Timeline Venus

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If the Sun were a pumpkin one foot in diameter, Venus would be a pea about 75 feet away.
    (SFEC, 4/30/00, Par p.9)

2CE        Jun 17, Jupiter and Venus drew close together and appeared to fuse as a single star. This was later thought to be the Biblical star of Bethlehem.
    (SSFC, 12/23/01, Par p.9)

3CE        Aug 12, Venus-Jupiter were in conjunction: alleged "Star of Bethlehem." [see Feb 17, May 8, Jun 17, 2CE]
    (MC, 8/12/02)

1631        Dec 6, The 1st predicted transit of Venus took place. It had been predicted by Kepler, but he died a year before the event.
    (MC, 12/6/01)(Econ, 5/29/04, p.78)

1639        Nov 24, A 2nd predicted transit of Venus occurred. Jeremiah Horrocks of England predicted and observed the event with his friend William Crabtree.
    (MC, 11/24/01)(Econ, 5/29/04, p.78)

1761        A transit of Venus occurred. Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon observed it from Cape Town, South Africa.
    (Econ, 5/29/04, p.79)

1769        Jun 3, British navigator, Captain James Cook, British astronomer Charles Green and Swedish naturalist Daniel Solander observed and recorded a transit of Venus across the sun on the island of Tahiti during Cook's first voyage around the world.

1874        A transit of Venus occurred. Pierre Janssen, a French astronomer, invented a multi-exposure camera to view the event, but the results were disappointing.
    (Econ, 5/29/04, p.79)

1882        A transit of Venus occurred.
    (MC, 11/24/01)

1940        Rupert Wildt, American astrophysicist, theorized that the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere of Venus kept heat from escaping and raise the temperature of the planet. This phenomena came to be called "the greenhouse effect."
    (SFEC, 12/19/99, Par p.16)

1959        Mar 9, The 1st known radar contact was made with Venus.
    (MC, 3/9/02)

1962        Feb 5, Sun, Moon, Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter & Saturn aligned within a 16 degree arc.
    (MC, 2/5/02)

1962        Jul 22, Mariner I was launched for Venus, veered off course within seconds, and was ordered destroyed. It was later found that a single hyphen from the computer launch code was missing.
    (SFEM, 8/22/99, p.9)

1962        Aug 27, The United States launched the Mariner 2 space probe with an Atlas D booster. On December 14, 1962, Mariner 2 passed within just over 20,000 miles of Venus, reporting an 800F surface temperature, high surface pressures, a predominantly carbon dioxide atmosphere, continuous cloud cover, and no detectable magnetic field.
    (AP, 8/27/97)(SFEM, 8/22/99, p.9)(http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/tmp/1962-041A.html)

1962        Dec 14, The U.S. space probe Mariner 2 approached Venus, transmitting information about the planet.
    (AP, 12/14/97)

1966        Mar 1, Moscow reported that a space probe had crashed on Venus. Venera 3 became the 1st man-made object to impact on a planet (Venus).
    (HN, 3/1/98)(SC, 3/1/02)

1967        Jun 12, Venera 4, a space probe of the Soviet Union, was launched. It transmitted information on the atmosphere of Venus.
    (SFEC, 9/28/97, p.A14)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Venera_4)

1967        Jun 14, The space probe Mariner 5 was launched from Cape Kennedy on a flight that took it past Venus.
    (AP, 6/14/97)

1967        Oct 18, A Russian unmanned spacecraft made the first landing on the surface of Venus.
    (HN, 10/18/98)

1967        Oct 19, The US space probe Mariner V flew past Venus.
    (AP, 10/19/07)

1969        May 16, Russias Venera 5 landed on Venus and returned data on atmosphere.

1970        Aug 17, Venera 7 was launched by USSR for a soft landing on Venus.

1978        Aug 8, The United States launched Pioneer Venus II, which carried scientific probes to study the atmosphere of Venus.
    (AP, 8/8/99)

1978        Dec 5, The American space probe Pioneer Venus I, orbiting Venus, began beaming back its first information and picture of the planet to scientists in Mountain View, Calif.
    (AP, 12/5/98)

1982        Mar 1, Russian spacecraft Venera 13 landed on Venus and sent back data.

1989        May 4, The US launched its Magellan spacecraft to Venus.

1982        Mar 5, Russian spacecraft Venera 14 landed on Venus and sent back data.

1990        Feb 9, The Galileo satellite, launched Oct. 18, 1989, made its closest approach to Venus.

1990        Aug 10, US's Magellan spacecraft landed on Venus.

1994        Oct 12, The Magellan space probe ended its four-year mapping mission of Venus, plunging into the planet's atmosphere.
    (TV, 10/17/95)(AP, 10/12/99)

1997        David Grinspoon authored Venus Revealed.
    (SFC, 5/13/02, p.A4)

1998        David Grinspoon co-authored Venus.
    (SFC, 5/13/02, p.A4)

2004        Jun 8, Venus made a rare transit across face of the sun.
    (AP, 6/9/04)

2005        Nov 9, Europe's first mission to Venus was successfully launched from the Baikonur cosmodrome in Kazakhstan and emitted a first signal at the start of its 163-day journey to the turbulent planet. The Venus Express aimed to arrive in April 2006.
    (AFP, 11/9/05)(Econ, 11/12/05, p.85)(Econ, 12/1/07, p.96)

2006        Apr 13, European scientists released new photos of Venus south pole from the orbiting Venus Express spacecraft. The images revealed a mass of sulfuric acid clouds swirling in 220 mph winds.
    (SFC, 4/14/06, p.A2)

2010        Dec 8, Japans space agency said its Akatsuki space probe has hurtled past Venus after failing to enter the planet's orbit as planned, but it voiced hope for a successful rendezvous six years from now.
    (AFP, 12/8/10)

2012        Jun 5, Venus began to pass between the Earth and the Sun. The next such transit will not occur until 2117.
    (AFP, 6/6/12)(Econ, 6/2/12, p.95)

2015        Dec 9, Japan's space agency said its "Akatsuki" probe had successfully entered into orbit around Venus after an initial attempt at reaching the second planet from the sun failed five years ago.
    (AFP, 12/9/15)

2020        Sep 14, It was reported that astronomers using powerful telescopes have detected the chemical phosphine in the toxic atmosphere of Venus that could be a signal of something living in one of the solar systems most inhospitable environments. Reanalysis of the data substantially reduced the amount of phosphine one part per billion.
    (NY Times, 9/15/20)(Econ., 2/13/21, p.67)

2020        Oct 15, The European-Japanese probe BepiColombo took a black-and-white snapshot of Venus from a distance of 17,000 km (10,560 miles), as it used Earth's neighbor to adjust its course on the way to Mercury, the solar systems smallest and innermost planet.
    (AP, 10/15/20)

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