Timeline Algeria

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History: http://reference.allrefer.com/country-guide-study/algeria/algeria10.html
Algeria sits on top of some 3,000 sq. km. of oil.
    (SFC, 12/30/96, p.B1)
Berbers make up 25% of the population.
    (SFC, 3/16/01, p.A18)

100Mil BC    Spinosaurus, a 55 foot, 8 ton dinosaur with crocodile-like jaws lived during this time in Argentina, Morocco, Tunisia, Algeria. The Spinosaurus lived in what later became North Africa during the Cretaceous period (112Mil BC BC-93.5Mil BC). Fossil evidence in 2020 indicated that the Spinosaurus was possibly a predatory water-loving dinosaur.
    (http://tinyurl.com/r6kp2)(ABC News, 4/29/20)

4000BC-2500BC    A rock painting from this time in Tassili n'Ajjer, southeastern Algeria, illustrates a battle between 2 prehistoric groups armed with bows and arrows.
    (NH, Jul, p.29)

218BC-201BC     Numidia, ancient Roman name for part of northern Africa roughly equivalent to modern Algeria. In the Second Punic War (218-201 BC) between Carthage and Rome, western Numidia supported Carthage. King Masinissa of eastern Numidia joined the Romans. With the victory of Rome, Masinissa controlled all Numidia.
    (WWW, Encarta, 12/19/98)

105BC        The heart of ancient Numidia lay in the eastern region of what is now Algeria in Northern Africa. The Numidians were originally nomadic horsemen. They were defeated by Roman troops in the Jugurthine War in 105 BC and conquered by Rome in 46 BC. The Vandals and Byzantines ruled successively before Arabs conquered the area in the seventh century AD. Jugurtha was the king of Numidia.
    (HNQ, 6/2/98)(SFC, 2/12/02, p.D3)

49BC        Mauretania (now northern Morocco and Algeria) became a client kingdom of Rome.
    (AM, May/Jun 97 p.22)

46BC        Numidia was conquered by Rome. The Vandals and Byzantines ruled successively before Arabs conquered the area in the seventh century AD.
    (HNQ, 6/2/98)

40        Mauretania was divided into the provinces of Tingitana and Caesariensis.
    (AM, May/Jun 97 p.22)

200-400    Christianity spread rapidly in Numidia and the diocese of Lamiggiga was established. It was later abandoned and just the name was used as an honorary jurisdiction for Catholic auxiliary bishops.
    (SFC, 9/19/98, p.C1)

311        The Donatists were a Christian sect that developed in northern Africa [Numidia] and maintained that it alone constituted the whole and only true church and that baptisms and ordinations of the orthodox clergy were invalid.
    (WUD, 1994, p.425)(SFC, 9/19/98, p.C1)

430        Aug 28, Augustine (b.354) died in Hippo (Annaba, Algeria) with a Vandal army outside the gates of the city. His writings included "The Confessions." In 1999 Garry Wills authored the biography "St. Augustine." Augustine had developed the theory of a "just war" and said a nation’s leaders must consider among other things, anticipated loss of civilian life and whether all peaceful options have been exhausted before war starts. In 2003 Garry Wills authored "Saint Augustine's Sin." In 2005 James J. O’Donnell authored “Augustine: A New Biography." Augustine turned against the spirit of intellectual inquiry once he found salvation. His dogmatic invective laid the foundations for centuries of intellectual tyranny by the Catholic church. In 2015 Robin Lane Fox authored “Augustine: Conversions and Confessions."
    (SSFC, 12/21/03, p.M6)(Econ, 5/14/05, p.86)(www.connect.net/ron/august.html)(Econ, 1/29/11, p.82)(Econ, 11/28,15, p.77)

439        Oct 19, The Vandals, led by King Gaiseric, took Carthage and quickly conquered all the coastal lands of Algeria and Tunisia. Egypt and the Libyan coast remained in Roman hands.
    (Enc. of Africa, 1976, p.168)(HN, 10/19/98)

c439    In Mauretania (now northern Morocco and Algeria) Roman rule ceased in the mid 5th century when barbarian incursions forced the legions to withdraw.
    (AM, May/Jun 97 )

703        Dihya or Al-Kahina, a Jewish Berber queen and a religious and military leader, died about this time at the Battle of Tabarka (701 and 702 are also possible dates for this battle. She had led indigenous resistance to the Muslim conquest of the Maghreb, the region then known as Numidia. She was born in the early 7th century and died around the end of the 7th century in modern-day Algeria.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dihya)(Econ., 9/19/20, p.47)

1518        Algiers and Tunis, Barbary states in North Africa, were founded.
    (TL-MB, p.11)

1530-1539    During this period Khayr Ad-Din (d.1546) known by the European name Barbarossa, meaning Redbeard, united Algeria and Tunisia as military states under the Ottoman caliphate. He was a Barbary pirate and later as admiral of the Ottoman fleet.
    (HNQ, 4/25/02)

1542        In Algeria Hassan Pasha, the Ottoman ruler of Algiers, commissioned a gigantic bronze cannon. For centuries it was regarded as the guardian of Algiers. In 1683 the French consul at the time - Jean le Vacher - was shoved into the cannon and blasted from it during a failed attempt by the French navy to take the city. French military officers called the weapon "La Consulaire" after that ignominious incident. When the French finally captured Algiers in 1830 - on their third attempt - they removed the cannon. It was later set up at naval base in the north-western French port of Brest topped by the proud statue of a Gallic Cockerel.
    (BBC, 10/10/20)

1545        Hasan Pasha (c.1517-1572) became ruler of Algiers when his father, Barbarossa, was called to Istanbul.

1546        Barbarossa, one of the great figures in the court at Istanbul, died. Khayr Ad-Din was a Barbary pirate and later, as admiral of the Ottoman fleet, he united Algeria and Tunisia as military states under the Ottoman caliphate in the 1530s.
    (HNQ, 2/10/99)

1774        Jul 11, Jews of Algiers escaped an attack of the Spanish Army. Jun 11 was also cited for this event.
    (MC, 7/11/02)

1795        Nov 28, US paid $800,000 and a frigate as tribute to Algiers and Tunis.
    (MC, 11/28/01)

1815        Mar 2, To put an end to robberies by the Barbary pirates, the United States declared war on Algiers.
    (HN, 3/2/99)

1815        Jun 30, US naval hero Stephen Decatur signed a treaty ending attacks by Algerian pirates. Commodores Stephen Decatur and William Bainbridge had conducted successful operations against the Barbary States of Algiers, Tunis and Tripoli  [See Aug 5].
    (WSJ, 10/9/01, p.A22)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Barbary_War)

1815        Aug 5, A peace treaty with Tripoli, which followed treaties with Algeria (Jun 30) and Tunis (Aug 28), brought an end to the Barbary Wars. Commodores Stephen Decatur and William Bainbridge had conducted successful operations against the Barbary States of Algiers, Tunis and Tripoli.
    (HN, 8/5/98)(WSJ, 10/9/01, p.A22)(ON, 10/06, p.10)

1816        Aug 27, Admiral Sir Edward Pellew, a noble from Devon, England, bombed Algiers, a refuge for Barbary pirates. He flew the green, white and black flag of St. Petroc. In 1836 the battle was pictured in a painting by George Chambers, Senior. Pellew was subsequently named Lord Exmouth.
    (http://tinyurl.com/gjooc)(Econ, 9/30/06, p.66)

1830        Jul 5, The French occupied the North African city of Algiers. A flotilla had set sail earlier from Toulon to wrest Algeria from Ottoman control.
    (AP, 7/5/97)(Econ, 3/1/14, p.83)

1831        The original Zouaves, Zouaoua tribesmen from Algeria, formed their brightly dressed fighting force and later gained renown for their bravery during the Crimean and Franco-Austrian wars. American units imitated both the dress and battle courage of these fierce fighters.
    (HNQ, 10/12/01)

1836        Jul 6, French General Thomas Bugeaud defeated Abd al-Kader's forces beside the Sikkak River in Algeria.
    (HN, 7/6/98)

1845        Sep 8, A French column surrendered at Sidi Brahim in the Algerian War.
    (HN, 9/8/98)

1846        Oct 10, Alexis the Tocqueville wrote about the "Algerian problem."
    (MC, 10/10/01)

1848        Delacroix painted “Women of Algiers in Their Apartment."
    (SFC, 1/22/05, p.E1)

1856        In France Emperor Napoleon III decided to quell an impending revolt in Algeria by sending a magician, who would demonstrate the power of the Europeans to the natives. He sent Jean-Eugene Robert Houdini (1805-1871). The 1998 novel "The Magician’s Wife" by Brian Moore is based on the historic events. The magician is named Henri Lambert.
    (WSJ, 1/13/98, p.A20)(SFEC, 1/25/98, BR p.5)

1897        Algeria's National Museum of Antiquities and Islamic Arts was founded in Algiers.
    (AFP, 3/9/19)

1905        Sep 14, Pierre de Brazza (b.1852), Franco-Italian explorer, died and was buried in Algeria. He was born in Italy and later naturalized French. Brazza single-handedly opened up for France entry along the right bank of the Congo that eventually led to French colonies in West Africa. In 2006 his remains were exhumed and moved to a mausoleum in Brazzaville, capital of the Republic of Congo.
    (Econ, 10/7/06, p.6)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pierre_Savorgnan_de_Brazza)

1909        Nov 15, M. Metrot took off in a Voisin bi-plane from Algiers, making the first manned flight in Africa.
    (HN, 11/15/98)

1913        Nov 7, Albert Camus (d.1960), French philosopher, novelist, and dramatist was born in Mondovi, Algeria. He is best known for his book "The Stranger."
    (WSJ, 12/12/97, p.A16)(HN, 11/7/98)

1916        Charles de Foucauld, a former French army officer turned monk who lived among the Tuareg people in the Sahara, was killed in an anti-French uprising in Algeria. In 2005 he was beatified by Pope Benedikt XVI. Inspired by the monk, groups known as the Little Sisters and Little Brothers of Jesus were formed in Algeria.
    (AP, 11/13/05)

1919        Ahmed Ben Bella, Algerian statesman, was born. He served as premier from 1962-1965.
    (WUD, 1994 p.137)

1936        Yves St. Laurent, fashion designer, was born in Oran, Algeria.
    (SFC, 1/9/97, p.E7)

1940        Jul 4, British destroyed French battle fleet at Oran, Algeria, 1267 died.

1941        Jul 3, Liamine Zeroual was born.
    (WP, 6/29/96, p.A20)

1942        Admiral Jean Francois Darlan, leader of the armed forces of Vichy France, was assassinated in Algiers.
    (HN, 6/16/98)(HN, 7/5/98)

1942        Oct 21, Eight American and British officers landed from a submarine on an Algerian beach to take measure of Vichy French to the Operation Torch landings.
    (HN, 10/21/00)

1942        Oct 23, The Western Task Force, destined for North Africa, departed from Hampton Roads, Virginia. The command of the Western Task Force, part of an invasion of North Africa during World War II known as Operation Torch, was given to General George Patton. Placed under the command of General George Patton, the Western Task Force had the advantage of having a man at the top who would stop at nothing to see that the mission was accomplished, a quality that would be needed in the days ahead. Naval operations were in the hands of Rear Adm. H. Kent Hewitt, an easygoing man who, in the beginning, found it difficult to work with Patton, but with increasing familiarity became a solid partner.
    (HN, 10/23/98)(HNQ, 12/8/00)

1942        Nov 8, Operation Torch began during World War II as U.S. and British forces landed in French North Africa. Gen’l. Eisenhower landed with American troops in Algiers, Casablanca.
    (AP, 11/8/97)(HN, 11/6/98)(WSJ, 6/4/98, p.A19)(MC, 11/8/01)

1942        Nov 10, Admiral Jean Darlan ordered French forces in North Africa to cease resistance to the Anglo-American forces. Admiral Jean Francois Darlan, leader of the armed forces of Vichy France, was assassinated in Algiers in 1942.
    (HN, 11/10/98)

1942        Nov 13, Lt Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower flew to Algeria to conclude an agreement with French Admiral Jean Darlan. The Admiral was assassinated soon after.
    (HN, 11/13/99)

1942        Nov 14, Last Vichy French troops in Algeria surrendered.
    (MC, 11/14/01)

1942        Dec 24, Jean LXF Darlan, French admiral and leader of the armed forces of Vichy France, was murdered by Gaullists in Algiers.
    (HN, 7/5/98)(MC, 12/24/01)

1943        May 29, Churchill, Marshall and Eisenhower met in the Confederacy of Algiers.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1944        Mar 15, In Algiers, the provisional government merged the Office Français d'Information and France-Afrique, thus forming Agence Française de Presse (AFP).

1945        May 8, Algerian demonstrators in the town of Setif unfurled an Algerian flag, banned by the French occupiers. As police began confiscating the flags, the crowds turned on the French, killing about two dozen of them. This led to an uprising in which Algerians say some 45,000 people may have died. Figures in France put the number at about 15,000 to 20,000. No one is quite sure.
    (AP, 5/9/05)

1947        Nov 28, French Gen. Jacques-Philippe Leclerc (b.1902), WW II hero (liberator of Paris), died. His North American B-25 Mitchell, Tailly II, carrying Leclerc and his staff, crashed near Colomb-Béchar in French Algeria, killing everyone on board.

1951        Nov 1, The Algerian National Liberation Front began guerrilla warfare against the French.
    (HN, 11/1/98)

1954        Sep 10, A 12 second earthquake killed 1,460 in Orleansville, Algeria.
    (MC, 9/10/01)

1954            Oct 31, The Algerian Revolution (1954-1962) against the French began. Algerian Muslims of the Front de Libération National (FLN), began open warfare against French rule in Algeria. [see Nov 1]
    (DoW, 1999, p.10)

1954        Nov 1, Algerian nationalists began their successful eight-year rebellion against French rule. [see Oct 31] Hocine Ait-Ahmed (1926-2015) was one of the nine so-called "sons of Toussaint" who launched the uprising. He was arrested in 1964 and condemned to death but later freed, and left for exile in Lausanne in 1966.
    (AP, 11/1/06)(AFP, 1/1/16)

1954        Nov 24, France sent 20,000 soldiers to Algeria.
    (MC, 11/24/01)

1954-1962    During the Algerian war of independence French generals approved torture and the disappearance of the 3,000 suspected guerrillas. About a million people were killed during this period. In 1977 Alistair Horne of Britain authored "A Savage War of Peace." In 2000 former Gen. Paul Aussaresse testified on French military behavior and the approval of Gen. Jacques Massu. In 2001 a mass grave of 290 people was found at the site of the former headquarters of the French army. In 2001 former Gen. Aussaresses authored "Special Services: Algeria: 1955-1957." In 2002 Aussaresses was convicted of "trying to justify war" and was fined $6,500.
    (SFC, 12/31/00, p.B9)(SFC, 4/24/01, p.A12)(SFC, 5/11/01, p.D4)(SFC, 1/26/02, p.A8)(Econ, 4/19/14, p.41)

1954-1989    Leon-Etienne Duval served as archbishop of Algiers, He was one of the first French public figures to recognize Algeria’s right to independence and worked to that end.
    (SFC, 5/31/96, p.E2)

1955        Aug 20, Hundreds of people were killed in anti-French rioting in Morocco and Algeria.
    (AP, 8/20/97)

1956        Feb 6, French PM Guy Mollet was pelted with rotten tomatoes at a demonstration in Algiers. The French refer to this memorable event as "la journée des tomates."

1956        Mar 27, French commandos landed in Algeria.
    (MC, 3/27/02)

1956        Apr 11, French government sent 200,000 reservists to Algeria.
    (MC, 4/11/02)

1956        May 10, French government sent 50,000 reservists to Algeria. [see Apr 11]
    (MC, 5/10/02)

1956        May 27, The French staged a raid in Algiers.
    (MC, 5/27/02)

1956        Jun 22, The battle for Algiers began as three buildings in Casbah were blown up. France under PM Guy Mollet resolved to put down the Arab uprising and put 400,000 soldiers in Algiers.
    (HN, 6/22/98)(Econ, 7/29/06, p.24)

1956        Sep 30, In Algiers a blast at the Milk Bar cafe together with another device set off nearby, killed three people and wounded 60, including children. Several people lost limbs sliced off by flying glass. Zohra Drif (20) set one device as a reprisal for a big French bombing that killed dozens in the Casbah weeks earlier. Captured soon afterwards, she was sentenced to death and spent five years in French prisons.
    (Reuters, 9/28/06)

1956        Sep, Sanche de Gramont (23), a graduate of Yale, departed for Algeria. He spent 16 months there as a French lieutenant working for a pro-French newspaper. He later changed his name to Ted Morgan and in 2006 authored “My Battle of Algiers."
    (WSJ, 2/2/06, p.D8)

1956        Oct 22, France intercepted a Moroccan plane and arrested Ben Bella, an Algerian statesman.
    (MC, 10/22/01)

1956        Gen. Jacques Massu (d.2002 at 94) took command of the French 10th Parachute Division, the elite force tasked with maintaining order in Algeria.
    (SFC, 10/28/02, p.A17)

1956-1959    France laid minefields on the Challe and Morice Lines on the eastern and western borders of Algeria. In 2007 France gave Algeria maps of these minefields. Some 11 million mines were laid along the borders to prevent infiltration into Algeria from Morocco and Tunisia by fighters of Algeria's National Liberation Army (ALN). From 1962-2009 over 8 million Algeria destroyed over 8 million of the mines.
    (AFP, 10/8/09)   

1957        Jan, France began sending troops to Algeria to crush the rebel movement in what came to be called "The Battle for Algiers."
    (SFC, 5/11/01, p.D4)

1957        Mar 23, Algerian independence fighter Ali Boumendjel (b.1919) was tortured and killed by French soldiers. In 2021 President Emmanuel Macron met with four grandchildren of Boumendjel to inform them of the truth.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ali_Boumendjel)(AP, 3/3/21)

1957        May 29, Algerian rebels killed 336 collaborators.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1957        Jun 16, There was a French offensive in Algeria.
    (MC, 6/16/02)

1957        Dec 25, Ramdane Abane (b.1920), Algerian Berber revolutionary leader, was assassinated in Morocco.
    (www.amazighworld.org/history/personalities/ramdane_abane.php)(SFC, 6/28/08, p.E2)

1957        In Algeria colonial French generals erected an electrified barrier, the Morice Line, along the border to keep out arms-traffickers and guerrillas based in newly independent Morocco.
    (Econ 7/29/17, p.38)

1958        May 13, French troops took control of Algiers as French settlers rioted against the French army.
    (HN, 5/13/98)(MC, 5/13/02)

1958        Jun 4, French premier De Gaulle arrived in Algiers.
    (MC, 6/4/02)

1958        Jun 6, Premier Charles de Gaulle said Algeria will always be French.
    (MC, 6/6/02)

1958        Oct 23, De Gaulle offered Algerian defiance "peace of the brave."
    (MC, 10/23/01)

1959        Apr 12, France Observator reported torture practice by French army in Algeria.
    (MC, 4/12/02)

1960        Feb 13, Gerboise Bleue ("blue jerboa") was the name of the first French nuclear test. It was an atomic bomb detonated in the middle of the Algerian Sahara desert, during the Algerian War (1954-62). 16 subsequent explosions of nuclear weapons in Algeria were seen as a display of French strength and development.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gerboise_Bleue)(AP, 2/13/08)(BBC, 4/27/21)

1960               Apr 1,  France exploded a 2nd atom bomb in the Sahara Desert. Gerboise Blanche (“white gerboa") was a surface shot fired in a seven meter deep pit, which accounted for the strange, Christmas tree-like shape of the fireball. General Ailleret once again personally initiated the firing of the device.

1960        Jul, French Gen. Raoul Salan led a failed army revolt in Algeria and then fled abroad, continuing to direct increasing terrorist Secret Army Organization (OAS) attacks on the French and Algerian governments, turning the Algerian War of Independence into a three-way war in Algeria and a right-wing guerrilla insurrection in France.

1960        Dec 27, France exploded a 3rd atom bomb in the Sahara Desert, code-named Gerboise Rouge (“red gerboa").

1961        Apr 21, The French army revolted in Algeria.
    (HN, 4/21/98)

1961        Apr 22, An uprising of French parachutists was led by Gen. Salan/Challe in Algeria.
    (MC, 4/22/02)

1961        Apr 25, France exposed soldiers to a nuclear test, code-named "Gerboise verte" or green gerboa, in the Sahara Desert. In 2010 a French news report, citing a classified defense document, said the exposure was intentional to study how the atomic bomb would affect their bodies and minds. In total, France conducted 210 nuclear tests, both in the atmosphere and underground, in the Sahara Desert and the South Pacific from 1960-1996.
    (AP, 2/17/10)

1961        Apr 26, French paratroopers' revolt was suppressed in Algeria.
    (MC, 4/26/02)

1961        Oct 17, Paris police beat and killed dozens of Algerian demonstrators and threw some bodies into the Seine. The police were commanded by Maurice Papon. Papon said some 30 bodies had been recovered from the Seine but that they had been killed in fighting between rival Algerian nationalist groups. In 1999 France agreed to open its archives on the issue. Police killed 210 Algerians who were protesting against police oppression and the curfew imposed against their community in Paris. On Oct 17, 2011, Algeria's post office issued a new stamp to commemorate the massacre.
    (WSJ, 5/5/98, p.A1)(SFC, 5/6/99, p.A15)(Econ, 2/24/07, p.99)(AFP, 10/17/11)

1962        Jan, In Paris a series of bombings began and continued thru February by hardline soldiers opposed to Algeria’s independence, the Organization of the Secret Army (OAS).
    (Econ, 2/18/12, ILp.15)

1962        Feb 5, French President Charles De Gaulle called for Algeria's independence.
    (AP, 2/5/97)

1962        Mar 18, France and Algerian rebels agreed to a truce, which took effect the next day.
    (HN, 3/18/98)(AP, 3/18/08)

1962        Mar 19, Relative calm returned to Algeria after cease-fire, ending 7 years of warfare between French and Algerian Nationalists.
    (AP, 3/19/03)

1962        Apr 20, The Secret Army Organization (OAS) leader and ex-general Salan was arrested in Algiers.
    (MC, 4/20/02)(PCh, 1992, p.984)

1962        May 2, OAS (Secret Army Organization) struck in Algeria.
    (MC, 5/2/02)

1962        May 23, OAS leader general Raoul Salan was sentenced to life in prison. French general Raoul Salan led a failed army revolt in Algeria (July, 1960) and then fled abroad, continuing to direct increasing terrorist Secret Army Organization (OAS) attacks on the French and Algerian governments, turning the Algerian War of Independence into a three-way war in Algeria and a right-wing guerrilla insurrection in France.

1962        Jul 1, Some 6 million of a total Algerian electorate of 6.5 million cast their ballots in the referendum on independence. The vote was nearly unanimous. De Gaulle pronounced Algeria an independent country on July 3. The Provisional Executive, however, proclaimed July 5, the 132nd anniversary of the French entry into Algeria, as the day of national independence.

1962        Jul 3, French Pres. Charles De Gaulle pronounced Algeria an independent country following the July 1 elections. De Gaulle evacuated Algeria and a million settlers flooded into France.
    (WSJ, 11/16/95, p.A-18)(www.onwar.com/aced/data/alpha/falgeria1954.htm)

1962        Jul 5, Algeria’s Provisional Executive proclaimed July 5, the 132nd anniversary of the French entry into Algeria, as the day of national independence. French Pres. Charles De Gaulle had pronounced Algeria an independent country on Jul 3 following the July 1 elections.  A massacre in Oran, Algeria, left 96 dead.

1962        A gas fire in Algeria called “The Devil’s Cigarette Lighter" had burned for 6 months until it was put out by Texas firefighter Red Adair (1915-2004).
    (Econ, 8/14/04, p.78)

1962-1963    Ahmed Ben Bella, Algerian statesman, served as prime minister. He served as president from 1963 to 1965.
    (WUD, 1994 p.137)(http://www.rulers.org/indexb2.html)

1963        Mar 19, Algeria demanded that France negotiate on ending nuclear testing in Algerian Sahara.
    (AP, 3/19/03)

1963        Oct, Algeria and Morocco engaged in a brief border conflict called the Sand War. It resulted largely from the Moroccan government's claim to portions of Algeria's Tindouf and Béchar provinces. This led to a heightened tensions between the two countries for several decades.

1963        Mohamed Khider (1912-1967), Algerian politician, went into exile in Switzerland, bringing $12-14 million of party funds with him, saying they would be used to finance a political opposition to continue the "genuine" nationalist tradition of the FLN.

1963-1979    Mouloud Hamrouche, economic reformist, served as the prime minister. Abdelaziz Bouteflika served as the foreign minister.
    (WSJ, 4/16/99, p.A12)

1964        Jun 15, The last French troops left Algeria.
    (HN, 6/15/98)

1965        Jun 19, Col. Houari Boumedienne (1932-1978) overthrew Pres. Ahmed Ben Bella, Algeria's first civilian president. Abdelaziz Bouteflika was Boumedienne's right-hand man.
    (SFEC, 4/18/99, p.A22)(www.factmonster.com/ipka/A0107272.html)

1967        Jan 4, Mohamed Khider (b.1912), Algerian politician and a leading figure in the FLN, was assassinated in Madrid, Spain.
    (Econ, 12/31/11, p.67)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mohamed_Khider)

1969        The first Panafrican Festival took place in Algiers amid widespread euphoria. Most African nations had just gained independence, they were full of hope, and Algeria was spearheading the nonaligned movement balancing between the Western and Soviet blocks. A 2nd Panafrican Festival did not take place until 2009.
    (AP, 7/9/09)

1970        Sep 12, US professor Timothy Leary, LSD proponent, escaped from a California jail. Leary escaped from the State Men’s Colony in San Luis Obispo with the help of his third wife, Rosemary and the Weather Underground. He went to Algiers and joined Black Panther leader Eldridge Cleaver, who kidnapped the Learys after a political disagreement. They soon escaped and made their way to Afghanistan. In 1974 he was caught and revealed his collaborators to the FBI.
    (http://tinyurl.com/4ncp8t)(SFC, 6/1/96, p.A7)(SFC, 7/1/99, p.A9)

1970        Algeria's Socialist government permitted American writer and activist Eldridge Cleaver to open a local office of the Black Panther Movement.
    (AP, 9/28/11)

1971        Feb 24, Algeria nationalized French oil companies.

1972        Jul 31, George Wright, dressed as a priest and using an alias, hijacked a Delta flight from Detroit to Miami with four other BLA members and three children. They released 86 other passengers in exchange for a $1 million ransom and forced the plane to fly to Boston. There an international navigator was taken aboard, and the plane was flown to Algeria, where the hijackers sought asylum. Wright's associates were tracked down, arrested, tried and convicted in Paris in 1976. In 2011 Wright (68) was arrested in Portugal.

1973        Nov 28, Arab League summit in Algiers recognized Palestine.

1973        Oct 16, OPEC, the Arab oil-producing nations, announced they would begin cutting back on oil exports to Western nations and Japan. The next day, the five Arab members of the OPEC committee were joined in Kuwait by the oil ministers of Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Libya, and Syria. The result was a total embargo that lasted until March 1974 and caused oil prices to quadruple.
    (www.harvardir.org/articles/1659/)(AP, 10/17/97)(WSJ, 7/28/03, p.A8)

1975        Mar 6, OPEC held a meeting in Algiers attended for the first time by its members’ top leaders. Here the Algiers Accord between Baghdad and Teheran put an end to their border dispute and brought all Iranian help to the Kurdish rebellion to a halt. The United States abruptly withdrew its support for the Kurds and the rebellion collapsed. Many thousands of Kurdish fighters and their families were forced to flee to Iran to escape the pursuing Iraqi army.
    (http://mondediplo.com/2002/10/06timeline)(SFC, 11/19/07, p.A11)

1975        The Algerian film "Chronicle of the Years of Embers" was produced.
    (SFC, 9/6/99, p.B5)

1978        Dec 27, Algerian President Houari Boumediene, one of the Third World's most prominent and outspoken leaders, died after 40 days in a coma.
    (AP, 12/27/03)

1979        Feb 18, Snow fell in the Sahara Desert of southern Algeria.

1979        Jul 4, Algerian ex-president Ben Bella (b.1918) was freed after 14 years of detention, but remained under house arrest. He had served as prime minister from 1962-63, and as president from 1963-65. Bella was freed on Oct 20, 1980.

1980        Oct 10, Some 4,500 died when a pair of earthquakes struck NW Algeria. In 1983 the “El-Asnam Algeria Earthquake of October 10, 1980 a Reconnaissance and Engineering Report" was published.

1980        In Algeria Berber anti-government sentiment was mobilized in the "Tamazight Spring" uprising.
    (SFC, 3/16/01, p.A18)

1982        In Algeria earnest work began in Algiers for Africa's second metro after Cairo. The underground metro system opened in 2011.
    (AFP, 10/31/11)

1983        Algeria signed a secret deal with China for the fabrication of the 15MW Es Salam reactor at Ain Oussera. It came online in 1993.

1984        Jul 3, Raoul Salan (b.1899), French general, OAS leader (Algeria), died. Salan was one of the four Generals who organized the 1961 Algiers Putsch operation, and then founded the Organization armée secrète (OAS) terrorist group.

1984         Porch, Douglas authored "The Conquest of the Sahara," NY: Knopf. Tuaregs -- Algeria History. Algeria -- History -- 1830-1962.
    (WWW, 12/19/98)

1985        The ban on rai music was lifted. The music was marked by a danceable beat produced on the darbuka drum and fused influences from beyond the Arab world. It had grown out of the nightclub music of the 1930s, which was based on more traditional North African song.
    (WSJ, 9/19/00, p.A24)

1987        Apr 7, Ali Mecili, a lawyer active in Algeria's human rights movement, was killed by three gunshots in the foyer of his Paris apartment. Colleagues accused the Algerian government of involvement. In 2008 Algerian diplomat Mohamed Ziane Hasseni was arrested at an airport in the French port city of Marseille, based on an international arrest warrant. A Paris judge had signed the orders for the arrest of Hassani and the suspected killer, Abdelmalek Amellouet, in December last year. Hasseni was released on Feb 27.
    (AP, 10/17/08)(http://tinyurl.com/67pryj)(AP, 2/2809)

1988        Apr 20, Gunmen who had hijacked a Kuwait Airways jumbo jet were allowed safe passage out of Algeria. An agreement also freed the remaining 31 hostages and ended a 15-day siege in which two passengers were slain.
    (AP, 4/20/98)

1988        Oct 11, Violence began to subside in Algeria, where mass rioting by youths had broken out a week earlier, prompting the government to declare a state of siege.
    (AP, 10/11/98)

1988        Oct, Berber riots left hundreds dead in the "Black October" riots.
    (SFC, 3/16/01, p.A18)

1988        Nov 12, The Palestine National Council, the legislative body of the PLO, opened a four-day meeting in Algiers, during which delegates proclaimed an independent Palestinian state.
    (AP, 11/12/98)

1989         Jan, In Spain ETA called a unilateral truce to help ultimately unsuccessful peace talks in Algeria.
    (AP, 3/22/06)

1989        Feb 23, Algeria adopted a new, relatively liberal constitution. It disestablished the ruling party and made no mention of socialism, while promising freedom of expression, association, and assembly.
    (WSJ, 12/3/96, p.A22)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constitution_of_Algeria)

1989        Jul, Rai singer Cheb Mami returned to Algeria for his 1st concert in a decade. In 1999 Mami recorded "Desert Rose" with Sting.
    (WSJ, 9/19/00, p.A24)

1989        The Arab Maghreb Union was created to encourage free trade between Algeria, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco and Tunisia. It failed to hold summit meetings after 1994.
    (Econ, 5/29/10, p.50)

1990        In Algeria General Mohamed “Toufik" Mediene began heading the DRS, the country’s intelligence directorate.
    (Econ, 9/21/13, p.51)

1991        Dec 27, Muslim fundamentalists in Algeria won a major victory in free legislative elections; however, the military ended up canceling the election results.
    (AP, 12/27/01)

1991        In Algeria the military forced Prime Minister Mouloud Hamrouche to resign.
    (SFC, 3/25/98, p.C2)
1991        In Algeria leaders of the outlawed Islamic Salvation Front (FIS) were arrested and sentenced to 12 years in prison. Abassi Madani and Ali Belhadj were released Jul 2, 2003.
    (Econ, 7/12/03, p.40)
1991        US intelligence discovered that Algeria possessed a nuclear research reactor at Ain Oussera, which was surrounded by air defenses.
    (Econ, 8/25/07, p.56)(http://tinyurl.com/2j86s7)

1991-1995     The US has won 54% of all new oil exploration licenses in this time.
    (WSJ, 12/18/95, p.A-10)

1991-1998    Chronicle of Algeria.

1992        Jan 10, In an army coup the government cancelled elections that were running strongly in favor of the Islamic Salvation Front (FIS). France supported the move which led to a bloody struggle between the Algerian army and Algerian fundamentalist (Armed Islamic Group, GIA) guerillas that by 1995 claimed nearly 40,000 lives and numerous bomb attacks in France.
    (WSJ, 10/26/95, p.A-22)(SFC, 11/14/96, p.A12)(SFC, 1/8/96, p.A7)

1992        Jan 11, The president of Algeria (Chadli Bendjedid) resigned, two weeks after Muslim fundamentalists had defeated his ruling party in legislative elections.
    (AP, 1/11/02)

1992        Feb 9, The government of Algeria declared a state of emergency to quell spreading Muslim fundamentalist unrest.
    (AP, 2/9/02)

1992        Jun 29, Mohammad Boudiaf (73), the president of Algeria, was assassinated by his body guard during his first public appearance, in Annaba. A few seconds after the president Mohammed Boudiaf spoke the words “We are all going to die," an assassin in uniform raised his submachine gun and killed the Algerian head of state. It was his first trip outside Algiers since he took office after a military coup in January. In the confusion and panic that followed, 41 other people were wounded by gunfire and grenades. Boudiaf was succeeded by army officer Liamine Zeroual.

1992-1995    The civil war in Algeria claimed some 40,000 lives.

1993        Nov, In Algeria an ultimatum issued by the Armed Islamic Group (GIA) urged foreigners to leave or be killed. GIA terrorists assassinated Sheikh Mohamed Bouslimani, who was closely associated with Hamas, a more moderate Islamist group, when he agreed to participate in a dialogue with the regime.

1993        Dec 14, In Algeria a large group of armed terrorists attacked a work camp of a hydro-electric project in Tamezguida. Fourteen Croatian citizens were taken out of the camp. Twelve were murdered by having their throats slit, but two others escaped with injuries.

1993        Algeria stopped applying death sentences.
    (AP, 1/29/11)
1993        The Armed Islamic Group (GIA) first emerged and became most active around Algiers.
    (SFC, 9/27/97, p.A10)
1993        Karima Belhadj was the first woman killed in a rebel attack.
    (SFC, 3/9/99, p.B10)

1994        Sep, Lounes Matoub, a popular Berber singer, was kidnapped by Islamic militants. He was held for over 2 weeks and released after over 100,000 people demonstrated for his freedom.
    (SFC, 6/27/98, p.A13)

1994        Dec 24, Armed Islamic fundamentalists hijacked an Air France Airbus A-300 carrying 227 passengers at the Algiers airport; three passengers were killed before the hijackers were killed by French commandos in Marseille two days later.
    (SFC, 9/27/97, p.A10)(AP, 12/24/99)

1994        Dec 26, French commandos stormed a hijacked Air France jetliner on the ground in Marseilles, killing four Algerian hijackers and freeing 170 hostages. The Air France plane was hijacked by the Armed Islamic Group of Algeria Dec 24.
    (SFC, 9/27/97, p.A10)(AP, 12/26/99)

1994        Dec 27, Four Roman Catholic priests—three French and a Belgian—were shot to death in their rectory in Algiers, a day after French commandos killed four radicals who had hijacked an Air France jet from Algiers to Marseille.
    (AP, 12/27/00)

1994        Algeria closed its common border with Morocco after Morocco claimed Algerian secret service agents were behind an Islamist extremist attack in Marrakech. Algiers later set a global settlement of the conflict in Western Sahara as a precondition for reopening the border.
    (AFP, 7/30/08)
1994        Algeria set up auxiliaries, known as "communal guards," to bolster local police in villages across the country where authorities were locked in a deadly confrontation with armed Islamist groups.
    (AFP, 7/9/12)
1994        In Algeria Islamic militants killed Cheb Hasni, a rai singer. This led to increase of defections by musicians to France.
    (WSJ, 9/19/00, p.A24)

1995        Jan 30, At least 42 people were killed and nearly 300 wounded when a car bomb blamed on Muslim insurgents exploded in downtown Algiers.
    (AP, 1/30/00)

1995        Feb 22, Security forces in Algiers crushed a prison uprising by Islamic extremists, resulting in 96 deaths by official count.
    (AP, 2/22/00)

1995        April 4, Fierce fighting continues in Algeria as Muslim revolutionaries struggle against the military regime in power. It was estimated that over 1,000 people are being killed per month. France backs the military regime who, stopped free elections last year when it was clear that the Muslim fundamentalists were going to win.

1995        Aug 20, The Algerian government planned presidential elections for Nov. 16, but Muslim militants vowed to derail the plans. Some 40,000 people have been killed since the government cancelled elections in 1992.
    (WSJ, 8/21/95, p.A-1)

1995        Dec 31, In Algeria Ahmed Ouyahia began serving as Prime Minister and held that position until December 1998. He resigned following the election of Abdelaziz Bouteflika as President.

1995        In Algeria a bloody struggle continued between the army and Islamic fundamentalist forces, which included the FIS (Islamic Salvation Front) and the GIA (Armed Islamic Group).
    (WSJ, 10/23/95, p.A-1)(WSJ, 10/26/95, p.A-22)(SFC, 7/2/99, p.A12)
1995        France imposed lengthy cross-checks for Algerians traveling to Europe due to the war with Islamist rebels. The weeks long wait was finally reduced in 2006.
    (Econ, 11/18/06, p.48)
1995        Algerian Gen. Mohamed Boutaghene, commander of the Coast Guard, was killed by gunmen in south Algiers. He was the highest ranking officer killed in four years of struggle.
    (WSJ, 11/29/95, p.A-1)
1995        French subway train bombings left 8 people dead. In 1999 five people linked to Algerian militants were sentenced to 10-year prison terms for the attacks. 16 others received lesser sentences. In 2002 Boualem Bensaid and Smain Ait Ali Belkacem, Islamic militants, were convicted and sentenced to life in prison for their roles in the bombings.
    (WSJ, 9/16/99, p.A1)(SFC, 10/31/02, p.A9)
1995        In Algeria more than 3,000 people died this year in fighting between the government and Islamic fundamentalists.
    (WSJ, 7/11/96, p.A10)

1996        Feb, Two car bombs killed 17 and wounded 93 in Algeria's capital.
    (WSJ, 2/12/96, p.A-1)

1996          Mar 27, In Algeria seven French Trappist monks were kidnapped overnight from the Notre Dame del’Atlas monastery near Medea. The monks were abducted from the Priory of Our Lady of Atlas in Tibehirine, about 80 km (50 miles) south of Algiers, by members of the insurgent Armed Islamic Group of Algeria (GIA). Their heads were discovered two months later and their death was announced by the GIA. On Jan. 26, 2018, Pope Francis declared the monks to be martyrs.
    (SFC, 5/24/96, p.A14)(AFP, 1/27/18)

1996        May 23, The Armed Islamic Group said that it had killed 7 French Trappist monks who were kidnapped two months ago from the Notre Dame de l’Atlas monastery at Tibhirine near Medea on Mar 27. Only their decapitated heads were found. In 2002 John W. Kister authored "The Monks of Tibhirine." In 2010 this story was covered in the French film “Of Gods and Men."
    (SFC, 5/24/96, p.A14)(WSJ, 2/19/02, p.A24)(Econ, 2/19/11, p.95)

1996        May 30, Former arch-bishop of Algiers, Cardinal Leon-Etienne Duval, died in Paris. He was one of the first French public figures to recognize Algeria’s right to independence.
    (SFC, 5/31/96, p.E2)

1996        Jul 15, An Algerian court sentenced 128 Muslim militants to death in absentia for their involvement in guerilla activities. Another 67 were sentenced in absentia to life imprisonment.
    (SFC, 7/16/96, p.A7)

1996        Jul 20, A bomb exploded in suburban Algiers and killed 5 people. 30 more were injured.
    (SFC, 7/21/96, p.A13)

1996        Jul 16, An ambush in Algeria killed the former head of a militant Muslim group.
    (WSJ, 7/29/96, p.A1)

1996        Aug 15, Armed militants killed 17 passengers on a bus using a fake police barricade on a remote highway.
    (SFC, 8/19/96, p.A9)

1996        Aug 17, More than 100 militants shot, stabbed and hacked to death some 63 people when they attacked 2 busses after setting a fake barricade. The government denied the report.
    (SFC, 8/20/96, p.A9)

1996        Oct 21, The Mayor of Algiers, Ali Boucetta, was killed by a stray bullet in fighting between security forces and rebels in Algiers.
    (SFC, 10/22/96, p.B1)

1996        Oct 22, A new constitution was drafted that would ban Islamic militants from seeking power. It was to be put up for referendum on Nov. 28.
    (SFC, 10/23/96, p.A10)

1996        Nov 13, Militants slit the throats of 12 people outside Blida, 30 miles south of Algiers. Ten of the victims were of the same family.
    (SFC, 11/14/96, p.A12)

1996        Nov 14, Militants slit the throats of 18 people. 11 in Ain-Dema and 7 in Douar Zemala.
    (SFC, 11/15/96, p.A18)

1996        Nov 28, A referendum was passed that banned political parties based on religion, language and regionalism, a reference to the large Berber community which has long worked for recognition of its language. Opponents denounced the elections as a sham.
    (SFC, 11/30/96, p.A12)

1996        Dec 6, In the last 2 days 29 civilians have had their throats slit by rebels.
    (SFC, 12/7/96, p.A10)

1996        Dec 26, A car bomb exploded in a crowded suburb of Algiers. At least 10 were killed and 86 injured.
    (SFC, 12/27/96, p.B3)

1996        Authorities shut down the newspaper La Nation run by Salima Ghezali.
    (SFC, 3/25/98, p.C2)

1997        Jan 7, In Algiers a car bomb killed 13 and wounded 10.
    (SFC, 1/8/96, p.A7)

1997        Jan 19, A car bomb killed 21 and wounded dozens in Algiers just hours after attackers massacred 36 villagers south of the capital.
    (SFC, 1/20/97, p.A12)

1997        Jan 21, In Algeria 2 car bombs in the capital killed as a many as 18 people.
    (SFC, 1/22/97, p.A8)

1997        Jan 28, Union leader Abdelhak Benhamouda was killed by an assassin. A bomb in the marketplace at Blida killed 15 people.
    (USAT, 1/29/97, p.8A)

1997        Feb 2, In Algeria Islamic guerrillas killed 31 people. The dead were all believed to be related to a dissident member of the GIA, the Armed Islamic Group. After their throats were cut a dwarf hacked off their heads with an ax and a knife.
    (SFC, 2/3/97, p.C2)

1997        Feb 5, Rebels killed a family of 9 by hacking off their heads in Benchikao. The government in Algiers began banning parked cars in the city to thwart car bomb attacks.
    (SFC, 2/6/97, p.C2)

1997        Feb 18, Islamic militants shot, hacked or burned to death 33 people in Blida, south of Algiers. Meanwhile the government passed a law that banned political parties based on religion, language and regionalism.
    (SFC, 2/19/96, p.A10)

1997        Apr 6, In Algeria attackers massacred 90 villagers at various sites over the last 2 days. 52 people had their throats slit near Medea by about 50 killers; 15 were killed in Amroussa and their bodies were burned with gasoline.
    (SFC, 4/7/97, p.A8)

1997        Apr 21, In Algeria rebels butchered 93 people including 43 women and girls in the Baouch Boukhelef-Khemisti farming community.
    (SFC, 4/23/97, p.A5)

1997        Apr 25, A bomb killed some 21 passengers and injured 20 near Algiers.
    (SFC, 4/26/97, p.A12)

1997        May 6, A car bomb in Algiers killed 4 students and injured 25 people.
    (SFC, 5/7/97, p.C3)

1997        May 15, Armed men massacred 30 villagers, 17 of them children, in Chebli, 15 miles south of the capital.
    (SFC, 5/16/97, p.A8)

1997        May 22, In Algeria a car bomb killed 15 people in Boufarik south of the capital.
    (SFC, 5/23/97, p.A18)

1997        May 23, In Algiers 2 car bombs exploded and killed 7 people and wounded 12 in the town of Tlemcen.
    (SFC, 5/24/97, p.C1)

1997        May 29, In Algeria armed men attacked a home in Djebabra and slit the throats of 6 men and 2 women.
    (SFC, 5/30/97, p.A16)

1997        Jun 5, Algeria scheduled Parliamentary elections. In a 65% turnout pro-government forces took the largest share of votes. Two Islamist parties picked up 1/4th of the parliament seats. Monitors were not allowed to inspect some 5,000 portable voting booths.
    (SFC, 5/16/97, p.A8)(SFC, 6/10/97, p.A16)

1997        Jun 16, In Algeria post-election violence more than 50 people were slain in recent days. Blame was place on the Armed Islamic Group.
    (SFC, 6/17/97, p.D2)

1997        Jun 19, A bomb in an Algiers movie theater killed 2 and wounded 20.
    (WSJ, 6/20/97, p.A1)

1997        Jul 9, Adbelkader Hachani, Muslim fundamentalist leader, was freed hours after an Algerian court sentenced him to 5 years in prison. He had been held without trial since 1991 when the military voided a vote that his group was set to win.
    (WSJ, 7/10/97, p.A1)

1997        Jul 14, A bomb exploded in an Algiers market filled with women and children and killed 21 people and wounded 40. Weekend massacres left 40 villagers dead.
    (SFC, 7/15/97, p.A10)

1997        Jul 15, Abassi Madani, former leader of the Islamic Salvation Front, was released in Algeria after serving 5 years of a 12 year sentence.
    (SFC, 7/16/97, p.C12)
1997        Jul 15, An Algerian court condemned 24 Muslim militants to death for their involvement in guerrilla activities.
    (SFC, 7/16/97, p.A10)

1997        Jul 22, Algerian troops killed 140 of 180 radical Islamist guerrillas in the Attatba area of Blida province in an offensive that began 10 days ago.
    (SFC, 7/23/97, p.A9)

1997        Jul 24, It was reported that Algerian security forces killed Antar Zouabri (26), the chief of the Armed Islamic Group.
    (SFC, 7/25/97, p.A11)

1997        Jul 30, It was reported that Muslim militants in Algeria massacred over 80 villagers in recent attacks in apparent retaliation to a government offensive. 40 villagers were killed at Metmata village in Ain Defla province.
    (WSJ, 7/29/97, p.A12)(SFEC, 8/3/97, p.A15)

1997        Aug 1, In Algeria 38 villagers at Sidi el Madani in Blida province were killed.
    (SFEC, 8/3/97, p.A19)

1997        Aug 8, In Ddjelfa, Algeria, a bomb in a baby bassinet killed 9 people. In the village of Zeboudja insurgents slit the throats of 21 people and 20 others were shot and wounded.
    (SFC, 8/11/97, p.A8)

1997        Aug 28, In Algeria a 2nd bomb this week killed 8 people in the Casbah.
    (USAT, 8/29/97, p.8A)

1997        Aug 29, In Algeria some 300 villagers of Rais were slain  by hooded men armed with axes in an Algerian farm village in the worst carnage since an Islamic insurgency began. In addition 20 young women were abducted.
    (SFC, 8/30/97, p.A10)(AP, 8/29/98)

1997        Sep 4, In Algeria 22 people were killed in El Arbi. Their throats were slit and bodies burned.
    (SFC, 9/5/97, p.A12)

1997        Sep 6, In Algeria at least 87 people were killed and 100 injured by about 50 attackers in the town of Beni Messous.
    (SFEC, 9/7/97, p.A8)

1997        Sep 13, In Algeria security forces killed 8 suspected Muslim militants in a rocket attack on a mosque in a suburb of the capital. Earlier a Muslim cleric was assassinated by suspected militants in Constantine.
    (WSJ, 9/15/97, p.A1)

1997        Sep 15, In Algeria 7 people were killed in Saida by masked assailants and four people had their throats cut in Medea.
    (SFC, 9/16/97, p.A12)

1997        Sep 21, In Algeria an armed group killed 53 people in Beni-Slimane and then mutilated and burned the bodies.
    (SFC, 9/22/97, p.A9)

1997        Sep 23, In Algeria the government reported that 85 people were killed, while eyewitnesses counted more than 200 bodies in the Bentalha neighborhood of the Baraki suburb of Algiers. Armed men raided an Algerian village, killing at least 200 people in one of the worst massacres since Algeria's Islamic insurgency began.
    (AP, 9/23/98)(SFC, 9/24/97, p.A10)

1997        Sep 24, In Algeria the Islamic Salvation Army (AIS) declared a truce and blamed recent killings on a splinter fundamentalist group, the Armed Islamic Group (GIA).
    (WSJ, 9/25/97, p.A1)(SFC, 9/27/97, p.A10)

1997        Sep 26, In Algeria militants attacked the village of El Hadj and killed 15 people.
    (SFC, 9/30/97, p.A12)

1997        Sep 27, In Algeria witnesses said armed men killed 11 female teachers at Ain Adden School in Sfisef while shouting "Blood, blood, blood, destruction, destruction, destruction," the rallying cry of the Armed Islamic Group.
    (SFC, 9/30/97, p.A12)

1997        Oct 2, In Algeria attackers killed 20 members of a wedding party in Blida.
    (SFEC, 10/5/97, p.A22)

1997        Oct 3, In Algeria armed men killed 38 people at the village of Mahelma. Throat of the victims were slit, heads were cut off and houses were set on fire. In Blida 10 people were killed and 20 wounded by assailants with homemade rockets and bombs. Another group of attackers killed 75 others including 34 children. In the village of Ouled Benaissa armed men killed 37 people including 22 children.
    (SFC, 10/4/97, p.A10)(SFEC, 10/5/97, p.A22)

1997        Oct 5, In Algeria armed men attacked a school bus near Blida. The driver attempted to run their roadblock but crashed and 16 children were killed by the attackers.
    (SFC, 10/6/97, p.A11)

1997        Oct 14, Fifty-four people were massacred near the main oil and gas center. Four leading human rights organizations called on world leaders to take steps to halt the crises in Algeria.
    (SFC,10/15/97, p.C2)

1997        Oct 23, Algeria held local elections. The government claimed a 66% turnout. The winners will choose 2/3 of the members of the upper house of parliament. Pres. Zeroual will choose the other third. Opposition parties charged that the turnout was greatly inflated and that some poll watchers were roughed up and stopped from observing the tally.
    (SFC,10/24/97, p.D2,4)(SFC,10/24/97, p.A10)

1997        Oct 27, In Algeria some 15,000 supporters of the Socialist Forces Front marched to protest fraud in the elections.
    (SFC,10/28/97, p.A10)

1997        Oct 30, In Algeria some 30,000 marched in Algiers in protest over the elections and called for the resignation of Prime Minister Ahmed Ouyahia.
    (SFC,10/31/97, p.D2)

1997        Nov 8, In Algeria armed men raided a government-held village and slaughtered 27 people in Lahmalit.
    (SFC,11/11/97, p.A13)

1997        Nov 9, In Algeria attackers disguised as policemen slit the throats of 28 civilians in 2 separate attacks in the northwest.
    (SFEC,11/10/97, p.A13)

1997        Nov, A senior Algerian officer accused the secret service of being responsible for the Sept. massacre in Beni Messous where over 200 died.
    (SFC,12/10/97, p.A14)

1997        Nov, In Algeria the armed wing of the FIS began to observe a truce.
    (SFC, 7/2/99, p.A12)

1997        Dec 9, A former Algerian diplomat in London said that the government was involved in the recent massacres of civilians to garner support against the Islamic opposition.
    (SFC,12/10/97, p.A14)

1997        Dec 17, In France Salima Ghezali, Algerian human rights campaigner, received the European Parliament’s Sakharov Prize for freedom of thought.
    (SFC,12/18/97, p.C12)

1997        Dec 22, In Algeria attackers stormed Shari hamlet and killed 28 villagers including 15 children and 5 women. The same night 53 villagers, mostly women and children, died in a massacre in the neighboring Sidi el Antar hamlet. Another 11 had their throats cut in Algiers in the Bainem area.
    (SFC,12/26/97, p.A19)

1997        Dec 25, In Algeria Interior Minister Mustapha Benmansour announced that the ruling National Democratic Rally won 80 of 96 contested seats.
    (SFC,12/26/97, p.A19)

1997        Dec 28, In Algeria assailants cut the heads off a man and his 2 sons in the village of Djelfa. They then kidnapped his wife and 3 young daughters. At Hassi Bahbah an armed group killed a mother and 2 children and left the father in critical condition.
    (SFC,12/31/97, p.A8)

1997        Dec 29, In Algeria armed attackers stopped a bus and killed 14 passengers and the driver near Mascara. The bodies were then doused in gasoline and set on fire.
    (SFC,12/31/97, p.A8)

1997        Dec 30, In Algeria marauders slit the throats of 34 people in Ain Boucif. Later reports raised the number killed near the city of Relizane to over 400 for this first day of Ramadan.
    (SFC,12/31/97, p.A8)(SFC, 1/3/98, p.A8)

1997        Michael Willis authored "Islamist Challenge In Algeria; A Political History." Hardcover, 448 pages. In recent years, like many countries caught between the tides of fundamentalist religion and secular culture, Algeria has been rocked by social upheaval, protest, spasmodic violence, and terrorist activity. Middle East scholar Michael Willis here charts the meteoric rise of one of the largest and most powerful Islamist movements in the Muslim world. Pub: New York University Press.
    (WWW, 12/19/98)

1998        Jan 3, In Meknassa, Algeria, a 117 people were killed. In Chekala some 200 people were killed. Villagers fled their homes and sought shelter in big-city public squares.
    (SFC, 1/7/98, p.A8)

1998        Jan 8, The EU decided to send a fact-finding mission to Algeria. New reports said 30 more people were killed in the region of Relizane.
    (SFC, 1/9/98, p.A8)

1998        Jan 9, In Algeria another 35 people were killed.
    (SFC, 1/12/98, p.A1)

1998        Jan 11, In Algeria 11 more people were killed over the weekend.
    (SFC, 1/12/98, p.A1)

1998        Jan 12, In Algeria gangs of men hurled bombs into a mosque in Haouche Sahraoui  and a movie theater in Sidi Ahmed and up to 120 people were killed. It coincided with the 6th anniversary of the coup that thwarted the Islamic Salvation Front’s rise to power by cancelled elections. The number killed was reported by local papers to be at least 400.
    (SFC, 1/13/98, p.A11)(SFC, 1/14/98, p.C2)(www.tkb.org/Incident.jsp?incID=10201)

1998        Jan 15, Algeria’s government agreed to a revamped EU delegation to seek ways to end the violence.
    (SFC, 1/16/98, p.B4)

1998          Jan 19, European diplomats arrived in Algeria to discuss ways to end the violence after another 16 people were killed in an eastern province.
    (SFC, 1/20/98, p.D2)(WSJ, 1/20/98, p.A1)

1998        Jan 20, The envoys concluded their mission in Algeria as 3 people were killed by a bomb in Ben Aknoun District, another 3 by a bomb in the village of Ziralda. 2 people died from a bomb thrown into a cafe in Boussaken. King Fahd of Saudi Arabia offered his nation’s assistance to end the bloodshed.
    (SFC, 1/21/98, p.A8)

1998        Jan 25, In Algeria 20 people had their throats cut in the village of Frenda. Local media reported that 50 people were killed in Kaid Ben Larbi. Ambushes and bombings were widespread as the celebration of Leilat El Qadr (night of destiny) began in recognition of the end of Ramadan. The government reported 29 rebels killed in 3 clashes in the last few days.
    (SFC, 1/26/98, p.A8)(WSJ, 1/26/98, p.A1)

1998        Jan 28, The Algerian military reported 3 more civilian massacres that killed 34 people and said that 18 Muslim rebels were killed.
    (WSJ, 1/29/98, p.A1)

1998        Feb 2, The Algerian military reported that they killed 60 rebels in a weekend offensive. Local media said 17 civilians were killed in 3 massacres in western and southern provinces.
    (WSJ, 2/3/98, p.A1)

1998        Feb 15, Armed men killed 32 people in 3 weekend attacks. 17 people had their throats slit in Saida, Algeria.
    (SFC, 2/16/98, p.A11)

1998        Feb 23, A bomb exploded under a passing train near El Affroune, Algeria. Ten people were killed and 25 injured.
    (SFC, 2/24/98, p.A10)

1998        Mar 8, In Algeria attackers slit the throats of 6 people on a farm in Haouch Mena, near the home village of Antar Zouabri, believed to be the leader of the militant Armed Islamic Group.
    (SFC, 3/9/98, p.A11)

1998        Mar 30, In Algeria some 123 people including 58 civilians and many children were reported killed in the west and south in the last 3 days.
    (WSJ, 3/30/98, p.A1)

1998        Apr 4, The daily El Moudjahid, a pro-government newspaper, reported that over 200 Islamic militants were killed in an army-led offensive in the last 12 days in western Algeria.
    (SFC, 4/6/98, p.A16)

1998        Apr 6, In Algeria armed groups killed at least 35 civilians in 2 separate attacks. 27 were killed near Oran and 89 near M’Sila.
    (SFC, 4/798, p.A16)

1998        Apr 13, In Algeria it was reported that Muslim clerics ruled to allow women raped by Islamic militants to have abortions.
    (WSJ, 4/13/98, p.A1)

1998        Apr 28, In Algeria 40 people were killed in a massacre at a village in Medea province.
    (SFC, 4/29/98, p.A11)

1998        May 26, Police in 5 European countries arrested 74 alleged Algerian separatists. 53 were arrested in France and 21 in Belgium, Germany, Italy and Switzerland. The idea was to dismantle terrorist networks prior to the World Cup.
    (SFC, 5/27/98, p.A10)

1998        Jun 25, In Algeria Lounes Matoub (42), a popular singer and Berber patriot, was killed near Beni Douala. The Armed Islamic Group later claimed responsibility.
    (SFC, 6/27/98, p.A13)(SFC, 7/2/98, p.C2)

1998        Jun 26, Hundreds rioted in eastern Algeria over the death of Lounes Matoub.
    (SFC, 6/27/98, p.A13)

1998        Jul 2, Algeria agreed to allow a UN team to investigate the killings and promised free access to all sources of information.
    (SFC, 7/3/98, p.A16)

1998        Jul 5, Algeria celebrated independence and put into effect a new law making Arabic the country’s sole official language. The Berber minority struggled to have the government recognize their own language, Tamazight.
    (SFC, 6/27/98, p.A13)(SFEC, 7/5/98, p.A18)

1998        Jul 8, In Algeria Khalifi Athmani (24), a leading member of the Armed Islamic Group (GIA), was killed outside the capital. Athmani’s nom de guerre was Hossein Flicha and he was believed to have led the Sep. ‘97 killings at Beni Messous.
    (SFC, 7/10/98, p.A18)

1998        Jul 9, In Algeria a bomb exploded in a flea market in Algiers and killed 10 people and wounded 21.
    (SFC, 7/10/98, p.A18)

1998        Jul 26, In Algeria attackers in Khelil in Tlemcen province and in Sidi Abdelmoumen in Saida province killed 20 people in overnight attacks.
    (SFC, 7/27/98, p.A10)

1998        Jul 31, In Algeria 6 civilians were killed and 23 wounded in 2 overnight attacks. In Malakou village in Tiaret province 4 villagers had their throats cut and in Algiers a parcel bomb killed 2.
    (SFC, 8/1/98, p.A11)

1998        Aug 31, An explosion in Algiers killed at least 17 people.
    (SFC, 9/1/98, p.A9)

1998        Sep 11, Algeria’s Pres. Liamine Zeroual (57) announced that he would step down by Feb 1999 following early elections.
    (WSJ, 9/14/98, p.A28)

1998        Sep 13, Algerian security forces said 27 people were killed in Zougala in Ain Defla province. Other sources said 38 people were killed.
    (SFC, 9/16/98, p.C2)

1998        Sep 16, Algeria was rebuked for abuses by its security forces by a UN report. Amnesty Int’l. called the report a whitewash.
    (WSJ, 9/17/98, p.A1)

1998        Oct 4, US and Algerian navies conducted a small joint search-and-rescue exercise in the Mediterranean.
    (SFC, 12/3/98, p.A17)

1998        Oct 30, The UN extended its 460-member peacekeeping force in the Western Sahara over land contested between Morocco and the Algerian-based Polisario Front.
    (SFC, 10/31/98, p.A15)

1998        Nov 29, In Algeria 7 people were killed by suspected Muslim militants on the eve of Ramadan in 4 separate attacks in the western mountains.
    (SFC, 11/30/98, p.B10)

1998        Dec 8, In Algeria 45 people were killed in Tadjena. Armed groups attacked three villages in the area and killed a total of 81 people. Security forces dug up 46 bodies from a well at a farm in Meftah, 10 miles from central Algiers.
    (SFC, 12/10/98, p.A12)(SFC, 12/12/98, p.B1)

1998        Dec 10, In Algeria the death toll for the month reached 200.
    (WSJ, 12/11/98, p.A1)

1998        Dec 14, In Algeria Prime Minister Ahmed Ouyahia resigned.
    (SFC, 12/15/98, p.C2)

1998        Dec 27, In Algeria armed groups attacked 2 villages and killed at least 30 people at Khenis Miliana and Ain N'Sour.
    (SFC, 12/29/98, p.A8)

1998        Charles-Robert Ageron authored "Modern Algeria: A History from 1830 to the Present." It was translated by Michael Brett.
    (WWW, Amazon, 12/19/98)

1998        The Algerian  Salafist Group for Call and Combat (GSPC) was created in a split with the radical Armed Islamic Group, or GIA. The dissidents reportedly were discontent with civilian massacres carried out by the GIA.
    (AP, 5/15/03)

1999        Jan 19, In France 8 men were sentenced to prison for providing arms and logistics to the banned Islamic Salvation Front (FIS) in Algeria.
    (SFC, 1/20/99, p.A10)

1999        Mar 24, In Algeria Muslim rebels slashed the throats of 9 people and kidnapped 2 women near Blida. The victims included a mother and her 2 children.
    (SFC, 3/25/99, p.A10)

1999        Apr 14, In Algeria 6 of the 7 presidential candidates withdrew to protest fraud in the early stages of voting. Abdelaziz Bouteflika, the remaining candidate, was backed by the generals who have ruled since 1962. The vote was meant to end the civil war that has killed 75,000 people since 1992.
    (SFC, 4/15/99, p.C3)(WSJ, 4/15/99, p.A1)

1999        Apr 15, Algeria held elections. Abdelaziz Bouteflika was left alone in the race after 6 competitors withdrew over allegations that the vote was rigged. A 60% turnout was reported. Bouteflika said he would turn down the post without a massive turnout and a large majority support.
    (SFC, 2/13/99, p.A5)(SFC, 4/16/99, p.A18)

1999        Apr 16, In Algeria protests broke out in Algiers, Tizi Ouzou and Bejaia over the elections. Abdelmalek Sellal, the Interior Minister, said Bouteflika received over 7.4 million votes, 70% of the 10.5 million votes cast. Sellal said 60% of the eligible voters cast ballots, but others said the turnout was under 25%.
    (SFC, 4/17/99, p.A10)

1999        May 23, In Algeria men armed with guns and bombs attacked a village near Medea and killed 10 people.
    (SFC, 5/24/99, p.A13)

1999        Jun 6, In Algeria the Islamic Salvation Army (AIS) declared an end to their guerrilla struggle. The 2,000 member group had been observing a cease-fire since 1997.
    (SFC, 6/7/99, p.A11)

1999        Jun 11, In Algeria 14 people were killed by an armed group in Sidi Naamane.
    (SFC, 6/12/99, p.C1)

1999        Jun 26, Algeria’s Pres. Bouteflika announced a plan for thousands of political prisoners to be granted amnesty in a plan for "civil concord." The proposed amnesty law excluded those with "blood on their hands."
    (SFC, 7/2/99, p.A12)

1999        Jun 27, In Algeria the president raised the death toll in the 7-year civil war against rebel groups to 100,000.
    (WSJ, 6/28/99, p.A1)

1999        Jul 11, The senate approved Pres. Bouteflika's amnesty law for the Islamist rebels. It still required voter approval.
    (SFC, 7/12/99, p.A9)

1999        Jul 20, Algerian government sources said rebels had cut the throats of 9 villagers in Medea province.
    (SFC, 7/21/99, p.C2)

1999        Aug 15, In Algeria an armed group killed 29 people near Beni Ounif.
    (SFC, 8/16/99, p.A10)

1999        Sep 15, Algeria held a referendum on Pres. Bouteflika's amnesty law. Voters endorsed the plan.
    (SFC, 9/15/99, p.C3)(SFC, 9/17/99, p.D6)

1999        Nov 20, In Algeria some 20 people were killed in a clash between guerrillas and security forces south of Algiers.
    (SFC, 11/23/99, p.A15)

1999        Nov 22, Abdelkader Hachani (43), a leader of the Islamic Salvation Front who spoke for peace and reconciliation, was assassinated in Algiers.
    (SFC, 11/23/99, p.A15)

1999        Dec 2, In Algeria 16 alleged Islamic militants were killed by government soldiers near Chlef, 148 miles west of Algiers.
    (SFC, 12/16/99, p.C2)

1999        Dec 11, In Algeria 15 people were massacred outside Blida. Many of the victims were burned alive in a van.
    (SFC, 12/15/99, p.B3)

1999        Dec 13, In Algeria militants attacked and killed 11 nomads in the desert town of Taghit, 620 miles southwest of Algiers.
    (SFC, 12/15/99, p.B3)

1999        Dec 14, In Seattle Ahmed Ressam (32), an Algerian, was arrested after crossing the border at Port Angeles from Canada with a car trunk with over 150 pounds of bomb-making materials that included 200 pounds of urea, timing devices and a bottle of RDX, cyclotrimethylene trinitramine. Canadian authorities later issued an arrest warrant for Abdelmajed Dahoumane for possessing or making explosives. Dahoumane was arrested in Algeria In Oct, 2000. In 2001 Ressam admitted that he planned to detonate a bomb at the LA Int’l. Airport. Mokhtar Haouari provided fake ID and $3,000 to Ressam. Haouari was sentenced to 24 years in prison in 2002. In 2005 Ressam was sentenced to 22 years in prison.
    (SFC, 12/18/99, p.A1)(SFC, 12/20/99, p.D3)(SFC, 12/25/99, p.A3)(SFC, 12/30/99, p.A5)(SFC, 12/7/00, p.C10)(SFC, 5/30/01, p.A5)(SFC, 1/17/02, p.A12)(SFC, 7/28/05, p.A3)

1999        Dec 15, In Algeria suspected Islamic militants killed 11 government soldiers and wounded 22 others near Chlef, 148 miles west of Algiers.
    (SFC, 12/16/99, p.C2)

1999        Dec 22,  An Algerian accused of trying to smuggle nitroglycerin and other bomb-making materials into the United States from Canada pleaded innocent in Seattle to all five counts of a federal indictment. Ahmed Ressam was convicted in April 2001 of terrorist conspiracy and eight other charges.
    (AP, 12/22/04)
1999        Dec 22, In Algeria a 5.8 earthquake struck near Oran and at least 20 people were killed and 75 injured.
    (SFC, 12/23/99, p.C7)

1999        Dec 24, In Algeria Islamic militants killed 29 people at a roadblock near Khemis Miliana, some 50 miles west of Algiers.
    (SFC, 12/25/99, p.A14)

1999         Algeria, Libya and Tunisia agreed to share the northwest Sahara aquifer system (NWSAS).
    (Econ, 10/9/10, p.87)(http://tinyurl.com/25w5boa)
1999        France finally called the Algerian conflict a "war." Prior to this France referred only to operations to "maintain order."
    (AP, 11/29/05)

2000        Jan 11, Algeria’s Pres. Bouteflika gave a blanket pardon to all members of the Islamic Salvation Army 2 days before a deadline for all Islamic militants to lay down their arms.
    (SFC, 1/12/00, p.A11)

2000        Jan 13, In Algeria the deadline for the surrender of Islamic militants expired.
    (SFC, 1/14/00, p.A14)

2000        Jan 29, In Arris, Algeria, 11 community guards were killed by Islamic militants of the Salafist Group for Preaching and Combat led by Hassan Hattab.
    (SFC, 2/1/00, p.B2)

2000        Feb 6, In Algeria army troops killed 27 Islamic militants. 23 were killed near Sidi Bel Abbes and 4 along with one government soldier near Ain Defla.
    (SFC, 2/8/00, p.a14)

2000        Feb 28, In Algeria an armed group massacred 20 people, shepherds and their families, near Brezina.
    (SFC, 2/29/00, p.A12)

2000        Feb 29, The Algerian army began a crack down on Islamic militants following the massacre of 25 shepherds near Brezina. Over the next 3 weeks they killed 35 militants around El-Bayadh and Ghardaia.
    (SFC, 3/22/00, p.A12)

2000        Nov 27, The Muslim holiday of Ramadan began.
    (SFC, 11/28/00, p.A2)

2000        Dec 9, In Algeria 5 soldiers and an assailant were killed in an ambush near Tissemsilt. Another 3 local guards were killed in Boghar and the attacks continued the next day.
    (SFC, 12/12/00, p.B2)

2000        Dec 12, Ethiopia and Eritrea signed a peace pact in Algiers. A 4,200 UN peacekeeping force was set to patrol the border. Pres. Zenawi and Pres. Afwerki signed the accord, which established a commission to mark the 620-mile border, exchange prisoners, returned displaced people and hear claims for war damages.
    (SFC, 12/4/00, p.E2)(WSJ, 12/5/00, p.A1)(SFC, 12/13/00, p.B3)

2000        Dec 16, In Algeria armed gunmen shot to death 15 students and a security guard at the Lycee Technique of Medea boarding school.
    (SFC, 12/18/00, p.E6)

2000        Dec 20, The media reported that violent deaths during Ramadan had reached 250.
    (SFC, 12/21/00, p.C2)

2001        Jan 9, In Algeria 4 Russian engineers went mushroom picking in the forest of Edough and were found with their throats cut 2 days later.
    (SFC, 1/10/01, p.A9)

2001        Jan 17, Attackers killed a dozen people at a roadblock west of Algiers and shot to death 5 people at a café south of the city.
    (SFC, 1/20/01, p.A11)

2001        Jan 18, In Algeria 23 shepherds and farmers were killed in the Dahra region by armed assailants.
    (SFC, 1/20/01, p.A11)

2001        Jan 19, In Algeria gunmen killed 11 family members in Medea.
    (SSFC, 1/21/01, p.D4)

2001        Jan 28, In Algeria an armed group killed 2 dozen people in Oued Fares in the Chlef region. 16 of the dead were children.
    (SFC, 1/29/01, p.A14)

2001        Mar 18, In Algeria weekend attacks by suspected Islamic militants left 5 people dead and 23 injured.
    (SFC, 3/20/01, p.A11)

2001        Apr 18, In Algeria a Berber teenager died while being held in a police station.
    (SFC, 6/20/01, p.A9)

2001        May 3, In Algiers thousands of protesters demonstrated against what they called a government crackdown on ethnic Berbers.
    (SFC, 5/4/01, p.A14)

2001        Jun 14, In Algeria hundreds of thousands of people protested in Algiers over economic and political issues and 2 journalists were killed in clashes with riot police.
    (SFC, 6/15/01, p.A18)

2001        Jun 18, In Algeria’s Kabyle region 3 police officers were killed and dozens injured in riots provoked by the April 18 death of a Berber teenager in a police station.
    (SFC, 6/20/01, p.A9)

2001        Jun 19, Algeria banned protests in the capital following 2 months of unrest that had left at least 55 dead.
    (WSJ, 6/20/01, p.A1)

2001        Aug 12, In Algeria assailants attacked a convoy of farmers and slashed the throats of 17 people in Oule-d-Bouaza.
    (SFC, 8/15/01, p.A7)

2001        Aug 29, In Algiers a bomb exploded in the Casbah and 34 people were injured.
    (SFC, 8/30/01, p.A12)

2001        Sep 26, Spain detained 6 Algerians with alleged links to Osama bin Laden and a group planning attacks on US targets in Europe.
    (SFC, 9/27/01, p.A3)
2001        Sep 26, In Algeria suspected Islamic militants killed 22 people in Larbaa. 12 of the dead were killed while celebrating a wedding.
    (SFC, 9/28/01, p.D6)

2001        Oct 4, Algeria’s Pres. Bouteflika promised to recognize the Berber language, compensate victims of police brutality and prosecute police involved in brutality.
    (WSJ, 10/5/01, p.A1)

2001        Nov 11, A 36-hour storm hit Algeria and 337 people were reported killed. It was the worst flooding in 20 years. The death toll reached 580.
    (SFC, 11/12/01, p.A12)(WSJ, 11/12/01, p.A1)(SFC, 11/17/01, p.A24)

2002        Feb 9, In Algeria security forces killed Antar Zouabri, head of the Armed Islamic Group, and 2 other insurgents in Boufarik.
    (SSFC, 2/10/02, p.A14)

2002        Apr 1, In Algeria Islamic militants killed 21 government soldiers in Moulay Larbi, 280 miles SW of the capital.
    (SFC, 4/3/02, p.A7)

2002        May 30, In Algeria legislative elections for the 380-seat parliament were held. 2 key parties planned to boycott as did many ethnic Berbers of the Kabylia region. Islamic militants massacred 23 nomads. Berber riots took place. The national Liberation Front of PM Ali Benflis won 199 of 389 seats. The turnout was just 46%.
    (SFC, 5/30/02, p.A7)(SFC, 5/31/02, p.A12)(SFC, 6/1/02, p.A12)

2002        Jun 11, In Algeria alleged Islamic militants opened fire on a bus, killing 11 people. Ten others were wounded.
    (AP, 6/12/02)

2002        Jun 22, In Algeria shootings and bombings blamed on Islamic militants have killed seven people and wounded 35 others over the last two days.
    (AP, 6/22/02)

2002        Jul 5, A bomb ripped through an open-air market in Larba, 15 miles SE of Algiers on Algeria's independence day, killing 49 people and wounding 36 others.
    (AP, 7/5/02)(SFC, 7/6/02, p.A6)(AP, 7/7/02)

2002        Aug 16, In Algeria Islamic insurgents reportedly killed 26 people, including women and children, in a rural western hamlet.
    (AP, 8/16/02)

2002        Aug 24, It was reported that Algerian elite soldiers, backed by artillery and helicopters, killed 16 suspected Islamist rebels during a week-long operation against guerrillas east of Algiers.
    (Reuters, 8/24/02)

2002        Oct 10, In Algeria Prime Minister Ali Benflis' party swept local elections, with voting in the restive Berber region marred by a boycott, riots and attacks on police officers. The National Liberation Front gained control of 668 out of 1,541 town councils and took 43 of 48 district councils.
    (AP, 10/12/02)

2002        Oct 24, In Algeria attackers killed 21 members of the same family, including a three-month old baby, in a massacre that bore the hallmarks of Islamic extremists.
    (AP, 10/25/02)

2002        Nov 23, An Algerian militant group suspected of links to Osama bin Laden's al-Qaeda killed nine soldiers in violent clashes east of Algiers. Four police officers were killed 2 days earlier in Bourmedes.
    (AP, 11/24/02)

2002        Dec 3, In western Algeria 6 soldiers and 6 suspected Islamic militants were killed during fighting in the Stamboul forest.
    (AP, 12/8/02)

2002        Dec 12, In western Algeria a bomb exploded at an outdoor market, killing four people and wounding 16.
    (AP, 12/12/02)

2003        Jan 4, In Algeria Islamic militants (GSPC) ambushed a military convoy in the northeast village of Theniet el-Abed. 43 soldiers were killed and 19 wounded.
    (AP, 1/5/03)

2003        Jan 5, In Algeria rebels killed 13 people form 2 families near the capital in Zabana.  The Armed Islamic Group was suspected.
    (AP, 1/5/03)

2003        Jan 29, The body of Abdelmalek Benbara (41), a member of the Algerian prime minister's party reported missing Jan 17, was found in a car in Paris.
    (AP, 1/30/03)

2003          Feb 25, Striking government workers brought much of Algeria, but not its lucrative oil fields, to a halt, with no public transport and few flights. Suspected Islamic extremists fired machine guns at cars at a roadblock, killing 12 people.
    (AP, 2/25/03)(AP, 2/26/03)

2003          Feb 26, In Algeria it was reported that more than 7,000 people were believed missing at the hands of security forces during the 1990s.
    (AP, 2/26/03)

2003          Mar 6, An Air Algerie Boeing 737 jet crashed killing 102 passengers and crew in the southern Algerian province of Tamanrasset. At least 1 person survived.
    (AP, 3/6/03)(SFC, 3/7/03, p.A14)

2003        Apr 4, In Algeria 8 Austrian tourists were reported missing. Searchers using camels and helicopters equipped with heat-seeking sensors were already scouring the Sahara Desert for 21 tourists, mostly Germans, who vanished in Algeria over the past six weeks.
    (AP, 4/4/03)(SSFC, 4/6/03, p.A8)

2003        May 2, Mohammed Dib, novelist and poet, died outside Paris. He was one of Algeria's best known writers but had left the country for France in 1959.
    (SFC, 5/6/03, p.A16)

2003        May 5, In Algeria Ahmed Ouyahia began a 2nd term as Prime Minister and held that position until May 24, 2006.

2003        May 6, Six Algerian soldiers were killed when suspected Islamic fighters bombed their vehicle and sprayed the survivors with gunfire.
    (AP, 5/7/03)

2003        May 13, Algerian army commandos freed 17 European tourists kidnapped in the Sahara Desert by an al-Qaeda-linked terror group, the Salafist Group for Preaching and Combat. 9 captors were killed and 15 hostages remained.
    (AP, 5/14/03)(Econ, 9/3/05, p.44)

2003        May 21, In Algeria a 6.7 earthquake struck near Algiers. More than 2,200 people were killed and thousands injured. Thenia, 40 miles east of Algiers, was worst hit.
    (SFC, 5/22/03, p.A1)(AP, 5/25/03)(SFC, 5/27/03, p.A12)

2003        May 24, Furious crowds hurled debris and insults at Algeria's president Abdelaziz Bouteflika when he visited a town devastated by a deadly earthquake.
    (AP, 5/24/04)

2003        Jun 30, In Algeria a military plane slammed into a house west of the capital, killing at least 12 people, including women and children on the ground.
    (AP, 6/30/03)

2003        Jul 4, In Algeria suspected Islamic militants killed Lawmaker Rabah Radja and three other people at a roadblock east of the capital.
    (AP, 7/5/03)

2003        Aug 18, A six-month ordeal for 14 European tourists kidnapped by Islamic extremists while on desert safaris in Algeria has ended with their release to officials in neighboring Mali.
    (AP, 8/19/03)

2003        Sep 27, The Algerian army reported that it had killed 150 armed Islamic militants in a two-week operation in the eastern foothills of this north African country.
    (AP, 9/27/03)

2003        Nov 27,  Talal al-Rasheed, a prominent Saudi poet, was shot to death by attackers while on a hunting trip in Algeria.
    (AP, 11/30/03)

2004        Jan 19, In Algeria an explosion at a liquefied natural gas (LNG) complex in the port city of Skikda killed 23 and left 74 people injured.
    (AP, 1/20/04)(WSJ, 5/14/04, p.A1)

2004        Apr 8, Algeria held elections seen as a turning point toward democracy for the North African nation after a bloody Islamic insurgency. President Abdelaziz Bouteflika was re-elected with 83% of the vote, but his challenger cried foul and promised to appeal.
    (AP, 4/9/04)(SFC, 4/10/04, p.A3)

2004        Apr 22, Algerian officials said the Salafists, a rebel group linked to al Qaeda, were in surrender talks to end a 12-year Islamic insurgency.
    (WSJ, 4/23/04, p.A1)

2004        May 14, Algerian officials reported that 13 of the countries 48 provinces were infested with swarms of desert locusts.
    (ST, 5/14/04, p.A1)

2004        Jun 2, In eastern Algeria insurgents ambushed an Algerian military convoy night, killing at least 10 soldiers and wounding 45 others.
    (AP, 6/2/04)

2004        Jun 5, French engineering giant Alstom said a consortium it was leading had signed an 88-million-euro ($107 mil) contract for work on three railway lines in the suburbs of Algiers.
    (AP, 6/6/04)

2004        Jun 17, Algerian troops killed one of North Africa's most-wanted terrorist leaders, who allied his group with Osama bin Laden's al-Qaida network. Nabil Sahraoui (also known as Abu Ibrahim Mustapha), one of his key right-hand men and a "good number" of other Salafist lieutenants were killed in a military sweep.
    (AP, 6/20/04)(SFC, 6/21/04, p.A6)

2004        Aug 11, In Algeria an appeals court upheld a two-year prison term for one of Algeria's best known journalists in a case seen by many as a pretext to crush press freedom.
    (AP, 8/12/04)

2004        Sep 6, Algeria's largest Islamic rebel group with ties to al Qaeda said it has appointed a new chief, known as an explosives expert, as it tries to regroup following the loss of key leaders in recent gun battles with authorities.
    (Reuters, 9/6/04)

2004        Sep 29, In northern Norway an Algerian asylum seeker on a commuter plane attacked both pilots and a passenger with an ax as the aircraft was landing.
    (AP, 9/29/04)

2004        Oct 22, Suspected Algerian Islamic militants killed 16 people near Medea in the first attack on civilians since the start of the holy month of Ramadan.
    (AP, 10/23/04)

2004        Oct 25, Suspected Islamic militants decapitated three soldiers in Algeria in an upsurge of violence during the Muslim holy month of Ramadan.
    (AP, 10/27/04)

2004        Oct 28, Amar Saifi, one of North Africa's most wanted Islamic militant leaders, was taken into custody in Algeria. The No. 2 leader of the Salafists is accused in the kidnapping of 32 European tourists last year.
    (Reuters, 10/29/04)(WSJ, 10/29/04, p.A1)

2004        Nov 4, Algerian Islamic rebels killed two policemen in the latest attack during the holy month of Ramadan.
    (Reuters, 11/5/04)

2004        Nov 13, Severe storms sank one ship and drove two aground near Algiers port, killing three seamen. About 20 sailors remained missing.
    (Reuters, 11/14/04)

2004        Dec 11, Said Barkat, Algeria’s Agriculture Minister, said almost 170 million euros (225 million dollars) have been spent since 2003 dealing with locust infestation of farmland.
    (AP, 12/12/04)

2004        Dec 16, Farouk Ksentini, an Algerian government-appointed official, said security forces members are believed responsible for the deaths of 5,200 civilians who disappeared during a decade-long struggle with Islamic rebels and should face justice.
    (AP, 12/17/04)

2004        Dec 25, Algeria's Energy Minister Chakib Khelil said exports of oil and gas will bring in over 31 billion dollars (24 billion euros) in 2004.
    (AP, 12/26/04)

2004        Dec 26, In eastern Algeria a gas explosion killed 17 people and injured at least 40 others when a residential block collapsed.
    (Reuters, 12/26/04)

2005        Jan 1, Algeria was forecast for 8.2% annual GDP growth with a population at 33.9 million and GDP per head at $2,360.
    (Econ, 1/8/05, p.93)

2005        Jan 3, The Algerian Interior Ministry said security forces had arrested the leader of the Armed Islamic Group, the radical insurgency movement responsible for brutal village massacres several years ago, and killed his replacement. The arrest of Nourredine Boudiafi and the killing of Chaabane Younes were near-fatal blows to the seriously weakened GIA, as the movement is known. Islamic extremists killed 18 people in an ambush of an army convoy south of the capital Algiers.
    (AP, 1/4/05)(AFP, 1/5/05)

2005        Jan 16, Algeria's government signed an agreement to end years of conflict with the restive Berber minority, pledging to accept long-standing demands including greater recognition of the Berber language.
    (AP, 1/16/05)

2005        Mar 12, Algeria's minister for energy and mines said OPEC has reached its production limit, and trying to stretch output by one million barrels per day isn't likely to lower oil prices.
    (AP, 3/12/05)

2005        Apr 13, Algerian Islamic militants killed five people, including three security force members, and injured eight others in attacks ahead of an expected general amnesty.
    (Reuters, 4/14/05)

2005        May 17, In Algeria 3 soldiers and 2 militants were killed during an air and ground offensive by government forces against Islamic rebels in the mountains east of the capital.
    (Reuters, 5/19/05)

2005        Jun 14, A senior US military official said up to 20 percent of suicide car bombers in Iraq are from Algeria, a sign of growing cooperation between Islamic extremists in northern Africa and like-minded Iraqis.
    (AP, 6/14/05)

2005        Jun 25, Algerian militant Amari Saifi, a leader of the al-Qaida-linked Salafist Group for Call and Combat, was sentenced in absentia to life in prison for helping to create a terror group. He was considered the mastermind of the 2003 kidnapping of 32 European tourists in the Sahara desert.
    (AP, 6/26/05)

2005        Jun, The Trans-Sahara Counter-Terrorism Initiative began operations. The US funded plan intended to provide military equipment and development aid to 9 north-east African countries considered fertile ground for Muslim militant groups. Participating countries included Algeria, Chad, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, and Tunisia.
    (SFC, 12/27/05, p.A1)

2005        Jul 21, The chief of Algeria's diplomatic mission, Ali Belaroussi, and fellow envoy Azzedine Belkadi were seized at gunpoint from the upscale Mansour district of western Baghdad. In an Internet statement 2 days later al-Qaida in Iraq said it was responsible.
    (AP, 7/23/05)

2005        Jul 26, Al-Qaida in Iraq said it had condemned to death two Algerian diplomats who were abducted in Baghdad. A video made public showed the men blindfolded and in captivity.
    (AP, 7/26/05)

2005        Aug 14, Algerian President Abdelaziz Bouteflika unveiled a draft charter for peace and national reconciliation that will be put to a referendum on September 29.
    (AFP, 8/14/05)

2005        Aug 19, In Algeria Islamic militants killed six hikers in the forests of Ravin Bleu in the Batna region, 530 kilometers east of Algiers.
    (AP, 8/21/05)

2005        Sep 22, In Algeria Al Qaeda-aligned Islamic militants killed 10 people, including seven soldiers, in separate ambushes. The ambushes were blamed on the GSPC, which is split on whether to support a September 29 referendum on a partial amnesty in exchange for laying down their arms.
    (AP, 9/24/05)

2005        Sep 29, Algerians voted on a peace plan the government says will help turn the page on a brutal Islamic insurgency that left an estimated 120,000 dead. Critics, however, say the plan will whitewash past crimes.
    (AP, 9/29/05)

2005        Sep 30, Official referendum results showed Algerians overwhelmingly approved a peace plan that provides a broad amnesty for Islamic extremists, but which critics denounced as a whitewash of crimes committed during a bloody internal war. The Charter on Peace and National Reconciliation granted a broad amnesty to militants and offered some financial compensation to families of at least 6,000 “disappeared."
    (AP, 9/30/05)(Econ, 10/8/05, p.56)

2005        Oct 1, A banned Algerian Islamic group with ties to al-Qaida rejected an amnesty for Islamic militants, saying in a statement on its Web site that it had no need for a government peace plan.
    (AP, 10/1/05)

2005        Nov 12, Africa Union leaders from Algeria, Ethiopia, Ghana, Nigeria, South Africa and Senegal met in Abuja for a 2-day summit titled: "Africa and the challenges of the global order: Desirability of union government," with the leaders discussing the broad principles of integration.
    (AFP, 11/12/05)

2005        Dec 20, In Algeria the facade of a dilapidated hotel collapsed in Algiers, killing eight people and injuring 21 others.
    (AP, 12/20/05)

2006        Jan 11, Samir Ait Mohamed, an Algerian-born man accused of helping in the plot to bomb the Los Angeles airport on the millennium, was quietly deported from Canada after years fighting for refugee status there.
    (AP, 1/13/06)

2006        Feb 12, In Algiers Defense Secretary Donald H. Rumsfeld met with senior government leaders on what Pentagon officials said they believe to be the first visit to Algeria by a US defense secretary.
    (AP, 2/12/06)

2006        Feb 14, The UNHCR said the floods last week left more than 50,000 Sahrawi refugees homeless, destroying up to half of the mud-brick houses in their camps of Awserd, Smara and Laayoune in the Tindouf region of western Algeria. Tents, blankets and other emergency aid were being rushed to the camps in the Algerian Sahara hit by rare torrential rains.
    (AP, 2/15/06)

2006        Mar 1, Algeria said it will release more than 2,000 Islamist ex-fighters soon under an amnesty to promote reconciliation after years of conflict in the oil-exporting country.
    (Reuters, 3/2/06)

2006        Mar 4, Algeria began releasing former Islamist fighters from prison, fulfilling an amnesty aimed at promoting national reconciliation after more than a decade of conflict.
    (Reuters, 3/4/06)

2006        Mar 5, In Algeria a young man injured three police officers and was then killed by a policeman in Zeralda, a suburb of Algiers, triggering riots in which youths attacked public buildings.
    (AFP, 3/6/06)

2006        Mar 11, Algeria signed a $7.5 billion deal with visiting Pres. Putin for Russian fighter aircraft, tanks and anti-aircraft missiles.
    (Econ, 2/10/07, p.45)(http://mdb.cast.ru/mdb/2-2006/item3/item2/)

2006        Mar 18, In Algeria Farouk Ksentini, the head of the government human rights body said up to 200,000 Algerians have died in a 15-year Islamic insurgency.
    (AFP, 3/18/06)

2006        Mar 21, An earthquake hit the northeast Algerian town of Laalam east of Algiers killing at least four people and injuring 53.
    (AFP, 3/21/06)

2006        Apr 7, In southern Algeria gunmen attacked a convoy of customs agents traveling through the desert, killing 13 and wounding eight others.
    (AP, 4/7/06)

2006        May 13, In Algeria security forces found 28 bodies, most of them children, in a secluded cave used as a hideout by an Algerian Islamic militant group.
    (AP, 5/14/06)

2006        May 24, Algerian President Abdelaziz Bouteflika appointed Abdelaziz Belkhadem as the country's prime minister.
    (AFP, 5/24/06)

2006        Jun 24, Algeria’s state news reported that Algeria had agreed with Canada for early repayment of its debt totaling some $255 million, the eighth such accord with creditor countries since mid-May. Algeria has signed accords covering 3.25 billion of an estimated $8 billion. Apart from Canada, they cover France (1.6 billion), Portugal (20 million), the Netherlands (45 million), Belgium (225 million), Denmark (54.3 million), Austria (396 million) and Spain (690 million). Agreements would be concluded this week with Sweden, for $11 million, and Finland for 15 million. The main creditors still outstanding include Italy, which is owed $1.7 billion, and the United States, 1.2 billion.
    (AFP, 6/24/06)

2006        Jun 25, Algerian soldiers launched a major assault on a hideout of Islamic insurgents, killing 19 militants, including the regional emir, Merouani (40).
    (AP, 6/26/06)

2006        Jun 28, Published remarks by Algeria’s Interior Minister Noureddine Yazid Zerhouni said about 200 Islamist fighters have so far surrendered under an amnesty aimed at ending years of violence.
    (AP, 6/28/06)

2006        Sep 14, Current and former French officials specializing in terrorism said that an al-Qaida alliance with the Algerian Salafist Group for Call and Combat, known by its French initials GSPC, was cause for concern. Al-Qaida's No. 2, Ayman al-Zawahri, announced the "blessed union" in a video posted this week on the Internet to mark the fifth anniversary of the Sept. 11 attacks in the United States.
    (AP, 9/15/06)

2006        Oct 2, Italian police said they had smashed an Algerian Islamic fundamentalist cell that gave logistical support to suspected militants in Algeria.
    (Reuters, 10/2/06)

2006        Oct 15, Algerian Energy Minister Chehib Khelil said that the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries will announce a 1 million barrel a day cut in crude production during a meeting in Qatar.
    (AP, 10/15/06)

2006        Oct 30, In Algeria 3 people were killed and 24 wounded in near-simultaneous truck bomb attacks overnight on two police stations in Reghaia town, 30 km (20 miles) east of the capital, and the eastern Algiers suburb of Dergana. Witnesses called it the most elaborate assault by Islamist rebels in several years.
    (Reuters, 10/30/06)

2006        Nov 2, Algerian rebels shot dead 8 soldiers in an ambush in the heaviest reported government losses for seven months in the north African country's lingering political violence.
    (Reuters, 11/4/06)

2006        Nov 9, In Algeria 7 members of the security forces were killed in an ambush during a cleanup operation in a forest used as a hideout by Islamic extremists, and 13 others were injured, four of them seriously.
    (AP, 11/10/06)

2006        Nov 15, Algeria agreed to repay ahead of schedule its total debt to Germany, 372 million dollars, due to the oil-rich country's surge in revenues. Algeria will invest 70% of the saved interest, about 67 million dollars, 52 million euros, through 2011, in a water supply project for the western city of Tlemcen and the Maghnia-Ghazaouet region.
    (AFP, 11/15/06)

2006        Nov 18, Algerian President Abdelaziz Bouteflika appealed for private investment in the North African country as he opened the 10th congress of Arab businessmen in Algiers.
    (AFP, 11/18/06)

2006        Nov 28, Ten suspected Islamist militants were killed in clashes with the Algerian army, which was conducting sweeps in remote mountainous regions.
    (AP, 11/30/06)

2006        Dec 10, In Algeria assailants hurled a bomb and shot at two vehicles transporting employees in the town of Bouchaoui, 9 miles west of Algiers. The Salafist Group for Call and Combat, known by its French acronym GSPC, claimed responsibility for the attack.
    (AP, 12/11/06)

2006        Algeria’s state of emergency was prolonged for a 14th year.
    (Econ, 9/2/06, p.44)

2007        Jan 26, The last Islamic militant group still fighting in the 16-year-old civil war against Algeria's government said in an Internet statement posted that it had changed its name to highlight its allegiance to the Al-Qaeda network. The Salafist Group for Preaching and Combat (GSPC) said that it was changing its name to the Al-Qaeda Organization in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) on the orders of Al-Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden.
    (AFP, 1/26/07)(Econ, 8/18/07, p.38)

2007        Feb 13, In Algeria 7 bombs went off almost simultaneously, killing six people east of the capital Algiers in an elaborate assault by suspected Islamist rebels. The Salafist group Call and Command claimed responsibility under its new name: al Qaeda in Islamic North Africa.
    (Reuters, 2/13/07)(SFC, 2/14/07, p.A3)

2007        Feb 19, An official said Algeria has translated the Koran into the Berber language, Tamazight, for the first time, to promote Islam among a community that has long campaigned for more language and cultural rights.
    (Reuters, 2/19/07)

2007        Mar 3, In Algeria 4 workers from Russia and Ukraine and three Algerians were killed in a bomb attack on a bus near the town of Ain Defla, south of the capital Algiers.
    (AFP, 3/4/07)

2007        Mar 4, In Algeria suspected Islamic militants attacked a police checkpoint with rocket-propelled grenades and machine guns, killing five officers and wounding three others.
    (AP, 3/4/07)

2007        Mar 10, A flash flood killed six people in southern Algeria when torrential rains caused wadis to overflow, while high winds brought down trees and walls.
    (AFP, 3/10/07)

2007        Mar 22, Rafik Khalifa (40), the head of a bank at the centre of Algeria's biggest corruption scandal, was sentenced in absentia to life in prison. Khalifa has been exiled in London since 2003, when hundreds of millions of dollars was discovered missing from the Khalifa Bank. Algeria has been seeking his extradition. The exiled former governor of the central bank, Abdelawahab Keramane, and five others were also sentenced in abstentia to 20 years in prison.
    (AFP, 3/22/07)

2007        Apr 4, In Algeria an international desertification conference closed with a call (dubbed the Algiers Appeal) to all African countries to ratify the Kyoto Protocol, to help slow the rapid expansion of deserts on the continent.
    (AFP, 4/4/07)

2007        Apr 7, Suspected Islamist militants opened fire on a military patrol in northwestern Algeria, starting a gunbattle that left nine soldiers and six attackers dead.
    (AP, 4/8/07)

2007        Apr 11, In Algeria bombs heavily damaged the prime minister's office in Algiers and a police station. Three bomb attacks  killed 20 people and wounded 222.
    (AP, 4/11/07)(AP, 4/12/07)(AFP, 3/13/12)

2007        Apr 16, Hassan Hattab, the founder of the group that claimed responsibility for last week's deadly Algiers bombings, called on militants to put down their weapons under a government amnesty and stop trying to turn Algeria into a "second Iraq." Hattab made the comments in a published letter to President Abdelaziz Bouteflika.
    (Reuters, 4/16/07)

2007        May 8, Algeria’s El-Watan newspaper reported that authorities have arrested 5 people believed responsible for organizing deadly terrorist attacks last month.
    (AP, 5/8/07)

2007        May 10-2007 May 11, Seven Islamic extremists and two members of Algeria's security forces were killed in the violent run-up to parliamentary elections.
    (AFP, 5/12/07)

2007        May 12, In eastern Algeria 6 armed Islamist extremists were killed in Kabylia, in clashes with the military in the run-up to legislative elections. Algeria's official news agency APS said Algerian security forces had arrested three Libyan Islamic militants planning to join al Qaeda's north African wing. Algerian soldiers killed four armed militants in a clash near the village of Ghoumrassa.
    (AFP, 5/13/07)(AP, 5/13/07)

2007        May 13, Al Qaeda-linked Algerian rebels facing stepped up assaults by the army set off a bomb killing three soldiers including an officer east of Algiers.
    (Reuters, 5/14/07)

2007        May 14, Algerian troops, stepping up assaults on al Qaeda's north African wing after suicide bombings last month, killed 13 Islamist fighters east of Algiers.
    (Reuters, 5/15/07)

2007        May 16, In Algeria bombs killed a police officer and wounded five other people on the eve of parliamentary elections, prompting fears of renewed Islamist extremism.
    (AP, 5/16/07)

2007        May 17, Algerians, shaken by al-Qaida-claimed suicide bombings and dealing with a tough economy, slowly trickled to vote in legislative elections under tight police security.
    (AP, 5/17/07)

2007        May 18, Algeria’s Interior Ministry announced that the National Liberation Front party, which has dominated Algerian political life since independence in 1962, kept its leading position in parliamentary elections.
    (AP, 5/18/07)

2007        May 19, Algerian official news reported that security forces had dismantled a suspected support network linked to twin terror bombings last month in the capital that killed 30 people.
    (AP, 5/20/07)

2007        Jun 4, In Algeria Hassan Hattab, fugitive founder of the extremist Salafist Group for Preaching and Combat (GSPC), was sentenced in absentia to life in prison for setting up an armed terrorist group by a court in Tizi-Ouzou.
    (AFP, 6/6/07)

2007        Jun 6, In Algeria one person was killed and 8 injured in a powerful bomb blast in the Kabylie region.
    (AP, 6/6/07)

2007        Jun 9, Officials from Algeria and the US signed a protocol agreement which will pave the way towards closer cooperation on civilian nuclear energy.
    (AFP, 6/9/07)

2007        Jun 10, Algerian security forces said they have arrested 13 minors and dismantled a suspected training camp used by an al-Qaeda linked group east of the capital Algiers.
    (AFP, 6/10/07)

2007        Jun 19, The Algerian government approved a plan to set up an academy of the Amazigh language, spoken by the Berber minority, many of whom live in Kabylie in the mountainous north of the country.
    (AFP, 6/20/07)

2007        Jun 22, Algerian soldiers shot and killed six armed Islamists near Algiers, while two guards died in homemade bomb blasts at a gas pipeline southeast of the capital.
    (AFP, 6/24/07)

2007        Jun, Algeria began construction on a $425 million hybrid power plant at Hassi R’mel. It will use sun and natural gas to generate 150 megawatts, 25 of which will come from solar panels, beginning in 2010. Solar panels were already in use for 18 off-grid Sahara villages.
    (SSFC, 8/12/07, p.A25)

2007        Jul 6, EU officials said they have asked Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia to join patrols of Europe's border control agency in a bid to stop massive clandestine immigration.
    (AFP, 7/6/07)

2007        Jul 7, A court in Algeria's Kabylie region sentenced Said Sahnoun, a correspondent for newspapers in sub-Saharan Africa, to 10 years in prison for spying for Israel.
    (Reuters, 7/8/07)
2007        Jul 7, Algeria's state oil and gas company and KBR Inc., a former Halliburton Co. subsidiary, signed a $2.88 billion deal for a liquefied natural gas plant.
    (AP, 7/7/07)

2007        Jul 11, In Algeria a suicide bomber blew up a refrigerated truck loaded with explosives at a military encampment outside Algiers, killing 10 soldiers and wounding 35.
    (AP, 7/11/07)

2007        Jul 14, In Algeria about 50 members of the Al Qaeda Organization in the Islamic Maghreb attacked two police stations in Yaourene village in Tizi Ouzou province, about 100 km (60 miles) east of Algiers. The Algerian army halted the attack and killed 4 in the northeastern Kabylie region.
    (Reuters, 7/15/07)

2007        Jul 21, Security sources said a week-long offensive by Algerian special forces in a mountainous area east of Algiers has killed between eight and 11 Islamist militants.
    (AFP, 7/21/07)

2007        Jul 22, Niger's PM Seyni Oumarou and military chiefs met neighboring Algeria's President Abdelaziz Bouteflika to discuss cross-border cooperation against Tuareg-led rebels in Niger's desert north.
    (AP, 7/22/07)

2007        Jul 25, Miguel Angel Moratinos, Spain’s Foreign Minister arrived in Algeria on a visit aimed at strengthening cooperation in energy and sorting out a row with Madrid's top gas supplier.
    (AP, 7/25/07)

2007        Aug 4, Algerian newspapers reported that the army, stepping up a counter-offensive after attacks by al Qaeda's north Africa wing, has killed around 16 of the group's fighters in the past three days.
    (AP, 8/4/07)

2007        Sep 1, The industry ministry of Algiers announced that Algeria is inviting bids to privatize 13 companies in the electronics, iron, and public works sectors.
    (AP, 9/2/07)

2007        Sep 6, In Algeria a bomb ripped through a crowd waiting for the Algerian president to arrive in Batna, killing 22 people and injuring more than 107.
    (AFP, 9/7/07)

2007        Sep 8, A booby-trapped car exploded at a barracks housing coast guard officials, killing 30 officers in Algeria's second terror attack this week. Al-Qaida in Islamic North Africa claimed responsibility. The suicide bomber was reported to be a 15-year-old student.
    (AP, 9/8/07)(AP, 9/9/07)(AP, 9/10/07)

2007        Sep 14, In Algeria a bomb hidden in a bag exploded outside a compound housing police officials in Zemmouri, killing three people.
    (AP, 9/15/07)

2007        Sep 21, A bomb attack near a city east of Algiers injured two French citizens, one Italian and six Algerians, including five police.
    (AFP, 9/21/07)

2007        Sep 24, In Algeria 3 civil guards were killed when their patrol was ambushed by an armed group in Tassedane in the eastern region of Mila. A serviceman was killed and five others injured when several homemade bombs exploded in scrubland at Ma-Labiod.
    (AFP, 9/26/07)

2007        Sep 28, In Algiers an Arab-language daily reported that Hassan Hattab (40), one of the most hardline guerrilla chiefs opposed to Algeria's government, has surrendered. Hattab, aka Abou Hamza, founded the Salafist Movement for Preaching and Combat (GSPC) in 1998. Al Hayat, based in London, reported that Hattab was "arrested on September 22 by Algerian security services.
    (AP, 9/29/07)

2007        Oct 6, Sofiane el-Fassila (b.1975), an alleged mastermind (alias Hareg Zoheir, Zobeir Harkat) of several recent suicide bombing attacks in Algeria, was shot dead with 2 suspected accomplices in the town of Boghni. He was the deputy chief of al Qaeda's North Africa wing and believed to be the group's operational leader. Security officials said 8 soldiers and four Islamic extremists have been killed in the last few days in eastern Algeria.
    (AFP, 10/6/07)(AP, 10/10/07)(www.tribuneindia.com/2007/20071011/world.htm#8)

2007        Oct 12, In Algeria a police officer was assassinated in one of two attacks in the northern Tizi Ouzou region. At about the same time, five soldiers were injured when Islamists fired at a military checkpoint near the neighboring town of Boghni.
    (AFP, 10/15/07)

2007        Oct 13, In Algeria 4 armed Islamists were killed by security forces near the town of Thenia, about 50 kilometers (30 miles) east of Algiers.
    (AFP, 10/15/07)

2007        Oct 20,     France handed Algeria details of where its forces laid some 3 million landmines on the country's eastern and western borders from 1956-1959.
    (AFP, 10/20/07)

2007        Oct 27, Algerian security sources said the army killed 17 Islamist rebels during security operations in the east of the country over three days this week.
    (AP, 10/27/07)

2007        Nov 5, Ten Islamic fundamentalists convicted of a terrorist attack were sentenced to death in their absence by an Algerian court. The group was behind a bomb attack on a police patrol in June 2003 in which nine officers were killed.
    (AFP, 11/7/07)

2007        Nov 10, In Algeria 3 people were wounded when a booby trapped car exploded near a police residence in the northern town of Mahatmas.
    (AFP, 11/11/07)

2007        Nov 14, Abdelhamid Sadaoui, also known as Abou El Haythem, was killed and another Islamist wounded during clashes with the Algerian army in the restive northeastern Kabylia region. Sadaoui was believed to be the treasurer of Al-Qaeda's North African branch.
    (AFP, 11/16/07)

2007        Nov 17, In eastern Algeria a gas explosion in an old house killed six people and injured another eight.
    (AFP, 11/17/07)

2007        Nov 18, British ambassador Andrew Anderson said Algeria has formally demanded the extradition from Britain of former Algerian bank chief Rafik Khalifa, sentenced to life over a massive embezzlement scandal.
    (AP, 11/18/07)

2007        Nov 27, In Algeria officials said floods caused by days of torrential rain have killed 11 people, injured several others and have cut off many roads in northern Algeria.
    (AFP, 11/28/07)

2007        Nov 29, Algeria's ruling National Liberation Front (FLN) won local elections on a turnout of 43 percent.
    (AFP, 11/30/07)

2007        Dec 1, Officials said a week of heavy rains in northern Algeria caused the death of 15 people, while three more people are missing feared dead.
    (AFP, 12/1/07)

2007        Dec 3, Ten people believed to be Algerian asylum seekers drowned while a Dutch ship tried to rescue them in stormy Mediterranean waters. Two men survived the ordeal.
    (AP, 12/5/07)

2007        Dec 4, France and Algeria agreed to cooperate on civilian nuclear technologies. French oil group Total said it had signed a deal to invest about 1.5 billion dollars in a new 3.0-billion-dollar (2.0 billion euros) petrochemical plant in Algeria.
    (AFP, 12/4/07)(AP, 12/4/07)

2007        Dec 11, In Algeria car bombs exploded minutes apart in central Algiers, heavily damaging UN buildings and ripping the facade off the wing of a government office. 37 people were killed, including 17 UN employees. Two convicted terrorists who had been freed in an amnesty carried out the suicide bombings at UN and government buildings. The interior ministry later said the blasts were the work of the El Farouk Brigade, which was responsible for a number of other attacks in the last two years. Al-Qaida's self-styled North African branch claimed responsibility.
    (Reuters, 12/11/07)(AP, 12/12/07)(AP, 12/13/07)(AFP, 2/6/08)(AP, 12/11/08)

2007        Dec 26, A roadside bomb targeting a police patrol exploded east of Algeria's capital, killing two officers and injuring two others. The attack came as authorities rounded up 11 suspected members of two suspected support networks for armed Islamic militant groups in recent days.
    (AP, 12/27/07)

2008        Jan 2, In Algeria a car bomb exploded near a police station in Naciria east of Algiers, killing at least four people and ripping off the building's façade.
    (AFP, 1/2/08)

2008        Jan 8, In Algeria an army commander and three members of the security forces were killed during an operation aimed at flushing out an Islamist group in scrubland in the north of the country. The sweep, aided by helicopters, was intended to flush out a group of 10-15 new recruits to the Al-Qaeda of the Islamic Maghreb group, who were intent on launching attacks on Constantine.
    (AP, 1/9/08)

2008        Jan 19, In Algeria an armed Islamist was killed in a clash with anti-terrorist security forces at Tebessa, near the Tunisian border while a fourth man died at Jijel, also in the east. His weapon was seized.
    (AFP, 1/21/08)

2008        Jan 20, In Algeria 2 armed suspects died in the Eddough mountains, near the eastern city of Annaba, after they failed to follow orders to surrender.
    (AFP, 1/21/08)

2008        Jan 28, Abderrahmane Bouzegza, leader of the Dec 11 attacks in Algiers, was killed by the army at Boumerdes, east of the capital. 4 others responsible for the attacks were arrested in February.
    (AFP, 2/6/08)

2008        Jan 29, In northern Algeria a car loaded with explosives and headed for a police station exploded after officers stopped the attack with bullets. At least two people were killed and 23 wounded.
    (AP, 1/29/08)

2008        Feb 7, In eastern Algeria suspected Islamist militants gunned down eight police officers in a late night ambush outside the village of Ain R'Ghiya. In a separate morning attack, another officer was killed and one injured in the village of Boukalfa.
    (AP, 2/8/08)

2008        Feb 17, In Algeria African Union energy ministers launched a new energy organization for Africa tasked with coordinating policy for the resource-rich continent.
    (AP, 2/17/08)

2008        Feb 26, In Algeria the "emir" Hamza (alias Abdi Abdi), a suspected leader of al-Qaida's local affiliate, was killed during the sweep in the town of Legatha.
    (AP, 2/27/08)

2008        Feb 27, French ambassador Bernard Bajolet said France has handed Algeria details of radioactive leaks from nuclear tests in the Algerian desert in the 1960s and should have acted earlier to clean up the damage.
    (Reuters, 2/27/08)

2008        Feb 29, Algerian security forces chased some 30 Islamic insurgents planting roadside bombs back into their refuge east of the Algiers.
    (AP, 3/2/08)

2008        Mar 1, Algerian troops called in helicopters and assaulted a hideout with rockets and helicopter fire, killing 25 members of an al-Qaida affiliate in North Africa.
    (AP, 3/2/08)

2008        Mar 7, Algerian authorities seized 2 tons of cannabis on the border with Morocco. 2 more tons were seized Mar 3. The total was valued at around 4 million euros.
    (AP, 3/9/08)

2008        Mar 8, In Algeria Al Qaeda's wing in north Africa said in an Internet posting that it has killed 20 Algerian soldiers and wounded 30 in clashes in its eastern stronghold, where the army has launched a campaign against the rebels.
    (Reuters, 3/9/08)

2008        Apr 14, Algeria, the world’s 4th largest gas exporter, said it will and stop signing long term gas contracts and switch to shorter term ones.
    (WSJ, 4/15/08, p.A14)

2008        Apr 27, A summit aimed at kick-starting Maghreb economic integration was disrupted when Moroccan and Algerian government ministers clashed over the disputed Western Sahara region.
    (AFP, 4/28/08)

2008        May 11, In Algeria 6 government troops died in an ambush allegedly by armed members of the Salafist Group for Preaching and Combat (GSPC) as the soldiers were in a truck patrolling Medea province.
    (AFP, 5/13/08)

2008        May 12, In Algeria 3 government troops were killed in an ambush allegedly set by the Salafist Group for Preaching and Combat (GSPC) 120 kilometers (75 miles) east of Algiers in Bouira province.
    (AP, 5/13/08)

2008        Jun 3, Four Algerian Christians received suspended jail terms and fines for seeking to convert Muslims in the latest in a series of cases to have provoked accusations in the West of religious repression.
    (AP, 6/3/08)

2008        Jun 4, In Algeria 2 simultaneous bombs in Bordj El Kiffan, a suburb of Algiers, killed a suicide bomber and injured six others. The blasts targeted a barracks and a seaside café.
    (AP, 6/6/08)

2008        Jun 5, In Algeria a bomb attack blamed on Islamist militants killed six Algerian soldiers and wounded four in Cap Djinet, east of Algiers.
    (AFP, 6/6/08)

2008        Jun 8, In Algeria 2 bombs exploded at a railway station east of Algiers reportedly killing 13 people. Officials the next day said only 2 people, a French engineer and his driver, were killed in the bombings.
    (Reuters, 6/8/08)(AP, 6/9/08)

2008        Jun 13, A Spanish judge jailed six Algerians on provisional charges of aiding terror groups linked to al-Qaida in North Africa.
    (AP, 6/13/08)

2008        Jun 23, Algeria's president named Ahmed Ouyahia, a pragmatist known for his tough line against Islamic extremists, as the country's prime minister, his third stint in the post. Ouyahia held that position until Sept. 3, 2012.
    (AP, 6/24/08)(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ahmed_Ouyahia)

2008        Jun, Algeria’s mobile-telephone market rose to some 28 million, up from 1.4 million four years earlier. Two-thirds of the market was run by Egyptian and Qatari firms.
    (Econ, 6/14/08, p.64)

2008        Jul 13, Algeria’s government newspaper El Moudjhaid said a consortium of British-based oil services company Petrofac and Indonesian engineering company IKPT provisionally won a contract to build an LNG plant in western Mediterranean port of Arzew.
    (AP, 7/13/08)

2008        Jul 17, Algeria and Germany wound up two days of talks in Algiers with a call for more economic cooperation between the two countries.
    (AP, 7/17/08)
2008        Jul 17, In Algeria a truck and a bus collided on one of the main highways in the Relizane region killing 7 people with 28 seriously injured.
    (AFP, 7/17/08)
2008        Jul 17, The US Treasury moved to freeze assets of four Algerians it said were leaders of an al Qaeda-affiliated group responsible for deadly bombings in Algeria last month.
    (Reuters, 7/17/08)

2008        Jul 18, In Algeria the government of Mali and ethnic Tuareg rebels reached a truce agreement in dangerous northern Mali. One faction of the Tuareg group refused to sign the deal, saying it did not do enough to help the Tuaregs.
    (AP, 7/22/08)

2008        Jul 30, Morocco's King Mohammed VI condemned Algeria's continuing closure of their common border, despite repeated calls by Rabat for it to be reopened. Algiers has set a global settlement of the conflict in Western Sahara as a precondition for reopening the border, which it closed in 1994 after Morocco claimed Algerian secret service agents were behind an Islamist extremist attack in Marrakesh.
    (AFP, 7/30/08)

2008        Jul, Sofiane Hadarbache, a former Guantanamo inmate, was sent back to Algeria. He was picked up by US forces outside of the Afghan capital, Kabul, in 2001 and sent to the US detention facility in Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, where he was held through July 2008. On Nov 4, 2010, an Algerian court acquitted Hadarbache of charges that included belonging to a terrorist group operating abroad and counterfeiting.
    (AP, 11/5/10)

2008        Aug 3, In Algeria 21 people, six of them policemen, were injured in a suicide car bomb attack in the town of Tizi Ouzou in Algeria's Kabylie region.
    (AFP, 8/3/08)

2008        Aug 7, In Algeria 18 people were reported dead from a crash between a van and a bus near the city of Mascara, and 25 were reported injured. Three men who were in critical condition subsequently died.
    (AFP, 8/8/08)

2008        Aug 8, In Algeria 12 armed Islamists, including a number of individuals considered among the leaders of Al-Qaeda in the Maghreb, were killed overnight by the army in an ambush near Beni Douala, near Tizi Ouzou.
    (AFP, 8/10/08)

2008        Aug 9, In Algeria a suicide car bomb attack on security forces killed at least eight people and injured 19 others in the coastal town of Zemmouri el Bahri, east of Algiers, the second such blast this month.
    (AFP, 8/10/08)

2008        Aug 14, A colonel in the Algerian army and another soldier were killed in a bomb attack in the Jijel region.
    (AFP, 8/16/08)

2008        Aug 17, In eastern Algeria rebels linked to al Qaeda had killed eight policemen, three soldiers and a civilian in successive ambushes. 4 Islamist militants were killed in the attack.
    (AFP, 8/19/08)

2008        Aug 19, A suicide car bomb attack east of Algiers killed 43 people and wounded 45. The attack targeted a paramilitary gendarmerie training school at Issers. Most of the dead were young men aged between 18 and 20.
    (Reuters, 8/19/08)

2008        Aug 20, In eastern Algeria 2 car bomb attacks killed at least 11 people in Bouira with at least 31 people wounded. This followed a suicide bomber who killed 43 people a day earlier.
    (AFP, 8/20/08)

2008        Aug 24, Algerian security forces killed 10 Islamist rebels in a security operation southwest of the capital.
    (Reuters, 8/25/08)

2008        Aug 26, The Pentagon said two men were cleared for release to Algeria from Guantanamo, Cuba, where about 260 detainees remained.
    (AP, 8/26/08)

2008        Sep 28, In Algeria a suspected suicide bombing killed three people and wounded six in a village east of Algiers.
    (AP, 9/29/08)

2008        Sep, From Algeria Andrew Warren, a CIA station chief and a convert to Islam, was sent back to the United States after two women came forward with charges of rape after lacing their drinks with a drug.
    (AP, 1/29/09)(SFC, 7/1/09, p.A4)

2008        Oct 1, Two days of torrential rains in the Algerian desert created flash floods. 43 deaths were later confirmed.
    (AP, 10/2/08)(AP, 10/12/08)

2008        Oct 7, Algerian PM Ahmed Ouyahia said there had been 250 million euros worth of damage, largely to infrastructure, from the recent flooding.
    (AP, 10/12/08)

2008        Oct 12, Algeria announced it will spend 500 million euros (675 million dollars) on protecting towns from flooding as the death toll from floods this month rose to 43.
    (AFP, 10/12/08)

2008        Nov 2, Dubai Port World (DP World) said it has agreed on a deal to run the cargo terminal in the Algerian port Djendjen. The port, which opened in 1993, is the most commercially important in Algeria.
    (AFP, 11/2/08)

2008        Nov 5, In Algeria Fateh Bouchibane, mayor of Timezrit in the Kabylie region, was abducted and killed.
    (AP, 11/6/08)

2008        Nov 12, Algeria's parliament overwhelmingly approved constitutional amendments that abolish presidential term limits, paving the way for President Abdelaziz Bouteflika to seek a third term in spring elections.
    (AP, 11/12/08)

2008        Nov 17, Algeria and Argentina signed an agreement to boost cooperation over civil nuclear energy as part of Argentine President Cristina Kirchner's tour of northern Africa.
    (AFP, 11/17/08)

2008        Dec 17, OPEC, meeting in Algeria, said it is cutting 2.2 million barrels a day from its output, the largest ever at one time, to stem crude prices that have plummeted over 70% from summer highs of nearly $150. Members among the 13-nation organization were officially producing a daily 29.045 million barrels in September.
    (AP, 12/17/08)
2008        Dec 17, Algerian news reports said Raked Brahim (28) was convicted and jailed for three years for traveling to Iraq in 2007 to take part in attacks against US forces. He was detained in Syria and later deported back to Algeria.
    (AP, 12/17/08)

2009        Jan 16, An Algerian customs officer was killed by armed Islamists west of Algiers. The 35-year-old official had his throat slit after being stopped at a fake barricade put up and manned by about 10 armed Islamists at Miliana near Ain Defla.
    (AFP, 1/17/09)

2009        Jan 17, The US Department of Defense announced that it transferred six detainees out of Guantanamo, leaving about 245 at the offshore prison. Four detainees were sent to Iraq, one to Algeria and one to Afghanistan. Since 2002, more than 525 detainees have departed Guantanamo. Haji Bismullah (29) of Afghanistan had always insisted that he was no terrorist.
    (AP, 1/18/09)(SFC, 1/19/09, p.A4)

2009        Jan 30, In Algeria at least 27 people were wounded and several buildings torched during clashes among Muslim worshippers outside a mosque in Ghardaia.
    (AFP, 1/31/09)

2009        Feb 1, Algerian newspapers reported that Ali Ben Touati, a leading member of Al-Qaeda's North African branch, has surrendered to Algerian authorities.
    (AFP, 2/1/09)

2009        Feb 12, In eastern Algeria 2 bombs exploded hours after President Abdelaziz Bouteflika announced he will run for a new term, killing at least seven people.
    (AFP, 2/13/09)

2009        Feb 15, A series of attacks in Algeria left seven soldiers and a suspected militant dead, as authorities ratcheted up efforts to secure the country before presidential elections. An Algerian newspaper reported that security forces killed a senior member of Al Qaeda's north African wing after a tip-off from a former militant led them to his hideout. The daily Ennahar reported that Mourad Bouzid (65), also known as Ami Slimane, was a charismatic figure instrumental in recruiting and motivating younger Al Qaeda fighters.
    (AP, 2/16/09)(Reuters, 2/15/09)

2009        Feb 18, Al Qaeda's Algeria-based branch (AQMI) claimed it is holding two missing Canadian diplomats hostage. UN envoy Robert Fowler and his aide Louis Guay, went missing in the West African country of Niger last month.
    (SFC, 2/19/09, p.A2)(www.thestar.com/printArticle/589398)

2009        Feb 22, In eastern Algeria 9 members of a private security firm were killed when Islamist militants attacked their base near Jijel.
    (AFP, 2/23/09)

2009        Feb 28, In Algeria an army operation in the mountains of Blida province, about 100 kilometers (62 miles) south of Algiers killed 6 Islamist militants. One militant was killed on Feb 26 before the army took the rest of the group by surprise. Another 16 were reported killed during a search operation near Soulahane.
    (AFP, 3/2/09)(AFP, 3/3/09)

2009        Mar 7, In Algeria 2 people were killed and five others wounded in an attack on the barracks of security forces at Tadmait near Tizi Ouzou east of the capital.
    (AP, 3/7/09)

2009        Mar 10, In Algeria border guards seized 3.5 tons of cannabis in a desert region close to the frontier with Morocco.
    (AFP, 3/12/09)

2009        Mar 11, In eastern Algeria suspected Islamist extremists shot and killed a police officer and wounded another in a shoot-out near Batna city. 3 armed Islamists were killed by the security forces in Souk El-Thenine town.
    (AFP, 3/12/09)

2009        Mar 14, In Algeria Islamists cut the throat of a shepherd and 300 of his sheep in Chatabia village near the Tunisian border. Three family members and an elected official died in a bomb explosion the following morning as they headed to the site of the killing.
    (AFP, 3/16/09)

2009        Mar 16, At least two Algerian soldiers were killed when their convoy was hit by roadside bombs in the east of the country.
    (AFP, 3/17/09)

2009        Mar 24, The French government offered for the first time to compensate victims of nuclear tests in Algeria and the South Pacific, bowing to decades of pressure by people sickened by radiation.
    (AP, 3/24/09)

2009        Apr 9, Algerians voted in a presidential election that is expected to give the incumbent Abdelaziz Bouteflika another five years to try to quell terrorism and reform the North African country's lackluster economy, which is heavily dependent on oil and gas. President Abdelaziz Bouteflika won 90.24% of the vote.
    (AP, 4/9/09)(Reuters, 4/10/09)

2009        Apr 10, In Algeria President Abdelaziz Bouteflika hailed his landslide re-election for a third term as a "lesson in democracy," but opposition politicians and independent media alleged fraud at the polls, and the US government expressed concern.
    (AP, 4/11/09)

2009        Apr 11, Morocco blamed Algeria for a "serious and blatant" violation by the Polisario Front of an 18-year-long ceasefire in the disputed Western Sahara and urged the UN to intervene.
    (Reuters, 4/11/09)

2009        Apr 13, Algeria’s constitutional council officially declared Abdelaziz Bouteflika re-elected as president of Algeria for a third mandate with 90.23% of the vote on a turnout of 74.56%.
    (AFP, 4/13/09)

2009        Apr 19, Algerian President Abdelaziz Bouteflika vowed to pursue national reconciliation, after being sworn in for a third five-year term.
    (AP, 4/19/09)

2009        May 7, In Algeria 4 armed Islamists were killed by Algerian security forces during firefights in Tizi Ouzou and Boumerdes, east of the capital Algiers. Two soldiers died as well, and three assault rifles were seized by the military. Another Islamist was killed as security forces mounted a joint operation on an armed group at Kharrouba, near Boumerdes.
    (AFP, 5/8/09)

2009        May 26, In Algeria 9 soldiers were killed near Biskra, 425 kilometers south of the capital, in n ambush which wounded 10 others.
    (AFP, 6/18/09)

2009        Jun 2, In Algeria an estimated 30 Al-Qaida-linked militants killed two teachers and eight police escorts as they brought copies of tests back from an examination center in the town of Timezrit, 49 miles east of Algiers.
    (AP, 6/3/09)

2009        Jun 12, In Algeria at least five members of an Islamist militant group were killed near Constantine, as well as several Islamist clan chiefs in different regions.
    (AFP, 6/18/09)

2009        Jun 13, Algeria's national oil company Sonatrach announced it had awarded a 79.3-billion-dinar (1.11-billion-dollar, 793-million-euro) contract to the Canadian engineering firm SNC-Lavalin to build natural gas processing facilities.
    (AFP, 6/13/09)

2009        Jun 16, The US added six African countries to a blacklist of countries trafficking in people, and put US trading partner Malaysia back on the list. Chad, Eritrea, Niger, Mauritania, Swaziland, and Zimbabwe were added to the list in the annual report. Removed from the list were Qatar, Oman, Algeria, and Moldova.
    (AFP, 6/16/09)

2009        Jun 17, In southeastern Algeria Islamist rebels ambushed a military convoy and killed at least 18 gendarmes and one civilian in the deadliest attack on government forces in the last six months. In 2011 a criminal court sentenced six people to death for the attack, for which Al-Qaeda claimed responsibility.
    (AFP, 6/18/09)(SFC, 6/19/09, p.A2)(AFP, 1/29/11)

2009        Jul 3, Algeria, Niger and Nigeria signed an accord to build a 10-billion-dollar trans-Saharan gas pipeline linking vast reserves in Nigeria to Europe.
    (AFP, 7/3/09)

2009        Jul 6, The 2nd Panafrican Festival opened in Algiers and was scheduled to last to July 20. The first Panafrican Festival took place back in 1969.
    (AP, 7/9/09)

2009        Jul 20, Algeria’s Ministry of Transport said the Chinese civil engineering group CCECC has won 3 contracts worth a total of 1.46 billion euros to build railways in Algeria.
    (AFP, 7/20/09)

2009        Jul 22, The Algerian government issued a decree effective as of August shifting the dates of the weekend to Friday and Saturday in a move viewed as a boost the North African nation's faltering economy. Algeria had observed its weekends on Thursdays and Fridays since 1976 as do a few other countries including Iran and Saudi Arabia.
    (AP, 7/22/09)

2009        Jul 25, In Algeria five Islamists were killed by the army about 15 km (nine miles) east of Tizi Ouzou.
    (AFP, 7/29/09)

2009        Jul 26, In northwestern Algeria members of Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb killed two local security officers in an ambush in the Mascara region.
    (AFP, 7/28/09)

2009        Jul 27, Algerian papers reported that security forces have killed five armed Islamic extremists in the northeastern Tizi Ouzou region, about 100 km (60 miles) east of Algiers.
    (AFP, 7/27/09)

2009        Jul 28, Algeria's coast guard arrested 19 illegal migrants in a dinghy off the western town of Arzew, near Oran, as they tried to reach Europe.
    (AP, 7/28/09)

2009        Jul 29, The Algerian media reported that the army has killed 16 Islamist extremists in separate operations in recent days. The bodies of eight Islamists were discovered on July 27-28 near Batna, 435 km (270 miles) southeast of Algiers, after army shelling followed by a ground operation. 3 other armed Islamists were killed in two ambushes near Tizi Ouzou, 110 km (70 miles) east of the capital, on July 27-28. At least 11 Algerian soldiers were killed in an ambush by Islamic extremists while they escorted a military convoy in an Algerian tourist region outside the coastal town of Damous. Five Islamists were killed when the soldiers shot back.
    (AFP, 7/29/09)(AFP, 7/30/09)

2009        Aug 15, In northern Algeria an explosion followed by gunfire left one police officer dead and two others wounded at a beach. A head-on collision between a lorry and a minibus killed 16 people on the outskirts of the city of Ghazaouet, including more than a dozen members of the same family traveling together.
    (AFP, 8/15/09)

2009        Sep 2, In Algeria Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez called for closer economic ties with Algeria, notably in the energy sector, during a two-day visit here.
    (AFP, 9/3/09)

2009        Oct 4, Algerian coastguards picked up 45 Algerian would-be migrants to Europe at three places off the coast west of Algiers.
    (AFP, 10/4/09)

2009        Oct 9, In Algeria 10 suspected Islamists and 3 soldiers were killed in a fierce gunbattle near the Great Erg, the world's largest sand dune, when a convoy of heavily armed militants was attacked by the Algerian army.
    (AP, 10/10/09)

2009        Oct 27, Algeria and Britain signed a new defense agreement. An embassy spokeswoman said "This outline agreement aims to regularize cooperation between the two countries in defense matters, particularly the training of Algerian officers in Great Britain."
    (AFP, 10/27/09)

2009        Oct 29, Algerian security forces seized 3.5 tons of cannabis as well as weapons and two all-terrain vehicles in the south of the country.
    (AFP, 10/31/09)

2009        Nov 12, Italy's top security official said that authorities have smashed an international terror cell with the arrest in Italy and elsewhere in Europe of 17 Algerians who were raising money to finance terrorism.
    (AP, 11/12/09)

2009        Nov 14, Three would-be migrants drowned, one was rescued and 10 were missing off the Algerian coast after their boats sank on their way to Europe.
    (AFP, 11/15/09)

2009        Nov 18, Egyptian fans were attacked after Algeria won (1-0) a make-or-break World Cup qualifying game in the Sudanese capital Khartoum, and offices of Egyptian companies in Algeria were ransacked after a matchup in Cairo over the weekend.
    (AP, 11/19/09)(Econ, 11/28/09, p.52)

2009        Nov 22, An Algerian court acquitted 2 men who had been held for seven years in the US military prison in Guantanamo Bay on suspicion of belonging to an extremist group. Faghoul Abdelli and Mohamed Terari were arrested in Pakistan after the September 11, 2001 attacks in the US and transferred to Guantanamo Bay where they were held without trial before being sent home to Algeria last year.
    (Reuters, 11/22/09)

2009        Nov 29, An Algiers court sentenced Ahmed Belbacha, an Algerian Guantanamo inmate who refuses to be sent home, to 20 years in prison for belonging to an "overseas terrorist group." Belbacha, who has been held at the US prison camp since February 2002 following his arrest in Pakistan, has been deemed by US authorities as no longer an "enemy combatant" and cleared for release to Algeria. Belbacha said that he fears torture at home and refuses to be repatriated. Instead, he has requested political asylum in the United States.
    (AFP, 11/29/09)

2009        Nov 30, An Algerian health organization (AnisS) warned that thousands of its people are unknowingly infected with the AIDS virus and called for more testing and prevention efforts.
    (AFP, 12/1/09)

2009        Dec 29, A security source said Algerian border guards have seized more than four tons of cannabis following a skirmish with smugglers.
    (AF, 12/29/09)

2010        Jan 4, In Algeria an Algerian employee of Canadian construction firm SNC-Lavalin was kidnapped by insurgents southeast of Algiers. The engineer was freed on Jan 7.
    (Reuters, 1/10/10)

2010        Jan 7, In Algeria a stand-off with police began in the industrial town of Rouiba after the 5,000 employees of the state-owned National Company of Industrial Vehicles (SNVI) started an indefinite strike action to demand higher wages and better terms.
    (AP, 1/7/10)

2010        Jan 9, Algerian security forces killed 10 Islamist rebels in an ambush in the region of M'sila, 400 km (250 miles) east of Algiers. A "large quantity" of weapons were seized during the operation. Islamists looted and burned a Protestant church, suggesting they were inspired by a recent spate of religious intolerance in the Arab and Muslim world.
    (Reuters, 1/10/10)(AP, 1/11/10)

2010        Jan 10, In Algeria a collision between a bus and a truck killed 15 people and injured another 15 on a major highway in the Ghardaia region in the Sahara desert.
    (Reuters, 1/10/10)

2010        Jan 11, Algeria's foreign ministry said it had summoned the US ambassador to "strongly protest" the North African country's placing on a 14-nation terror watch list drawn up by the Obama administration.
    (AFP, 1/11/10)

2010        Jan 13, The head of Algeria's national oil corporation Sonatrach was suspended from his job and ordered to appear before investigators probing corruption. Mohamed Meziane was replaced in his job by vice-president Abdelhafid Feghouli.
    (AFP, 1/15/10)

2010        Jan 27, In western Algeria the Oran criminal court sentenced eight people to jail terms for drug trafficking. Six of the convicted men were sentenced to 20 years, a seventh to life and the eighth, who was on the run, was also sentenced to life, after the seizure in 2008 of two tons of cannabis resin at Bechar in the southwest.
    (AFP, 1/28/10)

2010        Feb 25, In Algeria a police official shot dead Colonel Ali Tounsi, the national police chief, during a blazing row in his office in central Algiers.
    (AFP, 2/25/10)

2010        Mar 10, In Algeria almost 200 striking doctors, dentists and pharmacists demonstrated near the presidential palace to press their pay demands. The health professionals have been on strike since the end of December.
    (AFP, 3/10/10)

2010        Mar 16, Seven north African states held talks in Algeria to plan a coordinated response to Al-Qaeda following a dangerous rise in the terror threat in the Sahara-Sahel region.
    (AFP, 3/16/10)

2010        Apr 19, Algeria's Energy Minister Chakib Khelil said 11 major natural gas exporting countries have decided to work towards a long term plan to index prices with oil.
    (AFP, 4/20/10)

2010        Apr 21, The Algerian Defense Ministry said Algeria, Mauritania, Mali and Niger are opening a joint military headquarters in the Algerian city Tamanrasset, in a united effort to combat terrorism and kidnapping in northwestern Africa. The Committee of Joint Chiefs (CEMOC) was based in  Tamanrasset.
    (AP, 4/21/10)(AP, 12/20/11)

2010        May 14, In Algeria a moderate earthquake killed two people and injured 43 others.
    (AFP, 5/15/10)
2010        May 14, The Algerian army killed three armed Islamic militants in the east of the country. Several weapons, including two semi-automatic rifles, were seized in the operation.
    (AFP, 5/15/10)

2010        May 25, In Algeria Atmane Touati, alias Abu El Abbas, became one of four members of al-Qaida in the Islamic Maghreb, or AQMI, to turn himself in after his wife "convinced her husband to abandon the criminal horde and come home."
    (AP, 5/31/10)

2010        May 30, Algeria's President Abdelaziz Bouteflika, amid a growing corruption scandal, fired the CEO and all top managers at Sonatrach, the state-owned oil firm that dominates the North African country's economy.
    (AP, 5/31/10)

2010        Jun 11, In Algeria a suicide bomber rammed a truck into the barracks of an elite police unit in a village east of Algiers. At least nine people died, including four police officers and one Chinese worker.
    (AP, 6/11/10)

2010        Jun 30, In Algeria Al Qaeda-linked militants killed 11 Algerian paramilitary police in the oil-rich state's deadliest attack in a year.
    (AFP, 7/1/10)(SFC, 7/1/10, p.A2)

2010        Jul 6, Algerian security forces killed three Islamist militants in a shoot-out southeast of the capital Algiers.
    (AP, 7/6/10)

2010        Jul 18, Gitmo detainee Aziz Abdul Naji (35), held for over 8 years, was transferred to Algeria, despite his request to remain under US detention for fear of torture and death at home. On July 25 Naji was indicted in Algeria and placed under judicial supervision.
    (SFC, 7/21/10, p.A2)(AP, 7/27/10)

2010        Jul 25, In Algeria a suicide bomber killed at least one person in the eastern Kabylie region by driving a car rigged with explosives into a building used by security forces. Al-Qaeda's branch in North Africa soon claimed responsibility for the suicide bombing.
    (AP, 7/26/10)(AFP, 7/29/10)

2010        Aug 15, In Mali 2 survivors of a failed journey said 12 African nationals trying to illegally enter Europe died from thirst and hunger in the Algerian desert.
    (AFP, 8/15/10)

2010        Aug 19, In Algeria storms left a trail of damage across the country killing at least seven people over the last 2 days.
    (AFP, 8/19/10)

2010        Aug 28, Algerian forces killed 8 al-Qaida insurgents during clashes in the Berrekmouche valley, a mountainous area considered a bastion for the terror network's North African branch. One soldier was killed. Helicopter bombardments continued into the next day.
    (AP, 8/29/10)

2010        Sep 1, In Algeria 2 soldiers were killed and dozens injured after a suicide bomber blew up a vehicle packed with explosives by a military convoy near the capital Algiers.
    (AFP, 9/2/10)

2010        Sep 21, In Algeria a bomb exploded in the centre of Bordj Menaiel town, as a police patrol passed, killing two policemen and wounding three civilians.
    (AFP, 9/21/10)

2010        Sep 30, Algerian daily Al-Watan said spy chiefs from four north African countries (Algeria, Mauritania, Mali and Niger) have set up a center for joint operations against Al Qaeda in the Sahel region during a meeting in Algiers.
    (AFP, 9/30/10)
2010        Sep 30, Egyptian telecom giant Orascom Telecom said its Algeria unit has been hit with a $230 million preliminary tax reassessment, marking a new and increasingly acrimonious chapter in the company's relations with the North African nation.
    (AP, 9/30/10)

2010        Oct 6, Russia’s President Dmitry Medvedev headed a top level business delegation to Algeria, seeking to use his clout to push through delicate energy and telecoms deals with a traditional Moscow ally. Algeria and Russia signed six deals in sectors including energy and transportation.
    (AFP, 10/6/10)(AP, 10/6/10)

2010        Oct 11, The emir of Kuwait arrived in Algeria for a two-day visit on the latest step of a north African tour.
    (AFP, 10/12/10)

2010        Oct 12, In Algeria 5 people were killed when a remote control bomb exploded on a construction site in Tlidgen.
    (AP, 10/13/10)

2010        Oct 18, An Algerian court sentenced Bouchouta Fares (27) to two years in prison for breaking the fast of the Muslim holy month of Ramadan late in August. He was also fined 100,000 dinars (€972, $1,359) for "breaching a precept of Islam." Practicing a faith, Muslim or otherwise, is conditional in Algeria on obtaining a document stating the place of worship and another giving the name of the preacher, under a law passed in February 2006.
    (AFP, 10/21/10)

2010        Nov 2, Algeria’s interior minister Dahou Ould Kablia said that Algeria will resume a policy of arming people to reinforce the fight against terrorism in the north African country.
    (AP, 11/3/10)

2010        Nov 5, Algeria’s newspaper El-Watan Week-end reported that local police have dismantled a group of currency forgers who put more than 48 million euros in fake banknotes on to the market.
    (AFP, 11/5/10)

2010        Dec 10, Algerian troops killed 10 Islamist rebels in the eastern Kabylie region known as a stronghold of Al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM).
    (Reuters, 12/11/10)

2010        Algeria’s population stood at about 35 million.
    (Econ, 5/29/10, p.50)

2011        Jan 1, Somali pirates hijacked the MV Blida, a Greek-operated, Algerian-flagged bulk carrier. The crew included 17 Algerians, six Ukrainians including the captain, two Filipinos, an Indonesian and a Jordanian. On Oct 12 Algeria announced that pirates have released 2 of the ship’s 27 crewmen on humanitarian grounds. The MV Blida was released on Nov 3 after a bag full of money was parachuted down to the pirates from a plane.
    (Econ, 2/5/11, p.69)(AFP, 10/12/11)(AP, 11/3/11)(AFP, 11/20/11)

2011        Jan 6, Fresh unrest struck Algeria as protests over rising costs and unemployment spread after a night of rioting in the capital in which youths attacked a police station and torched shops.
    (AFP, 1/6/11)
2011        Jan 6, The US military said that it has sent a Guantanamo prisoner back to his native Algeria over the objections of his attorneys who said he feared being tortured in his homeland. Saiid Farhi had been held without charge at the US base in Cuba for nearly nine years. 173 prisoners remained at Guantanamo.
    (AP, 1/6/11)

2011        Jan 7, In Algeria fresh rioting broke out in Algiers as police deployed around mosques and authorities suspended soccer championship matches after violent protests over food prices and unemployment. Two demonstrators died in the spreading unrest over rising food prices.
    (Reuters, 1/7/11)(AP, 1/8/11)

2011        Jan 8, In Algeria Fresh protests erupted against soaring food prices as the government considered measures to limit the cost of staple foodstuffs to quell the unrest. 2 people were already dead and 400 injured in protests across the country since Jan 6. The government announced that it will cut the cost of sugar and cooking oil.
    (Reuters, 1/8/11)(SSFC, 1/9/11, p.A5)

2011        Jan 9, Algerian authorities vowed to punish those responsible for nationwide food riots in which at least four people were reported killed and more than 800 injured.
    (AFP, 1/9/11)

2011        Jan 13, In Algeria Mohsen Bouterfif doused himself in gasoline and set himself on fire after a meeting with the mayor of the small city of Boukhadra who was unable to provide him a job and a house. Bouterfif died on of his burns on Jan 15.
    (Reuters, 1/16/11)

2011        Jan 18, Algeria’s El Khabar daily said a father-of-six became the fifth Algerian to turn himself into a human fireball this week, in a replica of the immolation protest that triggered the president's ouster in neighboring Tunisia.
    (AFP, 1/18/11)

2011        Jan 19, In Algeria 3 people attempted suicide by fire, bringing the total number of such actions to eight in a week, in a replica of protests that ousted the president of neighboring Tunisia.
    (AFP, 1/19/11)

2011        Jan 22, In Algeria riot police clashed with protesters in Algiers as they broke up a banned pro-democracy rally amid mounting public grievances that have fuelled fears of Tunisia-style unrest. Karim Bendine (35) died in a hospital in Douera, a suburb of Algiers, where he was admitted earlier this week with most of his body covered in third-degree burns. Seven other Algerians have set themselves on fire since January 12, apparently inspired by the self-immolation in Tunisia of 26-year-old Mohammed Bouazizi.
    (AFP, 1/22/11)(AFP, 1/23/11)

2011        Jan 26, Algeria confirmed it bought almost a million tons of wheat and ordered an urgent speeding up of grain imports, a move seen heading off unrest over food prices as protests swept north Africa.
    (Reuters, 1/26/11)

2011        Jan 28, In eastern Algeria a guard was killed and four people injured in the Kabylie region, when armed Islamists attacked a barracks.
    (AP, 1/29/11)

2011        Jan 29, In eastern Algeria a criminal court sentenced six people to death for a 2009 attack that killed 19 people and for which Al-Qaeda claimed responsibility.
    (AP, 1/29/11)

2011        Feb 2, Italian Maria Sandra Mariani (53) was kidnapped in southeastern Algeria near the town of Djanet by Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM). Algeria’s official news agency reported the kidnapping on Feb 4. Mariani was released on April 17, 2012.
    (AP, 2/4/11)(AFP, 7/21/11)(AFP, 4/17/12)

2011        Feb 3, Algeria's President Abdelaziz Bouteflika said the state of emergency, in force for the past 19 years, will be lifted in the very near future.
    (AFP, 2/3/11)

2011        Feb 4, Algerian forces killed Kamel Bourihane (aka Abou Hafs), a senior Islamic militant. He was linked with two attacks in 2007 in the capital Algiers that left dozens dead.
    (AFP, 2/6/11)

2011        Feb 6, Algerian newspapers reported that security services had dismantled an AQIM cell in the southeast of the country that had been planning attacks in Europe, in particular in France.
    (AFP, 2/6/11)

2011        Feb 7, Algerian authorities announced they have banned an opposition rally set for the capital on Feb 12 to call for an end to President Abdelaziz Bouteflika's rule. Pro-democracy demonstrators said they will go ahead with the planned march.
    (AFP, 2/7/11)(AP, 2/7/11)

2011        Feb 12, In Algeria more than 400 people were arrested during a pro-democracy protest that brought some 10 thousand people onto the streets of Algiers. The marchers urged reforms pushing Algeria toward democracy but did not specifically call for Pres. Bouteflika to resign. Some 28,000 security forces were deployed to block the march and disperse the crowds.
    (AP, 2/12/11)

2011        Feb 13, Algerian opposition groups said they would follow up yesterday’s protest by calling a demonstration in the capital every Saturday until the government is changed.
    (Reuters, 2/13/11)

2011        Feb 14, Algeria’s Foreign Minister Mourad Medelci said the country’s 19-year-old state of emergency will end within days, brushing off concerns that recent protests in the country could escalate as in Tunisia and Egypt.
    (Reuters, 2/14/11)
2011        Feb 14, France called on Algeria to allow anti-government protests, inspired by uprisings in Egypt and Tunisia, to take place freely and without violence.
    (AFP, 2/14/11)

2011        Feb 19, In Algeria riot police clashed with thousands of pro-democracy supporters who tried to stage a rally in central Algiers, leaving one Algerian opposition deputy seriously injured.
    (AFP, 2/19/11)(AP, 2/19/11)

2011        Feb 21, In Algeria about 500 students rallied in the capital, part of the wave of unrest in Arab world to register discontent with national governments. The students want the government to scrap a new law that dilutes the value of their diplomas by giving equal status to less-qualified degree holders in the job market.
    (AP, 2/21/11)

2011        Feb 22, Algeria’s government, in a major concession to opposition groups, adopted a measure that would lift a 19-year state of emergency.
    (SFC, 2/23/11, p.A2)

2011        Feb 24, Algeria officially lifted its 19-year old state of emergency.
    (SFC, 2/25/11, p.A2)

2011        Feb 26, In Algeria hundreds of demonstrators protested in Algiers to demand the ouster of President Bouteflika, but police were out in far larger numbers to counter the protesters.
    (AP, 2/26/11)

2011        Mar 7, In Algeria thousands of auxiliary police marched across the country to demand a pay raise, breaking through heavy security to reach parliament in a rare mass show of dissent in the tightly controlled country.
    (AFP, 3/7/11)

2011        Mar 8, In Algeria a bomb struck a vehicle of bird hunters and killed five of them, in the deadliest attack in months as the country battles unrest blamed on Islamist militants.
    (AFP, 3/9/11)

2011        Mar 12, Police in Algeria launched a massive security operation to head off marchers calling for an immediate end to President Abdelaziz Bouteflika's regime.
    (AP, 3/12/11)

2011        Mar 16, Algerian police in Algiers used tear gas to disperse a crowd of young men who were throwing petrol bombs and stones. The protesters said they had no political demands but wanted the authorities to give them better housing.
    (Reuters, 3/16/11)

2011        Mar 26, Algerian police again stifled an attempt by pro-reform activists to rally against the government in what has become a weekly ritual. It was the eighth attempt since January by the CNDC to stage a weekly demonstration, along the lines of pro-democracy protests sweeping the Arab world, in defiance of a ban on rallies in the capital imposed in 2001.
    (AFP, 3/26/11)

2011        Apr 4, In Algeria auxiliary police, specialist doctors and university students pushed on with strikes and demonstrations to press demands including for improved pay and conditions.
    (AFP, 4/4/11)

2011        Apr 15, In Algeria Islamist extremists attacked an army post and killed at least 13 soldiers watching the Algerian president's televised speech promising reforms. Two militants in the group were killed by soldiers at the post in Kabyle. President Bouteflika announced constitutional reforms "aimed at deepening the democratic process" amid upheavals.
    (AP, 4/16/11)

2011        Apr 23, Algerian police again stifled an attempt by pro-reform activists to rally against the government in what has become a weekly ritual.
    (AFP, 4/23/11)

2011        May 2, The Algerian press said security forces have arrested seven men, mainly Algerians and Moroccans, who are suspected of supporting Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb. Students and riot police fought pitch battles in Algiers, leaving more than 20 injured as protesters took to the streets demanding political change.
    (AFP, 5/2/11)(AFP, 5/3/11)

2011        May 6, In Algeria a bomb struck a military convoy on a highway linking Jijel to Constantine, killing five soldiers and injuring five others. Journalist, Ahmed Nezar, was shot dead in his hometown of Baghlia.
    (AFP, 5/7/11)(Reuters, 5/7/11)

2011        Jun 22, An Algerian court sentenced a 28-year-old Palestinian to four years in jail for possession of a banned substance used to make explosives. The defendant had been arrested by security services last year in possession of 300 grams of mercury fulminate and crystal rocks.
    (AFP, 6/22/11)

2011        Jun 23, In Algeria a bomb attack on a military patrol killed one soldier and wounded another. Moustapha Dial, a father of five, was fired upon by troops who raided a villa in Azazga where he was caretaker and seriously wounded. He was finished off by another burst of gunfire as he tried to seek aid. 15 soldiers, including an officer, were later detained in connection with the accidental killing.
    (AFP, 6/25/11)(AFP, 7/5/11)

2011        Jun 25, An Algerian village was on strike for a second day after a civilian was shot dead by soldiers in error after a bomb attack on June 23.
    (AP, 6/25/11)

2011        Jul 4, In Algeria a policeman was killed and another wounded during a clash with armed men in the Kabylie region east of Algiers.
    (AFP, 7/4/11)

2011        Jul 11, Air Algerie cabin crew went on strike. They wanted a 106-percent pay rise and left thousands of angry travelers stranded in Paris, Marseille and Nice airports.
    (AFP, 7/13/11)

2011        Jul 14, In France thousands of angry travelers were still stranded in airports and in Algiers as a strike by Air Algerie cabin crew, who want a 106% pay rise, went into its 4th day. Air Algerie staff ended their four-day strike after mediation by the office of PM Ahmed Ouyahia.
    (AFP, 7/14/11)

2011        Jul 16, In Algeria security forces in the eastern Boudjellal mountain region shot dead two gunmen overnight near the border with Tunisia. A suicide bomber blew up his car in front of a police station at Bordj-Menaiel. Another suicide bomber drove his motorbike at a crowd near the town hall of Bordj-Menaiel, killing a police officer and a local official.
    (AFP, 7/17/11)

2011        Jul 25, In Algeria three suspects, including two would-be suicide bombers, were killed by security forces around 60km (36 miles) east of Algiers following a tip-off. The dead included Abdelkahar Belhadj, the son of former Islamic leader Ali Belhadj.
    (AFP, 7/27/11)(AFP, 7/28/11)

2011        Jul 26, In Algeria a suicide bomber blew himself up to avoid arrest in the eastern town of Bouhamza, causing no other casualties.
    (AFP, 7/27/11)

2011        Aug 14, In Algeria a suicide bomber crashed a small truck apparently laden with explosives into a police station in Tizi Ouzou, the capital of the Kabylie region, injuring 29 people. Kabylie, the Berber capital, is the stronghold of al-Qaida in the Islamic Maghreb. On Aug 17 Al-Qaida in the Islamic Maghreb claimed responsibility.
    (AP, 8/14/11)(AP, 8/18/11)

2011        Aug 26, In Algeria a bomb explosion followed by a suicide attack outside a military academy killed 16 officers in training and 2 civilians in Cherchell. Two Syrian officers were among 18 people killed in the twin suicide bombing. Al-Qaida in the Islamic Maghreb soon claimed responsibility.
    (AP, 8/26/11)(AFP, 8/28/11)(SFC, 8/29/11, p.A2)

2011        Aug 29, Libyan members of the National Transitional Council announced further steps to becoming an effective government. Suleiman Mahmoud al-Obeidi, the rebels' deputy military chief, announced the formation of a 17-member committee to represent the 30 or local military councils he said had been set up in the country's west. Moammar Gadhafi's wife, Safiya Gadhafi, her daughter Aisha and sons Hannibal and Mohammed entered Algeria.
    (AP, 8/29/11)(AP, 8/30/11)

2011        Aug 30, Libyan rebels pledged to launch an assault within days on Sirte, Moammar Gadhafi's hometown. Rebels told Khadafy backers to give up by Sep 3 or face assault. Gadhafi's daughter gave birth to a baby girl in Algeria. NATO planes bombed Gaddafi forces near Sirte, targeting tanks and other armored vehicles as well as military facilities. They also hit targets in the area of Bani Walid, another Gaddafi stronghold 150 km southeast of Tripoli.
    (AP, 8/30/11)(Reuters, 8/31/11)(SFC, 8/31/11, p.A3)

2011        Sep 8, In Algeria experts from some 40 African countries gathered at a conference on desertification. The 10th session of the decision-making body of the UN Convention to Combat Desertification opens in South Korea next month.
    (AFP, 9/8/11)

2011        Sep 12, Algeria passed sweeping media reforms, ending a state monopoly on the broadcast sector and the imprisonment of journalists for libel. No timetable was announced, however, putting on hold any new television or radio stations for now.
    (AP, 9/13/11)

2011        Sep 27, Algerian residents and security officials said troops have killed five militants in a large operation against hideouts used by Al-Qaeda's regional franchise east of the capital.
    (AFP, 9/27/11)
2011        Sep 27, Spanish police arrested five Algerians suspected of helping finance an al-Qaida-linked terror group in North Africa. On Oct 1 they were freed by a judge who said there was no significant evidence against them.
    (AP, 9/27/11)(AP, 10/2/11)

2011        Oct 9, Algerian police arrested roughly 25 unemployed people as they prepared to rally against joblessness near the presidential compound.
    (AFP, 10/9/11)

2011        Oct 16, Internationally acclaimed Algerian author Boualem Sansal (62) received the annual German Book Trade Peace Prize and said that people everywhere were rising up against dictatorship.
    (AFP, 10/16/11)

2011        Oct 23, In Algeria gunmen kidnapped three aid workers, two Spaniards and an Italian, from the Rabuni refugee camp near Tindouf, injuring one of the hostages and a local guard in the late night attack. Security sources in Nouakchott and Bamako later said those responsible belonged to a Sahrawi wing of the north African Al-Qaeda branch, Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Magreb (AQIM). The group later demanded 30 million euros ($39 million) to free the 3 aid workers held in northern Mali. Spaniards Enric Gonyalons and Ainhoa Fernandez del Rincon and Italian Rossella Urru were released on July 18, 2012, in exchange for three Islamists. The Islamist rebel group that freed them claimed that they also received a ransom of €15 million ($18.4 million).
    (AP, 10/23/11)(AFP, 12/5/11)(AFP, 3/3/12)(AP, 7/19/12)(AP, 7/20/12)

2011        Oct 25, Lawyers in Algeria began a 3-day strike to protest proposed changes in the organization of the profession which they say will limit their independence and powers in court.
    (AFP, 10/25/11)

2011        Oct 31, Algiers inaugurated its long-awaited underground metro system amid much fanfare after three decades of work interrupted by an oil crisis and a civil war. Work for Africa's second metro after Cairo began in earnest in 1982.
    (AFP, 10/31/11)

2011        Nov 15, Algerian newspapers reported that authorities have arrested nine people, including eight Air Algerie stewards, as part of an operation against an international drug trafficking ring. The suspects, including a famous singer and an Air Algerie trade union leader, have come under pressure to retract statements in which they named certain clients.
    (AFP, 11/15/11)

2011        Nov 17, Algerian President Abdelaziz Bouteflika sacked Noureddine Cherouati, the managing director of state energy giant Sonatrach and gave his job to another senior official in the firm. Abdelhamid Zerguine, the head of Sonatrach's subsidiary at Lugano in Switzerland," was named to replace him.
    (AFP, 11/17/11)

2011        Nov 21, In Mali army chiefs from Algeria, Mali, Mauritania and Niger, met in Bamako amid mounting concerns over the fallout from Libya's conflict on security in the troubled zone.
    (AFP, 11/21/11)

2011        Dec 5, Mauritanian police said they have arrested two Western Saharan men suspected of kidnapping an Italian and two Spanish aid workers in Algeria on October 23.
    (AFP, 12/5/11)

2011        Dec 13, Algeria and Mauritania's leaders vowed to beef up security in the Sahel region, where Islamist militants, Al-Qaida in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM), were holding a dozen Western hostages.
    (AFP, 12/13/11)

2011        Dec 14, Algeria passed a media law that drew scorn from journalists, rights activists and opposition legislators who charged that it restricts freedom of expression. The law promises press freedom but also lists 12 areas in which journalists must tread carefully to avoid undermining Algeria's national identity, sovereignty and security and the country's economic interests.
    (AFP, 12/14/11)

2011        Dec 20, Algerian troops were reported to have crossed into Mali to help government forces combat groups affiliated to Al-Qaeda.
    (AFP, 12/20/11)

2011        Dec 23, Turkey responded to French genocide allegations with a charge of its own, accusing France of committing genocide during its colonial occupation of Algeria. He alleged that beginning in 1945, about 15 percent of the population of Algeria was massacred by the French. He also said Algerians were burned in ovens. Most historians contend the Ottoman killings of up to 1.5 million Armenians constituted the first genocide of the 20th century.
    (AP, 12/23/11)

2011        Dec 31, In Algeria three Islamist militants were killed in the northeastern region of Tizi Ouzou, the scene of frequent attacks by groups affiliated to AQIM.
    (AP, 1/3/12)

2012        Jan 2, An Algerian court sentenced Abdelhamid Abou Zeid (Mohamed Ghdir), one of the most radical leaders of Al-Qaeda's north Africa branch, in his absence to life in prison for creating "an international terror group." Four other co-accused were each sentenced to five years in jail. Algerian security forces shot dead Mohand Ouramdane, a senior operative of Al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM).
    (AFP, 1/2/12)(AFP, 1/3/12)

2012        Jan 8, Algeria said it is to buy a 51-percent stake in mobile phone operator Djezzy, after talks with Russian telecoms firm Vimpelcom, the main shareholder in the group's Egyptian parent company. Djezzy is the largest mobile operator in Algeria, claiming with over 16 million subscribers last August. It has been operating in Algeria since 2002.
    (AFP, 1/8/12)

2012        Jan 10, Algerian police fired tear gas on protesters angry over unemployment and housing shortages in a southern Algerian gas industry town, leaving at least 10 injured.
    (AFP, 1/10/12)

2012        Jan 16, An Algerian court sentenced Nadji Abdelaziz (38), a former Guantanamo Bay detainee, to three years in jail for membership of an extremist group active overseas.
    (AFP, 1/16/12)

2012        Jan 22, Algeria sentenced in absentia Mokhtar Belmokhtar, a top leader in Al-Qaeda's north African branch, to death along with 3 others for acts of terrorism and "participation in voluntary acts of homicide" against members of the armed forces. Algeria has had a moratorium on the death penalty since 1993.
    (AFP, 1/23/12)

2012        Jan 24, In Mauritania representatives from Sahel states (Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Algeria) and Nigeria vowed to help each other fight terrorism from Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb and Islamist sect Boko Haram, which are said to have ties.
    (AFP, 1/24/12)

2012        Feb 9, Algeria’s Channel Three radio said 30 died in road accidents over the past week caused by cold weather, and 14 of asphyxia because of poor heating devices.
    (AP, 2/9/12)

2012        Feb 20, Algerian newspapers reported that a large cache of weapons, believed to originate from Libya, have been uncovered in the southern desert called In Amenas. They included dozens of Russian-made shoulder-launched missiles that can be used to shoot down airliners.
    (AFP, 2/20/12)

2012        Mar 3, In southern Algeria a suicide attack on a police base left 24 people wounded and the bomber dead at Tamanrasset. The Movement for Oneness and Jihad in West Africa claimed responsibility. The group surfaced in December, when it claimed to be holding three Westerners kidnapped from a Western Sahara refugee camp in Algeria in October.
    (AFP, 3/3/12)

2012        Mar 13, An Algerian court sentenced the head of Al-Qaeda's north African offshoot to death in absentia for a string of 2007 attacks, including a deadly bombing at the prime minister's office. Abdelmalek Droukdel, leader of Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Magreb (AQIM), and eight co-defendants were sentenced to death for premeditated murder, membership of a terrorist group and attacks using explosives.
    (AFP, 3/13/12)

2012        Mar 14, An Algerian court sentenced seven people to death in connection with a string of bombings carried out by Islamists in 2007. They included Fateh Bouderbala, considered to be the Algiers AQIM chief.
    (AFP, 3/14/12)

2012        Apr 5, In Mali the National Movement for the Liberation of the Azawad, a rebel group that recently seized control of the remote north, announced a cease-fire saying they had reached their military goal. Ansar Dine kidnapped seven Algerian diplomats in Gao. The Movement for Oneness and Jihad in West Africa (MUJAO) later demanded 15 million euros for the diplomats and 30 million for 3 aid workers kidnapped last Oct 23. On Sep 2 diplomat MUJAO said Tahar Touati has been executed.
    (AP, 4/5/12)(AFP, 4/5/12)(AFP, 5/2/12)(AFP, 9/2/12)

2012        Apr 11, In Algeria Ahmed Ben Bella (95), the country’s first post-independence president (1963-1965), died. He was hailed as an anti-colonialist hero and the father of the nation.
    (AFP, 4/12/12)

2012        Apr 29, Algerian security forces killed 20 members of an al-Qaida splinter group who were allegedly about to attack two fuel tankers.
    (AP, 4/30/12)

2012        May 2, In Algeria Tarek Mameri (23) was detained for posting videos on his blog calling for a boycott of last month's parliamentary election. On June 27 a court slapped an eight-month suspended prison sentence and a 1,000-euro ($1,250) fine on a blogger.
    (AFP, 6/27/12)

2012        May 10, Algeria held parliamentary elections. 44 political parties competed for 462 seats. The ruling party dominated elections, taking nearly half of the seats in the 462 person assembly, dramatically increasing its share. The Islamist Front for Justice and Development, mustered only 7 seats. President Bouteflika's National Liberation Front tightened its grip on power by securing 220 seats. 143 of the enlarged national assembly's 462 seats will be occupied by women, up from a representation of only 7% in the outgoing house. On June 2 a multi-party national monitoring commission said the elections were neither credible nor transparent.
    (AP, 5/10/12)(AP, 5/12/12)(AFP, 5/16/12)(AFP, 6/2/12)

2012        May 11, In Algeria an alliance of Islamist parties expecting a strong showing in Algeria's elections accused authorities of widespread fraud as initial figures pointed to them finishing third, with a spokesman suggesting unrest could ensue.
    (AP, 5/11/12)

2012        May 17, Algerian singer Warda al-Jazairia (72), the Algerian Rose, died in Cairo. She was a regional icon whose powerful patriotic tunes were matched in popularity by her romantic ballads. She performed for presidents and popular audiences, reinventing herself over the decades to appeal to old and young alike.
    (AFP, 5/18/12)

2012        May 20, Algerian newspapers reported that security services have arrested a large number of armed Algerian Islamists in the country's northeastern Tebessa region as they were preparing to enter Libya.
    (AFP, 5/20/12)

2012        Jun 5, In Algeria security forces killed six Al-Qaeda-linked Islamist militants in the Kabylie region, including three in the region's main town of Tizi Ouzou.
    (AFP, 6/17/12)

2012        Jun 7, An Algerian man died (36) in Oran a day after setting himself ablaze in protest when a policeman took away his driver's license in the Mascara region.
    (AFP, 6/7/12)

2012        Jun 15, In Algeria 2 police officers were killed and two others wounded when armed men attacked police barracks east of Algiers.
    (AFP, 6/17/12)

2012        Jun 19, Algerian troops killed eight Islamist militants in the Kabylie region, where Al Qaeda-linked groups remain active.
    (AFP, 6/20/12)

2012        Jun 28, An Algerian court sentenced Abdelmalek Droukdel, the leader of Al-Qaeda's north African branch (AQIM), and seven other Islamists to death for a series of murders and bombings, though most were tried in absentia. Mohamed Toumi, the only one present of those convicted, was found guilty of killing 5 soldiers in 1993, 14 police and 8 military police in 1994, and 8 more soldiers in 2006.
    (AFP, 6/28/12)

2012        Jun 29, In Algeria a dawn attack against the regional headquarters of the paramilitary police in the center of the town of Ouargla killed one person and left three wounded. A Mali-based Islamist group, the Movement for Oneness and Jihad in West Africa (MUJAO), claimed responsibility for the attack.
    (AFP, 6/29/12)

2012        Jul 9, Some 40,000 Algerian police auxiliaries, who once helped in the fight against armed Islamist groups, tried to march on the capital to demand pay rises and other benefits but were blocked by police.
    (AFP, 7/10/12)

2012        Jul 12, An Islamist rebel group in northern Mali said it had freed three of seven Algerian diplomats kidnapped in Gao on April 5.
    (AFP, 7/12/12)

2012        Aug 2, In Algeria smugglers were taken by surprise when a border patrol arrived on near Roubane village, less than a kilometer from the Moroccan frontier, and after a brief exchange of fire the gunmen fled. 4 border guards killed in the clash.
    (AFP, 8/4/12)

2012        Aug 15, In southern Algeria 3 armed Islamists, including a senior member of Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) thought to be close to its leader, were arrested. Necib Tayeb, one of the oldest members of Al-Qaeda's north African branch, headed its so-called "judicial committee" and had been wanted since 1995.
    (AFP, 8/20/12)

2012        Aug 17, The UN said Lakhdar Brahimi (78) of Algeria, a veteran diplomat troubleshooter, will take over from Kofi Annan as the international envoy on the Syria conflict.
    (AFP, 8/17/12)

2012        Aug 30, In Algeria 9 AQIM members, including a chief named as Boubeker Zemmouri (29), were killed by soldiers over the last 24 hours in a special operation at Jebel Djerrah in the Beni Amrane area of Boumerdes province, 50 km (30 miles) east of Algiers. Another militant was reported killed in a village in the same area.
    (AFP, 9/1/12)

2012        Sep 2, Algerian customs officials said nearly four tons of cannabis with a street value of around 1.6 million euros ($2 million) have been seized near border with Morocco.
    (AFP, 9/2/12)

2012        Oct 1, In Algeria Yacine Zaid, a member of a leading human rights organization, was beaten and arrested in in Ouargla, 700 kilometers (435 miles) south of the capital.
    (AP, 10/3/12)
2012        Oct 14, In Algeria Inalg Bekkai Boualem, also known as Khaled El Mig, the head of external relations for AQIM, was killed. Over the next two weeks, four other suspected AQIM militants were ambushed and killed by security forces following tipoffs from the local Berber population in the Kabylie mountains.
    (AP, 11/2/12)   

2012        Oct 18, In Algeria a group of armed men stopped a bus at a fake checkpoint in the Boumerdes region and checked each passenger's identity papers until they found two members of the military, whom they dragged out of the bus and shot dead by the side of the road.
    (AP, 11/2/12)

2012        Nov 9, An Algerian military cargo plane crashed in southern France with six people aboard. The plane returning to Algeria carried five military personnel and one official of the Algerian national bank.
    (AP, 11/9/12)

2012        Nov 29, Algeria held municipal elections. The ruling National Liberation Front party kept the upper hand in the elections along with its second-place coalition partner.
    (AP, 11/30/12)

2012        Dec 3, It was reported that Moktar Belmoktar, an Algerian-born jihadist, has decided to leave the al-Qaida franchise AQIM in order to create a movement spanning the entire Sahara desert.
    (AP, 12/3/12)

2012        Dec 20, French President Francois Hollande acknowledged the "unjust" and "brutal" nature of France's occupation of Algeria for 132 years, but stopped short of apologizing for the past as many Algerians have demanded on the second day of his state visit to Algeria.
    (AP, 12/20/12)

2012        Martin Evans authored “Algeria: France’s Undeclared War."
    (Econ, 12/31/11, p.67)
2012        In Algeria the average income per person was around $5,600. By 2020 it had fallen  to $4,000.
    (Econ., 7/18/20, p.36)

2013        Jan 1, In Algeria seven insurgents were killed and arms, ammunition and medicine recovered in Boulzazene in the Boumerdes region. The operation killed Izza Rezki, the finance chief for Abdelmalek Droukdel, the head of al-Qaida in the Islamic Maghreb.
    (AP, 1/2/13)(AP, 1/5/13)

2013        Jan 2, Algerian security forces killed two radical Islamist insurgents in the same locality east of the capital where seven were killed a day earlier.
    (AP, 1/2/13)

2013        Jan 8, A court in Algiers convicted Amar Gharbia (39) of taking part in the 2003 kidnapping of 15 European tourists, mainly German, in the Sahara Desert and sentenced him to life in prison. Youcef Ben Mohamed (25) of Mali was also convicted and imprisoned for seven years. Both belonged to the Salafist Group for Call and Combat which later transformed into al-Qaida in the Islamic Maghreb.
    (AP, 1/8/13)

2013        Jan 16, In Algeria gunmen attacked the gas complex at Ain Amenas in retaliation for France's military intervention against al-Qaida-linked rebels in neighboring Mali. The attack was carried out by militants from across northern Africa and two from Canada. Gas processing was stopped because of the terrorist attack. The attack left 37 hostages and 29 militants dead. Moktar Belmoktar (41), aka MBM, orchestrated the attack.
    (AP, 1/16/13)(AP, 1/20/13)(AP, 1/21/13)(SFC, 2/25/13, p.A2)

2013        Jan 17, In eastern Algeria Algerian helicopters strafed the remote Sahara gas plant in the outpost of Ain Amenas. At least 20 foreign hostages reportedly escaped from Islamist militants who had taken over the natural gas complex. Casualty figures varied widely.
    (AP, 1/17/13)
2013        Jan 17, British, Norwegian and Spanish oil companies evacuated workers from Algerian energy facilities following the hostage-taking by Islamic militants in the Sahara desert and Algeria's attempt to free them.
    (AP, 1/17/13)

2013        Jan 18, Algeria's state news service reported that nearly 100 of the 132 foreign workers kidnapped by Islamic militants had been freed. A "provisional toll" showed 12 hostages have been killed since the start of the military operation to free kidnapped workers.
    (AP, 1/19/13)

2013        Jan 19, Algeria's special forces stormed the Amenas natural gas complex in the middle of the Sahara desert in a final assault, killing 11 militants, but not before they in turn killed seven hostages. The standoff with Islamist extremists, begun on Jan 16, left at least 37 foreign workers and 27 militants dead.
    (AP, 1/19/13)(AP, 2/12/13)

2013        Jan 20, Algerian bomb squads scouring a gas plant, where Islamist militants took dozens of foreign workers hostage, found 25 new bodies as they searched for explosive traps left behind by the attackers, a day after a bloody raid ended the four-day siege of the remote desert refinery. At least 81 people have been reported dead, including 32 Islamist militants. Nearly two dozen foreign workers remained unaccounted.
    (AP, 1/20/13)(AP, 1/21/13)

2013        Jan 21, Algeria's prime minister said 37 foreign hostages were killed during the four-day-long standoff at a natural gas plant. At least one Canadian was among the Islamist militants who took hundreds hostage. 3 kidnappers were reported captured.
    (AP, 1/21/13)

2013        Jan 22, An Algerian official said the search is on for the five foreigners unaccounted for from the terrorist attack on the remote natural gas site, who may be lost in the vast Sahara desert.
    (AP, 1/22/13)

2013        Jan 25, Norwegian energy company Statoil ASA said two Norwegian employees missing after a terror attack on a gas plant in Algeria have been confirmed dead.
    (AP, 1/25/13)

2013        Feb 23, An Algerian army patrol reportedly killed 8 extremists in Boumerdes, about 50 km (30 miles) outside Algiers. Four fighters were killed reported in the northern Boukadir forest.
    (AP, 2/23/13)

2013        Mar 14, In Algeria some 10,000 people — an enormous number for the lightly populated region —demonstrated for jobs in the southern oil city of Ouargla. Thousands more protested later in the southern oil town, Laghouat. PM Abdelmalek Sellal acknowledged on March 16 that the demonstrators' demands are legitimate and the government hurriedly announced a string of measures to address the perceived geographical bias in oil jobs.
    (AP, 3/30/13)

2013        Apr 27, Algeria’s Pres. President Abdelaziz Bouteflika (76) suffered a stroke and was flown to France for treatment. It was initially described as a mini-stroke, but a June 11 statement said it was a full stroke.
    (AP, 6/11/13)   

2013        May 18, In Algeria Hicham Aboud, editor of the My Journal and Djaridati newspapers, rejected an order from the Communication Ministry to remove an article from the papers that claimed hospitalized President Abdelaziz Bouteflika had slipped into a coma. The government in return blocked the publication of his two newspapers.
    (AP, 5/19/13)

2013        Jul 19, Algerian special forces in the region of Bouira shot dead 4 Islamist militants, including two deputies to the leader of al Qaeda's North African wing AQIM.
    (Reuters, 7/20/13)
2013        Jul 19, US prosecutors charged Mokhtar Belmokhtar, a commander of al Qaeda's North African operations, with participating in an attack on an Algerian gas plant in January that killed dozens of workers, including three Americans. Belmokhtar, an Algerian, remained at large.
    (Reuters, 7/19/13)

2013        Aug 12, Algeria's chief prosecutor said an international arrest warrant has been issued for former OPEC president Chakib Khelil for his alleged role in a bribery scandal involving Algeria's state oil company, Sonatrach. It was issued two weeks ago but only announced today. The warrant also named eight other people, including Khelil's wife, their two children, and a nephew of a former Algerian foreign minister.
    (AP, 8/12/13)

2013        Aug 29, The United States said it has transferred two men from the US detention center at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, to the government of Algeria as part of its ongoing effort to close the controversial prison.
    (Reuters, 8/29/13)

2013        Sep 22, Algeria’s state energy giant Sonelgaz said General Electric Co. has won a $2.2-billion contract to provide turbines for six power plants.
    (AFP, 9/22/13)

2013        Oct 26, Algeria's energy minister said a new oil field containing an estimated 1.3 billion barrels has been discovered in the southern region of Hassi Messaoud. He said state oil company, Sonatrach, will rely on unconventional techniques to extract 50 percent of the reserves, including hydraulic fracturing (fracking).
    (AP, 10/26/13)

2013        Nov 19, Celebrations for Algeria's victory over Burkina Faso sent the country's soccer team to the 2014 World Cup finals, but left 12 people dead and some 240 injured.
    (AP, 11/20/13)

2013        Dec 4, Algerian army helicopters killed a top al-Qaida leader and four associates as they sped through the southern Algerian desert. Khalil Ould Addah, aka Abu Bassen, a regional leader from the Sahara branch.
    (AP, 12/5/13)

2013        Dec 5, The US Defense Department said Djamel Saiid Ali Ameziane and Bensayah Belkecem, two Algerian detainees at the US prison camp in Guantanamo Bay, have been repatriated despite protest from the prisoners who feared persecution.
    (AFP, 12/5/13)

2013        The World Bank ranked Algeria 152nd out of 185 in its global index of business friendliness.
    (Econ, 2/9/13, p.49)

2014        Jan 23, The Algerian army killed 4 armed Islamists overnight in an ambush south of the capital.
    (AFP, 1/23/14)

2014        Feb 11, An Algerian military transport plane crashed in the country's mountainous east with but one survivor. 76 people were killed, including women and children.
    (AP, 2/11/14)(AP, 2/12/14)

2014        Mar 1, Algerian police used clubs to break up a small demonstration by some opposed to President Abdelaziz Bouteflika's decision to run for a fourth term in elections next month. The Algerian army shot dead an Islamist in a mountainous region east of Algiers in an area between Tizi-Ouzou and Boumerdes.
    (AP, 3/1/14)(AFP, 3/2/14)

2014        Mar 5, The Algerian army shot dead a civilian and wounded two others when their car failed to stop at a checkpoint in the Kabylie region.
    (AFP, 3/5/14)

2014        Mar 6, Algerian security forces arrested about 40 people protesting in central Algiers against President Abdelaziz Bouteflika standing for a fourth term next month. Public demonstrations in Algeria remain banned, despite a state of emergency being lifted in 2011.
    (AFP, 3/6/14)

2014        Mar 13, US authorities said Ahmed Bel Bacha (44), held for 12 years without charge at Guantanamo Bay, has been turned over to the Algerian government. This reduced the Gitmo prisoner population to 154.
    (AP, 3/13/14)

2014        Mar 15, In Algeria about 100 activists from a new anti-government movement staged a rare protest against the ailing Pres. Abdelaziz Bouteflika (77) and his decision to run for a fourth term. 3 men from the Arab community died in clashes with Mozabite Berbers in Ghardaia. Clashes first erupted in December and 5 Mozabites were killed before violence was stopped by a heavy police deployment in late January.
    (AP, 3/15/14)(AP, 3/17/14)

2014        Apr 12, In Algeria a man was killed in the southern town of Ghardaia, the second fatality in less than 24 hours of ethnic violence between Berbers and Arabs in the region. Ghardaia has been the scene of violence since December when fighting erupted between Berbers and Arabs, known as Chaambas.
    (AFP, 4/12/14)

2014        Apr 13, In Algeria six armed militants were killed in operations in the center and far east of the country.
    (AP, 4/14/14)

2014        Apr 14, Algerian nomads began voting for the April 17 presidential election at 167 mobile polling stations in the country's vast desert interior.
    (AFP, 4/14/14)

2014        Apr 17, Algeria held presidential elections. Preliminary results indicated that President Bouteflika with 15 years in power won a 4th term.
    (Reuters, 4/17/14)(SFC, 4/19/14, p.A2)

2014        Apr 19, In Algeria 11 soldiers were killed and a dozen wounded in an ambush in the restive Kabylie region east of Algiers. On May 1 al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) claimed responsibility.
    (AFP, 4/20/14)(AFP, 4/21/14)(AFP, 5/1/14)

2014        Apr 28, Algeria’s Pres. Abdelaziz Bouteflika (77) recited the oath of office from a wheelchair and briefly thanked voters. In a speech handed out to journalists, however, he promised to continue democratic reforms and efforts at national reconciliation. He suffered from a stroke last year and rarely appears in public.
    (AP, 4/28/14)

2014        Jul 12, In Algeria a remote-controlled homemade bomb exploded and killed 7 security officers aboard a military truck in the northwest.
    (AP, 7/13/14)

2014        Jul 24, Air Algerie Flight 5017 carrying 116 people from Burkina Faso to Algeria's capital disappeared from radar early today over northern Mali after heavy rains were reported. Air navigation services lost track of the MD-83 about 50 minutes after takeoff from Ouagadougou. Half the dead were from France. Others included at least 19 Lebanese citizens. On June 29, 2017, Spanish plane leasing company Swiftair was charged in a French probe into the crash.
    (AP, 7/24/14)(SSFC, 7/27/14, p.A4)(AFP, 6/29/17)

2014        Aug 1, In Algeria a 5.6 earthquake shook Algiers leaving 6 people dead. 4 died after jumping from windows in panic and 2 from heart attacks.
    (SFC, 8/2/14, p.A2)

2014        Aug 30, A Ukrainian civilian cargo plane with 7 crew members crashed in the mountains of Algeria while on its way to Equatorial Guinea.
    (SSFC, 8/31/14, p.A5)

2014        Sep 14, A new armed group calling itself the Caliphate Soldiers in Algeria was reported to have split from AQIM, al Qaeda's North African branch, and sworn loyalty to the radical breakaway group Islamic State fighting in Syria and Iraq.
    (Reuters, 9/14/14)

2014        Sep 21, The Algerian group Jund al-Khilifa (Soldiers of the Caliphate)  kidnapped Herve Pierre Gourdel (55), a French national. They threatened to kill the hostage within 24 hours unless Paris halts air strikes on the Islamic State in Iraq. On Sep 24 Jund al-Khilifa posted a video and claimed to have beheaded Gourde.
    (AFP, 9/23/14)(AFP, 9/24/14)

2014        Sep 24, The Algerian group Jund al-Khilifa (Soldiers of the Caliphate)  beheaded Herve Pierre Gourdel (55), a French national. His body was reported found on Jan 15, 2015.
    (Econ, 10/4/14, p.53)(AP, 1/15/15)

2014        Oct 2, The Algerian army killed 5 foreign "criminals" near the border with Niger.
    (AFP, 10/3/14)

2014        Oct 10, Algeria said soldiers have killed 4 gunmen during anti-militant operations. 3 suspected militants were killed today in the area of Bouria, 120 km (75 miles) east of Algiers. The fourth militant was killed in a separate raid a day earlier in the Tiaret region.
    (AFP, 10/10/14)

2014        Oct 11, Algerian troops killed 5 more suspected militants in the eastern Bouira region where they have been tracking an al Qaeda splinter group that killed a French tourist.
    (Reuters, 10/12/14)

2014        Oct 13, In Algeria clashes broken out between Arabs and Berbers near the southern desert town of Ghardaia, with two people killed and businesses torched. National Police Chief Abdelghani Hamel visited the province in a bid to restore calm after hundreds of policemen staged a march in Ghardaia to protest against attacks on them by gangs of youths.
    (Reuters, 10/14/14)

2014        Oct 15, In Algeria nearly a thousand policemen staged a sit-in outside President Abdelaziz Bouteflika's office in Algiers, demanding better working conditions on a third day of public protests by police officers.
    (Reuters, 10/15/14)

2014        Nov 28, In southern Algeria 2 demonstrators were killed when clashes broke out late today between riot police and residents demanding better living conditions in Touggourta.
    (Reuters, 11/29/14)

2014        Dec 11, Algeria's justice minister said a second member of the group that kidnapped and beheaded French hiker Herve Gourdel last September has been identified and killed by the army.
    (AP, 12/11/14)

2014        Dec 14, In Algeria 9 illegal migrants from Niger were killed when their bus and a truck collided in Ghardaia as they were being repatriated.
    (AFP, 12/14/14)

2014        Dec 22, The Algerian army killed Abdelmalek Gouri, the head of a militant group that beheaded French tourist Herve Gourdel in September after it had pledged allegiance to the Islamic State group. 2 other militants were also killed in the operation in Isser.
    (AFP, 12/23/14)

2015        Jan 6, In Algeria protests in the remote and sparsely populated south over efforts to exploit the country's vast shale gas reserves spread to the regional capital Tamanrasset. Algeria has the third-largest estimated shale gas reserves in the world, after China and Argentina.
    (AP, 1/6/15)

2015        Feb 14, Algerian soldiers shot dead a heavily armed Islamist in the Tebessa region on the northeastern border with Tunisia.
    (AFP, 2/14/15)

2015        Mar 1, The Malian government signed a peace agreement with some northern armed groups in Algiers but the main Tuareg rebel alliance asked for more time to consult its grassroots.
    (AFP, 3/1/15)

2015        Mar 5, Algeria's parliament passed a law criminalizing violence against women, in a move criticized by both Islamist lawmakers as well as Amnesty Int’l. Amnesty International called for an amendment dropping a clause which allows the survivor of domestic violence to pardon the perpetrator, warning it was "a dangerous precedent".
    (AFP, 3/5/15)

2015        Mar 10, Algerian soldiers killed 3 Islamist militants and seized guns and explosives 150 km southwest of Algiers.
    (AFP, 3/10/15)

2015        May 19, The Algerian army ambushed a meeting of militants in the Boukram forest in Boumerdes, 13 miles (20 km) from Algiers. 25 extremists were killed and two captured in the assault.
    (AP, 5/20/15)(SFC, 5/20/15, p.A2)

2015        Jun 23, Algerian financier Rafik Khalifa was jailed for 18 years for embezzling from his own bank to finance a lavish lifestyle that included a French villa and a private jet.
    (AFP, 6/23/15)

2015        Jul 8, In southern Algeria at least 22 people were reported killed in two days of clashes between Chaamba Arabs and Mozabite Berbers in the M'zab valley.
    (AFP, 7/8/15)

2015        Jul 17, In Algeria 9 soldiers were killed in a militant ambush in the rugged Ain Defla province. Al-Qaida's North Africa branch claimed responsibility for the attack, putting the toll at 14.
    (AP, 7/19/15)

2015        Aug 22, Algerian soldiers killed 2 Islamist gunmen in an operation in the Ain Laksar area near Skikda, east of Algiers.
    (AFP, 8/23/15)

2015        Aug 26, Algeria said its armed forces have mounted operations against Islamist militants in the eastern coastal regions of Jijel and Skikda and killed 5 fighters in the past few days.
    (Reuters, 8/26/15)

2015        Nov 24, In Algeria a fire sparked by an electrical fault killed 18 African migrants, including children, and injured 50 others at a camp housing over 650 migrants in Ouargla.
    (AFP, 11/24/15)

2015        Dec 25, In Algeria Abu al-Hassan Rachid al-Bulaydi, head of the Sharia Committee, was killed in an ambush by government soldiers.
    (AP, 12/27/15)

2016        Jan 13, In Algeria 7 people died after a fire tore through a tourism complex at a beach resort on the outskirts of Algiers.
    (AFP, 1/13/16)

2016        Jan 24, Algerian airport and government officials said authorities have detained over 200 Moroccans at Algiers airport and summoned the Moroccan envoy to explain an "unusual" increase in the number of Moroccans apparently trying to cross into Libya.
    (Reuters, 1/24/16)

2016        Jan 29, Algerian troops killed four Islamist gunmen west of the capital. They were reportedly part of a group who left 9 soldiers dead in an ambush last year.
    (Reuters, 1/29/16)

2016        Jan, Algeria dissolved the DRS intelligence service and replaced it with three new directorates under the president.
    (Econ, 2/6/16, p.45)

2016        Feb 7, Algeria's parliament adopted a package of constitutional reforms that authorities say will strengthen democracy, but opponents doubt it will bring real change. The new constitution limited presidents to two five-year terms.
    (AFP, 2/7/16)

2016        Mar 18, In Algeria suspected jihadists launched a rocket attack on the In Salah gas asset in Krechba jointly run by Britain's BP, Norway's Statoil and Algerian company Sonatrach. Al-Qaida's North Africa arm soon claimed responsibility for the attack.
    (AFP, 3/18/16)(AP, 3/19/16)

2016        Mar 27, In Algeria at least 12 soldiers were killed when a military helicopter crashed in the south of the country.
    (Reuters, 3/27/16)

2016        May 17, The Algerian army began a sweep through the d'Errich forest in Ain Turk in the Bouira region troops. The operation killed 8 Islamist fighters.
    (AP, 5/21/16)

2016        Jun 19, Algerian troops killed 8 Islamist armed fighters and captured weapons in an operation south of the capital. Four other suspected militants were also arrested during the operation in Rouakeche area of Medea.
    (Reuters, 6/19/16)

2016        Sep 28, OPEC members met informally in Algiers and agreed to cut oil output for the first time since 2008.
    (Econ, 10/1/16, p.68)

2016        Nov 6, Algeria's army seized a cache of weapons, including 17 anti-aircraft missiles in the southern desert province of Adrar.
    (Reuters, 11/6/16)

2016        Dec 9, Human Rights Watch reported that over 1,400 migrants have been forcibly deported from Algeria this month. HRW also said Algerian authorities have deported hundreds of West African migrants to Niger this week, trucking them thousands of miles across the desert in one of the biggest roundups seen this year.
    (Reuters, 12/9/16)

2016        Algeria officially recognized the Berber language, spoken by about a quarter of the population.
    (Econ, 8/19/17, p.40)
2016        Algeria banned car imports in an effort to keep hard currency in the country. The move created a shortage of cars in the country.
    (Econ., 2/6/21, p.39)

2017        Jan 21, Representatives of Libya's neighbors meeting in Cairo warned the North African nation's main rival factions against seeking to settle their differences through military force, as Egypt announced that efforts were underway to bring their leaders together to chart a "joint vision" for the country. The representatives came from Libya, Egypt, Sudan, Algeria, Chad, Niger and Tunisia as well as the UN envoy to Libya.
    (AP, 1/21/17)

2017        Feb 15, Algeria's military forces killed 5 suspected extremists in an operation  around Bouira, one of the country's last Islamic militant holdouts.
    (AP, 2/17/17)

2017        Feb 17, Algeria's military forces killed 9 more suspected extremists in an ongoing operation around Bouira, one of the country's last Islamic militant holdouts.
    (AP, 2/17/17)

2017        Feb 26, In eastern Algeria a suicide bomb attack hit a police station in the city of Constantine. Police said two officers were injured. The Islamic State jihadist group soon claimed responsibility.
    (AFP, 2/27/17)

2017        Apr 19, Algerian armed forces foiled an attempted suicide bomb attack in the northeastern city of Constantine, with one attacker killed and a second arrested.
    (Reuters, 4/20/17)

2017        May 4, Algerians voted in parliamentary elections. President Abdelaziz Bouteflika's party and its coalition ally won a clear majority in parliamentary elections in a vote marred by low turnout.
    (AP, 5/4/17)(AFP, 5/5/17)

2017        May 24, Algerian Pres. Abdelaziz Bouteflika appointed Abdelmadjid Tebboune as prime minister, replacing his confidant Abdelmalek Sellal in the wake of parliamentary elections. Tebboune (71) was the housing minister of the outgoing government.
    (AFP, 5/24/17)

2017        Jul 31, Algerian troops killed six armed Islamist militants west of Algiers, where security forces last week broke up an Islamic State cell.
    (Reuters, 7/31/17)

2017        Aug 16, In Algeria Ahmed Ouyahia began a fourth term as Prime Minister and held that position until March 12, 2019.

2017        Aug 31, In Algeria a suicide bomber killed two policemen, including one who threw himself on the attacker whose explosives belt then detonated in the Tiaret region.
    (AFP, 8/31/17)

2017        Sep 2, Italian news agency ANSA said that about 800 Algerians had reached Sardinia aboard smugglers' boats directly from their homeland so far this year. Gov. Francesco Pigliaru has asked Italy's government to work with Algerian authorities to stop the flow.
    (AP, 9/2/17)

2017        Sep 13, An Algerian court found Mohamed Fali, the head of the country's tiny Ahmadi community, guilty of "offending Islam" and handed him a six-month suspended sentence. At least 286 of Algeria's roughly 2,000 Ahmadis have been arrested and tried since the start of a government crackdown last year.
    (AFP, 9/13/17)

2017        Oct 20, Algerian Foreign Minister Abdelkader Messahel claimed Moroccan banks launder money from hashish trafficking. He also said Morocco's national airline, Royal Air Maroc, "carries something other than passengers." The borders separating the North African countries have been closed since 1994.
    (AP, 10/21/17)

2017        Nov 16, Alice Zeniter (31) won the Students' Goncourt prize, France's most lucrative book prize for her novel "The Art of Losing," a powerful account of what happened to an Algerian "harki" family who sided with the French during the country's war of independence.
    (AP, 11/16/17)

2017        Nov 23, Algerians trickled to the polls to vote in local elections after a low-key campaign that has brought no expectation of change in the North African state.
    (AFP, 11/23/17)

2017        Dec 6, French President Emmanuel Macron made his first official visit to Algeria, announcing that he came as a "friend" despite France's historically prickly relationship with its former colony.
    (AFP, 12/6/17)

2017        Dec 9, It was reported that Algerian and French fighters, some arriving from Syria, have joined the ranks of the Islamic State group in northern Afghanistan where the militants have established new bases.
    (AFP, 12/10/17)

2018        Jan 12, Algerian Berbers marked their New Year as a public holiday with feasts, dancing and horse parades, a first for the North Africa region where indigenous peoples have long suffered marginalization. On December 27 veteran President Abdelaziz Bouteflika had decreed that Yennayer would become an official holiday for the first time "to strengthen national unity".
    (AFP, 1/12/18)

2018        Jan 26, Algeria's army killed seven armed men, described as "dangerous terrorists," in Khenchela province, 700 km east of the capital Algiers.
    (Reuters, 1/26/18)
2018        Jan 26, At the Vatican Pope Francis recognized as martyrs 19 people who were slain in Algeria in the 1990s, including a bishop killed by a car bomb and beheaded monks. Francis also approved a decree recognizing the martyrdom of a Romanian woman, Veronica Antal. She was stabbed repeatedly as she resisted being raped in 1958 in her homeland.
    (AP, 1/27/18)   

2018        Mar 27, Algerian doctors expanded a pay strike and teachers resumed one, putting pressure on President Abdelaziz Bouteflika and his prime minister at a time when resources are limited.
    (Reuters, 3/27/18)

2018        Apr 11, In Algeria a military plane crashed in a field near Boufarik airport southwest of Algiers, killing 257 people. A number of survivors were being treated at an army hospital following the crash of the Russian Ilyushin Il-76 transport plane.
    (Reuters, 4/11/18)

2018        Apr 20, France deported Algeria-born El Hadi Doudi (63), an influential Islamic preacher, back to Algeria. His mosque in the southern city of Marseille was shut down last year over accusations of hate speech.
    (AFP, 4/20/18)

2018        May 24, Algerian blogger Merzoug Touati, arrested last year over social media posts, was sentenced to 10 years in prison on espionage and other charges.
    (Reuters, 5/25/18)

2018        Jun 5, Algeria's Pres. Abdelaziz Bouteflika (81) vetoed down a plan by PM Ahmed Ouyahia to drastically increase duties for passport and other documents to cope with a halving in vital gas and oil revenues between 2014 and 2017.
    (Reuters, 6/7/18)

2018        Jun 19, Algeria's education minister said the Algerian government is taking the "extreme measure" of temporarily suspending the entire country's internet connection during for the first hour of each baccalaureate exam during the June 20-25 national high school exams period to stop cheating and the leaking of answers.
    (AP, 6/19/18)

2018        Jun 26, Public media reported that Algeria was expelling migrants by the hundreds almost every week into the desert. The expulsions came as Europe pressured North Africa to head off migrants before they cross the Mediterranean Sea.
    (SFC, 7/14/18, p.A5)     

2018        Jul 13, Algeria deported 391 African migrants trying to reach Europe, sending them back over the Sahara desert into neighboring Niger.
    (Reuters, 7/15/18)

2018        Jul 16, France expelled Djamel Beghal, an Algerian-born man twice convicted in France on terror charges, to stand trial in his homeland. He has been a high-profile figure for years in the underground world of terrorism.
    (AP, 7/17/18)

2018        Aug 7, An Algerian court convicted human rights activist Salim Yezza to a one-year suspended prison sentence and fined him 100,000 dinars (about $115.00) for inciting violence more than four years after his statements in support of a minority. Yezza, who lives in France, was arrested July 16 at the airport in Biskra as he tried to return home after attending his father's funeral.
    (AP, 8/7/18)

2018        Sep 12, France-based Algerian singer Rachid Taha (59) died overnight after suffering a heart attack at his home in the Paris suburbs.
    (AP, 9/13/18)

2018        Sep 13, French President Emmanuel Macron formally recognized the responsibility of the French state in the death of a dissident mathematician in Algeria in 1957, admitting for the first time the French military's "system" that included torture during Algeria's independence war.
    (AP, 9/13/18)

2018        Sep 17, German Chancellor Angela Merkel visited Algeria to promote bilateral ties and discuss migration and the situation in neighboring Libya.
    (AP, 9/17/18)

2018        Oct 9, In Algeria a man with a hammer attacked and damaged a statue of a bare-breasted woman, an emblem of the eastern city of Setif. In 1997, when extremist violence raged across Algeria, Islamists dynamited the statue, which was repaired in Italy. The colonial-era statue is the work of French sculptor Francis Saint Vidal, dating to 1889.
    (AP, 10/9/18)

2018        Oct 16, Around 200 deputies kept Algeria's parliament locked up for several hours in a protest action to press demands for the house speaker to step down. Said Bouhadja, president of the lower house, has since late September resisted calls to resign over charges of "mismanagement, exaggerated and illicit expenses and dubious recruitment".
    (AFP, 10/16/18)

2018        Oct 24, Algeria's governing coalition elected Mouad Bouchared (47), a relatively youthful new parliamentary speaker, to replace Said Bouhadja whom it accused of mismanagement.
    (Reuters, 10/24/18)

2018        Nov 17, Italy's coast guard said it is searching for eight Algerian migrants who apparently tried to swim to shore on Nov. 15 when the motor of their boat failed off Sardinia's southwest coast. Two bodies were already recovered.
    (AP, 11/17/18)

2018        Dec 3, Algeria's President Abdelaziz Bouteflika (81) called off a meeting with visiting Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman because of ill health, the national news agency APS reported. The prince held talks instead with PM Ahmed Ouyahia.
    (AP, 12/3/18)

2018        Dec 5, The UN secretary-general's envoy for Western Sahara met with foreign ministers from Algeria, Morocco and Mauritania plus leaders of the Polisario Front in Geneva over the future of the Morocco-annexed territory.
    (AP, 12/5/18)

2018        Dec 6, In Geneva two days of UN talks on Western Sahara ended with all sides promising to meet again for a similar "round table" in the first quarter of 2019, UN envoy Horst Koehler told reporters after the meeting ended unexpectedly early.
    (Reuters, 12/6/18)

2018        Dec 9, In Algeria the Roman Catholic Church beatified 19 Christians killed in a civil war in the 1990s including seven Trappist monks who were beheaded at their monastery by Islamist militants.
    (Reuters, 12/9/18)

2019        Feb 22, In Algeria several hundred demonstrators rallied in Algiers in defiance of a ban on demonstrations, and in other cities as well, against a bid by ailing President Abdelaziz Bouteflika to win a fifth term. Police fired tear gas to block a protest march on the presidential palace, prompting demonstrators to respond with stone-throwing. Security forces arrested 41 people as angry protests rocked the capital.
    (AFP, 2/22/19)(AFP, 2/23/19)

2019        Feb 24, Algerian police fired tear gas to disperse hundreds of demonstrators on a third straight day of rare political protests against plans for rarely seen President Abdelaziz Bouteflika to extend his 20-year rule by seeking a fifth term.
    (Reuters, 2/24/19)

2019        Feb 26, In Algeria thousands of students staged protests in several university cities across the country to voice their opposition to ailing President Abdelaziz Bouteflika's bid for a fifth term.
    (Reuters, 2/26/19)

2019        Feb 28, Algerian police arrested a dozen journalists protesting "censorship" of coverage of demonstrations against a fifth term for President Abdelaziz Bouteflika, as the prime minister compared the rallies to those that sparked Syria's war.
    (AFP, 2/28/19)

2019        Mar 1, In Algeria tens of thousands of protesters marched through Algiers against ailing President Abdelaziz Bouteflika's bid for a fifth term, surging past a barricade and defying repeated volleys of tear gas fired by police. A total of 183 people were injured during the protests.
    (AP, 3/1/19)(Reuters, 3/2/19)

2019        Mar 3, In Algeria hundreds of students staged new protests in Algiers and other cities against a fifth term for ailing President Abdelaziz Bouteflika as he faced a midnight deadline to register for April elections. Bouteflika vowed in a letter read out on state television late to organize a "national conference" that would set a date for further polls which he would not contest. The message was followed by the formal submission of his candidacy for the April 18 poll.
    (AFP, 3/3/19)(AP, 3/4/19)
2019        Mar 3, In France at least 2,000 demonstrators gathered in Paris and other cities to protest Algerian President Abdelaziz Bouteflika's bid to stand for a fifth term in office.
    (AFP, 3/3/19)

2019        Mar 4, Algerians dismissed President Abdelaziz Bouteflika's promise to quit early if re-elected for a fifth time and said they were ready for new protests seeking his resignation.
    (AFP, 3/4/19)

2019        Mar 5, Thousands of Algerian students marched in protest at ailing President Abdelaziz Bouteflika's determination to stand for re-election, brushing aside his pledge not to serve a full fifth term.
    (AFP, 3/5/19)

2019        Mar 6, Algerian war veterans said that protesters demanding ailing President Abdelaziz Bouteflika step down after 20 years in power had legitimate concerns and they urged all citizens to demonstrate.
    (Reuters, 3/6/19)

2019        Mar 8, Tens of thousands of Algerians defied heavily deployed riot police and resumed mass protests against President Abdelaziz Bouteflika posing the biggest threat to his 20-year-old rule. A private TV station said several lawmakers of the ruling FLN party have resigned to join mass anti-government protests.
    (Reuters, 3/8/19)
2019        Mar 8, In Algeria criminals took advantage of thousands-strong demonstrations to break into the National Museum of Antiquities and Islamic Arts in Algiers, founded in 1897.
    (AFP, 3/9/19)

2019        Mar 9, Algeria's higher education ministry brought forward university holidays, as authorities sought to quell protests against ailing President Abdelaziz Bouteflika's bid for a fifth term.
    (AFP, 3/9/19)

2019        Mar 10, Thousands of students took to the streets of Algeria against President Abdelaziz Bouteflika's bid for a fifth term, as schools shut and transport in the capital halted as part of a protest strike. Bouteflika (82) returned to Algeria after medical treatment in Switzerland. Clerics defied any state role in their work, in a rebuff to an ailing leader fighting for his political survival.
    (AFP, 3/10/19)(Reuters, 3/11/19)
2019        Mar 10, In France thousands of Algerian-origin protesters demonstrated in Paris and other cities around the country against President Abdelaziz Bouteflika, calling on him not to seek another term in office.
    (AFP, 3/10/19)

2019        Mar 11, In Algeria more than 1,000 judges said they would refuse to oversee the upcoming election if Pres. Abdelaziz Bouteflika contests it. The ailing Bouteflika (82) abandoned his bid for a fifth term in power but stopped short of stepping down.
    (AFP, 3/11/19)(Reuters, 3/12/19)

2019        Mar 12, In Algeria thousands demonstrated in several cities demanding immediate political changes. Algerian students protested against President Abdelaziz Bouteflika's decision to delay presidential elections indefinitely, amid an unprecedented public revolt against his 20-year leadership.
    (Reuters, 3/12/19)(AP, 3/12/19)

2019        Mar 13, Algeria's government declared itself ready for talks with protesters seeking rapid political change, saying it sought a ruling system based on "the will of the people" after opposition groups rejected proposed reforms as inadequate. Hundreds of school teachers and students protested in Algiers amid fears that President Abdelaziz Bouteflika plans to extend his two-decade rule.
    (Reuters, 3/13/19)(AFP, 3/13/19)

2019        Mar 14, Algeria's new PM Noureddine Bedoui said he would form a temporary government of technocrats and others to work toward political change in response to weeks of street protests, and he urged the opposition to join in a dialogue.
    (Reuters, 3/14/19)

2019        Mar 15, In Algeria a huge crowd of demonstrators marched through Algiers for a fourth consecutive Friday to step up demands for President Abdelaziz Bouteflika's ouster, rejecting his offer not to seek re-election.
    (AFP, 3/15/19)

2019        Mar 17, Algeria's Ministry of Religious Affairs informed clerics that they are no longer required to submit texts of their sermons to authorities for approval.
    (Reuters, 3/18/19)

2019        Mar 19, In Algeria thousands of students, university professors and health workers rallied in Algiers calling for President Abdelaziz Bouteflika to quit, and a new group headed by activists and opposition figures told the army not to interfere.
    (Reuters, 3/19/19)

2019        Mar 20, Algeria's ruling FLN party said it fully supports protesters, dealing one of the heaviest blows to President Abdelaziz Bouteflika since mass demonstrations against his rule began nearly a month ago.
    (Reuters, 3/20/19)

2019        Mar 22, Tens of thousands of Algerians rallied to demand the immediate resignation of Pres. Abdelaziz Bouteflika, who is fighting for his political survival in the face of relentless protests and the desertion of long-time allies.
    (Reuters, 3/22/19)

2019        Mar 23, Hundreds of lawyers in Algeria marched in the country's capital, Algiers, to demand the departure of ailing 82-year-old President Abdelaziz Bouteflika at the end of his term scheduled on April 28.
    (AP, 3/23/19)

2019        Mar 26, Algeria's powerful army chief Ahmed Gaid Salah said he wants to trigger the constitutional process that would declare President Abdelaziz Bouteflika unfit for office, after more than a month of mass protests against the ailing leader's long rule.
    (AP, 3/26/19)

2019        Mar 27, Algeria's biggest union and an influential party backed an army call for President Abdelaziz Bouteflika to quit in a managed exit plan that was quickly rejected by protesters demanding the overthrow of the entire political elite.
    (Reuters, 3/27/19)

2019        Mar 28, Hundreds of protesters took to the streets of central Algiers again to demand the resignation of President Abdelaziz Bouteflika and changes to the political system after the powerful army called for the veteran leader to be removed.
    (Reuters, 3/28/19)

2019        Mar 29, Algerian police used tear gas and water cannon to try to disperse hundreds of thousands of demonstrators demanding the resignation of Pres. Abdelaziz Bouteflika days after the army called for his removal to end weeks of political crisis.
    (Reuters, 3/29/19)

2019        Mar 31, A top Algerian businessman, Ali Haddad, was arrested overnight at an Algerian border post as he was apparently trying to go to Tunisia amid political crisis in the country. Haddad, long a backer of President Abdelaziz Bouteflika, resigned this week as head of Algeria's Business Forum.
    (AP, 3/31/19)

2019        Apr 1, Algeria's Pres. Abdelaziz Bouteflika said he will step down before his fourth term ends on April 28.
    (SFC, 4/2/19, p.A2)
2019        Apr 1, Algerian prosecutors announced fresh graft probes and a ban on corruption suspects leaving the country, as a government shake-up failed to halt calls for President Abdelaziz Bouteflika to quit. Private Ennahar TV said Algeria has seized the passports of 12 businessmen over corruption allegations.
    (AFP, 4/1/19)(Reuters, 4/1/19)

2019        Apr 3, Algeria's Constitutional Council said it had accepted Bouteflika's resignation and informed parliament that his post was officially vacant. The speaker of the upper house of parliament, currently Abdelkader Bensalah (77), acts as interim leader for up to 90 days during which a presidential election must be organized.
    (AFP, 4/3/19)

2019        Apr 5, In Algeria a vast crowd of protestors flooded the streets of Algiers, the first mass demonstrations since the resignation of ailing president Abdelaziz Bouteflika and a show of strength by those pushing demands for reform. Private Ennahar TV reported that Algeria's spy chief has been fired.
    (AFP, 4/5/19)    (Reuters, 4/5/19)

2019        Apr 8, Algeria's army chief said he expects to see members of the ruling elite prosecuted for corruption and will support a transition toward elections after mass protests ousted the long-serving president.
    (Reuters, 4/10/19)

2019        Apr 9, In Algeria thousands of protesters rejected Abdelkader Bensalah, the upper house chairman and parliament's choice as interim president, after the resignation of Abdelaziz Bouteflika, demanding immediate steps to remove the old guard and introduce sweeping democratic reforms.
    (Reuters, 4/9/19)

2019        Apr 10, Algeria's army chief Ahmed Gaid Salah backed Abdelkader Bensalah, the country's newly appointed interim leader. Salah said the judicial system would pursue corruption cases and resurrect those that had been dropped.
    (AP, 4/10/19)

2019        Apr 12, In Algeria hundreds of thousands of protesters rallied in Algiers for an eighth successive Friday to demand the departure of the ruling elite, as the country prepared for a presidential election in July. Police fired tear gas, water cannons and arrested 108 people.
    (Reuters, 4/12/19)(SFC, 4/13/19, p.A2)

2019        Apr 16, In Algeria thousands of demonstrators marched through the streets of Algiers and in cities across the country calling for political change in the eighth week of mass protests. Tayeb Belaiz, the controversial head of the country's constitutional council, quit bowing to weeks of anger from protesters.
    (AP, 4/16/19)(AFP, 4/16/19)

2019        Apr 17, Hundreds of Algerians rallied outside the offices of the country's biggest union, calling for its chief to quit over his ties to ousted president Abdelaziz Bouteflika. Abdelmadjid Sidi Said has been secretary-general of the powerful General Union of Algerian Workers (UGTA) since 1997.
    (AFP, 4/17/19)

2019        Apr 19, In Algeria hundreds of thousands of demonstrators returned to the streets to press demands for wholesale democratic change well beyond former president Abdelaziz Bouteflika's resignation, chanting "we do what we want".
    (AP, 4/19/19)

2019        Apr 21, Algerian state TV said five local billionaires, some of them close to former president Abdelaziz Bouteflika who quit over mass protests, have been arrested as part of an anti-graft investigation.
    (Reuters, 4/22/19)

2019        Apr 23, Thousands of Algerian students marched through the capital calling for the overthrow of the "system" and trials for members of ousted president Abdelaziz Bouteflika's inner circle. State media said Issad Rebrab (74), the country's richest man, has been detained in jail on the public prosecutor's orders, a day after his arrest as part of a corruption probe. Forbes magazine has listed Rebrab as Algeria's richest man and the sixth-wealthiest in Africa, with a net worth of $3.38 billion in 2019.
    (AP, 4/23/19)(AFP, 4/23/19)

2019        Apr 24, Algeria's private channel Ennahar TV reported that four brothers from the Kouninef family, tycoons close to former president Abdelaziz Bouteflika, have been placed in temporary custody by a judge. The four were arrested together with Algeria's wealthiest businessman, Issad Rebrab, on April 22 as part of an anti-graft investigation.
    (Reuters, 4/24/19)
2019        Apr 24, Abassi Madani (88), founder of Algeria's banned Islamic Salvation Front (FIS),died in Qatar where he lived in exile. Madani was imprisoned in 1991 and only called for an end to the violence in 1999, when his group said it was laying down its arms. Madani had been living in Qatar since 2003. He had fled into exile after serving a 12-year prison sentence in Algeria.
    (AFP, 4/27/19)

2019        Apr 26, Algerian protesters vowed to keep up the pressure on the regime left behind by Abdelaziz Bouteflika, staging a tenth consecutive weekly mass rally after a string of people close to the toppled president were sacked or arrested over alleged graft.
    (AFP, 4/26/19)

2019        May 3, In Algeria tens of thousands of protesters rallied peacefully in Algiers after Friday prayers, chanting "We will not shut up!" and demanding the departure of Algeria's ruling elite a month after the downfall of President Abdelaziz Bouteflika.
    (Reuters, 5/3/19)

2019        May 26, Algeria’s national radio said a midnight deadline to register for a July 4 controversial presidential election has passed without a single candidate putting themselves forward.
    (AFP, 5/26/19)

2019        Jun 7, In Algeria hundreds of demonstrators packed the center of Algiers calling on the interim president to quit a day after he called for dialogue aimed at fixing a new date for elections as soon as possible.
    (AFP, 6/7/19)

2019        Jun 12, Algeria's supreme court ordered the detention of former PM Ahmed Ouyahia for alleged involvement in corruption, including "awarding illegal privileges and dissipation of public funds".
    (Reuters, 6/13/19)

2019        Jun 13, In Algeria former PM Abdelmalek Sellal was jailed in an anti-corruption sweep — the second former head of government in two days to be sent to prison while his case is investigated.
    (AP, 6/13/19)

2019        Jun 17, An Algerian court ordered the detention of Mourad Eulmi, head of family-owned firm SOVAC that is a partner of Germany's Volkswagen AG, on suspicion of corruption.
    (Reuters, 6/17/19)
2019        Jun 17, In Algeria Ali Haddad, a key backer of former leader Abdelaziz Bouteflika and one of the country's top businessmen, was jailed for six months for holding two passports.
    (AFP, 6/17/19)

2019        Jun 18, Algeria's military chief General Ahmed Gaid Salah said that those who oppose the army were "enemies of Algeria", as the country's protest movement demands an overhaul of the entire regime.
    (AFP, 6/18/19)

2019        Jun 21, In Algeria huge numbers protested in Algiers, keeping up their push for a political overhaul despite a spate of arrests ahead of the latest weekly rally. State radio said businessman Hassan Larbaoui has been detained in an anti-corruption investigation launched after protests ended the rule of President Abdelaziz Bouteflika.
    (AFP, 6/21/19)(Reuters, 6/21/19)

2019        Jul 2, Algerian parliament president Moad Bouchareb quit, after prolonged demands for his removal by protesters who saw him as a pillar of the ruling elite.
    (Reuters, 7/2/19)

2019        Jul 5, Tens of thousands of Algerians took to the streets for the 20th straight to demand new democratic leadership and celebrate their country's hard-fought independence from colonial France.
    (AP, 7/5/19)

2019        Jul 31, Algeria's interim president fired the justice minister and named the Algiers public prosecutor to replace him, amid a series of corruption investigations involving allies of former President Abdelaziz Bouteflika.
    (Reuters, 7/31/19)

2019        Sep 6, In Algeria protesters piled into the streets of Algiers on the 29th straight week of demonstrations, and the first since army chief Ahmed Gaid Salah said he wants a date set by Sept. 15 for presidential elections.
    (AP, 9/6/19)

2019        Sep 11, In Algeria Karim Tabou, a prominent opposition leader, was taken into custody and charged with "contributing to weakening army morale".
    (Reuters, 9/13/19)

2019        Sep 13, In Algeria tens of thousands of Algerians marched in Algiers to demand that the rest of the ruling elite follow former president Abdelaziz Bouteflika in quitting power before any new election. 22 citizens were detained in the march.
    (Reuters, 9/13/19)(SFC, 9/16/19, p.A2)

2019        Sep 20, In Algeria thousands of pro-democracy protesters took to the streets of the capital for a 31st week, chanting defiantly in the face of a crackdown on the demonstration by the country's powerful Army chief Gen. Ahmed Gaid Salah.
    (AP, 9/20/19)

2019        Sep 25, A military court in Algeria sentenced the brother of the country's longtime former leader and two ex-intelligence chiefs to 15 years in prison for plotting against the state.
    (AP, 9/25/19)

2019        Oct 4, In Algeria tens of thousands of protesters chanted slogans demanding the army quit politics, a purge of the ruling elite, an end to corruption, and the freeing of opposition leaders.
    (Reuters, 10/4/19)

2019        Oct 13, Hundreds of Algerians protested in front of parliament against a proposed energy law that they say the caretaker government has no right to pass.
    (Reuters, 10/13/19)

2019        Nov 22, Tens of thousands of Algerians marched through the capital and other towns and cities as their months-long campaign of protests gathers steam ahead of an election they demand to be cancelled.
    (Reuters, 11/22/19)

2019        Dec 6, Tens of thousands of Algerians took to the streets, making a show of strength of their last weekly protest before a presidential election next week that they have rejected as meaningless.
    (Reuters, 12/6/19)

2019        Dec 10, In Algeria two former prime ministers, Ahmed Ouyahia and Abdelmalek Sellal, were convicted and sentenced to prison for corruption-related charges. Ouyahia was sentenced to 15 years and Sellal was sentenced to 12 years. Both men had ten days to appeal.
    (SFC, 12/11/19, p.A4)

2019        Dec 12, In Algeria thousands of people took to the streets in Algiers and other cities chanting "No vote! We want freedom!" as authorities held a presidential election that protesters view as a charade to keep the ruling elite in power. All five candidates that won approval to stand are former senior officials.
    (Reuters, 12/12/19)

2019        Dec 13, In Algeria protesters in the main cities took to the streets again after Abdelmadjid Tebboune (74), a former prime minister and loyalist of the influential army chief, was declared the oil-rich nation's new president in an election boycotted by members of the vibrant pro-democracy movement. Turnout was just 41%.
    (AP, 12/13/19)

2019        Dec 23, Algeria's powerful military chief Gen. Ahmed Gaid Salah (79), who was instrumental in pushing out the gas-rich country's long-serving president amid pro-democracy protests earlier this year, died unexpectedly.
    (AP, 12/23/19)

2019        Dec 28, Algeria's newly elected Pres. Abdelmadjid Tebboune reached beyond the political class to name educator and diplomat Abdelaziz Djerad as prime minister.
    (AP, 12/28/19)

2020        Jan 23, Top diplomats from Libya's neighboring countries and beyond met in Algiers amid intensifying international efforts to end the conflict tearing apart the oil-rich country.
    (AP, 1/23/20)

2020        Feb 4, Algerian President Abdelmadjid Tebboune pardoned more than 3,000 prisoners serving sentences less than six months as he seeks to win support after months of political turmoil.
    (Reuters, 2/4/20)

2020        Feb 9, An attack on an Algerian military barracks near the country's border with Mali killed one soldier and the driver of a vehicle rigged with explosives. The Islamic State soon claimed responsibility.
    (Reuters, 2/11/20)

2020        Feb 14, A ship carrying migrants set off from Algeria and disappeared. All aboard were presumed drowning.
    (AP, 3/6/20)

2020        Feb 21, Several thousand Algerians demonstrated to mark the first anniversary of protests that ousted President Abdelaziz Bouteflika, demanding the removal of allies of the former leader who are still in power and more steps towards democracy.
    (Reuters, 2/21/20)

2020        Feb 26, Algeria and Greece reported their first cases of the coronavirus.
    (Reuters, 2/26/20)

2020        Mar 12, Algeria's president ordered all schools closed immediately after the North African country saw its first death from the virus. Algeria has 25 cases so far.
    (AP, 3/12/20)

2020        Mar 20, Algerian protesters called off their weekly anti-government demonstrations for the first time in more than a year to reduce the spread of coronavirus. The country has recorded at least 10 deaths and 90 confirmed virus cases.
    (BBC, 3/20/20)

2020        Apr 18, Algeria said it will extend a lockdown by 10 days until April 29 as it tries to limit the spread of the coronavirus amid increases in deaths and confirmed cases. Algeria has so far reported 2,418 infections and 364 deaths.
    (Reuters, 4/18/20)

2020        May 9, Algeria's government said it has approved increases in retirement pensions ranging from 2% to 7%, despite financial problems facing the oil exporting country.
    (Reuters, 5/9/20)

2020        Jun 6, Algeria has reported about 700 deaths due to the coronavirus. The government has used the outbreak to to repress the Hirak, as the country's protest movement is known.
    (Econ., 7/6/20, p.38)

2020        Aug 15, Algeria started reopening its mosques, cafes, beaches and parks for the first time in five months. The country has reported more than 37,000 infections and 1,350 deaths.
    (SSFC, 8/16/20, p.A11)

2020        Oct 8, It was reported that protests have been held in several cities in Algeria to demand action to stop violence against women following the rape and murder of a teenager. The charred body of Chaïma (19) was found in a deserted petrol station in Thenia, 80 km (50 miles) east of the capital Algiers, this month. Her killer reportedly confessed to the crime and is under arrest.
    (BBC, 10/8/20)

2020        Oct, Algeria's President Abdelmadjid Tebboune (74) was hospitalized in Germany due to the coronavirus.
    (AP, 11/4/20)

2020        Nov 1, Algerians voted in a referendum meant to cement changes made possible after long-time President Abdelaziz Bouteflika was forced to resign last year. Algerians approved amendments that reinstated presidential term limits and granted new powers to the executive and to parliament.
    (BBC, 11/1/20)(Econ., 1/2/21, p.34)

2020        Nov 15, It was reported that Anis Rahmani (aka Mohamed Mokaddem), the head of a major Algerian media group, has been jailed for five years. He was accused of recording and broadcasting a phone conversation with a senior intelligence officer without his consent.
    (BBC, 11/15/20)

2020        Nov 30, Algeria's energy minister said OPEC members have reached a consensus on the need to extend existing oil production cuts for three months from January and will work on convincing their allies in the wider OPEC+ group to support such a move.
    (Reuters, 11/30/20)

2020        Dec 29, Algerian state TV reported that President Abdelmadjid Tebboune (75) has returned home after receiving coronavirus treatment in Germany for two months.
    (AP, 12/29/20)

2021        Jan 2, It was reported that a retrial of the powerful brother of Algeria's deposed president Abdelaziz Bouteflika cleared him of charges of conspiracy for which he was serving a 15-year jail sentence. He still faced corruption charges.
    (BBC, 1/2/21)

2021        Jan 30, Algeria launched its coronavirus vaccination campaign in Blida, where the country's first COVID-19 case was confirmed in March.
    (AP, 1/30/21)

2021        Feb 16, In Algeria thousands from all walks of life thronged to Kherrata, a town 200km (120 miles) east of Algiers, a continuation of the anti-government movement, known as the Hirak.
    (BBC, 2/20/21) 

2021        Feb 18, Algeria's President Tebboune announced widely anticipated snap legislative elections and a cabinet reshuffle.
    (BBC, 2/20/21)

2021        Feb 22, In Algeria thousands of protesters, marking the second anniversary of their pro-democracy movement, took to the streets in Algiers, where a wall of security forces stepped aside to let marchers pass.
    (AP, 2/22/21)

2021        Feb 26, In Algeria protesters took to the streets of Algiers and other cities in a bid to restart weekly pro-democracy demonstrations. Activists pressed for a full makeover of the opaque system governing Algeria, with the military in the shadows.
    (AP, 2/26/21)

2021        Mar 29, In Algeria Walid Kechida (25), a supporter of the Hirak protest movement, was sentenced to three years in jail for satirical social media posts mocking the government and religion, sparking condemnation from rights groups.
    (AFP, 4/1/21)

2021        Apr 22, It was reported that Algerian author Said Djabelkhir (53) has been sentenced to three years in prison for offending Islam. Mr Djabelkhir has written two books on Islam in which he suggested that parts of the Quran, such as the story of Noah's Ark, might not be literally true and criticized practices including the marriage of young girls in some Muslim societies.
    (BBC, 4/22/21)

2021        Jun 12, Algeria held a parliamentary election that was boycotted by an influential protest movement and regarded by many with skepticism. For the first time in an Algerian election women made up half of the candidates.
    (AP, 6/12/21)

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