expedition to the Arctic were abandoned [see Franklin expedition 1850]. Wreckage of one of the vessels was found in 2014.
    (HNQ, 6/11/98)(SFC, 9/9/14, p.A5)

1850        May, An American expedition, organized by shipping magnate Henry Grinnell, departed to the Canadian Arctic to search for Sir John Franklin and his 1845 Expedition. In late August it joined with British rescue ships. They soon found 3 graves dug into the permafrost of Beechey Island with headstones dated 1846. A written record was found in 1859, indicating that Franklin died on June 11, 1847, and that Erebus and Terror were abandoned in April 1848. The crews’ deaths have been attributed to either scurvy or lead poisoning originating from the solder on food tins. Both ships and the remains of most of the 129 crewmen have never been found.
    (HNQ, 6/11/98)(ON, 6/09, p.3)

1854        The Investigator, deployed in 1850 with a 66-man crew, was abandoned after being locked in the grip of Arctic ice for two winters. The crew, led by Captain Robert John LeMesurier McClure, left behind a cache of equipment and provisions on the shore of what is now part of Aulavik National Park. The British ship was sent to search for two lost vessels that were part of Sir John Franklin's ill-fated 1845 Royal Navy expedition to discover the Northwest Passage linking the Atlantic to the Pacific through Canada's Arctic archipelago. Canadian archeologists discovered the wreckage of the ship in 2010 at the remote Mercy Bay site in the Northwest Territories.
    (Reuters, 7/29/10)

1866        Aug 8, African-American Matthew Alexander Henson was born in Maryland. He and four Inuits accompanied U.S. Naval Commander Robert E. Peary when he planted the U.S. flag at the North Pole on April 6, 1909. Henson became an Arctic expert during Peary's first two failed expeditions. By the third attempt, which began in July 1908, Henson's strength, knowledge of the Eskimo language and dog driving skills made him an essential member of the team. Whether Peary's party actually reached the North Pole or missed it by as much as 60 miles due to a navigational miscalculation remains controversial to this day.
    (HNPD, 8//99)(Internet)

1879        Jul 8, The steamship USS Jeannette under Lt. George W. De Long departed San Francisco on an expedition to reach the North Pole. [see June 12, 1881]
    (ON, 2/05, p.1)

1881        Jun 12, The steamship USS Jeannette sank under ice during an expedition to reach the North Pole. The crew, having abandoned the ship, prepared 3 lifeboats in an attempt to reach Siberia. Less than half survived. Chief engineer George W. Melville (d.1912) made it back to NYC on Sep 13, 1883, and in 1900 became engineer in chief of the US Navy. In 2014 Hampton Sides authored “In the Kingdom of Ice: The Grand and Terrible Polar Voyage of the USS Jeannette."
    (http://tinyurl.com/l8pd4zh)(ON, 2/05, p.1,5)

1881        Jul, US Army Lt. Augustus W. Greely led a scientific expedition to Ellesmere Island in the Canadian Arctic and called the site Ft. Conger. 25 American soldiers set forth to establish a scientific base in the Arctic. There were only 6 survivors. In 2000 Leonard Gurttridge authored "Ghosts of Cape Sabine," which told their story.
    (SFC, 3/9/00, p.D12)

1893        Jun, Fridtjof Nansen left Norway for the North Pole aboard the Fram. He theorized that the ship would become ice-bound and cross the Arctic and the North Pole in 3 years.
    (ON, 7/05, p.1)

1895        Mar 15, Fridtjof Nansen and Hjalmar Johansen left their ship Fram in an attempt to reach the North Pole by dogsled. [see Jun 17, 1896]
    (ON, 7/05, p.5)

1896        Jun 17, Fridtjof Nansen and Hjalmar Johansen met up with English explorer Frederick Jackson at Franz Joseph Land in the Arctic.
    (ON, 7/05, p.5)

1896        Aug 20, Fridtjof Nansen and Hjalmar Johansen arrived back in Norway following a 3 year Arctic venture. In 1898 Nansen published “Farthest North," a best-selling account of his adventure. In 1922 Nansen was awarded the Nobel Prize for Peace.
    (ON, 7/05, p.5)

1897        Jul 14, Swede Saloman Andrée (b.1854)) and 2 accomplices, Knute Fraenkle and Nils Strindberg, in the Ornen balloon were forced down after 64 hours in the first expedition to fly by balloon from Spitsbergen across the North Pole. Their attempt to return ended on White Island. Their fate was only discovered Aug 5-6, 1930, by Norwegian whalers.
    (HNQ, 5/22/01)(ON, 11/01, p.11)(Econ, 5/11/13, p.89)

1905        Aug 19, Roald Amundsen and his crew of 6 aboard Gjøe, a converted herring boat, made contact with the US Coast Guard cutter Bear, which confirmed their crossing the Northwest Passage following a 26-month journey. Amundsen continued by dogsled to the Yukon while his crew completed their journey at Point Bonita, California, just outside the Golden Gate. 
    (SFC, 4/17/00, p.D8)(WSJ, 4/18/00, p.A16)(Ind, 4/27/02, 5A)

1908        Apr 21, Arctic explorer Frederick A. Cook claimed to have discovered the North Pole a year ahead of Peary. Many historians suspect that neither explorer succeeded. The term “Dr. Cook weather" refers to an incident where Dr. Cook once left a chilly New York baseball game after which the city papers trumpeted; “Game called, even too cold for Dr. Cook." Cook's assertion was later proved false. In 2005 Bruce Henderson authored “True North: Peary, Cook, and the Race to the Pole." [see Apr 6, 1909]
    (SFC, 8/18/96, p.B8)(SFC, 10/2/99, p.A20)(SSFC, 4/17/05, p.C1)

1908        Jul 6, Robert Peary's expedition sailed from NYC for north pole.
    (MC, 7/6/02)

1909        Apr 6, Explorers Robert E. Peary, Matthew A. Henson and four Inuits became the first men to reach the North Pole along with 4 Eskimos. Peary used Ellesmere Island as a base for his expedition to the North Pole. The north coast of Ellesmere lies just 480 miles from the Pole. He was accompanied by Matthew Henson, an African-American, who had spent 18 years in the Arctic with Peary. The claim was disputed by skeptics and in 1988 the original navigational records were uncovered from the dog-sled voyage indicating that Peary probably never got closer than 121 miles from the North Pole. In 1989 the Navigation Foundation upheld that Peary reached the North Pole.
    (NG, 6/1988, 754, 757)(SFC, 8/18/96, p.B8)(SFC, 10/2/99, p.A20)(AP, 4/6/08)(SFC, 9/11/08, p.B4)
1909        Arctic explorer Frederick A. Cook claimed to have discovered the North Pole a year ahead of Peary. Many historians suspect that neither explorer succeeded. The term “Dr. Cook weather" refers to an incident where Dr. Cook once left a chilly New York baseball game after which the city papers trumpeted; “Game called—even too cold for Dr. Cook." Cook's assertion was later proved false.
    (SFC, 8/18/96, p.B8)(SFC, 10/2/99, p.A20)

1920        Feb 9, The Svalbard Treaty gave Norway sovereignty over the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard, but allowed other countries to establish settlements there  and to exploit its natural resources. The treaty allowed Russia to pursue mining at Spitsbergen. By 2017 there were more than 40 countries party to the treaty.
    (WSJ, 9/19/97, p.A1)(Econ, 10/11/08, p.70)(Econ, 10/2/04, p.52)(Reuters, 10/26/17)(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Svalbard)

1920        The first Arctic onshore oil wells were sunk in Canada’s Mackenzie River valley.
    (Econ, 6/16/12, SR p.13)

1921        Vilhjalmur Stefansson organized an expedition to the Arctic Wrangel Island and became trapped there with 3 companions and an Eskimo seamstress named Ada Blackjack. In 2003 Jennifer Niver authored "Ada Blackjack: A True Story of Survival in the Arctic."
    (SSFC, 12/7/03, p.M4)

1925        Aug 24, The Svalbarg Treaty took effect, at the same time as the Svalbard Act regulated the archipelago and the first governor, Johannes Gerckens Bassøe, took office. The Svalbard Act made Svalbard a full part of the Kingdom of Norway.

1925        An unusual first of sorts took place as two nations tried to reach the North Pole by air. Norway’s all-out effort was made by a team composed of the first explorer to reach the South Pole, Roald Amundsen, and a rich young American adventurer, Lincoln Ellsworth. The attempt by the United States was on the hidden agenda of a relatively unknown naval aviator (Richard Byrd) who was eager to try such a flight during an expedition on which he had teamed up with a well-known Arctic explorer (Donald B. MacMillan) who wanted no part of an attempt to reach the pole. The MacMillan Arctic Expedition marked the first productive use of aircraft in Arctic exploration and also brought aviator-explorer Richard Byrd into the national limelight.
    (HNQ, 3/18/01)

1926        May 9, Americans Richard Byrd and Floyd Bennett made the first flight over the North Pole. [see 1888-1957, Byrd] Two teams of aviators competed to be the first to fly over the North Pole. American Navy Lt. Cmdr. Richard E. Byrd and pilot Floyd Bennett claimed victory when they circled the North Pole. But even today experts suspect that faulty navigation caused Byrd to miss the North Pole. Later archivists determined that Byrd was probably 150 miles short of the pole. His tri-motor Fokker monoplane named Josephine Ford probably came within 2.25 degrees of the pole.
    (HFA, ‘96, p.30)(TMC, 1994, p.1926)(SFC, 5/9/96, p.A-13)(HN, 5/9/98)(HNPD, 5/13/99)

1926        May 11, Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen launched the dirigible Norge on a planned flight, not merely over the pole, but all the way across the Arctic to Alaska. Byrd and Bennett in their Josephine Ford plane briefly accompanied Norge in a gesture of goodwill.
    (HNPD, 5/13/99)

1926        May 12, Italian Col. Umberto Nobile of the Italian army piloted his Norge dirigible over the North Pole with Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen.
    (ON, 10/00, p.5)

1926        May 14, Amundsen reached Alaska.
    (HNPD, 5/13/99)

1928        May 23, Italian Gen. Nobile reached the North Pole for a 2nd time with a 16-man crew aboard the dirigible Italia.
    (ON, 10/00, p.5)

1928        May 24, The dirigible Italia crashed while attempting to reach Spitzbergen. Nine men survived the initial crash. In 2000 Wilbur Cross authored "Disaster at the Pole," a revised edition of the 1960 version of the disaster led by Italian aviator Umberto Nobile. The Russian film "Krasnaya palatka" (1969), starring Sean Connery, detailed the Nobile expedition and attempted rescue. This movie was released in North America under the title "The Red Tent."
    (ON, 10/00, p.6)(SSFC, 1/7/01, Par p.14)(www.imdb.com/title/tt0067315/)

1928        Jun 3, An amateur radio operator in Archangel, Russian, picked up a distress signal from the crew of the Italia and reported the crew’s location. A 2nd report from an American amateur changed the location and proved to be a hoax.
    (ON, 10/00, p.6)

1928        Jun 17, The 1st airplanes appeared in the vicinity of the Italia crew.
    (ON, 10/00, p.8)

1928        Jun 18, Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen (b.1872) flew to the North Pole with a crew of rescuers to search for the survivors of the dirigible Italia. They were never seen again.
    (ON, 10/00, p.8)(Ind, 4/27/02, 5A)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roald_Amundsen)

1928        Jun 20, A plane passed overhead and dropped provisions to the Italia crew.
    (ON, 10/00, p.8)

1928        Jun 23, A small Swedish military plane under Lt. Einar-Paul Lundborg landed with skis and took Gen. Nobile back to Spitzbergen. Lundborg then flew back for another pickup but crashed on landing and was trapped with the Italia survivors.
    (ON, 10/00, p.8)

1928        Jul 6, Lundborg’s navigator returned to the Arctic with a smaller plane and picked up Lt. Lundborg.
    (ON, 10/00, p.8)

1928        Jul 11, The Russian icebreaker Krassin picked up 2 Italia crew members, who had tried to trek to land.
    (ON, 10/00, p.8)

1928        Jul 12, The Russian icebreaker Krassin rescued the rest of the dirigible Italia crew members. In 1969 Gary Hogg authored "Airship Over the Pole: The Story of the Italia." In 2000 Wilbur Cross authored “Disaster at the Pole."
    (ON, 10/00, p.8)

1930        Aug 5, The Norwegian steamer Bratvaag anchored near the inhospitable shores of White Island on the far northeastern tip of Spitsbergen. Harpooners Olaf Salen and Carl Tusvik had gone ashore to skin walrus, when they suddenly kicked a rusted tin can. After examining the relic, they hastily searched their immediate area. Protruding from a snow bank was the darkened prow of a small boat with a boathook sticking out. Precisely painted letters on the wood were still legible: "Andrée's Polar Expedition of 1897."
    (HNQ, 5/22/01)

1931        Aug 28, Hubert Wilkins, Australian explorer, reached within 550 miles of the North Pole in the submarine Nautilus.
    (ON, 1/02, p.8)

1937        Jun 6, Ivan Papanin (1894-1986) raised the Soviet flag over the North Pole-1 station. For 234 days the 4-man Papanin team carried out a wide range of scientific observations in the near-polar zone.
    (Econ, 8/11/07, p.43)(www.mvk.ru/eng/about/press/publications/publication_105.shtm)

1942        Jun 27, The Allied Convoy PQ-17 left Iceland for Murmansk and Archangel. As their escorts turned away, the ships of the doomed Allied convoy PQ-17 followed orders and began to disperse in the Arctic waters.
    (HN, 6/27/98)

1944        Jan 28, Matthew Henson received a joint medal from Congress as co-discoverer of the North Pole.
    (HN, 1/28/99)

1951        May 29, C.F. Blair became the 1st man to fly over the North Pole flight in single engine plane.
    (HN, 5/29/98)

1952         May 3, The first airplane landed at geographic North Pole. It was a ski-modified U.S. Air Force C-47, piloted by Lieutenant Colonel William P. Benedict (d.1974) of California and Lieutenant Colonel Joseph O. Fletcher of Oklahoma. In 2002 Charles B. Compton authored "Born to Fly: Some Life Sketches of Lieutenant Colonel William P. Benedict."
    (Polar Times, Fall, 97)(CBC)

1958        Aug 1, The US atomic sub USS Nautilus 1st dove under the North Pole.
    (MC, 8/1/02)

1958        Aug 3, The nuclear-powered submarine USS Nautilus became the first vessel to cross the North Pole underwater. The Nautilus was decommissioned in 1980 and designated a National Historic Landmark in 1982.
    (PCh, 1992, p.965)(AP, 8/3/97)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/USS_Nautilus_%28SSN-571%29)

1958        Sep 22, The nuclear submarine USS Skate remained a record 31 days under the North Pole.
    (MC, 9/22/01)

1958        Oct 6, The US nuclear sub USS Seawolf remained a record 60 days under pole.
    (MC, 10/6/01)

1959        Mar 17, The USS Skate became the 1st submarine to surface at the North Pole. The ships crew held a funeral service and scattered the ashes of explorer Hubert Wilkins (d.1958), who had attempted the feat in 1931.
    (ON, 1/02, p.9)

1968        Apr 19, Ralph S. Plaisted (1927- 2008), insurance salesman turned explorer, reached the North Pole by snowmobile with 3 other men. This was the first expedition to indisputably reach the North Pole.
    (SFC, 9/11/08, p.B4)

1969        Apr 6, Sir Wally Herbert (1934-2007), English explorer, reached the North Pole on foot along with 3 others on his team. They became the first men to cross the entire frozen surface of the Arctic Ocean on foot covering the 3,720 miles in 16 months. Roy Koerner, a glaciologist accompanying Herbert, drilled more than 250 ice core samples during the journey.

1969        May 29, Britain's Trans-Arctic expedition made the 1st crossing of Arctic Sea ice. Roy Koerner (1932-2008), more commonly known as Fritz, was one of the four members of Sir Wally Herbert’s British Transarctic Expedition which, on April 6, 1969, stood at the North Pole.

1977        Jun, The Inuit Circumpolar Council, a multinational non-governmental organization (NGO), met for the first time. Originally known as the Inuit Circumpolar Conference, the ICC represented the 150,000 Inuit (often referred to as Eskimo) people living in the United States, Canada, Greenland, and Russia.
    (Econ, 3/5/11, p.68)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inuit_Circumpolar_Council)

1980        Feb 29, Pres. Carter signed a law that renamed the Arctic National Wildlife Range to the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge and more than doubled its size. The law directed the Interior Dept. to assess oil potential in 1.5 million acres of the coastal plain. A ban was put on drilling in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. In 2002 Pres. Bush pushed to overturn the ban. Estimates on oil there ranged from 3.2 to at least 5.7 billion barrels.
    (SSFC, 2/24/02, p.A9)(SSFC, 8/28/05, p.A13)(http://tinyurl.com/2udcgx)

1986        May 1, Will Steger (b.1943) and his dog sled expedition reached the North Pole without re-supply.

1988        Apr 6, Black Arctic explorer Matthew Henson (1866-1955) was re-buried next to Robert Peary in Arlington, Va.

1988        In the Arctic original navigational records were uncovered from Admiral Peary’s 1909 dog-sled voyage indicating that he probably never got closer than 121 miles from the North Pole.
    (SFC, 9/11/08, p.B4)

1996        The Arctic Council was founded to promote joint scientific research and to study pollution, conservation and mapping. The Ottawa Declaration named eight members of the Arctic Council: Canada, Russia, Norway, Denmark, Iceland, the United States, Sweden and Finland. The first step towards the formation of the Council occurred in 1991 when eight Arctic countries signed the Arctic Environmental Protection Strategy (AEPS).
    (Econ, 3/24/12, p.61)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arctic_Council)

1998        Mar 21, It was reported that Chinese researchers had discovered heavy industrial pollution in the snow around the North Pole.
    (SFC, 3/21/98, p.A9)

1998        Apr 21, Skydivers from Malaysia parachuted the national car, the Proton Wira sedan, onto the North Pole this week.
    (SFC, 4/23/98, p.A13)   

1999        Nov 20, It was reported that the Arctic average ice thickness had declined by 4.25 feet since the 1960s, a 40% reduction.
    (SFC, 11/20/99, p.A21)

2000        Jul, Visitors to the North Pole reported that the ice had melted for the 1st time in recorded history and formed a free patch of ocean about a mile in diameter.
    (SFC, 8/26/00, p.A20)

2003        Mar 17, Pen Hadow, 41, began a 478-mile trek from Ward Hunt Island in northern Canada to the geographic North Pole. He reached the Pole unsupported on May 19, but a plane has been unable to retrieve him because of broken ice and thick clouds.
    (AP, 5/27/03)

2003        Jul 6, Dennis Schmitt and 5 companions stepped on a 120-foot-long pile of dirt at 83°42’ latitude, Earth’s farthest north piece of known land. The Arctic site was 432 miles from the North Pole and under the jurisdiction of Greenland. In 2004 Danish authorities discounted the find in favor of a larger island called Kaffklubben.
    (SFC, 6/17/04, p.B1)(SFC, 6/18/04, p.B10)

2004        Oct 4, The Denmark Science Ministry said it aims to show the North Pole belongs to Denmark and is sending an expedition to try to prove that the seabed there is a natural continuation of Danish territory.
    (AP, 10/4/04)

2004        Nov 8, A comprehensive scientific study of the Arctic climate was released and confirmed that the North is melting, and faster all the time.
    (CP, 11/8/04)

2004        A $12.5 million Arctic Coring Expedition, run by a consortium called the Int’l. Ocean Drilling Program, drilled into layers of sediment millions of years old.
    (SFC, 6/1/06, p.A5)

2005        May 24, Indigenous leaders from Arctic regions around the world called on the European Union to do more to fight global warming and to consider giving aid to their peoples.
    (AP, 5/24/05)

2005        Sep 28, Climate experts said the Arctic ice cap shrank this summer to its smallest size in at least a century.
    (SFC, 9/29/05, p.A1)

2005        Marla Cone authored “Silent Snow: The Slow Poisoning of the Arctic."
    (SSFC, 5/22/05, p.F2)

2006        Mar 23, Mike Horn (39) of South Africa and Borge Ousland (43) of Norway completed a 620-mile trek without outside supplies or help from dog sleds to the North Pole after 64 days of walking, skiing, climbing, swimming across ice openings.
    (AP, 3/24/06)

2006        Jun 15, The environmental group WWF said toxic chemicals are harming Arctic animals including polar bears, beluga whales, seals and seabirds.
    (AP, 6/15/06)

2006        Aug 17, In the Arctic ice Lt. Jessica Hill (31) and Boatswain's Mate Steven Duque (22), divers on the US Coast Guard cutter Healy, died during a practice dive.
    (AP, 9/24/06)

2006        Sep 13, NASA scientists said the ice in the Arctic Sea is melting in winter as well as in summer, likely due to global warming. The ice was reportedly melting at 9% a decade.
    (SFC, 9/14/06, p.A1)(Econ, 9/9/06, Survey p.6)

2007        Mar 20, An explosion aboard the HMS Tireless, a nuclear-powered Royal Navy submarine under an Arctic ice cap, killed two British sailors and injured a crewmember.
    (AP, 3/21/07)

2007        May 1, A US ice expert said the Arctic ice cap is melting much faster than expected and is now about 30 years ahead of predictions made by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.
    (Reuters, 5/1/07)

2007        Jun 1, The Norwegian environmental group Bellona warned that a nuclear waste dump in the Russia Arctic may be in danger of exploding because of corrosion caused by salt water in enormous storage tanks.
    (AP, 6/1/07)

2007        Jun 4, The UN warned in a report that up to 12% of Arctic ice has turned to water in the past 30 years, an alarming fact that only accelerates global warming further.
    (AP, 6/4/07)

2007        Jul 9, Canada announced plans to increase its Arctic military presence in an effort to assert sovereignty over the Northwest Passage, a potentially oil-rich region the United States claims is international territory.
    (AP, 7/9/07)

2007        Jul 27, Russia said it planned to send a small submarine to the ocean floor under the North Pole to stake a claim to the region.
    (WSJ, 1/28/07, p.A1)

2007        Aug 1, Russian explorers readied for a historic descent to the bottom of the Arctic Ocean under the North Pole as part of an expedition to claim the area for Russia.
    (AP, 8/1/07)

2007        Aug 2, Two deep-diving Russian mini-submarines descended more than 2 1/2 miles under North Pole ice to stake a flag on the ocean floor, part of a quest to bolster Russian claims to much of the Arctic's oil-and-mineral wealth.
    (AP, 8/2/07)
2007        Aug 2, Canada dismissed Russia's claim to a large chunk of the resource-rich Arctic, saying the tactic was more suited to the 15th century than the real world.
    (AP, 8/2/07)

2007        Aug 10, The United States launched an expedition toward the Arctic to map the sea floor off Alaska.
    (AP, 8/10/07)
2007        Aug 10, Canada's prime minister announced plans for an army training center and a deepwater port on the third day of an Arctic trip meant to assert sovereignty over a region.
    (AP, 8/10/07)
2007        Aug 10, Denmark was reported to be planning a monthlong expedition, to begin Aug 12, to seek evidence that the Lomonosov Ridge, a 1,240-mile underwater mountain range, is attached to the Danish territory of Greenland, making it a geological extension of the Arctic island.
    (AP, 8/10/07)

2007        Sep 20, NASA released satellite data that showed sea ice in the Arctic had shrunk one million square miles more this summer that the average melt over 24 years. This represented an area larger that Alaska and Texas combined. Arctic sea ice shrunk to a record 1.59 million square miles since NASA started recording satellite data in 1979.
    (SFC, 9/21/07, p.A1)(SFC, 9/17/08, p.A2)

2008        Mar 18, NASA reported that the thickest Arctic ice is melting according to satellite data.
    (WSJ, 3/19/08, p.A1)

2008        May 28, The Ilulissat Declaration, was announced by 5 countries adjoining the Arctic Ocean, expressed their commitment to develop the Arctic peacefully and without outside interference.
    (Econ, 6/16/12, SR p.10)(www.oceanlaw.org/downloads/arctic/Ilulissat_Declaration.pdf)

2008        Jun 9, Russia and Norway met for 2-days talks in the hope of making progress in a decades-old dispute over their maritime border in the Barents Sea, a part of the Arctic that could hold large oil and gas reserves. After visiting the Norwegian town of Kirkenes, the ministers will go to Murmansk in northwest Russia.
    (AP, 6/9/08)

2008        Dec 16, NASA said satellite data indicated that more than 2 trillion tons of land ice in Alaska, Antarctica and Greenland since 2003 among the latest signs of global warming. A scientist from America’s National Snow and Ice Data Center said the shrinking of Arctic ice (and exposure of extra sea to radiation) was warming the world at an accelerating pace.
    (SFC, 12/17/08, p.A20)(Econ, 12/20/08, p.109)

2009        Mar 27, Russian media reported that the presidential Security Council has released a document outlining government policy for the Arctic that includes creating a special group of military forces.
    (AP, 3/27/09)

2010        Apr 10, French explorer Jean-Louis Etienne (63) made the first Arctic crossing by balloon, landing in the tundra of eastern Siberia five days after taking off in Norway.
    (AP, 4/10/10)

2010        Michael Byers authored “Who Owns the Arctic: Understanding Sovereignty Disputes in the North."
    (Econ, 3/5/11, p.68)
2010        Scientists discovered an extensive bloom of phytoplankton at the edge of Arctic ice in the Chukchi Sea. The bloom continued below 2½ to 4 feet of ice for some 60 miles.
    (SFC, 6/8/12, p.A13)

2011        Jan 14, BP and Russian state-run firm Rosneft unveiled an agreement to swap shares and launch a joint venture to exploit the Arctic's vast untouched energy resources. BP’s share in Rosneft would increase to 10.8% and Rosneft would get 5% of BP. Critics held that BP was buying stolen goods.
    (AFP, 1/15/11)(Econ, 1/22/11, p.74)

2011        Mar 11, Norway rejected oil drilling in ecologically sensitive waters just above the Arctic circle, partly because of worries over a disaster like the Gulf of Mexico oil spill.
    (AP, 3/11/11)

2011        Apr 5, The UN weather agency said a protective ozone layer in the Arctic that keeps out the sun's most damaging rays, ultraviolet radiation, has thinned about 40 percent this winter, a record drop.
    (AP, 4/5/11)

2011        May 3, The Arctic Monitory and Assessment Program (AMAP) reported that the ice of Greenland and the Arctic is melting faster than expected and could raise global sea levels by as much as five feet this century.
    (SFC, 5/4/11, p.A3)

2011        May 12, Arctic Council members signed an agreement in Greenland to coordinate search and rescue operations and pledged to create int’l. protocols to prevent and clean up offshore oil spills. The 8 members included the Canada, Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Russia, Sweden and the USA.
    (SFC, 5/13/11, p.A2)

2011        Jun 4, Greenpeace said 18 of its members have climbed a 53,000-ton oil rig in the Arctic waters off Greenland to protest deepwater drilling by a Scottish oil company there. The activists demanded Cairn Energy release a plan for how to manage a potential oil spill. Police arrested 14 activists, while 4 remained on Leiv Eiriksson oil rig.
    (AP, 6/4/11)(SFC, 6/5/11, p.A4)

2011        Laurence Smith authored “The New North: The World in 2050."
    (Econ, 2/5/11, p.96)

2012        Jan 28, Bird enthusiasts were reporting rising numbers of snowy owls from the Arctic winging into the lower 48 states this winter in a mass southern migration.
    (Reuters, 1/28/12)

2012        Feb 24, In New Zealand actress Lucy Lawless and six other protesters boarded the ship Noble Discoverer in a bid to prevent it sailing to the Arctic, where it has been contracted by Anglo-Dutch energy giant Shell to conduct exploratory drilling. On Feb 27 police arrested Lawless along with five other Greenpeace activists.
    (AFP, 2/24/12)(AFP, 2/27/12)

2012        Apr 18, ExxonMobil finalized the terms of a deal with Russia’s Rosneft to invest up to $500 billion in developing offshore reserves, including in Russia’s Arctic Kara Sea.
    (Econ, 6/16/12, SR p.5)

2012        Apr 20, China signed accords on energy cooperation and the Arctic in Iceland as Premier Wen Jiabao started a tour of northern Europe that will focus on Chinese investment in a continent eager for funds and to trade with the rising world power.
    (Reuters, 4/20/12)

2012        Aug 24, Greenpeace activists were first offered hot soup, then sprayed with blasts of cold water after they stormed a floating Russia oil platform and erected climbing tents on the side of the rig to protest drilling in the Arctic.
    (AP, 8/24/12)

2012        Aug 27, Greenpeace said in a statement that 14 activists have chained themselves to the anchor chain of the vessel which was carrying Gazprom's workers to the Prirazlomnaya platform in the Pechora Sea.
    (AP, 8/27/12)

2012        Sep 5, Moscow police arrested 10 environmental activists, including four dressed in polar bear costumes, who were protesting outside the main office of Gazprom. The protest by members of Greenpeace called upon Gazprom to halt its offshore drilling in the Arctic.
    (AFP, 9/5/12)

2012        Sep 21, Royal Dutch Shell PLC said it is suing Greenpeace International in Dutch court in an attempt to end protests against its plans to drill for offshore oil in the Artic Sea.
    (AP, 9/21/12)

2012        Dec 21, The US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration announced that ringed seals and bearded seals will be listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act. Loss of sea ice due to climate warning was blamed.
    (SFC, 12/22/12, p.A6)

2013        Jan 21, Arctic Council members set up the first permanent secretariat at Tromso, Norway.
    (Econ, 2/2/13, p.49)

2013        Apr 15, Iceland President Ólafur Ragnar Grímsson announced the formation of the Arctic Circle at a Press Club meeting in Washington, DC, The new nonprofit will be dedicated to bringing together the many international stakeholders in an open venue to address the challenges facing the rapidly-changing Arctic.

2013        May 15, The Arctic Council, meeting in Sweden, agreed to expand membership and provide observer status to 6 new nations including China, India, Italy, Japan, Singapore and South Korea.
    (SFC, 5/16/13, p.A4)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arctic_Council)

2013        May 30, Russian scientists said a perfectly preserved woolly mammoth carcass with liquid blood has been found on a remote Arctic island, fueling hopes of cloning the Ice Age animal.
    (AP, 5/30/13)

2013        Aug 26, Greenpeace said that Russian authorities have boarded their ship which is in the Arctic to protest against oil drilling. The Greenpeace ship entered the waters of the Kara Sea on Aug 24.
    (AP, 8/26/13)

2013        Sep 18, Russian coast guards fired warning shots and arrested two Greenpeace activists who scaled the Prirazlomnaya Arctic oil platform in a protest over the potential threat to the environment from operations slated to start this year.
    (Reuters, 9/18/13)

2013        Sep 19, The Russian Coast Guard began towing a Greenpeace ship to Murmansk after armed officers stormed it following a protest against oil drilling in Arctic waters.
    (AP, 9/20/13)

2013        Oct 2, Russian investigators charged 14 Greenpeace campaigners with piracy over an open-sea protest against Arctic oil drilling.
    (AFP, 10/2/13)(AP, 10/3/13)

2013        Dec 9, Canada signalled intentions to claim the North Pole and surrounding Arctic waters while announcing the filing of a UN application seeking to vastly expand its Atlantic sea boundary.
    (AFP, 12/9/13)

2013        Dec 10, Russia’s President Vladimir Putin ordered the military to step up its presence in the Arctic after Canada signalled its intention to claim the North Pole and surrounding waters.
    (AFP, 12/10/13)

2014        May 1, Dutch police stormed a Greenpeace ship and ended environmentalists' attempts to block a Russian tanker carrying oil from the Arctic Ocean from mooring at Rotterdam Port. 31 activists were detained.
    (AP, 5/1/14)

2014        May 29, Norwegian police removed Greenpeace activists from a platform operated by Statoil, which they boarded two days ago in a protest against drilling in Arctic waters.
    (AP, 5/29/14)

2014        Sep 6, Russia sent six ships carrying personnel and equipment to a Soviet-era military base in the Arctic that it is reopening to bolster its presence in the region.
    (AFP, 9/6/14)

2014        Dec 15, Denmark claimed ownership of around 900,000 square km of the continental shelf in the Arctic Ocean north of Greenland by filing documents to United Nations.
    (Reuters, 12/15/14)

2015        May 11, The Obama administration approved plans for Shell Oil to drill in the Arctic Chukchi Sea. Shell still needed to secure seven other permits.
    (SFC, 5/12/15, p.A9)

2015        Jul 16, The United States, Russia and other Arctic nations signed an agreement to bar their fishing fleets from fast-thawing seas around the North Pole. The accord was also signed in Oslo by the ambassadors of Canada, Norway and Denmark.
    (Reuters, 7/16/15)

2015        Aug 4, Russia pressed a claim at the UN for an additional 1.2 million square km (463,000 square miles) of Arctic shelf, an area of escalating international tension.
    (AP, 8/4/15)

2015        Oct 16, The US Interior Department announced it is canceling future oil lease sales and will not extend current leases in Arctic waters off Alaska's northern coast.
    (AP, 10/17/15)

2015        Oct 30, Coast Guard leaders from the US, Canada, Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden signed an agreement setting up the Arctic Coast Guard Forum dedicated to stewardship of Arctic waters.
    (SFC, 10/31/15, p.A4)

2016        Nov 7, A group of investors representing more than 5 trillion euros ($5.53 trillion) in assets under management have called on oil and gas companies to observe an unlimited moratorium on activity in the Arctic high seas.
    (Reuters, 11/7/16)

2016        Nov 18, The Obama administration announced a 5-year Arctic offshore drilling plan that blocks the planned sale of new oil and gas drilling rights in the Chukchi and Beaufort seas north of Alaska.
    (SFC, 11/19/16, p.A7)

2017        Feb 17, The UN World Meteorological Organization said the extent of sea ice in the Arctic and Antarctic last month was the lowest on record for January, while concentrations of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere hit a January record.
    (Reuters, 2/17/17)

2017        Mar 16, The European Parliament rejected a call to ban Arctic oil and gas exploration, in a symbolic vote seen as a barometer for future moves by Brussels to regulate to protect the region.
    (Reuters, 3/16/17)

2017        May 16, It was reported that researchers have found an estimated 100-1200 tons of plastic floating in the Arctic Ocean.
    (SFC, 5/16/17, p.A12)

2017        Jul 10, In Finland Japanese PM Shinzo Abe pledged to increase cooperation with Finland in Arctic issues and on furthering Russian relations, after talks with Finnish President Sauli Niinisto.
    (AP, 7/10/17)

2017        Jul 29, The Finnish icebreaker MSV Nordica set a new record for the earliest transit of the fabled Northwest Passage after 24 days at sea and a journey spanning more than 10,000 km (6,214 miles).
    (AP, 7/29/17)

2017        Dec 12, The annual Arctic Report Card released today warned that an increasingly warm Arctic, where temperatures rise twice as fast as the rest of the planet and ice melts at an alarming pace is the "new normal".
    (AFP, 12/12/17)

2018        Jan 4, A court in Norway said that the government can hand out oil drilling licenses in the Arctic, dealing a blow to two environmental groups that had filed a lawsuit against further drilling in the Barents Sea. The court also said Nature and Youth and Greenpeace Nordic should pay legal expenses worth 580,000 kroner ($71,435).
    (AP, 1/4/18)

2018        Feb 5, In Norway environmental groups launched an appeal after an Oslo court rejected their arguments that Norway's oil and gas exploration in the Arctic violates citizens' right to a clean environment.
    (Reuters, 2/5/18)

2018        Apr 10, The Newport Arctic Scholars Initiative convened in Newport, Rhode Island, with representatives from the Canada, Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and the US.
    (AP, 4/10/18)

2019        Jan 22, A Russian a long-range Tu-22M3 bomber crash-landed in the Arctic, leaving three of its crew of four dead.
    (AP, 1/22/19)

2019        May 7, The Arctic Council, under pressure from the US, issued a joint statement that excluded any mention of climate change.
    (SFC, 5/8/19, p.A2)

2019        Apr 9, Russia's President Vladimir Putin put forward an ambitious program to secure the country's foothold in the Arctic, including efforts to build new ports and other infrastructure facilities and expand an icebreaker fleet.
    (AP, 4/9/19)

2019        Jul 13, It was reported that over the course of 10 days this month, Alaskan wildfires burned an area of land the size of Rhode Island. This is way above normal — though this doesn't match Alaska's extreme burning of 2015. The UN The World Meteorological Organization noted that over 100 intense fires burned in the Arctic Circle alone over the past six weeks, releasing more carbon dioxide into the atmosphere than Sweden does in an entire year.
    (Mashable, 7/14/19)

2019        Jul 26, It was reported that the Arctic is suffering its worst wildfire season on record, with huge blazes in Greenland, Siberia and Alaska producing plumes of smoke that can be seen from space.
    (The Guardian, 7/26/19)

2019        Sep, The Multidisciplinary Drifting Observatory for the Study of Arctic Climate (MOSAIC) departed northern Norway with researchers from 19 countries. The German research icebreaker Polarstern set sail from Tromso, Norway, to spend a year drifting through the Arctic Ocean. It was accompanied by a Russian icebreaker.
    (https://www.mosaic-expedition.org/)(SSFC, 10/6/19, p.A2)

2019        Fires this year in the Arctic meitted some 182 million tons of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Fires in June, July and August accounted for 173 million tons.
    (Econ., 7/6/20, p.68)

2020        Oct 12, The RV Polarstern icebreaker, carrying scientists on a year-long international effort to study the high Arctic, returned to its home port in Germany carrying a wealth of data that will help researchers better predict climate change in the decades to come.
    (AP, 10/12/20)

2020        Dec 8, Scientists in an annual assessment of the region said the Arctic continued its unwavering shift toward a new climate in 2020, as the effects of near-record warming surged across the region, shrinking ice and snow cover and fueling extreme wildfires.
    (NY Times, 12/8/20)

2020        Jun 20, In 2021 the UN weather agency said it has certified a 38-degree Celsius (100.4 Fahrenheit) reading in the Russian town of Verkhoyansk on June 20, 2020, as the highest temperature ever recorded in the Arctic.
    (AP, 12/14/21)

2021        Feb 28, Russia launched its space satellite Arktika-M on a mission to monitor the climate and environment in the Arctic amid a push by the Kremlin to expand the country's activities in the region.
    (Reuters, 2/28/21)

2021        Jun 1, The Biden administration suspended oil drilling leases in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge.
    (NY Times, 6/1/21)

2021        Jul 5, Finland’s northernmost Arctic Lapland region recorded its hottest temperature for more than a century at 33.6 degrees Celsius (92.5 F), during a heatwave that's been afflicting the entire Nordic country for weeks.
    (AP, 7/6/21)

2021        Oct 13, The European Union announced plans to open a representation in the Arctic and vowed to protect environment in a region the bloc says is of key strategic importance.
    (AP, 10/13/21)

2021        Dec 14, The UN weather agency said it has certified a 38-degree Celsius (100.4 Fahrenheit) reading in the Russian town of Verkhoyansk on June 20, 2020, as the highest temperature ever recorded in the Arctic.
    (AP, 12/14/21)

2021        Dec 17, The NOAA’s Arctic Report Card documented the numerous ways that climate change continues to fundamentally alter this once reliably frozen region. The Arctic is warming two to three times faster than the rest of the planet.
    (https://tinyurl.com/35mtfwym)(SSFC, 12/19/21, p.B10)

2040        The Arctic Ocean was expected to be largely free of ice by this time based on current trends in 2017.
    (Econ, 4/29/17, p.11)

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