Timeline American Indian Tribes

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First Nations:

  There are 554 federally recognized tribes in the US. There are 550 federally recognized tribes and native villages in the continental US. 557 tribes in the 33 states have a combined population of 2.4 million. 226 tribes are in Alaska.
 (SFC, 1/31/97, p.A12)(Hem., Dec. '95, p.164)(Wired, Dec., '95, p.94)(SFEC, 7/18/99, Par p.7)
  30 Indian languages fall under the Uto-Aztecan umbrella that includes: Comanche, Shoshoni, Mono, Hopi, Pima, Yaqui, Huichol, Cora and all Aztec languages.
 (SFEC, 3/22/98, p.C5)

Abenaki: A native tribe that inhabited the state of Maine.
    (SFC, 7/21/96, p.T6)
    (Abnaki) An Algonquin-speaking tribe of North American Indians of Maine, New Brunswick and southern Quebec.
    (AHD, 1971, p.3)
    1730    The French arrived in Swanton, Vermont, and the plague followed. The local Abenaki Indians faded into the woods.
    (SFC, 12/13/02, p.J7)
    1976    Vermont Gov. Tom Salmon granted the Abenaki Indians recognition. The following year a new governor rescinded recognition.
    (SFC, 12/13/02, p.J7)

Acadia:    1756    Apr 14, Gov. Glen of South Carolina protested against 900 Acadia Indians.
    (MC, 4/14/02)

Acagchemem: A native tribe in southern California.
    1776    Nov 1, Father Serra arrived at the site of the Mission of San Juan Capistrano. His mission was to convert the members of the Acagchemem tribe called Juanenos by the Spaniards. The tribe at the time was experiencing the end of a 7-year draught.
    (HT, 3/97, p.58)
    1777    The Acagchemem Indians built a small church at Mission San Juan Capistrano. It’s been renamed the Serra Chapel and is the oldest building still in use in California.
    (HT, 3/97, p.60)
    1833    Mexico took mission property from the Church and turned out the Acagchemem Indians at Mission San Juan Capistrano.
    (HT, 3/97, p.61)

Ahwahneechee: A Southern Sierra Miwok band that lived in Yosemite Valley.
    (SFEC, 5/18/97, Z1 p.4)
    1930    The Yosemite Park Service began to build a small village in the valley for Yosemite Indians.
    (SFEC, 5/18/97, Z1 p.4)

Algonquin: The largest linguistic family of American Indians. They lived on the Atlantic Coast from Virginia northward and west to Mississippi, and north and west of the Great Lakes to the Rocky Mountains. A linguistic family, or language group, includes Indians speaking the same language and its dialects, or different but related languages.
    (HN, 5/1/98)(HNQ, 5/19/00)

Anasazi: A Basket-Maker Pueblo culture of northern Arizona, New Mexico, southern Utah and Colorado.
    (WUD, 1994, p.53)
    ~00-1250AD    The cliff-dwelling Anasazi flourished in the Four Corners area of the American Southwest.
    (NH, 5/96, p.8)
    100-1300    Time period of the Anasazi culture.
    (WUD, 1994, p.53)
    950AD        The Anasazi came to Keet Seel, Arizona.
    (Hem., 5/97, p.75)
    1130-1150    Tree growth rings revealed that a drought occurred in the southwest US. This period corresponded with the abandonment of Anasazi dwelling sites in Arizona.
    (Hem., 5/97, p.79)
    1276-1299    Tree growth rings revealed that another drought occurred in the southwest US. This period corresponded with the abandonment of Anasazi dwelling sites in Arizona.
    (Hem., 5/97, p.79)
    1300    The Anasazi Indian culture of the American southwest disappeared about this time.
    (SFC, 5/19/96, T-1)
    1880    Pueblo Chochiti men led anthropologist Adolph F.A. Bandolier to Frijoles Canyon in New Mexico. Bandolier later authored the novel on Pueblo life called “The Delightmakers." Cliff dwelling in the area were preserved (1916) in a national park named after Bandelier.
    (SSFC, 8/1/04, p.D7)
    1895    Richard Wetherill, a young cowboy and amateur archeologist, discovered the Keet Seel Anasazi ruins in northern Arizona. Shards of broken pottery marked the site and some say that Keet Seel in Navajo means "place of broken pottery."
    (Hem., 5/97, p.80)

Apache: A native tribe with members in Oklahoma descended from Geronimo.
    (SFC, 1/31/97, p.A12)
    1861    Aug 12, Texas rebels were attacked by Apaches.
    (MC, 8/12/02)
    1871    Apr 30, Apaches in Arizona surrendered to white and Mexican adventurers; 144 died.
    (MC, 4/30/02)

Arapaho: A Great Plains tribe.
    (WSJ, 2/25/97, p.A20)
    Brief histories of more than 300 American Indian tribes are covered in the book by Eagle/Walking Turtle titled: Indian America (John Muir Publ.) There are 550 federally recognized tribes and native villages in the continental US.
    (Hem., Dec. '95, p.164)(Wired, Dec., '95, p.94)
    1850    The Arapaho Indians issued a $5 bill.
    (SFEC, 1/25/98, Z1 p.8)
    1864    Nov 29, In retaliation for an Indian attack on a party of immigrants near Denver, 750 members of a Colorado militia unit, led by Colonel John M. Chivington, attacked an unsuspecting village of Cheyenne and Arapahoe Indians camped on Sand Creek in present-day Kiowa County. Some 300 [163] Indians were killed in the attack, including women and children, many of whose bodies were mutilated. Ten soldiers died in the attack. The Sand Creek Massacre, as this incident came to be called, provoked a savage struggle between Indians and the white settlers. It also generated two Congressional investigations into the actions of Chivington and his men. The House Committee on the Conduct of the War concluded that Chivington had "deliberately planned and executed a foul and dastardly massacre which would have disgraced the varied and savage among those who were the victims of his cruelty."
    (HNPD, 11/29/98)(HN, 11/29/98)(SFC, 9/15/00, p.A9)(SSFC, 2/1/04, p.C13)

Assiniboine: The tribe is homed at Fort peck, Montana.
    (SFC, 4/9/96, p.A17)(www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/cultural/northamerica/assiniboine.html)

Athabaska Indians were native to Alaska and western Canada. Some later migrated to the southwest and became known as Navahos.
    (SFC,10/20/97, p.A5)(SFEC, 2/13/00, Z1 p.2)

Atsugewi: A native American tribe of the Mt. Lassen area of Northern Ca.
    (PacDis, Fall/’96, p.43)

Ajachemem: [see Acagchemem] A native tribe of Southern California.
    (SFC, 6/21/97, p.A16)

Blackfeet: A North American tribe of Algonquin stock
    (WUD, 1994, p.154)
    c1750    The Blackfeet Indians were among the last Native American tribes to acquire horses.
    (SFC, 9/2/96, p.A3)
    1870    Jan 23, 173 Blackfoot, including 140 women and children, were killed in Montana by US Army.
    (MC, 1/23/02)
    1884    Some 500 Blackfeet Indians in Montana died during the winter from starvation. Reservation agent John Young kept rations on hand for the white people.
    (SSFC, 9/9/01, Par p.7)

Calusa: Several dozen members of the Calusa Indian tribe, nicknamed "The Fierce Ones," escaped from Florida to Cuba in the early 1700s after Spanish soldiers and other tribes overran their region. They dominated Florida’s Gulf coast from about 800 to 1700.
    (AP, 3/14/04)(AM, 11/04, p.47)

Catawba: A native tribe of South Carolina.
    1840    Land was taken from the Catawba Indians.
    (SFC, 7/4/97, p.A10)
    1993    The state and federal government paid the Catawba Indians $50 million for lands taken in 1840.
    (SFC, 7/4/97, p.A10)


    1760    Feb 16, Cherokee Indians held hostage at Fort St. George, SC, were killed in revenge for Indian attacks on frontier settlements.
    (HN, 2/16/99)(MC, 2/16/02)
    1760    Aug 7, Ft. Loudon, Tennessee, surrendered to Cherokee Indians.
    (MC, 8/7/02)
    1828    Feb 21, The first issue of the Cherokee Phoenix, the 1st American Indian newspaper in US, was printed, both in English and in the newly invented Cherokee alphabet.
    (HN, 2/21/98)(MC, 2/21/02)
    1828    May 6, The Cherokee Indians were forced to sign a treaty giving up their Arkansas Reservation for a new home in what later became Oklahoma. This led to a split in the tribe as one group moved to Oklahoma and others stayed behind and became known as the Lost Cherokees.
    (Econ, 3/11/06, p.28)(http://digital.library.okstate.edu/KAPPLER/Vol2/treaties/che0288.htm)
    1835    Dec 30, Cherokees were forced to move across the Mississippi River after gold was discovered in Georgia. A minority faction of Cherokee agreed to the emigration of the whole tribe from their lands by signing the Treaty of New Echota. The Treaty of New Echota resulted in the cession of all Cherokee land to the U.S. and provided for the transportation of the Cherokee Indians to land beyond the Mississippi. The removal of the Cherokee was completed by 1838.
    (NG, 5/95, p.86)(HNQ, 6/21/98)(MC, 12/30/01)
    1838    Aug, Some 12,000 Cherokee Indians in 13 ragtag parties followed the Trail of Tears on a 116-day journey west 800 miles to eastern Oklahoma. Estimates have placed the death toll in camps and in transit as high as 4,000. They followed the trail already set by the Choctaw out of Mississippi, the Creek from Alabama, the Chickasaw from Arkansas and Mississippi, and the Seminole from Florida.
    (NG, 5/95, p.82)(www.crystalinks.com/cherokee2.html)
    1862    The Cherokee Indians issued a $1 bill.
    (SFEC, 1/25/98, Z1 p.8)
    1864    The Confederate War Dept. organized the Indian tribes of eastern Oklahoma and western Arkansas into the Indian Division. Cherokee Gen’l. Stand Watie commanded the Cherokee Mounted Rifles.
    (WSJ, 6/9/97, p.A19)
    1866    Freed Cherokee slaves were adopted into the tribe under a treaty with the US government. In 2007 the Cherokee Nation voted to revoke citizenship to descendants of the slaves.
    (SFC, 3/5/07, p.A2)
    1885    By this year the Cherokee had learned to make beer out of persimmons, but no fermented drink was made by the ancient people.
    (SFEC, 12/8/96, BR p.4)
    1985    Dec 14, Wilma Mankiller became the first woman to lead a major American Indian tribe as she took office as principal chief of the Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma.
    (AP, 12/14/97)
    In 1996 Thomas E. Mails wrote "The Cherokee People. "
    (SFEC, 12/8/96, BR p.4)

Cheyenne-Arapaho: A tribe of Oklahoma with some 11,000 members. Cheyenne means "people of alien speech."
    (SFC, 3/10/97, p.A2)(MT, Spg. ‘97, p.12)
    1876    Mar 17, Gen. Crook destroyed Cheyenne and Ogallala-Sioux Indian camps.
    (MC, 3/17/02)
    1869    The US federal government took 7,500 acres within their reservation for a military fort, Fort Reno. The fort is now closed and under control of the Agriculture Dept. and used for a small research project.
    (SFC, 3/10/97, p.A2)

Chickasaw: A warlike Muskhogean tribe of North America formerly in northern Mississippi, now in Oklahoma.
    (WUD, 1994, p.255)
    1736    May 26, In northwestern Mississippi, British and Chickasaw Indians defeated a combined force of French soldiers and Chocktaw Indians at the Battle of Ackia, thus opening the region to English settlement.
    (AHD, 1971, p.11)(HN, 5/26/98)
    1818    Oct 19, US and Chickasaw Indians signed a treaty.
    (MC, 10/19/01)
    1865    Jul 14, The Chickasaw Indian Nation under Winchester Colbert was the last military force to surrender in the Civil War.
    (WSJ, 6/9/97, p.A19)

Chipewyan: The first Dene people to trade with the Hudson’s Bay Company.
    (NH, 7/96, p.4)
    1909-1993    The 1997 novel "Deluge" by Albertine Strong follows the destinies of the Dibikamig clan of the Chippewa in Minnesota.
    (SFEC,10/26/97, BR p.3)
    1975    The Chippewa tribe of Sault Ste. Marie in Northern Michigan was awarded federal status as a tribal government.
    (MT, Fall ‘96, p.20)
    1984    The Kewadin Casino in Sault Ste. Marie opened by the Chippewa.
    (MT, Fall ‘96, p.20)
    1995    The casino proposal by the Red Cliff Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians of Wisconsin was rejected by the Interior Dept.
    (SFC,11/17/97, p.A11)
    1997    Jerry Buckanaga, pioneer Chippewa educator, died at 55. His Pine Point school in northern Minnesota became a prototype for schools run by Indians across the country.
    (SFC, 7/29/97, p.A18)

    A member of a large Muskhogean tribe of North American Indians. They formerly lived chiefly in Mississippi, but now in Oklahoma. The language of the Choctaw and Chickasaw Indians.
    (WUD, 1994, p.260)
    1862    The Choctaw Indians issued a 75 cent note.
    (SFEC, 1/25/98, Z1 p.8)
    1880’s        In great land runs of the US, settlers jumped the gun to go to Oklahoma, which thus became nicknamed the Sooner State. In the Choctaw language, Okla-homa means red human.
    (SFC, 4/14/96, T-6)

Chumash: Native Indians of the Ojai Valley north of Ventura, Ca.
    (SFEC, 10/13/96, p.T3)

    Kikawaw is the Cree word for "our mother."
    (SFC, 5/14/96, A-10)
    1933    Richard Throssel (b.1882), photographer and Montana legislator, died. He was a Cree Indian who was adopted by the Crow tribe and lived on the Montana Crow Reservation from 1902-1911. A Book of his work by Peggy Albright was published in 1997: "Crow Indian Photographer: The work of Richard Throssel."
    (SFEC, 7/27/97, BR p.6)
    1995 This tribe in Northern Quebec, led by Grand Chief Matthew Coon Come, voted in favor of remaining a part of Canada by 96%. There were 6380 eligible voters.
    (Hem., Dec. '95, p.164)(Wired, Dec., '95, p.94)
    2002    Feb 7, The Cree tribe of northern Quebec under Ted Moses ratified an October deal that ensured 15,000 Crees of receiving no less than $3.5 billion over the next 50 years and a share in benefits derived from their lands.
    (SFC, 2/9/02, p.A9)

Creek: Creek Indians lost all their property in US Nov 15, 1827.
    (MC, 11/15/01)
    1814    Mar 27, General Jackson led U.S. soldiers who killed 700 Creek Indians at Horseshoe Bend, La. [in Northern Alabama] Jackson lost 49 men.
    (SFEC, 2/16/97, BR p.4)(HN, 3/27/99)
    1814    Mar 29, In the Battle at Horseshoe Bend, Alabama, Andrew Jackson beat the Creek Indians. [see Mar 27]
    (MC, 3/29/02)
    1825    Feb 12, Creek Indian treaty signed. Tribal chiefs agreed to turn over all their land in Georgia to the government and migrate west by Sept 1, 1826.
    (MC, 2/12/02)
    The Guale tribe of Creek Indians lived on the barrier islands off the coast of Georgia. These include Jekyll Island, St. Simons Island, Sea Island, Little St. Simmons and Cumberland Island.
    (SFC, 4/28/96, p.T-6)

Dene Peoples: Native Indians of Canada whose forest habitat fronts the Canadian barrens.
    (NH, 7/96, p.4)

Dogrib People: A Native Indian tribe of Canada. The largest surviving Dene group.
    (NH, 7/96, p.4)(NH, 5/96, p.35)

Hopi:     A Hopi reservation sits in the middle of Navajo lands in Arizona. They have farmed there for more than 1,000 years.
    (SFC, 7/15/96, p.A1)
    c1150    The original Hopi territory in the southwest encompassed some 225,000 sq. miles around villages established about this time.
    (SFC, 1/3/97, p.A26)
    1500s    The Navajo began settling on Hopi land.
    (SFC, 1/3/97, p.A26)
    1882    Pres. Chester Arthur approved new borders for the Hopi reservation, a 1.6 million-acre site in the center of 17 million acres of Navajo land in the 4 Corners area of the Southwest. A 3,863 sq. mile area was set up as a Hopi reservation.
    (SFC, 12/28/96, p.A4)(SFC, 1/3/97, p.A26)
    1936    A Hopi Tribal Council was formed over the objection of the Hopi elders.
    (SFEC, 5/4/97, z1 p.4)
    1937    The 1882 reservation was divided into districts. The large District 6 was earmarked for the Hopi. The Navaho replaced the Hopi in other areas.
    (SFEC, 5/4/97, z1 p.4)
    1943    By this year the Hopi land had dwindled to 624,000 acres and was surrounded by a 16-million-acre Navajo reservation.
    (SFC, 1/3/97, p.A26)
    1962    A Federal court ruled that the Hopi have exclusive use of District 6. The remainder of the reservation became a Joint Use Area (JUA).
    (SFEC, 5/4/97, z1 p.4)
    1995    Native American Indian Tribe. Brief histories of more than 300 American Indian tribes are covered in the book by Eagle/Walking Turtle titled: Indian America (John Muir Publ.)
    (Hem., Dec. '95, p.164)(Wired, Dec., '95, p.94)
    1996    A 1988 lawsuit resulted in an "accommodation agreement" which would give 75-year leases to the Big Mountain Dineh (Navaho) if they acknowledged Hopi authority. A Mar 31, 1997, deadline was set.
    (SFEC, 5/4/97, z1 p.4)


Hupa: A tribe along the North Coast of California.
    (SFC, 6/21/97, p.A16)

Iroquois: A confederacy of North American Indians of Canada and the eastern US, The Five Tribes, that included the Mohawks, Oneidas, Onondagas, Cayugas, Senecas, and later the Tuscaroras.
1689    Aug 25, The Iroquois took Montreal.
    (MC, 8/25/02)
    1744    The Iroquois sachem (chief) Cannasatego advised the American colonists to from a union like that of the Iroquois. Benjamin Franklin acknowledged the admonition in 1751 and applied it in his Albany Plan of 1754.
    (WSJ, 4/10/97, p.A15)

Kalispel Tribe: A native tribe of the Spokane, Wa., region.
    1996    A Casino plan was approved on a site off its reservation in metropolitan Spokane, Wa. by Interior Sec. Bruce Babbitt.
    (SFC,11/17/97, p.A11)

Kashaya Pomo: A native tribe of northern California around Bodega Bay.
    (SFEC, 3/23/97,  p.T5)

Kaw:    A native tribe of Oklahoma.
    (SFC, 1/31/97, p.A12)

Kickapoo: Native American Indian Tribe.
    (Hem., Dec. '95, p.164)(Wired, Dec., '95, p.94)

Kiowa: A Great Plains tribe.
    (WSJ, 2/25/97, p.A20)

Kumeyaay Indians: A tribe in San Diego County proselytized by the Franciscans from 1818.
    (SFC, 9/16/96, p.A15)

Kwakiutl: Tribes of the American northwest coast. They routinely bound the heads of their babies, giving the adults a pinhead look that was highly valued.
    (NH, 6/97, p.16)
    1997    The book "Echoes of the Elders: The Stories and Paintings of Chief Lelooska" was edited by Christine Normandin.
    (SFEC,11/2/97, Par p.10)

Lenape: A tribe and language of the Delaware Indians. One of their dialects was Unami. They had inhabited the region encompassing New Jersey, lower New York, eastern Pennsylvania, and northern Delaware. They were later scattered to enclaves in Wisconsin, Ontario and Oklahoma.
    (NH, 10/96, p.16)
    1683    Jun 23, William Penn signed a friendship treaty with Lenni Lenape Indians in Pennsylvania. It became the only treaty "not sworn to, nor broken."
    (HN, 6/23/98)(MC, 6/23/02)
    1686    The Lenape Indians allegedly sold land along the Lehigh River to William Penn.
    (ON, 1/03, p.6)
    1750    Teedyuscung, a Lenape Indian, joined the Christian mission of Gnadenhutten, founded by Swiss Moravian settlers in the Lehigh Valley town of Bethlehem.
    (ON, 1/03, p.6)
    1754    Nov 29, The Gnadenhutten mission, Pa., was attacked by renegade Lenape Indians and 11 white people were killed.
    (ON, 1/03, p.7)
    1755    Dec 31, Teedyuscung, a Lenape Indian, led 30 Lenape Indians on a raid against English plantations along the Delaware River. Over the next few days his band killed 7 men and took 5 prisoners.
    (ON, 1/03, p.6)
    1756    Nov 12, Teedyuscung, a Lenape Indian, spoke with Gov. Denny at Easton, Pa., to discuss grievances.
    (ON, 1/03, p.6)
    1763    Apr 19, Teedyuscung, a Lenape Indian leader, burned to death while sleeping in his cabin in the Wyoming Valley, Pa. The fire destroyed the whole Indian village. A few days later settlers from Connecticut arrived to resume their construction of a town.
    (ON, 1/03, p.6)
    1985    "The Indians of Lenapehoking" by Herbert C. Kraft and John Kraft was published by Seton Hall Univ. Press.
    (NH, 12/96, p.4)

Maidu: A native American tribe of the Mt. Lassen area of Northern Ca.
    (PacDis, Fall/’96, p.43)
    1902-1975    Frank Day, Native American Maidu painter. He depicted the customs of his tribe and his work included "Starwoman" (1975). He made some 200 paintings with tape-recorded interpretations and stories.
    (SFEM, 4/20/97, p.6)

Makah: A native tribe of Washington state.
    (WSJ, 10/23/97, p.A1)
    1855    The US government signed a treaty with some American Indians that gave them permanent rights to their existing lands. The Makah tribe of Washington secured a right to hunt whales in exchange for ceding title to their land. In 1972 the Marine Mammals Protection Act prohibited the slaughter of whales without a permit.
    (SFEC, 6/15/97, Par. p.5)(SFC,10/24/97, p.A9)(SSFC, 7/13/08, p.E4)

Makha: A half-Makha Indian filed a racial discrimination suit.
    (WSJ, 12/31/96, p.1)

Maliseets: A native tribe of Maine.
    (SFC, 1/31/97, p.A12)

Mashantucket Pequot: A native tribe of Connecticut.
    1637    May 26, 1st battle of Pequot at New Haven, Ct., some 500 Indians were killed.
    (MC, 5/26/02)
    1637    Jun 5, American settlers in New England massacred a Pequot Indian village.
    (HN, 6/5/98)   
    1997    The tribe’s profits from a casino cleared more than $1 million a day just from slot machines.
    (SFC, 1/31/97, p.A12)

Mattaponi: A native tribe of Virginia.
    1646    A treaty with Virginia Indians required the state to protect the Mattaponi from "enemies," but only on the reservation in King William County.
    (SFC, 6/4/97, p.A7)
    1677    May 29, King Charles II and 12 Virginia Indian chiefs signed a treaty that established a 3-mile non-encroachment zone around Indian land. The Mattaponi Indians in 1997 invoked this treaty to protect against encroachment.
    (SFC, 6/2/97, p.A3)

Mattole: A tribe along the North Coast of California
    (SFC, 6/21/97, p.A16)

Micmac: An Indian tribe of the Nova Scotia area that summer fished around the Magdalen Islands and were noted by French explorer Jacques Cartier.
    (SFEC, 5/11/97, p.T15)

Miccosukee: A native tribe of Florida.
    (SFC, 6/28/97, p.A3)

Miwok-Pomo:    A northern California tribe of the Santa Rosa area.
    (SFC, 2/18/96, p.A13)

Modoc: A tribe that lived along the California-Oregon border.
    1872    At Lava Beds National Monument in northern California 52 Modoc warriors held off over 1,000 US Army troops for five months. The 4 year conflict was described in the 1997 book "Hell with the Fire Out" by Arthur Quinn.
    (SFC, 10/16/96, zz1 p.1)(SFEC, 4/6/97, BR p.5)
    1989    Michael Dorris (d.1997 at 52), a Modoc Indian descendent, won the national Book Critics Circle Award for his work: "The Broken Cord." It described the problem of fetal alcohol syndrome.
    (SFC, 4/15/97, p.A2)

Mohawks: A Canadian Indian tribe.       
    1991    A 7-member Royal commission on Aboriginal Peoples was created after a lengthy armed standoff between Mohawk Indians and security forces in Quebec.
    (SFC, 11/22/96, p.A20)

Mutsun: The Indian language of the tribe that lived in the area Mission San Juan Bautista.
    (SFC, 6/21/97, p.A16)
    1797    Mission San Juan Bautista in California was founded in the lands of the Mutsun Indians. Father Fermin de Lasuen blessed the future site of Mission San Juan Bautista in California.
    (SFC, 6/21/97, p.A16)(SJSVB, 6/24/96, p.41)

Muwekma Ohlone: The tribe was administratively terminated in 1927 by the California Superintendent of Indian Affairs. Partial recognition was re-established by the federal government in May, 1996. An estimate 300 tribal members were working toward full recognition.
    (SFC, 8/22/96, p.E5)

        The nation’s largest tribe. Their 17 million-acre reservation straddles Arizona, New Mexico and Utah. The area is about the size of West Virginia.
    (SFC, 7/15/96, p.A1)
    1500s    The Navajo began settling on Hopi land. They have farmed in the southwest since this time.
    (SFC, 7/15/96, p.A1)(SFC, 1/3/97, p.A26)
    1860    Apr 30, Navaho Indians attacked Fort Defiance (Canby).
    (MC, 4/30/02)
    1864    The US Army and Kit Carson forcibly removed 8,500 Dineh Navajo on the Long Walk to a concentration camp at Bosque Redondo (Fort Sumner), New Mexico.
    (SFC, 1/3/97, p.A26)(SFEC, 5/4/97, z1 p.4)
    1868    Some 7,100 survivors of the Long Walk were released onto a New Mexico reservation of 5,500 acres. The Navajo migrated and some returned to Hopi land where 3.5 million acres , 1/6th of their former homeland, was returned.
    (SFC, 1/3/97, p.A26)(SFEC, 5/4/97, z1 p.4)
    1882    Pres. Chester Arthur approved new borders for the Hopi reservation, a 1.6 million-acre site in the center of 17 million acres of Navajo land in the 4 Corners area of the Southwest. A 3,863 sq. mile area was set up as a Hopi reservation. The intent was to keep Mormon settlers away from Hopi pueblos.
    (SFC, 12/28/96, p.A4)(SFC, 1/3/97, p.A26)(SFEC, 5/4/97, z1 p.4)
    1923    Special Indian Commissioner H.J. Hagerman organized the first Navajo Tribal Council which gave him power to act for them in auctioning oil leases.
    (SFEC, 5/4/97, z1 p.4)
    1937    The 1882 reservation was divided into districts. The large District 6 was earmarked for the Hopi. The Navaho replaced the Hopi in other areas.
    (SFEC, 5/4/97, z1 p.4)
    1939    The documentary film "Navajo Silversmithing" was produced by John Adair (d.1997 at 84).
    (SFEC,12/21/97, p.B6)
    1958    Jul 11, Monument Valley, straddling the Arizona-Utah border, became the 1st Navajo Tribal Park.
    (SSFC, 10/6/02, p.C15)
    1962    A Federal court ruled that the Hopi have exclusive use of District 6. The remainder of the reservation became a Joint Use Area (JUA).
    (SFEC, 5/4/97, z1 p.4)
    1972    John Adair (d.1997 at 84), anthropologist, published his book: "Through Navajo Eyes."
    (SFEC,12/21/97, p.B5)
    1974    Congress divided the Native Indian Joint Use Area in New Mexico between the Hopi and Navaho.
    (AP, 5/3/97)
    1976    Navaho weavers wove the largest Navaho rug in the world. The 800-pound rug measured 38x26 feet and used 25 different Navaho styles.
    (SFC, 10/11/97, p.A7)
    1983-1984    Twelve Navajo weavers in Arizona completed the 26x28 foot "Little Sister" rug. It was a smaller version of a larger rug woven in 1976, and recorded as the largest Navajo rug in the world. In 1997 the rug was put up for auction to raise funds for a community health clinic.
    (SFC, 10/11/97, p.A7)
    1996    A 1988 lawsuit resulted in an "accommodation agreement" which would give 75-year leases to the Big Mountain Dineh (Navaho) if they acknowledged Hopi authority. A Mar 31, 1997, deadline was set.
    (SFEC, 5/4/97, z1 p.4)
    1997    Anthropologist Mary Thygeson Shepardson (1907-1997), author of "Navajo Ways in Government" and "The Navaho Mountain Community," died.
    (SFC, 4/4/97, p.A25)
    Mar 30, Dr. Donald F. Sandner (d.1997 at 68), psychiatrist, died. He studied the shamanic healing practices of North American Indians and authored: "Navajo Symbols of Healing."
    (SFC, 4/15/97, p.A20)

Nez Perce
    The Nez Perce are a North American Indian people of the Sahaptin family. The name is from the French and means pierced nose. They lived in the Wallowa Valley of Oregon, Washington and Idaho for some 12,000 years. The Nez Perce were noted for breeding the Appaloosa (spotted) horse and for initially preserving this breed.
    (WUD, 1994, p.964)(SFC, 6/13/97, p.A13)(MC, 10/5/01)
    1805    Nov. 7, Lewis and Clark reached the Pacific Ocean. Their survival over the ‘04-’05 winter was attributed to the help of the Nez Perce Indians.
    (HFA, '96, p.42)
    1855    Nez Perce elders agreed to sell most of their land to the US government. They retained some 10 thousand square miles as a reservation in the area where Washington, Oregon and Idaho meet. Gold was soon discovered in the area and in 1863 the US government called for a new deal.
    (ON, 3/04, p.1)
    1863    The US government paid a group of Nez Perce Indians $265,000 for some 6 million acres in the area of Lewiston, Oregon.
    (ON, 3/04, p.1)
    1871    Aug, Joseph became chief of Nez Perce Indians in the Wallowa Valley, Oregon.
    (ON, 3/04, p.1)
    1872    Aug 14, Chief Joseph met in council with some 40 settlers in the Wallowa Valley and ordered them to leave the Nez Perce Indian land.
    (ON, 3/04, p.2)
    1873    Jun 16, Pres. Grant signed an executive order that permitted Chief Joseph and the Nez Perce to live in the Wallowa Valley, Oregon, to perpetuity.
    (SFEC, 6/15/97, Par. p.5)(ON, 3/04, p.2)
    1875    Jun, Nez Perce Chief Joseph learned that had rescinded the executive order of 1873 and reopened the Wallowa Valley to white settlement.
    (ON, 3/04, p.2)
    1877    Jun 14, Two Nez Perce Indians killed 3 white men.
    (ON, 3/04, p.5)
    1877    Jun 15, The US Army and began to pursue some 800 Nez Perce. The Nez Perce had been ordered to leave the valley of the Winding Waters in the Northwest.
    (SFC, 6/13/97, p.A13)(SFEC, 6/15/97, Par p.1)
    1877     Jun 16, The Nez Perce War began in the northwestern US. The First Squadron of the First Regiment, the oldest cavalry unit in the US, fought the Apaches and the Nez Perces.
    (WUD, 1994, p.964)(WSJ, 12/27/95, p. A-1)(ON, 3/04, p.5)
    1877    Aug 10, Col. John Gibbon slaughtered Nez-Perce Indians at Big Hole River.
    (MC, 8/10/02)
    1877    Oct 5, Nez Perce Chief Joseph and 418 survivors were captured in the Bear Paw mountains and forced into reservations in Kansas. They surrendered in Montana Territory, after a 1,700-mile trek to reach Canada fell 40 miles short. Nez Perce Chief Joseph surrendered to General O.O. Howard and Colonel Nelson Miles at the Bear Paw ravine in Montana Territory, saying, "Hear me, my chiefs, my heart is sick and sad. From where the sun now stands, I will fight no more, forever." The retreat had lasted three months and left 120 Nez Perces dead. Miles had found and surrounded the Nez Perce camp with the help of Sioux and Cheyenne scouts. Many whites, including Howard, admired the Nez Perces’ fighting ability and Chief Joseph himself, who was considered humane and eloquent. He died in 1904.
    (HFA, ‘96, p.40)(SFC, 6/13/97, p.A13)(HNPD, 10/5/98)(HN, 10/5/98)
    1885    Chief Joseph and his band of Nez Perce were allowed to take up residence on the Colville reservation in northern Washington.
    (ON, 3/04, p.5)
    1904    Sep 21, Exiled Nez Perce leader Chief Joseph died in Washington state reportedly of a "broken heart." In 1984 “Chief Joseph’s Own Story" was published.
    (HN, 9/21/98)(SFC, 6/13/97, p.A13)
    1996    Lillian Disney donated $100,000 to the Nez Perce to buy some ancient tribal artifacts. She had been raised in Lapwai on their reservation.
    (SFC,12/18/97, p.C16)
    1997    Jun 13, It was reported that the Nez Perce had acquired a 10,300 former cattle ranch in northeastern Oregon.
    (SFC, 6/13/97, p.A1)   

Nisenan: (also southern Maidu) A Californian Indian tribe that lived in the gold country.
    (Pac. Disc., summer, ‘96, p.13)

Ohlone: A native Indian tribe of the San Francisco Bay area.
    (Pac. Disc., summer, ‘96, p.52)
    1797    Jun 11, Padre Fermin Francisco de Lasuen and a few Spanish soldiers established Mission San Jose on a little creek and grove of trees that they called Alameda. It was the 14th of 21 California missions. It was the end of a way of life for the local Ohlone Indians.
    (SFC, 6/12/97, p.A17)


Oneida: The Oneida Tribe of Wisconsin is not connected to the Oneida Nation of New York state.
    (WSJ, 2/10/97, p.A2)

O’ob: A tribe in Sonora, Mexico.
    (SFEC, 12/8/96, BR p.4)

Osage Indians
    Native American Indian tribe. The Osage Tribal Museum is located in Pawhuska, Okla.
    (WSJ, 4/30/96, p.A-1)
    1927    Oct 19, Marjorie Tallchief, US-Osage ballerina (Harkness Ballet), was born. In 1997 Maria Tallchief wrote her memoir: "Maria Tallchief: America’s Prima Ballerina."
    (WSJ, 4/17/97, p.A20)(MC, 10/19/01)

Ottowa: http://www.dickshovel.com/otta.html
    1763    May 7, Indian chief Pontiac began his attack on a British fort in present-day Detroit, Michigan.
    (HN, 5/7/99)
    1763    Jul 24, Ottawa Chief Pontiac led an uprising in the wild, distant lands that would one day become Michigan, Ohio and Pennsylvania.
    (HN, 7/24/98)
    1766    Jul 24, At Fort Ontario, Canada, Ottawa chief Pontiac and William Johnson signed a peace agreement.
    (HN, 7/24/98)
1769    Apr 20, Ottawa Chief Pontiac (b~1720) was murdered by an Indian in Cahokia.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1117)(HN, 4/20/98)

Paiute: A Shoshone tribe of eastern California in the area of Owens Valley.
    1860s    A 1000 Paiutes of Owens Valley were forcibly relocated to Fort Tejon in the Tehachapi Mountains by the US Army.
    (SFEC, 4/13/97, Z1 p.6)
    1862     In Lone Pine, Ca., settlers shot it out with a local band of Paiute Indians. 11 Paiutes were killed and 2 settlers were wounded.
    (SFEC, 8/17/97, p.T9)

Pala Indians: A tribe in the San Diego, Ca. region.
    1998    Mar 6, Gov. Wilson signed a pact with the Pala tribe of San Diego on gambling concessions. Negotiations had been in process since 1991. A month later half of the state’s Indian tribes objected to the pact. Federal approval was granted in April.
    (SFC, 4/798, p.B8)(SFC, 4/27/98, p.A22)

Patwan Indians
        Native American Indian group that inhabited the north-east section of the San Francisco Bay around Suisun City, Ca.
    (Hem., Nov.'95, p.95)

Paugusset Indians
        Native American tribe of Connecticut.
    1993    Moonface Bear, A Golden Hill Paugusset Indian led a faction of the tribe in an armed standoff with state officials. She died at 35 on 5/21/96.
    (SFC, 5/234/96, p.E2)


Pequot: A tribe native to the area of Connecticut.
    c1600s Sassacus was leader of the Mashanttucket Pequot.
    (SFEC,11/9/97, Par p.8)
    1637    May 26, 1st battle of Pequot at New Haven, Ct., some 500 Indians were killed.
    (MC, 5/26/02)
    1637    Jun 5, American settlers in New England massacred a Pequot Indian village.
    (HN, 6/5/98)
    1997    The Sassacus ferryboat was designed to carry gamblers from NYC to the Tribal Nation’s Foxwoods casino.
    (SFEC,11/9/97, Par p.8)


Pomo: A Californian Indian tribe that lived between Fort Bragg and Clear Lake. They had lived in the area for some 11,000 years.
    (Pac. Disc., summer, ‘96, p.13)(SFC, 11/13/96, p.A15)

    1835    Aug 18, The last Pottawatomie Indians left Chicago.
    (MC, 8/18/02)

    1969    A government clerk in the Bureau of Indian Affairs dropped the Samish Indian nation from the list of recognized tribes. In 2002 the tribe, native to the San Juan Islands and western Scagit County of Washington state, sued for recognition and damages.
    (SFC, 10/18/02, p.J8)

    1832    Aug 27, Black Hawk, leader of Sauk-Indians, gave himself up.
    (MC, 8/27/01)

Seminoles: The name means "Runaways" in Creek.
    (MT, Spg. ‘97, p.11)
    1816    Jul 27, US troops destroyed the Seminole Fort Apalachicola, to punish the Indians for harboring runaway slaves.
    (MC, 7/27/02)
    1818    Apr 7, Gen. Andrew Jackson captured St. Marks, Fla., from the Seminole Indians.
    (MC, 4/7/02)
    1837    Dec 25, In the Battle of Okeechobee US forces defeated the Seminole Indians.
    (MC, 12/25/01)
    1842    Aug 14, Seminole War ended and the Indians were moved from Florida to Oklahoma.
    (MC, 8/14/02)
    2000    The Seminole Nation voted to cast freedmen descendants out of its tribe.
    (SFC, 3/5/07, p.A2)

Shakopee Mdewakanton Sioux: A native tribe of Minnesota.
    (SFC, 1/31/97, p.A12)

Shawnee: Native American Indian Tribe. Brief histories of more than 300 American Indian tribes are covered in the book by Eagle/Walking Turtle titled: Indian America (John Muir Publ.) There are 550 federally recognized tribes and native villages in the continental US.
    (Hem., Dec. '95, p.164)(Wired, Dec., '95, p.94)

Shoshone: A family of American Indian languages and tribes of the Western states that includes: Chemehuevi, Kawaiisu, Monache, Panamint, Timbisha Shoshone, Comanche, Hopi, Paiute, Tubatu-labal and Ute.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1319)(PacDis, Summer ’97, p.2)
    c1000    The Numic-speaking Shoshone took part in a widespread migration out of the Cosos Mountains about this time and populated a large portion of the western US.
    (PacDis, Summer ’97, p.10)
    c1200    A drought hit the southwest around the Coso Mountains about this time. Shamanism and rain-making grew in importance and helped men counterbalance the importance of women engaged in food gathering when hunting declined.
    (PacDis, Summer ’97, p.15)
    1863    The Treaty of Ruby Valley with the Western Shoshone Indians assured their ownership of property that later became a US nuclear test site.
    (SFC, 7/12/97, p.E4)

Sioux: Members of the tribe are homed at Fort Peck, Montana. The name means "Snakes" in Ojibway.
    (MT, Spg. ‘97, p.11)
    1851     Jul 23, Sioux Indians and US signed the Treaty of Traverse des Sioux.
    (MC, 7/23/02)
    1862    Aug 18, A Sioux Uprising began uprising in Minnesota. It resulted in more than 800 white settlers dead and 38 Sioux Indians condemned and hanged. The Minnesota Uprising began when four young Sioux murdered five white settlers at Acton. The Santee Sioux, who lived on a long, narrow reservation on the south side of the Minnesota River, were reacting to broken government promises and corrupt Indian agents. a military court sentenced 303 Sioux to die, but President Abraham Lincoln reduced the list. The 38 hangings took place on December 26, 1862, in Mankato, Minn.
    (MC, 8/18/02)(HNQ, 1/4/00)
1870    Jun 9, Washington: Pres Grant met with Sioux chief Red Cloud.
    (MC, 6/9/02)
    1877    May 6, Chief Crazy Horse surrendered to U.S. troops.
    (HN, 5/6/98)
    1881    Jul 20, Sioux Indian leader Sitting Bull, a fugitive since the Battle of the Little Big Horn, surrendered to federal troops.
    (AP, 7/20/97)
    1890    Feb 10, Around 11 million acres, ceded to US by Sioux Indians, opened for settlement.
    (MC, 2/10/02)
    1894    Aug 16, Indian chiefs from the Sioux & Onondaga tribes met to urge their people to renounce Christianity and return to their  old Indian faith.
    (MC, 8/16/02)
    1985, Norman Harry Hollow (1920-1996), tribal chairman from 1973-1985, helped negotiate a water rights agreement between the tribes of the Fort Peck reservation and the state of Montana.
    (SFC, 4/9/96, p.A17)

Timbisha Shoshone: A tribe that now occupies a 40-acre compound in the heart of Death Valley.
    (SFEC, 6/8/97, Z1 p.5)
    1992    The Timbisha won federal tribal recognition.
    (SFEC, 6/8/97, Z1 p.5)
    1994    The California Desert Protection Act directed the Interior Dept. to find land that the 300-member tribe could call its own.
    (SFEC, 6/8/97, Z1 p.5)

Timucuan: An tribe that lived on Cumberland Island, Georgia, back to 2000BC.
    (Sky, 4/97, p.43)

Tlingit:     A native tribe of the northwest coast of the American continent.
    (NH, 3/97, p.42)
    1890        The shaman Tek-’ic had himself photographed just before dying on the steps of his house in Yakutat Bay.
    (NH, 3/97, p.43)

Tohono O’Odham:  A tribe of southern Arizona.
    (SFC, 7/15/96, p.A1)

Tongva: An Indian tribe of the Los Angeles area of California.
    (SFC, 6/21/97, p.A16)

    1708     A map was made that depicted Towasa Indian Lamhatty’s account of his enslavement in colonial America. It was one of 75 documents in the 1997 book "Another America" by Mark Warhus.
    (NH, 5/97, p.11)

Tsimshian: A native tribe of the northwest coast of the American continent.
    (NH, 3/97, p.42)

Umatilla: A tribe of Oregon and the Pacific Northwest..
    (HT, 4/97, p.40)(SFC, 8/23/97, p.A11)

Ute: A native tribe of the 4 corners area.
    1993    Southern Ute Indians launched Red Willow, a natural gas production operation. By 2003 the tribe had acquired $1.3 billion in assets.
    (WSJ, 6/13/03, p.A1)

Wailaki: A Californian Indian tribe that lived northwest of the Yuki between the Eel and Mad rivers.
    (Pac. Disc., summer, ‘96, p.13)

Wampanoags: New England colonies declared war on Wampanoag Indians on Sep 9, 1675.
    (MC, 9/9/01)

Washoe: The Washoe Indian tribe once ranged along the California Sierra from Honey Lake to Mono Lake.
    (SFC, 6/21/97, p.A18)
    1997    Jul 26, Pres. Clinton announced that the Forest Service would allot 350 acres to the Washoe Indian tribe for a cultural center and give tribal members access to the edge of lake Tahoe.
    (SFEC, 7/27/97, p.A14)

Winnebago: A treaty was made with the Winnebago Indians Oct 1, 1837.
    (MC, 10/1/01)

Wiyot: A tribe along the North Coast of California
    (SFC, 6/21/97, p.A16)

Yahi: A native American tribe of the Mt. Lassen area of Northern Ca.
    (PacDis, Fall/’96, p.43)
    1911    Sep, Ishi (d.1916), a native California Indian, walked out of the forest near Oroville, Ca. He underwent examination at UC medical center in San Francisco and liked to practice "drawing bow" on Parnassus Heights.
    (SFC, 7/14/96, Z1 p.2)(SFEC, 12/26/99, p.W4)(SSFC, 2/8/04, p.M1)
    1916    Mar, Ishi, the last Yahi Indian in California, died of tuberculosis. His body was cremated but his brain was removed and shipped to the Smithsonian Institute in Washington, DC. The documentary film "Ishi, the Last Yahi" was made by John Harrison Quinn (d.2000 at 59). In 2004 Orin Starn authored "Ishi's Brain: In search of the Last "Wild" Indian."
    (SFC, 2/19/99, p.A1)(SFC, 1/26/00, p.A24)(SSFC, 2/8/04, p.M1)

Yamasse: 1715 Apr 15, Uprising of Yamasse Indians in South Carolina.
    (MC, 4/15/02)

Yana: A native American tribe of the Mt. Lassen area of Northern Ca.
    (PacDis, Fall/’96, p.43)

Yuki: A Californian Indian tribe that lived between the Eel and Trinity rivers.
    (Pac. Disc., summer, ‘96, p.13)

Yup’ik:    Indians of southwestern Alaska and members of the larger Inuit-Inupiaq cultures.
    (NH, 8/96, p.12)


Zuni: One of 2 dozen Indian tribes in Arizona.
    (SFC, 7/15/96, p.A1)

Native American Indian Tribe. Brief histories of mare than 300 American Indian tribes are covered in the book by Eagle/Walking Turtle titled: Indian America (John Muir Publ.) There are 550 federally recognized tribes and native villages in the continental US.
    (Hem., Dec. '95, p.164)(Wired, Dec., '95, p.94)

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