Timeline 2008 (D) October-December

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2008        Oct 1, The US Senate voted 74-25 for its version of a $700 billion rescue of the nation’s banking system. A 2nd House vote was set for Oct 3. The 451-page bill was larded with earmarks adding billions of dollars in tax breaks with little to do with restoring confidence in financial markets.
    (SFC, 10/2/08, p.A1)(SFC, 10/3/08, p.A1)
2008        Oct 1, The US Senate voted overwhelmingly in favor of overturning a three-decade ban on atomic trade with India, allowing American businesses to begin selling nuclear fuel, technology and reactors in exchange for safeguards and UN inspections of India's civilian nuclear plants. In response Pakistani PM Yousaf Raza Gilani said: "Now Pakistan also has the right to demand a civilian nuclear agreement with America. We want there to be no discrimination. Pakistan will also strive for a nuclear deal and we think they will have to accommodate us."
    (AP, 10/2/08)
2008        Oct 1, Africom, a US command structure created one year ago, took over all US military operations in Africa. Many on the continent feared that the program has a hidden agenda skewed by the war on terror and a self-interested scramble for resources.
    (AP, 9/30/08)(www.africom.mil/AboutAFRICOM.asp)
2008        Oct 1, US officials said they have seized almost two tons of cocaine from a Panama-flagged cargo ship in international waters off Puerto Rico. The cocaine was hidden on a ship, which was loaded with coal and had launched from Colombia.
    (AP, 10/1/08)
2008        Oct 1, Warren Buffett’s Berkshire Hathaway agreed to invest $3 billion in preferred shares of GE and the right to buy another $3 billion in stock at $22.25 a share for 5 years.
    (WSJ, 10/2/08, p.B1)
2008        Oct 1, In Oakland, Ca., Mayor Dellums, officials from developer Shorenstein Co. and the Metropolitan Life Insurance Co. broke ground on a new $240 million, 23-story office tower. 601 City Center was expected to open in 2 years.
    (SFC, 10/2/08, p.B3)
2008        Oct 1, Two days of torrential rains in the Algerian desert created flash floods. 43 deaths were later confirmed.
    (AP, 10/2/08)(AP, 10/12/08)
2008        Oct 1, In Australia a 7-year-old boy broke into the popular Alice Springs zoo, fed a string of animals to the resident crocodile and bashed several lizards to death with a rock. By the time he was done, 13 animals worth around $5,500 had been killed, including a turtle, bearded dragons and thorny devil lizards.
    (AP, 10/3/08)
2008        Oct 1, In Australia a major report to the government on global warming suggested that Australians should eat kangaroos instead of cattle and sheep.
    (AP, 10/1/08)
2008        Oct 1, The Bank of England offered 40 billion dollars (22.6 billion pounds) to banking institutions on a one-week tender amid ongoing world economic turmoil.
    (AP, 10/1/08)
2008        Oct 1, Fifteen more Chinese dairy companies were identified as producing milk products contaminated with an industrial chemical, further broadening a scandal affecting products ranging from baby formula to chocolate.
    (AP, 10/1/08)
2008        Oct 1, Berhe Gebreegziabher, the head of Ethiopia’s animal health in the agriculture ministry, said an outbreak of African horse sickness has killed more than 2,000 horses, mules and donkeys in Ethiopia since March.
    (AFP, 10/1/08)
2008        Oct 1, The EU imposed one of its highest ever cartel fines on a "paraffin mafia" accused of fixing prices and markets for everyday household products like chewing gum, tires and candles.
    (AP, 10/1/08)
2008        Oct 1, EU monitors began patrolling Georgian territory and Russian troops allowed some of them into a buffer zone around the breakaway region of South Ossetia despite earlier warnings from Moscow they would be blocked.
    (AP, 10/1/08)
2008        Oct 1-2008 Oct 3, In India over 100,000 Bollywood actors, technicians and cameramen began an indefinite strike protesting irregular pay and the hiring of non-union members. The strike was called off Oct 3 after unions and producers announced they had thrashed out a deal for better pay and working conditions.
    (WSJ, 10/2/08, p.A14)(AFP, 10/3/08)
2008        Oct 1, The Iraqi government took responsibility for paying some 54,000 members of Sunni Arab groups fighting al-Qaeda. A bombing in a car parked outside a kebab restaurant in the mostly Shiite commercial district of Karradah in central Baghdad killed at least three people.
    (AP, 10/1/08)(WSJ, 10/2/08, p.A14)
2008        Oct 1, In Japan a pre-dawn fire raged through an adult video theater in the western city of Osaka, killing at least 15 people and injuring 10 others.
    (AP, 10/1/08)
2008        Oct 1, Kenyan police arrested Andrew Mwangura, a maritime watchdog official, on suspicion of criminal activity just days after the official gave reporters sensitive information about a hijacked arms freighter off Somalia's coast.
    (AP, 10/2/08)
2008        Oct 1, The Russian Supreme Court declared the last czar and his murdered family to be victims of political repression, a decision that helps Russia move toward closing a chapter in its tortured history.
    (AP, 10/1/08)
2008        Oct 1, In Somalia at least seven civilians were killed in a mortar fire exchange that erupted when an African Union (AU) plane landed at Mogadishu airport in defiance of a "ban" by an Islamist militia. 28 Somali migrants died after their boat capsized off the town of Shabwa because of strong wind and high waves. A Yemen coast guard patrol reached the boat and rescued 23 other migrants.
    (AP, 10/2/08)
2008        Oct 1, Spanish police said they have staged their biggest ever operation against Internet child pornography, arresting 121 people suspected of involvement in a network that reached 75 countries. Some 800 police took part in Operation Carousel, an investigation that began last year in cooperation with Brazilian police.
    (AFP, 10/1/08)
2008        Oct 1, In central Tanzania a stampede at an overcrowded dance hall in Tabora killed 20 children and left 50 others injured as they celebrated the Islamic Eid al-Fitr festival.
    (AP, 10/2/08)
2008        Oct 1, In Venezuela Julio Soto, a student leader at the University of Zulia, was killed by unidentified gunmen in the western city of Maracaibo. Assailants sprayed his vehicle with gunfire and then fled without taking anything. Soto had helped organize protests against constitutional amendments proposed by President Hugo Chavez.
    (AP, 10/1/08)

2008        Oct 2, US vice presidential candidates held their only debate prior to elections. Alaska’s Gov. Sarah Palin often spoke in generalities. Delaware Sen. Joe Biden was generally focused and forceful, and seemed to take painstaking care not to appear disrespectful in the least.
    (AP, 10/3/08)
2008        Oct 2, The US FBI arrested Puerto Rico Sen. Jorge de Castro Font (45) for providing political favors in exchange for cash and services totaling roughly half a million dollars. He was indicted by a federal grand jury on 31 criminal counts including bribery, wire fraud and money laundering.
    (AP, 10/2/08)
2008        Oct 2, A new report suggested that HIV, the AIDS virus, originated in Africa between 1884 and 1924. Earlier estimates had put the date around 1930. A new estimate of how many Americans have the AIDS virus put the number at about 1.1 million.
    (SFC, 10/2/08, p.A3)(Reuters, 10/3/08)
2008        Oct 2, Bolivian state media reported that President Evo Morales has rejected a request from the US Drug Enforcement Administration to fly anti-narcotics missions over the South American nation's territory.
    (AP, 10/3/08)
2008        Oct 2, Britain’s Beckley Foundation, a charity which numbers senior experts and other academics among its advisors, reported that cannabis is less harmful than alcohol or tobacco,  and called for a "serious rethink" of drug policy.
    (AFP, 10/2/08)(www.beckleyfoundation.org/aboutus/)
2008        Oct 2, General Vladimir Zagorec was extradited from Austria to Croatia on charges of stealing gems used a collateral in an arms deal during the Balkan wars of the 1990s. 4 days later his lawyer’s daughter Ivana Hodak (26) was murdered.
    (Econ, 11/1/08, p.61)
2008        Oct 2, Suicide bombers targeted Shiite worshippers as they left morning prayers at two Baghdad mosques, killing 24 people and injuring 50 others. Gunmen fatally shot six Sunnis as they traveled in a minibus in the mainly Shiite town of Wajihiyah, 60 miles north of Baghdad. A suicide bomber in western Baghdad wounded four American soldiers and 2 Iraqis.
    (AP, 10/2/08)(WSJ, 10/3/08, p.A14)
2008        Oct 2, India’s ban on smoking in public places became effective, leaving public health officials with a much tougher task: get the nation's estimated 120 million smokers to stub out their cigarettes.
    (AP, 10/2/08)
2008        Oct 2, In northwest Pakistan a suicide bomber blew himself up near the house of politician Asfandyar Wali Khan, who was receiving guests to mark the end of the Islamic fasting month at his home in Charsadda, killing at least four people.
    (AP, 10/2/08)
2008        Oct 2, Choi Jin-sil (39), one of South Korea's most popular actresses, was found dead in an apparent suicide after suffering from post-divorce depression and harassment by online rumors about her allegedly irregular financial dealings.
    (AP, 10/2/08)
2008        Oct 2, Sri Lanka’s air force bombed the offices of the rebel peace secretariat, the headquarters for its negotiating team in long-defunct peace talks. Scattered battles killed 42 rebel fighters and two soldiers.
    (AP, 10/3/08)

2008        Oct 3, Pres. Bush signed the Child Soldiers Accountability Act,  making it a federal crime in the US to recruit and use soldiers under 15 years even if they operate outside the US. Rebel groups and government-armed militias using child soldiers in the Philippines and 16 other strife-torn countries faced prosecution in the United States under the new law.
    (AP, 10/8/08)
2008        Oct 3, The US House of Representatives voted 263-171 for the $700 billion economic rescue plan and Pres. Bush quickly signed the bill. Wall Street fell 157 points to 10,325.38, its lowest close since October 2005, as more economic bad news was made public. The $700 billion represented about 6% of American GDP.
    (AP, 10/4/08)(WSJ, 10/4/08, p.B1)(Econ, 9/27/08, p.17)
2008        Oct 3, United States Protection and Investigations, a Houston security company, was indicted on charges of defrauding the US government for work done during the Afghanistan war and rebuilding efforts.
    (AP, 10/3/08)
2008        Oct 3, The Great Lakes Governors (Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Wisconsin) applauded President George W. Bush for signing a joint resolution of Congress providing consent to the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River Basin Water Resources Compact.  It barred new diversions beyond the Great Lakes Basin.
    (www.cglg.org/projects/water/CompactConsent.asp)(Econ, 5/22/10, p.36) 
2008        Oct 3, Thomas Petters (51), founder of Petters Co., was arrested in Minnesota on charges of mail and wire fraud, money laundering and obstruction of justice. Over 20 investors and investment groups were thought to have been bilked of over $100 million and losses claimed by funds could top $2 billion.
    (WSJ, 10/4/08, p.B7)
2008        Oct 3, O.J. Simpson was found guilty of robbing two sports-memorabilia dealers at gunpoint in a Las Vegas hotel room on Sep 13, 2007. This was 13 years to the day after being acquitted of killing his wife and her friend in Los Angeles. Four other men charged in the case struck plea bargains that saved them from potential prison sentences in return for their testimony.
    (AP, 10/4/08)
2008        Oct 3, Wachovia said it agreed to be acquired by San Francisco-based Wells Fargo & Co. in a $15.1 billion all-stock deal. But Citigroup demanded that Wachovia abide by the terms of its earlier deal to buy Wachovia's banking operations.
    (AP, 10/3/08)
2008        Oct 3, In Alabama a collision on a rural highway between an 18-wheeler and a state van killed 6 applicants for prison jobs and their driver.
    (SFC, 10/4/08, p.A3)
2008        Oct 3, NATO launched an airstrike near the Afghan border with Pakistan. A jet fighter bombed two houses in different parts of Datta Khel. Intelligence officials in the region said 2 women and one child were killed and 5 men wounded. A militant attack on a US patrol in eastern Kunar province killed an Afghan civilian and wounded four others.
    (Reuters, 10/3/08)(AP, 10/3/08)
2008        Oct 3, Soldiers from both Cambodia and Thailand were wounded in a brief clash along their volatile border.
    (AP, 10/3/08)
2008        Oct 3, India's Tata Group announced it was abandoning a plant in eastern India which was slated to turn out the world's cheapest car after weeks of violent demonstrations triggered by a land dispute.
    (AFP, 10/3/08)
2008        Oct 3, Iraq's presidential council officially approved a law that paves the way for US-backed provincial elections to be held by the end of January. Iraq's parliament had approved the law unanimously on Sept. 24 following months of deadlock centering on a Kurdish-Arab dispute over the city of Kirkuk. Kurdish legislators agreed to the latest proposal after all sides accepted a UN compromise to put off the vote in Tamim province, which includes Kirkuk, and form a committee to recommend separate legislation for elections there by March 31. The US military killed Mahir Ahmad Mahmud al-Zubaydi, also known as Abu Assad or Abu Rami, an al-Qaida in Iraq leader. He was suspected of masterminding the Oct 2 attacks in Baghdad as well as recent bombings and the 2006 videotaped execution of a Russian official. American troops also killed the man's wife in a firefight as they tried to capture him in the northern neighborhood of Azamiyah in Baghdad.
    (AP, 10/3/08)(AP, 10/4/08)
2008        Oct 3, Mexican police clashed with hundreds of villagers who seized the entrance to a Mayan archaeological site and six protesters were killed. Hundreds of villagers had occupied the entrance to the Chinkultic ruins for nearly a month, saying they were protesting excessive entrance fees and a lack of investment in the area. 2 men were found shot to death in Tijuana in the same empty lot near the elementary school where the 12 bodies were found on sep 29.
    (AP, 10/4/08)
2008        Oct 3, US missiles hit a house in Mohammadkhel near the Afghan border. Two Pakistani intelligence officials, citing reports from field agents and informants, said 14 Taliban militants and 8 Arabs died in the attack about 28 miles west of Miran Shah. 2 people wounded in the attack died later bringing the toll to 24.
    (AP, 10/4/08)(AP, 10/5/08)
2008        Oct 3, Russian share prices dropped sharply despite a nearly $200 billion Kremlin rescue plan. Oleg Deripaska, billionaire tycoon, was reported to have given up his 20% stake in Magna Int’l., a Canadian auto parts maker, to creditors.
    (WSJ, 10/4/08, p.A4)
2008        Oct 3, A car exploded outside the Russian military's headquarters in South Ossetia, killing 7 people and wounding 3. The South Ossetian government said a car, that had been confiscated in an ethnic Georgian village after weapons were found in it, exploded near a building where leaders of the Russian peacekeeping force were located.
    (AP, 10/3/08)(www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,432172,00.html)
2008        Oct 3, The United Nations said fighting has killed at least 80 civilians in Somalia's capital over the last two weeks. More than 100 people have been injured. UN humanitarian office spokeswoman Elisabeth Byrs said nearly half of Somalia's 8.3 million people were in need of food and other assistance.
    (AP, 10/3/08)
2008        Oct 3, Sri Lankan air force jets bombed the offices of the Tamil Tiger political chief Balasingham Nadesan.
    (AP, 10/3/08)
2008        Oct 3, Fighting between Kurdish rebels and Turkey's army and air force in southeastern Turkey and northern Iraq killed 15 soldiers and at least 23 insurgents, in the deadliest battle between the longtime enemies this year.
    (AP, 10/4/08)
2008        Oct 3, Officials said Vietnam's health ministry has discovered the industrial chemical melamine in 18 food products imported from China and three other countries and has ordered them recalled and destroyed.
    (AP, 10/3/08)

2008        Oct 4, The fight over control of Wachovia intensified, as a judge temporarily agreed to block the sale of the bank to Wells Fargo, Citigroup announced in a news release. The next day the battle for control of Wachovia tilted toward Wells Fargo as a state appeals court blocked a lower court ruling that had favored rival bidder Citigroup.
    (AP, 10/5/08)(AP, 10/6/08)
2008        Oct 4, In SF the 8th annual Hardly Strictly Bluegrass Festival, backed by financier Warren Hellman, continued or its 2nd day in Goldengate Park with an audience of some 40,000. The next day the festival drew some 100,000 fans. SF also celebrated its annual LoveFest, begun in 2004, with a downtown parade that drew tens of thousands of spectators.
    (SSFC, 10/5/08, p.B1,B3)(SFC, 10/6/08, p.E1)
2008        Oct 4, In the Porter Ranch area of Los Angeles County Karthik Rajaram (45), an unemployed financial adviser despondent over his troubles, shot and killed his wife (39), mother-in-law (69), and 3 sons (7,12,19), before taking his own life.
    (SFC, 10/7/08, p.A6)
2008        Oct 4, Luis Santos (b.1986), a Concord, Ca., resident, was stabbed to death after a party near the San Diego college campus. Esteban Nunez (19), the son of former Assembly Speaker Fabian Nunez, was later arrested along with three others in connection with the stabbing death. In 2010 Esteban Nunez pleaded guilty to voluntary manslaughter and on June 25, 2010, he and a co-defendant were sentenced to 16 years in prison.
    (SFC, 5/6/10, p.A4)(http://tinyurl.com/2eaav49)(SFC, 6/26/10, p.A4)
2008        Oct 4, The US coalition says its forces have killed five militants in two operations targeting al-Qaida and Taliban insurgents in eastern Afghanistan.
    (AP, 10/4/08)
2008        Oct 4, The leaders of Britain, France, Germany and Italy began meeting in Paris at a summit on the world financial crisis threatening banks, growth and jobs across the continent. They vowed to do all they could to prevent Wall Street's turmoil from destabilizing their banking systems. Germany's No. 2 commercial property lender, Hypo Real Estate Holding AG, said its $48 billion rescue plan had unraveled when private banks pulled out.
    (AP, 10/5/08)
2008        Oct 4, A ceremony in Diwaniyah marked the departure of Polish troops from Iraq. Poland sent combat troops into Iraq as part of the US-led coalition and had 2,500 troops deployed there at its peak. The last 900 were being pulled out this month. Two US helicopters collided while landing at a base in Baghdad. One Iraqi soldier was killed.
    (AP, 10/4/08)(AP, 10/5/08)
2008        Oct 4, In Mexico gunmen killed Salvador Vegara, the mayor of Ixtapan de la Sal, a resort town southwest of Mexico City. Vegara was in a car with two other people when the gunmen opened fire from another vehicle. The bodies of 5 men were found asphyxiated in a car in the eastern part of Tijuana. The men were beaten and had their hands bound. The bodies of two beheaded men were found wrapped in blankets on a road elsewhere in the city. The heads were in black plastic bags nearby.
    (AP, 10/4/08)
2008        Oct 4, In Sri Lanka heavy fighting near the rebels' administrative capital of Kilinochchi left 20 guerrillas and 4 soldiers dead. Soldiers overran five rebel bunkers in the Mullaitivu district, killing 5 rebels. 4 rebels and a soldier were killed in clashes in the Vavuniya and Welioya regions.
    (AP, 10/5/08)
2008        Oct 4, Taiwan's president welcomed a US decision to sell the island up to $6.5 billion in advanced weaponry, while China warned the move would damage relations between Beijing and Washington.
    (AP, 10/4/08)

2008        Oct 5, The United States opened a trade office in Libya to boost economic ties with the oil-rich state.
    (AFP, 10/6/08)
2008        Oct 5, The Illinois attorney general's office said that Bank of America was modifying loans for customers in 11 states.
    (AP, 10/6/08)
2008        Oct 5, In northern California 8 people were killed when a passenger bus, carrying 41 senior Laotian, casino-bound gamblers, ran off a rural road near Williams. Police the next day arrested driver Quintin J. Watts (52) on suspicion of driving under the influence. Daniel E. Cobb (68), owner of the bus, was among the dead. The bus had invalid plates and identification numbers and a lapsed corporate registration. A 9th victim died on Oct 10. The death toll later reached 11. On Feb 3, 2021, Watts was released from prison after his sentence was reduced because of changes in state law.
    (SFC, 10/6/08, p.A1)(SFC, 10/7/08, p.A1)(SFC, 10/11/08, p.B3)
2008        Oct 5, Abu Dhabi’s Mubadala Development Co. and Texas-based ConocoPhillips said they have signed a deal with Kazakhstan’s national oil company to drill in a potentially lucrative region in the Caspian Sea.
    (SFC, 10/6/08, p.D1)
2008        Oct 5, Afghan and US troops clashed and called airstrikes on a group of insurgents in southern Zabul province, killing 43 militants.
    (AP, 10/7/08)
2008        Oct 5, Isolated shootings in Brazil soured municipal elections that President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva's allies hope will give them a leg up on 2010's presidential vote.
    (AP, 10/5/08)
2008        Oct 5, In Egypt 13 people were killed and 24 injured when a bus and a truck collided head-on south of Cairo.
    (AP, 10/5/08)
2008        Oct 5, Germany joined Ireland and Greece in guaranteeing all private bank accounts, putting Europe's biggest economy at odds with calls for a unified European response to the global financial meltdown.
    (AP, 10/5/08)
2008        Oct 5, Hong Kong said it found two Cadbury chocolate products contained considerably more of the industrial chemical melamine than the city's legal limit in a growing scandal over Chinese tainted food.  China attempted to contain the fallout from the tainted milk scandal, announcing a new survey of dairy products showed no traces of melamine and promising to subsidize farmers hit by the scare.
    (AP, 10/5/08)(AFP, 10/5/08)
2008        Oct 5, A Georgian Interior Ministry official said Russian troops have begun dismantling positions in the so-called security zones inside Georgia that they have occupied since August's brief but intense war.
    (AP, 10/5/08)
2008        Oct 5, Iceland’s government and banks scrambled to rescue the country’s banking system. Its economy was one of the hardest hit by the global financial crises.
    (WSJ, 10/5/08, p.A13)
2008        Oct 5, Clashes between Hindus and Muslims in Dhule, a western Indian town left at least four people dead and 80 injured, forcing police to impose a curfew.
    (AP, 10/6/08)
2008        Oct 5, Ahmed Abul Gheit, the first Egyptian foreign minister to visit Iraq in nearly two decades, arrived in Baghdad and promised to help Iraq face its challenges. 11 people, including women and children, were killed after US forces came under attack by gunfire and a suicide bomber during a raid in Mosul. There were no casualties among American forces. Elsewhere in the northern city, gunmen opened fire on mourners in a funeral tent, killing 5 people and wounding 7 others. American troops acting on a tip killed Abu Qaswarah (also known as Abu Sara), the No. 2 leader of al-Qaida in Iraq in a raid in the northern city of Mosul. The Moroccan was known for his ability to recruit and motivate foreign fighters.
    (AP, 10/5/08)(SFC, 10/6/08, p.A3)(AP, 10/15/08)
2008        Oct 5, In Israel PM Olmert's Cabinet agreed to hand over to Russia a small tract known as Sergei's Courtyard. The area, which once accommodated Russian pilgrims visiting the Holy Land, now houses offices of Israel's Agriculture Ministry and the Society for the Protection of Nature in Israel.
    (AP, 10/7/08)
2008        Oct 5, A 6.6-magnitude earthquake struck the mountains of Central Asia, destroying Nura village in Kyrgyzstan and killing at least 75 people including 41 children.
    (AP, 10/6/08)(AP, 10/7/08)(SFC, 10/11/08, p.B6)
2008        Oct 5, In southern Mexico 5 state police officers were arrested in connection with a deadly raid to dislodge protesters from a Mayan archaeological site. Mexican authorities seized 7 million pills of pseudoephedrine, the main ingredient used to make methamphetamine, at the Guadalajara airport. More than 1,100 pounds (500 kilograms) of the pills were found packed in 24 boxes on a shipment from Calcutta, India. Three separate shipments of more than a ton each were confiscated last month at Mexico City's airport. Those also originated in Calcutta.
    (AP, 10/6/08)
2008        Oct 5, MEND, the main militant group in Nigeria's oil-producing Niger Delta, said it had released around 19 Nigerian oil workers kidnapped last month but was still holding two Britons and a Ukrainian.
    (Reuters, 10/5/08)
2008        Oct 5, In Pakistan a three-day ultimatum from the government for Afghans living illegally in Bajur to leave was due to expire today. But of an estimated 80,000 Afghans, only about 15,000 had left.
    (AP, 10/5/08)
2008        Oct 5, Iba Ndiaye (b.1928), Senegalese modernist painter, died in Paris.
    (SSFC, 10/19/08, p.B6)
2008        Oct 5, Apirak Kosayodhin, the leader of Thailand's opposition Democrat Party, won re-election as governor of Bangkok, defeating the ruling party candidate as well as a one-time sex tycoon. Thai police arrested Chamlong Srimuang, a key protest leader and one-time Bangkok mayor, on charges of insurrection in a continuing crackdown against an anti-government movement that spearheaded the ouster of a prime minister last month.
    (AP, 10/5/08)
2008        Oct 5, In western Turkey a truck packed with illegal immigrants from Afghanistan and Myanmar overturned, killing 18 people and injuring 23.
    (AP, 10/5/08)

2008        Oct 5 - 2008 Oct 7, The need of a socio-economic knowledge collider was first pointed out in the OECD Global Science Forum on Applications of Complexity Science for Public Policy in Erice, Sicily. The FuturICT project (Future Information and Communication Technology) grew from this to explore social life on Earth, and everything it relates to.
    (Econ, 2/23/13, p.76)(http://www.futurict.eu/the-project/proposal)
2008        Oct 5 - 2008 Oct 17, Arab militia attacked at least 15 Sudanese villages. Aid workers and a rights watchdog later said the violence near Muhagariya, a south Darfur flashpoint has displaced 12,000 people and killed more than 40 civilians.
    (AP, 10/25/08)

2008        Oct 6, The United States and Lebanon set up a joint military commission to bolster military cooperation, a move that follows the first visit by the newly elected Lebanese president to Washington.
    (AP, 10/6/08)
2008        Oct 6, Stock markets around the world fell on fears that the global financial crises will worsen. The DJIA fell 800.06 intraday ending down 369.88 to close at 9555.50. Oil prices closed at $87.81, its lowest settlement since February 6.
    (SFC, 10/7/08, p.D3)(WSJ, 10/5/08, p.C3)
2008        Oct 6, The US Supreme Court declined a patent appeal from Dish Network forcing the company to pay TiVo $104 million.
    (SFC, 10/7/08, p.D6)
2008        Oct 6, It was reported that Atherton, Ca., philanthropist Lorry Lokey (81) had pledged $75 million to the Stanford Univ. School of Medicine for a major stem cell research center. In 2007 he had pledged at least $33 million.
    (SFC, 10/6/08, p.B1)
2008        Oct 6, Three European scientists shared the 2008 Nobel Prize in medicine for separate discoveries of viruses that cause AIDS and cervical cancer, breakthroughs that helped doctors fight the deadly diseases. French researchers Francoise Barre-Sinoussi and Luc Montagnier (1932-2022) were cited for their discovery of human immunodeficiency virus, or HIV; while Germany's Harald zur Hausen was honored for finding human papilloma viruses that cause cervical cancer.
    (AP, 10/6/08)(SSFC, 2/13/22, p.F10)
2008        Oct 6, Bank of America said it will modify troubled mortgages with up to $8.4 billion in interest rate and principal reductions for nearly 400,000 customers of Countrywide Financial Corp., the troubled mortgage lender it acquired last summer.
    (AP, 10/6/08)
2008        Oct 6, Eli Lilly & Co. said it would pay $70 per share for New York’s Imclone. The offer put about $1 billion into the pocket of Bristol-Myers for its stake in Imclone and still allowed it to share in revenue from Erbitux, a cancer medication.
    (SFC, 10/7/08, p.D6)
2008        Oct 6, Mother’s Cookies, an Oakland, Ca. institution for 92 years, filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy in Delaware. Owner Catterton Partners, a private equity firm based in Connecticut, cited failed efforts to obtain credit financing.
    (SFC, 10/9/08, p.C1)
2008        Oct 6, Stewart Parnell, an executive for Peanut Butter of America, sent an e-mail saying that delays in shipping product from a Georgia plant was costing huge dollars. Federal investigators later found that batches of product containing salmonella were shipped with fake lab records saying salmonella screenings were negative. On Sep 21 Parnell was sentenced to 28 years in prison.
    (SFC, 9/22/15, p.A7)
2008        Oct 6, G7 president Robert Zoellick said the Group of Seven is outmoded and should be replaced with a new entity that would include growing economies in Asia and Latin America.
    (SFC, 10/7/08, p.D5)
2008        Oct 6, European governments struggled to find a coordinated approach to the crisis sweeping financial markets, as Denmark became the latest country to guarantee bank deposits, putting more pressure on Britain and other countries to follow.
    (AP, 10/6/08)
2008        Oct 6, In France Jean-Christophe Mitterrand, the son of a late French president, an Israeli-Russian billionaire and 40 other people charged with trafficking arms to war-riven Angola or taking kickbacks faced judges in a long-awaited trial in Paris. Prosecutors alleged that French businessman Pierre Falcone and Arkady Gaydamak, an Israeli tycoon based in France at the time, organized the sale of Russian arms to Angola from 1993-2000, for a total of US$791 million, in breach of French government rules. In 2009 Falcone and Gaydamak were sentenced to 6 years in prison.
    (AP, 10/6/08)(Econ, 10/31/09, p.62)
2008        Oct 6, In France traders at Groupe Caisse d’Epargne bank, founded in 1818, began trading in equity derivatives hoping the market would rise. The irregular trades were unwound at a loss of some $808 million.
    (WSJ, 10/18/08, p.B1)
2008        Oct 6, Clashes between ethnic groups in India's remote northeast killed 19 more people, bringing the death toll from four days of violence to 49, including 15 people shot by police. Another 100,000 people have fled their homes.
    (AP, 10/6/08)
2008        Oct 6, Israeli PM Ehud Olmert visited Moscow, aiming to focus on Russian arms sales to Israel's enemies. By contrast, Russia hoped the meeting will bolster its image as a Middle East peacemaker.
    (AP, 10/6/08)
2008        Oct 6, A panel of scientists met in Monaco for the 2nd international UNESCO symposium on The Ocean in a High-CO2 World. On Jan 30, 2009, they issued the Monaco Declaration, which summed up their deliberations, and reported that acidity of ocean surface waters has increased 30% since the 17th century.
    (SFC, 1/31/09, p.A4)(http://tinyurl.com/bdtj3p)
2008        Oct 6, A suicide bomber attacked legislator Rasheed Akbar Niwani’s house in eastern Pakistan, killing at least 20 people and wounding more than 50. Officials said Pakistani authorities have begun expelling Afghan refugees from the Bajaur tribal region that has become the main battleground between troops and fighters linked to the Taliban and al Qaeda.
    (AP, 10/6/08)(Reuters, 10/6/08)(SFC, 10/7/08, p.A8)
2008        Oct 6, In northern Sri Lanka a suspected rebel suicide bomber blew himself up inside a crowded opposition party office, killing a former army general and 26 others.
    (AP, 10/6/08)
2008        Oct 6, A Nigerian UN peacekeeper was killed when up to 60 gunmen ambushed a patrol in Sudan's war-torn western region of Darfur.
    (AFP, 10/7/08)
2008        Oct 6, Switzerland's top prosecutor charged 10 people with laundering more than US$1 billion dollars (1.349 billion euros) during a decade-long mafia cigarette smuggling operation. Authorities said they broke up the smuggling ring in 2004.
    (AP, 10/6/08)
2008        Oct 6, A magnitude 6.6 earthquake killed at least 10 people in Yangyi, Tibet, the hardest hit village in Dangxiong County.
    (Reuters, 10/6/08)(AP, 10/7/08)
2008        Oct 6, Turkish warplanes bombed a Kurdish rebel hideout in northern Iraq, the third air strike in retaliation for an attack that killed 15 soldiers three days ago.
    (AP, 10/6/08)

2008        Oct 7, The US Federal Reserve announced a radical plan to buy massive amounts of short-term debt in a dramatic effort to break through the severe credit clog. The Fed began lending unsecured to companies for the first time in its history.
    (AP, 10/7/08)(Econ, 10/11/08, p.93)
2008        Oct 7, Republican John McCain and Democrat Barack Obama held their 2nd presidential debate. Tom Brokaw of NBC, the moderator, screened their questions and also chose others that had been submitted online.
    (AP, 10/8/08)
2008        Oct 7, A US federal judge ordered that 17 Chinese Muslims held at Guantanamo Bay military prison be released in the US by Oct 10. The next day a federal appeals court temporarily blocked the decision.
    (SFC, 10/8/08, p.A2)(SFC, 10/9/08, p.A4)
2008        Oct 7, Lee W. Dubois (32) of Lexington, SC, a former Army contractor, pleaded guilty to stealing nearly $40 million worth of jet and diesel fuel from a US Army base in Iraq and selling it on the black market. Dubois admitted he and others used false paperwork to draw more than 10 million gallons of fuel from Camp Liberty in Baghdad between October 2007 and May.
    (AP, 10/8/08)
2008        Oct 7, California State Controller John Chiang warned that state revenues and cash flows were deteriorating and that the state was already short $1.1 billion after the first 3 months of its fiscal year.
    (WSJ, 10/8/08, p.A9)
2008        Oct 7, Harvard Univ. said medical device billionaire Hansjorg Wyss, chairman of Swiss-based Synthes Inc., had donated $125 million, the largest one-time gift in the history of the school. In 2004 Wyss had donated $25 million to support doctoral programs at Harvard.
    (WSJ, 10/5/08, p.A6)
2008        Oct 7, Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) and Advanced Technology Investment, a recently formed investment firm owned by the government of Abu Dhabi, said they will become joint owners of a new company that will take over AMD’s factories in Germany.
    (WSJ, 10/8/08, p.B3)
2008        Oct 7, Afghan refugees flowed over the border from Pakistan’s Bajur  battle zone after officials accused them of links with Taliban militants and ordered them out.
    (AP, 10/7/08)
2008        Oct 7, Algerian PM Ahmed Ouyahia said there had been 250 million euros worth of damage, largely to infrastructure, from the recent flooding.
    (AP, 10/12/08)
2008        Oct 7, The Toronto stock exchange fell 401 points making a cumulative drop of 3942 points since Sep 1. As PM Harper spoke to reassure business people, Canadian autoworkers held a funeral march to mark the loss of some 67,000 jobs over the past year.
    (Econ, 10/11/08, p.51)
2008        Oct 7, Chancellor Angela Merkel's Cabinet voted to extend Germany's military mission in Afghanistan for 14 more months.
    (AP, 10/7/08)
2008        Oct 7, Iceland nationalized its second-largest bank under day-old legislation and negotiated a euro4 billion ($5.4 billion) loan from Russia to shore up the nation's finances amid a full-blown financial crisis.
    (AP, 10/7/08)
2008        Oct 7, In India Tata Chairman Ratan Tata said the company had acquired 1,100 acres in Gujarat state and will relocate equipment from the failed Nano minicar project in West Bengal.
    (WSJ, 10/8/08, p.A14)
2008        Oct 7, In northeast India 5 days of clashes between members of the Bodo tribe, Assam’s largest tribe, and local Muslims left 53 people dead with 25 of them shot by police.
    (Econ, 10/11/08, p.60)
2008        Oct 7, In Iraq an American soldier was fatally shot by an al-Qaida in Iraq extremist in Mosul. An Iraqi policeman was also killed in the fighting.
    (AP, 10/7/08)
2008        Oct 7, Israel's PM Olmert said he received assurances that Russia would not allow Israel's security to be threatened, but offered no indication he won the concrete promises he sought on Russian arms sales or sanctions on Iran.
    (AP, 10/7/08)
2008        Oct 7, In Kenya Jerome Corsi, who wrote "The Obama Nation: Leftist Politics and the Cult of Personality," was picked up by police and deported for not having a work permit.
    (AP, 10/7/08)
2008        Oct 7, In Mauritania police fired tear gas and used batons to beat back union activists demanding the reinstatement of the deposed president.
    (AP, 10/8/08)
2008        Oct 7, Mexico extradited former Guatemalan President Alfonso Portillo (2000-2004) to face corruption charges, and the ex-leader told a judge there is no evidence to support the allegations against him.
    (AP, 10/7/08)
2008        Oct 7, In Ciudad Juarez, Mexico, across the border from El Paso, Texas, gunmen killed police commander Rodolfo Barragan (38) in a hail of bullets at a hotel parking lot.
    (AP, 10/9/08)
2008        Oct 7, Tropical Storm Marco roared ashore on Mexico's Gulf coast with near-hurricane force winds, prompting a shutdown of some oil platforms and forcing the evacuation of some 3,000 people.
    (AP, 10/7/08)
2008        Oct 7, In Romania some 7,000 workers and trade unionists marched around the parliament in Bucharest to demand higher salaries and better working conditions.
    (AP, 10/7/08)
2008        Oct 7, Former Guantanamo detainee Mustafa Ibrahim Mustafa Al Hassan arrived in the Sudanese capital of Khartoum and vowed to campaign for the release of the roughly 255 inmates remaining at the US military prison.
    (AP, 10/9/08)
2008        Oct 7, The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences announced that two Japanese citizens and a Japanese-born American won the 2008 Nobel Prize in physics for discoveries in the world of subatomic physics.
    (AP, 10/7/08)
2008        Oct 7, Thai riot police clashed with thousands of opposition PAD protesters who barricaded Parliament and vowed to block the government from exiting the building. 2 people were killed. Deputy PM Chavalit Yongchaiyudh resigned to take responsibility for the chaos.
    (AP, 10/7/08)(SFC, 10/9/08, p.A16)(Econ, 10/11/08, p.55)
2008        Oct 7, Turkish warplanes bombed suspected Kurdish rebel positions in northern Iraq and southeast Turkey, in new air strikes responding to an attack that killed 17 soldiers at a military outpost four days ago.
    (AP, 10/7/08)
2008        Oct 7, The UN food agency (WFP) said it is resuming free breakfasts for hundreds of thousands of poor Cambodian schoolchildren after securing new funds for a program suspended due to high food prices.
    (AP, 10/7/08)
2008        Oct 7, The UN refugee agency said at least 5,000 people have fled violence in northeastern Congo and sought shelter in neighboring Sudan over the last two weeks due to ferocious attacks by rebels of the Lord's Resistance Army from neighboring Uganda.
    (AP, 10/7/08)
2008        Oct 7, Zambia's ambassador said Zambia and the World Health Organization (WHO) have joined the hunt for a mystery illness that has killed four people in South Africa. A South Africa, health official said the mystery disease may be Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever.
    (AFP, 10/7/08)(Reuters, 10/7/08)

2008        Oct 8, Pres. Bush signed legislation allowing American businesses to enter India’s multi-billion-dollar nuclear market.
    (SFC, 10/9/08, p.A13)
2008        Oct 8, The US embassy said in a statement that the United States and Vietnam have agreed to lift restrictions on air cargo routes between the two countries.
    (AP, 10/8/08)
2008        Oct 8, In Afghanistan at least 27 Islamic militants were killed in military operations across the country. Villagers reported that 10 civilians died in rebel gunfire.
    (AFP, 10/9/08)
2008        Oct 8, Australian scientists said hundreds of new marine species and previously uncharted undersea mountains and canyons have been discovered in the depths of the Southern Ocean.
    (AP, 10/8/08)
2008        Oct 8, Six central banks jolted markets by cutting interest rates together in an attempt to shore up confidence in the world's crisis-stricken financial system. The US Fed reduced its key rate from 2% to 1.5%. The Bank of England unexpectedly slashed its key lending rate by a half-point to 4.5%. The Bank of Canada cut its key interest rate by 50 basis points to 2.5%. China also cut its key interest rates for a second time in less than one month to 6.9%. The European Central Bank sliced its rate by half a point to 3.75%. Sweden, and Switzerland also cut rates. Earlier in a day Japan's Nikkei showed its biggest drop since the October, 1987 stock market crash. The IMF said the world economy is entering a major downturn.
    (AP, 10/8/08)(AFP, 10/8/08)(Econ, 10/11/08, p.100)
2008        Oct 8, Britain added to the financial chaos engulfing Iceland by declaring it planned to sue over lost deposits held by thousands of Britons with Icelandic bank accounts. The news from London overshadowed an emergency loan from Sweden to Iceland's biggest bank.
    (AP, 10/8/08)
2008        Oct 8, The Asian Development Bank announced $35 million in emergency food aid to ease the burden of soaring food prices among some of Cambodia's poorest people.
    (AP, 10/8/08)
2008        Oct 8, In Egypt at least 11 people died when an apartment building collapsed in the port city of Alexandria.
    (AFP, 10/8/08)
2008        Oct 8, In Iraq a female suicide bomber detonated an explosives vest in Baqouba, the provincial capital of Diyala province, killing 10 people and wounding 21. A man accompanying the woman failed to detonate his explosives vest and was arrested at the scene.
    (AP, 10/8/08)(SFC, 10/9/08, p.A4)
2008        Oct 8, Human Rights Watch, a New York-based human rights group, accused Jordan's security services of carrying out widespread torture in the country's jails. The torture allegations came from 66 out of 110 prisoners interviewed randomly in seven of Jordan's main prisons in 2007 and 2008.
    (AP, 10/8/08)
2008        Oct 8, Malaysia’s PM Badawi said he will step down in March and hand over power to his deputy in order to prevent a split in the UMNO party.
    (WSJ, 10/9/08, p.A13)
2008        Oct 8, Maldives islanders in the cramped city of Male and scores of far-flung atolls began voting in the first democratic presidential election in their tiny nation's history.
    (AP, 10/8/08)
2008        Oct 8, President Felipe Calderon unveiled plans for 53 billion pesos ($4.4 billion) in emergency spending on roads, schools, hospitals and an oil refinery next year to help Mexico combat the world financial crisis. Mexican authorities said that 16 people were killed over the last 24 hours in Baha California across the US border from California. State officials blamed warring cells of the Arellano-Felix drug cartel for the killings and other homicides plaguing the area in recent weeks. 5 state police officers were killed in the western state of Jalisco by grenade-lobbing gunmen who fired more than 800 bullets in the attack.
    (AP, 10/9/08)
2008        Oct 8, In Nepal a small airplane crashed and caught fire as it tried to land in foggy weather at a tiny mountain airport near Mount Everest, killing 18 people, including 16 tourists from Germany, Australia and Nepal.
    (AP, 10/8/08)
2008        Oct 8, It was reported that Gaza's smugglers have gone legit. Owners of the scores of tunnels running under the Gaza-Egypt border have registered with the Hamas authorities, pledged to pay workers' compensation and hooked up their operations to the electricity network.
    (AP, 10/8/08)
2008        Oct 8, Russian forces pulled back from positions outside South Ossetia, bulldozing a camp at a key checkpoint and withdrawing into the separatist region as EU monitors and relieved Georgian residents looked on.
    (AP, 10/8/08)
2008        Oct 8, Pirates in Somalia released 15 Filipino seamen and four other crewmen of a chemical tanker hijacked nearly two months ago, but were still holding 67 other Filipino sailors.
    (AP, 10/9/08)
2008        Oct 8, South Korea's top military officer said North Korea is working to develop a nuclear warhead for a long-range missile, a day after the communist state tested its short-range weaponry.
    (AP, 10/8/08)
2008        Oct 8, The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences said two Americans and a US-based Japanese scientist won the Nobel Prize in chemistry for discovering and developing a glowing jellyfish protein that revolutionized the ability to study disease and normal development in living organisms. Japan's Osamu Shimomura and Americans Martin Chalfie and Roger Tsien shared the prize for their work on green fluorescent protein, or GFP. Shimomura discovered the jellyfish protein in 1961. In the early 1990s Douglas Prasher conducted research on the jellyfish gene that made Chalfie’s and Tsien’s work possible.
    (AP, 10/8/08)(SFC, 10/21/08, p.A6)
2008        Oct 8, In Turkey rebels ambushed a police bus, killing four policemen and the driver in the Kurdish-dominated city of Diyarbakir, further escalating tensions.
    (AP, 10/11/08)

2008        Oct 9, Virginia’s Gov. Timothy M. Kaine ordered 570 state employee layoffs, cut college funding by at least 5%, ordered som older prisons closed and postponed state employee raises to deal with a $2.5 billion fiscal crises.
    (WSJ, 10/10/08, p.A6)
2008        Oct 9, Chicago’s Cook County Sheriff Tom Dart halted evictions on foreclosed properties, saying innocent tenants were being put on the street. But bankers said he was breaking the law.
    (Reuters, 10/10/08)
2008        Oct 9,  Wells Fargo & Co. proceeded with plans to acquire Wachovia as Citigroup said it would not pursue additional legal actions to halt the takeover. The Federal Reserve approved the acquisition on Oct 12.
    (SFC, 10/10/08, p.A1)(SFC, 10/13/08, p.A15)
2008        Oct 9, Afghanistan appealed for more NATO help to attack heroin dealers at a meeting with NATO counterparts in Budapest. General David McKiernan, the top US commander in Afghanistan, said he backed a "political solution" to the country's dragging conflict with Taliban-led extremists. The US pushed NATO allies to order their troops to target Afghanistan's thriving heroin trade in a bid to stem the flow of drug money to the widening insurgency against the troubled international military mission.
    (AFP, 10/9/08)(AP, 10/9/08)(SFC, 10/10/08, p.A16)
2008        Oct 9, Ethiopia signed a 220-million-euro (300 million dollar) deal with a French company for the construction of Africa's largest wind farm.
    (AP, 10/10/08)
2008        Oct 9, The Swedish Academy announced French novelist Jean-Marie Gustave Le Clezio (b.1940) as the 2008 Nobel Prize in literature for his poetic adventure and "sensual ecstasy." Le Clezio made his breakthrough as a novelist with "Desert," in 1980.
    (AP, 10/9/08)
2008        Oct 9, Trading in Hungary’s bond market broke down as buyers practically disappeared for a 10-year auction. The government raised less than planned. A day earlier it left its key lending rate at 8.5%.
    (WSJ, 10/10/08, p.A4)
2008        Oct 9, Iceland suspended trading on its stock exchange for two days and took control of the country's largest bank, the third to be placed under its protective umbrella, as it grappled with a banking crisis that is threatening to engulf the entire country.
    (AP, 10/9/08)
2008        Oct 9, Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad ordered his government to suspend a controversial new sales tax, a day after a rare strike by merchants worried about how the new measure would affect their business.
    (AP, 10/9/08)
2008        Oct 9, Saleh al-Auqaeili, an Iraqi lawmaker loyal to anti-U.S. Shiite cleric Muqtada al-Sadr, was killed when a bomb struck his convoy in Baghdad. At least one bystander was also killed in the bombing.
    (AP, 10/9/08)
2008        Oct 9, The Libyan oil company Tamoil said the Libyan government has again decided to halt oil deliveries to Switzerland.
    (AFP, 10/9/08)
2008        Oct 9, Poll results in the Maldives indicated President Maumoon Abdul Gayoom to be headed for a runoff against Mohamed Nasheed, a former political prisoner who leads the main opposition.
    (AP, 10/9/08)
2008        Oct 9, The International Atomic Energy Agency said North Korea has told it that the government is placing all its main nuclear complex off-limits to inspectors and will stop its program of dismantling the site.
    (AP, 10/9/08)
2008        Oct 9, Two American journalists, Holli Chmela (27) and Taylor Luck (23), who went missing during a vacation in Lebanon eight days ago were released in Syria and returned to Jordan. The next day they said they had been "kidnapped" by their taxi driver and taken into Syria, where they were held in custody for a week before being released.
    (AP, 10/9/08)(AP, 10/10/08)
2008        Oct 9, In northern Mexico gunmen opened fire in a bar in Chihuahua, killing 11 people. The body of Miguel Angel Villagomez, editor of La Noticia newspaper in the western state of Michoacan, was found shot dead on the side of a highway in neighboring Guerrero state.
    (AP, 10/11/08)
2008        Oct 9, Montenegro and Macedonia recognized Kosovo's independence, despite opposition from Serbia, which called the moves by its Balkan neighbors a betrayal and expelled the Montenegrin ambassador from Belgrade.
    (AP, 10/9/08)
2008        Oct 9, NATO joined a growing international force to protect vessels off Somalia's perilous coast, sending military ships to the treacherous waters where pirates are negotiating the release of an arms-laden tanker.
    (AP, 10/10/08)
2008        Oct 9, Pakistani fighter jets and helicopter gunships destroyed a Taliban militant facility in the Swat Valley, killing 20 militants. Separately, five civilians, including women and children, were killed when a shell hit a house in the Matta district of Swat during clashes between troops and insurgents. Bombings targeting police killed 10 people and wounded 14 in the volatile northwest and the capital. Suspected US missile strikes hit Tappi village in North Waziristan, killing at least 9 people and a house in the village of Dande Darpa Khel.
    (AFP, 10/9/08)(SFC, 10/10/08, p.A17)
2008        Oct 9, In Peru a bomb killed 13 soldiers and 2 civilians in Huancavelica, east of Lima, in an apparent response to an army operation to shut down Shining Path camps.
    (AP, 10/10/08)(Econ, 10/18/08, p.50)
2008        Oct 9, Somali pirates freed 20 Filipino seamen from a hijacked ship they held for more than 80 days, as the Philippine government doubled the pay of sailors passing through pirate-infested international waters. 47 Filipinos on three other ships were still in the hands of Somali pirates. Pirates also released 29 Iranian crew members and their cargo ship hijacked off Somalia's coast in late July.
    (AP, 10/10/08)
2008        Oct 9, A suspected Tamil Tiger suicide bomber blew himself up near a convoy carrying a senior Sri Lankan Cabinet minister, wounding his deputy and at least six others. One bystander was killed and a wounded person died in the hospital.
    (AP, 10/9/08)(SFC, 10/10/08, p.A17)
2008        Oct 9, According to the Sudanese army 15 people were killed when Darfur rebels attacked a local government convoy with military escort in the far west of the region.
    (AFP, 10/10/08)
2008        Oct 9, The central banks of Taiwan and South Korea cut interest rates as Japan and others pumped more cash into the financial markets.
    (WSJ, 10/10/08, p.A4)
2008        Oct 9, The leaders of Thailand's anti-government protesters said they will surrender to police after a court dropped treason charges against them, but vowed to continue their occupation of the prime minister's office after posting bail.
    (AP, 10/9/08)
2008        Oct 9, In Tobago Anna Sundsval (62) and Oke Olsoon (73) of Sweden were slashed to death at their home in the Bon Accord area. A suspect was arrested the next day.
    (AP, 10/11/08)
2008        Oct 9, Ukrainian President Viktor Yushchenko called early general elections after dissolving parliament when parties failed to resurrect a ruling pro-Western coalition in the former Soviet state.
    (AFP, 10/9/08)
2008        Oct 9, Zimbabwe's opposition leader Morgan Tsvangirai said that power-sharing talks with President Robert Mugabe's government had stalled and outside mediation was needed to break the deadlock. The UN food agency made an urgent appeal for 140 million dollars (102 million euros) in food aid for more than five million Zimbabweans facing severe hunger. A state newspaper said Zimbabwe's annual inflation rate soared to 231 million percent in July.
    (AFP, 10/9/08)

2008        Oct 10, G7 leaders confronted a financial system in shambles as they gathered in Washington with panic selling in the stock markets, credit frozen solid and the world teetering on recession. US Treasury Secretary Hank Paulson said the government will buy direct stakes in banks to stem a global financial collapse. G7 ministers announced a 5-point plant to support financial institutions.
    (Reuters, 10/10/08)(SFC, 10/11/08, p.A1)
2008        Oct 10, Global stocks dove head first to five-year lows at the end of a brutal week as even the traditional safe-havens of gold and government bonds suffered as fear-stricken investors sought refuge in cash. The DJIA fell 128 to close at 8451.19 in its most volatile day ever as the Dow swung 1019 points during the day. Oil on the NY mercantile Exchange fell over 10% to close at $77.70 a barrel, its lowest level in over a year.
    (Reuters, 10/10/08)(SFC, 10/11/08, p.C1)(WSJ, 10/11/08, p.A1)
2008        Oct 10, The US and India signed a pact allowing American firms to sell nuclear technology to India.
    (WSJ, 10/11/08, p.A1)
2008        Oct 10, Alaska released a report in which a legislative investigator found that Gov. Palin had violated state ethics laws and abused her power by trying to have her former brother-in-law fired as a state trooper.
    (AP, 10/11/08)
2008        Oct 10, In Los Angeles Leland Wong (51), a former city commissioner (2002-2004) under Mayor James Hahn, was sentenced to 5 years in prison and ordered to pay about $139,000 in restitution for accepting bribes from companies seeking city business.
    (SSFC, 10/12/08, p.B7)
2008        Oct 10, The Connecticut Supreme Court voted 4-3 to give gay and lesbian couples the right to marry ruling that civil unions fell short of giving them full equality. It became the 3rd state to legalize such unions.
    (SFC, 10/11/08, p.A6)(WSJ, 10/11/08, p.A7)
2008        Oct 10, Ed Jew, former San Francisco supervisor, pleaded guilty to one count each of mail fraud, bribery and extortion as part of a scheme to shakedown Chinese immigrant owners of tapioca drink shops in the sunset District for $84,000 in bribes. In 2009 he was sentenced to 64 months in federal prison.
    (SFC, 10/11/08, p.B1)(SFC, 4/4/09, p.A1)
2008        Oct 10, Jim Benson (b.1945), software entrepreneur and founder of SpaceDev (1997), died. He had hoped to build rockets to colonize asteroids.
    (WSJ, 10/18/08, p.A10)
2008        Oct 10, NATO defense ministers authorized their troops in Afghanistan to attack drug barons blamed for pumping up to US$100 million (euro74 million) a year into the coffers of resurgent Taliban fighters.
    (AP, 10/10/08)
2008        Oct 10, The London stock market plunged by almost 10.0 percent again, after fresh falls on Wall Street, as investors continued to fret over the worldwide financial crisis.
    (AP, 10/10/08)
2008        Oct 10, Canada’s Finance Minister Jim Flaherty said Canada plans to buy up to C$25 billion in insured mortgages to help cushion banks from the global financial crisis and address a "scarcity" of private-sector lending.
    (Reuters, 10/10/08)
2008        Oct 10, Chile's President, Michelle Bachelet, signed law 20.299 making October 31st a new annual public holiday to coincide with Reformation Day and to be called "Día Nacional de las Iglesias Evangélicas y Protestantes".  The date marked the 1517 posting by Martin Luther of his 95 thesis in Wittenberg, Germany.
    (http://tinyurl.com/62uhnt)(Econ, 11/8/08, p.52)
2008        Oct 10, A state news report said Beijing will ban half of its 3.4 million cars from the roads during periods of very heavy pollution. A crane at a construction site next to a kindergarten collapsed in Zibo city, Shandong province, killing five children.
    (AP, 10/10/08)
2008        Oct 10, Congo's President Joseph Kabila named Budget Minister Adolphe Muzito (51) as the new prime minister following the resignation of 83-year-old Antoine Gizenga.
    (Reuters, 10/10/08)
2008        Oct 10, Finland's ex-president Martti Ahtisaari won the Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts to build a lasting peace from Africa and Asia to Europe and the Middle East. The Norwegian Nobel Committee said it honored Ahtisaari for important efforts over more than three decades to resolve international conflicts.
    (AP, 10/10/08)
2008        Oct 10, In Iraq Diyar Abbas Ahmed (28), a Kurdish journalist, was gunned down in Kirkuk. A New York-based journalists' group said it was the 136th killing of a reporter since the US-led invasion of Iraq five years ago. A car bomb exploded in a market in southern Baghdad killing at least 14 people. Bombings and shooting around the country killed 24 people.
    (AP, 10/11/08)(SFC, 10/11/08, p.A3)
2008        Oct 10, Police in Srinagar shot and killed two people and at least four protesters were wounded, as thousands of Muslims took to the streets of Indian Kashmir to protest the visit of India's prime minister.
    (AP, 10/10/08)
2008        Oct 10, The Libyan news agency JANA said Libya will withdraw $7 billion of assets in Swiss banks, cut economic ties with Switzerland and stop supplying it with oil to protest against poor treatment of Libyan diplomats and businessmen.
    (AP, 10/10/08)
2008        Oct 10, Mexico's central bank auctioned foreign reserves in 3 auctions in an increasingly aggressive bid to push the peso stronger. In all, the bank sold off $6.4 billion.
    (AP, 10/11/08)
2008        Oct 10, In Mexico authorities in Tijuana reported that a total of 91 people had been killed in a wave of gangland homicides since Sept. 26.
    (AP, 10/11/08)
2008        Oct 10, A suicide bomber drove his car into an anti-Taliban tribal council meeting in northwest Pakistan, killing at least 30 people, the second suicide bombing in as many days. The bomber blew himself up when around 500 members of Alizai tribe were gathered to draw up a strategy as part of government-backed efforts to drive out militants from tribal areas. Angry Pakistani tribesmen traded fire with Taliban militants and demolished their houses in a northwestern tribal region following the car suicide attack.
    (AP, 10/10/08)(Reuters, 10/11/08)
2008        Oct 10, Peru’s President Alan Garcia accepted the resignation of his entire Cabinet without naming replacements in response to an oil kickbacks scandal.
    (AP, 10/11/08)
2008        Oct 10, Portugal's Parliament voted by a large majority against proposals to allow same-sex marriages in the mostly Roman Catholic country.
    (AP, 10/10/08)
2008        Oct 10, In Qatar the Doha Center for Media Freedom opened under the leadership of Robert Menard of France. Menard had previously led the Paris-based Reporters Without Borders.
    (Econ, 5/16/09, p.52)(http://tinyurl.com/rxkzzh)
2008        Oct 10, Serbia expelled the Macedonian ambassador, reflecting its fury over the recognition of Kosovo's independence by its closest neighbors.
    (AP, 10/10/08)
2008        Oct 10, Singapore’s economy fell into recession for the first time in 6 years leading the city-state’s central bank to ease monetary policy and warn of more struggle to come.
    (WSJ, 10/11/08, p.A10)
2008        Oct 10, Armed pirates off Somalia hijacked a Greek chemical tanker with a crew of 20 flying a Panamanian flag.
    (AP, 10/11/08)
2008        Oct 10, Spain's government insisted that a 30 billion euros ($41 billion) fund it will use to buy assets from banks starved for liquidity will have zero cost for taxpayers.
    (AP, 10/10/08)
2008        Oct 10, Heinz Imhof, known as the Father of Syngenta, died, He orchestrated the 2000 merger of the crop-protection and seeds divisions of Switzerland’s Novartis AG and Anglo-Swedish Astra-Zeneca PLC, creating Sygenta, the biggest agrichemical business in the world.
    (WSJ, 11/8/08, p.A6)
2008        Oct 10, A Swedish court sentenced Chilean tenor Ernesto "Tito" Beltran (43) to two years and six months in prison for raping an 18-year-old nanny and molesting a 7-year-old girl. The appeals court in Goteborg upheld a previous rape conviction, but overturned an acquittal in the molestation case.
    (AP, 10/10/08)
2008        Oct 10, Leaders of Thai anti-government protests were granted bail after surrendering to police and immediately vowed new rallies, raising fears of mounting turmoil days after deadly street clashes. At least 22 people were killed and 24 others injured when a bus packed with passengers crashed in eastern Thailand.
    (AP, 10/10/08)
2008        Oct 10, Ukraine's PM Yulia Tymoshenko said there will be no early parliamentary elections, defying a presidential decree and raising the stakes in her fierce political battle with the president. She said Ukraine has no money for an early election and predicted that parliament will not pass the necessary legislation.
    (AP, 10/10/08)
2008        Oct 10, The UN urged Congo and Rwanda to hold talks to avoid a war after Kinshasa accused its eastern neighbor of sending troops over the border to back Congolese rebels.
    (Reuters, 10/10/08)
2008        Oct 10, Yemeni officials and the UN refugee agency said about 100 migrants from Somalia were missing and feared drowned in the treacherous waters off the coast of Yemen after smugglers forced them overboard 3 miles off Yemen’s coast. 47 were believed to have survived.
    (AP, 10/10/08)(SFC, 10/11/08, p.A10)
2008        Oct 10, Zimbabwe's political rivals agreed to seek renewed mediation from former South African President Thabo Mbeki to try to end deadlock over posts in a unity government.
    (Reuters, 10/10/08)

2008        Oct 11, President Bush met with foreign financial officials and pledged a global response to the credit crisis that will lead toward a "path of stability and long-term growth."
    (AP, 10/11/08)
2008        Oct 11, The Bush administration removed North Korea from a terrorism blacklist as North Korea agreed to all US nuclear inspection demands. The breakthrough is intended to salvage a faltering disarmament accord before President Bush leaves office in January.
    (AP, 10/11/08)
2008        Oct 11, Afghan Pres. Karzai named Muhammad Hanif Atmar (40) as his interior minister in a Cabinet reshuffle aimed to curb high-level corruption. In Afghanistan about 40 militants more were killed as a three-day operation wound up in the Nad Ali district of Helmand province. Atmar was a former official in Afghanistan’s communist-era secret police.
    (AFP, 10/12/08)(SSFC, 10/12/08, p.A7)
2008        Oct 11, It was reported that the population of adult hake fish off Argentina’s coast has declined by 70% in the past 20 years. Skippers reportedly paid some $2-3 million in bribes to inspectors and routinely underreported their catches.
    (Econ, 10/11/08, p.53)
2008        Oct 11, Austrian politician Joerg Haider (b.1950) died in a car accident while speeding drunk. His far-right rhetoric at times sounded sympathetic to the Nazis and contemptuous of Jews and led to months of international isolation for the Alpine republic. At the time of his death, Haider was governor of the province of Carinthia and leader of the Alliance for the Future of Austria, a party he formed after breaking away from the far right Freedom Party in 2005.
    (AP, 10/11/08)(Econ, 10/18/08, p.99)
2008        Oct 11, A strong earthquake hit Chechnya and other parts of Russia's North Caucasus, killing at least 13 people and damaging scores of hospitals, schools and other buildings.
    (AP, 10/11/08)(SFC, 10/18/08, p.B6)
2008        Oct 11, India's PM Singh launched Kashmir's first train service, the fruit of an eight-year project that overcame tough terrain and rebel strife, on a visit overshadowed by violence. Shops, businesses and schools were shut to protest Singh’s visit.
    (AFP, 10/11/08)(AP, 10/12/08)
2008        Oct 11, In Acre, Israel, police said rioters torched two empty apartments owned by Arabs in a predominantly Jewish neighborhood. 12 people were put into custody for rioting and eight under house arrest.
    (AP, 10/11/08)
2008        Oct 11, Italian security forces including army paratroops arrested seven members of the Camorra mafia believed linked to the killing of African immigrants near Naples last month.
    (AFP, 10/11/08)
2008        Oct 11, In Mexico gunmen killed six young men at a family party in the gang-plagued border city of Ciudad Juarez. In Tijuana federal police arrested seven reputed members of a cell of the Arellano Felix drug cartel, including a city police officer.
    (AP, 10/12/08)
2008        Oct 11, Hurricane Norbert hit Mexico as a Category 1 storm and left 4 people dead in the Baha peninsula and Sonora state.
    (SFC, 10/18/08, p.B6)
2008        Oct 11, US missile strikes in Pakistan's northwest killed five people, but none was believed to be a foreign al-Qaida fighter.
    (AP, 10/12/08)
2008        Oct 11, Peru’s President Alan Garcia announced that he has appointed Yehude Simon (61), a leftist governor, to become the chief Cabinet minister, a day after the minister's predecessor resigned along with 16 colleagues amid a brewing oil-kickbacks scandal.
    (AP, 10/11/08)
2008        Oct 11, Russia launched a ballistic missile from a submarine in a record flight of over 7,100 miles, hitting a target in the middle of the Pacific Ocean for the first time. Russian TV showed what it said was the Sineva missile launching from the submarine Tula.
    (AP, 10/11/08)
2008        Oct 11, In Sri Lanka fighting around Kilinochchi killed 26 rebels and two soldiers in two separate clashes. Other battles in Welioya and Vavuniya killed four rebels.
    (AP, 10/12/08)
2008        Oct 11, In Sudan Abu Bakr Kadu, a Sudan Liberation Movement-Unity commander, said 23 civilians had died after Janjaweed Arab militia assaulted villages over 3 days in the Muhagiriya area of southern Darfur. He also said 28 Janjaweed were killed.
    (AFP, 10/12/08)
2008        Oct 11, Thailand's embattled PM Somchai Wongsawat, indicated that he may resign in the wake of fierce anti-government protests earlier this week that left two people dead and hundreds injured. Thousands of supporters of the ruling coalition gathered on the outskirts of Bangkok in a show of strength, two days ahead of a planned major protest by a group hoping to topple the elected government.
    (AFP, 10/11/08)
2008        Oct 11, Turkish warplanes and artillery bombed dozens of Kurdish rebel targets overnight in northern Iraq following an escalation in rebel attacks.
    (AP, 10/11/08)
2008        Oct 11, Zimbabwe’s state Herald newspaper published a list from the official government gazette giving the ruling ZANU-PF party 14 ministries, including the key portfolios of defense, home and foreign affairs, justice, media, mines and land. This would allow 83-year-old Mugabe to retain his iron grip on power. Opposition party spokesman Nelson Chamisa said it was a "midnight ambush style of attack" and meant the proposed national unity government was now in jeopardy.
    (AP, 10/11/08)

2008        Oct 12, In California Hans Florine (44) and Yuji Hirayama (39) broke their own World Record for the fastest climb up the Nose of El Capitan (2:37:5) in Yosemite National Park. They first record was set on Jul 2 with a time of 2:43:33.
    (SFC, 7/3/08, p.A1)(SFC, 10/13/08, p.A1)
2008        Oct 12, In Afghanistan 62 militants, part of a group of 150 that had been seen massing outside of  Lashkar Gah for several days, were killed overnight in NATO air strikes that stopped them from entering the Helmand provincial capital. Taliban commander Mullah Qadratullah was among the dead. The US-led coalition killed five Taliban rebels in Ghazni. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC) reporter Mellissa Fung (35) was kidnapped in Kabul. She was freed on Nov 8.
    (AP, 10/12/08)(AFP, 10/13/08)(SFC, 10/13/08, p.A11)(AFP, 11/9/08)
2008        Oct 12, Algeria announced it will spend 500 million euros (675 million dollars) on protecting towns from flooding as the death toll from floods this month rose to 43.
    (AFP, 10/12/08)
2008        Oct 12, Australia and New Zealand gave a blanket guarantee to all bank deposits in a move likely to raise pressure on other economies to do the same, amid a crisis of confidence in the global financial system.
    (AP, 10/12/08)
2008        Oct 12, Dozens of renowned British writers came out against new anti-terrorism legislation, publishing a collection of satire, essays, fiction and poetry to protest a proposal allowing police to hold suspects without charge for up to 42 days. The next day the House of Lords rejected the plan and the government said it would abandon the proposal.
    (AP, 10/12/08)(SFC, 10/14/08, p.A4)
2008        Oct 12, European leaders hammered out action to confront the financial crisis, adding their voices to a global chorus of demands for coordinated action against the turmoil.
    (AFP, 10/12/08)
2008        Oct 12, In Iraq Qassim al-Aboudi, the spokesman for the election commission, said there's not enough time to organize a ballot this year but that it will take place soon after the New Year. 2 Iraqi soldiers were killed in the Yarmouk district of Baghdad. A car bomb exploded in a commercial street of southwestern Baghdad, killing 7 people and wounding 9 others. Another car bomb in Mosul killed 6 people. A Christian music store owner was shot to death in Mosul, the latest in a series of killings that has caused thousands of members of the religious minority to flee the city. Iraq deployed around 1,000 police in Christian areas of Mosul as thousands of members of the minority group fled the worst violence against them in 5 years. A spate of attacks on Christians in Mosul since September 28 had killed at least 11 people.
    (AP, 10/12/08)(AFP, 10/12/08)(AP, 10/13/08)(SFC, 10/13/08, p.A12)
2008        Oct 12, Lithuanians voted in a general election likely to mark comebacks for ex-president Rolandas Paksas or former political star Viktor Uspaskich. A non-binding referendum was also on the ballot as part of a battle to delay the closure of Ignalina, a Soviet-era nuclear power station which provides 70 percent of Lithuania's electricity. Voters dealt a major blow to Lithuania's leftist government by boosting the conservative opposition as well as some populist leaders, including an impeached ex-president, in weekend elections. Homeland Union leader Andrius Kubilius said he was ready to form a new Cabinet after his party won the most votes in the first round, receiving 19.2 percent. The governing Social Democratic Party, which has controlled the prime minister's office since 2001, finished fourth with 11.7 percent.
    (AFP, 10/12/08)(AP, 10/13/08)
2008        Oct 12, An angry crowd in central Mexico attacked police and helped nearly three dozen illegal Central American immigrants escape from custody after hearing that officers had allegedly sold the migrants to human smugglers in the farming town of Rafael Lara Grajales, Puebla state. Federal police managed to round up 21 migrants.
    (AP, 10/14/08)(SSFC, 10/26/08, p.A23)
2008        Oct 12, North Korea said it will resume dismantling its main nuclear facilities, hours after the US removed the communist country from a list of states Washington says sponsor terrorism.
    (AP, 10/12/08)
2008        Oct 12, Pakistani helicopter gunships bombed a meeting of Islamic militants linked to Al-Qaeda near the border with Afghanistan. Among the dead were two Taliban commanders and 12 potential suicide bombers. More than 24 extremists with links to Al-Qaeda were killed near the Afghan border in the Bajaur tribal region.
    (AFP, 10/12/08)
2008        Oct 12, A Soyuz spacecraft with two Americans and a Russian on board lifted off from Kazakhstan for the international space station. The Soyuz TMA-13 capsule carried American computer game millionaire Richard Garriott, US astronaut Michael Fincke and Russian cosmonaut Yuri Lonchakov.
    (AP, 10/12/08)
2008        Oct 12, Somali forces from semiautonomous Puntland unsuccessfully raided a hijacked ships. 2 pirates were killed.
    (WSJ, 10/13/08, p.A15)
2008        Oct 12, Sri Lanka’s soldiers destroyed three bunkers and captured four others after battles that killed 15 rebels near their administrative capital of Kilinochchi. Separate clashes in the same area killed four rebels and one soldier. In the northern Jaffna peninsula, troops killed four rebels along the front lines while a rebel mortar attack killed two soldiers. Clashes in Mullaitivu killed four rebels and wounded one soldier.
    (AP, 10/13/08)
2008        Oct 12, The United Arab Emirates said it would guarantee domestic bank deposits and with Saudi Arabia promised fresh financial support to domestic banks.
    (WSJ, 10/13/08, p.A5)
2008        Oct 12, Pope Benedict XVI gave the Roman Catholic church four new saints, including an Indian woman whose canonization is seen as a morale boost to Christians in India who have suffered Hindu violence. They included Sister Alphonsa (1910-1946) of the Immaculate Conception, a nun from southern India and India’s first woman saint; Gaetano Errico (1791-1860), a Neapolitan priest who founded a missionary order in the 19th century; Sister Maria Bernarda, born as Verena Buetler (1848-1924) in Switzerland, who worked as a nun in Ecuador and Colombia; and Narcisa de Jesus Martillo Moran (1832-1869), a 19th century laywoman from Ecuador who helped the sick and the poor.
    (AP, 10/12/08)
2008        Oct 12, In Venezuela Pres. Chaves, on Indigenous Resistance Day, presented the Yukpa Indians titles to some blocks of land. This fell short of the 150,000 acres they claimed as ancestral territory.
    (Econ, 1/17/09, p.41)

2008        Oct 13, Stock markets rejoiced after governments worldwide launched multibillion-dollar bailouts to shore up banks, and Britain called for a new Bretton Woods agreement to reshape the world financial system. The US Central Bank said it would provide unlimited dollars the European Central Bank, the Bank of England and the Swiss National Bank. Britain committed £37 billion ($64 billion) to capitalize its big banks. Wall Street rebounded with the biggest stock rally since the Great Depression. The DJIA rose 936 points to close at 9,387.61, its largest point gain ever and one of its largest percentage increases.
    (Reuters, 10/13/08)(SFC, 10/14/08, p.A1)(WSJ, 10/14/08, p.A3)(Econ, 10/18/08, p.83)
2008        Oct 13, Paul Krugman, the Princeton University scholar and New York Times columnist, won the Nobel prize in economics for his analysis of how economies of scale can affect trade patterns and the location of economic activity. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences praised Krugman for formulating a new theory to answer questions about free trade and said his theory has inspired an enormous field of research.
    (AP, 10/13/08)(Econ, 10/18/08, p.90)
2008        Oct 13, ABC News reported that Tim Mahoney (52), a US Democratic Representative from Florida, had an affair with an aide and then paid her $121,000 to keep her quiet and avoid a sexual harassment suit. His affair with Patricia Allen (50) had begun in 2006.
    (SFC, 10/15/08, p.A6)
2008        Oct 13, In the SF Bay Area fire crews extinguished a fire that had begun a day earlier on Angel Island. All the historic buildings on the island were saved. The fire burned 400 of the island’s 740 acres.
    (SFC, 10/14/08, p.A1)
2008        Oct 13, In Afghanistan 8 civilians were killed in separate insurgent attacks. 5 Afghan men who worked as translators were abducted by unknown gunmen in the eastern province of Paktia as they were driving to Kabul by taxi. A coalition service member was killed and several others were wounded in southern Afghanistan when their vehicle was hit by a roadside bomb.
    (AFP, 10/13/08)(AP, 10/14/08)
2008        Oct 13, First ladies from seven west African countries gather in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, for a conference on ways to end female circumcision, a widespread practice in the region despite efforts to end it.
    (AFP, 10/13/08)
2008        Oct 13, Cambodian PM Hun Sen gave Thailand an ultimatum to withdraw troops from a disputed stretch of jungle-clad border within 24 hours or his forces would turn the area into a "death zone." Thai troops retreated the next day.
    (Reuters, 10/13/08)(AP, 10/14/08)
2008        Oct 13, Europe put $2.3 trillion on the line to protect the continent's banks, a figure that dwarfed the Bush administration's $700 billion rescue program.
    (AP, 10/13/08)
2008        Oct 13, The EU temporarily lifted a travel ban on the president of Belarus, a country regarded as Europe's last dictatorship, as relations with the country start to thaw.
    (AP, 10/13/08)
2008        Oct 13, The EU condemned Zimbabwe President Robert Mugabe's "unilateral decision" to form a new government and threatened fresh sanctions unless he respects a power-sharing deal. Mugabe swore in his two vice presidents, casting doubt on a new mediation effort aimed at saving a power-sharing deal with the opposition.
    (AFP, 10/13/08)
2008        Oct 13, Guillaume Depardieu (37), French film star, died of pneumonia. The often-troubled son of renowned French film star Gerard Depardieu had gained praise for his own career as an actor. In 2003 he Depardieu had his right leg amputated to end years of pain from a bacterial infection that followed a motorcycle accident in 1996.
    (AP, 10/14/08)
2008        Oct 13, In India police arrested seven relatives of a 75-year-old widow for doing nothing to prevent the woman from killing herself by jumping into her husband's funeral pyre.
    (AP, 10/14/08)
2008        Oct 13, Iraq's oil minister met 34 oil company representatives in London to set out the ground rules for foreign multinationals' first bite at the country's enormous energy reserves since the U.S.-led invasion in 2003.
    (AP, 10/13/08)
2008        Oct 13, Israel shut down entry from the West Bank during the 7-day Sukkot holiday. The order bars almost all West Bank Palestinians from entering Israel until Oct. 21.
    (AP, 10/13/08)
2008        Oct 13, Italian police arrested five people in the Calabria region, including the mayor of Rosarno, for suspected ties to the local mob.
    (AP, 10/13/08)
2008        Oct 13, In Pakistan ten Islamic extremists died in a gunbattle with soldiers in the Khawazakhela district of the Swat valley during an ongoing military operation against fighters loyal to local cleric Maulana Fazlullah. Security forces fired mortar and artillery rounds at militants in the Charmang area of the Bajur region overnight, killing nine insurgents. Pro-government tribesmen exchanged fire with militants in the Nawa and Kotkai areas of Bajur. Thirteen militants and two pro-government tribesmen were killed.
    (AFP, 10/13/08)(AP, 10/13/08)
2008        Oct 13, Singapore's High Court ruled that an opposition party and two of its leaders must pay $416,000 in defamation damages to PM Lee Hsien Loong and his father, former PM Lee Kuan Yew, related to criticism published in 2006 in the party's newspaper.
    (AP, 10/14/08)
2008        Oct 13, In Somalia Islamist insurgents attacked African Union peacekeepers in Mogadishu, triggering fierce clashes that killed a civilian and wounded five others.
    (AFP, 10/13/08)
2008        Oct 13, Barbara Hogan, South Africa’s new health minister, broke from a decade of discredited government policies declaring that AIDS is caused by HIV and must be treated by conventional medicine.
    (SFC, 10/14/08, p.A3)
2008        Oct 13, In Sri Lanka fighting in the Kilinochchi region killed 11 rebel fighters and two soldiers. Fighting in Jaffna, Vavuniya and Mullaittivu killed nine other rebels.
    (AP, 10/14/08)
2008        Oct 13, Sudanese officials disclosed the arrest of Ali Muhammad Ali Abd-al-Rahman (aka Ali Kushayb), a Janjaweed militia leader who was charged by the Int’l. Criminal court in 2007 for crimes against humanity.
    (SFC, 10/14/08, p.A6)
2008        Oct 13, Swiss authorities said they have found high concentrations of melamine in biscuits from Thailand and Sri Lanka and have called on other European countries to withdraw the products.
    (AP, 10/13/08)
2008        Oct 13, A Venezuelan court issued arrest warrants for eight suspects in the Oct 1 killing of Julio Soto, a student leader who helped organize protests against constitutional amendments proposed by President Hugo Chavez.
    (AP, 10/14/08)

2008        Oct 14, President Bush announced a $250 billion plan by the government to directly buy shares in 9 of the nation's leading banks, saying the drastic steps were "not intended to take over the free market but to preserve it." Former Federal Reserve Chairman Paul Volcker said the US housing sector faced more losses and the economy was in recession even as authorities moved to stabilize the financial system.
    (Reuters, 10/14/08)(AP, 10/14/08)(WSJ, 10/14/08, p.A1)
2008        Oct 14,  The US Treasury revised the 2008 fiscal deficit to $455 billion, as opposed to the $389 billion projected in July. The national debt, at 38% of GDP, was well below the 1990s peak of 49%.
    (Econ, 10/18/08, p.41)(Econ, 10/25/08, p.40)
2008        Oct 14, Key lending rates between banks in the US and Europe continued to fall slowly in response to combined pledges from governments to inject money into banks and guarantee their debt. But rates remained abnormally high, a sign of the stress in the world financial system.
    (AP, 10/14/08)
2008        Oct 14, A wildfire in northern Los Angeles covered 13,285 acres.
    (SFC, 10/15/08, p.B6)
2008        Oct 14, Ohio executed Richard Cooey (41), a 5-foot-7, 267-pound double murderer (1986), who had argued that his obesity made death by lethal injection inhumane.
    (AP, 10/14/08)
2008        Oct 14, Gray wolves in the northern US Rocky Mountains returned to the endangered species list, thanks to a court victory by environmental groups over the US government [see Mar 28, 2008].
    (AFP, 10/14/08)
2008        Oct 14, Reymundo Guerra, sheriff of rural Starr County, Texas, next to the Mexican border, was arrested at his office after being indicted on charges alleging he was involved in a large-scale cocaine and marijuana smuggling operation.
    (AP, 10/15/08)
2008        Oct 14, In eastern Afghanistan a roadside bomb blast killed three NATO soldiers. In the south, a bomb attack apparently intended for NATO troops exploded against an Afghan minivan in Uruzgan province, killing nine civilians. Dost Mohammad Arighistani, head of the government's labor and social affairs department for the southern province of Kandahar, was killed in his car with his bodyguard as he traveled to work. Taliban militants attacked police checkpoints ringing Lashkar Gah. 18 militants were killed and three police wounded. 6 policemen died after a shootout among officers inside a police checkpoint about 15 miles north of Lashkar Gah.
    (AP, 10/14/08)(AFP, 10/14/08)(AP, 10/15/08)
2008        Oct 14, The prosecution office of Bosnia's war crimes court said it ordered the arrest of Milorad Skrbic, 48; Milorad Radakovic, 46; Gordan Djuric, 40; and Ljubisa Cetic, 39, for allegedly having participated in 1992 in the wartime execution of 200 civilians.
    (AP, 10/14/08)
2008        Oct 14, Indian author Aravind Adiga (b.1974) won the 2008 Booker Prize with his first novel: “The White Tiger." The book follows Balram Halwai, the son of a rickshaw puller, who dreams of better things than life as teashop worker and driver.
    (AFP, 10/15/08)
2008        Oct 14, Burundi said it has completed its deployment of another 850 soldiers to Somalia, bringing to about 3,400 the total number of African Union peacekeepers stationed there. Burundi had already deployed some 850 soldiers to Somalia as part of AMISOM (African mission in Somalia).
    (AP, 10/14/08)
2008        Oct 14, Canadians voted in an election. Conservative PM Stephen Harper, the first Western leader to face the electorate since the start of the international economic meltdown, won reelection with a bolstered minority government. Some 59.1% of eligible Canadian voters went to the polls, breaking the previous record low turnout of just under 61% in 2004. The Liberal share of the popular vote fell to 26%.
    (AP, 10/14/08)(Reuters, 10/15/08)(Econ, 10/18/08, p.47)
2008        Oct 14, China unveiled a plan to achieve universal health care. The plan hoped to cover 90% of the population within 2 years and achieve universal health care by 2020. State media reported that a ginseng injection contaminated by bacteria caused the deaths of three people using the medicine to treat thrombosis and heart disease.
    (http://tinyurl.com/5f6fyb)(WSJ, 10/20/08, p.A12)(AP, 10/15/08)
2008        Oct 14, The UN said intense fighting between the Congolese army and Ugandan rebels have forced over 50,000 people to flee their homes in the north-eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo's Ituri region.
    (AP, 10/14/08)
2008        Oct 14, Egyptian police shot dead an African migrant and wounded another as they tried to cross illegally into Israel.
    (AP, 10/14/08)
2008        Oct 14, An Ethiopian minister said his country urgently needs US$265 million to feed 6.4 million people affected by drought.
    (AP, 10/14/08)
2008        Oct 14, Iceland's blue chip stocks plunged 77 percent when trading reopened on after a near week-long suspension and an official delegation from the island sought Russian help in saving the economy from collapse.
    (AP, 10/14/08)
2008        Oct 14, In north and northeastern India a series of road accidents killed at least 48 people and injured another 64. 43 of the dead died in 2 bus crashes.
    (AP, 10/14/08)
2008        Oct 14, The Israeli military troops in the West Bank shot a Palestinian as he prepared to lob a blazing Molotov cocktail into a Jewish settlement north of Jerusalem. Troops found another 10 firebombs at the scene ready to be ignited.
    (AP, 10/14/08)
2008        Oct 14, North Korea resumed steps to disable its nuclear reactor under renewed monitoring, after a deal with Washington to save the disarmament process from collapse.
    (AP, 10/14/08)
2008        Oct 14, The Hamas government announced that it will not permit thousands of striking teachers to return to their jobs, further heightening tensions with its political rivals in the West Bank. Despite the August 24 strike, Hamas kept schools running and hired some 2,200 new teachers and administrators.
    (AP, 10/14/08)
2008        Oct 14, The Philippine Supreme Court threw out a proposed accord to grant minority Muslims expanded autonomy after Christian protests and renewed fighting convinced the government to abandon the deal. The accord would have expanded an existing six-province Muslim autonomous region in Mindanao, subject to the agreement of local residents.
    (AP, 10/14/08)
2008        Oct 14, Off the Somali coast a Panamanian-flagged vessel and its 11 crew members, nine Syrians and two Somalis, were freed after a gunbattle in which one Puntland soldier was killed and three wounded. The 10 pirates, who had held the ship since Oct 9, surrendered when they ran out of ammunition.
    (AP, 10/14/08)
2008        Oct 14, The World Conservation Congress ended in Barcelona, Spain. The meeting was awash in gloomy forecasts.
    (Econ, 10/18/08, p.68)
2008        Oct 14, In Sri Lanka government forces pounded rebel defenses with airstrikes and ground assaults. Heavy fighting across the north killed 49 Tamil Tiger fighters and 7 soldiers. TamilNet reported that 3 soldiers were killed in the government–controlled east.
    (AP, 10/15/08)(SFC, 10/15/08, p.A5)
2008        Oct 14, Syria established diplomatic relations with Lebanon, ending six decades of non-recognition of its neighbor's sovereignty in an apparent bid to curry favor with the West as it pursues indirect peace talks with Israel.
    (AP, 10/14/08)
2008        Oct 14, The UN Security Council voted unanimously to renew its peacekeeping mission in Haiti for another year.
    (AP, 10/15/08)

2008        Oct 15, John McCain and Barack Obama held their final televised debate at Hofstra Univ. in Hempstead, NY. It was moderated by Bob Schieffer of CBS.
    (AP, 10/16/08)(SFC, 10/16/08, p.A1)   
2008        Oct 15, The US Commerce Department reported that retail sales decreased 1.2% last month, nearly double the 0.7% drop that had been expected. Stocks plunged 733 points in their second biggest point loss ever.
    (AP, 10/15/08)(SFC, 10/16/08, p.C1)
2008        Oct 15, At Camp Pendleton, California, Sgt. Jan Pietrzak (24) and his wife, Quiana Jenkins-Pietrzak (26) were found gagged, tied and shot in the head in the living room of their Winchester home. Investigators said the house had been ransacked and a fire had been set, an apparent effort to destroy evidence. 4 Marines were later charged with two counts of first-degree murder and special-circumstance allegations of committing multiple murders, committing the crime during a robbery and rape by instrument.
    (AP, 11/21/08)
2008        Oct 15, In Illinois a medical helicopter crashed just before midnight and killed a desperately ill 1-year-old girl and three crew members when the aircraft clipped a radio structure's wire and went down in a suburban Chicago field.
    (AP, 10/17/08)
2008        Oct 15, A NYC police officer warned Michael Mineo, a tattoo parlor worker, that if he reported being sodomized with a baton during an arrest at a subway station, officers would lock him up for a felony. Officer Richard Kern (25) was later charged with aggravated sexual abuse and assault. Fellow Officers Alex Cruz and Andrew Morales were charged with hindering prosecution and official misconduct for allegedly covering up the crime.
    (AP, 12/9/08)
2008        Oct 15, In Afghanistan international war planes bombed a gathering of Taliban and other militants overnight in Barham Chah on the border with Pakistan and killed up to 70. An explosion in Helmand province killed a British soldier.
    (AFP, 10/15/08)(AP, 10/16/08)
2008        Oct 15, Authorities in Azerbaijan said turnout was high in a presidential election boycotted by the opposition and almost certain to return Ilham Aliyev for a second term in the oil-producing state. President Ilham Aliyev had 89% of the vote with 70% of precincts reporting.
    (AP, 10/15/08)(AP, 10/16/08)
2008        Oct 15, In Barbados 13 Caribbean countries approved a new Economic partnership Agreement (EPA) with the EU.
    (Econ, 10/18/08, p.50)
2008        Oct 15, Nicky Reilly (22), a convert to Islam, pleaded guilty at a London court to attempted murder and engaging in preparation for terrorism by researching how to make bombs. He was arrested shortly after a blast rattled a family restaurant in the southwest English city of Exeter 200 miles (320 kilometers) west of London on May 22.
    (AP, 10/15/08)
2008        Oct 15, The Shell Anglo-Dutch group said a Nigerian court has ordered it to hand over land around its giant Bonny oil terminal to the local population, a key demand of armed rebels in the volatile region. Shell said ruling was given some months ago but we have appealed.
    (AFP, 10/15/08)
2008        Oct 15, Cambodia and Thailand exchanged fire on the border in a clash over disputed land which left two soldiers dead and several wounded.
    (AFP, 10/15/08)
2008        Oct 15, Chile’s President Michelle Bachelet signed into law a measure that bans all whale hunting off Chile's 3,400-mile (5,500-kilometer) coast.
    (AP, 10/16/08)
2008        Oct 15, EU leaders agreed to stick to ambitious plans to cut greenhouse gas emissions 20% by 2020, but divisions over how to share out the cuts were widened by fears over the impact of the financial crisis.
    (AP, 10/15/08)
2008        Oct 15, Iceland moved to shore up its ravaged economy by slashing borrowing costs and officials pursued efforts to get help from Russia in tackling the worst financial crisis in the island's history.
    (Reuters, 10/15/08)
2008        Oct 15, Esha Momeni, a student at California State University, Northridge, was driving on a highway in Tehran when she was stopped by authorities, who said they were traffic police, and later taken to Evin prison. Her computer and other materials related to her research on the Iranian women's movement were confiscated.
    (AP, 10/24/08)
2008        Oct 15, Baghdad and Washington reached final agreement on a pact requiring US forces to withdraw from Iraq by 2012. The agreement, reached after months of difficult negotiations, would allow US troops to remain here after their UN mandate expires Dec. 31. The US military detained 2 suspected insurgents in raids targeting al-Qaida in Iraq's leadership in the northern Iraqi city of Mosul. A US soldier died of noncombat causes.
    (WSJ, 10/16/08, p.A1)(AP, 10/16/08)(AP, 10/17/08)(SFC, 10/17/08, p.A9)
2008        Oct 15, A Malaysian court ordered Tuanku Jaafar Tuanku Abdul Rahman (86), the country's former king (1994-1999), to settle a $1 million debt to a bank in a landmark verdict that ended a centuries-old tradition shielding the country's royal sultans from legal prosecution.
    (AP, 10/15/08)
2008        Oct 15, Pakistani President Asif Ali Zardari reached trade deals with China, raising hopes that Beijing would help his country through difficult economic and diplomatic times.
    (AP, 10/15/08)
2008        Oct 15, Armed pirates hijacked a bulk carrier with 21 crew members in the Gulf of Aden near Somalia. The ship under a Panamanian flag was operated by the Philippines.
    (AP, 10/15/08)
2008        Oct 15, In Sri Lanka air force jets bombed a group of rebels who were building an earthen embankment as a defense against advancing government forces in Mullaitivu.
    (AP, 10/15/08)
2008        Oct 15, The foreign ministers of Syria and Lebanon signed an agreement formalizing diplomatic ties between the two countries for the first time in their turbulent history.
    (AP, 10/15/08)
2008        Oct 15, Turkish media reported that a hijacker attempted to commandeer a Turkish Airlines plane over Belarus but that he was overpowered by passengers.
    (AP, 10/15/08)
2008        Oct 15, The Turkish military clashed with Kurdish rebels near the Iraqi border in battles in which four soldiers and five rebels were killed. A Turkish helicopter crashed during the clash. A soldier was killed and 15 security personnel were slightly injured in the crash.
    (AP, 10/16/08)
2008        Oct 15, The IMF said Ukrainian authorities have asked the International Monetary Fund for help in stemming a financial crisis in the country. The government took emergency measures to rescue banks and stabilize the national currency, the hryvna, after worried depositors withdrew more than US$1 billion from their accounts this month.
    (AP, 10/15/08)
2008        Oct 15, A Vietnamese court sentenced journalist Nguyen Viet Chien (56) to two years in prison, accusing him of writing inaccurate stories about one of the country's most high-profile corruption cases. Fellow reporter Nguyen Van Hai (33) was sentenced on the charges to two years of "re-education without detention." The reporters were arrested in May for writing about a 2005 scandal in which Transportation Ministry officials were accused of gambling with allegedly embezzled funds. Police Maj. Gen. Pham Xuan Quac (62) and investigator Dinh Van Huynh were charged with "deliberately revealing state secrets," for giving information to the journalists. Quac, who has retired, was given a warning, while Huynh was sentenced to one year in prison.
    (AP, 10/15/08)
2008        Oct 15, Former South African leader Thabo Mbeki opened a second day of talks with Zimbabwe President Robert Mugabe and his main rival to save a power-sharing deal that has floundered over cabinet posts.
    (AFP, 10/15/08)
2008        Oct 15, Wang Yung-Ching (b.1917), founder of Formosa Plastics Group, died leaving a fortune estimated at $7 billion. He had set up a small PVC plant in 1954 in Taiwan with money from a US aid program.
    (WSJ, 10/18/08, p.A10)
2008        Oct 15, A study by Gaffney Cline & Associates of a big natural gas filed in Turkmenistan confirmed the South Yolotan-Osman as the fifth largest in the world.
    (WSJ, 10/16/08, p.A9)

2008        Oct 16, Pres. George W. Bush signed the 315-page Rail Safety Improvement Act. The bill introduced a new rail safety system called Positive Train Control (PTC).
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Positive_train_control)(Econ, 7/24/10, p.70)
2008        Oct 16, The US FDA said it would open its first office in China before the end of the year. Over 60 FDA would be placed world-wide over the next year.
    (SFC, 10/17/08, p.A4)
2008        Oct 16, Nasdaq filed with the SEC to temporarily suspend rules to remove securities trading below a dollar. The Sec approved the change effective this day.
    (SFC, 10/25/08, p.C1)
2008        Oct 16, The annual TED prize was awarded to Sylvia Earl, Deep ocean explorer; Jill Cornell Tarter, astronomer; and Jose Antonio Abreu, classical music maestro.
    (SFC, 10/17/08, p.C3)
2008        Oct 16, Hawaii state officials said they will stop giving health coverage to the 2,000 children enrolled by Nov. 1, but private partner Hawaii Medical Service Association will pay to extend their coverage through the end of the year without government support. Hawaii lawmakers had approved the health plan in 2007 as a way to ensure every child can get basic medical help.
    (AP, 10/17/08)
2008        Oct 16, The Hubble Space Telescope went into the final stages of recovery after NASA successfully bypassed a faulty computer and resurrected an 18-year-old spare from orbital hibernation.
    (Reuters, 10/16/08)
2008        Oct 16, Edie Adams (b.1927), actress and singer, died. The blonde beauty had won a Tony Award for bringing Daisy Mae to life on Broadway and played the television foil to her husband, comedian Ernie Kovacs.
    (AP, 10/17/08)
2008        Oct 16, In southern Afghanistan an insurgent's rocket hit Lashkar Gah, capital of the world's largest opium producing region, killing a civilian and wounding five other people. An Afghan policeman killed a US soldier on foot patrol in Paktika province and a second international troop was killed by a mortar in another "possible friendly fire" incident. Air strikes in the Nad Ali district of Helmand province reportedly killed 17 civilians. 18 insurgents were killed in fighting in Kunar province.
    (AP, 10/16/08)(AFP, 10/16/08)(SFC, 10/18/08, p.A9)
2008        Oct 16, Brazil's President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva arrived in Mozambique to launch a project to make anti-AIDS drugs in the southern African country.
    (AP, 10/17/08)
2008        Oct 16, Around one million Burundian children under the age of five suffer chronic malnutrition, the UN food agency announced as it marked World Food Day in the tiny central African nation.
    (AP, 10/16/08)
2008        Oct 16, Cambodia and Thailand agreed to joint patrols of disputed border areas after deadly clashes, but made little progress toward resolving their long-standing territorial spat.
    (AFP, 10/16/08)
2008        Oct 16, Canadian police said a bomb damaged a natural gas pipeline in British Columbia, describing the overnight attack as the second of its kind in the same area in a week.
    (Reuters, 10/16/08)
2008        Oct 16, In Dubai a British couple was sentenced to three months in jail in a case that has caused controversy because the two were charged in July with having sex on the beach.  The Dubai Court of Appeals upheld the guilty verdict but dropped the prison sentences for Michelle Palmer and Vince Acors, though it ruled the couple must still be deported from the United Arab Emirates and pay a fine of about $272 each.
    (AP, 10/15/08)(AP, 11/25/08)
2008        Oct 16, The European Commission announced 15 million euros (20 million dollars) of emergency food aid for victims of drought and soaring food prices in five east African countries. The biggest share will go to Ethiopia and Somalia and smaller amounts to Kenya, Uganda and Djibouti.
    (AFP, 10/16/08)
2008        Oct 16, The European Central Bank extended emergency loans to Hungary’s central bank. The ECB said it will lend up to $6.75 billion.
    (SFC, 10/17/08, p.A5)
2008        Oct 16, The International Committee of the Red Cross said Iran and Iraq have signed an agreement to trace missing persons from the war between the two countries. About 1 million people died in the eight-year war that began when Saddam Hussein launched an attack on Iran in 1980.
    (AP, 10/16/08)
2008        Oct 16, A heavy sandstorm turned Iraq's capital into a pinkish haze, sending dozens of people to the hospital with respiratory problems and delaying a number of international flights. The US military detained 2 more suspected insurgents in raids targeting al-Qaida in Iraq's leadership in the northern Iraqi city of Mosul. A US soldier was killed in Diyala province.
    (AP, 10/16/08)(SFC, 10/15/08, p.A9)
2008        Oct 16, Israeli troops shot and killed a Palestinian man in Kufr Malek, a village near Ramallah. An army patrol spotted three men carrying firebombs and troops shot one man after the trio ignored warning shots. The other two escaped. A Palestinian man died in a Ramallah hospital a day after being shot by troops in the nearby Jelazoun refugee camp.
    (AP, 10/16/08)
2008        Oct 16, Italian police arrested Antonio Pelle (46), an alleged fugitive mobster, believed to be the head of an organized crime clan involved in the slaying of six people in Germany last year. His family was involved in a feud that led to the Aug. 15, 2007 killing of six Italians outside a restaurant in Duisburg, Germany.
    (AP, 10/16/08)
2008        Oct 16, In Kenya violence re-started between the Murule and Garre in Mandera town triggered by need for space for 920 families displaced by flash floods. A security operation was then set up to intervene following a request by the area members of parliament when the conflict took a cross-border dimension with one clan getting support from Al-Shabaab militants from Somalia. In 2009 Human Rights Watch issued a 51-page report, called "Bring the Gun or You'll Die," saying Kenyan security forces tortured hundreds of civilians and raped at least a dozen women during a three-day operation to disarm militias in the Mandera region.
    (www.reliefweb.int/rw/rwb.nsf/db900SID/MYAI-7LQ47Q?OpenDocument)(AP, 6/29/09)
2008        Oct 16, Authorities in Malaysia and Singapore said they will guarantee all foreign currency and local currency bank deposits.
    (WSJ, 10/17/08, p.A5)
2008        Oct 16, An influential council of Malaysia's state rulers warned people not to question the supremacy of Islam or the special privileges enjoyed by the country's ethnic Malay majority.
    (AP, 10/17/08)
2008        Oct 16, In Mexico six people were lined up and gunned down outside a business in the border city of Ciudad Juarez.
    (AP, 10/17/08)
2008        Oct 16, Pirates  in southern Nigeria seized eight fishing vessels with a total of 96 crew and later threatened to seriously harm them if ransom is not paid.
    (AFP, 10/18/08)
2008        Oct 16, The Pakistani rupee dropped to more than 82 to the dollar, continuing a slide that has seen it lose more than 30% of its value this year. A suspected US missile strike killed a purported foreign militant in South Waziristan, a tribal area considered a haven for the Taliban and al-Qaida. A suicide bombing in the Swat Valley left four security personnel dead. In Bajur 7 militants were killed by plane and helicopter gunship attacks.
    (AP, 10/16/08)(SFC, 10/17/08, p.A4)
2008        Oct 16, In Somalia at least 23 people were killed in Mogadishu when insurgents attacked camps housing African Union and Ethiopian troops, triggering heavy clashes.
    (AFP, 10/16/08)
2008        Oct 16, Somali pirates released 22 sailors they kidnapped on Sep 10, after the South Korean ship owner paid a ransom. Koo Ja-Woo, an executive director of J and J Trust, which owns the ship, said his company paid an unspecified sum to the pirates through a foreign middleman with experience in dealing with the seizure of ships.
    (AFP, 10/17/08)
2008        Oct 16, Spain's leading judge agreed to investigate the disappearances of tens thousands of people during the 1936-39 civil war and the ensuing Franco dictatorship, many of whom are believed to be buried in mass graves. Spanish police arrested 13 men accused of harboring Islamic extremists and helping them flee the country, including several suspects in the Madrid terror bombings of 2004.
    (AFP, 10/16/08)(AP, 10/16/08)
2008        Oct 16, Sri Lankan troops captured the rebel-held town of Maniyakkulam, in the island's north following heavy fighting that killed a large group of guerrillas.
    (AFP, 10/17/08)
2008        Oct 16, Sudanese President Omar al-Beshir launched his "people's initiative" for peace in Darfur with an elaborate ceremony attended by regional dignitaries but no rebels involved in fighting.
    (AFP, 10/16/08)
2008        Oct 16, Switzerland launched a massive recapitalization of UBS AG saying it will invest $5.3 billion in UBS in return for a 9% stake.
    (WSJ, 10/17/08, p.A3)
2008        Oct 16, Hurricane Omar passed the Virgin Islands overnight leaving oil spills in St. Croix as 40 boats sank or washed ashore.
    (AP, 10/18/08)

2008        Oct 17, The Bush administration named the beluga whale in Alaska’s Cook Inlet an endangered species, despite opposition from Gov. Palin. Only 375 beluga whales remained there as opposed to some 1,300 in the 1970s. In 2011 a US federal judge upheld the listing.
    (SFC, 10/18/08, p.A3)(SFC, 11/22/11, p.A6)
2008        Oct 17, US drug czar John Walters said that Mexico's drug cartels are crossing the border to kidnap and kill inside the United States, and promised that an anti-drug aid package to help Mexico to fight the gangs will be ready soon.
    (AP, 10/17/08)
2008        Oct 17, Harvard Univ. announced a gift of $45 million and 31 major works of art from 1936 alumna Emily Rauh Pulitzer for the Harvard Art Museum. It was the largest gift in the history of the museum.
    (SFC, 10/18/08, p.E3)
2008        Oct 17, In Philadelphia college student Jocelyn Kirsch (23) was sentenced to five years in prison and ordered to pay more than $100,000 in restitution. She and her former boyfriend, Edward Anderton, had stolen the identities of friends and neighbors in 2006 and 2007 to net more than $116,000 in goods and services. Anderton’s sentence was pending.
    (AP, 10/17/08)
2008        Oct 17, Mervyn’s, a Hayward, Ca., based retailer, said it plans to liquidate its remaining 149 locations and shutter the business after the holiday season.
    (SFC, 10/18/08, p.C1)
2008        Oct 17, Pfizer Inc. said it has reached agreements to end up to 92% of personal injury lawsuits relating to anti-inflammatory drugs Bextra and Celebrex, linked to elevated risks of heart attacks and stroke, at a cost of $894 million.
    (SFC, 10/18/08, p.A2)
2008        Oct 17, George M Keller (b.1923), former head of Standard Oil of California (1981-1988), died at his home in Palo Alto, Ca. He oversaw the 1984 merger with Gulf Oil to form Chevron Corp.
    (SFC, 10/18/08, p.B1)
2008        Oct 17, Levi Stubbs (72), Four Tops frontman, died at his home in Detroit. His dynamic and emotive voice drove such Motown classics as "Reach Out (I'll Be There)" and "Baby I Need Your Loving."
    (AP, 10/17/08)
2008        Oct 17, In Afghanistan a bomb in Paktika province killed two civilians. A two-day battle in Wardak province left 20 militants dead. NATO-led forces assaulted the insurgent stronghold  with airstrikes 40 miles west of Kabul.
    (AFP, 10/18/08)(AP, 10/20/08)
2008        Oct 17, Two Indonesian fishing crew picked up in Australian territorial waters with 14 refugees on their boat were charged with people smuggling.
    (Reuters, 10/17/08)
2008        Oct 17, Some 30 leaders of French-speaking nations attended a 3-day summit of French-speaking nations in Quebec City, Canada. The focus was dominated by the world's financial woes.
    (AFP, 10/17/08)
2008        Oct 17, Chechen leader Ramzan Kadyrov opened one of Europe's biggest mosques in the rebuilt capital of the southern Russian region, saying it was proof Russian rule and Islam can go together. The mosque, named "The Heart of Chechnya" and constructed by Turkish builders, can host up to 10,000 worshippers.
    (AP, 10/17/08)
2008        Oct 17, A bomb planted near a Baghdad mosque killed three Shiite worshippers as they were leaving prayers. Iraqi mosques used the Muslim week's holy day to address recent attacks against Christians.
    (AP, 10/17/08)
2008        Oct 17, In Mexico 334 police officers were ousted in ciudad Juarez after they failed psychological, background and other checks as part of a clean-up campaign meant to root out officers who are corrupt or cooperating with drug traffickers. The border city sent police recruiters across the country as it tries to replace nearly half a police force gutted by firings and retirements.
    (AP, 10/18/08)
2008        Oct 17, In northwest Pakistan troops backed by helicopter gunships and artillery pounded militant positions, killing 60 fighters and wounding many others near the town of Matta in the Swat Valley.
    (AP, 10/18/08)
2008        Oct 17, In southern Thailand a 25-year-old man was shot dead in a gunfight with security officials after the arrests of five other suspected militants.
    (AFP, 10/18/08)
2008        Oct 17, Turkish warplanes carried out successful airstrikes inside Iraq on the main bases used by Kurdish rebels. The air strikes on Qandil Mountain killed 25 Kurdish rebels and wounded many more. Earlier in the day, the military said it intercepted Kurdish rebel radio chatter indicating that up to 35 guerrillas had been killed in clashes with troops earlier this week in southeastern Sirnak province.
    (AP, 10/17/08)(AP, 10/24/08)
2008        Oct 17, The UN added Japan, Austria, Turkey, Mexico and Uganda as members to the 10 non-permanent seats of the Security Council, replacing Belgium, Indonesia, Italy, Panama and South Africa.
    (AP, 10/17/08)   

2008        Oct 18, UC Berkeley dedicated the new sculpture “Berkeley Big People" by Emeryville artist Scott Donohue. It was erected just off I-80 at a cost of $196,000.
    (SFC, 10/17/08, p.A16)
2008        Oct 18, In Daly City, Ca., the new Landmark Plaza announced the opening of its mixed use project at 88 Hillside Blvd. Sales for 43 of its Phase I townhome and tower units began in November. Phase II would bring on an additional 48 unites.
    (SFC, 10/18/09, p.G5)(SFC, 11/22/08, p.F8)
2008        Oct 18, Thingiverse, a website dedicated to the sharing of user-created digital design files, was launched Zach Smith as a companion site to MakerBot Industries, a DIY 3D printer kit making company.
2008        Oct 18, In Afghanistan men on motorbikes shot dead a prominent pro-government Afghan tribal elder and his son, a former bodyguard for President Hamid Karzai, as they left a mosque in Kandahar. A bomb in eastern Paktika  province killed two civilian men and a child.
    (AFP, 10/18/08)
2008        Oct 18, Phil Woolas, Britain’s new immigration minister, said the government will impose tougher restrictions on immigration as the global financial crisis lifts unemployment to the highest rate in nearly a decade.
    (AFP, 10/18/08)
2008        Oct 18, Liu Zhihua, a former Beijing vice mayor in charge of overseeing Olympic construction projects, was given a suspended death sentence for corruption, in a stern warning to wayward Communist officials. The sentence will be commuted to life in prison in two years if Liu shows good behavior.
    (AP, 10/19/08)
2008        Oct 18, At least two Russian soldiers were killed and 10 others were wounded when rebels ambushed a military convoy in the Sunzha region of Ingushetia.
    (AP, 10/18/08)
2008        Oct 18, Shiite cleric Muqtada al-Sadr called on Iraq's parliament to reject a US-Iraqi security pact as tens of thousands of his followers rallied in Baghdad against the deal.  Abdul-Hadi al-Janabi, the leader of a US-allied Sunni group that turned against al-Qaida, was killed in a drive-by shooting south of Baghdad. Masked gunmen attacked the home of a US-allied Sunni group in Balad, north of Baghdad, killing 5 people.
    (AP, 10/18/08)(SSFC, 10/19/08, p.A22)
2008        Oct 18, Mexican federal authorities raided a “narco-mansion" in Mexico City and arrested 15 alleged traffickers during the middle of a party. A mini menagerie was also found at the site that included 2 African lions, 2 white tigers and 2 black panthers.
2008        Oct 18, Pakistan said that China will help it build two more nuclear power plants, offsetting Pakistani frustration over a recent nuclear deal between archrival India and the US. Pakistani fighter jets bombed a militant camp and munition storage facility in the northwest, killing at least 20 insurgents and causing extensive damage. In nearby Bajur district seven more insurgents were killed when jets bombed their positions. 3 militants were killed in other parts of Bajur when they tried to attack security posts.
    (AP, 10/18/08)(AP, 10/19/08)
2008        Oct 18, Somali pirates released a Thai ship after receiving a ransom.
    (AP, 10/19/08)
2008        Oct 18, In southern Sudan unknown assailants kidnapped nine Chinese oil workers.
    (AP, 10/19/08)
2008        Oct 18, In southern Thailand 2 Muslim men were killed in separate drive-by shootings.
    (AFP, 10/18/08)
2008        Oct 18, Zimbabwean opposition leader Morgan Tsvangirai characterized failed talks to form a unity government with President Robert Mugabe as "a monologue" saying the veteran ruler refused to compromise on the allocation of key ministries.
    (AFP, 10/18/08)

2008        Oct 19, Pres. Bush signed a bill reauthorizing Amtrak for another 5 years.
    (Econ, 4/11/09, p.30)(www.planetizen.com/node/35658)
2008        Oct 19, Colin Powell, a Republican and retired general who was President Bush's first secretary of state, broke with the party and endorsed Democrat Barack Obama for president, calling him a "transformational figure" while criticizing the tone of John McCain's campaign.
    (AP, 10/20/08)
2008        Oct 19, It was reported that California’s San Mateo County suffered potential losses of some $150 million due to the bankruptcy of Lehman Bros. The Lehman Bros. portfolio accounted for 5.9% of the county’s investment fund. County cities Daly City, Redwood City and San Bruno each racked up losses exceeding $1 million.
    (SSFC, 10/19/08, p.B1)
2008        Oct 19, In San Francisco over 20,000 runners took part in the 5th annual Nike’s Women’s Marathon. They raised over $18 million for leukemia and lymphoma research. Arien O’Connell (24) of NYC ran the fastest time, but did not win because she did not register as an “elite" runner. On Oct 22 Nike recognized O’Connell as “a winner" in the race.
    (SFC, 10/20/08, p.B1)(SFC, 10/21/08, p.B1)(SFC, 10/23/08, p.A1)
2008        Oct 19, Richard Blackwell (86), actor turned fashion designer, died in Los Angeles. He claimed to be the first to make designer jeans for women. In 1960 he issued his first tongue-in-cheek criticism of Hollywood fashion disasters.
    (SFC, 10/21/08, p.B5)
2008        Oct 19, Hal Kant (b.1931), lawyer for the Grateful Dead (1971-2001), died in Reno, Nev. He led the Grateful Dead to incorporate, making it one of the first rock bands to offer health benefits and pensions.
    (WSJ, 10/25/08, p.A4)
2008        Oct 19, Dee Dee Warwick (63), a soul singer who won recognition for both her solo work and her performances with her older sister Dionne Warwick, died in New Jersey.
    (AP, 10/20/08)
2008        Oct 19, Taliban militants stopped a bus traveling on Afghanistan's main highway in the Maiwand district of Kandahar province, captured some 50 people on board and killed 26 of them with at least 6 beheaded. International and Afghan forces killed 34 Taliban fighters south of the Helmand provincial capital of Lashkar Gah.  In early 2009 Canadian military police charged Captain Robert Semrau of shooting and killing a man, described by the military police, as a "presumed insurgent," on or about October 19, 2008.
    (AP, 10/19/08)(AP, 10/20/08)(AP, 10/24/08)(Reuters, 1/2/09)
2008        Oct 19, China's communist leaders announced the approval of key rural reform that for the first time will permit farmers to lease or transfer their land in a change aimed at raising rural incomes and speeding migration from the farm to the cities. The policy change was approved a week ago at a high-level meeting.
    (AP, 10/20/08)
2008        Oct 19, In Colombia Vladimir Vanoy (32), the son of a warlord extradited to the US on drug charges, was murdered by unidentified assailants at the gate to his condominium outside Bogota. Earlier this month a Miami judge sentenced Ramiro Vanoy to 24 years in prison on drug-trafficking charges.
    (AP, 10/19/08)
2008        Oct 20, Our Lady of Kazan, Cuba's first Russian Orthodox cathedral, was consecrated amid church bells and the presence of President Raul Castro, in a sign of goodwill toward the island's former chief benefactor. Cuba's Russian community has dwindled to several hundred as most returned home following the collapse of communism in Eastern Europe.
    (AP, 10/20/08)
2008        Oct 19, The French Cabinet's spokesman said "swindlers" last month broke into the personal bank account of President Nicolas Sarkozy and swiped small sums of money. More than 30,000 demonstrators marched across Paris to denounce the conservative government's budget restrictions, job cuts and other controversial reforms in the public education system. On Oct 21 police arrested two men suspected of stealing the bank details of several people without realizing the identity of their victims. They are believed to have used small sums to pay mobile telephone bills.
    (AP, 10/19/08)(AP, 10/21/08)
2008        Oct 19, An Israeli businessman was kidnapped in Ghana. The kidnappers initially demanded $500,000 ransom, then lowered it to $300,000.
    (AP, 10/24/08)
2008        Oct 19, In India 2 people were killed and 12 injured after a bridge being built to extend New Delhi's six-year-old metro system collapsed onto a bus and cars.
    (AFP, 10/19/08)
2008        Oct 19, Iraq’s PM Nouri al-Maliki's ruling Shiite alliance said that parts of the draft security agreement that would keep US troops here for three more years needs more discussion and amendments before it can be approved. A roadside bomb targeting an Iraqi police patrol killed two people and wounded 10 in southeastern Baghdad. A second roadside bomb in the same neighborhood blew up shortly afterward, wounding three other policemen traveling in car and four civilians in another vehicle. A US Marine died in a non-combat incident at Asad Air Base in the west of Iraq.
    (AP, 10/19/08)(AP, 10/20/08)
2008        Oct 19, Pakistan’s government said it may have to accept politically unpopular IMF assistance to ward off a possible economic meltdown if wealthy nations turn it down.
    (AP, 10/19/08)
2008        Oct 19, The Philippine government said it would pay 50,000 (1,063 dollars) for every M-16 assault rifle surrendered by a communist insurgent who abandoned the long-running rebellion.
    (AP, 10/19/08)
2008        Oct 19, In Somalia 3 gunmen shot the employee of the UN Children's Fund, UNICEF, as he walked home in the southern town of Hudur.
    (AP, 10/20/08)
2008        Oct 19, South Korea announced a $130 billion economic rescue package, with $100 billion of this in the form of guarantees for foreign currency debts.
    (Econ, 10/25/08, p.52)
2008        Oct 19, Turkish warplanes again bombed Kurdish rebel hideouts across the border in northern Iraq. The bombings targeted four towns near the Turkish border.
    (AP, 10/19/08)

2008        Oct 20, The DJIA rose 413.21 points as Federal Reserve Chairman Ben Bernanke tentatively endorsed a new stimulus package.
    (SFC, 10/21/08, p.A1)
2008        Oct 20, Nebraska’s Gov. Dave Heineman and state lawmakers agreed to amend the new safe-haven law so as to protect only parents of new-born children from prosecution.
    (SFC, 10/21/08, p.A3)
2008        Oct 20, Taliban gunmen killed Gayle Williams (34), a Christian aid worker in Kabul, as she was walking to work. The militant group said it targeted the British-South African citizen because she was spreading her religion. In Faryab province militants killed five policemen, including a district police chief. In northern Afghanistan, a suicide bomber killed two German soldiers and five children in Kunduz province.
    (AP, 10/20/08)(SFC, 10/21/08, p.A12)
2008        Oct 20, President Evo Morales agreed to seek only one more five-year term, a key concession that all but ended a standoff in Congress over a new constitution to empower Bolivia's long-oppressed indigenous majority.
    (AP, 10/21/08)
2008        Oct 20, Festus Gontebanye Mogae, who led Botswana from 1998 to 2008, was chosen as the winner of the 2008 Ibrahim Prize for Achievement in African Leadership.
    (AP, 10/20/08)
2008        Oct 20, Sister Emmanuelle (b.1908), a Belgian-born nun who devoted her life to helping the poor in North Africa and in France, died in France. Madeleine Cinquin had spent 20 years working with children in a slum in Cairo as part of a lengthy career helping the dispossessed.
    (AFP, 10/20/08)
2008        Oct 20, In China, a veterinarian said some 1,500 dogs, bred for their raccoon-like fur, have died after eating feed tainted with the same chemical that contaminated dairy products and sickened tens of thousands of babies nationwide.
    (AP, 10/20/08)
2008        Oct 20, The French government allocated €10.5 billion among six of its banks.
    (Econ, 10/25/08, p.89)
2008        Oct 20, Officials in Honduras said a week of heavy rains has caused landslides and flooding that have killed at least 11 people and left two others missing.
    (AP, 10/20/08)
2008        Oct 20, India’s central bank cut its repurchase rate, a leading rate for which the central bank lends to other banks, to 8%, the first reduction since March 2004.
    (WSJ, 10/21/08, p.A4)
2008        Oct 20, The United States and Iraq announced a $14 million program to set up a conservation and historic preservation institute, refurbish the National Museum in Baghdad and enhance the training of museum and archaeological professionals in Iraq. An Iraqi policeman was arrested for allegedly using police vehicles to smuggle weapons to Baghdad. Bombs struck a double-decker bus and a taxi in eastern Baghdad, killing four people.
    (AP, 10/20/08)
2008        Oct 20, Mexico agreed to deport Cubans who sneak illegally through Mexican territory to reach the US, a step toward cutting off an increasingly violent and heavily used human trafficking route. 21 prisoners died in a fight between inmates at a prison across the border from McAllen, Texas. Police said two soldiers and a security guard were found stabbed to death at a housing construction site in the village of Las Margaritas, northern Mexico. The body of a federal policeman was found riddled with gunshot wounds in Tijuana.
    (AP, 10/20/08)
2008        Oct 20, Pakistani forces killed up to 35 militants near the Afghan border, as the region's provincial chief called for "peaceful dialogue" in a meeting with a US State Department official.
    (AP, 10/20/08)
2008        Oct 20, Palestinian Pres. Abbas published remarks saying Israel has failed to protect Palestinians against attacks by Israeli settlers during the olive harvest.
    (AP, 10/20/08)
2008        Oct 20, US Ambassador Michael McKinley and Peru's foreign minister signed an accord forgiving US$25 million of Peru's foreign debt and directing the money to a tropical forest conservation program.
    (AP, 10/21/08)
2008        Oct 20, A financially strapped South Korean man went on an arson and stabbing rampage in Seoul, leaving six people dead and seven others wounded.
    (AP, 10/20/08)
2008        Oct 20, The Sri Lankan government admitted that scores of its troops had been killed or injured in fierce fighting with the Tamil Tigers, its biggest reported battlefield loss in months. Battles since Oct 18 had left 33 soldiers dead, three missing in action and 48 injured. The bodies of 11 rebels were recovered from the battlefield.
    (AFP, 10/20/08)
2008        Oct 20, In Thailand thousands of anti-government protesters marched through the streets of Bangkok, calling the prime minister a "murderer" and demanding he resign over the violent quashing of a previous rally.
    (AP, 10/20/08)
2008        Oct 20, A Kurdish demonstrator died after a clash with police in eastern Turkey. Kurdish protesters staged demonstrations in many parts of Turkey over the weekend following allegations that Kurdish rebel leader Abdullah Ocalan was mistreated in prison.
    (AP, 10/20/08)
2008        Oct 20, The UN said the financial crises will add at least 20 million people to the world’s jobless, raising the total to 210 million.
    (WSJ, 10/21/08, p.A1)

2008        Oct 21, Top US and Russian military officers held an unannounced meeting in Helsinki in an effort to maintain dialogue after Moscow's crushing defeat of American ally Georgia.
    (Reuters, 10/21/08)
2008        Oct 21, The US Federal Reserve announced that it will start buying commercial paper, a crucial short-term funding mechanism many companies rely on for day-to-day operations, from money market mutual funds.
    (AP, 10/21/08)
2008        Oct 21, US federal agents arrested dozens of members of the Mongol motorcycle club in six states, following an undercover investigation in which they infiltrated the notorious motorcycle gang. Prosecutors said it could herald the end of what they call a criminal group.
    (AP, 10/22/08)(SFC, 10/22/08, p.B2)
2008        Oct 21, National City Corp, an Ohio-based regional bank hard hit by the credit crisis, announced plans to slash 4,000 jobs and said rising reserves for soured mortgage and real estate construction loans led to its fifth straight quarterly loss.
    (Reuters, 10/21/08)
2008        Oct 21, The Pentagon said it has dropped war-crimes charges against five Guantanamo Bay detainees after the former prosecutor in their cases complained that the military was withholding evidence helpful to the defense. Lawyers for Ethiopian refugee Binyam Mohamed, a British resident held at Guantanamo, said the US has dropped all charges against him, but he is still being held at the US prison camp. Binyam Mohamed, an Ethiopian citizen, had lived in Britain for 7 years, and was arrested in Pakistan in 2002.
    (AP, 10/21/08)(Econ, 2/7/09, p.49)
2008        Oct 21, Argentina proposed to nationalize the private pensions in order to meet debt payments. The nationalization of the private pension funds took place in December.
    (WSJ, 10/22/08, p.A1)(Econ, 2/27/10, p.28)
2008        Oct 21, Bolivia’s Congress ratified Pres. Morales’ draft constitution, designed to empower the indigenous population.
    (WSJ, 10/22/08, p.A1)
2008        Oct 21, The Bank of Canada cut its key interest rate by a quarter point, less than expected, to 2.25 percent but said it would likely have to ease further to combat the effects of the global financial crisis.
    (Reuters, 10/21/08)
2008        Oct 21, In Denmark Hammad Khuershid, a Danish citizen of Pakistani origin, and Abdoulghani Tokhi, an Afghan, were convicted of preparing a terrorist attack. They were secretly filmed mixing the type of explosive used in the 2005 London transit bombing. They were arrested in the Copenhagen area in September 2007. Khuershid and Tokhi were sentenced to 12 and seven years in prison, respectively.
    (AP, 10/21/08)
2008        Oct 21, EU lawmakers joined US civil liberty campaigners in criticizing a new scanner that allows airport security to see through passengers' clothes, calling it a virtual strip search that should only be used as a last resort.
    (AP, 10/21/08)
2008        Oct 21, French President Nicolas Sarkozy backed the creation of sovereign wealth funds in Europe that, when coordinated, could provide an "industrial response" to the financial crisis.
    (AFP, 10/21/08)
2008        Oct 21, In Greece riot police fired tear gas to disperse a group of rock-throwing youths during a demonstration in support of a nationwide general strike that brought air, rail and ferry traffic to a halt.
    (AP, 10/21/08)
2008        Oct 21, In India 25,000 members of the United Forum of Reserve Bank Officers and Employees went on strike in a dispute over pensions. The Reserve Bank of India denounced the strike as illegal.
    (Econ, 10/25/08, p.87)
2008        Oct 21, A bomb exploded outside a training center for police commandos in northeast India, killing at least 17 people and wounding 23 more.
    (AP, 10/22/08)
2008        Oct 21, Indonesia's parliament ratified the Southeast Asian charter committing ASEAN member nations to promote democracy and human rights, clearing the way for its formal adoption before year's end. Anti-terrorism police seized bomb-making materials and a large cache of weapons and ammunition during a raid on a house in Jakarta. Anti-terrorism squads arrested five suspected Islamic radicals believed to have been plotting to blow up Indonesia's largest fuel depot.
    (AP, 10/21/08)(AP, 10/22/08)
2008        Oct 21, Iran, Russia and Qatar discussed the formation of an OPEC-style cartel among some of the largest natural gas producing nations, a prospect that has unnerved energy-importing nations in Europe and the United States.
    (AP, 10/21/08)
2008        Oct 21, Iraq's Cabinet decided to ask the Americans for unspecified changes in the draft security pact. A bomb targeting a police patrol exploded in eastern Baghdad, wounding two civilians.
    (AP, 10/21/08)
2008        Oct 21, Italy's Court of Cassation ordered Berlin to pay a total of euro1 million (US$1.3 million) to nine family members of victims of a June 1944 massacre. The next day Germany rejected the ruling by Italy's top criminal court.
    (AP, 10/22/08)
2008        Oct 21, Jordanian police arrested a local writer for incorporating verses of the Quran, the Muslim holy book, into his love poetry. Islam Samhan, published his collection of poems, "Grace like a Shadow," without the approval of the Jordanian government, and authorities said it insults the holy book.
    (AP, 10/21/08)
2008        Oct 21, In Kashmir trucks laden with fruit, honey, garments and spices crossed the heavily armed frontier as India and Pakistan opened a trade route between the two sides of the divided region for the first time in six decades.
    (AP, 10/21/08)
2008        Oct 21, Police in northern Mexico reported receiving an ice chest packed with four human heads. The chest arrived at the Ascencion police station in Chihuahua state was marked "vaccines," but wasn't claimed for a week. Jesus Zambada was among 16 members of the Sinaloa drug cartel arrested after a shootout in Mexico City. Zambada is the brother of Ismael Zambada, who allegedly heads the Sinaloa cartel along with one of Mexico's most wanted men, Joaquin Guzman.
    (AP, 10/22/08)
2008        Oct 21, Amnesty International criticized major failings in Nigeria's criminal justice system and called on the government to immediately put in place a moratorium on capital punishment.
    (AP, 10/21/08)
2008        Oct 21, Taliban militants ambushed a convoy of security forces in Pakistan's northwestern Swat valley, sparking clashes that left at least five personnel and six rebels dead.
    (AFP, 10/22/08)
2008        Oct 21, Saudi Foreign Minister Saud al-Faisal confirmed for the first time that the kingdom has been sponsoring talks between the Afghan government and the Taliban militia.
    (AP, 10/21/08)
2008        Oct 21, Saudi Arabia’s interior minister said authorities have indicted 991 suspected militants on charges that they participated in terrorist attacks carried out in the kingdom over the last five years.
    (AP, 10/21/08)
2008        Oct 21, A Somali official said Somali gunmen acting as freelance coast guards freed a hijacked Indian dhow and its 13 crew members after a battle with pirates off the country's northern coast. The cargo-laden vessel was en route to Somalia from Asia when it was seized over the weekend.
    (AP, 10/21/08)
2008        Oct 21, A Thai court found former PM Thaksin Shinawatra (59) guilty of corruption and sentenced him to two years in prison. His wife, Pojaman (51), was acquitted.
    (AP, 10/21/08)
2008        Oct 21, Turkish soldiers killed two Kurdish guerrillas during a clash near the village of Dallitepe in the country's southeast.
    (AP, 10/22/08)
2008        Oct 21, Zimbabwe's main opposition party warned that unless its leader Morgan Tsvangirai is issued a passport he will not attend a meeting next week aimed at breaking a deadlock in power-sharing talks. The party also said that only fresh elections would resolve a dispute over who controls key cabinet posts, a make-or-break issue under a power-sharing pact signed with President Robert Mugabe.
    (AP, 10/21/08)(Reuters, 10/21/08)

2008        Oct 22, The Bush administration imposed financial sanctions on an Iranian state-owned bank for allegedly providing financial services in support of the country’s weapons program.
    (SFC, 10/23/08, p.A11)
2008        Oct 22, Federal immigration officials arrested several members of the MS-13, Mara Salvatrucha, street gang after conducting raids in SF, Richmond and south San Francisco. 29 people were indicted on multiple charges including murder, car theft and extortion.
    (SFC, 10/23/08, p.B8)(SFC, 10/24/08, p.B1)
2008        Oct 22, Sheriffs' deputies in Crockett County, Tenn., arrested two suspects, Daniel Cowart (20) of Bells, Tenn., and Paul Schlesselman (18) of Helena-West Helena, Ark., on unspecified charges. On Oct 27 federal authorities charged the 2 white supremacists for allegedly plotting to go on a national killing spree, shooting and decapitating black people and ultimately targeting Democratic presidential candidate Barack Obama. On March 29, 2010, Cowart pleaded guilty to eight of 10 counts in an indictment accusing him of conspiracy, threatening a presidential candidate and various federal firearms violations. Co-defendant Schlesselman pleaded guilty in January.
    (AP, 10/28/08)(AP, 3/29/10)
2008        Oct 22, The DJIA tumbled 514.45 to close at 8519.21, its 7th biggest point drop in history, as investors believed that the global economy is heading into a deep recession. Hungary’s central bank raised interest rates by 3 points, from 8.5% to 11.5%, to prevent a run on its currency. Argentine and Brazilian stock markets each fell about 10%. Former Fed Chief Alan Greenspan said he was wrong to think that financial markets could police themselves.
    (WSJ, 10/22/08, p.A1)(SFC, 10/24/08, p.C1)(Econ, 10/25/08, p.33)
2008        Oct 22, The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation said that over the next 5 years it will grant 104 scientists and researchers in 22 countries $100,000 each to research in areas selected from applications that were submitted over the Internet.
    (WSJ, 10/23/08, p.A4)
2008        Oct 22, Near Livermore, Ca., 2 horses were found shot to death in a pasture on Collier Canyon Road. A calf was also found shot to death on Manning Road in Alameda County. A reward of $17,000 was later offered for information on the killing of the horses.
    (SFC, 10/31/08, p.B4)
2008        Oct 22, The fishing vessel Katmai sank off Alaska’s Aleutian Islands. 4 crew members were rescued after spending some 15 hours in a life raft. 5 bodies were recovered with 2 men missing.
    (SFC, 10/24/08, p.A10)
2008        Oct 22, A US-led coalition airstrike hit an Afghan army checkpoint, killing nine soldiers. The American military acknowledged that its forces may have "mistakenly" killed allied troops. In southern Uruzgan province a two-day battle that ended with 35 Taliban fighters killed along with three Afghan police. US troops killed 7 militants and detained 7 others in a series of operations throughout Afghanistan. Among the dead was a Taliban leader in Helmand province responsible for attacks on coalition forces and Afghan security checkpoints. Another three militants were killed inside a cave in the western Farah province's Bala Buluk district during a raid by American and Afghan troops. In western Afghanistan a roadside bomb killed three US coalition members.
    (AP, 10/22/08)(AP, 10/23/08)
2008        Oct 22, Leaders from three African trading blocs, accounting for more than half the continent's industrial output, met in the Ugandan capital, to push for a single market. Six heads of state and foreign ministers from 26 countries of the East African Community, Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA) and Southern Africa Development Community gathered in Kampala for a Tripartite Summit.
    (AFP, 10/22/08)
2008        Oct 22, Defense Minister Joel Fitzgibbon said Australia will reduce its troop deployment to East Timor because of the improved security situation.
    (AFP, 10/22/08)
2008        Oct 22, The British government won its appeal to the highest court against previous rulings allowing displaced Indian Ocean Chagos islanders to return home. The resettlement of the Chagossians in the 1960s and1970s allowed Britain to lease the main island, Diego Garcia, to the United States military for 50 years.
    (AFP, 10/22/08)
2008        Oct 22, British researchers said a drug, known by its lab name of alemtuzumab and licensed for use against leukemia, braked and even reversed the effects of multiple sclerosis among patients with MS.
2008        Oct 22, The Canadian dollar tumbled to its lowest level versus the US dollar in more than three years as lower oil prices and a stronger greenback combined to knock the currency below 80 US cents.
    (AP, 10/22/08)
2008        Oct 22, China’s government announced that the minimum downpayment on first homes would be reduced to 20% from 30%, stamp tax would be eliminated and mortgage rates cut.
    (Econ, 10/25/08, p.52)
2008        Oct 22, Officials said the EU, the US and other international donors have pledged more than $4.5 billion for rebuilding parts of Georgia that were damaged in its war with Russia.
    (AP, 10/22/08)
2008        Oct 22, In Guatemala City Abel Giron (29), a layout designer for El Periodico newspaper, died after being struck in the heart with an arrow fired by assailants waiting for him outside his home.
    (AP, 10/22/08)
2008        Oct 22, India launched its first mission to the moon, rocketing the Chandrayaan 1 satellite up into the pale dawn sky in a two-year mission to redraw maps of the lunar surface. On board was the Mono Mineralogy Mapper, a NASA spectroscope.
    (AP, 10/22/08)(Econ, 10/25/08, p.96)
2008        Oct 22, A car bomb exploded in the northern Iraqi city of Mosul, killing four civilians. Local government acknowledged it has yet to persuade frightened Christians to return to the homes they fled. In Baghdad three separate blasts killed a sick man being transported in an ambulance and wounded 11 others. An influential Iraqi cleric living in Iran issued a fatwa condemning a US-Iraqi security pact that would keep American troops in Iraq for three more years and warned Iraqi leaders not to back the deal.
    (AP, 10/22/08)
2008        Oct 22, An Ivory Coast court jailed Salomon Ugborugbo (39), a Nigerian man, for 20 years for the 2006 dumping of hundreds of tons of toxic waste from an international oil trader that killed at least 16 people and left more than 100,000 needing treatment. Essouoin Koua Desire, who played a key role in Ugborugbo's local company Tommy securing the US$20,000 waste disposal contract, was also convicted and jailed for five years.
    (AP, 10/23/08)
2008        Oct 22, In Ciudad Juarez, across the border from El Paso, Texas, four men were shot inside a go-cart rental at the Xtreme amusement park. Elsewhere in the city, a used car salesman was shot to death while driving down a main boulevard hours after leading hundreds of other business owners in a protest against kidnappings and extortion. In Tijuana a 1-year-old boy was killed when the car he was riding in crashed as the driver tried to flee a gunbattle. In northern Mexico 10 gunmen were killed in running battles with state police in the city of Nogales. Outside the northeastern city of Monterrey, a soldier, the director of a security firm and third man were found stabbed to death alongside a highway.
    (AP, 10/23/08)
2008        Oct 22, Pakistani lawmakers passed a resolution calling for an urgent review of the government's national security strategy, saying that dialogue with Islamic militants should be given the "highest priority." The International Monetary Fund moved to bail out cash-strapped Pakistan in the Fund's first bid to shore up an Asian economy following global financial turmoil as the fiscal deficit hit 10% of GDP. An air strike at a militant compound in northwestern Bajaur tribal district killed 33 rebels.
    (AP, 10/22/08)(AFP, 10/22/08)(AFP, 10/23/08)(Econ, 10/25/08, p.54)
2008        Oct 22, Russia's foreign minister said Moscow wants to negotiate an extension of its lease at Ukraine's Black Sea port of Sevastopol. The move would keep Russia's Black Sea Fleet in the port where it has been stationed for centuries.
    (AP, 10/22/08)
2008        Oct 22, In Sri Lanka the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) rammed explosives-laden boats against the MV Ruhuna and MV Nimalawa which were supplying the besieged Jaffna peninsula in a pre-dawn attack. Officials said at least six members of the elite Black Sea Tiger suicide squad may have perished in the attack.
    (AP, 10/22/08)

2008        Oct 23, Former Federal Reserve Chairman Alan Greenspan said the current financial crisis is a "once-in-a-century credit tsunami" which will have a severe impact on the US economy, driving unemployment higher. Greenspan also said he was "shocked" at the breakdown in US credit markets and that he was "partially" wrong to resist regulation of some securities.
    (AP, 10/23/08)(Reuters, 10/23/08)
2008        Oct 23, Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice said the US is suspending a trade deal with Bolivia. She called it unfortunate but necessary because Bolivian President Evo Morales has failed to improve anti-drug efforts.
    (AP, 10/23/08)
2008        Oct 23, NYC Mayor Bloomberg persuaded the city council, in a 29-22 vote, to amend the term limit law allowing him to run for re-election next year.
    (SFC, 10/24/08, p.A4)
2008        Oct 23, In California a new solar thermal power plant, built by startup Ausra, opened north of Bakersfield. It will generate as much as 5 megawatts, enough for 3,750 homes. Ausra and other companies planned bigger plants in the future.
    (SFC, 10/24/08, p.C1)
2008        Oct 23, In Afghanistan a US coalition raid in Paktika province killed three insurgents and detained four others. Three Turks were kidnapped in Khost province. In southern Helmand province armed assailants attacked a man and gouged out his eyes in front of his family during a gruesome assault.
    (AP, 10/24/08)(AP, 10/25/08)(AP, 10/26/08)
2008        Oct 23, England Schools Minister Jim Knight said millions of children in England aged from five to 16 in state-funded schools will receive compulsory lessons about subjects including sex and drug use.
    (AFP, 10/23/08)
2008        Oct 23, Canada’s Finance Minister Jim Flaherty said the government would guarantee borrowing by the nation's banks to ease a lending crunch and keep them on equal footing with foreign competitors. The Bank of Canada said the global financial crisis, a US recession and falling commodity prices will bring Canada to the brink of a recession in late 2008 and early 2009.
    (Reuters, 10/23/08)
2008        Oct 23, Rebel attacks using land mines in Chechnya killed one Russian soldier and wounded 10 other servicemen and police.
    (AP, 10/24/08)
2008        Oct 23, China arrested six people for their alleged role in supplying contaminated milk to the country's dairy companies, as the Health Ministry said more than 3,600 Chinese children remain hospitalized after consuming compromised products. Scores of villagers in a remote timber region ransacked the offices of a forestry company and fought with security guards, accusing the company of paying too little for use of their land.
    (AP, 10/23/08)(AP, 10/27/08)
2008        Oct 23, China and Singapore signed a free trade agreement on the eve of a summit of European and Asian leaders in Beijing. Held every two years, ASEM has no mandate to issue decisions, but participants hope it will produce some degree of consensus ahead of a Nov. 15 meeting of the world's top economies in Washington to discuss the worst financial crisis since the 1930s.
    (AP, 10/23/08)(WSJ, 10/24/08, p.A13)
2008        Oct 23, Colombia's director of domestic intelligence resigned after her agency was caught spying on a prominent political opponent of President Alvaro Uribe. At least six small explosive devices left in trash cans detonated in Bogota, wounding 18 people and frightening residents.
    (AP, 10/24/08)
2008        Oct 23, In Croatia Ivo Pukanic (47), who owned and edited Nacional, an influential publication known for its investigative journalism and Nacional's marketing director, Niko Franjic, died when an explosive device was placed near their car in the capital, Zagreb. On Oct 31 Croatian police filed murder charges against five people over the bombing deaths. In 2010 six alleged members of a crime gang were convicted of conspiring to assassinate Pukanic and a fellow worker. Main suspect Zeljko Milovanovic, who was tried in absentia, was sentenced to the maximum 40 years in prison. He was being held in neighboring Serbia and tried on similar charges. 5 other defendants were sentenced to 15 to 33 years in prison.
    (AP, 10/24/08)(AP, 10/31/08)(AP, 11/3/10)
2008        Oct 23, Cuba and the European Union ended a five-year standoff by signing an agreement that calls for EU members to send the island euro2 million (US$2.6 million) in immediate hurricane recovery aid and up to euro30 million (US$38.8 million) more in financing next year.
    (AP, 10/23/08)
2008        Oct 23, The European Parliament awarded a prestigious rights prize to jailed Chinese dissident Hu Jia on the eve of a key Beijing summit and despite pressure from Beijing not to honor him.
    (AFP, 10/23/08)
2008        Oct 23, A European Union court has ruled that EU governments should no longer freeze the funds of People's Mujahedeen Organization of Iran, an Iranian opposition group on the bloc's terror blacklist. A British court ruled in its favor last year.
    (AP, 10/23/08)
2008        Oct 23, France’s Pres. Sarkozy unveiled a strategic national investment fund that will buy stakes in French industries with borrowed money to protect them from foreign predators.
    (Econ, 11/1/08, p.62)
2008        Oct 23, A Paris criminal court convicted nine people including a French-Algerian former prison inmate who admitted establishing an Islamic group that called for armed jihad in France.
    (AP, 10/24/08)
2008        Oct 23, The French Navy captured nine pirates near the Gulf of Aden finding anti-tank missiles, other weapons and ship boarding gear on the boats. A Somali pirate warned that if a hijacked Ukrainian arms ship was attacked the ship's 20-man crew would be killed.
    (AP, 10/23/08)
2008        Oct 23, A Greek minister resigned after being accused of involvement in a burgeoning scandal involving a state land swap with a powerful Orthodox monastery that has undermined the government's popularity. Minister of State Theodoros Roussopoulos, who is also the government spokesman, said he was stepping down in order to defend himself against a "malicious and totally groundless attack."
    (AP, 10/23/08)
2008        Oct 23, A huge explosion at an illegal fireworks factory in western India killed 27 people, including 12 children.
    (AP, 10/23/08)
2008        Oct 23, The US relinquished control of a southern province that includes Sunni areas once known as the "triangle of death," handing security responsibility to the Iraqi government. Babil was the 12th of 18 Iraqi provinces to be placed under Iraqi control. In Baghdad Iraq's labor minister escaped assassination when a suicide bomber rammed an explosives-laden SUV into his convoy, killing at least nine people.
    (AP, 10/23/08)
2008        Oct 23, An Italian military helicopter crashed in northeastern France, killing all eight people on board.
    (AP, 10/23/08)
2008        Oct 23, In Mexico 2 people were found dead in Tijuana, across the border from San Diego, California, including a badly burned corpse left in a trash bin.
    (AP, 10/23/08)
2008        Oct 23, Nigeria's Supreme Court deferred ruling on challenges to President Umaru Yar'Adua's April 2007 election victory but did not set a date for handing down its final judgment. Nigerian troops killed two militants in a river clash with insurgents in the volatile oil-rich Niger Delta. 2 AK 47 rifles and ammunitions were recovered from the militants.
    (Reuters, 10/23/08)(AFP, 10/24/08)
2008        Oct 23, In Pakistan suspected US spy drones fired missiles into a school set up by a top Taliban commander in a tribal area bordering Afghanistan, killing 11 people. Residents said that all of the victims were local tribesmen, adding that locals had fired at two suspected US drones hovering above.
    (AFP, 10/23/08)
2008        Oct 23, Mohammed Albaden, a Palestinian assailant, stabbed two Israelis in an east Jerusalem neighborhood, killing an 86-year-old man and wounding a police officer in what authorities called a "terror incident."
    (AP, 10/23/08)
2008        Oct 23, In Romania vandals rampaged through a sprawling Jewish cemetery in Bucharest, toppling tombstones and smashing markers for as many as 200 graves.
    (AP, 10/24/08)
2008        Oct 23, Russia, which sent a warship to Somalia's coast to combat pirates, asked the African nation for carte blanche to use force in its territorial waters.
    (Reuters, 10/23/08)
2008        Oct 23, South Africa’s National Assembly approved new legislation to disband the Scorpions investigating unit and incorporate it into the police force.
    (AP, 10/24/08)
2008        Oct 23, The Ukrainian currency plunged against the dollar as people raced to exchange booths to convert their savings into US currency. Ukraine's Foreign Ministry said in a statement that the Russia’s desire to extend its port lease at Sevastopol "cannot be a subject of discussion." It said that Russian ships will have to leave Ukrainian waters in 2017.
    (AP, 10/23/08)
2008        Oct 23, In southern Yemen a tropical storm, formed out in the Indian Ocean earlier in the week, hit the remote Hadramut province. Flooding which followed left at least 90 people dead and some 20,000 displaced.
    (AP, 10/25/08)(SSFC, 10/26/08, p.A18)(AP, 10/27/08)

2008        Oct 24, PNC Financial Services Group Inc agreed to purchase ailing Ohio-based National City Corp in a government-supported $5.6 billion deal that will create the No. 5 U.S. bank by deposits.
    (Reuters, 10/25/08)
2008        Oct 24, In Chicago the mother and brother of actress and singer Jennifer Hudson were found shot to death on the city’s South Side. Hudson’s nephew, Julian King (7), was missing. His body was found in an SUV on Oct 27. William Balfour, Jennifer Hudson's estranged brother-in-law, was arrested on Dec 1 at Stateville Correctional Center on a murder warrant and released to detectives as he awaited formal charges in the deaths of the relatives of the singer and Oscar-winning actress. On May 11, 2012, Balfour was convicted of the 3 murders and faced mandatory life in prison.
    (SFC, 10/25/08, p.A5)(AP, 10/27/08)(AP, 12/2/08)(SFC, 4/9/12, p.A6)(SFC, 5/12/12, p.A6)
2008        Oct 24, In Tennessee a sport utility vehicle carrying 4 cheerleaders collided with an oncoming car on a wet, foggy highway in Scott County, northwest of Knoxville. 3 cheerleaders were killed and a 4th died the next day. A passenger in the car also was killed.
    (AP, 10/26/08)
2008        Oct 24, Milton Katselas (b.1933), acting teacher and director, died in LA. His direction work included both the theater (1969) and film (1972) version of “Butterflies Are Free."
    (SFC, 11/4/08, p.B5)
2008        Oct 24, Asian and European leaders, meeting in Beijing, called for a coordinated response to the global financial meltdown and prepared to endorse a critical role for the International Monetary Fund in aiding the hardest-hit countries.
    (AP, 10/24/08)
2008        Oct 24, Colombia's army chief fired three colonels in the case of 11 men who disappeared from Soacha, a poor district just south of Bogota. They were found dead in August and September, months after their abduction in a war zone hundreds of miles away.  The young men appeared to have been kidnapped and murdered to inflate the body count of dead guerrillas. On Oct 29 President Alvaro Uribe's government fired 25 soldiers, including three generals and four colonels, over the killings of the 11 civilians.
    (AP, 10/24/08)(AP, 10/29/08)(Econ, 11/1/08, p.47)
2008        Oct 24, The World Food Program said fighting in eastern Congo has driven some 200,000 from their homes during the last 8 weeks, exacerbating an already dire humanitarian crisis.
    (AP, 10/24/08)
2008        Oct 24, Officials  in Honduras said at least 29 people are dead and 14 others are missing because of heavy rains that began 2 weeks ago.
    (AP, 10/25/08)
2008        Oct 24, Iceland, where the financial system has all but collapsed, reached a deal with the IMF for $2 billion to help fix its broken banking system, restart currency trading and soften the blow from the global downturn.
    (Reuters, 10/25/08)(WSJ, 10/25/08, p.A9)
2008        Oct 24, Tokyo and Beijing agreed to establish a hotline between their leaders to build mutual trust, as Prime Minister Taro Aso held his first meeting as Japanese leader with his Chinese counterparts.
    (AP, 10/24/08)
2008        Oct 24, A Soyuz capsule carrying an American and two Russians touched down on target in Kazakhstan after a descent from the international space station, safely delivering the first two men to follow their fathers into space.
    (AP, 10/24/08)
2008        Oct 24, In central Mexico 2 human heads were found with threatening messages. 2 adults were killed when assailants riddled their pickup truck with bullets on a Tijuana street. A 1-year-old girl riding with them was hit by multiple rounds from an assault rifle and was hospitalized in critical condition. Police also found nine people shot to death in Playas de Rosarito, just south of Tijuana.
    (AP, 10/24/08)
2008        Oct 24, OPEC said at an emergency meeting that it will slash oil production by 1.5 million barrels to stem the "dramatic collapse" of oil prices, but crude prices plunged 7 percent anyway as financial markets spiraled downward across the globe.
    (AP, 10/24/08)
2008        Oct 24, In Paraguay a small plane crashed shortly after takeoff in Asuncion, killing all five people on board. The plane belonged to the private hospital Asismed and was used to transport patients. Hospital President Miguel Figueredo said the pilot had said he would be conducting a test flight, and did not tell officials he would have passengers.
    (AP, 10/24/08)
2008        Oct 24, In the Philippines communist rebels triggered a land mine and opened fire on a Philippine army unit in an ambush that killed six soldiers on Mindanao Island. The rebels manually triggered the US-made claymore mine as the soldiers hiked past on a narrow mountain trail and then opened fire.
    (AP, 10/25/08)

2008        Oct 25, The United States announced a pledge of an additional $320 million to the global fight against bird flu at a conference in Egypt. The US also warned against complacency in combating the virus, which could mutate and cause a deadly pandemic.
    (Reuters, 10/25/08)
2008        Oct 25, Anne Pressly (26), an Arkansas KATV anchorwoman, died in Little Rock several days after she didn't answer her wake-up call and was found brutally beaten in her home. On Nov 26 officers arrested suspect Curtis Lavelle Vance (28) at a home in Little Rock. Vance was convicted of murder on Nov 11, 2009.
    (AP, 10/26/08)(AP, 11/27/08)(SFC, 11/12/09, p.A6)
2008        Oct 25, Martin A. Pomerantz (91), astrophysicist, died. In 1979 he built a telescope at the South Pole and propelled the new field of helio-seismology. In 1995 the National Science Foundation dedicated the Martin A. Pomerantz Observatory in Antarctica.
    (SSFC, 11/2/08, p.B3)(WSJ, 11/15/08, p.A4)
2008        Oct 25, An Afghan guard killed a Briton and a South African, 2 top officials working for international courier company DHL, and them himself in a shoot out in Kabul. A senior police official said an argument had erupted between the foreigners and some Afghans and it was not a Taliban attack.
    (AP, 10/26/08)(SSFC, 10/26/08, p.A20)
2008        Oct 25, In China the 2-day ASEM economic summit closed. 43 Asian and European leaders pledged around $4 trillion to support banks and restart money markets to try to stem the global crisis. This was ASEM’s 7th biennial gathering since 1996.
    (Reuters, 10/25/08)(Econ, 11/1/08, p.49)
2008        Oct 25, In Georgia an explosion killed Gia Mebonia, mayor of the small town of Mujhava, while he was inspecting a house damaged by overnight shelling near the separatist region of Abkhazia. A villager was also killed and a local police officer was seriously injured.
    (AP, 10/25/08)
2008        Oct 25, Police in India arrested more than 1,000 students in eastern Bihar state after their protests over the release on bail of a firebrand politician turned violent.
    (AP, 10/25/08)
2008        Oct 25, About 300 Shiites rallied in the southern city of Basra against a security pact being negotiated that allows US troops to stay in Iraq for three more years. In Baghdad, bombs killed an Iraqi army brigadier general and a soldier.
    (AP, 10/25/08)
2008        Oct 25, In Mexico soldiers and federal police arrested Eduardo Arellano Felix (52), a reputed leader of the Tijuana-based Arellano Felix cartel, after a shootout in the border city across from San Diego.
    (AP, 10/26/08)
2008        Oct 25, Pirates stormed and ransacked a French vessel in Nigeria's restive oil-rich south but there were no casualties.
    (AFP, 10/25/08)
2008        Oct 25, Nearly 600 newly trained Palestinian troops took up positions in Hebron. In the Gaza Strip, three Palestinians were killed when a smuggling tunnel linking Gaza to Egypt collapsed. In the West Bank, a 23-year-old Palestinian was seriously wounded by Israeli army fire during a clash in the refugee camp of Fara.
    (AP, 10/25/08)
2008        Oct 25, Pakistan's army captured Loi Sam a key militant stronghold in the Bajur region near the Afghan border, a breakthrough in a bloody push against the Taliban and al-Qaida. The offensive launched in early August has claimed the lives of some 1,500 suspected militant, 73 soldiers and 95 civilians.
    (AP, 10/25/08)(SSFC, 10/26/08, p.A20)
2008        Oct 25, In the Philippines communist guerrillas, disguised as anti-narcotics agents, barged into a poorly guarded prison in Quezon province southeast of Manila and freed seven of their comrades in a daring 15-minute attack staged without firing a shot.
    (AP, 10/26/08)
2008        Oct 25, Muslim Magomayev (66), an Azeri-born Soviet-era opera and pop singer, died in Moscow. His fame was at its peak in the 1960s and 70s.
    (AP, 10/25/08)
2008        Oct 25, A gunman shot dead a Somali woman employee in the latest of a string of attacks on the humanitarian community. Duniya Sheik Daud was the 15th aid worker killed so far this year in Somalia.
    (AP, 10/25/08)
2008        Oct 25, Tens of thousands of opposition supporters marched through Taiwan's capital to protest an upcoming visit by a senior Chinese envoy, saying the trip was part of Chinese efforts to assert control over the self-ruled island.
    (AP, 10/25/08)

2008        Oct 26, At the University of Central Arkansas in Conway a shooting left two students dead and a third person wounded. On Oct 28 4 men were charged with capital murder and other felonies for the shootings in Conway.
    (AP, 10/27/08)(SFC, 10/29/08, p.A3)
2008        Oct 26, In Massachusetts Christopher Bizilj died after accidentally shooting himself in the head with an Uzi submachine gun. In 2011 gun fair organizer Edward Fleury was cleared of charges of furnishing machine guns to minors during the gun fair in Westfield.
    (www.mahalo.com/christopher-bizilj)(SFC, 1/15/11, p.A4)
2008        Oct 26, John Campbell (1941), Australia-born mayor of Fortuna, Ca., and former head of Pacific Lumber (PALCO), died.
    (SFC, 10/27/08, p.B3)
2008        Oct 26, Tony Hillerman (b.1925), author of the acclaimed Navajo Tribal Police mystery novels and creator of two of the unlikeliest of literary heroes — Navajo police officers Joe Leaphorn and Jim Chee — died of pulmonary failure.
    (AP, 10/27/08)
2008        Oct 26, Gabriel Lerner (27) was kidnapped and killed after he offered 2 men a ride in St. Thomas, US Virgin Islands. Lerner was from the Milwaukee area and worked as a clerk for a Superior Court judge on the island. On March 4, 2011, Auriel Frett (24) was convicted of first degree murder for the slaying. Jurors deliberated less than three hours before reaching the verdict. The co-defendant, who was 17 at the time of the murder, pleaded guilty last year. He was sentenced to 20 years in prison.
    (AP, 3/5/11)(http://tinyurl.com/4b8c97y)
2008        Oct 26, Brazil held nationwide municipal elections. The ruling party was expected to dominate. Brazil's ruling party lost its chance to retake control of Sao Paulo, South America's biggest city. Fernando Gabeira, an ex-guerrilla who once kidnapped a US ambassador (1969), failed in his bid to become mayor of Rio de Janeiro.
    (AP, 10/26/08)
2008        Oct 26, In Chile municipal elections were held and Alliance, the center-right opposition, won 41% of the vote for mayors, 2 point more than the governing center-left Concertacion coalition. This was the first-ever nationwide defeat of Concertacion, which has ruled since 1990.
    (Econ, 11/1/08, p.47)
2008        Oct 26, China’s state media said the World Bank and France have agreed to lend China more than $900 million to rebuild areas devastated by a massive earthquake earlier this year.
    (AP, 10/26/08)
2008        Oct 26, In Colombia former congressman Oscar Tulio Lizcano (62) walked to freedom in a western  along with the young guerrilla commander, who had been his jailer, after eight years of captivity in the hands of leftist Colombian rebels.
    (AP, 10/26/08)
2008        Oct 26, Rebels seized an east Congo army base and the headquarters of a refuge housing some of the world's last mountain gorillas, in heavy fighting that sent thousands of civilians fleeing. An unknown number of soldiers, rebels and civilians were killed in the renewed fighting in North Kivu province.
    (AP, 10/26/08)
2008        Oct 26, An Egyptian news agency that transmitted footage of protesters tearing down a portrait of the president was fined $27,000 for operating unlicensed equipment, and its owner said he was targeted as a warning to other media. A judge upheld a complaint by the government against Nader Gohar, head of the Cairo News Company. The complaint came shortly after CNC broadcast footage from Al-Jazeera English in April showing the anti-government protesters.
    (AP, 10/26/08)
2008        Oct 26, Hungary reached agreement with the IMF and the EU on a broad economic rescue package, including substantial financing, steadying its battered currency. The deal was expected to be finalized over the next few days.
    (AP, 10/27/08)
2008        Oct 26, Government troops in Indian Kashmir opened fire on hundreds of angry protesters demanding the release of several people arrested during a recent strike, killing one and wounding at least three others.
    (AP, 10/26/08)
2008        Oct 26, A top Revolutionary Guards commander said Iran is supplying weapons to "liberation armies" in the Middle East, offering the first official confirmation the country provides weapons to armed groups in the region.
    (AP, 10/27/08)
2008        Oct 26, Prime Minister-designate Tzipi Livni abandoned efforts to form a government Sunday, putting Israel on course for new elections and endangering already fragile Middle East peace talks.
    (AP, 10/26/08)
2008        Oct 26, Kuwait's Central Bank stepped to prop up one of the country's biggest banks and said it was considering guaranteeing deposits in domestic banks, in one of the first concrete signs that the global financial crisis may next hit the oil-rich Gulf.
    (AP, 10/26/08)
2008        Oct 26, Lithuania's conservatives Homeland Union, led by former PM Andrius Kubilius, won the parliamentary ballot for the first time since 2000, in a run-off vote that cemented their first-round defeat of the ruling Social Democrats two weeks ago. Homeland Union won 44 seats in the 141-member Parliament.
    (AP, 10/26/08)(WSJ, 10/27/08, p.A14)
2008        Oct 26, In Mexico City kidnappers grabbed Javier Morena (5), the son of poor fruit sellers, with the intent to ask for a $23,000 ransom. The boy was killed with an injection of acid and buried outside the city. 5 suspects in the kidnapping were later arrested and confessed to the killing.
    (SFC, 11/4/08, p.11)
2008        Oct 26, Pakistan troops killed 11 Taliban militants in separate clashes in a tribal region. 15 people including 10 Taliban militants died in a gunbattle with locals in the restive Swat valley. Locals thwarted a Taliban attempt to seize militia chief Pir Samiullah. Hundreds of Taliban returned and seized 3 militia members, beheading one of them. Unknown gunmen shot dead the brother of Pakistani Taliban chief Baitullah Mehsud. A US missile strike in the South Waziristan area killed Haji Omar Khan, a lieutenant of veteran Afghan Taliban chieftain and former anti-Soviet fighter Jalaluddin Haqqani, along with at least 15 other people.
    (AP, 10/26/08)(AFP, 10/27/08)(WSJ, 10/27/08, p.A14)
2008        Oct 26, The Palestinian national team hosted an international match for the first time, in the West Bank's only regulation-size stadium. Located in a West Bank suburb of Jerusalem. The game against Jordan ended in a 1-1 tie.
    (AP, 10/27/08)
2008        Oct 27, South Korea lowered its key interest rate from 5% to 4.25%.
    (WSJ, 10/25/08, p.A11)
2008        Oct 26, Four US military helicopters attacked a civilian building under construction shortly before sundown in Sukkariyeh about five miles inside the Syrian border. A government statement said eight people were killed, including a man and his four children and a woman. An Associated Press journalist at the funerals in the village's cemetery saw the bodies of seven men, none of them minors. The area targeted is near the Iraqi border city of Qaim, which had been a major crossing point for fighters, weapons and money coming into Iraq.
    (AP, 10/27/08)
2008        Oct 26, The IMF said it has reached a tentative agreement to provide Ukraine with $16.5 billion in loans over the next 2 years to help the country out of financial turmoil.
    (SFC, 10/27/08, p.D1)

2008        Oct 27, A Washington DC jury found Alaska’s Sen. Stevens guilty on seven counts of trying to hide more than $250,000 in free home renovations and other gifts from a wealthy oil contractor. Stevens, who first entered the Senate in 1968, faced Alaska's voters in upcoming elections as a convicted felon. On April 1, 2009, the US Justice Dept. dropped charges against Stevens, saying prosecutors’ mistakes forced the move.
    (AP, 10/28/08)(WSJ, 4/2/09, p.A1)
2008        Oct 27, An FBI spokesman said 642 arrests in 29 cities were made last week during a 3-day sting operation, Operation Cross Country II, focusing on people who forced teens into prostitution. 100 adults were arrested in the SF Bay Area.
    (SFC, 10/28/08, p.B1)
2008        Oct 27, A US officials announced that Francisco Celaya Carrilo, a Mexican immigration officer, had been caught in Arizona with 170 pounds of marijuana.
    (SFC, 10/28/08, p.A11)
2008        Oct 27, The DJIA fell 203 to 8,175.77, a 5½ year low.
    (SFC, 10/28/08, p.A1)
2008        Oct 27,  In northern Afghanistan a suicide bomber wearing a police uniform blew himself up inside a police station, killing 2 American soldiers and 2 Afghans in Baghlan province. The Taliban claimed responsibility. Insurgents downed a US helicopter in Wardak province. Crew members survived and were rescued.
    (AP, 10/27/08)(SFC, 10/28/08, p.A8)(AFP, 11/9/08)
2008        Oct 27, Thousands of civilians threw rocks at four UN offices in eastern Congo, venting outrage at the organization's inability to protect them from rebel forces advancing on the provincial capital of Goma.
    (AP, 10/27/08)
2008        Oct 27, In Ethiopia 19 people were killed when the bus they were traveling in hit a wall after its wheels snapped off some 200 kilometers (124 miles) south of Addis Ababa. Turbo Tumo, who represented Ethiopia at the 1996 Atlanta Olympics, was among those killed.
    (AFP, 10/29/08)
2008        Oct 27, Georgia's Pres. Saakashvili dismissed PM Vladimir Gurgenizde and recommended Grigol Mgaloblishvili (35), the country's ambassador to Turkey, as his replacement. Saakashvili said Gurgenizde would now head a government finance commission.
    (AP, 10/27/08)
2008        Oct 27, In Iraq US forces killed 5 assailants in the eastern district of New Baghdad. A roadside bomb exploded later in the same district killing 3 civilians. A car bomb in Baghdad killed a doctor and his friend. A car bomb in Tuz Khormato killed an Iraqi soldier.
    (SFC, 10/28/08, p.A8)(SFC, 10/28/08, p.A8)
2008        Oct 27, Mexican prosecutors said a major drug cartel has infiltrated the Mexican attorney general's office and may have paid a spy inside the US Embassy for details of DEA operations. 5 officials of the attorney general’s organized crime unit were arrested on allegations they served as informants for the Beltran-Leyva Cartel.
    (AP, 10/27/08)(SFC, 10/28/08, p.A11)
2008        Oct 27, A West African court ordered Niger to pay compensation to Hadijatou Mani (24), who was sold into slavery at age 12 and held for a decade. She had been forced to work as a domestic servant and a sexual slave until 2005.
    (SFC, 10/28/08, p.A4)
2008        Oct 27, It was reported that a new study, released last week, has found dangerous levels of toxic metals in produce grown on Vieques Island, Puerto Rico, formerly used as a Navy bombing range, despite US government claims that the soil there is safe.
    (AP, 10/27/08)
2008        Oct 27, In Somalia Aisha Ibrahim Duhulow, a 13-year-old girl who said she had been raped, was stoned to death in Kismayo after being accused of adultery by Islamic militants.
    (AP, 11/1/08)
2008        Oct 27, In central Sudan kidnappers killed 4 Chinese oil workers out of nine they had been holding hostage for more than a week. A local leader in troubled South Kordofan state, where the hostages were abducted and killed, said the Chinese died as a result of fighting between the Sudanese army and the kidnappers. The next day 3 bodies and 3 wounded were flown to Khartoum. A 4th body was found on Oct 29. The last 2 were reported found Oct 31, one alive and one dead.
    (AFP, 10/28/08)(AFP, 10/29/08)(AP, 10/29/08)(Reuters, 10/31/08)
2008        Oct 27, Leaders of a Southern African bloc gathered in Zimbabwe to press President Robert Mugabe and the main opposition leader to break an impasse on forming a unity government.
    (AP, 10/27/08)

2008        Oct 28, The DJIA rose 889.35 to 9,065.12, its 2nd biggest gain in the Dow’s history.
    (SFC, 10/29/08, p.A1)
2008        Oct 28, In Anaheim, Ca., a newlywed, killed by police after he stepped outside his home to confront suspected burglars, was shot in a case of mistaken identity. Julian Alexander died after being shot twice in the chest by a police officer who was chasing four burglary suspects.
    (AP, 10/29/08)
2008        Oct 28, Kwame Kilpatrick (38), former Detroit mayor, was sent to jail for 4 months for his part in a sex-and-text scandal.
    (SFC, 10/29/08, p.A4)
2008        Oct 28, Google along with the Association of American Publishers and the Authors Guild announced a settlement regarding the use of copyrighted book material. Google agreed to pay $125 million to start the Books Rights Registry, resolve legal fees and deal with other issues relating to authors and online book use.
    (SFC, 10/29/08, p.C1)
2008        Oct 28, In California Bill Martin (65), Mendocino realist painter and art teacher, died. His 3 books included “Paintings “1969-1979."
    (SFC, 11/13/08, p.B4)
2008        Oct 28, Afghan and Pakistani leaders vowed to seek dialogue with Taliban insurgents, saying the "door is now open" for reconciliation.
    (AP, 10/28/08)
2008        Oct 28, Ricardo Claro (b.1934), Chilean industrialist, died. His industrial empire stretched from shipping (CSAV) to media to wine (Santa Rita). In 1974 he announced to the world, on behalf of the Pinochet government, that Chile was once again open for business.
    (WSJ, 11/8/08, p.A6)
2008        Oct 28, Amnesty International urged the United States and other nations to halt military aid to Colombia until it stems a rise in killings of noncombatants by security forces and heeds other UN prescriptions for ending its long-running internal conflict.
    (AP, 10/28/08)
2008        Oct 28, Rebels vowing to take Congo's eastern provincial capital of 600,000 people advanced toward Goma as Congolese troops and UN tanks retreated, while tens of thousands fled to a makeshift shelter.
    (AP, 10/28/08)
2008        Oct 28, Iceland’s PM Geir Haarde said his country needs about $6 billion in loans to recover from the financial meltdown, just as the country's central bank separately hiked its interest rates by a massive 6 percentage points to 18%.
    (AP, 10/28/08)(WSJ, 10/29/08, p.A10)
2008        Oct 28, In Iraq 4 police officers were killed in a drive-by shooting in the northern city of Mosul and three civilians were killed in a separate Baghdad bombing.
    (AP, 10/28/08)
2008        Oct 28, Voters turned out in strength to choose the Maldives' first democratically-elected president in a run-off between Asia's longest serving leader and a former political prisoner. Nasheed won 54% of the vote to Gayoom's 46%, according to provisional results from the nation's elections commission.
    (AP, 10/28/08)(AP, 10/29/08)
2008        Oct 28, Mexico's Congress passed a watered-down energy industry reform that enables private contractors to participate in the state-owned oil business but won't likely draw enough investment to reverse declining production.
    (AP, 10/29/08)
2008        Oct 28, Namibia sold more than seven tons of ivory for $1.1 million, in the first legal auction of elephant tusks in nearly a decade, exclusively for Chinese and Japanese buyers.
    (AP, 10/28/08)
2008        Oct 28, Pakistani President Asif Ali Zardari announced government awards for US Democratic vice presidential nominee Joe Biden and Republican Senator Richard Lugar. Biden and Lugar in July introduced a bipartisan US aid plan which calls for $1.5 billion per year in non-military spending to support economic development in Pakistan.
    (AP, 10/28/08)
2008        Oct 28, In Peru police and protesters clashed violently at a blockaded bridge in the province of Moquegua leaving 71 injured.
    (AP, 10/30/08)
2008        Oct 28, A Moscow jury said Alexei Frenkel (36), former chairman of VIP Bank, ordered the September, 2006, murder of Andrei Kozlov (41), a Central Bank official. 3 Ukrainians were found guilty of the killing. A 4th Ukrainian and 2 people from Moscow were found guilty as accessories to the murder.
    (WSJ, 10/29/08, p.A14)
2008        Oct 28, The bodies of Russian Otto Messmer and Victor Betancourt of Ecuador were found in their Moscow apartment at the Jesuit Moscow headquarters. Several days later, police announced a 38-year-old man had confessed to the killings but gave few details. In 2009 a federal Investigative Committee announced the man had been drinking with Betancourt, and when Betancourt suggested they have sex, the man bludgeoned Betancourt with a dumbbell. The man allegedly killed Messmer later to cover up the first killing.
    (AP, 7/17/09)
2008        Oct 28, In Serbia Miladin Kovacevic (21) was detained on suspicion that he "inflicted severe bodily harm" on Bryan Steinhauer during the fight in a bar in upstate New York last May. Steinhauer (22) only recently emerged from a coma. In 2010 prosecutors filed assault charges against Kovacevic. The beating left Steinhauer with skull fractures and a severe brain injury.
    (AP, 10/28/08)(AP, 3/2/10)
2008        Oct 28-2009 Oct 29, In northern Somalia 5 suicide car bombs attacks killed 28 people in Hargeisa, the capital of Somaliland, and in Bosasso, Puntland. Somali authorities arrested Cleric Sheik Mohamed Ismail in connection with the attacks. Shirwa Ahmed, one of the suicide bombers, was an American citizen and former resident of Minnesota.
    (AP, 10/30/08)(SFC, 10/30/08, p.A4)(Econ, 2/28/09, p.49)
2008        Oct 28, South Korean officials said a North Korean soldier has defected for the 2nd time in a decade.
    (WSJ, 10/29/08, p.A1)(www.iht.com/articles/2008/10/28/asia/korea.php)
2008        Oct 28, In Sri Lanka the Tamil Tigers' rudimentary air force bombed a power station on the outskirts of Colombo. The bombing damaged some turbines at the power station. A worker hospitalized after the attack died the next day.
    (AP, 10/29/08)
2008        Oct 28, The Syrian government ordered that an American school and a US cultural center in Damascus be closed in response to a deadly raid by US helicopters near the Syrian border with Iraq.
    (AP, 10/28/08)
2008        Oct 28, Turkey's warplanes and artillery struck Kurdish rebel targets inside northern Iraq.
    (AP, 10/28/08)
2008        Oct 28, Zimbabwe’s opposition issued an urgent call for a regional summit after talks aimed at breaking a political deadlock with Pres. Mugabe’s party failed.
    (SFC, 10/29/08, p.A6)

2008        Oct 29, The US Federal Reserve cut the federal funds rate, the interest banks charge each other on overnight loans, by half a percentage point, and the government finally began distributing funds from the billions in the financial rescue package.
    (AP, 10/30/08)
2008        Oct 29, The IMF said it will offer as much as $100 billion in new 3 month loans to countries battered by the financial crises without requiring sever changes in policies as demanded in past decades.
    (WSJ, 10/30/08, p.A1)
2008        Oct 29, Democratic presidential candidate Barack Obama held a half-hour commercial ahead of the World Series baseball game.
    (AP, 10/30/08)
2008        Oct 29, The Philadelphia Phillies won the baseball World Series over the Tampa Bay Rays 4-3 with the conclusion of Game 5, which had been stopped by rain 2 days earlier.
    (SFC, 10/30/08, p.D1)
2008        Oct 29, Marc M. Keyser (66) was arrested at his home in Sacramento for sending hoax anthrax threats by mail to media outlets.
    (SFC, 10/31/08, p.B4)
2008        Oct 29, In South San Francisco, Ca., Shivnesh Reddy (21), an AC Transit worker, was shot to death and robbed of money he was carrying to buy marijuana. In 2011 Jimmy Nabong (19), a Norteno gang member, was convicted of 1st degree murder. Neil Chand, an alleged friend of Reddy who pleaded no contest and testified against Nabong, was sentenced to 25 years to life in prison.
    (SFC, 3/17/11, p.C2)
2008        Oct 29, In upstate New York, more than 40,000 customers remained without power, a day after the season's first big snowstorm blew through the region.
    (AP, 10/29/08)
2008        Oct 29, Google, Microsoft, Yahoo and a coalition of human-rights groups founded the Global Network Initiative to create guidelines for technology companies in internet-restricting countries. GNI was founded upon its "Principles of Freedom of Expression and Privacy."
    (Econ, 7/23/11, p.57)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_Network_Initiative)(Economist, 10/6/12, p.70)
2008        Oct 29, In Australia Joseph Thomas (35), a Muslim convert dubbed "Jihad Jack" by the Australian media, was sentenced to nine months in prison but freed because of time already served. He spent time at an al-Qaida training camp and met Osama bin Laden in Afghanistan.
    (AP, 10/29/08)
2008        Oct 29, David Miliband, Britain’s foreign secretary, acknowledged China’s suzerainty over Tibet.
    (Econ, 11/8/08, p.54)
2008        Oct 29, Software engineer Momin Khawaja, a Canadian man who was the first to be charged under a tough new anti-terror law, was found guilty in a trial linked to a plot to carry out bomb attacks in Britain. On march 12, 2009, Khawaja was sentenced to 10-1/2 years in jail for his involvement in plans to bomb nightclubs, trains and a shopping center in Britain.
    (Reuters, 10/29/08)(AP, 3/12/09)
2008        Oct 29, China cut interest rates for the 3rd time in six weeks.
    (Econ, 11/1/08, p.84)
2008        Oct 29, A local Chinese government acknowledged that officials knew about melamine-tainted eggs for a month before the contamination was publicly disclosed. A Dalian government notice said that local authorities were notified Sept. 27 of tests by the customs bureau of Liaoning province that had found melamine in a batch of export-bound eggs produced by Dalian Hanwei Enterprise Group.
    (AP, 10/29/08)
2008        Oct 29, China set a new policy on climate change, asking rich countries to help fund cleanup, and acknowledged that its polluting emissions were about the same as in the US.
    (WSJ, 10/30/08, p.A13)
2008        Oct 29, In northern China a gas explosion in a mine shaft at a coal mine trapped 29 miners at the Yaotou mine in central Shaanxi province. 26 bodies were recovered over the next few days and 3 remained missing. In Henan province 20 miners were trapped after a mine flooded at the Mazhuang colliery. After a few days rescuers gave up hope of finding any alive.
    (AP, 10/30/08)(AFP, 11/2/08)
2008        Oct 29, Congolese rebel forces advanced on the eastern city of Goma, threatening to overwhelm government troops and a 17,000-strong UN force deployed to halt a return to all-out war. The Congolese army said troops from Rwanda have crossed the nearby border and attacked its soldiers in support of a minority Tutsi rebellion. Congolese rebels declared a ceasefire after a four-day push to the gates of Goma that threatened to drag Congo back to all-out war, but heavy gunfire resumed near the eastern city after dark.
    (Reuters, 10/29/08)(AP, 10/29/08)
2008        Oct 29, In Ecuador a new temporary Supreme Court was picked by lottery. Judges said they will boycott it. The temporary 21-member court, chosen at random from the ranks of the 31 former justices, is supposed to operate until a permanent body takes over in 2009.
    (AP, 10/29/08)
2008        Oct 29, Officials said that EU governments promised to lend Hungary 6.5 billion euros ($8.1 billion) as part of a 20 billion euro ($25 billion) international rescue package to help it weather a financial crisis that has sharply devalued its currency.
    (AP, 10/29/08)
2008        Oct 29, In Germany Viswanathan Anand of India retained his world chess title by drawing with the white pieces against Russian challenger Vladimir Kramnik.
    (AP, 10/30/08)
2008        Oct 29, In Iraq the US military handed over security responsibilities for the southern province of Wasit to Iraqi authorities. A new commuter rail was launched that travels 15 miles through Sunni and Shiite neighborhoods in the heart of Baghdad. At least 8 people were killed and wounded dozens in separate attacks. A bombing in eastern Baghdad killed six people.
    (AP, 10/29/08)(AP, 10/30/08)
2008        Oct 29, Nigerian President Umaru Yar'Adua dropped 20 government ministers out of a total of 44 in a cabinet shake-up.
    (AFP, 10/30/08)
2008        Oct 29, Pakistan registered "a strong protest" with Washington's ambassador to Islamabad over a number of missile attacks by US drones inside its territory. Gunmen killed three Shiite Muslims in a sectarian attack in northwestern Pakistan.
    (AP, 10/29/08)
2008        Oct 29, In southwestern Pakistan a 6.4 magnitude earthquake struck before dawn, killing at least 215 people and turning mud and timber homes into rubble. An estimated 15,000 people were left homeless, and rescuers were digging for survivors in a remote valley in Baluchistan province. Officials later feared the death toll would pass 300.
    (AP, 10/29/08)(AP, 10/30/08)(AP, 10/31/08)
2008        Oct 29, A boat carrying 27 activists and humanitarian supplies sailed into the Gaza Strip, defying an Israeli naval blockade to call attention to Israeli sanctions on the Hamas-controlled territory. The passengers included Mairead Corrigan Maguire, who won the 1976 Nobel Peace Prize for her work with Catholics and Protestants in Northern Ireland.
    (AP, 10/29/08)
2008        Oct 29, In Peru a 1,000-strong mob set fire to the station and took 25 officers captive in San Martin province. They reportedly were angered when police threw tear gas near a school and several children were affected.
    (AP, 10/30/08)
2008        Oct 29, Russia's parliament quickly ratified treaties cementing close economic and military ties with Georgia's two breakaway provinces.
    (AP, 10/29/08)
2008        Oct 29, Pirates hijacked the Turkish freighter MV Yasa Neslihan with a crew of 20 off the coast of Somalia. Pirates freed the Yasa Neslihan freighter on Dec 6 after paying a ransom.
    (SFC, 10/31/08, p.A8)(AP, 1/7/09)
2008        Oct 29, South Korea reported that Kim Jong Il has suffered a serious setback in his recovery from a stroke.
    (WSJ, 10/30/08, p.A1)
2008        Oct 29, Sri Lankan troops captured a small village in northern Sri Lanka, pushing ahead with their offensive against the Tamil Tigers hours after the rebel group launched a brazen airstrike on the capital.
    (AP, 10/29/08)
2008        Oct 29, In Sudan gunmen opened fire on a group of South African peacekeepers guarding a well in Darfur, killing one and seriously wounding another.
    (AP, 10/30/08)
2008        Oct 29, A Syrian criminal court convicted 12 dissidents of fomenting sectarian strife and sentenced them to two and a half years in prison. The defendants, members of a pro-democracy group known as the Damascus Declaration, were arrested last December. The Damascus Declaration, formed in 2005, is the broadest coalition of opposition figures in Syria.
    (AP, 10/29/08)
2008        Oct 29, The UN panel overseeing compensation for victims of Iraq's 1990 invasion of Kuwait said it has paid an $888.6 million (709.4 million euros) installment from Iraqi oil funds to cover losses and damages suffered by governments and private companies.
    (AP, 10/29/08)
2008        Oct 29, The UN General Assembly overwhelmingly approved a resolution urging the US to repeal its trade embargo against Cuba, and the island nation's foreign minister said he expects the next American president to respond positively.
    (AP, 10/29/08)
2008        Oct 29, The US and Vietnam launched three new programs to help provide job training and health care to disabled people in Danang, where American troops stored and mixed Agent Orange during the Vietnam War.
    (AP, 10/29/08)
2008        Oct 29, Venezuela launched its first satellite from Sichuan, China. It will begin carrying radio, television and other data transmissions in early 2009 after three months of tests.
    (AP, 10/29/08)

2008        Oct 30, The US government reported that the economy shrank in the summer, the strongest signal yet that a recession may have already begun. The Commerce Department reported that the gross domestic product, the broadest measure of economic health, fell at an annual rate of 0.3% in the July-September period, a significant slowdown after growth of 2.8% in the prior quarter.
    (AP, 10/30/08)
2008        Oct 30, In California Randall Cover (46), a former city of Sonoma Water Department supervisor, was indicted by a federal grand jury in SF for receiving $102,795 in kickbacks from Underground Express. In November a suit was filed against 2 former employees of San Francisco’s Public Utilities Commission for taking thousands of dollars in kickbacks from Sheldon Morris and his Novato plumbing company, Underground Express. In 2009 Morris was sentenced to nearly 3 years in federal prison.
    (SFC, 11/1/08, p.B2)(SFC, 11/25/08, p.B1)(SFC, 5/30/09, p.B2)
2008        Oct 30, In Florida the son of former Liberian President Charles Taylor was found guilty by a US court in Miami of torture in the first prosecution under a 14-year-old law that allows citizens to be prosecuted for such crimes committed abroad. Charles Taylor Jr. was arrested at Miami International Airport in 2006 and pleaded guilty to a charge of lying about his father's identity on a passport application.
    (Reuters, 10/30/08)
2008        Oct 30, In Iowa US federal agents arrested Sholom Rubashkin, a former senior executive of the Agriprocessors, a kosher meatpacking plant in Postville, for employing illegal immigrants for commercial gain and helping them secure fake documents. A day earlier Iowa labor authorities levied some $10 million in fines against Agriprocessors for labor violations. On Nov 12, 2009, Rubashkin was convicted on 86 of 91 financial fraud charges.
    (WSJ, 10/31/08, p.A3)(SFC, 11/13/09, p.A8)
2008        Oct 30, Scientists reported that 1 in 17 men living on the coasts of North Africa and southern Europe may have a Phoenician direct male line ancestor. Evidence was based on Y-chromosomes collected in Cyprus, Malta, Morocco, the West Bank, Syria and Tunisia.
    (SFC, 10/31/08, p.A14)
2008        Oct 30, Taliban militants stormed a government building in the center of Kabul and one of them blew himself up inside, killing five people. 4 police were killed in Panjwayi district of Kandahar province, after their patrol vehicle struck a newly planted mine.
    (AP, 10/30/08)
2008        Oct 30, In Australia 4 teenagers were charged with attacking an almost blind greater flamingo at Adelaide Zoo. The bird is believed to be the oldest of its kind in the world.
    (AFP, 10/30/08)
2008        Oct 30, The Economist magazine presented its annual innovation awards. Winners included Martin Evans, for stem cell research at Cardiff Univ.; Jimmy Wales of Wikipedia for the promotion online public collaboration; Matti Makkonen, a Finnish engineer, for the development of Short Message Service (SMS), better known as text messaging; Steve Chen and Chad Hurley of YouTube, for the creating of an easy way to share video; Arthur Rosenfeld of Lawrence Berkeley for his promotion of energy efficiency; Sumio Iijima for the discovery of carbon nanotubes; Bill and Melinda Gates for the developing a philanthropic support platform; and Nokia Corp. For its ability to respond to social and technological trends.
    (Econ, 12/6/08, TQ p.13)
2008        Oct 30, Westfield London mall, London's biggest mall, opened despite the gloomy economic climate that threatens to dampen vital Christmas sales.
    (AP, 10/30/08)
2008        Oct 30, China’s state media reported that the industrial chemical melamine is commonly added to animal feed in China to make it appear higher in protein. This appeared to be a tacit admission by the government that contamination is widespread in the country's food supply.
    (AP, 10/30/08)
2008        Oct 30, In China 12 people died after an elevator plunged at the Sunshine City construction site in east Fujian province.
    (AP, 10/30/08)
2008        Oct 30, Laurent Nkunda, the rebel general besieging Congo's eastern provincial capital Goma, said he wants direct talks with the government about ending fighting in the region and his objections to a $5 billion deal that gives China access to the country's vast mineral riches in exchange for a railway and highway. Nkunda said he sent a letter to the UN peacekeeping mission in Goma saying he will set up an "urgent humanitarian corridor" for refugees and humanitarian aid. Refugees have continued fleeing the war-torn eastern province for neighboring Uganda.
    (AP, 10/30/08)(AFP, 10/30/08)
2008        Oct 30, An Ecuadorean presidential commission concluded that US intelligence services infiltrated the Andean nation's military and police and supported a cross-border incursion by Colombian troops that killed a top rebel commander.
    (AP, 10/31/08)
2008        Oct 30, In Germany the last flight lifted off from Berlin's Tempelhof Airport, bringing an end to an era of aviation that spanned World War II, the Cold War and the rebirth of the German capital. The grounds reopened in 2010 as a public park.
    (AP, 10/30/08)(SSFC, 12/16/12, p.P6)
2008        Oct 30, In India a series of 11 coordinated blasts tore through northeast Assam state, killing at least 77 people and sending police scrambling to find any unexploded bombs in a province troubled by years of separatist violence and ethnic tensions. The next day the "Islamic Security Force-Indian Mujahedeen" took responsibility and warned such attacks would continue in Assam state.
    (AP, 10/30/08)    (AFP, 10/31/08)(SFC, 10/31/08, p.A2)
2008        Oct 30, Indonesia's parliament passed a bill banning pornography, ignoring opposition from lawmakers and rights groups who worry it will be used to justify attacks on artistic, religious and cultural freedom.
    (AP, 10/30/08)
2008        Oct 30, Murat Zyazikov (51), the unpopular leader of Russia's violence-plagued republic of Ingushetia, said he has resigned. Pres. Medvedev named an apparent unknown, Yunus-Bek Yevkurov, to take over as the republic's acting president.
    (AP, 10/30/08)
2008        Oct 30, An Iraqi opposition lawmaker claimed that thousands of his countrymen are being mistreated in detention centers outside the official prison system. A car bomb exploded near a market in north Baghdad, killing one person and wounding five.
    (AP, 10/30/08)
2008        Oct 30, Japan unveiled a $51.5 billion stimulus package to buttress its economy against the fallout of the global financial crises.
    (WSJ, 10/31/08, p.A9)
2008        Oct 30, Morocco’s  Interior Minister Chakib Benmoussa said flooding over the last week has killed 28 people and caused major damage in various parts of the country.
    (AFP, 10/30/08)
2008        Oct 30, Palestinian militants in the Gaza Strip fired a rocket into southern Israel in violation of a 4-month-old truce, but the strike did not cause any injuries or damage. The Israeli Defense Ministry responded by snapping shut cargo crossings into Gaza until further notice.
    (AP, 10/30/08)
2008        Oct 30, In South Korea a court ruled that a law that allows only visually impaired people to become licensed masseurs does not violate the constitution, in a victory for the blind. South Korea's Constitutional Court upheld a ban on adultery, rejecting complaints that the 55-year-old law is outdated and constitutes an invasion of privacy.
    (AP, 10/30/08)
2008        Oct 30, A powerful car bomb exploded at a university in the northern Spanish city of Pamplona, wounding 17 people and setting a building on fire in an attack blamed on Basque separatists.
    (AP, 10/30/08)
2008        Oct 30, A Swiss court convicted 2 brothers from Kosovo of running a massive drug smuggling ring that prosecutors said supplied Western Europe with up to half of its heroin. Ragip and Kemal Shabani channeled 1.5 tons of heroin through Europe from the mid-1990s until 2003, when they were shut down.
    (AP, 10/30/08)
2008        Oct 30, In Thailand assailants threw a grenade into a crowd of anti-government protesters occupying a bridge, wounding 10 people ahead of a demonstration outside the British Embassy in Bangkok.
    (AP, 10/30/08)
2008        Oct 30, Zambians voted for a successor to the late President Levy Mwanawasa in an election the main opposition leader accused the ruling party of rigging. Zambia's main opposition candidate was ahead in early presidential election results, but his lead was slowly narrowing. Banda ended up winning 40% of the vote and opposition leader Michael Sata secured 38%.
    (Reuters, 10/30/08)(AP, 10/31/08)(AP, 11/2/08)

2008        Oct 31, Pres. Bush signed an executive order restoring the Libyan government’s immunity from terror-related lawsuits and dismissing pending compensation cases in response to Libya’s payment of $1.5 billion into a fund to compensate the families of victims the 1986 bombing of a German disco and the 1988 Pan Am bombing over Lockerbie, Scotland.
    (SFC, 11/1/08, p.A3)
2008        Oct 31, A jury of US military officers at Guantanamo's second war-crimes trial reached a verdict that could put Ali Hamza al-Bahlul, Osama bin Laden's alleged "media secretary" and video maker, in prison for life. Announcement of the decision was postponed to Nov 3.
    (AP, 10/31/08)
2008        Oct 31, J.P. Morgan Chase & Co. launched a plan to modify the terms of $70 billion in mortgages for borrowers who were either behind on their payments or soon could be. As many as 400,000 borrowers could be moved into lower rate mortgages.
    (WSJ, 11/1/08, p.A1)
2008        Oct 31, Airship Ventures began operating zeppelin flights from Moffett field in Mountain View, Ca. Passenger tickets were set at $495 per person for one hour and $950 for 2 hours.
    (SFC, 10/28/08, p.A1)
2008        Oct 31, VeraSun Energy, one of America’s biggest ethanol producers, filed for bankruptcy after being caught in the gyrations of the prices of corn and gasoline.
    (Econ, 11/8/08, p.79)
2008        Oct 31, The Leakey Foundation awarded its Leakey Prize to American primatologist Jane Goodall and Japanese scientist Toshidada Nishida for their work with chimpanzees.
    (SFC, 10/30/08, p.B1)
2008        Oct 31, Satoshi Nakamoto, a pseudonymous cryptography buff, unveiled a project he dubbed bitcoin, a new electronic cash system that’s fully peer-to-peer, with no trusted third party.
    (Econ, 5/9/15, SR p.16)
2008        Oct 31, Studs Terkel (b.1912), Chicago radio personality and writer, died. His books included “The Good War," which won a Pulitzer Prize in 1984.
    (SFC, 11/1/08, p.A2)
2008        Oct 31, In eastern Afghanistan a series of operations by US forces targeted an al-Qaida leader and a bomb-making cell, killing 19 militants in Nangarhar and Khost provinces. Taliban spokesman, Zabiullah Mujahid, said the militant group has released two aid workers from Bangladesh whom they had kidnapped in Ghazni province late last month.
    (AP, 11/1/08)
2008        Oct 31, Brazil's state-run oil company signed an agreement to explore for oil in deep Caribbean waters north of Cuba that officials in Havana say could contain 20 billion barrels of crude.
    (AP, 10/31/08)
2008        Oct 31, Petrofac evacuated 56 non-essential workers from the North Sea Heather Alpha oil rig after a reports of 10-20 ton oil spill.
    (AP, 10/31/08)
2008        Oct 31, Top British filmmaker Danny Boyle's new Mumbai-based film "Slumdog Millionaire" won rave reviews after its screening at the close of the London Film Festival.
    (AP, 10/31/08)
2008        Oct 31, Middle East investors will own up to one third of Barclays Plc after Abu Dhabi and Qatar provided most of 7.3 billion pounds ($12.1 billion) raised by the bank to repair damage from the global financial crisis and avoid taking UK government rescue funds.
    (Reuters, 10/31/08)
2008        Oct 31, Heavily-armed pirates swarmed aboard an oil industry support vessel working off the coast of Cameroon and kidnapped 10 of 15 crew members, including six Frenchmen. A man claiming to represent a rebel group opposed to Cameroon's takeover of the Bakassi Peninsula warned the hostages would be killed unless Cameroonian officials agreed to reopen the issue.
    (AFP, 10/31/08)
2008        Oct 31, In Canada an explosion damaged a natural gas wellhead in the same area of northeast British Columbia where two pipelines have been bombed this month.
    (Reuters, 10/31/08)
2008        Oct 31, In southern China a truck driver killed 4 people and injured 20 by driving into a crowd of high school students coming out of class. The male driver was shot dead by police after the incident in the city of Zhuhai in Guangdong province.
    (AP, 11/6/08)
2008        Oct 31, Thousands of war-weary refugees set out on foot for their homes in eastern Congo, taking advantage of a cease-fire as American and UN envoys joined efforts there to find a political solution to the region's long-running rebellion.
    (AP, 10/31/08)
2008        Oct 31, In southern Egypt tourist bus overturned, killing six Belgian tourists and injuring 26 other Belgian passengers.
    (AP, 10/31/08)
2008        Oct 31, Israeli settlers clashed with Israeli police and Palestinians in the West Bank town of Hebron following the overnight demolition of an unauthorized settler outpost. Israelis from across the political spectrum slammed a decision to air the first-ever television interview with Yigal Amir (43), the extremist Jew who assassinated PM Yitzhak Rabin in 1995.
    (AP, 10/31/08)(AFP, 10/31/08)
2008        Oct 31, In Japan an essay by Gen. Toshio Tamogami, head of Japan’s air force, was published. He had won a competition for best essay denying Japan’s wartime role as an aggressor and sponsor of atrocities. The contest was sponsored by Toshio Motoya, the head of a hotel chain. Within hours of publication Gen. Toshio Tamogami was out of a job.
    (Econ, 11/8/08, p.57)
2008        Oct 31, Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi, starting his first visit to post-Soviet Russia, planned to discuss opening a Russian naval base in Libya to counterbalance US interests in the region.
    (AP, 10/31/08)
2008        Oct 31, In Mexico police arrested Antonio Galarza, the reputed leader of the violent Gulf drug cartel for the border city of Reynosa, in the northern city of Monterrey on suspicion of weapons violations and organized crime.
    (AP, 11/2/08)
2008        Oct 31, A suspected US drone aircraft fired missiles into a house in Mir Ali town in Pakistan's North Waziristan region on the Afghan border. Al-Qaida member Abu Kasha Iraqi was among those killed. Abu Jihad al-Masri, described by the US as al-Qaida’s propaganda chief, was among 3 people killed when a missile hit their truck. A second house was hit, killing 12 including suspected foreign militants in Kari Kot in South Waziristan. 29 people were reported killed in the 2 attacks. A suicide bomber attacked the convoy of a regional police chief, killing 3 police officers and 5 civilians in Mardan in the North West Frontier Province.
    (AP, 10/31/08)(AFP, 11/1/08)(SFC, 11/1/08, p.A3)
2008        Oct 31, Gunmen in Peshawar, Pakistan, kidnapped Zia ul-Haq Ahadi, the brother of Afghanistan's finance minister, while he was walking to his mother's home after praying at a mosque. Ahadi, a businessman who lives in Afghanistan, was in Peshawar to visit his mother.
    (AP, 11/2/08)
2008        Oct 31, Spain approved a measure to let descendants of people who fled into exile after its 1936-39 Civil War apply for Spanish citizenship. The government said it believes up to 500,000 children and grandchildren of such emigres are eligible. The government says 300,000 of those people live in Argentina.
    (AP, 11/1/08)

2008        Oct, In the US the number of personal bankruptcies for October jumped nearly 8% as compared to September. Filings totaled 108,595, up nearly 34% from October, 2007.
    (SSFC, 11/16/08, p.A5)
2008        Oct, US customs officials at Miami International Airport seized a 3,000-yeor-old Egyptian sarcophagus from a shipment coming from Spain after the importer could not present proper documentation to prove ownership. It dated back to the 21st Dynasty (1070-945 B.C.) and belonged to a noble called Imesy. An investigation found the coffin had been stolen from Egypt 126 years ago and taken to Spain before it was shipped to the US. In 2010 it was returned to Egypt.
    (AP, 3/12/10)
2008        Oct, US Special Forces soldiers freed a kidnapped American working for the Army Corps of Engineers during a nighttime mission. The American, who had been working on US government-funded infrastructure projects, was abducted in mid-August and had been held just 30 miles west of Kabul with no public notice of his abduction. The mission to free the contractor killed several insurgents.
    (AP, 10/22/08)
2008        Oct,  Solyndra, a Fremont, Ca., company, launched a new type of solar panel using lightweight glass tubes. It expected installation costs to be half that of conventional panels.
    (Econ, 10/11/08, p.110)
2008        Oct, Smart Union, a Chinese toymaker founded by Tony Wu, went into forced liquidation with the direct loss of some 12,000 jobs and the indirect loss of many more. Flooding in June hit Dongguan and severely impacted the company’s inventories and the following credit crunch forced it to shut down in September.
    (Econ, 1/17/09, p.63)
2008        Oct, China’s first Disney operated English-language school opened.
    (Econ, 8/28/10, p.52)
2008        Oct, A US Embassy cable called Uttar Pradesh Chief Minister Mayawati, a powerful leader of the nation's bottom caste untouchables, a 'virtual paranoid dictator' who had institutionalized corruption throughout India's most populous state, charged potential candidates $250,000 to run for Parliament on her party's ticket and was obsessed with becoming prime minister. The cable was revealed by WikiLeaks in 2011.
    (AP, 9/6/11)
2008        Oct, The Almahata Sitta meteorite crashed in Sudan's Nubian Desert. It was later reported that diamonds in the meteorite, would have required great pressure to form and were most likely formed by a proto-planet at least 4.55 billion years ago. The mystery planet was thought to have been least as big as Mercury, possibly even Mars.
    (AP, 4/17/18)
2008        Oct, Yemen’s President Ali Abdullah Saleh disclosed that a "terrorist cell" linked to Israel's intelligence services had been dismantled. Bassam al-Haidari was later found guilty of contacts with Israeli premier Ehud Olmert on the Internet to plot against Yemen and sentenced to death. 2 other men received 3-year jail terms.
    (AFP, 4/3/10)

2008        Nov 1, Members of the Machinists Union, representing some 27,000 workers in Washington, Oregon, and Kansas, ratified a new contract with the Boeing Co. ending an 8-week strike.
    (SSFC, 11/2/08, p.A4)
2008        Nov 1, A gunman fatally shot Cincinnati minister Rev. Donald Fairbanks Sr. and wounded a church deacon just after the two men arrived at a northern Kentucky church to attend a funeral. Frederick L. Davis, of Covington, quickly surrendered to police and was charged with murder, first degree assault, criminal mischief and violating an emergency protection order.
    (AP, 11/2/08)
2008        Nov 1, Yma Sumac (b.1922), Peruvian-born singer known as the “Nightingale of the Andes," died in LA. Her voice was said to range over 4½ octaves. Her first album, “Voice of the Xtabay" (1950) soared to the top of the LP charts.
    (SFC, 11/4/08, p.B4)
2008        Nov 1, In southern Afghanistan Dutch Major General Mart de Kruif replaced Canadian Major General Marc Lessard as head of 19,000 mostly British, Canadian, Dutch and US NATO-led soldiers of the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF).
    (AP, 11/1/08)
2008        Nov 1, In Australia the badly decomposed body of Chen Liu (27) was found in Sydney, about two weeks after a friend reported him missing. 34 nails were found during a post-mortem examination of Liu's body, and were located mainly in his skull. They were fired from an 85 mm nail gun at close range.
    (AP, 4/24/09)
2008        Nov 1, Bolivian President Evo Morales suspended US anti-drug operations as Washington's relations with his leftist government spiraled downward.
    (AP, 11/2/08)
2008        Nov 1, It was reported that British Major Sebastian Morley, commander of SAS (Special Air Service) troops in Afghanistan, has resigned, reportedly in disgust at equipment failures that he believes led to the death of four of his troops.
    (AFP, 11/1/08)
2008        Nov 1, Britain’s PM Gordon Brown left for a tour of oil-rich Gulf states, hoping to persuade them to give extra funds to help countries hit by the world economic turmoil.
    (AP, 11/1/08)
2008        Nov 1, Five migrants were rescued after 15 days lost at sea. One died the next day. A total of 33 Dominican migrants were trying to reach Puerto Rico by boat when they were reported missing by relatives in mid-October. Survivors said they lost their way after the captain abandoned the ship. The survivors ate their dead comrades to stay alive. Four Dominicans were later charged with involuntary manslaughter for allegedly helping to organize the illegal boat trip to Puerto Rico that ended in the deaths of 29 migrants.
    (AP, 11/2/08)(AP, 11/11/08)
2008        Nov 1, Three Tunisian men accused of terrorism links by Italian prosecutors arrived in Milan under heavy security after being extradited from Britain. Habib Ignaoua, Mohamed Khemiri and Ali Chehidi were arrested in the London and Manchester areas last year as part of coordinated raids across Europe against an alleged Italian-based network recruiting fighters for Iraq and Afghanistan.
    (AP, 11/2/08)
2008        Nov 1, Tutsi-led rebels tightened their hold on newly seized swaths of eastern Congo, forcing tens of thousands of frightened, rain-soaked civilians out of makeshift refugee camps and stopping some from fleeing to government-held territory. Congolese soldiers killed nine fighters from Uganda's Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) after 30-50 rebels attacked a village in northeast Democratic Republic of Congo.
    (AP, 11/2/08)(AFP, 11/2/08)
2008        Nov 1, Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak promised to push ahead with economic reform and step up efforts to combat poverty, despite the impact of the international financial crisis on Egypt's economy.
    (AP, 11/2/08)
2008        Nov 1, In Iraq a police quick reaction force for Anbar province moved to the border town of Qaim, about 200 miles northwest of Baghdad, to prevent al-Qaida from moving into the area from Syria. Unknown assailants gunned down a policeman on a foot patrol along Palestine Street in Shiite eastern Baghdad.
    (AP, 11/1/08)
2008        Nov 1, Malaysia defended its recognition of Kosovo as an independent state, a move that caused Serbia to expel the Southeast Asian nation's ambassador.
    (AP, 11/1/08)
2008        Nov 1, The top officer of Mexico's federal police force quit amid allegations that drug gangs have infiltrated senior levels of crime-fighting agencies. Acting federal police Commissioner Gerardo Garay said he was stepping aside "to place myself at the orders of legal judicial authorities to clear up any accusation against me."
    (AP, 11/1/08)
2008        Nov 1, In South Africa thousands of dissidents in the African National Congress met to pave the way for a new South African party, the Congress of the People (COPE) in a bitter split from the movement that led the anti-apartheid struggle.
    (AFP, 11/1/08)(Econ, 12/13/08, p.58)
2008        Nov 1, Sri Lanka's defense ministry said its warships sank at least four rebel boats and killed at least 14 guerrillas while the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) said they destroyed a navy fast attack craft and a hovercraft. Security forces took control of a two-kilometer (1.25-mile) rebel bunker line north of Kilinochchi amidst heavy fire.
    (AFP, 11/1/08)
2008        Nov 1, Jacques Piccard (b.1922), a scientist and underwater explorer who plunged deeper beneath the ocean than any other man, died in Geneva, Switzerland.
    (AP, 11/1/08)
2008        Nov 1, Zimbabwe opposition leader Morgan Tsvangirai called for a truth commission to examine atrocities in the country dating back to the massacres of ethnic minorities in the 1980s.
    (AFP, 11/1/08)

2008        Nov 2, Opus, a politically beleaguered penguin created by cartoonist Berkeley Breathed, appeared in the Sunday comics for the last time.
    (SFC, 10/27/08, p.E1)
2008        Nov 2, Paula Radcliffe defended her title at the NYC marathon to become the second woman to win the race three times. Marilson Gomes dos Santos of Brazil won the men's race for the second time in three years.
2008        Nov 2, In southern California police in Long Beach found 5 people shot to death in a homeless encampment in the shadow of the San Diego Freeway. In 2017 gang members David Ponce and Max Rafael were found guilty of five counts of murder. Police said the motive was a feud over drug debts between Ponce and one of the victims, and that the others were killed to ensure there were no witnesses.
    (SFC, 11/4/08, p.A2)(SSFC, 9/24/17 p.A6)
2008        Nov 2, The leaders of Armenia and Azerbaijan agreed to intensify talks to end a 20-year conflict over the disputed territory of Nagorno-Karabakh.
    (AP, 11/2/08)
2008        Nov 2, Belarus President Alexander Lukashenko greeted visiting Libyan leader Moammar Gadhafi and said he hopes to boost ties between their countries.
    (AP, 11/2/08)
2008        Nov 2, British PM Gordon Brown said he is confident that Saudi Arabia will contribute to the International Monetary Fund's bailout reserves after he promised business leaders in the Gulf that they would have a say in any future new world economic order.
    (AP, 11/2/08)
2008        Nov 2, China opened the final session of the Canton Fair, the country's biggest trade show, amid complaints that attendance has been dismal because of the financial crisis clobbering the nation's biggest export markets in the US and Europe. In southwest China at least 40 were killed after mudslides engulfed several villages.
    (AP, 11/2/08)(AFP, 11/2/08)(AP, 11/4/08)
2008        Nov 2, Dubai Port World (DP World) said it has agreed on a deal to run the cargo terminal in the Algerian port Djendjen. The port, which opened in 1993, is the most commercially important in Algeria.
    (AFP, 11/2/08)
2008        Nov 2, Ahmed Al-Mirghani (67) former head of Sudan’s last democratically elected government (1986-1989), died in Egypt. In 1989 a military coup led by current President Omar al-Bashir unseated him.
    (AP, 11/3/08)
2008        Nov 2, In Guyana American pilots James Barker and Chris Paris and Canadian technician Patrick Murphy were doing uranium survey work for Prometheus Resources Guyana Inc., a subsidiary of U308 Corporation of Toronto, Canada, when the plane went missing.
    (AP, 11/18/08)
2008        Nov 2, Iranian authorities arrested Hossein Derakhshan (b.1975), a well-known Canadian-Iranian blogger. In 2010 he was sentenced to almost 20 years in prison.
    (Econ, 10/23/10, p.60)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hossein_Derakhshan)
2008        Nov 2, Israel’s Cabinet decided to ratchet up law enforcement measures directed at extremist settlers. It also decided to halt government funding for the some 100 outposts built by settlers.
    (AP, 11/3/08)
2008        Nov 2, Mexican prosecutors said 11 policemen have been shot to death near Mexico City in a three-day string of drug-gang attacks. In Tijuana, across the border from San Diego, California, police found two decapitated bodies wrapped in blankets in a vacant lot.
    (AP, 11/2/08)
2008        Nov 2, The Moroccan government banned an issue of the French magazine L'Express International, claiming it insults Islam in articles exploring the relationship between that religion and Christianity.
    (AP, 11/3/08)
2008        Nov 2, In Pakistan a suicide bomber detonated his vehicle at a checkpoint at Zalai Fort in South Waziristan killing 8 troops.
    (SFC, 11/3/08, p.A11)
2008        Nov 2, A week of flooding triggered by torrential rains in northern and central Vietnam killed some 92 people, 22 of them in the capital Hanoi hit by the worst flooding in 35 years.
    (Reuters, 11/2/08)(AP, 11/3/08)(AP, 11/5/08)
2008        Nov 2, The bodies of 60 Somali and Ethiopian migrants washed up on the shores of southern Yemen over the last three days.
    (AP, 11/3/08)
2008        Nov 2, Veteran diplomat Rupiah Banda (72) was sworn in as the new president of Zambia following a narrow and disputed victory over a populist rival in an election forced by the death of the country's former leader.
    (AP, 11/2/08)

2008        Nov 3, Ali Hamza al-Bahlul (39), an aide to Osama bin Laden who refused to defend himself at his Guantanamo war crimes trial, was convicted of three terrorism-related charges and was sentenced to life in prison. In 2015 a US federal appeals court ruled that the conspiracy case against Bahlul was legally flawed because conspiracy is not a war crime.
    (AP, 11/3/08)(AP, 11/4/08)(SFC, 6/13/15, p.A4)
2008        Nov 3, Circuit City Stores Inc. said it is closing about 20 percent of its US stores, cutting thousands of jobs, in an effort to return the nation's No. 2 consumer electronics retailer to profitability. The closure of 155 US stores would put as many as 7,300 employees out of work.
    (AP, 11/3/08)(SFC, 11/4/08, p.D1)
2008        Nov 3, In southern Afghanistan 37 civilians, including women and children, were killed in international air strikes that hit Wach Baghtu village in Shah Wali Kot district of Kandahar. 26 insurgents were also reported killed. In Afghanistan gunmen abducted Dany Egreteau (32), a French aid worker in Kabul, and shot dead an Afghan man who tried to rescue him. The Taliban said it was not involved. Afghan and coalition troops seized 40 tons of hashish during a raid in Nawa Kili village in southern Kandahar province.
    (AFP, 11/3/08)(AP, 11/3/08)(AFP, 11/5/08)(AP, 11/7/08)
2008        Nov 3, In Bangladesh Pres. Iajuddin Ahmed signed an order sending the army back to the barracks, drawing to an end the state of emergency that began Jan 11, 2007.
    (Econ, 11/8/08, p.58)
2008        Nov 3, Two of Brazil’s largest banks agreed to merge in a move to buttress the country’s financial system. Itau Holding Financeira SA will purchase its smaller rival Uniao de Bancos Brasileiros SA.
    (WSJ, 11/4/08, p.C1)
2008        Nov 3, UK Financial Investments (UKFI) was set up to mange the British government’s stakes in rescued banks. John Kingman, a Treasury executive, was placed in charge.
    (Econ, 3/7/09, p.64)
2008        Nov 3, In Iraq PM Nouri al-Maliki pledged to protect Iraq's Christian minority, which has faced a spate of attacks this month in the northern city of Mosul. Parliament approved legislation restoring guaranteed seats on provincial councils to Christians and other small religious communities, the last major hurdle to holding provincial elections next year. A string of bombings in Baghdad and Baqouba killed nine people and wounded at least 33 others.
    (AP, 11/3/08)
2008        Nov 3, General David Petraeus, the US commander running the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, held talks with Pakistani leaders who told him to stop US strikes on militants in Pakistani territory.
    (AP, 11/3/08)
2008        Nov 3, The Scottish government approved controversial plans by US tycoon Donald Trump to build a huge luxury golf resort on the country's east coast.
    (AFP, 11/3/08)
2008        Nov 3, Spain's government, grappling with soaring unemployment and an economy buffeted by the global credit crunch, announced a plan to help families make mortgage payments and reward businesses that hire.
    (AP, 11/3/08)
2008        Nov 3, Chen Yunlin, the most senior Chinese official to visit Taiwan since the end of a civil war 60 years ago, arrived in Taipei on a charter flight from Beijing for talks on strengthening economic ties, as supporters of independence for the island staged demonstrations and planned mass protest rallies against his visit.
    (AFP, 11/3/08)
2008        Nov 3, Zimbabwean officials say they have sold almost 4 tons of ivory for over $450,000 and the money will go to the country's cash-strapped wildlife authorities.
    (AP, 11/3/08)

2008        Nov 4, The US Presidential race was called for Barack Obama at 11p.m. on the East Coast. An hour later Obama was on stage at Grant Park in Chicago, speaking to the tens of thousands of supporters gathered there. Obama beat McCain 52% to 46% in the popular vote and 365 to 173 in the electoral college.
    (AP, 11/5/08)(Econ, 11/8/08, p.39)(SFC, 11/20/08, p.A16)
2008        Nov 4, The Federal Communications Commission ruled that a valuable chunk of wireless spectrum will be open to whatever mobile devices Americans want to use, amounting to a political setback for traditional telephone companies and a partial win for Google.
    (http://tinyurl.com/5uyqzj)(SFC, 11/7/08, p.C1)
2008        Nov 4, In Alaska voters ousted Republican Sen. Ted Stevens. Democrat Mark Begich claimed a narrow victory on Nov 18, after a tally of remaining ballots showed him holding a 3,724-vote edge.
    (AP, 11/19/08)
2008        Nov 4, Arkansas voters passed a measure blocking the adoption of children by unmarried couples. John McCain won the state by 20 points over Barack Obama. Arkansas voters approved a state lottery by a 63% margin. In 2010 a Circuit Court judge in Little Rock struck down the measure on adoption, saying it infringed on a person’s right to privacy.
    (SSFC, 11/9/08, p.A5)(Econ, 11/22/08, p.45)(SFC, 4/17/10, p.A4)
2008        Nov 4, California voters put a stop to gay marriage, creating uncertainty about the legal status of 18,000 same-sex couples who tied the knot during a four-month window of opportunity opened by the state's highest court. On Nov 19 the California state Supreme Court agreed to decide on the legality of the Proposition 8 measure. It was later reported that opponents and supporters had pumped a total of $85 million in to the measure. State voters approved Proposition 2 for improved treatment of farm animals. Voters also approved Proposition 1A, a $9.5 billion bond for high-speed rail service from SF to LA. Marin and Sonoma voters approved Measure Q for a quarter cent sales tax increase to build and operate a commuter train for Cloverdale to Larkspur. Prop. 11, a measure to overhaul state redistricting rules, passed as the final tally was completed 3 weeks later. 
    (AP, 11/6/08)(SFC, 11/5/08, p.A17)(SFC, 11/6/08, p.A17, B1)(SFC, 11/20/08, p.A1)(SFC, 11/27/08, p.A1)(SFC, 2/3/09, p.B1)
2008        Nov 4, California voters passed Prop. 9 by 54% increasing crime victims’ rights to participate in legal procedings and required inmates who are denied parole to wait as long as 15 years for their next parole hearing.
    (SFC, 10/2/14, p.D2)
2008        Nov 4, Voters in Richmond, Ca., approved a Measure T, which called for a tax assessment on Chevron Corp. for the value of crude oil that is refined in the city. On Dec 16, 2009, a Contra Costa County judge struck down the tax.
    (SFC, 12/25/09, p.D1)
2008        Nov 4, Mitchell Daniels (R) was re-elected governor of Indiana with 58% of the vote.
    (Econ, 8/21/10, p.21)
2008        Nov 4, Massachusetts voters passed Question 2, a measure to decriminalize the possession of less than an ounce of marijuana, with 65% in support. Under the state constitution the measure becomes law after 30 days.
    (SFC, 11/7/08, p.A7)(Econ, 11/8/08, p.48)
2008        Nov 4, Michigan voted for Barack Obama and legalized medicinal marijuana.
    (Econ, 11/8/08, p.48)
2008        Nov 4, In Missouri Democrat Jay Nixon was elected governor replacing Republican Gov. Mat Blunt, who did not seek re-election. Missouri’s 11 electoral votes went to McCain as it became the last state to complete results on Nov 19.
    (SFC, 11/5/08, p.A14)(SFC, 11/20/08, p.A16)
2008        Nov 4, President-elect Barack Obama won one of Nebraska's electoral votes, the first time in history that the state has split its votes and the first time in 44 years that it had given a vote to a Democrat. The result was not known until Nov 14. Nebraska voters did away with racial preferences.
    (AP, 11/15/08)(Econ, 12/6/08, p.37)
2008        Nov 4, Voters in Nevada favored Barack Obama and ousted 2 Republicans to give Democrats a majority in the state senate.
    (WSJ, 11/10/08, p.A10)
2008        Nov 4, In North Carolina Democrat Lt. Gov. Beverly Perdue was elected governor. Democrat Kay Hagan defeated Republican  state Sen. Elizabeth Dole.
    (SFC, 11/5/08, p.A14)(WSJ, 11/5/08, p.A1)
2008        Nov 4, In Tennessee John McCain beat Barack Obama by 15 points. Republicans held their 4 US House seats and took control of both chambers of the state legislature for the first time since Reconstruction.
    (WSJ, 11/22/08, p.A2)
2008        Nov 4, Oregon’s GOP Sen. Smith lost to Democrat Jeff Merkley, giving the Democrats at least 57 Senate votes in 2009.
    (WSJ, 11/6/08, p.A1)
2008        Nov 4, Washington voted for Barack Obama and became the 2nd state after Oregon to legalize assisted suicide.
    (Econ, 11/8/08, p.48)
2008        Nov 4, Michael Crichton (b.1942), doctor turned author and film director, died in LA. His books included “The Andromeda Strain" (1969), “The Great Train Robbery" (1975) and “Jurassic Park" (1990), all of which were made into popular films. He also created the TV series ER in 1994.
    (SFC, 11/6/08, p.A4)
2008        Nov 4, In Afghanistan Gen. David Petraeus, the new chief of the US Central Command, took a firsthand look at the war following a two-day visit to Pakistan. US-led troops killed five insurgents in the southern Helmand province, after the militants ambushed their patrol. in Kandahar province Don Ayala (46), a US military contractor, shot and killed Abdul Salam, an Afghan civilian, after Salam Afghan ignited a pitcher of fuel and threw it on social scientist Paula Lloyd (36), inflicting serious burns. On Nov 20 Ayala was charged in Virginia with 2nd degree murder. Lloyd died from the burns on Jan 7, 2009.
    (AP, 11/4/08)(SFC, 11/21/08, p.A3)(SFC, 1/10/09, p.A5)
2008        Nov 4, In Austria 2 men and a woman were arrested in the raid in the southern town of Villach. The raid on a suspected gang of international jewel thieves recovered an uncut ruby known as the "Prince of Burma" worth 3.2 million euros ($4.1 million). The ruby along with diamonds and other gems were stolen from a German jewelry dealer in Milan, Italy, in August.
    (AP, 11/6/08)
2008        Nov 4, In London A sketch by Winnie the Pooh illustrator E.H. Shepard titled "Tiggers Don't Like Honey" fetched 31,200 pounds ($49,770) at auction, well above the pre-sale estimate of 15,000 to 20,000 pounds ($24,000 to $32,000).
    (AP, 11/4/08)
2008        Nov 4, In China authorities in Chongqing, one of China's biggest cities, vowed to crack down on violence that has marked a rare strike by taxi drivers, and called for an immediate return to work.
    (AP, 11/4/08)
2008        Nov 4, Gen. Mario Montoya, the commander of Colombia's army, resigned abruptly in a widening scandal over the killing of scores of civilians, allegedly spurred by promotion-seeking officers to inflate rebel body counts.
    (AP, 11/4/08)
2008        Nov 4, Congolese rebel leader Laurent Nkunda threatened to take his eastern guerrilla war westwards to the capital Kinshasa unless the government agreed to talks on the country's future. Congo's government refused rebel leader Laurent Nkunda's demand for direct talks.
    (Reuters, 11/4/08)(AP, 11/4/08)
2008        Nov 4, Human Rights Watch reported that both Georgia and Russia used cluster bombs during their brief summer war. Georgia’s bombs, purchased from Israel, killed at least 3 Georgian civilians, including 2 who touched unexploded bombs and died after the fighting ended. Many of the bombs were said to have malfunctioned.
    (WSJ, 11/4/08, p.A12)
2008        Nov 4, In Germany a tour bus returning from a day trip to a farm caught fire on a highway near the northern city of Hannover, killing 20 people. A cigarette was suspected but it may also have been caused by a spark from the undercarriage.
2008        Nov 4, India’s finance minister called in the bosses of state owned banks for a chat. Afterwards they said they would cut their lending rates by .75%.
    (Econ, 11/8/08, p.91)
2008        Nov 4, In northern India. a passenger bus rolled into a gorge near Kufri, a popular ski resort, killing at least 45 people.
    (AP, 11/4/08)
2008        Nov 4, Iran's parliament impeached Interior Minister Ali Kordan after he admitted having a fake degree from Oxford University, in a vote widely seen as a defeat for hard-line President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad.
    (AP, 11/4/08)
2008        Nov 4, In Iraq bombs exploded at a bus station and a small market in Baghdad, killing at least 15 people and wounding 29 others. One person died when a roadside bomb targeted the convoy of a Shiite government official and former member of the Iraqi Governing Council in central Baghdad. In Mosul a suicide bomber rammed his car into a passing police patrol, injuring four officers. One civilian died on the scene of a road accident with coalition troops near the city of Tikrit. A second Iraqi died after being rushed to an aid station.
    (AP, 11/4/08)(SFC, 11/5/08, p.A17)
2008        Nov 4, Italian police arrested 47 people including the wife of a jailed mafia boss in raids on a Naples-based organized crime syndicate. They also seized bank accounts and assets worth about 80 million euros ($102 million) in the raids.
    (AP, 11/4/08)
2008        Nov 4, One of Mexico's top pointmen in the war against drug trafficking died when a government jet crashed into a Mexico City street, setting fire to dozens of vehicles. The loss of Interior Secretary Juan Camilo Mourino, former anti-drug prosecutor Jose Luis Santiago Vasconcelos and six others thinned the ranks of Mexico's already embattled leadership. 9 people on the plane were killed as well as 5 people on the ground. A 15th victim died 2 weeks later. A 16th victim died in On Dec 11. Three alleged hitmen suspected in the killing of a top border-state police official died in a gunbattle with police in Nogales. They were suspected of having helped kill Sonora state police chief Juan Manuel Pavon on Nov 2. One Sonora state police officer died in the shootout. A suspect in Pavon's killing was taken into custody.
    (AP, 11/5/08)(AP, 11/6/08)(AP, 11/18/08)(AP, 12/11/08)
2008        Nov 4, A World Bank delegation launched a sewage project, long delayed by the standoff between Israel and Hamas, in the Gaza Strip to prevent raw sewage from spilling into residential areas.
    (AP, 11/4/08)
2008        Nov 4, In the Philippines a ferry packed with commuters overturned after it was buffeted by monsoon winds and huge waves, killing 42 people including 11 children. 76 people were rescued from the Don Dexter Cathlyn. It capsized shortly after leaving port in central Masbate island. Officials the next day detained the captain on suspicion of operating the vessel illegally.
    (AP, 11/4/08)(AP, 11/5/08)
2008        Nov 4, Puerto Rico voted to oust incumbent Gov. Anibal Acevedo Vila, who is under indictment for allegedly violating campaign finance laws. Challenger Luis Fortuno of the pro-statehood New Progressive Party, vowed to fight crime and spur the island's troubled economy. On March 20, 2009, a jury found Vila not guilty on all 9 charges against him.
    (AP, 11/4/08)(SFC, 3/21/09, p.A2)
2008        Nov 4, In Moscow ultranationalists and anti-immigrant activists tossed smoke grenades and scuffled with riot police on a national holiday celebrating Russian unity. Youths assaulted a Turkmen diplomat outside his Moscow consulate and killed an Uzbek in separate attacks.
    (AP, 11/5/08)
2008        Nov 4, Spain’s government reported that the number of people claiming unemployment benefits has jumped to 2.8 million (11.3%), the highest since 1996, in the latest devastating fallout from the international financial crisis.
    (AP, 11/4/08)
2008        Nov 4, Sudanese journalists launched a mass hunger strike, and three independent newspapers stopped work for three days in the country's biggest organized media protest against draconian censorship.
    (AP, 11/4/08)
2008        Nov 4, Taiwan and China set aside decades of hostilities and agreed to drastically expand flights and allow shipping links across the Taiwan Strait, a potential hotspot that has long threatened to become a war zone.
    (AP, 11/4/08)
2008        Nov 4, In southern Thailand suspected Muslim insurgents detonated two bombs at a tea stall and shopping area, killing one person and wounding at least 71.
    (AP, 11/4/08)
2008        Nov 4, In a bid to improve strained Catholic-Muslim relations, the Vatican hosted scholars, imans and clerics from both religions as it opened a three-day religious conference.
    (AP, 11/4/08)

2008        Nov 5, In St. Johns, Arizona, a boy (8) fatally shot his father, Vincent Romero (29) and Timothy Romans (39) of San Carlos, with a .22-caliber rifle.
    (AP, 11/8/08)
2008        Nov 5, In San Francisco, Ca., Charles Heard shot and killed Richard Barrett (29) outside the Fuse Bar in North Beach. Barrett had refused to give up his Flintstones’ Bamm-Bamm pendant. In 2010 Heard (25) was convicted of first degree murder under the felony murder rule.
    (SFC, 7/2/10, p.C2)
2008        Nov 5, John Leonard, former editor of the NY Times Book Review (1970-1983), died in NYC.
    (SFC, 11/11/08, p.B4) 
2008        Nov 5, Africans across the continent sang, danced in the streets and wrapped themselves in US flags to cheer for America's first black president. Kenya will party for two days, after Pres. Kibaki declared a national holiday for Nov 6 in honor of Obama.
    (AP, 11/5/08)
2008        Nov 5, In Algeria Fateh Bouchibane, mayor of Timezrit in the Kabylie region, was abducted and killed.
    (AP, 11/6/08)
2008        Nov 5, Queen Elizabeth II approved a new constitution for the Falkland Islands. It formalizes the system of self-government on the South Atlantic archipelago, while giving Britain the final say on foreign policy, policing and the administration of justice.
    (AP, 11/7/08)
2008        Nov 5, Cpl. Daniel James (45), a former British army interpreter, was convicted of espionage for sending e-mails to an Iranian diplomat while serving in Afghanistan in 2006.
    (AP, 11/5/08)
2008        Nov 5, A Cameroon militia leader said one of the 10 hostages seized by a local militia off Cameroon's coast last week was killed in a failed rescue attempt by Nigerian marines.
    (AP, 11/5/08)
2008        Nov 5, In Congo heavy fighting erupted for a second day between rebels and a pro-government militia in lawless North Kivu province, but a wider cease-fire was holding around this provincial capital. In Kiwanja fighters loyal to rebel General Laurent Nkunda drove out pro-government Mai-Mai militia, sending its inhabitants fleeing in panic. A local clergyman said at least 180 civilians had been killed overnight. The next day UN peacekeepers found the bodies of a dozen shot civilians.
    (AP, 11/5/08)(AP, 11/6/08)(Econ, 11/8/08, p.61)
2008        Nov 5, In southern Ethiopian farmers stoned to death Legesse Wegi, a senior rebel figure suspected of organizing fatal blasts in the capital Addis Ababa.
    (AFP, 11/7/08)
2008        Nov 5, Germany’s cabinet approved measures to boost the economy that will cost around €23 billion ($29.9) over the next 4 years.
    (WSJ, 11/6/08, p.A15)
2008        Nov 5, In Iraq a suicide bomber rammed his car into a police patrol on the road to Baghdad’s airport, killing 6 people. In Amara a police officer died from a roadside bomb.
    (SFC, 11/6/08, p.A2)
2008        Nov 5, Hamas militants pounded southern Israel with a barrage of rockets, hours after Israeli forces killed six gunmen. The clashes began the previous evening after Israeli forces burst into Gaza to destroy what the army said was a tunnel being dug near the border to abduct Israeli troops. The Israeli military said 35 rockets were fired. Late the same day Israel launched another airstrike, killing a Palestinian militant in northern Gaza. The army said it was targeting a rocket launcher, whom the Islamic Jihad group identified as its own. The group had fired two rockets at the Israeli border town of Sderot and one of its leaders, Khader Habib, declared the truce over.
    (AP, 11/5/08)(AP, 11/6/08)
2008        Nov 5, Libya's Moamer Kadhafi met with Ukrainian Prime Minister Yulia Tymoshenko in his traditional Bedouin tent during a visit to Kiev expected to focus on energy and military cooperation.
    (AFP, 11/6/08)
2008        Nov 5, In Mozambique a medical officer said at least 50 people have died of cholera and more than 100 have been taken to hospital since the disease broke out last week in northern Manica province.
    (AFP, 11/5/08)
2008        Nov 5, A Pakistani army air strike overnight destroyed a suspected militant training facility in the Bajur tribal area near the Afghan border. 15 insurgents were killed. The dead included a Pakistani militant commander named Wali Rehman, who was known to shelter foreign militants linked to al-Qaida.
    (AP, 11/5/08)(AP, 11/6/08)
2008        Nov 5, Russia will deploy missiles near NATO member Poland in response to US missile defense plans, President Dmitry Medvedev said Wednesday in his first state of the nation speech.
    (AP, 11/5/08)
2008        Nov 5, In Somalia 6 employees of the French aid group Action Against Hunger were kidnapped in the town of Dhusamareb. They included four non-Somali workers and two chauffeurs.
    (AP, 11/5/08)
2008        Nov 5, Zimbabwe issued three new denominations of banknotes, including a one-million-dollar note, as the impoverished country struggles to cope with runaway inflation.
    (AP, 11/5/08)

2008        Nov 6, President elect Barack Obama chose Rahm Emanuel (48), a fiery partisan unafraid of breaking glass and hurting feelings, as his White House chief of staff. It was reported that Obama's campaign chief strategist David Axelrod, one of the main architects of his election victory, had agreed to become a senior advisor in the White House.
    (AP, 11/7/08)
2008        Nov 6, The leaders of GM, Ford and Chrysler came to Capital Hill along with the president of the UAW to discuss billions of dollars in financial help for the struggling car industry.
    (SFC, 11/7/08, p.C3)
2008        Nov 6, Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger proposed $4.4 billion in new taxes and a similar amount in spending cuts to deal with California's worsening fiscal crisis, saying, "We must stop the bleeding."
    (AP, 11/6/08)
2008        Nov 6, Philadelphia’s Mayor Nutter said a budget deficit crises will force the city to close libraries and swimming pools, suspend planned tax reductions, cut more than 800 jobs and trim salaries to deal with a $1 billion shortfall.
    (SFC, 11/7/08, p.A7)
2008        Nov 6, David Booth (61), chief executive of Dimensional Fund Advisors mutual fund, said he will donate $300 million to the Univ. of Chicago’s business school.
    (WSJ, 11/6/08, p.A4)
2008        Nov 6, In northwest Afghanistan an airstrike killed 13 Taliban militants and seven civilians in Ghormach district of Badghis province, a day after President Hamid Karzai demanded a halt to civilian casualties in US-led coalition operations.
    (AP, 11/6/08)
2008        Nov 6, The Himalayan kingdom of Bhutan crowned a new king, placing a charismatic Oxford-educated bachelor as head of state of the world's newest democracy. Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck (28) became the world's youngest reigning monarch.
    (AFP, 11/6/08)
2008        Nov 6, The European Central Bank cut its key interest rate by half a percentage point to 3.25% and the Bank of England made an even more aggressive reduction of 1.5%, from 4.5% to 3%, in an effort to ease the financial crisis and boost their flagging economies. The rate in England was lowest since 1955.
    (AP, 11/6/08)(Econ, 11/8/08, p.71)
2008        Nov 6, Authorities said Hungary is preparing a financial aid package worth up to 600 billion forints ($3 billion, 2.3 billion euros) to boost domestic banks' capital and help them refinance debts.
    (AP, 11/6/08)
2008        Nov 6, A series of bomb blasts across Baghdad killed six people and injured more than 20 others, in the fourth consecutive day of heightened violence in the Iraqi capital. The al-Qaida leader, known as Abu Ghazwan, was killed during a raid on a weapons cache. An American soldier has died of noncombat related causes.
    (AP, 11/6/08)(AP, 11/7/08)(AP, 11/8/08)
2008        Nov 6, In Italy Domenico Magnoli (27), an alleged mobster, woke up in a private Italian clinic following liposuction surgery, and was arrested for trafficking in cocaine. Police alleged that Magnoli, born in Cannes, France, has links to the Piromalli crime clan in the 'ndrangheta syndicate.
    (AP, 11/7/08)
2008        Nov 6, Japanese researchers said they had created functioning human brain tissues from stem cells, a world first that has raised new hopes for the treatment of disease.
    (AFP, 11/6/08)
2008        Nov 6, Mexican authorities detained Rodolfo de la Guardia Garcia, the No. 2 official in the Federal Agency of Investigation from 2003-2005, suspected of aiding drug traffickers, and Jaime Gonzalez Duran, alleged founder of a vicious gang of drug-cartel hit men. A cache of 540 rifles, 165 grenades, 500,000 rounds of ammunition and 14 sticks of TNT were seized at a house in the city of Reynosa, across the border from McAllen, Texas. This was the largest seizure of drug-cartel weapons in Mexico's history. In the northeast, police mistakenly opened fire on a family of six, seriously wounding a teenage girl. In the west, inmates rioted, killing six. And police in Tijuana found three more bodies accompanied by messages that appeared to be from drug traffickers.
    (AP, 11/8/08)
2008        Nov 6, In Nigeria at least six navy personnel were killed in a gun battle between two rival gangs in southern oil-rich Bayelsa state.
    (AFP, 11/7/08)
2008        Nov 6, In Pakistan a suicide bomber attacked a gathering of anti-militant Salarzai tribesmen, killing at least 17 and wounding 45 in the Batmalai area of the Bajur tribal region, where the military has clashed with insurgents for months. Another suicide bomber rammed his vehicle into a checkpoint in the Swat Valley killing at least 2 paramilitary troopers.
    (AP, 11/6/08)(SFC, 11/7/08, p.A13)
2008        Nov 6, In the central Philippines a small ferry capsized during a storm at Bagongon islet. 11 passengers drowned in waters just 200 yards offshore. 30 survived a 3 remained missing.
    (AP, 11/6/08)(AP, 11/7/08)
2008        Nov 6, Romania's defense minister says the country's 501 peacekeepers in Iraq will all leave by the end of the year.
    (AP, 11/6/08)
2008        Nov 6, A Romanian computer programmer who hacked into computers used by the U.S. Navy, the Department of Energy and NASA was convicted on Romanian charges and ordered to pay thousands in damages. Victor Faur (28) was also given a 16-month suspended prison sentence. In 2006 Faur was indicted in the United States on nine federal counts of computer intrusion and one of conspiracy.
    (AP, 11/10/08)
2008        Nov 6, A suspected suicide explosion hit a minibus unloading passengers in Vladikavkaz, the capital of Russia's North Ossetia province, killing 12 people.
    (AP, 11/6/08)(Reuters, 11/7/08)
2008        Nov 6, A group of Saudi activists began a rare public hunger strike to demand judiciary reform and draw attention to the detention without trial of 11 political reformists.
    (AP, 11/6/08)
2008        Nov 6, Taiwan's President Ma Ying-jeou made history when he met with a senior Chinese official as tens of thousands of anti-Beijing protesters brought the island's capital to a standstill.
    (AFP, 11/6/08)
2008        Nov 6, State media reported that Zimbabwe's government will release millions of dollars in unspent foreign aid given to the country last year to fight AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria. An official said Zimbabwe's largest gold mining firm has stopped operations at its five mines across the strife-torn country, resulting in 5,000 people losing jobs. The closures resulted from long delays in receiving payments for gold delivered to the Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe, which has a monopoly on the country's gold trade.
    (AFP, 11/6/08)

2008        Nov 7, US Pres.–elect Obama gave his first news conference and vowed to pass a stimulus plan as his first act.
    (WSJ, 11/8/08, p.A1)
2008        Nov 7, The US Labor Department said the nation's employers cut 240,000 jobs in October, hurtling the US unemployment rate to a 14-year high of 6.5 percent.
    (AP, 11/7/08)
2008        Nov 7, General Motors Corp. reported $2.5 billion losses in the third quarter, burning through $6.9 billion in cash and warned that it could run out of cash in 2009. GM also said it has suspended talks to acquire Chrysler. Meanwhile, Ford Motor Co. said it lost $129 million in the third quarter as the struggling automaker burned through $7.7 billion in cash and set plans for more job cuts.
2008        Nov 7, In Afghanistan a clash between police and the Taliban in Zabul province, killed seven insurgents and wounded two policemen.
    (AP, 11/7/08)
2008        Nov 7, In China hundreds of people clashed with police in the southern city of Shenzhen, throwing stones and setting fire to a police car after a motorcyclist died while trying to avoid a checkpoint.
    (Reuters, 11/8/08)
2008        Nov 7, The UN secretary-general joined African leaders to try to end the fighting in eastern Congo, where a fragile cease-fire is close to collapse. A UN official and a peacekeeping officer said Angolan troops are fighting alongside Congolese soldiers battling rebels outside the eastern provincial capital of Goma. The UN official said an unspecified number of Angolans arrived four days ago.
    (AP, 11/7/08)
2008        Nov 7, Egyptian police arrested 25 Muslim Brotherhood members at a meeting at Faous, in the eastern Nile Delta.
    (AFP, 11/8/08)
2008        Nov 7, European planemaker Airbus said that Spanish tourism company Grupo Marsans has signed a firm order for 61 aircraft worth almost $9 billion at list prices.
    (AP, 11/7/08)
2008        Nov 7, In Georgia thousands of the United Opposition coalition demonstrated in the first major protest against President Mikhail Saakashvili since the August war with Russia. At least two significant opposition parties, The Republican Party and the Christian Democrats, stayed away from the protest, citing the need for postwar unity against Russia.
    (AP, 11/7/08)
2008        Nov 7, In Germany Klaus Zumwinkel, the former head of Deutsche Post, was charged with tax evasion. He had stepped down from his post in February following a raid on his home in Cologne.
    (Econ, 11/15/08, p.77)
2008        Nov 7, In Petionville, Haiti, the collapse of a school killed at least 94 children and teachers. There may have been hundreds of students in La Promesse school when the concrete building collapsed. Fortin Augustin, the preacher who owns and built College La Promesse in suburban Port-au-Prince, was arrested Nov 8 and charged with involuntary manslaughter.
    (AP, 11/8/08)(AP, 11/9/08)(AP, 11/11/08)(SFC, 11/11/08, p.A10)
2008        Nov 7, India said it will send one of its most decorated army units to join a UN mission in Congo and support other Indian troops as Congolese rebels advance to seize fresh areas.
    (Reuters, 11/7/08)
2008        Nov 7, In southern Nigeria armed rebels killed a Nigerian sailor during an overnight attack on US giant Chevron's oil facility.
    (AP, 11/7/08)
2008        Nov 7, An environmentalist group and four Nigerians filed suit against Royal Dutch Shell PLC in the Netherlands, claiming the company was negligent in cleaning up oil spills in Nigeria.
    (AP, 11/7/08)
2008        Nov 7, In Pakistan suspected US drones fired missiles into Kam Sam, on the border between North and South Waziristan, killing 13 militants, including 4-5 foreigners. This was the latest in a series of strikes that has infuriated Pakistan.
    (Reuters, 11/7/08)(SFC, 11/7/08, p.A8)
2008        Nov 7, Palestinian militants in the Gaza Strip fired at least 3 rockets at southern Israel, fraying a five-month truce that has been tested sorely this week. There were no injuries.
    (AP, 11/7/08)
2008        Nov 7, Mieczyslaw Rakowski (81), Poland's last communist-era party chairman and prime minister, died. Rakowski, a historian and journalist, was chairman of the communist Polish United Workers' Party from July 1989 until the party was dissolved at its January 1990 congress during the country's bloodless transition to democracy.
    (AP, 11/8/08)
2008        Nov 7, General Motors Corp. dedicated its first Russian assembly plant, a $300 million, 70,000-car-a-year factory just outside of St. Petersburg.
    (AP, 11/7/08)
2008        Nov 7, Pirates near Somalia hijacked a Danish cargo ship with 13 crew members, which consisted of Russians and Ukrainians. The CEC Future  was released on January 16 following a ransom payment by Clipper Projects.
    (AP, 11/8/08)(AP, 1/16/09)
2008        Nov 7, South Korea reduced its key interest rate by .25%, its 3rd cut in 4 weeks.
    (WSJ, 11/10/08, p.A13)

2008        Nov 8, On Long Island, NY, 7 students from Patchogue-Medford High School attacked Marcelo Lucero (38), an immigrant from Ecuador. Jeffrey Conroy (17) stabbed and killed Lucero as he struggled to defend himself. Police soon arrested the 7 teens. In 2010 Jeffrey Conroy (19) was convicted of manslaughter.
    (SFC, 11/22/08, p.A6)(SFC, 4/20/10, p.A6)
2008        Nov 8, Li Ximing (82), Beijing's Communist Party boss during the bloody 1989 crackdown on pro-democracy protests, died.
    (AP, 11/11/08)
2008        Nov 8, Congolese soldiers advanced toward rebel lines in renewed fighting that threatens a tenuous cease-fire around the eastern provincial capital Goma.
    (AP, 11/8/08)
2008        Nov 8, In Guatemala 15 bodies were found after a bus burned on an unpaved road in a mountain valley about 90 miles (140 kilometers) east of the capital, Guatemala City. The bus had originated in Nicaragua and all the bodies had been shot before being set on fire. On March 31, 2009, Investigators in Guatemala announced that a drug gang was responsible for the grisly killings of 15 Nicaraguans and a Dutch man aboard the bus. In 2010 Juan Carlos Policarpi was convicted sentenced to multiple life terms. Rony Terraza was also convicted and sentenced to three years in prison. Authorities arrested a former police officer in connection with the attack and sought seven more people in the case.
    (AP, 11/10/08)(AP, 4/1/09)(AP, 6/9/10)
2008        Nov 8, In India at least five people were killed when they tried to dismantle a discarded artillery shell in the northern town of Meerut.
    (AFP, 11/8/08)
2008        Nov 8, PM Nouri al-Maliki called for changes to the Iraqi constitution to give more power to the central government, especially in security and other key fields. Kurdish politicians promptly dismissed al-Maliki's proposals, defending their regional rule. Iraq's presidential council signed off on legislation giving Christians and other religious minorities fewer guaranteed seats on provincial councils than the UN and some political groups had recommended. A suicide bomber slammed his car into a police checkpoint, killing eight civilians and wounding 17 policemen on a highway near Ramadi.
    (AP, 11/8/08)
2008        Nov 8, In New Zealand John Key's center-right National Party swept to power on a theme of change in elections, ending the nine year reign of Helen Clark's Labor Party. National, with 59 seats, supported by the libertarian Act Party with 5 seats and United Future with one seat, won the 122-seat parliament. Mr. Key had made a fortune as a currency trader and by 2014 it was valued at $40 million.
    (AFP, 11/8/08)(WSJ, 11/10/08, p.A14)(Econ, 9/27/14, p.43)
2008        Nov 8, In Pakistan police found the bullet-ridden bodies of the two men in the North Waziristan tribal region after a tip from residents. Militants claimed they were spies for the United States and dumped their bodies with a warning in a Pakistani border region at the center of a campaign of suspected American missile strikes. Fighting reported elsewhere in Pakistan's volatile northwest left 29 militants and three Pakistani soldiers dead. Security forces fatally shot a local journalist in the Swat Valley area. Mohammad Shoaib, worked for the Azadi newspaper and apparently did not stop his vehicle when signaled to do so.
    (AP, 11/8/08)(AP, 11/9/08)
2008        Nov 8, A group of European lawmakers sailed from Cyprus into Gaza, defying an internationally backed blockade of the Hamas-run territory with activists promising to send more visitors and goods to end the coastal strip's isolation.
    (AP, 11/8/08)
2008        Nov 8, Mieczyslaw Rakowski (81), politician and former editor of Polityka magazine, died.
    (Econ, 11/22/08, p.99)
2008        Nov 8, The fire safety system on a brand-new Russian nuclear submarine accidentally turned on as the sub was being tested in the Sea of Japan, spewing chemicals that suffocated 20 people and sent 21 others to the hospital. The dead included 17 civilians and 3 seamen. Construction of the Nerpa, an Akula II class attack submarine, started in 1991 but was suspended for years because of a shortage of funding. Testing on the submarine began last month and it submerged for the first time last week.
    (AP, 11/9/08)
2008        Nov 8, Sudanese security banned two newspapers from publishing after they protested against draconian censorship measures and arrests of journalists.
    (AFP, 11/8/08)
2008        Nov 8, Kenneth Dale Peters (55), an American tourist, was shot and killed and a friend wounded, in an apparent robbery attempt aboard a sailboat on Venezuela's Caribbean coast. On Nov 12 regional police arrested Jose Rodriguez, Jonas Marcano and Johan Isazis. They will face charges of homicide and attempted homicide.
    (AP, 11/10/08)(AP, 11/13/08)

2008        Nov 9, In a record bailout of a private company the US government scraped its original $123 billion plan to rescue troubled insurance giant American International Group (AIG) and replaced it with a new $150 billion financial package, including $40 billion for partial ownership.
    (AP, 11/10/08)(WSJ, 11/10/08, p.A1)
2008        Nov 9, Health experts presented findings of a study, called Jupiter, that found  Crestor, a cholesterol drug made by AstraZeneca, reduced the risk of heart-related death, heart attacks and other serious cardiac problems by 44%.
    (WSJ, 11/10/08, p.B1)
2008        Nov 9, In Louisiana Raymond "Chuck" Foster, 44, shot and killed an Oklahoma woman, who was lured over the Internet to take part in a Ku Klux Klan initiation, after a fight broke out when she asked to be taken back to town. The group tried to cover it up by dumping her body on a rural roadside and setting her belongings aflame. Foster, the local Klan leader was soon in jail on a second-degree murder charge, and seven others were charged with trying to help conceal the crime.
    (AP, 11/12/08)
2008        Nov 9, A Taliban suicide attacker rammed a bomb-filled minivan into a NATO military convoy in Afghanistan, killing two Spanish soldiers and critically wounding another. Officials said US coalition forces killed 14 militants who fired on them in Khost province. The province's governor, Arsallah Jamal, said the 14 men were civilian construction workers and were not militants.
    (AFP, 11/9/08)
2008        Nov 9, A Bahrain-based Islamic investment bank unveiled plans for a five-billion-dollar energy sector business hub at Sabratha, Libya.
    (AFP, 11/9/08)
2008        Nov 9, In Sao Paulo, Brazil, finance ministers from 20 leading nations (G20) agreed to boost emerging economies’ role in negotiations to overhaul the international financial system.
    (SFC, 11/10/08, p.D1)
2008        Nov 9, Troubled neighbors Chad and Sudan exchanged ambassadors, six months after diplomatic ties were ruptured over tit-for-tat accusations of support for armed rebels.
    (AFP, 11/9/08)
2008        Nov 9, China announced a $586 billion stimulus package in its biggest move to stop the global financial crisis from hitting the world's fourth-largest economy.
    (AP, 11/9/08)
2008        Nov 9, Doctors struggled to contain an outbreak of cholera in a sprawling refugee camp near Congo's eastern provincial capital of Goma, as new fighting ignited fears that infected patients could scatter and launch an epidemic.
    (AP, 11/9/08)
2008        Nov 9, Hurricane Paloma leveled hundreds of homes along Cuba's southern coast before rapidly losing steam over land, weakening from a dangerous Category 4 storm into a tropical depression in less than a day.
    (AP, 11/10/08)
2008        Nov 9, Egyptian authorities denied entry to one of Osama bin Laden's sons and put him on a plane to Qatar, becoming the third country to reject the self-proclaimed "ambassador for peace." Omar Osama bin Laden (27) and his British wife, Zaina Alsabah (52), arrived at Cairo International Airport over the weekend after he unsuccessfully tried to seek political asylum in Spain.
    (AP, 11/9/08)
2008        Nov 9, Rose Kabuye, Rwanda Pres. Kagame's chief of protocol, was arrested at Frankfurt airport on an international warrant issued in 2006 by French anti-terrorism judge Jean-Louis Bruguiere.
    (AFP, 11/10/08)
2008        Nov 9, Indonesia boosted security after three Islamic militants (Imam Samudra, 38, and brothers Amrozi Nurhasyim, 47, and Ali Ghufron, 48) were executed for the 2002 Bali bombings that killed 202 people. Emotional supporters thronged ambulances carrying their caskets through narrow streets, some calling for revenge.
    (AP, 11/9/08)
2008        Nov 9, In Iraq a female suicide bomber blew herself up at a hospital west of Baghdad, killing three people and injuring five others. 2 women and a 10-year-old girl were killed in the attack in Amiriyat al-Fallujah near Fallujah. A roadside bomb in Mosul killed 3 Iraqi soldiers and wounded 4 others. A bomb attached to a bike in Khalis killed at least 2 people.
    (AP, 11/9/08)(SFC, 11/10/08, p.A12)
2008        Nov 9, Israel and the Palestinians pledged to continue peace talks that President Bush launched last year even though a possible deal won't be reached until after he leaves office.
    (AP, 11/9/08)
2008        Nov 9, Pakistani airstrikes pounded suspected insurgent hide-outs in the Bajur tribal region bordering Afghanistan, killing 13 alleged militants. A remote-controlled bomb planted on a motorcycle killed a passer-by and wounded five others in a market in Sui town in southwest Baluchistan province.
    (AP, 11/9/08)
2008        Nov 9, Southern African leaders opened a regional summit on Zimbabwe, hoping to break a deadlock over the allocation of cabinet posts which has prevented formation of a power-sharing government.
    (AP, 11/9/08)
2008        Nov 9, Taiwan’s central bank cut its key interest rate for the 4th time in less than 8 weeks. The cut was .25%.
    (WSJ, 11/10/08, p.A13)
2008        Nov 9, Kuo Te-tsai (42), a Taiwanese drug trafficker, was arrested at a Thai beach resort with 229 pounds of heroin worth millions of dollars in a joint operation by American, Taiwanese and Thai drug enforcement authorities.
    (AP, 11/10/08)
2008        Nov 9, Zimbabwe's neighbors failed to break an impasse on forming a unity government, prompting opposition leader Morgan Tsvangirai to appeal to the African Union to step in.
    (AFP, 11/9/08)

2008        Nov 10, Citigroup says it is imposing a moratorium on most foreclosures as part of a series of initiatives aimed at helping at-risk borrowers remain in their homes, making Citi the latest big bank to announce sweeping efforts to try to curtail losses from souring mortgages.
    (AP, 11/11/08)
2008        Nov 10, Circuit City Stores Inc., the second-biggest electronics retailer in the US, filed for bankruptcy protection but planned to stay open for business as the busy holiday season approaches.
    (AP, 11/10/08)
2008        Nov 10, George W. Housner (b.1910), known in his profession as the father of earthquake of engineering, died.
    (WSJ, 11/22/08, p.A11)
2008        Nov 10, Afghan writer Atiq Rahimi won France's top book prize, the Goncourt, for a novel penned in French, "Syngue Sabour", or Stone of Patience.
    (AFP, 11/10/08)
2008        Nov 10, New York Times reporter David S. Rohde (41) was abducted along with an Afghan reporter colleague and a driver south of Kabul. Rohde and Afghan reporter Tahir Ludin (35) escaped captivity in North Waziristan on June 19.
    (AP, 6/21/09)
2008        Nov 10, In Brazil bandits blew up a police station with dynamite after stealing drugs and weapons in Botucatu city in Sao Paulo state.
    (AP, 11/10/08)
2008        Nov 10, Deutsche Post AG said it will close all of its DHL Express service centers, cut 9,500 jobs in the United States and eliminate US-only domestic express shipping by land and air, citing heavy losses and fierce competition.
    (AP, 11/10/08)
2008        Nov 10, An explosion killed two Georgian police officers near the disputed region of South Ossetia. EU monitors called the attack an unacceptable breach of the cease-fire that ended the Georgia-Russia war.
    (AP, 11/10/08)
2008        Nov 10, Miriam Makeba (b.1932), the South African folk singer and anti-apartheid activist fondly known as "Mama Africa," died in southern Italy after performing at a concert against organized crime.
    (AP, 11/10/08)(SFC, 11/11/08, p.B5)
2008        Nov 10, International experts said in a report that Irish Republican Army splinter groups are launching more attacks in Northern Ireland than at any time in recent years, and are increasingly trying to kill police officers.
    (AP, 11/10/08)
2008        Nov 10, In Iraq a suicide bomber struck in a crowd gathered at the site of an explosion that moments earlier had damaged a bus filled with schoolgirls. Both blasts killed 31 people and wounding 71 others. A female suicide bomber attacked a security checkpoint in Baqouba, killing five people including a local leader of Sunni group opposed to al-Qaida.
    (AP, 11/10/08)(AP, 11/11/08)
2008        Nov 10, Iraq and China signed the final agreement on a $3 billion deal to develop the Ahdab oil field south of Baghdad over a 22 year-period.
    (AP, 11/11/08)
2008        Nov 10, Italian railway and mass transit workers staged a strike creating chaos for commuters. A wildcat protest by some of Alitalia’s staff forced the national airline to scrap dozens of flights.
    (SFC, 11/11/08, p.A3)
2008        Nov 10, In Japan a California-based computer scientist, a Canadian philosophy professor and a Canadian molecular biologist each received US$500,000 at an awards ceremony for this year's Kyoto Prizes for achievement in the arts and sciences.
    (AP, 11/10/08)
2008        Nov 10, Gunmen in northern Kenya seized two Italian Catholic nuns from a church before dawn and took them across the border into a Somali region largely controlled by Islamist insurgents. The nuns were free on February 19, 2009.
    (AP, 11/10/08)(AP, 2/19/09)
2008        Nov 10, Malaysia's Scomi Engineering said its consortium with an Indian company has won a 1.85 billion ringgit ($523 million) state contract to build the first monorail in India.
    (AP, 11/10/08)
2008        Nov 10, Mexico’s President Felipe Calderon chose Fernando Gomez-Mont as the new Secretary of the Interior. 7 people were found dead in a string of gruesome attacks in the border city of Juarez. Police there chased a truck that opened fire on a state vehicle, causing a car crash that killed a bystander and injured four others. In northwestern Mexico 27 farmworkers who were kidnapped by dozens of heavily armed men wearing military-style uniforms. Local news media reported that a drug gang may have kidnapped the men to make them work growing marijuana.
    (AP, 11/11/08)
2008        Nov 10, In Nicaragua the ruling Sandinista party (FSLN) claimed victory in nationwide municipal elections, but rival parties said the early returns were misleading and the US government expressed concern about the vote.
    (AP, 11/11/08)(Econ, 5/1/10, p.38)
2008        Nov 10, Militants in northwest Pakistan hijacked 13 trucks carrying supplies for Western forces in Afghanistan as they passed through the Khyber Pass.
    (Reuters, 11/10/08)
2008        Nov 10, Pirates near Somalia hijacked the MT Stolt Strength. a Philippines chemical tanker with 23 crew, bringing the total number of attacks in waters off the African nation this year to 83.
    (AP, 11/11/08)
2008        Nov 10, Sweden's financial regulator says it has revoked the banking license from troubled investment bank Carnegie and that Sweden's national debt office will take control of the bank.
    (AP, 11/10/08)
2008        Nov 10, Taiwan's coast guard rescued 9 crewmen and searched for 19 missing seamen after their fishing boat foundered in rough seas.
    (AP, 11/10/08)
2008        Nov 10, President Robert Mugabe said a new Zimbabwe government would be formed "as quickly as possible" despite his rival Morgan Tsvangirai's rejection of a regional compromise on a power-sharing deal.
    (AP, 11/10/08)

2008        Nov 11, Tim Lincecum, pitcher for the SF Giants, was named winner of the Cy Young Award.
    (SFC, 11/12/08, p.A1)
2008        Nov 11, Suspected Taliban militants kidnapped Shamsudin Agha, a religious leader in western in Farah province, after he criticized the use of suicide attacks as a weapon of war in the country. Authorities recovered Agha's body the next night.
    (AP, 11/14/08)
2008        Nov 11, Bolivian officials said they have formally asked the US to extradite former President Gonzalo Sanchez de Lozada, who ordered a military crackdown on 2003 riots in which at least 60 people died.
    (AP, 11/11/08)
2008        Nov 11, Jack Scott (85), former British TV sitcom star (On the Buses), died.
    (Econ, 12/6/08, p.109)
2008        Nov 11, At least 13 soldiers were killed in an ambush by rebels at Kabo, near the Central African Republic's border with Chad, 400 kilometers (250 miles) north of Bangui.
    (AFP, 11/12/08)
2008        Nov 11, The UN reported that hundreds of Congolese soldiers rampaged through several villages in eastern Congo raping women and pillaging homes as they pulled back ahead of a feared rebel advance.
    (SFC, 11/12/08, p.A7)
2008        Nov 11, Egypt's chief archaeologist has announced the discovery of a 4,300-year-old pyramid in Saqqara, the sprawling necropolis and burial site of the rulers of ancient Memphis. The new pyramid is the 118th discovered so far in Egypt.
    (AP, 11/11/08)
2008        Nov 11, Armed Bedouin attacked a security checkpoint in Egypt's Sinai Peninsula and seized 11 policemen in a restive area near the border with Israel. The Bedouin tribesmen were angered by a police shooting a day earlier that killed a suspected Bedouin smuggler in the area.
    (AP, 11/11/08)
2008        Nov 11, French police arrested 10 people, described as anarchists, suspected for the recent sabotaging of high-speed trains. In 5 instances since late October iron rods were jammed into power cables in order to hold up trains.
    (WSJ, 11/12/08, p.A12)
2008        Nov 11, The Imams Bridge in north Baghdad reopened. It had closed 3 years ago after a stampede during a Shiite procession killed almost 1,000 people. A pair of roadside bombs exploded in quick succession in east Baghdad during the morning rush hour, killing 3 people and wounding 14 others. An Internet monitoring service said 10 Iraqi insurgent groups have agreed to escalate attacks against US and Iraqi forces to derail the proposed US-Iraqi security agreement. Hajji Hammadi, a leader of al-Qaida in Iraq, was killed. He was blamed in the April, 2004, abduction and murder of Army reservist Staff Sgt. Matt Maupin of Batavia, Ohio.
    (AP, 11/11/08)(AP, 11/12/08)(AP, 11/20/08)
2008        Nov 11, Rabbi Meir Porush, an ultra-Orthodox rabbi, faced off against Nir Barkat (49), a secular businessman, in Jerusalem's mayoral race. Nir Barkat, a former paratroops officer, won the election with 52% support.
    (AP, 11/11/08)(AP, 11/12/08)
2008        Nov 11, Mohamed Nasheed took the oath of office as the Maldives' first democratically elected president. He now leads the flattest nation on Earth, with an average height of 2.3 meters (7 feet) above sea level, and one considered particularly vulnerable to the perils of global climate change and rising sea levels.
    (AP, 11/11/08)
2008        Nov 11, In Mexico 21 police were arrested in the northern border city of Tijuana on suspicion of working with criminal gangs. The body of a 28-year-old man was dumped in an empty lot in the beach resort of Rosarito, outside Tijuana.
    (AP, 11/11/08)
2008        Nov 11, Myanmar sentenced 23 activists, including 5 Buddhist monks arrested during anti-junta protests last year to 65 years each in jail, in what rights groups branded a fresh attempt to stifle dissent. Min Ko Naing, considered as one of Myanmar's top activists, was among those sentenced.
    (AP, 11/11/08)(AFP, 11/14/08)(AFP, 11/15/08)
2008        Nov 11, A Nigerian appeal court sacked the governor of the southern state of Edo following complaints of vote irregularities and declared his opponent the winner.
    (AFP, 11/11/08)
2008        Nov 11, Pakistan’s military said at least 11 Taliban militants were killed and two soldiers wounded in gunfights with troops in the northwestern Swat valley, rocked by a violent campaign to introduce Islamic law. A suicide bomber blew himself up outside the Peshawar Sports Complex, hosting athletes from around the country, killing at least two people.
    (AP, 11/11/08)
2008        Nov 11, Russia’s central bank widened its target band for the currency’s rate against the dollar by about 1% in each direction. Weeks of rigid defense had fueled a $112 billion decline in reserves. The central bank also raised interest rate by 1% in an effort to keep money from flowing out of the country.
    (WSJ, 11/12/08, p.A8)
2008        Nov 11, Rwanda expelled the German ambassador and Pres. Kagame declared that Germany violated his country's sovereignty when it arrested one of his aides in connection with an attack that set off Rwanda's 1994 genocide.
    (AP, 11/11/08)
2008        Nov 11, Swedish truck and bus maker Volvo AB said it will lay off nearly 1,000 staff at its powertrain unit in Sweden and the United States as the global financial crisis continues to weigh on the demand for heavy vehicles.
    (AP, 11/11/08)
2008        Nov 11, In Taiwan former Pres. Chen Sui-bian was detained by police after prosecutors sought his formal arrest on corruption and money laundering charges. He was later taken to hospital complaining that police had roughed him up.
    (SFC, 11/12/08, p.A4)
2008        Nov 11, Uruguay's Senate voted to depenalize abortion during the first trimester, a rare step in a Latin American nation. President Tabare Vasquez vetoed the measure on Nov 14.
    (AP, 11/11/08)(AP, 11/14/08)
2008        Nov 11, In Zimbabwe riot police beat dozens of students and pro-democracy activists marching through Harare to demand a new government to tackle the country's worsening economic and political crisis.
    (AFP, 11/11/08)

2008        Nov 12, The Department of the Treasury and the Federal Reserve Board announced the release of a joint final rule to implement the Unlawful Internet Gambling Enforcement Act of 2006. The act made it illegal for financial institutions to transfer funds between punters and online gambling sites. Compliance was required by Dec 1, 2009.
    (www.federalreserve.gov/newsevents/press/bcreg/20081112b.htm)(WSJ, 11/13/08, p.A1)
2008        Nov 12, The Supreme Court lifted restrictions on the Navy's use of sonar in training exercises off the California coast, a defeat for environmental groups who say the sonar can harm whales.
    (AP, 11/12/08)
2008        Nov 12, US prosecutors charged Raoul Weil, a senior executive of Swiss bank UBS AG, of helping some 20,000 rich clients evade federal income taxes on assets of some $20 billion from 2002-2007. In 2014 a federal court in Florida acquitted Mr. Weil.
    (WSJ, 11/13/08, p.A1)(Econ, 11/8/14, p.76)
2008        Nov 12, A judge cleared the way for gay marriage to begin in Connecticut, a victory for advocates stung by California's referendum that banned same-sex unions in that state.
    (AP, 11/12/08)
2008        Nov 12, LCD makers LG Display of South Korea, Sharp of Japan, and Chunghwa Picture tubes of Taiwan pleaded guilty to US charges of price fixing and will pay fines totaling $585 million.
    (WSJ, 11/13/08, p.B3)
2008        Nov 12, In Fort Lauderdale, Florida, sophomore Teah Wimberly (15) shot Amanda Collette at Dillard High School, then walked to a seafood restaurant to call authorities and turn herself in.
    (AP, 11/13/08)
2008        Nov 12, Mitch Mitchell (61), English drummer for the legendary Jimi Hendrix Experience of the 1960s and the group's last surviving member, was found dead in his hotel room in Portland, Oregon, the last stop on the West Coast part of a tour.
    (AP, 11/13/08)(SFC, 11/13/08, p.B4)
2008        Nov 12, Walter Gabrielson (1935), California artist, died, His 1993 self-published autobiography was titled “Persistence."
    (SSFC, 11/16/08, p.B6)
2008        Nov 12, In Afghanistan a bomb-filled tanker exploded outside the office of the provincial council in Kandahar, killing six people and wounding 42. Two British troops were killed in an explosion in southern Helmand province. Men squirted the acid from water bottles onto three groups of students and teachers walking to school in Kandahar. Some of the girls received burns only on their school uniforms but others will have scars on their faces. On Nov 25 officials announced the arrest of 10 Taliban militants involved in the acid attack.
    (AP, 11/12/08)(AP, 11/13/08)(AP, 11/14/08)(AP, 11/25/08)
2008        Nov 12, Algeria's parliament overwhelmingly approved constitutional amendments that abolish presidential term limits, paving the way for President Abdelaziz Bouteflika to seek a third term in spring elections.
    (AP, 11/12/08)
2008        Nov 12, Angola announced it is mobilizing troops to send to neighboring Congo, heightening fears that the fighting in this central African nation will engulf other countries in the region. North of Kibati the bodies of two dead government soldiers lay in the center of the road beside a rebel checkpoint.
    (AP, 11/12/08)
2008        Nov 12, A Sidney court sentenced an Australian woman to 22 months periodic detention for assisting in the suicide of her longtime partner, an Alzheimer's sufferer who had been rejected for a legal euthanasia in Switzerland.
    (AP, 11/12/08)
2008        Nov 12, The Canadian government  announced a series of steps to improve the availability of long-term credit including the purchase of C$50 billion ($40 billion) more in insured mortgages from banks.
    (Reuters, 11/12/08)
2008        Nov 12, China launched a 50-day campaign against unlicensed taxis in Beijing.
    (WSJ, 11/14/08, p.A10)
2008        Nov 12, In Colombia the investment company Proyecciones DRFE (Dinero Rapido Facil Efectivo - Easy Money, Fast Cash) collapsed in Narino state leaving investors in the pyramid scheme with losses estimated at some $270 million. Investors took to the streets on rumors that owner Carlos Alfredo Suarez had fled the country. At least 2 people died in ensuing riots. A week later Panama extradited David Murcia Guzman, the president of DMG Group, suspected of running the country's biggest pyramid scheme. On Mar 13, 2009, the government announced it had recovered just $20.5 million, which would be distributed equally among some 214,000 investors, who would receive about $96 each. On Dec 16 Murcia was sentenced to 30 years and 8 months in prison for a money-laundering conviction and was fined $12.5 million. He is expected to be extradited to the US soon on money-laundering conspiracy charges.
    (http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/7740032.stm)(SFC, 11/15/08, p.A9)(Econ, 11/22/08, p.49)(SFC, 3/14/09, p.A2)(SFC, 10/14/09, p.A2)(AP, 12/16/09)
2008        Nov 12, Germany's biggest industrial union secured a 4.2 percent pay rise over 18 months for the nation's manufacturing workers in a deal that averted an all-out strike.
    (AP, 11/12/08)
2008        Nov 12, In Germany Dr. Gero Huetter said his 42-year-old patient, an American living in Berlin who was not identified, had been infected with the AIDS virus for more than a decade. But 20 months after undergoing a transplant of genetically selected bone marrow, he no longer shows signs of carrying the virus.
    (AP, 11/13/08)
2008        Nov 12, Hong Kong officials said they had found elevated levels of melamine in fish feed from China’s Fuzhou Haima Feed Co.
    (WSJ, 11/13/08, p.A13)
2008        Nov 12, Indonesian health officials said test results from two laboratories in the capital came back positive confirming that a girl (15) died of bird flu last week.
    (AP, 11/12/08)
2008        Nov 12, Iran successfully test-fired the Sajjil, a new generation of long range surface-to-surface missile using solid fuel, making them more accurate than its predecessors. It had a range of about 1,200 miles (2,000 kilometers).
    (AP, 11/12/08)
2008        Nov 12, In Iraq a series of bombings shook Baghdad for the third straight day, killing at least 11 people and wounding about 60. In Mosul unidentified gunmen killed two sisters from a Christian family as they were waiting in front of their house for a ride to work. Barzan Mohammed Abdullah, an Iraqi soldier, opened fire on US troops after a quarrel broke out in Mosul, killing two American soldiers and wounding six in a military compound before he was shot to death.
    (AP, 11/12/08)(SFC, 11/13/08, p.A3)
2008        Nov 12, Israeli troops and Palestinian militants fought with missiles and mortars along the Gaza-Israel border, raising new concerns that an increasingly shaky five-month-old truce might collapse. Four Hamas militants were killed in the exchange, and the Hamas military wing said it would retaliate.
    (AP, 11/12/08)
2008        Nov 12, The United States says it has shipped 50,000 metric tons of heavy fuel oil to North Korea as part of a nuclear disarmament deal. The fuel is scheduled to arrive in the North in late November and early December. North Korea said that it won't allow outside inspectors to take samples from its main nuclear complex to verify the communist regime's accounting of past nuclear activities.
    (AP, 11/12/08)
2008        Nov 12, North Korea's powerful military announced it will shut the country's border with the South on Dec. 1, a marked escalation of threats against Seoul's new conservative government at a time of heightened tension on the peninsula.
    (AP, 11/12/08)
2008        Nov 12, In Pakistan Stephen Vance, a US development worker, and his driver were shot dead in Peshawar. 3 security forces died when a suicide bomber rammed his explosives-laden vehicle at the gate of government school for boys in the northwestern village of Subhan Khwar, 22 miles north of Peshawar.
    (AP, 11/12/08)
2008        Nov 12, In Somalia the Islamist al-Shabab militia, that the US calls a terror organization, seized Merka, a key port town, giving it control of most of southern Somalia and sidelining the weak government.
    (AP, 11/12/08)
2008        Nov 12, In South African a truck carrying workers collided with another truck, killing 23 people and injuring nine.
    (AP, 11/12/08)
2008        Nov 12, Sudanese President Omar Hassan al-Bashir, facing a possible indictment by the International Criminal Court for alleged war crimes in Darfur, announced a ceasefire in the region.
    (Reuters, 11/12/08)
2008        Nov 12, Pirates commandeered the Karagol, a Turkish chemical tanker, off the coast of Yemen. 14 Turkish personnel were aboard the tanker. The Russian frigate Neustrashimy and the British frigate Cumberland foiled pirates who fired automatic weapons toward a Danish ship and twice tried to seize it in the Gulf of Aden. The Karagol was released on Jan 12, 2009. 
    (AP, 11/12/08)(AP, 1/13/09)
2008        Nov 12, Zimbabwe's main opposition said it would not join a new government with President Robert Mugabe until unresolved power-sharing issues were ironed out.
    (AFP, 11/12/08)

2008        Nov 13, The US government said the number of newly laid-off individuals seeking unemployment benefits has jumped to a seven-year high.
    (AP, 11/13/08)
2008        Nov 13, The US Mint was scheduled to issue the Van Buren dollar coin, the 8th of its presidential dollar series.
    (WSJ, 12/27/07, p.D6)
2008        Nov 13, US Federal health officials slapped a sweeping detention order on dozens of imported foods from China, from snacks and drinks to chocolates and candies. The agency said the action was needed as a precaution to keep out foods contaminated with the industrial chemical melamine, which can cause serious kidney problems.
    (AP, 11/13/08)
2008        Nov 13, Police in Richmond, Ca., arrested 18 people in connection with a crackdown on the Deep Central (Deep C) gang. Officials served 43 arrest warrants in Richmond as well as other Bay Area and Sacramento counties wrapping up a yearlong investigation by California drug agents.
    (SFC, 11/14/08, p.B5)
2008        Nov 13, In Afghanistan a suicide car bomber struck a US patrol, killing eight Afghan civilians and one US soldier and wounding 74 civilians in Nangarhar province. US troops killed four al-Qaida-linked militants during a raid in eastern Afghanistan.
    (AP, 11/14/08)(SFC, 11/14/08, p.A14)
2008        Nov 13, In Chile authorities said public health services failed to tell 512 people that they tested positive for HIV. Private-sector health services also fell down, failing to inform an estimated 1,700 people that tests show them carrying the AIDS virus.
    (AP, 11/13/08)
2008        Nov 13, China signed an agreement in Geneva to loosen controls on financial news providers in an out-of-court settlement of a dispute with the US, the EU and Canada.
    (AP, 11/13/08)
2008        Nov 13, The European Union proposed plans to toughen up rules covering taxes on foreign accounts in an effort to stop tax evasion which has been endemic in some EU nations.
    (AP, 11/13/08)
2008        Nov 13, The 38th Chess Olympiad started in Dresden, Germany. It included 146 teams in the open division, often referred to as the men's division although it includes a few women. The separate women's division included 111 teams.
    (AP, 11/19/08)
2008        Nov 13, An American soldier died of a noncombat cause in western Iraq. A civilian cargo aircraft crashed in the desert south of Fallujah.
    (AP, 11/14/08)(AP, 11/13/08)
2008        Nov 13, In Mauritania the military junta that ousted President Sidi Ould Cheikh Abdallahi released him in response to international pressure.
    (AP, 11/13/08)
2008        Nov 13, In Mexico Armando Rodriguez, a crime reporter in the border city of Juarez, was killed, adding to dozens of journalist deaths in a country where newspapers are so fearful, many refuse to cover drug violence. With his death, 24 journalists have been killed in Mexico since 2000, at least seven of them in direct reprisal for their reports on crime, and seven others have disappeared since 2005.
    (AP, 11/13/08)
2008        Nov 13, Mexico City Health Secretary Armando Ahued said that the government will start handing out doses of one or two Viagra, Levitra or Cialis pills on Dec. 1.
    (AP, 11/13/08)
2008        Nov 13, Pakistan announced that China had offered it a $500 million aid package.
    (WSJ, 11/14/08, p.A10)
2008        Nov 13, In northwestern Pakistan gunmen kidnapped Hashmatullah Atharzadeh, an Iranian diplomat, and killed his local guard. Peshawar’s police chief Suleman Shah said the spate of killings and abductions was in reaction to the military operations against insurgents in the adjoining tribal belt. Iranian intelligence agents freed Atharzadeh in late March, 2010.
    (AFP, 11/13/08)(AP, 3/30/10)
2008        Nov 13, Myanmar courts handed down sentences of between six and eight years for 4 Buddhist monks and two to 16 years for members of Nobel Peace Prize winner Aung San Suu Kyi's party for involvement in last year's massive protests against the military junta. 14 more activists from the NLD were sentenced the next day at different courts in Yangon for between two to 16 years, all in relation to last year's protests.
    (AFP, 11/14/08)
2008        Nov 13, Gaza militants fired a new barrage of rockets and mortars at Israeli border areas, prompting Israel to bar planned food and fuel shipments to Palestinian civilians hurt by the unraveling of a five-month-old truce.
    (AP, 11/13/08)
2008        Nov 13, In Thailand assailants hurled explosives at vendors protesting a rent increase by new managers of a government-owned market in Bangkok, wounding 13 people.
    (AP, 11/13/08)
2008        Nov 13, Vietnam's premier pledged to probe a corruption case in which Japanese businessmen have admitted bribing a Vietnamese official in the latest scandal involving a foreign aid-funded road project.
    (AP, 11/13/08)

2008        Nov 14, The US Army promoted its first woman, Ann Dunwoody, to the rank of four-star general.
    (WSJ, 11/15/08, p.A1)
2008        Nov 14, Space shuttle Endeavour and 7 astronauts made a night time launch and raced toward the international space station for a home makeover job.
    (AP, 11/15/08)
2008        Nov 14, In the SF Bay Area  police arrested 17 more people as part of a federal drug investigation targeting members of the Project Trojans street gang in North Richmond, San Pablo, Antioch and El Sobrante.
    (SFC, 11/15/08, p.B2)
2008        Nov 14, In Iowa police again arrested Sholom Rubashkin, former chief executive of Agriprocessors Inc., a Postville slaughterhouse, on new charges of bank fraud. In 2010 Rubashkin (51) was sentenced to 27 years in prison and ordered to pay $27 million in restitution for his conviction on fraud charges.
    (WSJ, 11/15/08, p.A2)(SFC, 6/22/10, p.A4)
2008        Nov 14, In California firefighters and a squadron of aircraft launched a desperate daylight attack to push back a wind-whipped wildfire that destroyed 210 homes and forced thousands to evacuate near Santa Barbara. The fire was later traced to a bonfire out at a tea garden by a group of young adults, who thought they had put the fire. Further south a wildfire broke out in the foothill community of Sylmar on the edge of the Angeles National Forest and quickly spread across 2,600 acres. By the next day it tore through the city's northern foothills, sending thousands of residents fleeing in the dark, forcing a hospital to evacuate and destroying an untold number of homes.
    (AP, 11/14/08)(AP, 11/15/08)(SFC, 11/19/08, p.A4)
2008        Nov 14, In Santa Clara, Ca., Jing Hua Wu (47), recently laid off, shot and killed 3 people at SiPort Inc., including CEO Sid Agrawal and Brian Pugh, the vice president of operations.
    (SFC, 11/15/08, p.A1)
2008        Nov 14, Irving Gertz (1915), movie composer, died. He composed or contributed to over 200 scores for horror, sci-fi and Westerns, which included such films as “It Came from Outer Space" (1953) and “Gun for a Coward" (1957).
    (SFC, 11/24/08, p.B3)
2008        Nov 14, In Afghanistan US forces grabbed a "key insurgent leader" in a joint raid with Afghan police in a village in eastern Ghazni province. Coalition forces also killed 10 militants in a strike against a bomb-making cell in the eastern Paktia province.
    (AP, 11/15/08)
2008        Nov 14, Azerbaijan lawmakers voted 86-1 to back President Ilham Aliev's request to withdraw the 150 troops serving as part of the US-led coalition in Iraq.
    (AP, 11/14/08)
2008        Nov 14, The EU said that the 15 countries that use the euro are officially in a recession,  as their economies shrank for a second straight quarter because of the world financial crisis and sinking demand.
    (AP, 11/14/08)
2008        Nov 14, Nearly half of Air France's flights were grounded by a pilots' strike expected to last through the weekend.
    (AP, 11/14/08)
2008        Nov 14, An Indian probe landed on the moon, in a milestone for the country's 45-year-old space program.
    (AFP, 11/14/08)
2008        Nov 14, In India suspected Maoist insurgents triggered landmine blasts to scare away voters in Chhattisgarh state, killing 2 people.
    (WSJ, 11/15/08, p.A6)
2008        Nov 14, In India the Kuber, a 45-foot fishing boat, left port at Porbandar with a crew of 5 men. It was soon hijacked by terrorists from Pakistan, who used it to reach Mumbai for the attacks that began late Nov 26. The crew were all killed, including lead crewman Amar Narayan Singh (45), who was found with his throat slashed.
    (WSJ, 12/2/08, p.A6)
2008        Nov 14, In Indonesia 5 people were killed and 14 were feared dead after a landslide triggered by heavy rain crushed scores of houses in West Java.
    (AFP, 11/14/08)
2008        Nov 14, Iraq's national security advisor said all British troops will be out of Iraq by the end of next year.
    (AFP, 11/14/08)
2008        Nov 14, In Mexico 2 bullet-ridden bodies were found at the foot of a monument in Ciudad Juarez, across from El Paso, Texas, one of them partially stuffed into a large pot. Four scuba divers died while performing maintenance in an aqueduct that supplies Mexico City.
    (AP, 11/14/08)(AP, 11/16/08)
2008        Nov 14, In Myanmar journalist Ein Khaing Oo, who had been detained for five months, was sentenced to two years in prison for her coverage of a protest over the lack of government relief for victims of a devastating cyclone. She was convicted in a closed-door trial on charges of "disturbing tranquility."
    (AP, 11/15/08)
2008        Nov 14, In Nigeria 22 Filipinos were arrested by a joint army-navy patrol on the Warri River with the vessel MT Akuada laden with its cargo of 12,500 metric tons of crude oil. On Feb 20, 2009, 13 Filipinos were sentenced to five years each or a fine of one million naira (6,800 dollars) for stealing crude oil from the Niger delta.
    (AFP, 2/21/09)
2008        Nov 14, In Pakistan a Japanese and an Afghan journalist were shot in the frontier city of Peshawar, the third attack on foreigners in three days. Motoki Yotsukura from the Asahi Shimbun newspaper was wounded in the leg. Abdul Sami Yousafzai, was more seriously hurt. Missiles apparently fired by US unmanned aircraft in North Waziristan killed at least 12 people, including 9 militants.
    (AP, 11/14/08)(AFP, 11/14/08)(WSJ, 11/15/08, p.A1)
2008        Nov 14, Palestinian militants attacked Ashkelon in southern Israel with rocket fire. They also unleashed rockets at nearby Sderot, where rescue services said one person was lightly wounded by shrapnel. The barrages followed an earlier strike by Israeli aircraft targeting militants firing rockets in northern Gaza. Israel kept the crossings into Gaza sealed for a tenth straight day, forcing the UN to suspend its food aid distribution to 750,000 Gaza residents.
    (AP, 11/14/08)
2008        Nov 14, Russian lawmakers gave preliminary approval for extending presidential terms from four years to six, a move observers say could pave the way for Vladimir Putin to return to the presidency.
    (AP, 11/14/08)
2008        Nov 14, Thailand former PM Thaksin and his wife, Pojaman, who married in 1976, divorced at the Thai consul general's office in Hong Kong. A political observer suggested the divorce could have been aimed at protecting the family's considerable assets, which are mostly held in Pojaman's name.
    (AP, 11/15/08)
2008        Nov 14, Zimbabwe's main opposition party said that it will not join a unity government with Pres. Mugabe until the rivals resolve their differences over a power-sharing deal.
    (AFP, 11/14/08)

2008        Nov 15, G20 leaders ended a 2-day economic summit in Washington. They released a joint communique covering eight pages and 47 action items, with an overarching focus to establish a series of new safeguards for the fragile and opaque global financial system.
    (AP, 11/16/08)
2008        Nov 15, In southern California the Triangle Complex broke out in Corona and Orange counties. The fire soon covered 10,475 acres and damaged or destroyed 119 residences.
    (SFC, 11/17/08, p.A9)
2008        Nov 15, In North Carolina tornadoes killed 2 people.
    (SSFC, 11/16/08, p.A2)
2008        Nov 15, In Afghanistan police thwarted a suicide attack in the eastern city of Khost. Officers surrounded a suspect, who was on foot, and the man detonated the explosives on his body. The would-be attacker died, but no one else was injured. Also in Khost province, coalition and Afghan troops detained a militant leader of the network led by the Afghan insurgent leader Jalaluddin Haqqani. Coalition forces accidentally killed a civilian during a clash with insurgents in Zabul province. The civilian was killed when a grenade fired by coalition forces overshot its target. 30 insurgents were killed during a clash with US-led coalition troops in Helmand province. In eastern Paktia province's Zurmat district coalition troops killed five al-Qaida-associated insurgents and nabbed eight, including a militant leader accused of helping the Taliban move and train Arab and other foreign fighters into Afghanistan. Colour Sergeant Krishnabahadur Dura (36), from 2nd Battalion the Royal Gurkha Rifles, was killed after an explosion in the Musa Qala district of Helmand Province.
    (AP, 11/15/08)(AP, 11/16/08)(AP, 11/17/08)
2008        Nov 15, In the West African nation Burkina Faso a collision between a passenger bus and a truck killed more than 60 people.
    (AP, 11/15/08)
2008        Nov 15, In eastern China a subway tunnel under construction collapsed in Hangzhou, trapping workers and creating a huge crater into which more than 10 vehicles plunged. At least 7 people died and 14 were missing.
    (AP, 11/15/08)(AP, 11/17/08)
2008        Nov 15, The government of Ecuador delayed a $30.6 million interest payment on part of its debt of $10 billion, which amounted to 21% of GDP. A committee soon reported evidence of malfeasance on debt contracts issued between 1976 and 2006.
    (Econ, 11/29/08, p.44)
2008        Nov 15, A Georgian policeman was shot dead by a group of armed Abkhazians. The group was said to have entered Georgian-controlled territory to plant land mines. Abkhazian presidential envoy Ruslan Kishmariya said police from the separatist side killed one and wounded two Georgian "saboteurs" in the tense Gali district.
    (AP, 11/15/08)
2008        Nov 15, A senior aide to PM Nouri al-Maliki said US and Iraqi negotiators have agreed on a draft of a security pact that would allow American troops to stay in Iraq for three more years after their UN mandate expires Dec. 31. A suicide car bomber struck a commercial district in the northern city of Tal Afar, killing 10 people and wounding 20. In Baghdad a car bomb parked near the National Theater exploded in the mainly Shiite district of Karradah, killing at least five people and wounding 23. An American Marine died from wounds suffered in a roadside bombing west of Baghdad a day earlier.
    (AP, 11/15/08)
2008        Nov 15, In Mexico more than 1,500 demonstrators marched through the violence-plagued border city of Tijuana to protest the current of killings and kidnappings. Two people were shot to death at a Tijuana taco restaurant. 4 men and a woman were shot to death at a pool hall. A girl (14) and two men were shot down in a Tijuana street just before midnight.
    (AP, 11/15/08)(AP, 11/16/08)
2008        Nov 15, An official said Pakistan has agreed to borrow $7.6 billion from the International Monetary Fund to avoid adding an economic crisis to its struggle against Islamic militants. Helicopter gunships, backed by artillery, began pounding suspected insurgent hideouts in Mohmand tribal area.
    (AP, 11/15/08)(AP, 11/16/08)
2008        Nov 15, Gazans seeking food aid walked away empty-handed from locked United Nations distribution centers after a strict Israeli border closure depleted UN food reserves.
    (AP, 11/15/08)
2008        Nov 15, In southwestern Romania two explosions in a coal mine killed eight miners and four emergency workers.
    (AP, 11/15/08)
2008        Nov 15, In Somalia fighters of al-Shabab took control of the port town of Barawe without a fight after the government's allies left as soon as they heard the fighters were on their way.
    (AP, 11/15/08)
2008        Nov 15, Gunmen hijacked a freighter with 23 crew off the coast of Somalia. The crew of the Japanese-owned Chemstar Venus consisted of five South Koreans and 18 Filipinos. Somali pirates hijacked the Sirius Star, a newly commissioned supertanker, more than 450 nautical miles southeast of Mombasa, Kenya, along with its 25-member crew. The ship, owned by Saudi oil company Aramco, was capable of carrying about 2 million barrels of oil. The ship was released on Jan 9, 2009.
    (AP, 11/16/08)(AP, 11/17/08)(AP, 1/9/09)
2008        Nov 15, Sri Lanka's president asked Tamil Tigers to surrender after troops claimed re-taking Pooneryn, a strategically-important town from the separatists, following months of heavy fighting. Army troops destroyed 16 rebel bunkers in the Mullaitivu district and fought a series of battles in the rebel stronghold of Kilinochchi, inflicting "heavy casualties" on the guerrillas.
    (AP, 11/15/08)
2008        Nov 15, Mario Masuku (b.1951), Swaziland leader of the opposition People’s United Democratic Movement (Pudemo), was jailed.
    (Econ, 11/29/08, p.52)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mario_Masuku)
2008        Nov 15, In Yemen a 16-year-old boy died when police fired at locals demonstrating at a voter registration center. The crowds were protesting the government's rejection of opposition attempts to amend the country's electoral law. Yemen's political parties have been preparing the amendment to the electoral law for the past year in an effort to bring more women into parliament, curb vote-rigging and limit the influence of government officials.
    (AP, 11/15/08)

2008        Nov 16, In Afghan suicide car bombers struck a NATO convoy in the northern Baghlan province and a US convoy in western Herat province. One civilian was killed in the northern attack.
    (AP, 11/16/08)
2008        Nov 16, In Australia a storm in Brisbane damaged about 4,000 homes, destroying at least 30, flattened cars and felled power lines, plunging large swathes of the city into darkness.
    (AFP, 11/18/08)
2008        Nov 16, Reg Varney (92), a comic actor who played a cheery Cockney bus driver in British sitcom "On the Buses," died.
    (AP, 11/16/08)
2008        Nov 16, On Canada's Pacific coast 7 people were killed and one was injured when the charter plane they were flying in crashed on Thormanby Island.
    (AP, 11/17/08)
2008        Nov 16, Congo's main rebel leader promised a UN envoy to support a cease-fire and UN efforts to end the fighting, and the diplomat said he hoped the warring sides would hold peace talks in Kenya. Congo government troops abandoned their position at Rwindi, 130 km (80 miles) north of Goma in North Kivu province, after a battle with the rebels involving small arms and heavier weapons. UN peacekeeping troops at Rwindi stayed in their base during the fighting.
    (AP, 11/16/08)(AP, 11/17/08)
2008        Nov 16, Guinea Bissau, seen as a major African drugs hub, went to the polls for parliamentary elections, which observers hoped would bring stability to the West African nation. The African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde (PAIGC), which has been dominant since independence from Portugal in 1974, is favorite to win the election.
    (AP, 11/16/08)(AFP, 11/17/08)
2008        Nov 16, Iraq's Cabinet approved a security pact with the United States that will allow American forces to stay in Iraq for three years after their UN mandate expires at the end of the year. 7 people died and 7 others were wounded in a suicide car bombing at a police checkpoint in Diyala province. A roadside bomb in a Sunni enclave of Baghdad killed three people and wounded 7 at a checkpoint belonging to US-backed fighters. The US military said Iraq's Shiite-dominated government is making good on promises to pay thousands of US-backed Sunni fighters in Baghdad, despite some government unease over the alliance.
    (AP, 11/16/08)
2008        Nov 16, Israeli leaders made a secret journey to neighboring Jordan, listening to pleas from King Abdullah II to avert a large-scale military operation in the Gaza Strip. An Israeli airstrike killed 4 Palestinian militants as they were firing mortars at Israel from the Gaza Strip, just hours after another group of militants struck Israel in a separate rocket attack.
    (AP, 11/16/08)(AP, 11/20/08)
2008        Nov 16, In Indian-controlled Kashmir a bridge under construction over an icy Himalayan river collapsed, killing four workers and leaving 19 others missing and feared dead.
    (AP, 11/16/08)
2008        Nov 16, The party representing New Zealand's indigenous Maori people will get its first Cabinet posts under a multiparty deal signed by PM-elect John Key to form a center-right minority government.
    (AP, 11/16/08)
2008        Nov 16, Officials said Nigeria's anti-drugs agency had seized 30,000 kilograms of cannabis contained in 5,923 bags in southern Edo state earlier this week. In June, the agency seized 80 ton of cannabis in its largest ever single haul, in the southwestern city of Ibadan.
    (AFP, 11/16/08)
2008        Nov 16, Pakistan temporarily barred oil tankers and container trucks from a key passageway to Afghanistan, threatening a critical supply route for US and NATO troops and raising more fears about security in the militant-plagued border region. NATO troops in eastern Afghanistan fired 20 artillery rounds at insurgents inside Pakistan in an attack the alliance said was coordinated with the government in Islamabad.
    (AP, 11/16/08)(AP, 11/18/08)
2008        Nov 16, In Peru Edwin Valladolid was arrested in Lima carrying a box of 36 grenades ahead of the arrival next week of 18 world leaders for a Pacific Rim economic summit.
    (AP, 11/18/08)
2008        Nov 16, Russian liberals launched a pro-Kremlin political party promising to defend middle class values but rivals said it was just a tool for the authorities to suck support away from genuine opposition groups.
    (Reuters, 11/16/08)
2008        Nov 16,  Somali pirates freed another vessel after securing a ransom and a Russian frigate repelled an attack on a Saudi ship.
    (AP, 11/16/08)
2008        Nov 16, Sri Lanka's air force pounded the Tamil Tiger rebels' main northern defense line in the Muhamalai area of Jaffna peninsula.
    (AP, 11/16/08)
2008        Nov 16, Sudanese and rebel forces traded accusations that the other is initiating a new wave of fighting in the ravaged Darfur region just days after the government had offered a cease-fire.
    (AP, 11/16/08)
2008        Nov 16, In Vietnam weekend flooding killed at least 11 people in the southern and central regions, submerged thousands of homes in Ho Chi Minh city and stranded air and railway passengers.
    (AP, 11/16/08)

2008        Nov 17, Vice President Dick Cheney and former Attorney General Alberto Gonzales were indicted on state charges involving federal prisons in a South Texas county that has been a source of bizarre legal and political battles under the outgoing prosecutor. Cheney was charged with engaging in an organized criminal activity related to the vice president's investment in the Vanguard Group, which holds financial interests in the private prison companies running the federal detention centers. It accuses Cheney of a conflict of interest and "at least misdemeanor assaults" on detainees because of his link to the prison companies. The indictment accused Gonzales of using his position while in office to stop an investigation in 2006 into abuses at one of the privately-run prisons. On Dec 1 a Texas judge dismissed the indictments against Cheney and Gonzales.
    (AP, 11/19/08)(SFC, 12/2/08, p.A8)
2008        Nov 17, The SEC charged Mark Cuban, high-tech entrepreneur and owner of the Dallas Mavericks, with illegal insider trading for allegedly using confidential information to avoid over $750,000 in stock losses from the sale of Mama.com stock in 2004.
    (SFC, 11/18/08, p.D1)
2008        Nov 17, A report was released concluded that Gulf War syndrome is a legitimate illness suffered by more than 175,000 US war veterans who were exposed to chemical toxins in the 1991 Gulf War.
    (Reuters, 11/17/08)
2008        Nov 17, Citigroup Inc. said it is cutting approximately 53,000 more jobs in the coming quarters as the banking giant struggles to steady itself after suffering massive losses from deteriorating debt.
    (AP, 11/17/08)
2008        Nov 17, US Automakers begged governments to save them amid a spreading global recession. Cash-strapped General Motors Corp. said it will sell its entire stake in Suzuki Motor Corp. for 22.37 billion yen ($230 million), the automaker's latest move to stay afloat while awaiting a decision on government aid for the industry.
    (AP, 11/17/08)
2008        Nov 17, Yahoo said co-founder and CEO Jerry Yang will resign his post as CEO, but continue his previous role as “Chief Yahoo" and remain on the company’s board.
    (SFC, 11/18/08, p.A1)
2008        Nov 17, In Afghanistan 5 insurgents died in the clash in Farah's Bala Buluk region.
    (AP, 11/18/08)
2008        Nov 17, Algeria and Argentina signed an agreement to boost cooperation over civil nuclear energy as part of Argentine President Cristina Kirchner's tour of northern Africa.
    (AFP, 11/17/08)
2008        Nov 17, Australia said it will invest millions of dollars in non-lethal whale research to show Japan that the animals do not need to be killed in order to be studied.
    (AP, 11/17/08)
2008        Nov 17, Guy Peellaert (b.1934), Belgian painter and collagist, died. His work included the book “Rock Dreams" (1974), published in collaboration with British rock journalist Nik Cohn.
    (SSFC, 11/23/08, p.B8)
2008        Nov 17, Bolivian President Evo Morales expressed hope for improved relations with the United States under Barack Obama's presidency, but said he will never allow the US anti-drug agency to resume operating in his country.
    (AP, 11/17/08)
2008        Nov 17, In northwest China a crowd of 1,000 people stormed a local Communist Party headquarters, smashing cars and clashing with police following a land dispute. The protesting began with just a small group of people complaining about the demolition of their homes to make way for a new road in Longnan city in Gansu province. Police later arrested 30 people for involvement in a two-day violent protest, that had to be broken up with tear gas after 74 people were injured.
    (AP, 11/18/08)(AFP, 11/20/08)
2008        Nov 17, In central China flood waters trapped workers in a coal mine in Pingdingshan, Henan province. The next day rescuers saved 33 miners who had been trapped for 28 hours by an underground flood. One miner died.
    (AP, 11/17/08)(AP, 11/18/08)
2008        Nov 17, Ethiopia’s state news agency said the Wabe Shebelle river in the southeast highlands burst its banks after heavy rains, killing 11 people and stranding hundreds more.
    (AP, 11/17/08)
2008        Nov 17, French police arrested ETA's alleged military chief, the most wanted Basque separatist still at large and a man Spanish officials branded a "bloodthirsty terrorist." Miguel De Garikoitz Aspiazu Rubina (35), alias "Txeroki", was captured in Cauterets, a spa and ski resort in the Pyrenees near the border with Spain's autonomous Basque region. On Nov 24 Spain indicted Aspiazu and four other men over the car bombing at a Madrid airport parking garage on Dec. 30, 2006.
    (AFP, 11/17/08)(AP, 11/24/08)
2008        Nov 17, Iceland moved to secure $6 billion in loans to refloat its collapsed financial system as Britain said it would welcome a government promise to guarantee its citizens' deposits in collapsed internet bank Icesave.
    (AP, 11/17/08)
2008        Nov 17, In eastern Indonesia a 7.5 magnitude earthquake off the coast of Sulawesi killed at least 6 people, damaged hundreds of homes and briefly triggered a region-wide tsunami warning.
    (AP, 11/17/08)(SFC, 11/17/08, p.A3)(AP, 11/18/08)
2008        Nov 17, Baghdad Mayor Sabir al-Issawi said in statement that Iraq's Cabinet has earmarked $3 billion for a Baghdad subway project.
    (AP, 11/17/08)
2008        Nov 17, A car carrying Yaakov Alperon (51), one of Israel's top mafia kingpins, exploded as it traveled in central Tel Aviv, killing him and threatening to unleash an all-out war in Israel's increasingly violent underworld.
    (AP, 11/17/08)(SFC, 11/18/08, p.A14)
2008        Nov 17, The mother ship in Japan's whaling fleet left for the country's annual hunt in the Antarctic. Greenpeace anti-whaling activists vowed to disrupt the expedition once again after high-seas clashes forced an early halt last year.
    (AP, 11/17/08)
2008        Nov 17, Large crowds voted in some towns in Indian Kashmir while protesters clashed with police in others as state elections began amid boycott calls by Muslim separatists.
    (AP, 11/17/08)
2008        Nov 17, In Iran Ali Ashtari (45), convicted of spying for Israel, was hanged after being sentenced to death on June 30 by a revolutionary court in Tehran. The electronics salesman worked in supplying military, security and defense centers across the Iran.
    (AP, 11/22/08)
2008        Nov 17, The Kenya Wildlife Service (KWS) said a ton of ivory items and 57 suspects were netted in a four-month operation billed Africa's largest-ever crackdown on wildlife crime. Operation Baba also seized cheetah, leopard, serval cat and python skins as well as hippo teeth at several markets, airports and border crossings in Congo Brazzaville, Ghana, Kenya, Uganda and Zambia.
    (AFP, 11/17/08)
2008        Nov 17, A Mexican newspaper's offices were damaged by two grenades in the violence-plagued city of Culiacan in northwestern Mexico.
    (AP, 11/18/08)
2008        Nov 17, Courts in military-ruled Myanmar sentenced at least seven democracy activists to prison, continuing a crackdown that saw about 70 people jailed last week.
    (AP, 11/18/08)
2008        Nov 17, Pakistan sent armed troops to escort trucks along a key supply route for US and NATO forces in Afghanistan. In northwest Pakistan a suicide car bomber attacked an army post, killing at least 3 people. Violence elsewhere in the region left at least five suspected militants dead. Taliban militants attacked Pakistani tribal leaders in the Bajur region near the Afghan border, triggering a gunbattle and a blast that killed seven people.
    (AP, 11/17/08)(AP, 11/18/08)(WSJ, 11/18/08, p.A1)
2008        Nov 17, In the Philippines a gunman on a motorcycle killed Arecio Padrigao, a hard-hitting Filipino radio commentator, in front of Bukindon State University in southern Gingoog city. This was the seventh deadly attack on reporters in the Philippines this year.
    (AP, 11/17/08)
2008        Nov 17, In Somalia witnesses said African Union (AU) peacekeepers from Burundi have started moving into positions usually manned by Ethiopian troops in the capital Mogadishu, as part of the ongoing Djibouti peace process.
    (AFP, 11/17/08)
2008        Nov 17, Sri Lankan troops captured the strategic towns of Mankulam, Pannikankulam, and Kumalamunai from Tamil Tiger rebels following fierce fighting in the north of the island.
    (AP, 11/17/08)
2008        Nov 17, Sudanese police detained more than 60 journalists for around three hours and instructed them to go to court for protesting against draconian censorship.
    (AFP, 11/17/08)
2008        Nov 17, Venezuela and Iran announced a plan to start a new university program in the South American country with a focus on teaching socialist principles.
    (AP, 11/17/08)

2008        Nov 18, The chief executives of Detroit’s Big Three automakers appeared before the US Senate Banking Committee along with the head of the UAW union to plea for financial aid under the current economic crises.
    (WSJ, 11/19/08, p.A1)
2008        Nov 18, A judge in Georgia sentenced 25-year-old Rico Todriquez Wright to spend the next 20 years in prison after his victim mentioned a hip hop confession to police. Wright shot a man twice and felt so good about it, the rapper wrote a song describing the shooting and calling out the victim by name.
    (AP, 11/20/08)
2008        Nov 18, George C. Chesbro, US writer, died. His 27 novels included a detective series featuring Mongo, a dwarf detective. “Shadow of a Broken Man" (1977) starred Mongo and proved to be Chesbro’s breakout hit.
    (SFC, 11/27/08, p.B8)
2008        Nov 18, In Afghanistan insurgents in western Farah province ambushed an Afghan army supply convoy, killing five troops and wounding five others.
    (AP, 11/18/08)
2008        Nov 18, Belgian brewing giant InBev announced it had completed the takeover of Anheuser-Busch to create the world's biggest brewer. Beijing agreed to Belgium-based InBev SA's takeover of Anheuser-Busch Cos. Inc.'s Chinese operations as part of their global merger, but limited future acquisitions on anti-monopoly grounds.
    (AP, 11/18/08)
2008        Nov 18, A Cambodian monk (17) was arrested for raping a British woman (39) while taking her on a tour of a cave in the northwestern Sampov mountains near his Buddhist temple. The monk also allegedly stole $55 and a cell phone from the woman.
    (AP, 11/20/08)
2008        Nov 18, Demoralized Congolese government troops, retreating before eastern rebels, clashed with their own local militia allies who tried to make them stand and fight after the armed forces chief was replaced.
    (Reuters, 11/18/08)
2008        Nov 18, Separate bands of pirates seized a Thai fishing trawler with 16 crew members and an Iranian cargo vessel with a crew of 25 in the Gulf of Aden. Pirates on the trawler then apparently fired on the Indian naval frigate Tabar. The Indians, believing the trawler to be a pirate "mother ship," returned fire turning the Ekawat Nava 5 into a massive fireball and killing 14 of the 15 crew as well as the pirates. The Tabar then chased two attack boats into the night. A surviving sailor spent six days adrift in the shark-infested ocean before another ship picked him up. The Iranian vessel was released on Jan 9, 2009.
    (AP, 11/19/08)(AP, 11/26/08)(SFC, 11/26/08, p.A3)(AP, 1/10/09)(AP, 6/5/09)
2008        Nov 18, Grand Ayatollah Ali al-Sistani. Iraq's top Shiite cleric, said that the US-Iraqi security pact would only be viable if the country's main political groups backed it and it restored the country's full sovereignty. Iraqi lawmakers loyal to Shiite cleric Muqtada al-Sadr disrupted a parliamentary debate ahead of a Nov. 24 vote on a US-Iraqi security agreement that would keep American troops in Iraq for three more years. An alleged senior member of Iran's elite security forces suspected of funneling arms into Iraq was detained by Iraqi police at Baghdad International Airport while he was trying to leave the country. The man was released on Nov 21.
    (AP, 11/18/08)(AP, 11/19/08)(AP, 11/23/08)
2008        Nov 18, Israeli tanks forged into the southern Gaza Strip, drawing mortar fire from Palestinian militants and intensifying violence that has chipped away at a tenuous cease-fire. Israeli seamen boarded a Palestinian fishing boat and arrested one of Gaza's foreign supporters and five Palestinian fishermen. The foreigner was identified as Andrew Muncie of Scotland.
    (AP, 11/18/08)
2008        Nov 18, John Key (47) became New Zealand's conservative new prime minister and underscored the economy as his top priority.
    (AP, 11/18/08)(Econ, 11/15/08, p.51)
2008        Nov 18, Northern Ireland's leaders announced a deal allowing power-sharing cabinet meetings to resume in the British province for the first time in over four months.
    (AFP, 11/18/08)
2008        Nov 18, Italian authorities in Sicily seized assets worth euro700 million ($885 million) from Giuseppe Grigoli, a supermarket chain owner, suspected of letting the Mafia use his businesses to launder money.
    (AP, 11/18/08)
2008        Nov 18, In Japan Takehiko Yamaguchi (66) and his wife Michiko (61) were found dead near the doorway of their home in Saitama, just outside Tokyo. Evidence showed the pair had been stabbed repeatedly. On Nov 22 Takeshi Koizumi (46) turned himself in to police saying that he had killed the retired vice health minister. Authorities later said they suspected the attacks were connected to the ministry's mishandling of millions of pension records, a debacle that has drawn intense ire from the public, many of whom lost their retirement funds as a result. It was later reported that Koizumi accused the ministry of killing his childhood pet dog.
    (AP, 11/23/08)(AP, 11/24/08)
2008        Nov 18, Thousands of supporters of Nicaragua's leftist ruling party armed with rocks tried to block an opposition march on the capital to protest alleged vote fraud, setting off clashes that injured at least five people.
    (AP, 11/18/08)
2008        Nov 18, Pakistani security forces in the Kabal area of the Swat valley killed seven militants. In another incident in the valley's Kanju area, insurgents ambushed an army convoy, killing a soldier.
    (AP, 11/18/08)
2008        Nov 18, Owners of a Saudi oil supertanker hijacked by Somali pirates grappled with how to respond, as navies patrolling the region said they would not intervene to stop or free the captured vessel.
    (AP, 11/18/08)
2008        Nov 18, Spanish artist Miquel Barcelo unveiled his lavish, $23 million ceiling painting at the European headquarters of the United Nations in Switzerland, a project that has evoked controversy over its hefty price tag.
    (AP, 11/18/08)
2008        Nov 18, Spain's most famous judge abandoned a drive for a symbolic indictment of the late Gen. Francisco Franco and his regime, dropping a probe into atrocities committed during and after the country's ruinous civil war.
    (AP, 11/18/08)
2008        Nov 18, Sri Lankan naval forces backed by helicopter gunships attacked a group of rebel boats, sinking two and killing six Tamil Tiger sailors. Sri Lankan air force jets bombed a rebel training camp in the north as ground forces waged new battles with Tamil Tiger rebels across the front lines.
    (AP, 11/18/08)(AP, 11/19/08)
2008        Nov 18, In Zimbabwe riot police prevented striking doctors and nurses from protesting against the collapsing health care system, which lacks even basic drugs amid a rapid spread of cholera in the country.
    (AP, 11/18/08)

2008        Nov 19, FBI agent Sam Hicks was shot and killed while serving a warrant at a home near Pittsburgh, during a roundup of drug suspects in the greater Pittsburgh area. Christina Korbe was charged with homicide. Her husband, Robert Korbe, was one of 35 people charged in a 27-count drug-trafficking indictment.
    (AP, 11/19/08)(SFC, 11/20/08, p.A4)
2008        Nov 19, The US DJIA fell to levels not seen since 2003. the DJIA closed down 427.47 at 7,997.28.
    (SFC, 11/20/08, p.C1)
2008        Nov 19, In NYC the Triborough Bridge was renamed the Robert F. Kennedy Bridge.
    (SFC, 11/20/08, p.A4)
2008        Nov 19, The US Coast Guard suspended its search for roughly 90 migrants feared dead after their makeshift boat apparently sank in an often-stormy stretch of water between the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico. The boat left the southeastern Dominican Republic on the night of Nov 12 and a woman whose boyfriend was on the boat alerted authorities that it was missing on Nov 16.
    (AP, 11/19/08)
2008        Nov 19, The New Jersey Office of the Attorney General said online dating service eHarmony has agreed to create a new website for gays and lesbians as part of a settlement with a gay man in New Jersey.
    (Reuters, 11/19/08)
2008        Nov 19, California state and federal officials said they have seized 5.2 million marijuana plants from public and private land during this year’s growing season, half of which were grown in California.
    (SFC, 11/20/08, p.B8)
2008        Nov 19, NASA flight controllers were revamping plans for the remaining spacewalks planned during space shuttle Endeavour's visit to the international space station, after astronaut Heidemarie Stefanyshyn-Piper lost a crucial tool bag floating out to space during a repair trip. NASA put the value of the tools at $100,000.
    (AP, 11/19/08)(SFC, 11/20/08, p.A2)
2008        Nov 19, In Miami, Florida, police arrived to find Abraham Biggs (19) dead in his father's bed 12 hours after the Broward College student first declared on a Web site that he hated himself and planned to die. It was only then that the Web feed stopped. Some users told investigators they did not take him seriously because he had threatened suicide on the site before.
    (AP, 11/22/08)
2008        Nov 19, John Hayes, Hollywood screenwriter, died in New Hampshire. His work included “Peyton Place" (1957) and Alfred Hitchcock’s classic “Rear Window" (1954).
    (SFC, 11/25/08, p.B4)
2008        Nov 19, The British government announced plans to make it illegal to pay for sex with women forced into prostitution and to name men who solicit sex on the streets, measures that prostitutes say will put more women at risk.
    (AP, 11/19/08)
2008        Nov 19, Chinese President Hu Jintao promised Cuba at least $78 million in donations, credit and hurricane relief. Hu also met with a thin-looking Fidel Castro before leaving for the Asia-Pacific economic summit in Peru. China agreed to donate $8 million to Cuba and extend the second, $70 million phase of $350 million in previously agreed-upon credit to renovate Cuban hospitals.
    (AP, 11/19/08)
2008        Nov 19, China and Peru signed a free trade agreement.
    (Econ, 11/29/08, p.42)
2008        Nov 19, In China Huang Guangyu, founder and chairman of GOME Electrical Appliances, was detained for insider trading in shares of Shandong Jintai Group, a pharmaceutical company controlled by his brother. On Feb 12, 2010, authorities announced charges of insider trading and bribery.
    (Econ, 11/29/08, p.69)(Econ, 2/20/10, p.64)
2008        Nov 19, Georgia and Russia held their first major, mediated talks since their August war.
    (WSJ, 11/20/08, p.A1)
2008        Nov 19, Germany extradited to France Rose Kabuye (47), chief of protocol to Rwandan President Paul Kagame, over an assassination triggering the 1994 genocide, amid mass anti-European protests in Kigali. Some European investigators feared that Kabuye deliberately delivered herself to German authorities so her lawyers could gain access to the case files prepared against her and other Kagame allies.
    (AFP, 11/19/08)
2008        Nov 19, Germany chemical company BASF SE said it is temporarily closing 80 plants worldwide due to slumping demand and cutting production at 100 more, including facilities in Texas and Louisiana. Some 20,000 workers are affected.
    (AP, 11/19/08)
2008        Nov 19, In Haiti Max Cosci of Doctors Without Borders said at least 26 children had died over a two-week period in the remote, southeastern area of Baie d'Orange. The UN World Food Program says it is sending medical and food aid to the region.
    (AP, 11/20/08)
2008        Nov 19, The IMF approved a two-year, $2.1 billion support program for Iceland designed to restore confidence and stabilize the country's shattered economy.
    (AP, 11/20/08)
2008        Nov 19, Iran's official news agency said Iranian border guards have killed several Kurdish separatists in a shootout in the western part of the country. The gunmen were said to be part of the Kurdish separatist group, known as the PEJAK, the Iranian wing of the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK).
    (AP, 11/19/08)
2008        Nov 19, A court in military-ruled Myanmar sentenced a student activist to 6 1/2 years in jail, a week after his father received a 65-year prison term for his own political activities and a decade after his grandfather died in custody. Di Nyein Lin was one of three student activists sentenced by a court in a suburb of Yangon for various offenses, including causing public alarm and insulting religion.
    (AP, 11/20/08)
2008        Nov 19, In Pakistan gunmen shot and killed Ameer Faisal Alvi, a retired Pakistani army general, and his driver on the outskirts of capital, Islamabad. Alvi had led military operations against insurgents in the tribal regions. A suspected American missile bombarded a village in Bannu district, deep inside Pakistani territory, marking what appears to be the first time the US has struck beyond the tribal belt bordering Afghanistan. Six alleged militants were killed including Abdullah Azam al-Saudi, a senior member of Osama bin Laden's terror network.
    (AP, 11/19/08)(AFP, 11/19/08)
2008        Nov 19, Philippine health officials said at least two people have died and more than 1,500 are in hospital following a suspected outbreak of cholera in the southern Philippines.
    (AFP, 11/19/08)
2008        Nov 19, Vladimir Kuznetsov, a former UN diplomat convicted in the US of money laundering and fraud, arrived in Moscow and will serve the last 16 months of his sentence in a Russian prison. Kuznetsov once chaired the UN's powerful budget oversight committee.
    (AP, 11/19/08)
2008        Nov 19, Spanish doctors reported the successful transplant to a woman of a new windpipe with tissue grown from her own stem cells, eliminating the need for anti-rejection drugs.
    (AP, 11/18/08)
2008        Nov 19, The UN asked for $7 billion (5.5 billion euros) to fund its humanitarian work around the world in 2009, almost double last year's appeal as a result of soaring food prices and crises in Africa, among other factors. The UN's food agency will slim down its bureaucracy, work to cut costs and make investments that will improve efficiency as part of a reform plan adopted by member nations.
    (AP, 11/19/08)
2008        Nov 19, The World Food Program said that it has signed a new food aid deal to allow the UN agency to provide 350,000 tons of grain to millions in Zimbabwe.
    (AFP, 11/19/08)

2008        Nov 20, A US federal judge ordered the release of five Algerians held at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, and the continued detention of a sixth in a major blow to the Bush administration's strategy to keep terror suspects locked up without charges.
    (AP, 11/20/08)
2008        Nov 20, US Congressional efforts to rescue Detroit’s auto makers collapsed with lawmakers saying the industry lacks credibility to return to profitability. Democrats asked for a convincing turnaround plan by Dec 2.
    (WSJ, 11/21/08, p.A1)
2008        Nov 20, The DJIA fell 444.99 to its lowest level since March, 2003.
    (SFC, 11/21/08, p.C1)
2008        Nov 20, In Afghanistan US-led forces killed an Afghan civilian in a battle that also left two militants dead.
    (AP, 11/23/08)
2008        Nov 20, The new Australian Sex Party launched at Sexpo, an annual sex exhibition in Melbourne. It has already gathered the required 500 members and plans to register with the electoral commission next week.
    (AP, 11/20/08)
2008        Nov 20, The UN Security Council voted unanimously to extend the European Union's peacekeeping force in Bosnia for a year, emphasizing the importance of the country's progress towards Euro-Atlantic integration.
    (AP, 11/20/08)
2008        Nov 20, Britain called on Rwandan President Paul Kagame to use his "influence" over Congolese rebels led by general Laurent Nkunda to end to violence in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.
    (AFP, 11/20/08)
2008        Nov 20, A meteor streaked across the sky of the Canadian Prairies producing a fire ball that shone brightly enough to be seen over an area 700 km (435 miles) wide. Searchers soon found the remains of the 10-ton meteor.
    (AP, 11/28/08)
2008        Nov 20, In southwestern Colombia the Nevado del Huila volcano erupted and loosed avalanches of mud and ash that injured nine, destroyed bridges and trapped people in their towns. At least 10 people died in landslides triggered by the eruption.
    (AP, 11/22/08)(SFC, 11/29/08, p.B6)
2008        Nov 20, Dubai held a launch party for its Atlantis Hotel.
    (Econ, 12/20/08, p.115)
2008        Nov 20, Egypt held emergency talks with nations bordering the Red Sea on how to stop Somali gunmen from hijacking ships. Somali pirates had already seized at least 80 ships off the Horn of Africa this year.
    (SFC, 11/21/08, p.A13)
2008        Nov 20, The European Union formally recognized Welsh, which dates back to the 6th century, as a minority tongue. It became an official tongue in Wales in 1993, 450 years after British rulers gave it the boot in favor of English.
    (AP, 11/20/08)
2008        Nov 20, Finland's Finance Ministry said four Nordic countries will lend Iceland $2.5 billion (euro1.98 billion) to help the country recover from its economic meltdown.
    (AP, 11/20/08)
2008        Nov 20, The 2008 edition of Beaujolais Nouveau wine arrived, and vintners hoped it will lift spirits despite the financial crisis and a dismal crop.
    (AP, 11/20/08)
2008        Nov 20, Georgian officials said Russian and separatist forces attacked a Georgian police checkpoint near the village of Ganmukhuri, near the breakaway province of Abkhazia. Anatoly Zaitsev, the chief of staff for the Abkhaz armed forces, said that a group of Abkhaz troops patrolling the area were shelled from the Georgian side and returned fire, and no Russian troops were involved.
    (AP, 11/20/08)
2008        Nov 20, Iraqi opposition lawmakers shouted and pounded their desks in protest in a second day of emotional debate in parliament over a proposed agreement with the US that would allow American forces to stay in Iraq for three more years. Baghdad authorities announced a campaign to kill stray dogs who roam the Iraqi capital in packs, after a spate of fatal dog attacks left children in some neighborhoods fearful of going outside. An American soldier died of non-combat-related causes.
    (AP, 11/20/08)(AP, 11/21/08)
2008        Nov 20, Jewish settlers in Hebron spray-painted graffiti on a mosque slurring the Prophet Muhammad and defaced a Muslim cemetery, Israeli military officials said, threatening to worsen tensions in this volatile West Bank city.
    (AP, 11/20/08)
2008        Nov 20, Latvia said it is looking to start talks with IMF and had formally entered into negotiations with the European Commission on emergency financial assistance.
    (WSJ, 11/21/08, p.A10)
2008        Nov 20, US oil group Chevron suspended export contracts on much of its Nigerian production after a militant attack on a key pipeline. Chevron said it was declaring "force majeure" until December 31 following the Nov 14 attack on the pipeline which carries supplies to its Escravos terminal in the Niger Delta.
    (AFP, 11/20/08)
2008        Nov 20, The Norwegian government said it has picked the US developed F-35 Joint Strike Fighter to replace its aging US-made F-16 aircraft in a roughly 60 billion kroner ($8.5 billion) deal.
    (AP, 11/20/08)
2008        Nov 20, In Pakistan a militant Taliban group warned of reprisals if there was another US drone attack, as the government condemned the latest missile strike in its territory. A suicide bomber killed at least four people when he blew himself up at a mosque northwest of Khar, the main town in the troubled Bajaur tribal region. Pakistani jets and artillery killed 17 people, including up to four Uzbek commanders, as they pounded suspected Taliban and Al-Qaeda hideouts in Bajaur overnight and into the morning. Pakistani jets also killed 20 militants in attacks on militant centers in the northwestern Swat valley. A suicide bomber attacked a mosque in the border region where government-backed anti-militant tribesman were praying, killing 8, including the head of the group.
    (AFP, 11/20/08)(AP, 11/21/08)
2008        Nov 20, In the Philippines a mother and her 3 children were among the six people killed after a mudslide triggered by days of heavy rain buried houses in a southern gold mining town.
    (AP, 11/21/08)
2008        Nov 20, Boris Fyodorov (50), Russian economic reformer, died.
    (Econ, 11/29/08, p.88)
2008        Nov 20, The UN Security Council voted unanimously to impose sanctions on pirates, arms smugglers, and perpetrators of instability in Somalia in a fresh attempt to help end years of lawlessness in the Horn of Africa nation.
    (AP, 11/20/08)
2008        Nov 20, South Africa said it will withhold aid for Zimbabwe until a representative government is in place, in what appeared to be the first punitive measure by a regional country to enforce a power-sharing agreement.
    (AP, 11/20/08)
2008        Nov 20, South Korean activists sent propaganda leaflets over the border into North Korea, ignoring their own government's pleas to stop the practice and threats from the North to sever relations if it continues.
    (AP, 11/20/08)
2008        Nov 20, Sri Lanka's military said that it smashed a key Tamil Tiger defense line in the island's far north and seized an airfield, putting new pressure on the shrinking jungle mini-state.
    (AFP, 11/20/08)
2008        Nov 20, The International Criminal Court prosecutor requested arrest warrants for rebels in Sudan's Darfur region, accusing them of storming an African Union camp and killing 12 peacekeepers in Sep, 2007.
    (Reuters, 11/20/08)
2008        Nov 20, Switzerland’s central bank cut its benchmark interest by a full percentage point, the latest in a global round of aggressive rate cuts amid stuttering economic growth.
    (WSJ, 11/21/08, p.A16)
2008        Nov 20, In Thailand a grenade attack on demonstrators occupying the Thai premier's offices killed one person and wounded 29, prompting protest leaders to call for a new march against the government.
    (AFP, 11/20/08)
2008        Nov 19, Turkey’s central bank cuts its core overnight borrowing rate by .5% to 16.25%.
    (WSJ, 11/20/08, p.A15)
2008        Nov 20, The UN Security Council voted unanimously to send some 3,000 additional UN peacekeepers to the Democratic Republic of the Congo to help prevent a new war in the country's east.
    (AP, 11/20/08)
2008        Nov 20, Vietnam's president Nguyen Minh Triet was set to meet Venezuelan leader Hugo Chavez, during the first visit by a head of state from the communist nation here, mainly focused on oil and gas ties.
    (AP, 11/20/08)
2008        Nov 20, In Vietnam family planning chiefs said officials in Communist Vietnam, alarmed by a new baby boom, are to crack down on couples having more than two children. The government first launched a two-child policy in the early 1960s. A 2003 ordinance encouraged small families without making it illegal for families to have a third child.
    (AFP, 11/20/08)
2008        Nov 20, The US ambassador to Harare, James McGee, said that a total of 294 people have been confirmed dead from cholera in Zimbabwe, amid some 1,200 cases of the water-borne disease.
    (AFP, 11/20/08)

2008        Nov 21, The DJIA rose 494.13 to close at 8,046.42 following news that Pres.-elect Obama would likely pick Timothy Geithner, chief of the New York Federal Reserve, as the next Treasury secretary.
    (SFC, 11/22/08, p.C1)
2008        Nov 21, The Nebraska Legislature voted 43-5 to make abandonment of children legal only for infants up to 30 days old. Gov. Dave Heinemen signed the emergency bill effective after midnight.
    (SFC, 11/22/08, p.A2)
2008        Nov 21, In Afghanistan a suicide bomber rammed the gate of an army base in the southern province of Zabul, killing three civilians and seriously wounding four Afghan soldiers. A man was killed after being interrogated by the Taliban leadership. US-led troops shot and killed a civilian in Khost when the vehicle he was in came too close to a patrol. 8 wedding-goers were killed when two or three grenades were thrown into the men's section of the wedding in the northern province of Parwan.
    (AP, 11/21/08)(AFP, 11/22/08)
2008        Nov 21, Mario Ferreyra (63), an ex-Argentine police commander, committed suicide in front of rolling television cameras as he was about to be arrested for alleged human rights violations during the country's dictatorship.
    (AP, 11/22/08)
2008        Nov 21, Canada and Colombia signed a free trade agreement, hoping to boost investment and trade flows at a time of global economic instability.
    (AP, 11/22/08)
2008        Nov 21, Chinese authorities destroyed the home of leading rights activist Ni Yulan in front of her distraught husband who pleaded with the government to release her from jail. Chen Daojun, a writer and journalist who was arrested after protesting against a power plant in southwest China, was sentenced to three years in prison on charges of subverting state power.
    (AFP, 11/21/08)
2008        Nov 21, In eastern Congo armed men shot and killed a 20-year-old woman at the Kibati refugee camp where thousands of displaced people live in constant fear, caught between soldiers and rebels. Armed men also forced families there out of their huts and looted them. Didace Namujimbo, a journalist working for a UN-backed radio station, was shot dead in Bukavu.
    (AP, 11/21/08)(AP, 11/22/08)
2008        Nov 21, Ethiopia’s government said the death toll from floods in southeastern Ethiopia has risen to 17 and more than 100,000 people have been left homeless.
    (AP, 11/21/08)
2008        Nov 21, German security officials said they are dropping the pursuit of a ban on Scientology after finding insufficient evidence of illegal activity.
    (AP, 11/22/08)
2008        Nov 21, Germany banned Hezbollah's Lebanon-based satellite television station on grounds that it violates the country's constitution.
    (AP, 11/23/08)
2008        Nov 21, In Iraq thousands of followers of a radical Shiite cleric protested a proposed US-Iraqi security deal, burning an effigy of President George W. Bush in the same square where Iraqis beat a toppled Saddam Hussein statue five years ago.
    (AP, 11/21/08)
2008        Nov 21, A shootout between Lebanese soldiers and a group of gunmen in the northern port city of Tripoli left one of the gunmen dead and two wounded.
    (AP, 11/21/08)
2008        Nov 21, In Mexico Attorney General Eduardo Medina Mora told reporters that Noe Ramirez, Mexico’s former drug czar, accepted $450,000 from drug traffickers, and that cartel leaders offered to pay him monthly for alerting them to planned police operations. In 2013 the case against Ramirez was dropped due to lack of evidence. In Tijuana 3 gunmen burst into the Bar Utopia, a bar popular with university students and opened fire. 2 men and a woman died instantly and 3 others died the next day.
    (AP, 11/21/08)(AP, 11/22/08)(AP, 4/24/13)
2008        Nov 21, Courts in military-ruled Myanmar handed long prison sentences to a prominent Buddhist monk and Zarganar, a popular comedian active in the country's pro-democracy movement, rounding out two weeks of an intensive judicial crackdown on activists.
    (AP, 11/21/08)
2008        Nov 21, Amsterdam said it will order the closure of dozens of coffee shops that sell cannabis near schools in accordance with new legislation.
    (AP, 11/21/08)
2008        Nov 21, In northwestern Pakistan a bomb killed eight mourners at the funeral of Shiite cleric Allama Nazir Shah Naqvi, who was fatally shot earlier in the day.
    (AP, 11/21/08)(SFC, 11/22/08, p.A3)
2008        Nov 21, Vadim Pokrovsky, Russia's anti-AIDS coordinator, said the number of registered HIV cases is growing 10 percent a year despite increased government funding. He said that the actual number of people with HIV was likely higher than 1 million.
    (AP, 11/21/08)
2008        Nov 21, Somali security forces and Islamic insurgents engaged in one of the fiercest gunbattles in recent weeks in Mogadishu, killing at least 17 people and wounding six.
    (AP, 11/21/08)
2008        Nov 21, Somali pirates released a hijacked Greek-owned tanker with all 19 crew safe and the oil cargo intact. The Liberian-flagged tanker MV Genius had been seized on Sept. 26. The ship's management company said a ransom was paid but did not say how much.
    (AP, 11/22/08)
2008        Nov 21, Zimbabwe refused to let former UN secretary-general Kofi Annan, ex-US President Jimmy Carter and rights advocate Graca Machel to visit the impoverished African country for a humanitarian mission. They came as members of The Elders group, formed by former South African President Nelson Mandela to foster peace and tackle world conflicts.
    (AP, 11/22/08)

2008        Nov 22, In Afghanistan a French trooper was killed and another wounded when a mine engulfed them about 10 kilometers (six miles) south of Kabul. A bomb exploded in a vegetable market in the eastern town of Khost, killing a 15-year-old boy and a man passing-by. Another bomb blew up a police vehicle in the central province of Ghazni and killed three policemen and wounded two. The bullet-riddled body of Ghais Haqmal, the  governor of Marawara district, was found in Kunar province. He had been abducted by Taliban three months ago and the militants had demanded the release of 50 of their jailed comrades in exchange for his life. The US-led military announced that troops had killed 14 insurgents in operations in the southern provinces of Helmand and Farah in the past two days. Afghan and coalition forces killed 17 insurgents in air strikes in the southern province of Kandahar. The government of the central province of Ghazni said its forces had thwarted a Taliban attack on the Ab Band district administration center killing eight gunmen.
    (AFP, 11/22/08)(AFP, 11/23/08)
2008        Nov 22, Burundi's parliament adopted a new set of laws abolishing the death penalty for the first time in the troubled central African country.
    (AP, 11/22/08)
2008        Nov 22, The Yellow River Conservancy Committee reported that one-third of the Yellow River, which supplies water to millions of people in northern China, is heavily polluted by industrial waste and unsafe for any use.
    (AP, 11/25/08)
2008        Nov 22, Congolese rebel leader Laurent Nkunda sought to reassure people in territory recently seized in a lightning advance, telling thousands gathered in Rutshuru for his first mass rally that his men intend to bring peace, not war, to Congo. A rebel offensive under Nkunda began to push some 1,500 Hutu FDLR militiamen from Ishasha. The move forced over 3,000 civilians to flee to neighboring Uganda.
    (AP, 11/22/08)(SFC, 11/27/08, p.A8)
2008        Nov 22, In eastern Congo 2 mass graves containing as many as 2,000 bodies were discovered in Bukavu on a plot of land formerly owned by a member of the Congolese Rally for Democracy (RCD), a Rwandan-backed rebel group. The RCD became a political party in 2003. Many of its top leaders were integrated into the government, taking jobs as vice presidents and army chiefs.
    (AP, 11/27/08)
2008        Nov 22, The French Socialist Party said that Martine Aubry, the architect of France's 35-hour work week, has won the party's leadership in an extremely tight race, an outcome quickly challenged by partisans of rival Segolene Royal.
    (AP, 11/22/08)
2008        Nov 22, A prison fight in Guatemala has left seven inmates dead, including five who were decapitated. The fight in the Pavoncito prison in Guatemala City erupted because inmates were angry over the transfer of a group of alleged gang members from another prison.
    (AP, 11/22/08)
2008        Nov 22, In Guatemala the head of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Malaysia was among three people killed in a boat accident on Lake Atitlan.
    (AP, 11/24/08)
2008        Nov 22, Malaysia's top Islamic body ruled against Muslims practicing yoga, saying it has elements of other religions that could corrupt Muslims. On Nov 25 Malaysia's leader assured Muslims they can perform yoga if they do not chant religious mantras, an apparent effort to assuage public anger over an Islamic body's ban of the ancient Indian exercise.
    (AP, 11/22/08)(AP, 11/26/08)
2008        Nov 22, Ibrahim Nasir (b.1926), who led the Maldives' independence movement from the British and became the island nation's first president, died in Singapore.
    (AP, 11/23/08)
2008        Nov 22, Dutch electronics giant Philips said it will cut "about five percent" of its 32,000 strong workforce in the medical division worldwide, affecting 1,600 workers.
    (AP, 11/22/08)
2008        Nov 22, Nicaragua's opposition pressed on with a bid to cancel disputed elections despite a presidential decree declaring that effort unconstitutional.
    (AP, 11/23/08)
2008        Nov 22, In Abuja, Nigeria, MTV launched its first-ever music award program for Africa, with acts from across the world's poorest continent nominated for prizes in the capital.
    (AP, 11/22/08)
2008        Nov 22, In northwest Pakistan British-born Rashid Rauf, the alleged Al-Qaeda mastermind of a 2006 transatlantic airplane bombing plot, was killed in a US missile attack. He had been in custody under the Security of Pakistan Act when he escaped in December 2007 from Pakistani police custody, although all charges relating to terrorism had been dropped. Also among the five killed in the early morning incident was Egyptian Abu Zubair al-Misri, another wanted Al-Qaeda operative.
    (AFP, 11/22/08)
2008        Nov 22, In Peru the 21 leaders at the APEC conference endorsed a sweeping action plan that had been approved a week ago at the G20 emergency meeting in Washington.
    (AP, 11/23/08)
2008        Nov 22, Qatar unveiled its new Museum of Islamic Art, designed by I.M. Pei. By 2012 the MIA was considered to be one of the half-dozen best in the world.
    (Econ, 11/22/08, p.95) (Econ, 3/31/12, p.92)
2008        Nov 22, Nearly 600 Tibetan exiles, gathered at Dharamsala, India, at the behest of the Dalai Lama, ended a 6-day meeting. They reaffirmed their absolute “faith and allegiance" in the Dalai Lama’s leadership and agreeing to pursue for Tibet’s autonomy. They did not rule out a possible shift in policy to independence if current middle-way policy with China fails to yield any result in the near future.
    (Econ, 11/22/08, p.52)(www.phayul.com/news/article.aspx?id=23264)
2008        Nov 22, In Yemen opening ceremonies were held for the $60 million Saleh Mosque glorifying the country's leader, President Ali Abdullah Saleh. It's a massive sum in a country that ranks as the poorest in the Arab world and is beset by internal armed conflict, terrorism and severe malnutrition.
    (AP, 11/24/08)

2008        Nov 23, President George W. Bush, wrapping up his final summit with world leaders, offered a message of hope that despite the worst economic crisis in decades, the global economy will emerge in better shape. He was expected to tout the benefits of free trade during a meeting with his host, Peru's President Alan Garcia, before attending the final sessions of the 21-nation Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum (APEC) as he wrapped up three days of discussions. Summit leaders predicted a worldwide recovery in 18 months.
    (AP, 11/23/08)(SFC, 11/24/08, p.A11)
2008        Nov 23, Rushing to rescue Citigroup, the US government agreed to shoulder hundreds of billions of dollars in possible losses at the stricken bank and to plow a fresh $20 billion into the company.
    (AP, 11/24/08)
2008        Nov 23, In San Francisco’s North Beach Brian Goggin unveiled his art installation, “Language of the Birds," a $120,000 effort that involved hundreds of people.
    (SFC, 11/24/08, p.A1)
2008        Nov 23, In Hollywood, Ca., Mario Majorski (48) of Oregon was shot and killed by a security guard at the Scientology Celebrity Center as he tried to attack guests with a pair of Samurai swords.
    (SFC, 11/25/08, p.B8) 
2008        Nov 23, In New Jersey Joseph Pallipurath (27) of Sacramento, Ca., shot and killed Reshma James (24), his estranged wife, at the Syrian Orthodox Knayaya Church in Clifton. He also killed bystander Dennis John Malloosseril (25) at the church and wounded a 3rd person. Pallipurath was arrested late the next day in Georgia. On May 27, 2011, Pallipurath was sentenced to two life sentences in prison.
    (SFC, 11/25/08, p.A3)(SFC, 11/26/08, p.A3)(SFC, 5/28/11, p.A5)
2008        Nov 23, In southeastern Australia rescuers returned 11 pilot whales to sea, a day after a pod of 64 mothers and calves were found stranded on a beach.
    (AP, 11/23/08)
2008        Nov 23, In southern Brazil weekend rains caused rivers to overflow their banks. The resulting floods and mudslides left at least 114 people dead. In northeastern Paragominas a mob of about 3,000 people, enraged by a crackdown on illegal logging, trashed a government office, and tried to attack environmental workers.
    (AP, 11/25/08)(AP, 11/24/08)(AP, 12/1/08)
2008        Nov 23, In southwest China men wielding knives and batons attacked employees at an arcade in a brawl that left five dead and two injured in Chongqing.
    (AP, 11/25/08)
2008        Nov 23, Congolese soldiers stopped a peacekeepers' convoy at an impromptu roadblock and dragged 23 Congolese men off the trucks, accusing them of being rebels. UN officials said the men were rebels who had surrendered as well as national policemen and civilians.
    (AP, 11/24/08)
2008        Nov 23, In Egypt police fired tear-gas at about 2,000 rioters in the southern town of Aswan as they protested the police shooting to death of a bird-seller.
    (AFP, 11/23/08)
2008        Nov 23, In Georgia gunfire that broke out as Pres. Saakashvili and Polish Pres. Lech Kaczynski were traveling near a roadblock at the edge of Georgia-controlled territory. Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov said there was no gunfire from Russian or South Ossetian positions and suggested Georgia engineered the incident to discredit Russia and South Ossetia. In Tbilisi Nino Burjanadze, a former ally of Pres. Saakashvili, founded a new party: the Democratic Movement-United Georgia.
    (AP, 11/24/08)(WSJ, 11/24/08, p.A8)
2008        Nov 23, In Guinea Bissau mutinous soldiers fought their way into the fortified residence of President Joao Bernardo Vieira's  in a 3-hour gunbattle but did not hurt the head of state.
    (AP, 11/23/08)
2008        Nov 23, Indonesia rescued Bank Century at a cost of 6.76 trillion rupiah ($730m). In 2010 Indonesia’s parliament ruled that the bailout was illegal and suggested that indications of corruption be investigated.
    (Econ, 3/6/10, p.55)(http://tinyurl.com/y8l28yq)
2008        Nov 23, Baghdad authorities killed more than 200 stray dogs, the opening day of a campaign to cull dog packs roaming the capital that was prompted by a spate of fatal attacks on residents. According to Baghdad's provincial council 13 people died in August alone in the capital after being attacked by dogs.
    (AP, 11/23/08)
2008        Nov 23, In Indian Kashmir turnout was high for a 2nd round of voting despite boycott calls by Muslim separatists and clashes in some towns between protesters and security forces.
    (AP, 11/23/08)
2008        Nov 23, Kenyan PM Raila Odinga called for the deployment of African Union peacekeepers to Zimbabwe to bring President Robert Mugabe back into line.
    (AFP, 11/23/08)
2008        Nov 23, In Northern Ireland 4 police officers were killed in an early morning road accident.
    (AFP, 11/23/08)
2008        Nov 23, Saudi Arabia slashed a key lending rate and cut reserve requirements amid intensifying economic headwinds.
    (WSJ, 11/24/08, p.A8)
2008        Nov 23, In Sri Lanka at least 27 soldiers were killed and another 70 wounded in fresh fighting just outside Kilinochchi, the political capital of the Liberation Tigers (LTTE). Tamil Tiger rebels said they killed 43 Sri Lankan soldiers in the island's north, halting the government's march toward a strategic crossroads.
    (AFP, 11/24/08)(AP, 11/24/08)
2008        Nov 23, In Thailand protesters seeking the resignation of the prime minister massed in the capital for what they said would be their biggest rally yet and a final showdown with the government. Thousands of soldiers and police were ordered to use nonviolent means to keep the peace.
    (AP, 11/23/08)
2008        Nov 23, In Venezuela President Hugo Chavez sought to hold on to his dominance in state and municipal elections, facing an opposition aiming to win back power in key states and cities. Chavez's opponents made important gains in local elections, capturing the Caracas mayor's office and three of the most populous states, but his allies won a strong majority.
    (AP, 11/23/08)(AP, 11/24/08)

2008        Nov 24, The Bush administration, after a long legal battle, agreed to send Salim Hamdan, Osama bin Laden’s driver, home to Yemen. Hamdan was transferred to Yemen the next day.
    (WSJ, 11/25/08, p.A1)(AP, 11/26/08)
2008        Nov 24, The US government won a terrorism conviction against Texas-based Holy Land, what had been the nation's largest Muslim charity, and five of its leaders for funneling millions of dollars to the Palestinian militant group Hamas. Holy Land supporters accused the government of politicizing the case as part of its war on terrorism, while attorneys for the foundation said Holy Land's mission was philanthropy and providing aid to the Middle East.
    (AP, 11/25/08)
2008        Nov 24, Delaware’s Gov. Ruth Ann Miner named Edward Kaufman, a former aide to Sen. Joe Biden, to fill the Senate seat Biden was leaving for the vice presidency.
    (SFC, 11/25/08, p.A14)
2008        Nov 24, Cecil Underwood (b.1922), former 2-time governor of West Virginia, died. He won his first term in 1956 to become the state’s youngest governor. In 1996 he was elected again and became the state’s oldest governor.
    (SFC, 11/25/08, p.B4)
2008        Nov 24, In eastern Afghanistan US troops killed six militants and detained 12 others in two operations.
    (AP, 11/25/08)
2008        Nov 24, Bhutan opened its 4th annual Gross National Happiness (GNH) conference.
    (SFC, 12/4/08, p.A1)
2008        Nov 24, China's President Hu Jintao arrived in Greece for a three-day visit timed to coincide with the signing of a 831.2 million euro ($1 billion) port deal.
    (AP, 11/24/08)
2008        Nov 24, Congolese soldiers went on an overnight looting and shooting spree in a sprawling Congolese refugee camp, stealing from hungry and traumatized people who have fled fighting in the country's east.
    (AP, 11/24/08)
2008        Nov 24, A Haitian teen shot and killed a classmate in a rare outbreak of school violence in the troubled country.
    (AP, 11/24/08)
2008        Nov 24, The National Bank of Hungary cut its key interest rate by half a percentage point to an annual rate of 11% to support the economy amid the global financial crisis.
    (AP, 11/24/08)
2008        Nov 24, In Indonesia health workers and rights activists sharply criticized a plan by lawmakers in remote Papua province, who have thrown their support behind a controversial bill requiring some HIV/AIDS patients to be implanted with microchips, part of extreme efforts to monitor the disease.
    (AP, 11/24/08)
2008        Nov 24, In Iraq a female suicide bomber blew herself up near an entrance to the US-protected Green Zone killing 7 people. A bomb tore through a minibus carrying Iraqi government employees and killed at least 13 people, most of them women. Three more people were killed in bomb attacks on police patrols in Baghdad and Baqouba. An American soldier died of noncombat-related causes in Diyala province.
    (AP, 11/24/08)(AP, 11/25/08)(SFC, 11/25/08, p.A13)
2008        Nov 24, Adel Hussein was sentenced six months in jail by a court in Irbil, capital of the Kurdish-ruled region, for violating a public decency law by writing a story about homosexuality. The case centered on an April 2007 article Hussein wrote for the independent weekly Hawlati that detailed the physical effects of homosexual sex.
    (AP, 12/3/08)
2008        Nov 24, Malaysia released suspected terrorist Yazid Sufaat, an alleged biological weapons expert who was also linked to the September 11 attacks in the United States.
    (AFP, 12/10/08)
2008        Nov 24, North Korea detailed plans to radically curtail ties with South Korea, announcing the end of daily cross-border train service and tours of a historic city in response to what it called Seoul's "confrontational" policy.
    (AP, 11/24/08)
2008        Nov 24, In Pakistan government forces killed 15 militants in the Swat valley. An official said a two-week operation to secure the frontier city of Peshawar, which sits on a key supply route for US and NATO troops in Afghanistan, killed 25 suspected militants.
    (AP, 11/24/08)(SFC, 11/25/08, p.A13)
2008        Nov 24, Pakistan, the front-line country in the battle against Islamist terrorism, won final approval for a $7.6 billion loan from the IMF to help stave off a possible economic meltdown.
    (AP, 11/25/08)
2008        Nov 24, Gazans crowded into banks to withdraw money amid a worsening currency shortage resulting from Israeli sanctions.
    (WSJ, 11/25/08, p.A1)
2008        Nov 24, Shipping officials from around the world called for a military blockade along the coast of Somalia to intercept pirate vessels heading out to sea.
    (AP, 11/24/08)
2008        Nov 24, In Thailand thousands of anti-government protesters fanned out across Bangkok, causing Parliament to shut down and forcing a group of riot police to retreat in what the activists called their final bid to oust a corrupt administration.
    (AP, 11/24/08)

2008        Nov 25, The Bush administration unveiled a set of new programs intended to pump an additional $800 billion into the economy and thaw still-frozen credit markets. The US Federal Reserve said it will buy up to $600 billion in mortgage-backed assets in another attempt to deal with the financial crisis.
    (AP, 11/25/08)(AP, 11/26/08)
2008        Nov 25, The Bush administration imposed financial sanctions on four people it called "cronies" of Zimbabwe President Robert Mugabe whose support allegedly allowed Mugabe to undermine democracy.
    (AP, 11/25/08)
2008        Nov 25, The US said it will freeze about $64 million in anti-poverty aid to Nicaragua amid accusations that local elections were fraudulent.
    (AP, 11/26/08)
2008        Nov 25, The US Federal Deposit Insurance Corp. (FDIC) said the list of banks it considers to be in trouble shot up nearly 50 percent to 171 during the third quarter.
    (AP, 11/26/08)
2008        Nov 25, A judge ruled that a strict Florida law that blocks gay people from adopting children is unconstitutional, declaring there was no legal or scientific reason for sexual orientation alone to prohibit anyone from adopting.
    (AP, 11/25/08)
2008        Nov 25, Gerald Schoenfeld (b.1924), head of the Shubert Organization, died in NYC. From 1972 he and Bernard B. Jacobs (d.1996) reinvigorated the commercial theater business.
    (SFC, 11/27/08, p.B8)
2008        Nov 25, Afghan President Hamid Karzai demanded at a meeting with a UN Security Council team that the international community set a "timeline" for ending military intervention in Afghanistan.
    (AFP, 11/25/08)
2008        Nov 25, In Australia BHP Billiton dropped its controversial hostile takeover bid for rival Rio Tinto because of the global economic crisis.
    (AFP, 11/25/08)
2008        Nov 25 Armenia won its second straight gold medal at the Chess Olympiad in Germany by defeating China 2.5-1.5 in the 11th and final round.
    (AP, 11/26/08)
2008        Nov 25, In Britain the application process began for a national identity card for some foreign nationals in an attempt to combat terrorism and identity fraud. On June 30, 2009, home secretary Alan Johnson said Britons would not be required to have the new ID cards. A British law went into effect that allows courts to prevent someone from being forced into marriage, a move that comes as governments across Europe confront immigrant practices that sometimes clash with more liberal values. On Oct 12, 2011, Britain’s highest court ruled that the ban on foreign spouses aged under 21 entering Britain is unlawful.
    (AP, 11/25/08)(Econ, 7/4/09, p.55)(AP, 10/12/11)
2008        Nov 25, In Britain a Sheffield man (56) was sentenced to life in prison for raping his children for more than 25 years, from the time they were between 8 and 10, beating them when they resisted. Between them, the daughters bore their father seven surviving children. Two more died at birth; the other pregnancies ended in abortion or miscarriage.
    (AP, 11/26/08)
2008        Nov 25, Bulgaria lost euro220 million ($286 million) in promised payments from the EU because of its failure to tackle corruption.
2008        Nov 25, In Egypt the state news agency MENA reported that Coptic Pope Shenuda III has banned Egyptian Christians from praying in a church-owned building in Cairo after sectarian clashes there with Muslims.
    (AFP, 11/25/08)
2008        Nov 25, EU ministers sought to enlist counterparts from 27 African countries in a new effort to curb the flood of illegal immigration.
    (AFP, 11/25/08)
2008        Nov 25, Greenland polling stations opened in a referendum on expanding home rule. Voters overwhelmingly approved a plan for more autonomy from Denmark and to take advantage of potential oil reserves off the glacial island's coast.
    (AP, 11/25/08)(AP, 11/26/08)
2008        Nov 25, In eastern India suspected communist rebels blew up a bridge, killing five police officers who were escorting election officials in Chattisgarh state.
    (AP, 11/25/08)
2008        Nov 25, Iran said it has broken a spy ring working for Israel’s intelligence service, Mossad. The prosecutor general said it would the death penalty for 3 suspects in custody.
    (SFC, 11/26/08, p.A8)
2008        Nov 25,  In northern Iraq 2 American servicemen were killed when a gunman in an Iraqi army uniform opened fire while they were distributing humanitarian aid.
    (AP, 11/26/08)
2008        Nov 25, It was reported that Ireland plans to impose tough new penalties on beggars for the first time since the Potato Famine 160 years ago.
    (AP, 11/25/08)
2008        Nov 25, In Mexico 7 bodies were dumped before dawn at a school soccer field in the border city of Juarez.
    (AP, 11/26/08)
2008        Nov 25, Nigeria’s state media said the country has signed a $780 million (605 million euros) loan agreement with the World Bank to finance three projects.
    (AFP, 11/25/08)
2008        Nov 25, Pakistan said its Directorate of Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) has shut down a unit that spied on domestic politicians.
    (SFC, 11/26/08, p.A3)
2008        Nov 25, Russian warships arrived in Venezuela in a show of strength aimed at the United States as Moscow seeks to expand its influence in Latin America.
    (AP, 11/25/08)
2008        Nov 25, In eastern Sri Lanka 12 people, including three suspected Tiger rebels, were killed in fresh violence. Heavy fighting raged on three fronts around the northern town of Kilinochchi, the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam's (LTTE) political headquarters.
    (AFP, 11/26/08)
2008        Nov 25, In Thailand Bangkok's main international airport halted all flight operations after anti-government protesters stormed the departures area.
    (AFP, 11/25/08)
2008        Nov 25, Indochina Airlines, Vietnam’s first privately owned airline, began operations.

2008        Nov 26, Missouri mother Lori Drew was convicted by a federal jury in Los Angeles of three minor offenses for her role in the mean-spirited Internet hoax that apparently drove Megan Meier (13) to suicide in 2016. Drew’s convictions were later thrown out.
    (Detroit Free Press, 11/26/19, p.2A)
2008        Nov 26, Edna Parker (115), the world’s oldest person, died in Shelbyville, Indiana.
    (WSJ, 11/28/08, p.A10)
2008        Nov 26, British data showed its economy shrank 0.5% in the 3 months to September, placing it perilously close to recession as it feels the chill from the global financial crisis.
    (AP, 11/26/08)
2008        Nov 26, China cut interest rates by more than a percentage point to 5.58%, the most significant cut in 11 years, as the economic conditions worsened.
    (SFC, 12/9/08, p.A10)(Econ, 11/29/08, p.80)
2008        Nov 26, China executed Wang Zhendong, a businessman convicted of bilking thousands of investors out of $416 million in a bogus ant-breeding scheme.
    (AP, 11/27/08)
2008        Nov 26, European ministers pledged euro10 billion ($12.8 billion) to an ambitious list of 30 space missions, including one to put a robotic rover on Mars.
    (AP, 11/26/08)
2008        Nov 26, In India 110 people were killed and over 300 injured when suspected Islamic militants attacked 10 sites in Mumbai including the five-star Taj Mahal Palace and Tower and the 19th century Chhatrapati Shivaji railroad station. On Oct 3, 2009, David Headley (b.1960 as Daood Sayed Gilani), a US citizen of Pakistani descent, was arrested in Chicago on suspicion of doing reconnaissance Mumbai attack. In 2010 Gilani pleaded guilty and testified that the Pakistani spy agency provided individual handlers for the Lashkar-e-Taiba attackers. In 2013 Cathy Scott-Clark and Adrian Levy authored “The Siege: Three Days of Terror Inside the Taj.
    (www.talkleft.com/story/2009/12/7/125726/611)(AP, 11/27/08)(SFC, 10/20/10, p.A5)(Econ, 11/23/13, p.81)
2008        Nov 26, In Iran a court sentenced a man who blinded a woman with acid also to be blinded with acid under the country's Islamic law. Majid Movahedi (27) confessed to attacking Ameneh Bahrami (24) in 2004 to dissuade anyone from marrying the woman he loved. Movahedi was sentenced to be blinded in both eyes in February, 2009. In 2011 Bahrami announced that it would cost Movahedi two million euros to escape a court-ordered blinding. In 2011 Bahrami pardoned Mohavedi as he knelt in an operating room with her attacker waiting for her to drop acid in his eyes.
    (AP, 11/27/08)(AP, 5/17/11)(AP, 7/31/11)
2008        Nov 26, In Iraq intense deal making among political factions delayed by one day a parliamentary vote on a security pact that would allow American forces to stay in the country through 2011 under tight Iraqi supervision. A roadside bomb killed two civilians and wounded four in central Baghdad. 18 young women, purportedly belonging to a suicide bombing network in northern Iraq, surrendered and signed a form promising not to conduct attacks as part of a reconciliation program.
    (AP, 11/26/08)(AP, 11/27/08)
2008        Nov 26, Nigeria's food and drug control agency NAFDAC said 25 children have died in the last fortnight after taking a teething mixture discovered to contain a harmful substance. Laboratory tests on the drug found out that it contains a killer element known as diethylene glycol. The agency shut down the premises of the Nigerian manufacturer. The death count soon rose to 34 as more children lost their lives after being given "My Pikin" teething syrup contaminated with diethylene glycol, blamed for causing kidney failure.
    (AFP, 11/26/08)(Reuters, 12/3/08)
2008        Nov 26, The UN and other aid agencies appealed to the international community to send $462 million in emergency assistance to address what they said is a humanitarian crisis in the Palestinian territories.
    (AP, 11/26/08)
2008        Nov 26, In North Ossetia Vitaly Karayev, the mayor of Vladikavkaz, was shot and killed in the latest violence to hit a region. The next day An obscure Islamic group claimed responsibility for the assassination of a mayor in Russia's troubled North Caucasus, saying he had sanctioned persecution of Islamic women.
    (AP, 11/26/08)(AP, 11/27/08)
2008        Nov 26, In Peru suspected rebels armed with machine guns and grenades ambushed a police patrol in the central jungle, killing four officers and wounding five others.
    (AP, 11/26/08)
2008        Nov 26, Qatar based Al Jazeera launched Sharek, a website where photos and videos can be submitted for use, once verified, in Al Jazeera’s television and online reports.
    (Econ, 7/9/11, SR p.10)(http://tinyurl.com/5hsj2k)
2008        Nov 26, Off Sierra Leone pirates from neighboring Guinea attacked a Chinese fishing vessel in a rare attack that ended with four suspects dead. Two pirates were shot, two drowned and the other pirates were arrested by the Sierra Leone navy.
    (AP, 11/27/08)
2008        Nov 26, In northern Somalia 2 foreign journalists were kidnapped while doing a story on the rampant piracy in the region. The Britain and journalist and his Spanish counterpart were released on Jan 4, after almost six weeks in captivity in Somalia's breakaway Puntland state.
    (AP, 11/26/08)(AFP, 1/4/09)
2008        Nov 26, South Africa's health minister said Zimbabwe faced a humanitarian crisis after a major outbreak of cholera, vowing not to turn away anyone who crosses the border for treatment. Botswana's foreign minister said Zimbabwe's neighbors should close their borders in an attempt to bring down Pres. Robert Mugabe, in the strongest call yet for action from Africa.
    (AFP, 11/26/08)
2008        Nov 26, Sudanese police demolished about 10,000 homes in a shanty town south of Khartoum, using tear gas to disperse protesting residents.
    (AFP, 11/27/08)
2008        Nov 26, The UN Security Council approved the deployment of a EU mission (Eulex) throughout Kosovo under the UN umbrella.
    (AP, 11/26/08)(Econ, 11/15/14, p.55)
2008        Nov 26, In Venezuela Russian President Dmitry Medvedev agreed to help start a local nuclear energy program and said Moscow is willing to participate in a socialist trade bloc in Latin America led by President Hugo Chavez.
    (AP, 11/27/08)

2008        Nov 27, Macy’s held its 82nd Thanksgiving Day parade in NYC.
    (SFC, 11/28/08, p.A2)
2008        Nov 27, An SUV plunged off an overpass in northern Colorado and hit a concrete embankment in a fiery crash, killing all seven people inside it, including two young children.
    (AP, 11/27/08)
2008        Nov 27, A sport utility vehicle carrying 8 people from Texas plunged off an unfinished bridge into a river in northern Mexico, causing the death of three adults and four children.
    (AP, 11/28/08)
2008        Nov 27, In southern Afghanistan 2 British troops were killed after being fired at by insurgents while on patrol. A suicide car bomber targeting an American convoy exploded about 200 yards (meters) outside the US Embassy in Kabul, killing at least four Afghan bystanders as people entered the compound for a Thanksgiving Day race. In northwestern Afghanistan Taliban insurgents killed 13 Afghan troops in an ambush of their convoy. NATO-led troops fired on insurgents inside Pakistan. The artillery attacks killed several insurgents and caused several secondary explosions, indicating the presence of ammunition at the locations. The U.N.'s drug czar said the Taliban and other warlords could clear almost half a billion dollars from Afghanistan's opium trade this year, money that will help finance insurgent attacks.
    (AFP, 11/27/08)(AP, 11/27/08)(AP, 11/28/08)
2008        Nov 27, In China assailants allegedly pulled members of a Belgian television crew from their vehicle, beat them and took their notes and money. VRT asked for compensation for damaged equipment, an apology to the journalists and a guarantee that the journalists will be able to work safely.
    (AP, 12/2/08)
2008        Nov 27, More than 10,000 Congolese civilians fled to Uganda in a matter of hours to escape renewed fighting.
    (AP, 11/27/08)
2008        Nov 27, An Airbus A320 passenger plane crashed off France's southern coast during a maintenance flight, killing 3 people and leaving the 4 others on board missing.
    (AP, 11/28/08)(AP, 12/1/08)
2008        Nov 27, Germany's defense minister laid the foundation stone for the first national memorial in Berlin, designed by German architect Andreas Meck, to soldiers killed serving in the country's post-World War II military.
    (AP, 11/27/08)
2008        Nov 27, Black-clad Indian commandoes raided two luxury hotels to try to free hostages, and explosions and gunshots shook Mumbai, India's financial capital, a day after suspected Muslim militants killed 110 people.
    (AP, 11/27/08)
2008        Nov 27, Iraq's parliament approved a security pact with the United States that lets American troops stay in the country for three more years, setting a clear timetable for a US exit for the first time since the 2003 invasion. Under the security pact, US forces will withdraw from Iraqi towns and cities by June 30 and the entire country by Jan. 1, 2012.
    (AP, 11/27/08)(AP, 11/28/08)
2008        Nov 27, A court inside Myanmar's notorious Insein prison sentenced a comedian who has criticized the government's cyclone response to 14 more years, bringing his total prison term to 59 years, his lawyer said. Comedian and activist Zarganar was given a 45-year prison sentence last week after he was convicted on charges related to interviews he gave to foreign media outlets.
    (AP, 11/27/08)
2008        Nov 27, South Korea's supermarket chains resumed selling US beef, nearly five months after the government lifted an import ban imposed over fears of mad cow disease.
    (AP, 11/27/08)
2008        Nov 27, Spain's prime minister announced an €11 billion ($14 billion) stimulus plan to revive the country's flagging economy.
    (AP, 11/27/08)
2008        Nov 27, In Spain novelist Juan Marse (75), known for his descriptions of hardship in Catalonia during the Spanish civil war (1936-1939), won the Cervantes Prize, the Spanish speaking world’s highest literary prize.
    (SFC, 11/28/08, p.E10)
2008        Nov 27, Switzerland reached an agreement with the EU to join the European Union's Schengen passport-free travel zone effective next month.
    (AP, 11/27/08)
2008        Nov 27, Thailand's government prepared to crack down on protesters occupying the capital's two airports, but called on the public not to panic as rumors of a coup swept through the city.
    (AP, 11/27/08)
2008        Nov 27, Yemeni security troops in San’a opened fire on thousands of protesters calling for a boycott of April parliamentary elections, wounding a number of demonstrators.
    (AP, 11/27/08)

2008        Nov 28, This day was marked as Native American Heritage Day. US federal legislation set aside the day after Thanksgiving — for this year only — to honor the contributions American Indians have made to the US. Congress passed legislation this year designating the day as Native American Heritage Day, and President George W. Bush signed it last month.
    (AP, 11/28/08)
2008        Nov 28, Space shuttle Endeavour and its crew of seven departed the international space station, ending a 12-day visit.
    (AP, 11/28/08)
2008        Nov 28, In New York Jdimytai Damour (34), a Long Island Wal-Mart worker, was killed after a crowd of post-Thanksgiving shoppers burst through the doors at the suburban Valley Stream store and knocked him down. In 2009 Wal-Mart agreed to pay nearly $2 million and improve safety at its 92 New York stores as part of a deal with prosecutors that avoids criminal charges in the trampling death.
    (AP, 11/29/08)(AP, 5/6/09)
2008        Nov 28, William Finnegan, TV and film producer, died in New York. His film and TV work included “The Dollmaker" (1984) and “Hawaii Five-0."
    (SFC, 12/3/08, p.B6)
2008        Nov 28, In Afghanistan US troops killed Haji Yakub, a wanted Taliban commander, who tried to hide from soldiers under a woman's burqa. Afghan and coalition forces killed 33 militants when their patrol came under attack in southern Helmand province. In Kandahar province a three-day NATO-Afghan operation in Zhari district killed 12 militants. Police in Farah province killed four insurgents setting up a makeshift base in a village, apparently aiming to launch strikes on Farah city. Afghan army and police attacked a nine-vehicle convoy, killing four insurgents and wounding another three as other insurgents fled. An Afghan police officer was also killed in the gunbattle in Farah province.
    (AP, 11/29/08)
2008        Nov 28, In Argentina a three-judge panel formally charged former President Carlos Menem with arms trafficking as he watched on live video from hundreds of miles away because doctors say he is too ill to travel.
    (AP, 11/29/08)
2008        Nov 28, China executed Wo Weihan, a scientist accused of passing information to Taiwan, triggering condemnation from his family and several countries including the US.
    (AP, 11/28/08)
2008        Nov 28, Tens of thousands of Colombians marched to demand leftist rebels free hostages they have held for as long as a decade or more.
    (AP, 11/29/08)
2008        Nov 28, Congo rebels captured the border post of Ishasha in eastern Congo, increasing their stranglehold over the region. At least 13,000 frightened civilians have fled into Uganda over the last two days.
    (AP, 11/28/08)
2008        Nov 28, In Cuba Russia's president Medvedev met with Fidel Castro, discussing Guantanamo Bay and hopes for a multipolar world with Cuba's former leader during a tour of Latin America aimed at raising Moscow's presence in the region.
    (AP, 11/28/08)
2008        Nov 28, Ethiopia announced that it will withdraw its forces from Somalia by the end of the year, leaving this country's weak and fractured government to face an increasingly powerful Islamic insurgency.
    (AP, 11/28/08)
2008        Nov 28, In India commandos who stormed the Mumbai headquarters of an ultra-orthodox Jewish group found the bodies of five hostages inside, as a fresh battle raged at the luxury Taj Mahal hotel and other Indian forces ended a siege at another five-star hotel. More than 150 people have been killed since gunmen attacked 10 sites across India's financial capital on Nov 26, including 22 foreigners, two of them Americans. Commandos killed the last two gunmen inside the luxury Oberoi hotel, where 24 bodies had been found.
    (AP, 11/28/08)(AP, 11/29/08)
2008        Nov 28, In Iraq a suicide bomber blew himself up among worshippers waiting to be searched outside a mosque run by followers of anti-American Shiite cleric Muqtada al-Sadr, killing at least 12 people.
    (AP, 11/28/08)
2008        Nov 28, Japan announced it would end its airlift operations in Iraq by the end of the year, citing security improvements and moves toward democracy in Iraq.
    (AP, 11/28/08)
2008        Nov 28, In Mexico at least 12 masked gunmen opened fire inside a restaurant in the northern border city of Ciudad Juarez, killing eight.
    (AP, 11/29/08)
2008        Nov 28, In Myanmar 2 journalists were jailed for seven years each on charges of undermining the military junta after they were caught with a UN human rights report. A court in a northeastern suburb of Yangon sentenced Thet Zin, editor of the local Myanmar-language journal News Watch, and Sein Win Maung, the paper's manager, under the country's draconian Printing and Publishing Law.
    (AP, 11/30/08)
2008        Nov 28, Clashes erupted in Jos, Nigeria, after a local election dispute, leaving at least three people dead and prompting the military to send troops into city streets to restore order. Over the next 3 days at least 300 people were killed and 7,00 displaced. In southern Nigeria gunmen abducted a Scottish oil industry worker.
    (AP, 11/28/08)(Econ, 12/6/08, p.64)
2008        Nov 28, In Pakistan a suicide car bomber killed seven people in the northwestern town of Bannu.
    (AP, 11/28/08)
2008        Nov 28, A Palestinian was killed in a clash with Israeli forces in southern Gaza. A mortar attack on an Israeli army base injured eight Israeli soldiers. The next day the Islamic militant group Hamas claimed responsibility.
    (AP, 11/28/08)(AP, 11/29/08)
2008        Nov 28, Somali pirates hijacked the chemical tanker chemical tanker M/V BISCAGLIA with 25 Indian and 3 Bangladeshi crew members. A helicopter rescued three British security guards who had jumped into the sea. The Liberian flagged ship operated out of Singapore. The ship was freed on Jan 23 following a $1 million ransom.
    (AP, 11/28/08)(AP, 1/24/09)(WSJ, 1/31/08, p.A1)
2008        Nov 28, Zimbabwe’s opposition said it has agreed on a draft constitutional amendment to allow the formation of a power-sharing government, but obstacles still remain to setting it up. The UN warned that cholera has killed 389 people in Zimbabwe to date and that the disease is also spreading into neighbouring Botswana and South Africa.
    (AFP, 11/28/08)(Reuters, 11/28/08)
2008        Nov 28, A regional tribunal in Namibia ruled that 78 white Zimbabweans can keep their farms because the government's land reform scheme discriminated against them.
    (AFP, 11/28/08)

2008        Nov 29, Joern Utzon (b.1918), the Danish architect who designed the iconic Sydney Opera House (1957), died. In 2003 Utzon won the Pritzker prize.
    (AP, 11/29/08)(Econ, 12/13/08, p.104)
2008        Nov 29, In Afghanistan a soldier with the NATO-led force shot and killed an Afghan policeman in a car in Lashkar Gah that was driving toward a NATO patrol at high speed.
    (AP, 11/30/08)
2008        Nov 29, In Bangladesh police in Dhaka arrested eight members of a hard-line Islamic group for damaging a 41-foot outdoor sculpture of a group of white storks. The statue by sculptor Mrinal Haque has stood at a road intersection since 1989.
    (AP, 11/30/08)
2008        Nov 29, In southern China about 300 taxi drivers went on strike in Chaozhou, smashing cars and demanding a crackdown on unlicensed taxis in the latest protest against illegal taxi competition in China.
    (AP, 11/30/08)
2008        Nov 29, In Gambia British missionary David Fulton (60) and his wife (46) were arrested for alleged sedition. Fiona Fulton was released in December, 2009. David Fulton was freed in 2010 after serving nearly two years for sedition.
    (http://tinyurl.com/8ftt3c)(AP, 9/11/10)
2008        Nov 29, Georgia said it is cutting diplomatic relations with Nicaragua after the Central American nation recognized the breakaway regions of South Ossetia and Abkhazia.
    (AP, 11/29/08)
2008        Nov 29, In India a 60-hour terror rampage that killed at least 173 people across Mumbai, India's financial capital, ended when commandos killed the last three gunmen inside the 565-room Taj Mahal hotel while it was engulfed in flames. A group called Deccan Mujahideen, which alludes to a region in southern India traditionally ruled by Muslim kings, claimed responsibility for the attack. Officials said they believed that just 10 gunmen had taken part in the attack. Nine were killed and one was captured. The 10th gunman was later identified as Mohammad Ajmal Amir Imam from Faridkot village in Pakistan. 19 foreigners were killed including 6 Americans.
    (AP, 11/29/08)(WSJ, 11/29/08, p.A1)(AP, 12/1/08)(WSJ, 12/5/08, p.A1)(SFC, 12/10/08, p.A9)(Econ, 12/6/08, p.57)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2008_Mumbai_attacks)
2008        Nov 29, In Iraq a rocket attack in Baghdad’s fortified Green Zone killed 2 people. In Diyala province Mayor Sayid al-Anbaki of Salam district announced the discovery of 7 mass graves in the village of Botoama. Al-Qaida in Iraq had dominated the region in 2006-2007.
    (SSFC, 11/30/08, p.A19)
2008        Nov 29, In Nigeria witnesses said hundreds of people have been killed in the central city of Jos as Christians and Muslims clashed over the result of a local election. The violence began following a rumor that the mostly Muslim All Nigerian Peoples Party (ANPP) had lost the election to the mainly Christian federal ruling People's Democratic Party (PDP). Over 10,000 people were displaced from their homes and sought refuge in churches, mosques and army and police barracks.
    (AP, 11/29/08)
2008        Nov 29, Pakistan's foreign minister Shah Mehmood Qureshi told a press conference that Pakistan will take action against any group within its borders if it was involved in the Mumbai attacks. A suspected US missile strike killed at least two people near Miran Shah in northwestern Pakistan.
    (AP, 11/29/08)
2008        Nov 29, In Qatar French President Nicolas Sarkozy told Sudanese President Omar al-Beshir to take action to end the conflict in Darfur.
    (AFP, 11/29/08)
2008        Nov 29, Officials in Sri Lanka said floods caused by days of heavy rains killed at least seven people, left four soldiers missing and displaced tens of thousands in insurgency-ravaged northern Sri Lanka.
    (AP, 11/29/08)

2008        Nov 30, The US space shuttle Endeavour ended a 16-day trip to the int’l. space station landing at Edwards Air Force Base in California after storms hit the main landing site in Florida.
    (SFC, 12/1/08, p.A4)
2008        Nov 30, In Afghanistan a suicide bomber on foot attacked a German Embassy vehicle in Kabul. No Germans were hurt, but the blast killed two Afghans and wounded three.
    (AP, 11/30/08)
2008        Nov 30, In southern Australia a group of 150 whales that became stranded on a remote coastline were battered to death on rocks before rescuers could save them.
    (AP, 11/30/08)
2008        Nov 30, In Canada  three opposition parties reached a tentative deal to defeat the minority Conservative government and then put together a coalition.
    (Reuters, 12/1/08)
2008        Nov 30, Chinese health authorities and the UN AIDS agency pledged to fight discrimination against people with the disease in China with the unveiling of a massive red ribbon, the symbol of AIDS awareness, at the Olympic Bird's Nest stadium in Beijing.
    (AP, 11/30/08)
2008        Nov 30, In northern China a coal mine blast killed 15 miners at the Changlong Coal Mine in Heilongjiang province. 3 rescuers died the next day in a cave-in.
    (AP, 12/1/08)
2008        Nov 30, Rebels in eastern Congo pulled out of Ishasha, a town on the Ugandan border they captured in fighting that forced 10,000 people to flee.
    (AP, 12/2/08)
2008        Nov 30, In Guatemala Mexican and Guatemalan drug traffickers, arguing about a horse race in the rural border town of Santa Ana Huista, began a series of gunbattles in which 17 people died.
    (AP, 12/1/08)
2008        Nov 30, In Haiti a dozen men in T-shirts declaring "I am gay" and "I am living with HIV/AIDS" marched with hundreds of other demonstrators through St. Marc in what organizers called the Caribbean nation's first openly gay march.
    (AP, 12/1/08)
2008        Nov 30, India's top security official, Home Minister Shivraj Patil, resigned as the government struggled under growing accusations of security failures following terror attacks that killed 174 people.
    (AP, 11/30/08)
2008        Nov 30, The head of Iran's nuclear power agency said the country is willing to help neighboring Arab countries build joint light-water nuclear power plants if they are interested.
    (AP, 11/30/08)
2008        Nov 30, Iraqi and Iranian troops exchanged the remains of soldiers killed during the 1980-1988 war between the two countries. It was the first such handover since the two signed an agreement in October to work together in tracing thousands still missing after the war.
    (AP, 11/30/08)
2008        Nov 30, Mexico’s President Felipe Calderon pledged to clean up corruption within his administration and vowed that his government would never negotiate with drug lords. The bodies of 9 decapitated men were found in a vacant lot in Tijuana, part of a wave of violence that claimed at least 23 lives over the weekend in this border city plagued by warring traffickers.
    (AP, 11/30/08)
2008        Nov 30, In Nigeria residents delivered more bodies to the main mosque in the central Nigerian city of Jos, bringing the death toll from two days of clashes between Muslim and Christian gangs to around 400 people. In July, 2009, Human Rights Watch (HRW) said more than 700 died in clashes in Jos, and urged the prosecution of members of security forces it accused of "arbitrary killings."
    (AP, 11/30/08)(AFP, 7/20/09)
2008        Nov 30, Six Pakistani security officers and two suspected militants were killed in new violence close to the Afghan border. Fighting  in the past two days between ethnic and political gangs that left 16 people dead in Karachi.
    (AP, 11/30/08)
2008        Nov 30, Poland adopted an economic package for 2009-2010 valued at 24 billion euros (30 billion dollars) to help weather the impact of the global financial crisis.
    (AP, 11/30/08)
2008        Nov 30, Romanians trickled to the polls to elect a new parliament, as the leftist Social Democrats and right-wing Liberal Democrats battled it out ahead of PM Calin Tariceanu's Liberals. The leftist Social Democrats won the most votes, but failed to get enough support to take power outright.
    (AP, 11/30/08)(SFC, 12/1/08, p.A4)
2008        Nov 30, Pirates chased and shot at the M/S Nautica, a US cruise liner with more than 1,000 people on board, but failed to hijack the vessel as it sailed along a corridor patrolled by international warships.
    (AP, 12/2/08)
2008        Nov 30, Sri Lankan soldiers recaptured Kokavil, a key northern town near the headquarters of Tamil Tiger rebels, 18 years after the area was seized by the insurgents.
    (AP, 12/1/08)
2008        Nov 30, A pioneering Swiss program to give addicts government-authorized heroin was overwhelmingly approved, according to projections that showed voters simultaneously rejecting the decriminalization of marijuana.
    (AP, 11/30/08)
2008        Nov 30, In Thailand attackers set off explosions at anti-government protest sites, wounding 51 people and raising fears of widening confrontations in Thailand's worst political crisis in decades, which has strangled its economy and shut down its main airports. Thousands of government supporters wearing red shirts, headbands and bandanas joined a rally against the protest alliance. So far six people have been killed in bomb attacks, clashes with police and street battles between government opponents and supports.
    (AP, 11/30/08)
2008        Nov 30, Zimbabwe's health minister insisted that the country's crumbling medical system was taking all necessary measures to combat a cholera epidemic, even as more than 1,000 new cases were reported.
    (AP, 11/30/08)

2008        Nov, A US diplomatic cable said donors in Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates are sending an estimated $100 million annually to radical Islamic schools in Pakistan that back militancy. The cable was leaked to the public on May 22, 2011.
    (AP, 5/22/11)
2008        Nov, The coffin of Austrian billionaire Friedrich Karl Flick (d.2006) was stolen from a cemetery in Velden, southern Austria. Thieves demanded 6 million euros ($9 million) for the coffin's return. It was found in Nov 2009 by private investigators in Budapest. A 41-year-old Hungarian lawyer, identified only as Barnabas Sz., was suspected of masterminding the crime and was in police custody. Four other suspects were still at large.
    (AP, 12/2/09)
2008        Nov, China detained Hu Zhicheng, an American automotive engineer, on accusations he misused trade secrets. His  case was first reported in Dec, 2009, in an account written under a pen name that appeared on Boxun News. Zhicheng was released in May, 2010, with no charges filed against him, but he was not allowed to leave China. On June 3, 2013, word came that he was finally free to return to his home in southern California.
    (AP, 12/17/09)(AP, 5/14/10)(SFC, 6/6/13, p.A13)
2008        Nov, Dubai’s government and state-owned enterprises debt amounted to $80 billion, equivalent to 148% of GDP.
    (Econ, 11/29/08, p.53)
2008        Nov, In South Africa a verdict by the tribunal of the regional Southern African Development Community (SADC) found that Zimbabwe had wrongly taken land from nearly 80 farmers, saying they had been targeted because of their race. In 2010 white farmers whose land was seized under Zimbabwe President Robert Mugabe's land reforms claimed a house owned by his government in South Africa based on the SADC verdict.
    (AFP, 3/30/10)

2008        Dec 1, President-elect Barack Obama announced that Robert Gates would remain as defense secretary. Obama picked former campaign rival Hillary Rodham Clinton as secretary of state.
    (AP, 12/1/08)
2008        Dec 1, In Alabama mayor Larry Langford of Birmingham was arrested on charges of steering millions of dollars of bond work to a friend in exchange for over $230,000 in bribes. The 101-count indictment also charged Montgomery banker Bill Blount and lobbyist Al LaPierre.
    (SFC, 12/2/08, p.A2)
2008        Dec 1, California’s Gov. Schwarzenegger declared a fiscal emergency and called legislators into a new special session in order to trim a $11.2 billion budget deficit.
    (SFC, 12/2/08, p.A1)
2008        Dec 1, In Tracy, Ca., Kyle Ramirez (16) escaped from a home where he had been shackled and tortured for over a year. In 2010 defendants Michael Schumacher (36) was sentenced to 30 years in prison, his wife Kelly Lau (32) received 33 years, and the boy’s guardian Caren Ramirez (45) was given 34 years. All three had accepted plea deals. In 2010 Anthony Waiters (31), a neighbor, was convicted of 9 charges including aggravated mayhem and false imprisonment. On Feb 28, 2011, Waiters was sentenced to life in prison. In 2015 Sacramento County agreed to pay $4 million to settle a suit accusing its Child Protective Services workers of ignoring Kyle’s welfare.
    (SFC, 10/9/10, p.C2)(SFC, 11/24/10, p.C3)(SFC, 12/7/10, p.C3)(SFC, 3/1/11, p.C3)(SFC, 7/24/15, p.D1)
2008        Dec 1, The NBER, a private, nonprofit research organization, said its group of academic economists who determine business cycles met and decided that the US recession began last December.
    (AP, 12/2/08)
2008        Dec 1, A federal jury in SF cleared Chevron Corp. of responsibility for any human rights abuses during a violent protest on a company oil platform in Nigeria a decade ago.
    (AP, 12/2/08)
2008        Dec 1, US researchers reported that almost 20% of young American adults have a personality disorder that interferes with everyday life, and that even more abuse alcohol or drugs.
    (SFC, 12/2/08, p.A10)
2008        Dec 1, China's Health Ministry said six babies may have died after consuming tainted milk powder, up from a previous official toll of three, and announced a six-fold increase in its tally of infants sickened in the scandal, to nearly 300,000.
    (AP, 12/1/08)
2008        Dec 1, In northern China 11 girls died of carbon monoxide poisoning at a school in Shaanxi province. A news report said the girls had lit a fire to keep warm.
    (AP, 12/2/08)
2008        Dec 1, In Germany Monika Halbe (44) was sentenced to four years and three months in prison for killing the children born in 1988 and 2003 by suffocation or neglect. The case of a third infant killed in 1986 and stored with the other two was not prosecuted because the statute of limitations had expired.
    (AP, 12/1/08)
2008        Dec 1, India has formally demanded that Pakistan take "strong action" against the people behind the Mumbai attacks. An Indian police official said the only gunman captured alive after the attacks claimed to belong to Lashkar-e-Taiba, a Pakistani militant group with links to the disputed Himalayan region of Kashmir and one long seen as a creation of the Pakistani intelligence service.
    (AP, 12/1/08)
2008        Dec 1, A series of suicide bomb attacks struck US and Iraqi security forces in Baghdad and the northern city of Mosul, killing at least 32 people and wounding dozens.
    (AP, 12/1/08)(SFC, 12/2/08, p.A4)
2008        Dec 1, The Israeli navy turned away a Libyan ship heading to Gaza with 3,000 tons of humanitarian aid, ending the most high-profile effort yet to break a blockade of the Hamas-ruled territory.
    (AP, 12/1/08)
2008        Dec 1, In Italy the worst flooding in Venice in more than 20 years forced residents and tourists to wade through knee-high water.
    (AP, 12/1/08)
2008        Dec 1, In Mexico Tijuana's anti-corruption police chief was fired and replaced with an army officer, following three days of violence that left 37 people dead in this border city plagued by warring drug gangs. In southern Mexico Fabian Ramirez shot his 50-year-old mother in the back Monday, wounding her. He then allegedly killed three police officers who arrived at the scene, including Iguala's police chief. Police captured Ramirez, but four armed men broke into the jail and took him away by force. The next day Ramirez was found beheaded.
    (AP, 12/1/08)(AP, 12/2/08)
2008        Dec 1, In Nigeria some two thousand angry youths stormed a mosque in the riot-torn city of Jos as a top parliament official appealed for an end to religious troubles that have left hundreds dead.
    (AFP, 12/1/08)
2008        Dec 1, Militants in northwestern Pakistan attacked trucks ferrying supplies to NATO and US forces in Afghanistan, killing two people and destroying a dozen vehicles. A suicide attack on a security checkpoint  in the Swat Valley killed 8 people and wounded 40.
    (AP, 12/1/08)
2008        Dec 1, A 12-day UN climate conference opened in Poznan, Poland. During the conference Chief Bill Erasmus of the Dene nation in northern Canada brought a stark warning about the climate crisis: The once abundant herds of caribou are dwindling, rivers are running lower and the ice is too thin to hunt on.
2008        Dec 1, Romania's parliamentary election results showed the centrist and leftist parties less than a percentage point apart with more than 90 percent of the vote counted, raising the prospect of tough negotiations to form a coalition.
    (AP, 12/1/08)
2008        Dec 1, South Africa used World AIDS Day to urge its menfolk to get themselves tested for the HIV virus that leads to the illness.
    (AP, 12/1/08)
2008        Dec 1, In Thailand a senior tourism official said an estimated 350,000 passengers have been unable to fly out since anti-government protesters shut down Bangkok's two airports last week.
    (AFP, 12/1/08)
2008        Dec 1, In Zimbabwe gunfire broke out in downtown Harare when rampaging, unpaid soldiers attacked money changers and clashed with police. Zimbabwe rejected a court ruling that demanded the government stop its policy of seizing land from white farmers. Opposition leader Morgan Tsvangirai urged the world to help end a "man-made" humanitarian crisis which has left hundreds of people dead in a cholera epidemic.
    (AP, 12/1/08)

2008        Dec 2, Detroit’s Big Three auto makers presented turnaround plans to Congress and sought $34 billion in aid.
    (WSJ, 12/3/08, p.A1)
2008        Dec 2, The new Washington, DC, Capitol Visitor Center opened to the public. The 580,000 square-foot structure ended up costing $621 million, over twice the budgeted amount.
    (Econ, 12/20/08, p.53)(www.aoc.gov/cvc/)
2008        Dec 2, In Arkansas a federal indictment was unsealed accusing evangelist Tony Alamo (74) of sexually abusing five girls on separate occasions beginning in 1994, including a period when he was serving a tax-evasion sentence at a halfway house in Texarkana. Alamo was convicted on July 24 of taking girls as young as 9 across state lines for sex. On Nov 13 Alamo was sentenced to 175 years in prison.
    (AP, 12/3/08)(SFC, 7/25/09, p.A3)(SFC, 11/14/09, p.A4)
2008        Dec 2, Georgia Sen. Saxby Chambliss trounced Democrat Jim Martin, winning his second term by a margin of more than 10 percentage points. The victory in the runoff denied Democrats a filibuster-proof majority and cemented the state's reputation as a GOP bastion.
    (AP, 12/3/08)
2008        Dec 2, In Chicago federal prosecutors unveiled a series of elaborate sting operations aimed at officers who hired out to ride shotgun for drug deals and other criminal activities. Those charged include 10 Cook County sheriff's correctional officers, four Harvey police officers and one Chicago police officer.
    (AP, 12/3/08)
2008        Dec 2, Hawaii unveiled plans to be first in the nation to roll out electric car stations statewide, a move Gov. Linda Lingle  hailed as a major step toward weaning the islands off oil.
    (AP, 12/3/08)
2008        Dec 2, Eric Von der Porten (50), SF Bay Area hedge fund manager, committed suicide at his home in San Carlos, Ca.
    (SSFC, 1/4/09, p.A1)
2008        Dec 2, Odetta Holmes (b.1930), African-American folk singer, died. Her fame peaked in 1963 when she marched with martin Luther King and performed for Pres. Kennedy.
    (SFC, 12/3/08, p.A4)
2008        Dec 2, Henry Molaison (82), a native of Connecticut, died. In the 1950s he had his medial temporal lobes removed by surgery to alleviate his grand mal epileptic seizures. From that point on he was unable to form new memories. Scientists learned from Molaison that the hippocampus is crucial in forming some long term memories, but not for maintaining or retrieving them.
    (Econ, 12/20/08, p.146)
2008        Dec 2, US troops killed 10 Taliban militants during operations in southern and central Afghanistan, while five more witnesses testified at a hearing over allegations that two American soldiers mistreated a detainee.
    (AP, 12/3/08)
2008        Dec 2, Australia cut its key interest rate by one percentage point to 4.25%.
    (WSJ, 12/3/08, p.A12)
2008        Dec 2, A British judge ordered Abu Qatada, a radical Muslim cleric, to be jailed because of fears he was preparing to abscond. Qatada was once described as Osama bin Laden’s ambassador in Europe.
    (SFC, 12/3/08, p.A14)
2008        Dec 2, Mike Terry (61), anti-apartheid activist, died. He led Britain's anti-apartheid movement for nearly two decades and played a pivotal role in turning British public opinion against South Africa's white minority rule.
    (AP, 12/5/08)
2008        Dec 2, A Burundi soldier serving with African Union forces in Somalia was killed in fighting with Islamist insurgents in the war-torn capital Mogadishu.
    (AFP, 12/3/08)
2008        Dec 2, Canadian governor-general Michaelle Jean, the acting head of state, said she would cut short a foreign trip to help resolve one of the worst political crises in Canada's history.
    (AP, 12/2/08)
2008        Dec 2, Ted Rogers (75), founder of Rogers Communications, died in Toronto. He transformed a single FM radio station into a North American broadcasting, publishing and wireless telecommunications conglomerate.
    (AP, 12/2/08)
2008        Dec 2, India demanded Pakistan hand over 20 of its most wanted fugitives as a sign of good faith, while both sides tried to cool tensions over the Mumbai attacks before a visit by Washington's top diplomat. India named Yusuf Muzammil, the senior leader of Pakistan-based Lashkar-e-Taiba, as the mastermind of the attacks in Mumbai. A bomb exploded in a train coach in India's insurgency-hit northeast, killing at least three people and injuring another 29.
    (AP, 12/2/08)(WSJ, 12/3/08, p.A1)
2008        Dec 2, A special Iraqi court sentenced Saddam Hussein's notorious cousin, "Chemical Ali" Hassan al-Majid, to death after convicting him of crimes against humanity for his part in crushing the 1991 Shiite uprising in southern Iraq. A series of bombs in northern and southern Iraq killed at least 14 Iraqis.
    (AP, 12/2/08)(SFC, 12/3/08, p.A17)
2008        Dec 2, Dozens of Jewish settlers rioted in the West Bank town of Hebron, clashing with the Israeli troops who guard them but who may also soon evict them from a disputed building they've occupied.
    (AP, 12/2/08)
2008        Dec 2, In Kenya a government anti-corruption watchdog said it is suing seven current and former Kenyan officials for a total of a quarter of a million dollars, saying they obtained the money dishonestly.
    (AP, 12/2/08)
2008        Dec 2, In Nigeria authorities in central Plateau state announced the arrest of 16 alleged "mercenaries" from neighbouring Niger. Isa Ibrahim, the Nigerien Ambassador to Nigeria, said that those arrested had been living in Jos for several years as water vendors.
    (AFP, 12/2/08)
2008        Dec 2, In Switzerland Alex Widmer (52), head of private banking at Julius Baer Holding AG, committed suicide.
    (www.iht.com/articles/2008/12/05/europe/baer.php)(WSJ, 2/2/09, p.C4)
2008        Dec 2, In Tanzania Simon Bikindi, Rwandan singer-songwriter, was sentenced to 15 years in prison by the Tanzania-based UN war crimes court for inciting the killings of ethnic Tutsis during the 1994 genocide. In 2010 a court upheld his 15 year sentence. The time Bikindi has already spent in prison since his arrest in July 2001 will be deducted from the 15 years.
    (AFP, 12/2/08)(AFP, 3/18/10)
2008        Dec 2, Thailand's PM Somchai Wongsawat resigned after weeks of protests closed the capital's airports, stranding 300,000 travelers. Protesters promised to lift their siege, and international flights were expected to resume on Dec 5. Deputy PM Chaowarat Chandeerakul will become the caretaker prime minister. Parliament will have to pick a new prime minister within 30 days.
    (AP, 12/2/08)
2008        Dec 2, Zimbabwe slipped deeper into crisis as the death toll from a cholera epidemic neared 500 and members of President Robert Mugabe's armed forces were accused of taking part in a looting spree.
    (AP, 12/2/08)

2008        Dec 3, The US government released the first part of a $400 million aid package to support Mexico's police and soldiers in their fight against drug cartels. Jesus Martin Huerta, the No. 2 federal prosecutor in the border city of Ciudad Juarez, was shot dead.
    (AP, 12/4/08)
2008        Dec 3, Laura Garza, an aspiring dancer, disappeared after leaving a NYC nightclub with a registered sex offender. On April 11, 2010, her remains were found in Olyphant, Pa. DNA confirmation was announced on April 26.
    (SFC, 4/27/10, p.A4)(www.recordonline.com/apps/pbcs.dll/section?Category=NEWS67)
2008        Dec 3, In California Theodore Neff (66) was found strangled to death as his house on San Pablo Bay burned. Within days police arrested Alejandro Hernandez Rivera (24), a male prostitute, in a sting operation. Neff’s golden flute was in Rivera’s car. In 2010 Rivera was convicted of 1st degree murder and sentenced to 33 years in prison.
    (SFC, 9/21/10, p.A1)(SFC, 10/5/10, p.C1)(SFC, 12/6/11, p.C3)
2008        Dec 3, Lynn Gilderdale (31), who suffered from myalgic encephalomyelitis (aka chronic fatigue syndrome), died in East Sussex with the assistance of her mother, Kay Gilderdale. In 2010 a British jury cleared the mother of murder charges.
    (www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/uk/health/article5309918.ece)(SSFC, 1/31/10, p.A4)
2008        Dec 3, In Iraq a sticky bomb attached to a minibus carrying Education Ministry employees exploded, killing at least one civilian and wounding five others in eastern Baghdad. Another such bomb attached to a car exploded near the entrance of the heavily fortified Green Zone, wounding the driver, an Iraqi contractor working with US forces.
    (AP, 12/3/08)
2008        Dec 3, An international rights group said the torture of prisoners including al-Qaida suspects has increased under the military junta that rules Mauritania, where security forces routinely abuse detainees with electric shocks, burnings, beatings and sexual violence.
    (AP, 12/3/08)
2008        Dec 3, NATO foreign ministers affirmed their support for US plans to install anti-missile defenses in Europe despite Russia's strong opposition. NATO foreign ministers said they expected Albania and Croatia to become the alliance's newest members by April.
    (AP, 12/3/08)
2008        Dec 3, In the southern Nigerian state of Akwa Ibom one person was killed during an attack on a convoy of Mobil Producing Nigeria (MPN), a subsidiary of US oil group ExxonMobil.
    (AFP, 12/4/08)
2008        Dec 3-2008 Dec 4, In Norway 94 nations signed a treaty banning cluster bombs in a move that supporters hope will shame the US, Russia and China and other non-signers into abandoning weapons blamed for maiming and killing civilians. Norway, which began the drive to ban cluster bombs 18 months ago, was the first to sign, followed by Laos and Lebanon, both hard-hit by the weapons.
    (AP, 12/3/08)(Econ, 12/13/08, p.70)
2008        Dec 3, Pakistani airstrikes killed 30 suspected militants in 2 area of the Mohmand border region. A suicide attack on a convoy in the same region killed 3 soldiers and a civilian.
    (SFC, 12/4/08, p.A13)
2008        Dec 3, In Puerto Rico a Rockwell International 690B plane slammed into El Yunque mountain, killing Caribbean pilot Ken Webster and two US tourists on board. A spokesman for the Medical Mutual of Ohio health insurance company later identified the two Americans as Kent W. Clapp, the firm's chief executive, and his fiancee, Tracy Turner.
    (AP, 12/5/08)
2008        Dec 3, In Spain's northern Basque region suspected ETA separatists shot and killed a businessman in the first attack linked to the group since the arrest of its military chief last month.
    (AP, 12/3/08)
2008        Dec 3, In Thailand the first commercial flight in a week arrived in Bangkok as anti-government protesters ended their siege of the country's two main airports, declaring victory after PM Somchai Wongsawat was ousted by a court ruling.
    (AP, 12/3/08)
2008        Dec 3, In Yemen the bodies of 24 Somalis washed ashore following an accident involving a boat trying to smuggle migrants. Strong winds pushed the bodies on to beaches over the last 2 days near the town of al-Qasha'a. 184 more Somalis involved in the accident managed to swim ashore.
    (AP, 12/4/08)
2008        Dec 3, Zimbabwe riot police charged into a group of doctors and nurses protesting the deepening economic and health crisis, as deaths rose sharply from a cholera epidemic blamed on collapsing infrastructure.
    (AP, 12/3/08)

2008        Dec 4, AT&T Inc. joined the recession's parade of layoffs by announcing plans to cut 12,000 jobs, about 4 percent of its work force.
    (AP, 12/4/08)
2008        Dec 4, In Afghanistan 2 Danish soldiers serving with NATO's force were killed in southern Helmand province. The governor of Afghanistan's key southern Kandahar province said he was sacked by the central government and complained that powerful people in his region had been sabotaging his work. US-led troops killed four militants in Helmand province, after the insurgents fired on a joint US-Afghan patrol.
    (AFP, 12/4/08)(AP, 12/4/08)(AP, 12/5/08)
2008        Dec 4, In Afghanistan eight prisoners were killed at Kabul's Pol-i-charki Prison, during a clash between guards and prisoners.
    (AP, 12/6/08)
2008        Dec 4, The Bank of England cut its base interest rate from 3% to 2%, a rate last seen in 1951.
    (Econ, 12/6/08, p.74)
2008        Dec 4, In Burundi a summit was held in Bujumbura stating the position of the Great Lakes region on the implementation of the peace agreements signed at the Dar es Salaam summit of 2006 in Tanzania.
2008        Dec 4, Canada’s PM Stephen Harper won a rare suspension of Parliament, managing to avoid being ousted by opposition parties angry over the minority Conservative government's economic plans and an attempt to cut off party financing.
    (Reuters, 12/4/08)
2008        Dec 4,  In eastern China a fire at the dormitory of a seafood company killed 11 workers and injured 10 others.
    (AP, 12/4/08)
2008        Dec 4, The Danish navy intercepted and sunk a suspected pirate vessel drifting off Somalia. 7 men were handed over to authorities in Yemen but were not immediately suspected of any crime.
    (AP, 12/5/08)
2008        Dec 4, Europe's top human rights court ruled that storing DNA from people with no criminal record is in breach of their rights, a landmark decision that could force Britain to destroy the samples of nearly 1 million people on its database.
    (AP, 12/4/08)
2008        Dec 4, In France armed robbers, some disguised as women, snatched €85 million ($108 million) worth of diamond rings, necklaces and luxury watches from a Harry Winston boutique on a posh Paris avenue in one of the largest jewel heists in history. In June, 2009, French police arrested 25 suspects in connection with the robbery and recovered some of the jewelry. In 2011 investigators found jewels valued at $25 million in a plastic container set in a cement mold inside a sewer at a home in the Paris suburb of Seine-St. Denis. The house belonged to one of the 9 people charged in the heist. On Feb 27, 2015, eight were convicted on charges including armed robbery over the heist and another a year earlier at the same store.
    (AP, 12/5/08)(SFC, 6/23/09, p.A2)(SFC, 3/10/11, p.A4)(AP, 2/28/15)
2008        Dec 4, The Luxembourg-based European Court of First Instance said EU governments "violated the rights of defense" of the People's Mujahedeen Organization of Iran (PMOI), and that the EU nations have not provided sufficient proof to blacklist the group.
    (AP, 12/4/08)
2008        Dec 4, Iraq's presidential council approved a security pact that sets out a three-year timeframe for US troops to leave, the final step for the agreement to replace a UN mandate that expires Dec. 31. Two suicide bombers in explosives-laden trucks took aim at police stations in the former Sunni insurgent stronghold of Fallujah, killing at least 15 people and wounding more than 100. A suicide car bomber killed two US soldiers and wounded nine Iraqi civilians near a checkpoint in the northern city of Mosul. A bomb in Baquba killed 3 people.
    (AP, 12/4/08)(SFC, 12/5/08, p.A23)
2008        Dec 4, Rioting by Jewish settlers spread in the West Bank after Israeli soldiers forcibly removed about 250 extremists from a disputed house in the center of Hebron. Banks in the Gaza Strip shut down to count their dwindling cash. Israel lifted a four-week-old ban on international journalists entering the Gaza Strip.
    (AP, 12/4/08)
2008        Dec 4, Pirates attacked an oil-services vessel before dawn off the coast of Nigeria and kidnapped two foreign workers.
    (AP, 12/4/08)
2008        Dec 4, Drug agents in Peru seized 3 tons of cocaine mixed into a shipment of guano bound for Spain. Four Peruvians and a Colombian were arrested.
    (AP, 12/15/08)
2008        Dec 4, In Somalia 20 men and women graduated from medical school in Mogadishu, something that nobody in Somalia has done in nearly two decades.
    (AP, 12/4/08)
2008        Dec 4, Sweden’s central bank cuts its benchmark interest rate from 3.75% to 2% saying monetary policy was less effective than usual.
    (Econ, 12/6/08, p.92)
2008        Dec 4, Zimbabwe declared a national emergency over a cholera epidemic and the collapse of its health care system, as the government sought more international help to pay for food and drugs to combat the crisis.
    (AP, 12/4/08)

2008        Dec 5, The US and China pledged to work together to tackle global financial turmoil as they wrapped up economic talks but left open whether the high-level dialogue will continue under President-elect Barack Obama.
    (AP, 12/5/08)
2008        Dec 5, The US labor Dept. said employers slashed 533,000 jobs in November, the most in 34 years, catapulting the unemployment rate to 6.7 percent, dramatic proof the country is careening deeper into recession.
    (AP, 12/5/08)
2008        Dec 5, O.J. Simpson was sentenced in Las Vegas from 9 to 33 years in prison for kidnapping and assaulting two sports memorabilia dealers with a deadly weapon.
    (AP, 12/6/08)
2008        Dec 5, Cliff Lambert (74), a Palm Springs retiree, was stabbed to death and buried in the desert. To date his body has not been found. The murder was orchestrated by Kaushal Niroula, a SF New College exchange student from Nepal along with 2 other students including Craig McCarthy of Daly City. Miguel Bustamante was the alleged murderer. In 2010 the three faced trial on murder charges. McCarthy (30) pleaded guilty to lesser charges and testified against the others. The plot to kill Lambert, sell his home and take his assets also included  Danny Garcia and SF attorney David Replogle. On Dec 3, 2011, Replogle and Bustamante were convicted of 10 criminal counts including first-degree murder. On Sep 7, 2012, Niroula and Garcia were convicted of first-degree murder and other charges.
    (SSFC, 5/23/10, p.A17)(SSFC, 9/5/10, p.C3)(SFC, 1/4/11, p.C2)(SFC, 9/8/12, p.C4)
2008        Dec 5, Nina Foch (b.1924), Dutch-born Hollywood film star, died in Los Angeles. Her films included “An American in Paris" (1951).
    (SFC, 12/13/08, p.A5)
2008        Dec 5, In Afghanistan 3 Canadian soldiers were killed by a massive bomb, bringing to 100 the number who have lost their lives since the country's military mission there started in 2002.
    (AP, 12/6/08)
2008        Dec 5, Australia's driest state was forced to purchase water for the first time to ensure adequate supplies in the midst of a drought. Karlene Maywald, state water security minister, said South Australia has purchased 61 billion gallons (231 gigaliters) of water so that Adelaide, the state capital, will have enough water for 2009 even if the drought continues.
    (AP, 12/5/08)
2008        Dec 5, In southern China about 100 factory owners and employees held up red protest banners outside a government building, demanding that officials help them collect more than $13 million in debts from an electronics factory that recently closed.
    (AP, 12/5/08)
2008        Dec 5, In northeast Colombia suspected leftist rebels attacked a small police convoy with explosives and automatic weapons, killing eight police officers and wounding one. Police blamed the attack on the National Liberation Army (ELN), which operates in the oil-producing region bordering Venezuela.
    (AP, 12/5/08)
2008        Dec 5, A boat from the Dominican Republic was found adrift. 2 survivors were found by fisherman and 49 others were presumed dead. Migrants had set off on Nov 13 in search of jobs in Puerto Rico.
    (AP, 12/6/08)
2008        Dec 5, India and Russia signed a civilian nuclear deal that would see Russia build four nuclear reactors for power-starved India.
    (AP, 12/5/08)
2008        Dec 5, Police in India arrested two Indian men accused of illegally buying mobile phone cards used by the gunmen in the Mumbai attacks. In eastern India suspected Maoist rebels killed five police officers in an ambush.
    (AP, 12/6/08)(AP, 12/5/08)
2008        Dec 5, Iranian state radio said police confirmed that a militant group active in Iran has killed all 16 police officers it abducted in June. Shortly after the abduction, the Sunni Muslim Jundallah group said it had executed two of the officers and threatened to kill the remaining 14 unless imprisoned members of the group were released.
    (AP, 12/5/08)
2008        Dec 5, In Iraq three women were killed in Balad Ruz, north of Baghdad, when a bomb planted in a radio exploded.
    (AP, 12/5/08)
2008        Dec 5, Israeli defense officials reinstated a ban on international journalists entering the Gaza Strip, despite protests from the heads of major news organizations and an appeal to the country's Supreme Court.
    (AP, 12/8/08)
2008        Dec 5, Japan approved a law that will grant citizenship to all children born out of wedlock to Japanese fathers who acknowledge them, regardless of the nationality of their mothers.
    (AP, 12/5/08)
2008        Dec 5, Kyrgyzstan's state radio station was reported to have taken BBC programming off the airwaves, days after withdrawing broadcasting rights from US-funded Radio Liberty's Kyrgyz Service.
    (AP, 12/5/08)
2008        Dec 5, Gerardo Garay, Mexico's former acting federal police chief, was accused of collaborating with a notorious cartel and stealing money from a mansion during a raid to bust a drug trafficking ring. Victor Serrano (24), a hit team chief, was wounded and 3 alleged gang members died in a shootout in Mexicali. 14 others were arrested.
    (AP, 12/5/08)(AP, 12/8/08)
2008        Dec 5, In Pakistan a car bomb devastated a busy street in the northwestern city of Peshawar, killing 30 people and injuring about a hundred.
    (AP, 12/5/08)(AP, 12/6/08)(Econ, 12/13/08, p.50)
2008        Dec 5, In Romania Constantin Ticu Dumitrescu (80), once jailed as a communist-era "enemy of the state," died after years of fighting to reveal details of the country's troubled past.
    (AP, 12/5/08)
2008        Dec 5, Russian Orthodox Patriarch Alexy II (79) died. He had presided over a vast post-Soviet revival of faith but struggled against the influence of other churches.
    (AP, 12/5/08)
2008        Dec 5, In Saudi Arabia nearly 3 million Muslims from all over the world gathered in Mecca, on the eve of the start of the annual hajj pilgrimage.
    (AP, 12/5/08)
2008        Dec 5, In Somalia 12 people were killed as mortar shells rained down on homes and a small market  in Mogadishu.
    (SFC, 12/6/08, p.A5)
2008        Dec 5, In southern Thailand 4 people were killed by a bomb at a drugstore suspected to have been planted by Muslim insurgents.
    (AP, 12/5/08)
2008        Dec 5, The leaders of Pakistan and Afghanistan met for Turkish-sponsored talks aimed at reducing tensions over militant attacks along the countries' lawless border.
    (AP, 12/5/08)
2008        Dec 5, The UN General Assembly passed a resolution that as of 2009, June 8th would be recognized as World Oceans Day.
    (SSFC, 6/9/13, p.C3)

2008        Dec 6, Indicted Democratic US Rep. William Jefferson was ousted from his New Orleans area district, while Republicans narrowly held on to the seat vacated by a retiring incumbent. Republican attorney Anh "Joseph" Cao won 50% of the vote to Jefferson's 47% and will become the first Vietnamese-American in Congress.
    (AP, 12/7/08)
2008        Dec 6, A Montana state judge ruled that doctor assisted suicides are legal in the state.
    (SSFC, 12/7/08, p.A4)
2008        Dec 6, The Univ. of Hawaii activated the Panoramic Survey Telescope & Rapid Response System (PS1) to search for dangerous asteroids.
    (Econ, 12/6/08, p.100)
2008        Dec 6, Martha "Sunny" von Bulow (b.1932), daughter of utilities tycoon George Crawford, died in New York. The heiress spent the last 28 years of her life in oblivion after what prosecutors alleged in a pair of sensational trials were two murder attempts by her husband. In 19082 Claus von Bulow was convicted of trying twice to kill her by injecting her with insulin at their estate in Newport, R.I. That verdict was thrown out on appeal, and he was acquitted at a second trial in 1985.
    (AP, 12/6/08)
2008        Dec 6, Okay Airways, China's first private airline, began a planned one-month suspension of passenger service 10 days early after skittish airports insisted on cash to refuel its planes. The airline suffered from financial and management woes.
    (AP, 12/6/08)
2008        Dec 6, In Denmark "Gomorra," a movie by Italian director Matteo Garrone about Naples' criminal underworld, won the best film prize at the 21st annual European Film Awards.
    (AP, 12/6/08)
2008        Dec 6, Greek police shot and killed Alexis Grigoropoulos (15). His death sparked two weeks of the worst rioting the country has seen in decades. In 2010 a court sentenced a police officer to life in prison for Grigoropoulos' death, and a second officer to 10 years.
    (AP, 12/6/11)
2008        Dec 6, India’s central bank cuts its benchmark short term lending and borrowing rates by one percentage point. The next day the government unveiled a stimulus package that included increased spending and easing of some taxes.
    (WSJ, 12/8/08, p.A8)
2008        Dec 6, A series of attacks targeted Iraqi security forces in Baghdad and in the north, killing at least six people, including a senior member of an anti-al-Qaida group.
    (AP, 12/6/08)
2008        Dec 6, The Irish government ordered the recall of all pig meat products made in the Republic of Ireland after dioxins were discovered in slaughtered pigs thought to have eaten contaminated feed.
    (AFP, 12/7/08)
2008        Dec 6, Mexican soldiers found at least eight bodies buried in a shallow grave in Michoacan state.
    (AP, 12/8/08)
2008        Dec 6, Amsterdam unveiled plans to close brothels, sex shops and marijuana cafes in its ancient city center as part of a major effort to drive organized crime out of the tourist haven.
    (AP, 12/6/08)
2008        Dec 6, Palestinians packed into cars to leave the West Bank city of Nablus after Israel eased restrictions on residents leaving the town in vehicles for the first time in six years.
    (AP, 12/6/08)
2008        Dec 6, In the Philippines gunmen armed with automatic weapons and grenades fired on police officers who were tailing them, leaving at least 17 people dead in a fierce shootout in a Manila suburb.
    (AP, 12/6/08)
2008        Dec 6, In Moscow, Russia, ultranationalist attacked 2 migrant workers, one of whom escaped. On Dec 10 the severed head of Salekh Azizov (20), the other Tajik migrant worker, was found in a trash bin. A group calling itself the Militant Organization of Russian Nationalists claimed responsibility. For the year some 85 people were reported killed by violent nationalists.   
    (SSFC, 12/14/08, p.A25)
2008        Dec 6, Sri Lanka's military captured a rebel-held village, bringing half of a main highway leading to the rebels' de facto capital of Kilinochchi under government control.
    (AP, 12/6/08)
2008        Dec 6, Zimbabwe's President Robert Mugabe came under fresh international pressure over his country's economic collapse as his government announced plans to introduce a 200 million dollar bill.
    (AFP, 12/6/08)

2008        Dec 7, NYC police officers escorted a drunken Gap designer (29) to her East Village apartment. In 2011 a Manhattan jury acquitted two officers of rape, but found them guilty of misconduct for three unauthorized post midnight visits to her apartment.
    (SFC, 5/27/11, p.A6)
2008        Dec 7, Off the coast of Cameroon at least three dozen people were missing and feared dead after a ferryboat accident. It was transporting 43 people in West Africa's Gulf of Guinea.
    (AP, 12/10/08)
2008        Dec 7, Former Central African Republic president Ange-Felix Patasse arrived in Bangui after 5 years in exile in Togo to participate in long-delayed peace talks in the troubled country.
    (AFP, 12/8/08)
2008        Dec 7, China protested strongly to France over President Nicolas Sarkozy's meeting with the Dalai Lama, calling it a "rude intervention" into Chinese affairs.
    (AP, 12/7/08)
2008        Dec 7, Francois-Xavier Lalanne (81), French sculptor, died at his home in Ury. For 40 years he and his wife worked in tandem, producing some works jointly, others independently.
2008        Dec 7, Ghanaians voted for a new president in a tight race between two foreign-educated lawyers hoping to lead the West African nation into an era of greater prosperity thanks to offshore oil. Two technocrats were expected to get the most votes in a filed of 8 seeking to replace incumbent Pres. John Kufuor. No candidate managed to win a majority and Nana Akufo-Addo and John Atta Mills were scheduled for a runoff on Dec 28.
    (Reuters, 12/7/08)(WSJ, 12/8/08, p.A12)(WSJ, 12/11/08, p.A12)
2008        Dec 7, In Greece rioters rampaged through Athens and the northern city of Thessaloniki, hurling Molotov cocktails, burning stores and blocking city streets with flaming barricades after protests against the fatal Dec 6 police shooting of Alexandros Grigoropoulos (15) in Exarchia erupted into chaos.
    (AP, 12/7/08)(Econ, 12/13/08, p.59)
2008        Dec 7, In Iraq a bomb hidden in an abandoned store exploded as the mayor of Baqouba was leading a tour through the city center. The blast wounded the mayor, Abdullah al-Hiali, and 34 other people. In northern Iraq Dr. Adel Hussein, freelance journalist, was pardoned by Massoud Barzani, the president of the self-ruled Kurdish region in the country's north. He had been imprisoned for 13 days for violating a public decency law by writing a story in 2007 about homosexuality. He was among 121 people pardoned by the president in advance of the Muslim celebration of Eid al-Adha.
    (AP, 12/7/08)(AP, 12/10/08)
2008        Dec 7, Large crowds voted in several towns in Indian Kashmir, while separatists in other areas boycotted the polls and clashed with government forces in the fourth phase of state elections in the disputed Himalayan region.
    (AP, 12/7/08)
2008        Dec 7, Kenya’s PM Raila Odinga said foreign troops should prepare to intervene in Zimbabwe to end a worsening humanitarian crisis and Zimbabwean President Robert Mugabe should be investigated for crimes against humanity.
    (AP, 12/7/08)
2008        Dec 7, A Kurdish rebel group declared a nine-day holiday cease-fire in their fight against Turkey, calling it a "first step toward peace."
    (AP, 12/7/08)
2008        Dec 7, In southern Malaysia a bus skidded off a highway, smashed into a tree and plunged into a ditch, killing nine people and injuring 19 others.
    (AP, 12/7/08)
2008        Dec 7, In Mexico 10 suspected drug traffickers and a soldier were killed in gunbattles in southern Guerrero state. 6 people were killed when assailants opened fire inside a pool hall in Ciudad Juarez, across the border from El Paso, Texas.
    (AP, 12/8/08)
2008        Dec 7, A Mexican government Learjet plunged into Atlangatepec lake in central Mexico, killing two pilots in the second deadly crash in a month involving a federally owned plane.
    (AP, 12/8/08)
2008        Dec 7, Gunmen blasted their way into two transport terminals in Pakistan and torched more than 160 vehicles, including 790 Humvees, destined for US-led troops in Afghanistan, in the biggest assault yet on a vital military supply line. The losses possibly exceeded $10 million.
    (AP, 12/7/08)
2008        Dec 7, Pakistani security forces overran a militant camp on the outskirts of Muzaffarabad, Pakistani Kashmir's main city, and seized Zaki-ur-Rehman Lakhvi, an alleged mastermind of the attacks that shook Mumbai last month. Zarar Shah, another top operational commander, and 10 others were seized at the camp run by the banned group Laskhar-e-Taiba.
    (AP, 12/8/08)(WSJ, 12/9/08, p.A10)
2008        Dec 7, In the Philippines Abu Sayyaf and Muslim militants engaged in fierce clashes with governments troops who took over a southern village on Basilan island notorious as a hide-out for kidnappers and al-Qaida-linked rebels. At least five soldiers were killed and dozens wounded.
    (AP, 12/8/08)
2008        Dec 7, In Saudi Arabia nearly 3 million Muslims converged on a rocky desert hill outside Mecca to perform the ritual of forgiveness marking the climax of the annual hajj.
    (AP, 12/7/08)
2008        Dec 7, Thailand's main opposition party called for an emergency parliament session to prove its majority in a bid to form the next government and end months of political chaos, as loyalists of former premier Thaksin Shinawatra struggled to stay in power.
    (AP, 12/7/08)

2008        Dec 8, Khalid Sheikh Mohammed and 4 co-defendants, charged with plotting the Sept. 11 attacks, told a military judge that they want to immediately confess at their war-crimes tribunal at Guantanamo Bay.
    (AP, 12/8/08)(WSJ, 12/9/08, p.A1)
2008        Dec 8, Marc Dreier (58), owner of a prominent NYC law firm, was indicted with criminal charges and civil complaints alleging he defrauded investors of some $115 million by selling them phony financial instruments. On Dec 23 federal prosecutors charged Kosta Kovachev (57), a former stockbroker, for his role in Dreier’s 2006 Ponzi scheme. In 2009 the indictment was amended and estimated the alleged fraud at about $700 million.
    (WSJ, 12/9/08, p.A3)(WSJ, 12/24/08, p.A3)(WSJ, 3/18/09, p.A7)
2008        Dec 8, In San Diego The F/A-18D Hornet crashed into a street about two miles from Marine Corps Air Station Miramar as the pilot was returning from a training flight. 4 people, a mother, 2 children and a grandmother, were killed in one house. Two homes were destroyed.
    (AP, 12/9/08)(WSJ, 12/9/08, p.A1)(SFC, 12/10/08, p.A6)
2008        Dec 8, The Chicago-based Tribune Co. filed for bankruptcy as it struggled with $13 billion in debt and a drop-off in advertising.
    (SFC, 12/9/08, p.D2)
2008        Dec 8, Dow Chemical Co. said it will slash 5,000 full-time jobs, about 11 percent of its total work force, close 20 plants and sell several businesses to rein in costs amid the economic recession.
    (AP, 12/8/08)
2008        Dec 8, Robert Prosky (77), American theater, film and TV actor, died.
    (SFC, 12/12/08, p.B9)
2008        Dec 8, In Brazil Police chief Paulo Fernando Fortunato reported that 13 gay men were killed in a park in suburban Sao Paulo between February 2007 and August 2008.
    (AP, 12/8/08)
2008        Dec 8, British car parts maker Wagon PLC said it planned to file for a form of bankruptcy protection after a global slump in demand for cars crippled its business.
    (AP, 12/8/08)
2008        Dec 8, British and French leaders met with European business executives to discuss plans for major government spending on infrastructure and energy projects aimed at helping Europe to beat the downturn.
    (AP, 12/8/08)
2008        Dec 8, Quebec's ruling Liberals strengthened their grip on power in a provincial election, winning a parliamentary majority and defeating separatists who want independence for the predominantly French-speaking Canadian province.
    (Reuters, 12/9/08)
2008        Dec 8, In China Liu Xiaobo (53), a dissident, was detained hours before releasing Charter 08, the China democracy movement's most comprehensive call yet for peaceful reform. Liu had cut short a visiting scholar stint at Columbia University to join the Tiananmen Square protests in Beijing in 1989. He and three other older activists famously persuaded students to peacefully leave the square hours before the deadly June 4 crackdown.
    (AP, 10/2/10)
2008        Dec 8, Congolese rebels opened peace negotiations with a government delegation in Nairobi in their first direct talks on ending the conflict in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.
    (AP, 12/8/08)
2008        Dec 8, The EU formally launches its anti-piracy task mission off the Somali coast, preparing to take over from the NATO flotilla guarding one of the world's most important shipping lanes.
    (AP, 12/8/08)
2008        Dec 8, The EU joined calls for President Robert Mugabe to step down after 28 years ruling Zimbabwe, where spreading cholera and food shortages have worsened a desperate humanitarian crisis.
    (AP, 12/8/08)
2008        Dec 8, French police arrested the suspected military chief and "No. 1 member" of ETA, a new blow to the banned Basque militant group just weeks after his alleged predecessor was caught.
    (AP, 12/9/08)
2008        Dec 8, The National Bank of Hungary cut its key interest rate by half a percentage point to an annual rate of 10.5% due to the deteriorating economy outlook.
    (WSJ, 12/9/08, p.C2)
2008        Dec 8, The US military captured four suspected members of a Shiite militant group in Iraq allegedly trained and funded by Iran.
    (AP, 12/8/08)
2008        Dec 8, Victor Hugo Moneda, a senior Mexico City police commander, was slain in a drive-by shooting outside his home. He had overseen raids in the capital's gang-filled Tepito neighborhood.
    (AP, 12/10/08)
2008        Dec 8, In Pakistan armed militants launched a second raid in as many days on NATO depots, torching nearly 100 more vehicles destined for the alliance's forces in Afghanistan.
    (AFP, 12/8/08)
2008        Dec 8, In the Philippines suspected extortionists armed with automatic rifles and rocket-propelled grenades attacked two cargo ships docked at a southern port, wounding two crew members.
    (AP, 12/9/08)
2008        Dec 8, In northern Vietnam a blast at a coal mine killed at least seven workers and injured 15.
    (AP, 12/8/08)

2008        Dec 9, Federal authorities arrested Illinois Gov. Rod Blagojevich (51) on charges that he brazenly conspired to sell or trade the US Senate seat left vacant by President-elect Barack Obama to the highest bidder. Upon his arrest Blagojevich and his wife were awash in over $200,000 in credit card debt. Blagojevich was  released after paying a $4,500 bond.
    (AP, 12/9/08)(SFC, 12/10/08, p.A4)(SFC, 7/2/10, p.A6)
2008        Dec 9, The US Treasury said it had sold $30 billion in four-week bills at an interest rate of zero percent, for the first time since the notes began issuing in 2001.
    (SFC, 12/10/08, p.C4)
2008        Dec 9, Wal-Mart Stores Inc. said it will pay up to $54.25 million to settle a class-action lawsuit that alleged the discount giant cut workers' break time and didn't prevent employees from working off the clock in Minnesota.
    (AP, 12/10/08)
2008        Dec 9, SF Mayor Gavin Newsom announced $71 million in cuts that included the loss of jobs for nearly 400 city employees.
    (SFC, 12/10/08, p.A1)
2008        Dec 9, Nevada state and federal authorities said they arrested nearly two dozen people, many with ties to Eastern Europe, in a credit card fraud and identity theft scheme that cost Las Vegas businesses and consumers about $1.5 million.
    (AP, 12/9/08)
2008        Dec 9, In Afghanistan Mohammad Bobi, a Taliban commander, was killed during a targeted overnight operation just south of Kabul.
    (AP, 12/9/08)
2008        Dec 9, In Argentina officials announced that 10,000 bone fragments had been unearthed between February and September, inside the once-secret Arana detention center in La Plata. Political dissidents were tortured and killed there during the 1976-1983 “Dirty War."
    (AP, 12/10/08)
2008        Dec 9, The Bank of Canada unexpectedly cut its key interest rate by three-quarters of a percentage point to a 50-year low of 1.50 percent and declared the Canadian economy to be in a recession.
    (AP, 12/9/08)
2008        Dec 9, In Beijing delegates from six nations focused on a Chinese proposal on how to verify North Korea's claims about its atomic program in talks aimed at ending the secretive regime's nuclear activities.
    (AFP, 12/9/08)
2008        Dec 9, In China activists issued a new public call for greater freedoms ahead of the 60th anniversary of the UN convention on human rights, but police detained two of the signatories before it was even issued. The petition known as Charter 08 was issued online and initially signed by 303 intellectuals. Within a week 5,000 people added their signature.
    (AP, 12/9/08)(Econ, 1/17/09, p.42)(Econ, 2/14/09, SR p.17)
2008        Dec 9, Ethiopian troops were reported to be pouring into neighboring Somalia to fight radical Islamists who have taken over much of the country, raising fears of more violence in a country fighting a deadly insurgency and piracy.
    (AP, 12/9/08)
2008        Dec 9, In Paris, France, entrepreneur Sir Richard Branson, Jordan's Queen Noor and other dignitaries launched an ambitious project aimed at eliminating the world's nuclear weapons over the next 25 years.
    (AP, 12/9/08)
2008        Dec 9, The European Union and Canada reached a deal to open their aviation markets to each other by removing restrictions on direct flights and foreign ownership in airlines.
    (AP, 12/9/08)
2008        Dec 9, Hong Kong health authorities said more than 80,000 chickens will be slaughtered after bird flu was found on a poultry farm, the first outbreak at a farm here in nearly six years.
    (AFP, 12/9/08)
2008        Dec 9, India police released the names of nine suspected Islamic militants killed during their attack on Mumbai, bolstering India's charges that all of them came from Pakistan. A speeding bus caught fire in northern Uttar Pradesh state, killing at least 63 Hindu pilgrims.
    (AP, 12/9/08)(AP, 12/10/08)
 2008        Dec 9, Ireland's farm minister said Irish cattle have tested positive for chemicals which have triggered a cancer scare previously confined to pork.
    (AFP, 12/9/08)
2008        Dec 9, Israel reopened its crossings with Gaza to shipments of humanitarian aid and fuel. International journalists were also being allowed in.
    (AP, 12/9/08)
2008        Dec 9, Sony said it is slashing 8,000 jobs, or 4 percent of its global work force, aiming to cut costs by $1.1 billion a year as an economic downturn and a stronger yen batter profits at the Japanese electronics maker.
    (AP, 12/9/08)
2008        Dec 9, Andrius Kubilius (b.1956) began serving as the Prime Minister of Lithuania. He already served as the PM 1999. He led the conservative political party Homeland Union – Lithuanian Christian Democrats.
2008        Dec 9, Mexico's Congress voted to broaden police powers, allowing law enforcement agencies to use undercover agents and taped conversations as evidence in a bid to help them fight increasingly bloody drug cartels. In the Gulf coast state of Tabasco, soldiers detained 11 police officers from four towns for questioning on suspicion of aiding the Gulf drug cartel. In the northern city of Tijuana four bodies were found.
    (AP, 12/9/08)
2008        Dec 9, Pakistan arrested some 40 people in raids that targeted Lashkar-e-Taiba in the Northwest Frontier Province and Punjab.
    (WSJ, 12/10/08, p.A9)
2008        Dec 9, A South African man accused of attempting to smuggle hundreds of rare chameleons, snakes, lizards and frogs out of Madagascar inside his jacket and luggage was convicted and sentenced to a year in jail.
    (AP, 12/9/08)
2008        Dec 9, President Robert Mugabe rejected mounting Western pressure for him to resign, even as his health minister called for more international aid to battle a deadly cholera epidemic. US President George W. Bush joined calls for Robert Mugabe to step down, but the African Union rejected tougher action against Mugabe and said only dialogue could solve its crisis.
    (AFP, 12/9/08)(Reuters, 12/9/08)

2008        Dec 10, Congressional officials said majority Democrats and the White House have finalized a deal to spend $15 billion on emergency loans for struggling US automakers.
    (AP, 12/10/08)
2008        Dec 10, The US proposed to track down Somali pirates not only at sea, but on land and in Somalian air space with cooperation from the African country's weak UN-backed government.
    (AP, 12/11/08)
2008        Dec 10, In southern Afghanistan 6 police and a civilian were killed when US-led forces targeting a Taliban commander bombed a police station in Zabul province.
    (AFP, 12/10/08)
2008        Dec 10, Anglo-Australian mining giant Rio Tinto said it will slash some 14,000 jobs globally to cut its debt by 10 billion US dollars as it battles falling prices and a global slowdown.
    (AFP, 12/10/08)
2008        Dec 10, In Australia Taha Abdul-Rahman of Sydney was jailed for 3½ years for buying seven rocket launchers stolen from the military between 2001 and 2003, most of which have never been recovered by authorities.
    (AFP, 12/10/08)
2008        Dec 10, British television broadcast a documentary of the assisted suicide of Craig Ewert (d.2006 at 59), a terminally ill American, as he died in Switzerland. The documentary, “Right to Die?," was made by Oscar-winning director John Zaritsky.
    (SFC, 12/11/08, p.A2)
2008        Dec 10, Sark, the English Channel Island that let only landowners vote for 450 years, held the first parliamentary election in its history.
    (AP, 12/10/08)
2008        Dec 10, The government of Cambodia and the UN agreed in principle to strengthen measures to prevent corruption among staff at the country's genocide tribunal.
    (AP, 12/10/08)
2008        Dec 10, The European Commission awarded the first Chaillot Prize to the Al-Nahda Philanthropic Society for Women, a Saudi charity which helps divorced and underprivileged women.
    (AFP, 12/10/08)
2008        Dec 10, Protesters attacked Athens' main courthouse with firebombs during a hearing for police officers whose shooting of a teenager set off rioting that appeared to be tapering off even as a general strike paralyzed the country.
    (AP, 12/10/08)
2008        Dec 10, Indonesia launched the Bali Democracy Forum to promote human rights and democracy. The forum was attended by foreign ministers from around 20 countries, with President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono and Australian PM Kevin Rudd as co-chairs.
    (Econ, 2/19/11, p.43)(http://tinyurl.com/6hbsxh5)
2008        Dec 10, Israel agreed to allow the delivery of cash to banks in the Gaza Strip to ease a cash crunch that has badly hobbled the economy of the blockaded Palestinian territory.
    (AP, 12/10/08)
2008        Dec 10, In Italy a bumper harvest was expected to push wine production above that of neighboring France for the first time in a decade, making Italy the world's largest wine producer.
    (AP, 12/10/08)
2008        Dec 10, Police in Jamaica said armed gangs wrestling for control of 2 communities near the capital have forced over 200 people from their homes.
    (SFC, 12/11/08, p.A4)
2008        Dec 10, In Mexico a shootout between rival gangs killed 10 people in Sinaloa state, home of the powerful cartel of the same name. US security consultant Felix Batista was kidnapped in Saltillo, Coahuila state, while there to offer advice on how to confront abductions for ransom. He claimed to have helped resolve nearly 100 kidnap and ransom cases.
    (AP, 12/11/08)(AP, 12/15/08)
2008        Dec 10, In Romania Theodor Stolojan (65), former World Bank economist, was chosen to become the next prime minister. On Dec 15 Stolojan renounced the job and was replaced by Emil Boc (42), the leader of the same centrist Democratic Liberal Party.
    (SFC, 12/11/08, p.A4)(AP, 12/15/08)
2008        Dec 10, In Saudi Arabia Muslims poured into Mecca for a final day of the hajj.
    (AP, 12/10/08)
2008        Dec 10, In northern Sri Lanka separatist Tamil rebels fought intense battles against government forces trying to advance on the militants' de facto capital, killing at least 89 soldiers. The military disputed the death toll, saying pitched battles in the north over the past two days had left 20 soldiers and 27 rebels dead.
    (AP, 12/11/08)
2008        Dec 10, The Nobel Prizes were awarded in twin ceremonies in Stockholm and Oslo.
    (AP, 12/10/08)
2008        Dec 10, The death toll from Zimbabwe's cholera outbreak soared to nearly 800 and a court ordered police to find a missing rights activist, piling more pressure on President Robert Mugabe's government.
    (Reuters, 12/10/08)

2008        Dec 11, The $14 billion package to aid General Motors Corp., Ford Motor Co. and Chrysler LLC collapsed amid disputes over union wage cuts. A band of mostly Republican Southern senators, including states that subsidized foreign auto makers, formed the heart of the opposition.
    (AP, 12/12/08)(WSJ, 12/12/08, p.A3)
2008        Dec 11, US Interior Sec. Dirk Kemphorne announced major changes to the Endangered Species Act causing environmental groups to charge that the ‘midnight rules" set to go into effect before Pres. Obama takes offices were intended to eviscerate the wildlife protection law.
    (SFC, 12/12/08, p.A1)
2008        Dec 11, Bernard Madoff (70), a quiet force on Wall Street for decades, was arrested and charged with allegedly running a $50 billion "Ponzi scheme" in what may rank among the biggest fraud cases ever.
    (AP, 12/12/08)
2008        Dec 11, California’s air quality board approved the nation’s most sweeping plan to reduce global warming by curbing emissions.
    (SFC, 12/12/08, p.A1)
2008        Dec 11, California conservation officials said a $9.9 million deal to buy the Sonoma Ranch, also known as the Walsh Property, would be completed by the end of the year.
    (SFC, 12/12/08, p.B1)
2008        Dec 11, In Los Angeles the husband and daughter of Karine Hakobyan were killed. On March 26, 2010, Karine Hakobyan was shot to death in Hollywood.
    (AP, 3/30/10)
2008        Dec 11, Ron Carey (72), former Teamsters president (1992-1997), died in NYC.
    (SFC, 12/13/08, p.B5)
2008        Dec 11, Bettie Page (85), the 1950s secretary-turned-model, died. Her controversial photographs in skimpy attire or none at all helped set the stage for the 1960s sexual revolution.
    (AP, 12/11/08)
2008        Dec 11, Australian police said detectives have charged 22 men including a policeman, a senior lawyer and a child care worker in connection with a child pornography-sharing network spanning 70 countries. Brazilian information, which was shared via the international policing network Interpol, identified more than 200 suspects in 70 countries.
    (AP, 12/11/08)
2008        Dec 11, Police in Brussels and eastern Belgium detained 14 suspected al-Qaida-linked extremists in raids, including one militant who allegedly was plotting a suicide attack.
    (AP, 12/11/08)
2008        Dec 11, As Greece suffered through its sixth day of violence, there were troubling signs of unrest spreading across Europe. Angry youths smashed shop windows, attacked banks and hurled bottles at police in small but violent protests in Spain and Denmark, while cars were set alight outside a consulate in France.
    (AP, 12/11/08)
2008        Dec 11, Hong Kong's government confirmed that the deadly H5N1 virus was found at a poultry farm, the first outbreak on a farm here in nearly six years.
    (AP, 12/11/08)
2008        Dec 11, Indian authorities reported an outbreak of bird flu in Assam state. Some 245,000 birds had been culled and the outbreak was localized.
    (WSJ, 12/12/08, p.A12)
2008        Dec 11, Indonesia and Malaysia agreed to heighten intelligence cooperation to anticipate rising cross-border crime due to the impact of the global economic crisis.
    (AP, 12/11/08)
2008        Dec 11, In northern Iraq a suicide bomber struck a crowded restaurant where Kurdish officials were meeting with Arab tribal leaders to discuss long-standing ethnic tensions, killing at least 48 people and wounding nearly 100.
    (AP, 12/11/08)(SFC, 12/12/08, p.A4)
2008        Dec 11, Malaysia's government drew flak after admitting it spent 1.68 million dollars a year on PM Badawi’s sprawling residence in the administrative capital Putrajaya.
    (AFP, 12/11/08)
2008        Dec 11, Esther Chavez, a women's rights activist, was named the winner of Mexico's National Human Rights Award. She first drew attention to the slayings of young women in the northern border city of Ciudad Juarez in the early 1990s.
    (AP, 12/12/08)
2008        Dec 11, Mexican soldiers shot to death Silvia Arzate (35), a pregnant woman, after she reportedly failed to stop at a highway checkpoint in the northern state of Chihuahua.
    (AP, 12/12/08)
2008        Dec 11, In southern Nepal a crowded school bus skidded off a bridge on a highway, killing at least 20 students and two teachers. At least 57 others were injured.
    (AP, 12/11/08)
2008        Dec 11, Multilateral talks with North Korea failed to break an impasse on checking Pyongyang’s nuclear declarations. This led the US to halt fuel oil shipments until specific steps are taken to verify nuclear activities.
    (WSJ, 12/13/08, p.A10)
2008        Dec 11, Pakistan ordered the closure Jemaat-u-Dawa, a charity linked to Lashkar-e-Taiba, the militant group suspected in the Mumbai attacks, a day after the outfit was declared a front for terrorists by the United Nations. A suspected US strike killed six people on the Pakistan side of the Afghan border, a lawless region believed to be a stronghold of al-Qaida.
    (AP, 12/11/08)
2008        Dec 11, In northern Russia an explosion and fire ripped through a mine, killing 12 workers.
    (AP, 12/12/08)
2008        Dec 11, The South African Reserve Bank cut a key interest rate by a half percentage point to 11.5 percent in a bid to stimulate the flagging economy.
    (AP, 12/11/08)
2008        Dec 11, South Korea’s central bank cut its main interest rate by a percentage point to 3%, its 4th and largest cut in two months.
    (WSJ, 12/11/08, p.A12)
2008        Dec 11, Venezuelan prosecutors formally charged Manuel Rosales, a leading opposition figure, with corruption, as President Hugo Chavez pushed forward with plans for a referendum to end term limits. Rosales denied any wrongdoing, saying the accusations are politically motivated.
    (AP, 12/11/08)
2008        Dec 11, President Robert Mugabe declared that Zimbabwe's cholera crisis was over, even as the UN raised the death toll from the epidemic to 783.
    (AP, 12/11/08)

2008        Dec 12, The White House and the Treasury said they were considering diverting money from the Wall Street rescue fund to stave off bankruptcy filings among the carmakers. General Motors Corp. said it will temporarily close 20 factories across North America and make sweeping cuts to its vehicle production as it tries to adjust to dramatically weaker automobile demand.
    (AP, 12/12/08)
2008        Dec 12, The Bush administration issued a regulation exempting farms from reporting releases of hazardous air pollution from animal waste to federal, state and local authorities. The white House also approved a coal mining rule that makes it easier for some firms to dump rock and sludge near rivers.
    (SFC, 12/13/08, p.A9)(WSJ, 12/13/08, p.A1)
2008        Dec 12, In Woodburn, Oregon, a bomb exploded inside a branch of the West Coast Bank, killing a police officer and a state bomb disposal technician. Police arrested Joshua A. Turnidge (32), a steelworker, in Salem on Dec 14. Joshua’s father, Bruce Turnidge (57), was also soon arrested and charged with the bombing. In 2010 Bruce Turnidge and his son were convicted on 18 counts related to the bank bombing.
    (AP, 12/13/08)(SSFC, 12/14/08, p.A6)(SFC, 12/15/08, p.A3)(SFC, 12/16/08, p.A4)(WSJ, 12/27/08, p.A2)(SFC, 12/9/10, p.A18)
2008        Dec 12, Cardinal Avery Dulles died in NYC. His more than 20 books included “Models of the Church" (1974). Dulles, the son of former Sec. of State John Foster Dulles, joined the Jesuits after he was discharged from the Navy in 1946.
    (SFC, 12/13/08, p.B5)(http://ncrcafe.org/node/401)
2008        Dec 12, Van Johnson (b.1916), Hollywood film star, died in Nyack, NY. His boy-next-door wholesomeness made him a popular Hollywood star in the '40s and '50s with such films as "30 Seconds over Tokyo," "A Guy Named Joe" and "The Caine Mutiny."
    (AP, 12/12/08)(SFC, 12/13/08, p.A5)
2008        Dec 12, In central Afghanistan NATO troops fired on a civilian bus that refused warnings to stop, killing four passengers in Wardak province.
    (AP, 12/12/08)
2008        Dec 12, A court in Australia approved the use of Facebook, a popular social networking Web site, to notify a couple that they lost their home after defaulting on a loan.
    (AP, 12/16/08)
2008        Dec 12, Belgian authorities charged six suspected al-Qaida-linked extremists with membership in a terrorist group. They including a woman whose husband was involved in the assassination of Afghanistan's that killed anti-Taliban warlord Ahmed Shah Massoud, shortly before the Sept. 11 attacks in 2001.
    (AP, 12/12/08)
2008        Dec 12, In Chile admirers of former dictator Augusto Pinochet inaugurated a museum in his honor, a move they hope will burnish the image of a man reviled by much of the world.
    (AP, 12/12/08)
2008        Dec 12, Colombia extradited Diego Montoya, one of its most notorious drug trafficking suspects, to the United States to stand trial. Colombian authorities said he sent tons of cocaine to the United States and is responsible for at least 1,500 killings in a two-decade career.
    (AP, 12/12/08)
2008        Dec 12, Tassos Papadopoulos (b.1934), Cyprus' hardline former president (2003-2008), died of lung cancer in Nicosia. He had ushered the divided island into the European Union (2004) after rallying Greek Cypriots to reject a UN peace deal.
    (AP, 12/12/08)
2008        Dec 12, Ecuador’s Pres. Rafael Correa said his nation will skip a $30.6 million payment to bondholders due on Dec 15. This was Ecuador’s 3rd default in 3 decades.
    (WSJ, 12/12/08, p.A8)(Econ, 7/4/09, p.34)
2008        Dec 12, Estonia’s parliament passed a law making it the first country to allow cellphone voting.
    (WSJ, 12/13/08, p.A1)
2008        Dec 12, European Union leaders agreed to give concessions to Ireland so it will hold a new referendum on the EU's stalled Lisbon reform treaty, which aims to make the 27-nation bloc a stronger player on the world stage.
    (AP, 12/12/08)
2008        Dec 12, Greek youths hurled rocks and Molotov cocktails at riot police in Athens, who responded with stun grenades and tear gas. Despite seven straight days of unrest, Greece's prime minister rebuffed calls to resign and hold early elections.
    (AP, 12/12/08)
2008        Dec 12, In Guatemala a mob in San Pedro Solom beat and then shot to death five men suspected of kidnapping a 15-year-old girl.
    (AP, 12/12/08)
2008        Dec 12, Nigeria's Pres. Umaru Yar'Adua vowed to speed up electoral reforms after overcoming a legal challenge to his election and receiving a report on problems with the country's electoral laws. The Supreme Court ruled 4-3 to dismiss a suit by opposition leaders, but conceded that widespread irregularities had occurred in his 2006 election.
    (AFP, 12/12/08)(SSFC, 12/14/08, p.A20)
2008        Dec 12, Pakistan stage overnight raids, shut offices and arrested scores of activists of Jamaat-ud-Dawa (JuD), an Islamic charity associated with Lashkar-e-Taiba, as international pressure mounted for firm action against militants blamed for the Mumbai attacks. Maulana Masood Azhar, head of the Jaish-e-Mohammad group, blamed with Lashkar-e-Taiba for a 2001 attack on India's parliament, was also detained.
    (AP, 12/12/08)
2008        Dec 12, The chief Palestinian negotiators said Israel proposed to annex 6.8 percent of the West Bank and to take in a few thousand refugees under a peace deal, but it has not revealed its position on the most contentious issue, the future of Jerusalem.
    (AP, 12/13/08)
2008        Dec 12, In Poland negotiators at a UN climate conference broke through red tape and freed up millions of dollars to help poor countries adapt to increasingly severe droughts, floods and other effects of global warming.
    (AP, 12/12/08)
2008        Dec 12, Sir David Barclay and his twin brother, Sir Frederick Barclay, abruptly closed their businesses on the Channel Island of Sark and shut off the flow of investment after their candidates for the island's first elected parliament were largely rejected by voters. Only two of the nine candidates backed by the brothers won seats in the legislature. Nine of the 12 candidates they had denounced as "dangerous to Sark's future" were elected.
    (AP, 12/12/08)
2008        Dec 12, In Sri Lanka clashes with troops left 10 rebels dead near their de facto northern capital.
    (AP, 12/13/08)
2008        Dec 12, Switzerland became the 25th member of the passport-free zone of the Schengen countries, after interior and justice ministers of the 27 EU member states formally approved the accession of this non-EU country on Nov 27. The number of Chinese visitors quickly soared.
    (www.eda.admin.ch/eda/en/home/reps/eur/vbel/ref_visinf/visbel.html)(Econ, 12/18/10, p.116)
2008        Dec 12, Taiwanese prosecutors indicted former President Chen Shui-bian on graft charges, a stunning blow for a man who rode to power 8 1/2 years ago on promises to reform the island's corrupt political culture.
    (AP, 12/12/08)
2008        Dec 12, In Thailand a commercial fishing commission agreed to cut the catches of bigeye tuna in parts of the Pacific Ocean, a small step in an effort to save a threatened species that is a favorite among sushi lovers. Environmentalists lambasted the Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission's decision to reduce catches by only 10 percent in each of the next three years. They wanted an immediate 30 percent reduction that scientists advising the body had recommended.
    (AP, 12/12/08)
2008        Dec 12, A UN Security Council panel said that Rwanda and Congo are fighting a proxy war by aiding each other's enemies, a conclusion that could lead to additional UN sanctions over the conflict in the central African region. A UN report cited an advisor to Rwandan President Paul Kagame and a member of the Congolese opposition, both wealthy businessmen, as key financial backers of rebels in eastern DR Congo.
    (AP, 12/12/08)(AFP, 12/13/08)
2008        Dec 12, The Vatican raised its opposition to embryonic stem cell research, the morning-after pill, in vitro fertilization and human cloning to a new level in a major new document on bioethics.
    (AP, 12/12/08)
2008        Dec 12, Zimbabwe's central bank introduced a 500 million dollar note, as the African country struggles to cope with the world's highest inflation and crippling currency shortages.
    (AP, 12/12/08)

2008        Dec 13, In New Hampshire 370,000 customers still had no electricity following a huge ice storm. Utility crews worked through a night of hand-numbing cold in the Northeast but they still had a long way to go before restoring power to all of the more than 1 million homes and businesses blacked out by the storm. Most of the outages were in New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Maine and New York.
    (AP, 12/13/08)
2008        Dec 13, A woman (28) in Richmond, Ca., was jumped by four men, taunted for being a lesbian, repeatedly raped and left naked outside an abandoned apartment building. In early January police arrested 2 men and 2 teens on suspicion of the gang-rape. On Dec 18, 2013, Humberto Salvador (36), the ringleader of the gang rape, was convicted of multiple charges in the case. Robert Ortiz (20) still awaited trial. Darrell Hodges (20) was already sentenced to 24 years. Josue Gonzalez, who testified against Salvador, was awaiting sentencing for carjacking and robbery.
    (AP, 12/23/08)(AP, 1/2/09)(SFC, 12/19/13, p.C3)
2008        Dec 13, Alex Bellini, an Italian adventurer,  was rescued a mere 65 nautical miles short of his goal, Australia, after rough weather sapped him of his final shreds of energy. He had spent 10 months rowing more than 9,500 nautical miles (18,000 kilometers) across the Pacific.
    (AP, 12/13/08)
2008        Dec 13, Britain’s PM Gordon Brown paid a surprise visit to Afghanistan, where he spoke to troops battling the Taliban and held talks with President Hamid Karzai. 3 Canadian soldiers were killed and one wounded in southern Afghanistan when an explosive device detonated near the armored car in which they were riding.
    (AFP, 12/13/08)(Reuters, 12/14/08)
2008        Dec 13, Cuban President Raul Castro arrived in Venezuela on his first international visit as Cuba's leader.
    (AP, 12/13/08)
2008        Dec 13, The Indian navy captured 23 pirates who threatened a merchant vessel in the lawless waters of the Gulf of Aden, where dozens of ships have come under attack by gunmen in recent months. The pirates were from Somalia and Yemen. A German helicopter thwarted another attack on a freighter being chased by speed boats off Yemen.
    (AP, 12/13/08)(SSFC, 12/14/08, p.A20)
2008        Dec 13, Voters cast their ballots in the fifth phase of state elections in Indian Kashmir as scattered clashes between protesters and government forces left one person dead.
    (AP, 12/13/08)
2008        Dec 13, Japan, China and South Korea moved to ward off the effects of the global financial crunch at a trilateral summit in Japan, while Tokyo and Seoul criticized North Korea for stalling denuclearization talks.
    (AP, 12/13/08)
2008        Dec 13, In southern Nigeria 5 aides of the governor Edo state were killed when their car collided head-on with an oncoming vehicle on a road.
    (AFP, 12/14/08)
2008        Dec 13, North Korea warned that it will slow down work on ending its nuclear drive after six-party talks collapsed, but South Korea predicted a fresh start for diplomacy under US president-elect Barack Obama.
    (AFP, 12/13/08)
2008        Dec 13, In northwest Pakistan militants attacked a terminal used by vehicles ferrying supplies to US and NATO forces in Afghanistan. Elsewhere in the northwest clashes involving security forces, tribesmen and insurgents killed 8 people, including two children. Authorities found the bodies of 2 Afghan men in Miran Shah. A letter found nearby alleged the men gave information that aided the US in launching missile strikes in the militant-plagued region.
    (AP, 12/13/08)
2008        Dec 13, In Russia former chess champion Garry Kasparov and other prominent liberals launched a new anti-Kremlin movement.
    (AP, 12/13/08)
2008        Dec 13, Russian troops retook Perevi village near the breakaway region of South Ossetia just hours after withdrawing. The move drew criticism from Georgia, the EU and US Senator John Kerry, who was on a half-day visit to Tbilisi.
    (AP, 12/13/08)
2008        Dec 13, In South Africa scores of international beauties took to the stage as the Miss World pageant started. Russian blonde Kseniya Sukhinova was crowned the 58th Miss World after a two-hour spectacle that combined elements of travelogue and reality show, and the kind of flag-waving usually seen at sports events.
    (AP, 12/13/08)
2008        Dec 13, In northern Spain about 100 demonstrators, formerly jailed as members of the violent Basque group ETA, protested and called on the government to begin talks to end the region's long-running separatist conflict.
    (AP, 12/13/08)
2008        Dec 13, Sri Lankan air force jets bombed Tamil separatists in the island's embattled north.
    (AP, 12/13/08)
2008        Dec 13, Sudanese officials said thousands have fled the volatile oil town of Abyei after fresh north-south fighting has reignited tensions over the contested area.
    (AP, 12/13/08)
2008        Dec 13, The Zimbabwean government accused the West of deliberately starting the country's cholera epidemic, stepping up a war of words with the regime's critics as the humanitarian crisis deepened. Air Marshal Perrance Shiri, head of Zimbabwe's air force, was wounded in the hand in an alleged assassination attempt by gunmen who ambushed his car.
    (AP, 12/13/08)(AP, 12/16/08)

2008        Dec 14, Pres. George W. Bush visited Baghdad just 37 days before he hands the war off to President-elect Barack Obama, who has pledged to end it. At the end of nearly two hours of meetings, Bush defended the war, now in its sixth year, as a reporter threw his shoes at him. The reporter was later identified as Muntadar al-Zeidi, a correspondent for Al-Baghdadia television, an Iraqi-owned station based in Cairo, Egypt. Bush then traveled to Afghanistan where he spoke to US soldiers and Marines at a hangar on the tarmac at Bagram Air Base. On March 12 shoe thrower was convicted of assaulting a foreign leader and sentenced to 3 years in prison. On April 7 the sentence was soon reduced to one year. In 2010 Muntadhar al-Zeidi published his first book, entitled "The Last Salute to President Bush."
    (AP, 12/14/08)(AP, 12/15/08)(AP, 3/12/09)(AP, 4/7/09)(AP, 12/14/10)
2008        Dec 14, It was reported that a 513-page draft version of “Hard Lessons: The Iraq Reconstruction Experience," was circulating among technical reviewers in Baghdad and Washington. It was compiled by the Office of the Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction led by Stuart Bowen, a Republican lawyer, and detailed the blunders of reconstruction efforts in Iraq.
    (SSFC, 12/14/08, p.A24)
2008        Dec 14, in Afghanistan a bomb hidden in a wooden cart exploded in Kandahar, killing three police officers and wounding 11 people.
    (AP, 12/14/08)
2008        Dec 14, Orascom Telecom, an Egyptian company, said it will launch 3G mobile telephone service in North Korea on Dec 15, after winning the contract to build the advanced network in a country where private cell phones are banned.
    (AP, 12/14/08)
2008        Dec 14, Eva Habil (53) became Egypt's first female mayor. The Christian lawyer, beat five male candidates, including her younger brother, to become mayor of the predominantly Coptic Christian town of Komboha in southern Egypt.
    (AFP, 12/14/08)
2008        Dec 14, An Egyptian bus crowded with passengers, many of them students, veered off the road into a canal south of Cairo, killing 59 passengers.
    (AP, 12/14/08)(AP, 12/15/08)
2008        Dec 14, In Germany Chancellor Angela Merkel met with German ministers, business executives and labor leaders to chart a course through the financial crisis.
    (AP, 12/14/08)
2008        Dec 14, In Gaza City an estimated 300,000 supporters of Hamas gathered to mark 21 years since the organization’s founding. Israel closed its crossing with Gaza to journalist in response to rocket fire over the weekend.
    (SFC, 12/15/08, p.A14)
2008        Dec 14, In Mexico gunmen staged four attacks on police within a half-hour period, killing four officers in Ciudad Juarez, the border city  overrun by drug violence.
    (AP, 12/15/08)
2008        Dec 14, On the Niger-Mali border Tuareg rebels of the Front for the Forces of Redress (FFR) kidnapped Robert Fowler, a Canadian UN special envoy, and Louis Guay, a Canadian diplomat, along with their local driver. Days later the FFR made contradictory statements both claiming and condemning responsibility. On March, 2009, rebels released the driver. The Canadian diplomats were released in April, 2009.
    (AP, 12/16/08)(http://tinyurl.com/djsmd7)(AP, 4/23/09)
2008        Dec 14, In the northeastern Philippines an overcrowded ferry capsized just short of its destination in rough seas, causing terrified passengers to leap into the sea. At least 30 people drowned.
    (AP, 12/15/08)(AP, 12/16/08)
2008        Dec 14, In Russia police thwarted an anti-Kremlin protest organized by Garry Kasparov's opposition group, seizing demonstrators and shoving them into trucks. They detained at least 25 people including the group's co-leader.
    (AP, 12/14/08)
2008        Dec 14, It was reported that Saudi Prince Alwaleed bin Talal, who owns a double-decker "flying palace" and recently raised his bet on Citigroup, lost $4 billion in the past year.
    (AP, 12/14/08)
2008        Dec 14, Sudanese officials said several thousand civilians have fled the town of Abyei after renewed clashes in the disputed oil district where fighting this year raised fears of a return to civil war.
    (AFP, 12/14/08)
2008        Dec 14, In Syria former US President Jimmy Carter met with Khaled Mashaal, the exiled leader of the Palestinian militant group Hamas, for the second time this year.
    (AP, 12/14/08)
2008        Dec 14, Voters in Turkmenistan cast ballots in a parliamentary election hailed by the government as an exercise in democracy but dismissed by critics as a sham.
    (AP, 12/14/08)
2008        Dec 14, Uganda, southern Sudan and Congo launched an offensive against the Lord's Resistance Army bases based in eastern Congo in an attempt to end one of the continent's longest and most brutal wars.
    (AP, 12/15/08)

2008        Dec 15, The US Supreme Court ruled that consumers can sue Altria Group Inc.’s Philip Morris USA unit under state unfair trade laws for its advertising of “light" cigarettes.
    (WSJ, 12/16/08, p.A1)
2008        Dec 15, Pres. –elect Barack Obama announced that he was nominating Steven Chu, a Nobel Prize winning physicist, to be his energy secretary.
    (Econ, 1/10/09, p.69)
2008        Dec 15, California Senator Diane Feinstein (75) was tapped as the chairwoman of the US Senate Intelligence Committee.
    (SFC, 12/16/08, p.A1)
2008        Dec 15, California Governor Schwarzenegger and First Lady Shriver gave introductory speeches broadcast live via video from the California Museum website for the 2008 inductees to the California Hall of Fame. The inductees included Dave Brubeck, Jane Fonda, Theodor Geisel ("Dr. Seuss"), Robert Graham, Quincy Jones, Jack LaLanne, Dorothea Lange, Julia Morgan, Jack Nicholson, Linus Pauling, Leland Stanford and Alice Waters.
2008        Dec 15, In Afghanistan a 5-day joint Afghan-NATO operation in Helmand province left 40 militants dead, including the Taliban's leader in that region. Taliban fighters near Lashkar Gah killed two Afghan police officers in a checkpoint attack. One of the attackers also died. A British soldier was killed "as a result of enemy fire" in a separate incident in Helmand. In central Oruzgan province 3 insurgents were killed when a bomb they were planting exploded.
    (AP, 12/15/08)(AP, 12/16/08)
2008        Dec 15, The Association of Southeast Asian Nations moved to forge an EU-style community, signing a charter that makes the bloc a legal entity for the first time and could pave the way for creating a single market within seven years.
    (AP, 12/15/08)
2008        Dec 15, Australia pledged to cut greenhouse gas emissions by at least five percent by 2020 to fight climate change, but critics said the plan was a "global embarrassment" and called for deeper reductions.
    (AFP, 12/15/08)
2008        Dec 15, In Belarus nearly 2,000 entrepreneurs rallied Minsk, decrying new regulations that they said are destroying small business in the ex-Soviet republic. New regulations, which take effect Jan 1, included doubling their taxes and forcing them to reregister their businesses.
    (AP, 12/15/08)
2008        Dec 15, A spokeswoman in London said Madonna has settled her divorce with ex-husband Guy Ritchie by parting with at least 50 million pounds ($76 million).
    (AP, 12/16/08)
2008        Dec 15, In China substances commonly used as industrial dyes, insecticides and drain cleaners were included on a list of illegal food additives released as part of a months long government crackdown aimed at improving the country's shoddy food safety record.
    (AP, 12/15/08)
2008        Dec 15, In China the BYD Co. introduced the F3DB, country’s first homegrown electric vehicle for the mass market. The sedan was expected to be priced at about $22,000 and introduced to the US in the second half of 2010.
    (WSJ, 12/13/08, p.B2)
2008        Dec 15, A plane from the Dominican Rep. went missing near the Turks and Caicos Islands that reportedly had 12 people, including 11 migrant workers, on board. Several days after the disappearance, Dominican authorities said Adriano Jimenez, the pilot, was allowed to take off even though he had only a US student pilot's license.
    (AP, 12/16/08)(AP, 12/17/08)(AP, 12/16/09)
2008        Dec 15, In Ecuador former President Leon Febres Cordero (77) died. The colorful, right-wing leader served as president from 1984-1988 and had dominated Ecuadorean politics for almost two decades. He was dubbed the "owner" of the nation by his opponents.
    (AP, 12/15/08)
2008        Dec 15, Europe's biggest bank, London-based HSBC, joined a list of top names in world finance admitting huge potential losses in a suspected pyramid fraud scam run by Wall Street figurehead Bernard Madoff.
    (AP, 12/15/08)
2008        Dec 15, Siemens pleaded guilty to charges of bribery and corruption and agreed to pay fines of $800 million in America and $540 million in Germany, on top of an earlier €201 million. For over 6 years Siemens had paid foreign officials some $805 million to win contracts. By 2015 Siemens paid had some $3 billion on fines and internal investigations.
    (Econ, 12/20/08, p.112)(Econ, 5/9/15, p.14)
2008        Dec 15, Hungary's Constitutional Court annulled a law giving rights to domestic partners because it would diminish the importance of marriage.
    (AP, 12/15/08)
2008        Dec 15, Thousands of Iraqis took to the streets to demand the release of a reporter who threw his shoes at President George W. Bush, as Arabs across many parts of the Middle East hailed the journalist as a hero and praised his insult as a proper send-off to the unpopular US president. A suicide truck bomber killed at least five people at a checkpoint west of Baghdad. A security official said three gunmen killed the imam of a local Sunni mosque in Saadiya, Diyala province. US troops killed three suspected insurgents and detained three others in separate operations targeting al-Qaida networks in northern Iraq. The US military handed over 39 detainees, described as former members of Saddam Hussein's regime, to the government.
    (AP, 12/15/08)(AP, 12/16/08)
2008        Dec 15, Israel released 224 Palestinian prisoners in a gesture to moderate Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas, and jubilant detainees waving Palestinian flags jumped on the roof of one of the buses carrying them to freedom.
    (AP, 12/15/08)
2008        Dec 15, A Pakistani transporters association said truckers are refusing to haul supplies to NATO and US forces in Afghanistan because of mounting attacks along the main route.
    (AP, 12/15/08)
2008        Dec 15, A Moscow court sentenced seven young Russian men to prison for murdering 19 people in a string of hate attacks. 2 leaders of a skinhead group, also convicted of 12 attempted murders, received 10-year prison sentences.
    (AP, 12/15/08)
2008        Dec 15, Peacekeepers in Sudan said as many as 250 people have died in separate tribal clashes in remote parts of Sudan's south Darfur region over the last week.
    (AP, 12/15/08)
2008        Dec 15, Taiwanese jetliners and cargo ships left for China to open a new era of direct air and shipping services with the mainland, formally ending a nearly six-decade ban on regular links between the rivals.
    (AP, 12/15/08)
2008        Dec 15, In Thailand Abhisit Vejjajiva, a patrician 44-year-old with an Oxford education, was elected the prime minister in a parliamentary vote amid hopes that he can calm the political storms that have battered the country for the past three years. On Feb 24, 2011, Abhisit Vejjajiva publicly acknowledged his dual Thai-British nationality for the first time during a debate in Parliament.
    (AP, 12/15/08)(AP, 2/24/11)
2008        Dec 15, A group of about 200 Turkish intellectuals issued an apology on the Internet for the World War I-era massacres of Armenians in Turkey.
    (AP, 12/16/08)
2008        Dec 15, In southern Yemen tribesmen kidnapped a German aid worker and her parents, demanding the government release imprisoned clan members.
    (AP, 12/15/08)
2008        Dec 15, President Robert Mugabe's government vowed to thwart western efforts to put Zimbabwe on the UN Security Council agenda, saying it was not a threat to international security.
    (AP, 12/15/08)

2008        Dec 16, The US Federal Reserve announced that it was reducing its target for the federal funds rate to between zero and 0.25 percent, down from 1 percent, a level that was already the lowest target rate in a half century.
    (AP, 12/17/08)
2008        Dec 16, Ronald E. Ferguson (66), former chief executive of General Re Corp., received a 2 year sentence for his role in a fraudulent scheme to manipulate the financial statements of American International Group (AIG). This cost AIG shareholders over a half billion dollars.
    (WSJ, 12/17/08, p.C7)
2008        Dec 16, The publisher of the Detroit Free Press and the Detroit News confirmed plans to cut home delivery to three days a week and cut close to 900 jobs.
    (WSJ, 12/17/08, p.B4)
2008        Dec 16, NASA said satellite data indicated that more than 2 trillion tons of land ice have melted in Alaska, Antarctica and Greenland since 2003. The satellite data showed the latest signs of what scientists say is global warming. A scientist from America’s National Snow and Ice Data Center said the shrinking of Arctic ice (and exposure of extra sea to radiation) was warming the world at an accelerating pace.
    (http://tinyurl.com/uxl8tm8)(Econ, 12/20/08, p.109)
2008        Dec 16, Sam Bottoms (b.1955), film and TV actor, died of brain cancer at his home in Los Angeles.
    (SFC, 12/19/08, p.B6)
2008        Dec 16, Melvin S. Cohen (b.1918), longtime chairman of Wisconsin-based National Presto Industries, died.
    (WSJ, 12/27/08, p.A7)
2008        Dec 16, Three Guantanamo prisoners were flown to Bosnia and released to their families.
    (SFC, 12/17/08, p.A2)
2008        Dec 16, In eastern Afghanistan police and US troops in Khost province killed three insurgents suspected of links to Al-Qaeda, denying local claims that the victims were civilians.
    (AFP, 12/17/08)
2008        Dec 16, Bangladesh's military-backed government said it will end nearly two years of emergency rule and restore civil liberties before this month's national elections.
    (AP, 12/16/08)
2008        Dec 16, In Brazil South American leaders agreed to create a regional defense council aimed at preventing local conflicts and reducing dependence on US weaponry. 33 countries from across the Americas had gathered for a 2-day meeting to discuss issues ranging from defense to economics.
    (WSJ, 12/17/08, p.A16)(Econ, 12/20/08, p.57)
2008        Dec 16, Chinese agricultural officials ordered the slaughter of some 377,000 chickens after finding the H5N1 bird flu virus in two areas of Jiangsu province.
    (WSJ, 12/17/08, p.A14)
2008        Dec 16, Stein Bagger, Danish business executive, was sent back to Denmark from the US, where he had surrendered following the exposure of an estimated $185 swindle in his firm, IT Factory.
    (WSJ, 12/17/08, p.A1)
2008        Dec 16, French police found explosives hidden in a Paris department store after a tip-off from a group demanding the withdrawal of French troops from Afghanistan.
    (Reuters, 12/16/08)
2008        Dec 16, French competition watchdogs slapped a record fine of 575 million euros (785 million dollars) on global steel giant ArcelorMittal and another 10 steel firms found guilty of price-fixing.
    (AFP, 12/16/08)
2008        Dec 16, In Greece protesters forced their way into Greece's state NET television news studio and interrupted a news broadcast featuring the prime minister so they could urge viewers to join mass anti-government demonstrations.
    (AP, 12/16/08)
2008        Dec 16, An Indonesian province beleaguered by a spiraling HIV infection rate scrapped plans to implant microchips in those with full-blown AIDS, following strong opposition from government officials, health workers and rights activists.
    (AP, 12/16/08)
2008        Dec 16, In Iraq Muntadhar al-Zeidi (28), the journalist who threw his shoes at President George W. Bush, was handed over to the Iraqi judiciary, a move that signals the start of criminal proceedings. 3 bombings in Baghdad and another in Diyala province killed four people and wounded at least 30.
    (AP, 12/16/08)
2008        Dec 16, Israeli troops killed Jihad Nawhda (23), a wanted Palestinian militant in the West Bank, and the Islamic Jihad group retaliated with rocket fire from the Gaza Strip.
    (AP, 12/16/08)
2008        Dec 16, In Israel a bus filled with 49 passengers plunged into a desert ravine near the resort town of Eilat. 24 Russian travel agents were killed. In 2014 the bus driver was sentenced to 8 years in prison.
    (AP, 12/16/08)(SFC, 12/17/08, p.A8)(Reuters, 2/23/14)
2008        Dec 16, Italian police backed by helicopters arrested almost 90 suspected mobsters and thwarted a plan by the hobbled Sicilian Mafia to reconstitute itself and form a new ruling commission to set strategy. Gaetano Lo Presti (52), the alleged Mafia boss of a Palermo neighborhood, hanged himself in jail, hours after he was arrested in a blitz against Cosa Nostra.
    (AP, 12/16/08)(AP, 12/17/08)
2008        Dec 16, In Italy Fiat Group SpA for the first time shut down most of its Italian plants for a month, laying off nearly 50,000 workers for an extended holiday as it copes with the precipitous drop in demand for new cars.
    (AP, 12/16/08)
2008        Dec 16, The central banks of Sweden and Denmark came to the aid of Latvia with currency swap agreements. This enabled the Bank of Latvia, to borrow as much as €500 million.
    (WSJ, 12/17/08, p.C2)
2008        Dec 16, Somalia's UN-backed government crumbled further as the president defied parliament and Kenya announced sanctions against him in a strong public rebuke.
    (AP, 12/16/08)
2008        Dec 16, Somali pirates hijacked a tugboat belonging to total SA off the Yemeni coast. On August 3 pirates freed the tugboat TB Masindra 7, its attached Indonesian barge ADM1 and its 11 Indonesian sailors after a ransom was paid to end the second-longest hostage saga off the coast of Somalia.
    (AP, 12/16/08)(AFP, 8/3/09)
2008        Dec 16, In Spain an unoccupied hotel on the resort island of Mallorca partially collapsed during remodeling work, killing four workers.
    (AP, 12/16/08)
2008        Dec 16, In northern Sri Lanka intense fighting left at least 25 government troops and 120 Tamil Tigers dead in ongoing battles for the rebels' political capital. The rebels said they forced the troops to retreat after a day of bloody battles, killing 170 soldiers and wounding more than 400 others.
    (AP, 12/16/08)(AP, 12/17/08)
2008        Dec 16, The UN Security Council approved land and air attacks on pirate bases in Somalia.
    (SFC, 12/17/08, p.A14)

2008        Dec 17, Microsoft said will release an emergency patch today to fix a perilous software flaw allowing hackers to hijack Internet Explorer browsers and take over computers.
    (AFP, 12/17/08)
2008        Dec 17, In Minnesota two freight trains collided sending an engineer and some cars into the Mississippi River.
    (WSJ, 12/18/08, p.A1)
2008        Dec 17, OPEC, meeting in Algeria, said it is cutting 2.2 million barrels a day from its output, the largest ever at one time, to stem crude prices that have plummeted over 70% from summer highs of nearly $150. Members among the 13-nation organization were officially producing a daily 29.045 million barrels in September.
    (AP, 12/17/08)
2008        Dec 17, Algerian news reports said Raked Brahim (28) was convicted and jailed for three years for traveling to Iraq in 2007 to take part in attacks against US forces. He was detained in Syria and later deported back to Algeria.
    (AP, 12/17/08)
2008        Dec 17, Australian Aborigines won a court fight against Anglo-Swiss mining giant Xstrata's plans to divert a river and expand one of the world's biggest zinc mines.
    (AFP, 12/17/08)
2008        Dec 17, Two Australian women were killed when their light aircraft slammed into a suburban house in Sydney after a mid-air collision between two flying school planes.
    (AFP, 12/18/08)
2008        Dec 17, British PM Gordon Brown said his country's troops will leave Iraq by May 31, ending a mission that provided the second-largest military presence in Iraq after the United States. Police said a double-bombing in Baghdad targeting traffic police left at least 18 people dead and 52 others wounded. The US military reported nine killed and 43 wounded.
    (AP, 12/17/08)
2008        Dec 17, A London judge sentenced Bilal Abdulla (29) to at least 32 years in prison for his role in the June 29, 2007, attempted car bombs in London and an attack at Glasgow Airport the following day.
    (SFC, 12/18/08, p.A17)
2008        Dec 17, Bulgaria's last 155 troops stationed in Iraq returned home. 13 Bulgarian soldiers and six civilians have died in Iraq since 2003. Bulgaria also has troops in international military missions in Afghanistan, Kosovo and Bosnia.
    (AP, 12/17/08)
2008        Dec 17, In Beijing the presidents of China and Angola signed a series of agreements as the oil rich African nation sought greater Chinese participation in its energy and infrastructure development.
    (AP, 12/17/08)
2008        Dec 17, The European Parliament gave a jailed Chinese dissident a one-minute standing ovation as it honored him in absentia with its top human rights award.
    (AP, 12/17/08)
2008        Dec 17, Gaza militants fired nine rockets at Israel just two days before militants say a truce along the Gaza border is to expire. The rockets were fired by three small militant groups and caused no injuries. Israel says there's no expiration date.
    (AP, 12/17/08)
2008        Dec 17, In Indian Kashmir thousands of security forces patrolled towns to protect voters in state elections. Muslim separatists urged residents to boycott the vote and called for a general strike.
    (AP, 12/17/08)
2008        Dec 17, The Russian ruble suffered its largest drop in three months after the Central Bank signaled it would accelerate the devaluation of the national currency.
    (AP, 12/17/08)
2008        Dec 17, An international anti-piracy force thwarted the attempted takeover of a Chinese cargo ship off the Somali coast, sending in attack helicopters that fired on the bandits and forced them to abandon the ship they had boarded. The Indian navy handed over 23 pirates, caught at sea on Dec 13, to authorities in Yemen.
    (AP, 12/17/08)
2008        Dec 17, South African President Kgalema Motlanthe said Zimbabwe's neighbors will launch an urgent humanitarian campaign in the hope of saving the country from economic collapse and a cholera epidemic. Motlanthe also said South Africa would not join international calls for Zimbabwe's President Robert Mugabe to step down, saying it was "not for us" to do so.
    (AP, 12/17/08)(AFP, 12/17/08)
2008        Dec 17, A South Korean court found one of the country's most famous actresses guilty of adultery, months after she tried but failed to have a law that makes extramarital affairs a crime ruled unconstitutional. Ok So-ri was handed a suspended jail term.
    (AP, 12/17/08)
2008        Dec 17, Sri Lankan fighter jets and attack helicopters pummeled rebel fortifications across the north, as government forces pushed ahead with their offensive against the Tamil Tigers' northern stronghold in the face of punishing seasonal rains and stiff rebel resistance.
    (AP, 12/17/08)
2008        Dec 17, The UN said it will double the budget of its Afghan mission next year, taking on hundreds of new staff and opening more offices to meet more "complex" challenges. The UN’s chief in Afghanistan called for international military forces to revise their agreement with the Afghan government to include practices that will better safeguard civilians.
    (AFP, 12/17/08)(AP, 12/17/08)

2008        Dec 18, The US FDA cleared stevia, a shrub and an artificial sweetener extracted from it, for public use. The FDA did not technically granted approval to stevia but affirmed it will not object to companies using it in foods and beverages.
    (Econ, 1/30/10, p.77)(www.naturalnews.com/News_000626_stevia_Truvia_FDA.html)
2008        Dec 18, W. Mark Felt (95), former FBI second-in-command, died. He revealed himself as "Deep Throat" in 2005, 30 years after he tipped off reporters to the Watergate scandal that toppled Pres. Nixon.
    (AP, 12/19/08)
2008        Dec 18, John Costelloe (47), the actor who portrayed the gay lover of a closeted mobster on "The Sopranos," died of a self-inflicted gunshot wound in New York City.
    (AP, 12/25/08)
2008        Dec 18, Canada’s PM Harper said Canada will break a 12-year string of budget surpluses and run a deficit of as much as $30 billion next year to kick-start the economy.
    (Reuters, 12/19/08)
2008        Dec 18, Theoneste Bagosora (67), a former Rwandan army colonel, was convicted of genocide and sentenced to life in prison, the most significant verdict of a UN tribunal set up to bring the killers to justice. The 1994 genocide saw government troops, Hutu militia and ordinary villagers spurred on by hate messages broadcast on the radio going from village to village, butchering men, women and children.
    (AP, 12/18/08)
2008        Dec 18, Albania's Defense Ministry said the country is pulling its 218 troops out of Iraq.
    (AP, 12/18/08)
2008        Dec 18, Iraqi officials said that up to 25 people from the three major security ministries have been arrested over the past week on accusations of conspiring to restore the Baath party, whose exiled leaders staunchly oppose the current government. On Dec 23 the police and security officials, arrested on suspicion of forging identity cards and badges, were released on bail. A police officer said gunmen stormed the Kirkuk home of Nahla Hussein al-Shaly (37) and shot and beheaded her.
    (AP, 12/18/08)(AP, 12/23/08)
2008        Dec 18, Conor Cruise O’Brien (89), Irish diplomat and man of letters, died. His books included “To Katanga and Back" (1962) and “Religion and Politics" (1984).
    (SSFC, 12/21/08, p.B6)
2008        Dec 18, In Italy Parmalat founder Calisto Tanzi was sentenced to 10 years in prison over a 14-billion-euro fraud scandal that led to one of Europe's largest corporate bankruptcies.
    (AFP, 12/18/08)
2008        Dec 18, Riot police clashed with rock-throwing demonstrators in central Athens, sending Christmas shoppers and people in cafes running for cover. Frightened parents scooped up their children from a Christmas carousel in the city's main square and fled.
    (AP, 12/18/08)
2008        Dec 18, Hamas declared a formal end to a 6-month ceasefire with Israel.
    (SFC, 12/19/08, p.A4)
2008        Dec 18, Vietnam approved new regulations banning bloggers from discussing subjects the government deems sensitive or inappropriate and requiring them to limit their writings to personal issues.
    (AP, 12/24/08)

2008        Dec 19, Citing danger to the national economy, the Bush administration approved an emergency bailout of the US auto industry, offering $17.4 billion in rescue loans in exchange for deep concessions from the desperately troubled carmakers and their workers.
    (AP, 12/19/08)
2008        Dec 19, IRS agents arrested Ausaf Umar Siddiqui (42), vice president of Frye’s Electronics in San Jose, Ca., for gambling with millions in stolen money. Since 2005 he had collected over $65 million in kickbacks from five vendors. In 2011 Siddiqui pleaded guilty to wire fraud and money laundering. 7 other felony counts were dropped in exchange.
    (SFC, 12/24/08, p.A1)(SFC, 9/14/11, p.C3)
2008        Dec 19, California’s Gov. Schwarzenegger ordered layoffs and mandatory unpaid time off for state workers.
    (SFC, 12/20/08, p.B1)
2008        Dec 19, Florida’s prison population topped 100,000, making it the 3rd state to break into six digits after California and Texas.
    (WSJ, 12/20/08, p.A1)
2008        Dec 19, In Atlanta, Georgia, one worker died and at least 18 others were injured when a walkway being built collapsed at the Atlanta Botanical Garden.
    (SFC, 12/20/08, p.A2)
2008        Dec 19, Dock Ellis (b.1945), former baseball pitcher for the Pittsburgh Pirates, died. He had allegedly thrown a no-hiiter in 1970 while triping on LSD. In 2014 The documentary film “No-No: A Dockumentary" starred Dock Ellis and was directed by Jeff Radice.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dock_Ellis)(SFC, 9/5/14, p.E5)
2008        Dec 19, Three Danish soldiers and one from the Netherlands were killed in separate incidents in Afghanistan, losing their lives just as the commitment of some countries to the fight in Afghanistan begins to wane.
    (AP, 12/19/08)
2008        Dec 19, Bahraini security troops fired tear gas and rubber bullets to disperse thousands of protesters demanding Arab governments take action to end the closure of the Gaza Strip.
    (AP, 12/19/08)
2008        Dec 19, The lower chamber of Czech parliament failed to extend a mandate for the deployment of the country's troops in Afghanistan, Iraq and other foreign missions for next year, meaning the soldiers will leave soon.
    (AP, 12/21908)
2008        Dec 19, Egypt's communications ministry says Internet cables in the Mediterranean Sea have been cut, causing massive Internet outages.
    (AP, 12/19/08)
2008        Dec 19, France’s finance ministry unveiled a package of financial aid from the EU  and others totaling $10.7 billion to help Latvia.
    (WSJ, 12/20/08, p.A8)
2008        Dec 19, Masked youths attacked the French Institute in Athens with firebombs Friday, while Greek union members and university professors geared up for new anti-government rallies outside Parliament.
    (AP, 12/19/08)
2008        Dec 19, In Lebanon thousands of Hezbollah supporters protested the Israeli blockade on the Gaza Strip.
    (AP, 12/19/08)
2008        Dec 19, In Mexico 3 gunmen were killed following a shootout with army troops in the southern state of Guerrero.
    (AP, 12/20/08)
2008        Dec 19, In northern Mexico a small plane carrying government officials and television reporters crashed in northern Mexico and all five people on board are in serious condition. The plane was carrying state water commission chief Rafael Reyes, his assistant and two TV Azteca reporters. They were hospitalized along with the pilot.
    (AP, 12/20/08)
2008        Dec 19, In Nigeria's Niger Delta gunmen in speedboats attacked three oil services ships and kidnapped at least two Russians in separate incidents. The pair escaped on foot from a militant camp on Feb 15 and were found by naval personnel on patrol on Feb 19.
    (AP, 12/20/08)(AP, 2/19/09)
2008        Dec 19, Militants in Pakistan launched rockets at two trucks returning from delivering fuel to US-led forces in Afghanistan, killing three people along a critical and increasingly dangerous supply route. 3 people died in Rawalpindi when a building collapsed after it was ravaged by a fire for several hours.
    (AP, 12/20/08)
2008        Dec 19, Federal agents in Puerto Rico arrested three island police officers accused of providing security for drug traffickers.
    (AP, 12/19/08)
2008        Dec 19, Russia’s PM Vladimir Putin said that new tariffs were designed to prop up demand for Russian-made cars and secure jobs in the ailing Russian auto industry. The tariff hike would send prices for used foreign-made cars up 50 percent, while prices for new foreign-made cars could jump up to 15 percent.
    (AP, 12/20/08)
2008        Dec 19, South Korea Friday completed its troop pullout from Iraq, ending a four-year mission to help reconstruct the war-torn nation.
    (AP, 12/19/08)
2008        Dec 19, Sri Lankan fighter jets and attack helicopters bombed rebel bunkers and a flotilla of boats in the northern war zone Friday as government troops breached another section of the Tamil Tigers defense fortifications.
    (AP, 12/19/08)
2008        Dec 19, St. Kitts and Nevis, staged its first hanging in a decade. Charles Elroy Laplace, condemned in 2006 for killing his wife in a knife attack, was hanged as a small crowd held a vigil outside the brick prison walls in Basseterre.
    (AP, 12/19/08)
2008        Dec 19, President Robert Mugabe declared that "Zimbabwe is mine" and vowed never to surrender to calls to step down, as his political rival threatened to quit stalled unity government talks.
    (AP, 12/19/08)
2008        Dec 19, Mediators said Yemeni kidnappers have released their three German hostages after the Yemeni government agreed to meet some of their conditions, including paying a ransom and releasing some tribesmen from prison.
    (AP, 12/19/08)

2008        Dec 20, The NY Times said China has blocked access to its Web site, days after the central government defended its right to censor online content it deems illegal.
    (AP, 12/20/08)
2008        Dec 20, San Francisco Police Chief Heather Wong (52) announced her retirement. She became the city’s first female police chief nearly 5 years ago.
    (SSFC, 12/21/08, p.A1)
2008        Dec 20, In Afghan coalition forces killed four armed militants and detained five suspects during an operation in Zabul province. Afghan and coalition troops found and destroyed 2.5 tons of marijuana in an abandoned school in southern Kandahar province.
    (AP, 12/21/08)
2008        Dec 20, Militant environmental activists said they had intercepted the Japanese whaling fleet in Antarctic waters and attempted to attack one of the boats with stink bombs.
    (AP, 12/20/08)
2008        Dec 20, Belgium's King Albert consulted political leaders after the government collapsed for the third time in a year following its botched attempt to bail out financial group Fortis.
    (AP, 12/20/08)
2008        Dec 20, The British government said it has sold its final stake in the country's nuclear weapons plant, prompting criticism from MPs who said it throws the independence of the British nuclear deterrent into question. State-owned British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL) sold its one-third stake of the Aldermaston Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE) at Aldermaston, Berkshire, to Jacobs Engineering Group of the United States.
    (AFP, 12/20/08)
2008        Dec 20, The Canadian and Ontario governments announced they would follow the US in providing C$4 billion ($3.3 billion) in emergency loans to the Canadian arms of Detroit's ailing automakers to keep them operating while they restructure their businesses.
    (Reuters, 12/20/08)
2008        Dec 20, Central African Republic peace talks wrapped up with rebels and government officials expressing hope that the meeting had paved the way for lasting solutions to the country's unrest.
    (AP, 12/20/08)
2008        Dec 20, China said it will send two destroyers and a supply vessel to the seas off Somalia to back international efforts to fight piracy.
    (AP, 12/20/08)
2008        Dec 20, In Greece protesters attacked a city-sponsored Christmas tree in central Athens Saturday, tossing garbage and hanging trash bags from its branches before clashing with riot police.
    (AP, 12/20/08)
2008        Dec 20, Iranian state radio said Iran has sent a warship to the coast of Somalia to protect its cargo ships against piracy.
    (AP, 12/20/08)
2008        Dec 20, An Israeli air strike against a Gaza rocket squad killed a Palestinian militant, the first death since Hamas militants formally declared an end to a six-month truce with Israel.
    (AP, 12/20/08)
2008        Dec 20, In Mali suspected Tuareg rebels attacked an army outpost in the country's remote north, setting off a battle in which 20 people were killed.
    (AP, 12/21/08)
2008        Dec 20, Some 500 motorists rallied in Russia's far east to protest the government's decision to raise car import tariffs. Thousands of others were expected to stage similar demonstrations across Russia on Dec 21.
    (AP, 12/20/08)
2008        Dec 20, In Russia Olga Lepeshinskaya (b.1916), a Soviet-era prima ballerina who danced with the Bolshoi Ballet for decades, died.
    (AP, 12/20/08)

2008        Dec 21, Christopher Hibbert (1924), a British historian, died. His over 50 books covered subjects from the medieval Battle of Agincourt to the American Revolutionary War.
    (AP, 1/6/09)
2008        Dec 21, Congolese Tutsi rebels threatened to advance into UN-monitored buffer zones in eastern Congo after refusing to sign a declaration ending hostilities with the government.
    (AP, 12/21/08)
2008        Dec 21, Iran reported that Russia has begun delivering S-300 air defense systems, which could help repel any Israeli and US air strikes on its nuclear sites.
    (AP, 12/21/08)
2008        Dec 21, Barrages of rockets fired from Gaza hit Israeli towns and the Israeli air force responded with a missile strike as violence surged following the official expiration of a shaky truce with Hamas.
    (AP, 12/21/08)
2008        Dec 21, The deposed president of Mauritania was set free after 4 1/2 months under house arrest and immediately began working to retake power from the junta that overthrew him.
    (AP, 12/21/08)
2008        Dec 21, Mexican Authorities found the decapitated bodies of 12 men in the southern state of Guerrero, and some of the victims have been identified as soldiers.
    (AP, 12/21/08)
2008        Dec 21, In Nepal 12 staff at a prominent newspaper and magazine publisher were injured when they were attacked by dozens of Maoist activists angered by critical coverage.
    (AFP, 12/21/08)
2008        Dec 21, Pakistani fighter jets attacked suspected Taliban and Al-Qaeda positions in a lawless tribal area on the border with Afghanistan, killing four militants. Police found 2 bullet-ridden bodies of Afghan nationals in an abandoned village in North Waziristan, who allegedly acted as spies for US forces.
    (AFP, 12/21/08)(AP, 12/21/08)
2008        Dec 21, In far east Russia riot police in Vladivostok clubbed, kicked and detained dozens of people as hundreds across the country protested an increase in car import tariffs.
    (AP, 12/21/08)(WSJ, 12/22/08, p.A1)
2008        Dec 21, Sri Lanka’s government said its troops captured the strategic village of Nedunkerni in the northeast. A pro-rebel report said Tamil Tiger rebels killed 60 Sri Lankan troops advancing toward their de facto capital. The government said 12 soldiers died.
    (AP, 12/21/08)

2008        Dec 22, In Tennessee a dam broke at the Kingston Fossil Plant spilling some 5.4 million cubic yards of toxic coal ash sludge near the Emory River. TVA officials later said the spill does not threaten water in the Tennessee River, which is fed in part by the Emory River. On Jan 2 federal data showed arsenic levels over 100 times the acceptable amount in the Emory River. In February the TVA estimated cleanup costs of up to $825 million. In May the estimate for cleanup was raised to $975 million. In 2010 state regulators hit the TVA with penalties totaling $11.5 million for the coal ash spill. The sludge was shipped to a landfill outside Uniontown, Alabama.
    (SFC, 12/25/08, p.A6)(WSJ, 12/26/08, p.A2)(SFC, 12/27/08, p.A2)(SFC, 1/3/09, p.A3)(WSJ, 2/13/09, p.A1)(SFC, 5/2/09, p.A4)(SFC, 6/15/10, p.A4)(Econ, 12/4/10, p.44)
2008        Dec 22, In Texas a gunman in pickup truck killed two people and injuring another in a series of rush hour shootings on Dallas-area roads. The next day police identified Brian Smith (37), a former Utah state trooper, as the shooter. Smith died Dec 24 from a self-inflicted gunshot wound.
    (AP, 12/23/08)(SFC, 12/24/08, p.A3)(SFC, 12/25/08, p.A6)
2008        Dec 22, California's chief financial officer warned that the state would run out of money in about two months as hopes of a Christmas budget compromise melted into political finger-pointing by the end of the day.
    (AP, 12/23/08)
2008        Dec 22, In California it was announced that the Sebastiani Vineyards and Winery has been sold to the Foley Wine Group of Los Olivos, Ca.
    (SFC, 12/23/08, p.A1)
2008        Dec 22, An Associated Press analysis found that the 116 banks that so far have received US taxpayer dollars to boost them through the economic crisis gave their top tier of executives nearly $1.6 billion in salaries, bonuses and other benefits in 2007.
    (AP, 12/22/08)
2008        Dec 22, In Nevada the Encore, Steve Wynn’s vaguely Chinese-themed hotel, opened.
    (Econ, 2/7/09, p.29)(http://tinyurl.com/byf3qk)
2008        Dec 22, Alfred Shaheen (b.1922), the dean of Hawaiian couture, died. In 1948 he started manufacturing rayon Hawaiian shirts in a Quonset hut left over from the war. Within a decade annual revenue grew to $4 million.
    (WSJ, 1/24/09, p.A12)
2008        Dec 22, In central Afghanistan a car bomb with two attackers exploded near the governor's compound in Ghazni province, killing one Afghan civilian and wounding seven. The two attackers also died.
    (AP, 12/22/08)
2008        Dec 22, Albania passed a law removing from public posts people linked with the feared former Communist secret police, despite criticism from opposition parties and concerns within the international community.
    (AP, 12/23/08)
2008        Dec 22, Belarus' president sought $3 billion in economic aid from Russia to help its struggling economy, but Moscow demanded in return that Belarus recognize two breakaway Georgian regions as independent nations.
    (AP, 12/22/08)
2008        Dec 22, China’s central bank announced its 5th interest rate cut in just over 3 months. The benchmark one year lending rate was cut .27% to 5.31%.
    (WSJ, 12/23/08, p.A5)
2008        Dec 22, In Egypt 7 Russian tourists died when their bus flipped over along the winding mountain roads north of the Egyptian Red Sea resort of Sharm el-Sheik.
    (AFP, 12/23/08)
2008        Dec 22, In Guinea longtime dictator Lansana Conte died. His death was made public the next day as a military-led group seized control of the airwaves.
    (AP, 12/23/08)
2008        Dec 22, OSCE talks on the Georgia collapsed, when Russia demanded the group join Moscow in recognizing the statehood of the provinces of South Ossetia and Abkhazia. The mission will expire on Dec 31.
    (AP, 12/23/08)
2008        Dec 22, Toyota Motor Corp. projected its first-ever operating loss since 1939, acknowledging  that its nine-year stretch of global vehicle-sales growth had stalled. Pres. Katsuaki Watanabe projected an operating loss of $1.7 billion.
    (AP, 12/22/08)(WSJ, 12/23/08, p.A7)
2008        Dec 22, Laura Zuniga (23), a reigning Mexican beauty queen from the drug-plagued state of Sinaloa, was arrested with suspected gang members in a truck filled guns and ammunition. Soldiers found a large stash of weapons, including two AR-15 assault rifles, .38 specials, 9mm handguns, nine magazines, 633 cartridges and $53,300 in US currency.
    (AP, 12/24/08)
2008        Dec 22, In Pakistan suspected US drones fired at least two missiles into South Waziristan region on the Afghan border, killing seven people.
    (Reuters, 12/22/08)
2008        Dec 22, The ruble dropped further as the Central Bank again eased its support of the Russian currency, under constant pressure from plunging oil prices and economic woes.
    (AP, 12/22/08)
2008        Dec 22, Sri Lankan troops launched a major attack against Tamil rebel fortifications, sparking clashes that killed 57 insurgents and 10 soldiers. The Tamil Tigers said more than 100 soldiers were killed.
    (AP, 12/22/08)
2008        Dec 22, A Sudanese official said at least 18,000 Eritrean and Somali refugees have arrived in Sudan since the start of the year, and the government is struggling to provide them with aid.
    (Reuters, 12/22/08)
2008        Dec 22, UN experts said some 5.5 million people in Zimbabwe, about half the population, need food aid, as they called for increased international help for the country which is battling a cholera epidemic. A UN human rights expert said Zimbabwe's President Robert Mugabe is "a mad dictator" who has lost all sense of reality.
    (AP, 12/22/08)(Reuters, 12/22/08)

2008        Dec 23, President George W. Bush granted pardons to 14 individuals and commuted the prison sentences of two others convicted of misdeeds ranging from drug offenses to tax evasion, from wildlife violations to bank embezzlement. One pardon, that of Isaac Robert Toussie, was reversed the next day after it was learned that Toussie's father had donated tens of thousands of dollars to the Republican Party a few months ago.
    (SFC, 12/24/08, p.A3)(AP, 12/25/08)
2008        Dec 23, Wal-Mart Stores Inc., the world's largest retailer, said it will pay as much as $640 million to settle 63 lawsuits over wage-and-hour violations, ending years of dispute.
    (AP, 12/24/08)
2008        Dec 23, It was reported that Wal-Mart has offered $2.8 billion to buy a majority stake in Distribucion y Servicio D&S, a Chile-based grocer.
    (WSJ, 12/23/08, p.C10)
2008        Dec 23, In Phoenix, Arizona, Joe Sauceda Gallegos (36) beat 2 boys, ages 7 and 10, with an aluminum baseball bat. On Apr 4, 2012, Gallegos was sentenced to 2 life terms in prison, after pleading guilty to 2 counts of 1st degree murder.
    (SFC, 12/25/08, p.A4)(SFC, 4/5/12, p.A8) 
2008        Dec 23, In NYC police found the body of investor Rene-Thierry Magon de la Villehuchet (65) at his Madison Avenue office. He had grown increasingly subdued after the Madoff scandal broke and apparently swallowed sleeping pills and slashed his wrists with a box cutter. His investment fund had lost $1.4 billion with Bernard Madoff.
    (AP, 12/24/08)(SFC, 12/24/08, p.C3)
2008        Dec 23, A court in northeast Bangladesh sentenced three Islamic militants to death and two others to life in prison for a 2004 grenade attack that wounded a British diplomat and killed three other people.
    (AP, 12/23/08)
2008        Dec 23, Bangladeshi authorities said a new outbreak of bird flu had been detected at a village in the north of the country as they struggled to contain the disease.
    (AP, 12/23/08)
2008        Dec 23, Brazil and France signed an arms deal that could lead to Latin America's first nuclear submarine.
    (AP, 12/23/08)
2008        Dec 23, El Salvador’s President Tony Saca announced he will withdraw Salvadoran troops from Iraq after Dec. 31, pulling out the only remaining soldiers from Latin America.
    (AP, 12/23/08)
2008        Dec 23, Germany filed suit at the World Court asking Italy to stop its legal system from awarding damages to victims of Nazi war crimes.
    (AP, 12/24/08)
2008        Dec 23,  In Guinea a military-led group seized control of the airwaves and declared a coup after the death of the mineral-rich West African country's longtime dictator, but PM Ahmed Tidiane Souare insisted he remained in charge.
    (AP, 12/23/08)
2008        Dec 23, Iraq’s parliament voted to allow non-US foreign troops to stay in the country into 2009 after a power struggle ended in the speaker’s resignation.
    (WSJ, 12/24/08, p.A1)
2008        Dec 23, The director of an Irish security company was forced to steal euro1.2 million ($1.7 million) from his own company and deliver it to an armed gang that had kidnapped his wife and daughter.
    (AP, 12/23/08)
2008        Dec 23, Israeli forces killed three Hamas militants on the Gaza border.
    (AP, 12/24/08)
2008        Dec 23, Kosovo threatened to ban products coming from Serbia if Belgrade does not reverse its policy of blocking goods that carry a customs stamp from its former province.
    (AP, 12/23/08)
2008        Dec 23, Mexican authorities in southern Chiapas state said 8 bodies were found stuffed in plastic garbage bags and dumped on a rural road near the Guatemalan border in an area plagued by drug violence.
    (AP, 12/24/08)
2008        Dec 23, In the southern Philippines members of the Moro Islamic Liberation Front attacked villages in the Sultan Kudarat township, killing 9 civilians.
    (SFC, 12/27/08, p.A6)
2008        Dec 23, The World Bank finalized a loan of 975 million euros (1.34 billion dollars) for Poland to support economic reform plans, in a measure not directly related to the global economic crisis.
    (AP, 12/23/08)

2008        Dec 24, US government data showed that the number of domestic workers filing new claims for jobless benefits jumped by 30,000 to a 26-year peak last week, as the country's year-long recession continued to chill the labor market.
    (AP, 12/24/08)
2008        Dec 24, The Elie Wiesel Foundation for Humanity said it lost more than 15 million dollars, nearly all of its assets, in the alleged fraud scheme run by Wall Street baron Bernard Madoff.
    (AP, 12/24/08)
2008        Dec 24, In Covina, Ca., a man dressed as Santa who had been having marital problems opened fire at a Christmas party, leaving 9 people dead in a home that then caught fire. Hours later police found the body of the suspect, Bruce Jeffrey Pardo (45), at the home of his brother in the Sylmar area of Los Angeles. Police said he killed himself but would not say how.
    (AP, 12/25/08)(AP, 12/26/08)(SFC, 12/27/08, p.A3)
2008        Dec 24, In Sacramento, Ca., Wilbert Paana (72) died following a natural gas explosion at his home. His daughter and granddaughter were critically injured. In 2011 PG&E agreed to pay $26 million for federal and state safety violations related to the explosion.
    (SFC, 6/21/11, p.A1)
2008        Dec 24, In Afghanistan a soldier with the NATO-led force was killed in an insurgent attack in the east of the country. A British soldier was shot dead on Christmas Eve in Helmand province. Cannon fire from a US military base in the northeastern province of Kunar killed four workers when it fell short of its target and hit a road construction compound. The US-led coalition killed two militants and detained two suspects in operations targeting the Taliban in Kapisa province.
    (AFP, 12/24/08)(AFP, 12/25/08)
2008        Dec 24, British stores deepened discounts, hoping to lure in last-minute shoppers on Christmas Eve. Music and DVD seller Zavvi joined tea merchant Whittard and menswear store The Officers Club on the growing list of casualties of a severe downturn in consumer spending and tight credit conditions.
    (AP, 12/24/08)
2008        Dec 24, Harold Pinter (78), a Nobel Prize-winning British playwright, died. He was one of theater's biggest names for nearly half a century. His 32 plays included "The Birthday Party", "The Dumb Waiter" and "The Homecoming". His first play, "The Room," appeared in 1957 and his breakthrough came with "The Caretaker" in 1960. In 2010 Antonia Fraser published “Must You Go? My Life With Harold Pinter."
    (AFP, 12/25/08)(SSFC, 11/7/10, p.F4)
2008        Dec 24, In China a gas leak at the Ganglu Iron and Steel Co. Ltd. in Hebei province killed 17 people.
    (AP, 12/24/08)
2008        Dec 24, In Egypt an Australian teacher (61), who allegedly stuffed his luggage with 2,000-year old animal mummies and religious figurines wrapped as gifts, was arrested and charged with smuggling antiquities.
    (AP, 12/25/08)
2008        Dec 24, in Guinea military officers, who have staged a coup, said they were installing Captain Moussa Dadis Camara as president, but promised to hold elections in two years.
    (Reuters, 12/24/08)
2008        Dec 24, In Indian Kashmir police fired tear gas and clashed with protesters, where tens of thousands of soldiers were deployed for the 7th and final leg of multi-stage state elections.
    (AFP, 12/24/08)
2008        Dec 24, Mexican soldiers arrested the deputy police chief in the resort town of Zihuatanejo and six other officers who were allegedly protecting drug cartel members at a cock fight. Soldiers also seized 59 packets of cocaine, 40 bags of marijuana and 20 assault rifles.
    (AP, 12/25/08)
2008        Dec 24, Mexico began blocking imports of meat from at least 30 US meat processing plants due to a new US law that required food retailers to label or display the country of origin for meat, produce and certain kinds of nuts. The law, effective as of Sep 30, was part of the 2008 Farm Bill.
    (WSJ, 12/27/08, p.A7)
2008        Dec 24, In Pakistan a bomb-rigged truck with government plates exploded in Lahore, killing one person in a heavily guarded neighborhood home to many government officials.
    (AP, 12/24/08)
2008        Dec 24, Palestinian militants in the Gaza Strip bombarded southern Israel with dozens of mortars and rockets, sowing panic and despair there and burdening diplomatic efforts to revive an expired truce. Hamas said two of its fighters have been killed in a blast in the southern Gaza Strip.
    (AP, 12/24/08)
2008        Dec 24, Russian energy giant Gazprom threatened to cut gas deliveries to Ukraine on January 1 if a new contract is not signed by then for 2009 but pledged to honor its supply obligations to Europe.
    (AFP, 12/24/08)
2008        Dec 24, A spokesman said  Somali President Abdullahi Yusuf has decided to resign, in a move the African Union said would be positive for the peace process in the Horn of Africa nation. Mohamed Mohamud Guled, named prime minister last week, resigned, saying his controversial appointment was preventing the feuding government from fighting a strengthening Islamic insurgency.
    (Reuters, 12/24/08)(AP, 12/24/08)
2008        Dec 24, The prime ministers of Turkey and Iraq vowed to step up their cooperation in the fight against Turkish Kurdish rebels whose presence in northern Iraq has cast a shadow over relations.
    (AP, 12/24/08)
2008        Dec 24, In southern Ukraine an apartment building was destroyed in a nighttime explosion that killed 27 people in the Crimea peninsula resort of Yevpatoria. The explosion was likely caused by a leak from oxygen canisters in the building's basement.
    (AP, 12/25/08)(AFP, 12/26/08)
2008        Dec 24, Leading Zimbabwean human rights campaigner Jestina Mukoko and nine other activists were charged with plotting to overthrow President Robert Mugabe's government.
    (Reuters, 12/24/08)

2008        Dec 25, Eartha Kitt (81), singer, dancer and actress, died in NYC. The self-proclaimed "sex kitten" attracted fans with her sultry voice and catlike purr even as she neared 80.
    (AP, 12/26/08)
2008        Dec 25, In Idaho Robert Aragon let his son Bear (12) and daughter Sage (11) attempt to walk some 10 miles home in freezing conditions, after their car broke down along an isolated rural highway. Bear survived but Sage died of hypothermia. In Oct 2009 a jury acquitted Aragon of involuntary manslaughter.
    (SFC, 10/10/09, p.A4)(www.mahalo.com/robert-aragon)
2008        Dec 25, In southern Afghanistan US coalition forces killed 11 Taliban militants, including the leader of a bomb-making cell, during an operation in Kandahar province.
    (AP, 12/26/08)
2008        Dec 25, Police in northern Bangladesh arrested three suspected militants tied to the Jumatul Mujahedeen Bangladesh, a banned Islamic group, and seized a large cache of bomb-making materials. The arrests were made in separate raids over the last 24 hours.
    (AP, 12/25/08)
2008        Dec 25, Chinese state media reported that 59 people in Tibet have been detained on charges that they sought to foment unrest by spreading ethnic hatred and by downloading and selling banned songs from the Internet.
    (SFC, 12/26/08, p.A16)
2008        Dec 25, A German military helicopter chased away pirates who were trying to board an Egyptian ship off the coast of Somalia. One of the ship's crew was shot in the attack.
    (AP, 12/25/08)
2008        Dec 25, In Guinea coup leader Capt. Moussa Camara solidified his grip as PM Ahmed Tidiane Souare and other government leaders surrendered and stepped down.
    (SFC, 12/26/08, p.A21)
2008        Dec 25, Iraq's Christians, a scant minority in this overwhelmingly Muslim country, quietly celebrated Christmas with a present from the government, which declared it an official holiday for the first time. A bombing outside a restaurant frequented by police killed four people and wounded 25 others in Baghdad’s Shiite neighborhood of Shula. An American soldier was killed in a rocket or mortar attack near the northern city of Mosul.
    (AP, 12/25/08)
2008        Dec 25, Israel moved closer to invading Gaza, saying it had wrapped up preparations for a broad offensive after Palestinian militants fired about 100 rockets and mortar shells across the border in two days.
    (AP, 12/25/08)
2008        Dec 25, Japan and Vietnam signed an economic partnership pact with a promise to cut tariffs on some 92% of goods and services traded between the two nations within a decade.
    (AFP, 12/25/08)
2008        Dec 25, Lebanese army officers discovered seven rockets set up with timers that were on the verge of firing near the border with Israel.
    (AP, 12/25/08)
2008        Dec 25, The Marshall Islands declared a state of emergency after severe flooding, that occurred from Dec. 9 to Dec. 15, forced more than 600 people from their homes.
    (AP, 12/26/08)
2008        Dec 25, In Mexico, at least four people were killed in a gun battle between suspected drug traffickers in a remote mountain area of Sinaloa.
    (AP, 12/27/08)
2008        Dec 25, In Peru five nightclubbers are dead after a tear gas grenade was detonated in the middle of a crowded disco in Juliaca.
    (AP, 12/25/08)
2008        Dec 25, Zimbabwe police ignored a court order to allow the release to hospital of a rights activist and several opposition figures accused of recruiting anti-government plotters.
    (AFP, 12/25/08)

2008        Dec 26, In Hawaii a power failure during a thunderstorm blacked out Oahu’s population of about 900,000 people and thousands of tourists including vacationing President-elect Barack Obama.
    (AP, 12/27/08)
2008        Dec 26, In Philadelphia a duplex fire apparently caused by fuel spilling from an overfilled kerosene heater killed seven people, including 3 kids, in a basement that had only one exit.
    (AP, 12/27/08)
2008        Dec 26, In southern Afghanistan a Canadian soldier was killed and three others wounded in a bomb blast. 2 suicide car bombs took place in western Afghanistan, but only the attackers were killed in the blasts. 3 foreigners were wounded in an attack in Herat.
    (AP, 12/27/08)
2008        Dec 26, Azerbaijan's parliament voted to hold a referendum next year on constitutional changes that could allow incumbent President Ilham Aliyev to stay in power when his current mandate runs out.
    (AFP, 12/26/08)
2008        Dec 26, Brazilian police detained Regivaldo Galvao, a rancher suspected in the 2005 slaying of rain forest activist Dorothy Stang (73), for allegedly illegally acquiring titles to land the US nun died trying to defend.
    (AP, 12/26/08)
2008        Dec 26, Chinese warships, armed with special forces, guided missiles and helicopters, set sail for anti-piracy duty off Somalia, the first time the communist nation has sent ships on a mission that could involve fighting so far beyond its territorial waters.
    (AP, 12/26/08)
2008        Dec 26, China’s state media reported that nearly 5,000 higher-level Chinese government officials were punished for corruption over the past year.
    (AP, 12/26/08)
2008        Dec 26, China National Offshore Oil Corp., the country's largest offshore oil and gas producer, signed four oil cooperation agreements with Taiwan's CPC Corp.
    (AP, 12/26/08)
2008        Dec 26, A Chinese man and two Lebanese nationals were shot dead in a crime wave in southeastern Democratic Republic of Congo that also left 10 Congolese dead this week. The mayor of Lubumbashi, Marie-Gregoire Tambila, said that 11 people had been killed in the last four days in her city, including a Lebanese national who was killed on Christmas day. In eastern Congo attackers, identified as members of the Lord’s Resistance Army, killed some 100 people at a church in Doruma. The UN said rebels had killed 189 people over 2 days.
    (AFP, 12/26/08)(SFC, 12/30/08, p.A10)
2008        Dec 26, Three suspected al-Qaida in Iraq insurgents broke out of jail during a riot that killed six police officers and seven prisoners in the western city of Ramadi.
    (AP, 12/26/08)(SFC, 12/27/08, p.A5)
2008        Dec 26, Israel reopened its border with Gaza to allow deliveries of humanitarian aid, despite continued rocket and mortar fire from the coastal strip and growing expectations of a large-scale Israeli military campaign against Palestinian militants. A rocket fired by Palestinian militants fell short and killed 2 schoolgirls in the northern Gaza Strip.
    (AP, 12/26/08)(SFC, 12/27/08, p.A5)
2008        Dec 26, In Mexico a gang of about 20 men armed with assault rifles robbed a train in the western state of Michoacan and carted off some of its freight. Dr. Laura Avila. Avila was found dead in the rural health clinic she was staffing in Jalisco state. Police soon arrested Ricardo Garcia Barajas (25), a farm worker, who allegedly hacked the doctor to death with a machete for refusing to treat his son.
    (AP, 12/27/08)(AP, 1/2/09)
2008        Dec 26, Pakistan began moving thousands of troops to the Indian border, sharply raising tensions triggered by the Mumbai terror attacks.
    (AP, 12/26/08)
2008        Dec 26, Russia's ruble fell to a three-year low against the dollar after the Central Bank allowed a third sharp drop in the currency in five days as the government continues to feel the heat of the global meltdown.
    (AP, 12/26/08)
2008        Dec 26, Serbia arrested 10 former Kosovo Albanian guerrilla fighters suspected of involvement in killings and abductions in the former Serbian province of Kosovo in 1999.
    (AP, 12/26/08)
2008        Dec 26, Spain approved a new provision that also allows anyone whose parents or grandparents were born in Spain but went overseas because of their political beliefs or economic hardship to become Spaniards.
    (AP, 12/29/08)

2008        Dec 27, It was reported that the mountain pine beetle was expected to kill virtually every mature lodgepole pine in Colorado. The beetle had already destroyed pine forests from Mexico to Canada.
    (WSJ, 12/27/08, p.A2)
2008        Dec 27, Sculptor Robert Graham (b.1938) died in Santa Monica, Ca. His massive bronze works mark civic monuments across America, included the Franklin Delano Roosevelt Memorial in Washington.
    (AP, 12/28/08)(SFC, 12/29/08, p.A2)
2008        Dec 27, In northern Nevada a 13 rail cars containing grain were involved in a derailment along the Humboldt River. The derailment triggered the collapse of a  102-year-old bridge spanning the river.
    (SSFC, 12/28/08, p.B2)
2008        Dec 27, In southern Afghanistan a suicide attacker detonated a car bomb at a police checkpoint, killing three policemen and two civilian men on a motorbike. 2 Canadian soldiers were killed in a blast in southern Kandahar province. An Afghan policeman and an interpreter also died in the attack in Panjwayi district, a Taliban stronghold about 25 kilometers (15 miles) west of Kandahar city. A member of the Kandahar provincial council was shot dead in a mosque. US troops killed five militants and detained six in operations against extremist networks.
    (AP, 12/27/08)(AFP, 12/28/08)
2008        Dec 27, An explosion in central China's Henan province killed 15 people and injured nine others. Explosives, used for small-scale demolition, were illegally stored at a home when they ignited, destroying more than 10 neighboring houses. At least 17 workers were killed and one seriously injured when an elevator suddenly dropped to the ground at a construction site in central Hunan province.
    (AP, 12/27/08)
2008        Dec 27, Guinea's coup leader said he would allow the opposition and union leaders to help choose a prime minister. The military junta was boosted by the endorsement of neighboring Senegal as it attempted to garner international backing, and, after meeting political parties, promised to stamp out the burgeoning drugs trade.
    (AP, 12/27/08)(Reuters, 12/27/08)
2008        Dec 27, In Iraq a bomb tore through a busy square in Baghdad at midday, killing at least 24 people and wounding 54. A suspected al-Qaida in Iraq fugitive was killed in a gun battle with police in the western city of Ramadi. He was one of four suspected al-Qaida in Iraq members who escaped during a jailbreak and ensuing riot at a Ramadi police station a day earlier that left six policemen and seven insurgents dead. An Iraqi soldier and two other people were killed when a car bomb exploded as they were trying to defuse it in Musayyib. Police in the northern city of Kirkuk also arrested six suspected insurgents, including the former driver of Hassan al-Majid — Saddam Hussein's cousin who is also known as "Chemical Ali."
    (AP, 12/27/08)(SSFC, 12/28/08, p.A4)
2008        Dec 27, Israel began “Operation Cast Lead" as its warplanes retaliating for rocket fire from the Gaza Strip pounded dozens of security compounds across the Hamas-ruled territory in waves of airstrikes, killing nearly 200 people and wounding 270 others in the single bloodiest day of fighting in years. Gaza militants fired 30 rockets and mortars after the air offensive began. A missile hit the town of Netivot, killing an Israeli man and wounding four people.
    (AP, 12/27/08)(Econ, 1/10/09, p.24)
2008        Dec 27, In Malaysia Tuanku Ja'afar Tuanku Abdul Rahman (86), a royal state ruler, died. He became Malaysia's king for five years (1994-1999) under the country's unique monarchal system.
    (AP, 12/28/08)
2008        Dec 27, Turkey's parliament reduced the budget allocations of most ministries by up to 16 percent to cut overall spending as the country seeks a loan deal with the International Monetary Fund.
    (AP, 12/27/08)
2008        Dec 27-2009 Jan 21, In Egypt security forces arrested at least 860 activists of the Muslim Brotherhood as public demonstrations mounted during the Israeli assault on Gaza.
    (Econ, 1/17/09, p.48)

2008        Dec 28, In Michigan strong winds knocked down tree limbs and power lines eliminating power to nearly 230,000 homes and businesses, mostly in Wayne and Oakland counties.
    (AP, 12/29/08)
2008        Dec 28, Thomas Boklund (b.1939), former head of Oregon Steel Mills Inc., died. In 2007 the company merged with Russia’s Evraz Group SA in a deal valued at $2.35 billion.
    (WSJ, 1/31/09, p.A4)
2008        Dec 28, In Afghanistan 14 children were among 20 Afghans killed in new extremist attacks in Khost province. A remote-controlled bomb exploded outside a music shop in the southern town of Tirin Kot, killing one person and wounding two.
    (AFP, 12/28/08)
2008        Dec 28, In northern Bangladesh a truck loaded with iron rods veered off a road, killing 24 hitchhikers riding in the back and injuring 13 others.
    (AP, 12/28/08)
2008        Dec 28, In Canada eight snowmobilers were killed as they were hit by a pair of avalanches in southeast British Columbia. 3 men survived.
    (AP, 12/30/08)(AP, 12/31/08)
2008        Dec 28, Ghanaians turned out to choose a successor to outgoing president John Kufuor in the second round of an election seen as a test of just how stable the west African nation is. Opposition leader John Atta Mills won Ghana's presidential ballot by less than half a percentage point. He inherited a fiscal deficit of 14.5%.
    (AP, 12/28/08)(AP, 12/29/08)(Econ, 1/2/10, p.36)
2008        Dec 28, Coup leaders demoted Guinea's many military generals, setting up a possible struggle with battalions no longer under central command.
    (AP, 12/29/08)
2008        Dec 28, Indian PM Manmohan Singh called the higher than expected turnout in elections in disputed Kashmir a "vote for democracy," as results showed no one party dominated the polls.
    (AP, 12/28/08)
2008        Dec 28, Iran's supreme leader issued a religious decree that said anyone killed while defending Palestinians in Gaza would be considered a martyr.
    (AP, 12/29/08)
2008        Dec 28, In Iraq a suicide bomber on a bicycle blew himself up amid a crowd of demonstrators in Mosul, who were protesting Israel's airstrikes on Gaza. One demonstrator was killed with 16 others wounded. A bomb exploded on the outskirts of Fallujah, killing two civilians and wounding four others. A roadside bomb killed a US soldier in Baghdad’s Sadr City.
    (AP, 12/28/08)(SFC, 12/29/08, p.A12)
2008        Dec 28, Israeli warplanes pressing one of Israel's deadliest assaults ever on Palestinian militants dropped bombs and missiles on a top security installation, smuggling tunnels and dozens of other targets across Hamas-ruled Gaza. Some 280 Palestinians died in the first 24 hours of the campaign against Gaza rocket squads. Prisoners fled Gaza's central prison after it was damaged by an Israeli airstrike. 17 of them were later numbered among 32 dead in extra-judicial killings by Hamas.
    (AP, 12/28/08)(AP, 2/14/09)
2008        Dec 28, In Jamaica Vincent Ford (68), songwriter, died. He is credited with composing the Bob Marley reggae classic "No Woman, No Cry" (1974).
    (AP, 12/31/08)
2008        Dec 28, Kuwait decided to scrap a deal to form a $17.4 billion petrochemical joint venture with US company Dow Chemical.
    (Reuters, 12/29/08)
2008        Dec 28, Malaysia reported that it is zooming in on forests with a satellite in order to fight illegal logging, which its government says is harming the major timber exporting country.
    (AFP, 12/28/08)
2008        Dec 28, In Mexico 7 people were killed in a series of shootings in the border city of Tijuana over the last 2 days.
    (AP, 12/28/08)   
2008        Dec 28, In northwest Pakistan 36 people were killed and 15 hurt in a suspected suicide car bomb attack in Shalbandi, in the Swat valley, where villagers 4 months earlier had killed 6 Taliban fighters.
    (AFP, 12/28/08)(SFC, 12/29/08, p.A11)
2008        Dec 28, In Sri Lanka a suspected Tamil rebel suicide bomber killed at least seven troops and one civilian in a blast at a guard post near the Sri Lankan capital. Another 17 people, including four civilians, were wounded.
    (AP, 12/28/08)
2008        Dec 28, In Thailand thousands of supporters of exiled former PM Thaksin Shinawatra began converging on Parliament, vowing to stage demonstrations until the new government holds elections.
    (AP, 12/28/08)
2008        Dec 28, The UN Security Council has issued a statement expressing serious concern at the escalating violence in Gaza and is calling on Israel and the Palestinians to immediately halt all military activities.
    (AP, 12/28/08)
2008        Dec 28, Zimbabwe’s state media said the government will prosecute 140 white landowners on charges of failing to vacate their farms under the country's controversial 2000 land reform program.
    (AP, 12/28/08)

2008        Dec 29, The US federal government approved $6 billion in aid to GMAC LLC, the financing company vital to the future of General Motors.
    (WSJ, 12/30/08, p.A1)
2008        Dec 29, Citigroup Inc said it is injecting $800 million of new capital into its South Korean banking arm, joining other banks in efforts to shore up their financial bases.
    (Reuters, 12/29/08)
2008        Dec 29, Yellowstone National Park was jostled by a host of small earthquakes for a third straight day, and scientists watched closely to see whether the more than 250 tremors were a sign of something bigger to come.
    (AP, 12/30/08)
2008        Dec 29, Freddie Hubbard (b.1938), Grammy-winning jazz trumpeter, died in Los Angeles.
    (WSJ, 12/30/08, p.A1)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Freddie_Hubbard)
2008        Dec 29, Lt. Gen. Victor H. Krulak (b.1913), Marine commandant (1995-1999), died. His book “First to Fight: An Inside View of the U.S. Marine Corps" (1984), examined the history and culture of the US Marine Corps.
    (WSJ, 1/3/09, p.A5)
2008        Dec 28, In Afghanistan 14 children were among 20 Afghans killed in new extremist attacks in Khost province. A remote-controlled bomb exploded outside a music shop in the southern town of Tirin Kot, killing one person and wounding two. In Helmand province soldiers and police killed 7 insurgents as Taliban militants attacked a police post.
    (AFP, 12/28/08)(SFC, 12/30/08, p.A3)
2008        Dec 29, Bangladeshis voted in their droves in elections that marked the end of two years of emergency rule, with a pair of rival former prime ministers vying to reclaim power in the impoverished nation. Former PM Sheikh Hasina won a landslide victory.
    (AFP, 12/29/08)(AP, 12/30/08)
2008        Dec 29, The British pound fell to a record low against the euro, flirting with one pound per euro as two gloomy economic forecasts stoked expectations that the Bank of England will make further interest rate cuts next year.
    (AP, 12/29/08)
2008        Dec 29, Canadian searchers recovered the bodies of six of the eight snowmobilers missing since they were hit by a pair of avalanches in southeast British Columbia.
    (AP, 12/30/08)
2008        Dec 29, Top brass from the Chinese and Russian armies hailed closer ties in their first-ever conversation over a newly installed military hot line.
    (AP, 12/29/08)
2008        Dec 29, In China 9 people went on trial in connection with the tainted milk scandal. This  followed the announcement of steps to compensate the families of hundreds of thousands of children harmed by contaminated infant formula.
    (AP, 12/29/08)
2008        Dec 29, In Ethiopia Birtukan Midekssa (35), head of the Unity for Democracy Justice party, was arrested and resumed serving her life term after her pardon from a life sentence was revoked. She had irked the regime when she reportedly claimed during a recent visit to Europe that she had never voiced remorse or acknowledged any mistake to obtain her pardon in 2007.
    (AFP, 12/31/08)(www.jimmatimes.com/article.cfm?articleID=31713)
2008        Dec 29, Ted Lapidus (b.1929), French fashion designer who redefined chic with the 1960s unisex look, died. Lapidus created his label in 1951, and in 1963 became a member of the prestigious Paris fashion club that runs haute-couture, La Chambre Syndicale de la Haute Couture.
    (AP, 12/30/08)
2008        Dec 29, In Germany Munich Re, the world's number two reinsurer, said natural disasters killed over 220,000 people in 2008, making it one of the most devastating years on record and underlining the need for a global climate deal.
    (AFP, 12/29/08)
2008        Dec 29, The African Union suspended Guinea after a military coup in the west African nation.
    (AFP, 12/29/08)
2008        Dec 29, The Indian Coast Guard rescued two people off India's east coast during a search for more than 300 illegal immigrants missing for the past four days and feared dead. Survivors told Indian authorities that more than 300 people from Bangladesh and Myanmar, members of the ethnic Rohingya minority, had jumped from a rickety boat that had been drifting for 13 days in the Indian Ocean and tried to swim to shore near the Andaman Islands. On Jan 16 a refugees' advocacy group accused the Thai navy of tying up four illegal immigrants and throwing them into the ocean before abandoning hundreds of others on a barge in open water, where some 300 drowned. At least 100 were rescued in Indian waters. Survivors at the time told Indian authorities they had been detained by Thai authorities, who towed them into the open sea and left them.
    (AP, 12/30/08)(AP, 1/16/09)(SSFC, 1/18/09, p.A5)
2008        Dec 29, In India Manjit Bawa 67), a leading Indian artist, died. His work had highlighted peaceful coexistence.
    (AP, 12/29/08)
2008        Dec 29, In Iran 5 hard-line student groups and a conservative clerical group launched a registration drive, seeking volunteers to carry out suicide attacks against Israel.
    (AP, 12/31/08)
2008        Dec 29, Israel obliterated symbols of Hamas power on the third day of what the defense minister described as a "war to the bitter end," striking next to the Hamas premier's home, and devastating a security compound and a university building. The three-day death toll rose to at least 315, with some 1,400 wounded. One medium-range rocket fired at the Israeli city of Ashkelon killed an Arab construction worker and wounded several others. Egypt opened its borders to Gaza and allowed trucks loaded with humanitarian aid to enter the Rafah terminal. A Palestinian stabbed and wounded four Israelis in a West Bank settlement before he was shot and wounded.
    (AP, 12/29/08)
2008        Dec 29, Scottish police charged Justice Ngema (35) with attempting to murder Magdeline Makola (38), a nurse who was found locked in the trunk of her car, where police say she may have been kept for up to 10 days. Makola had been reported missing after she failed to show up for work at the Edinburgh Royal Infirmary on Dec. 18. She was last seen Dec. 15.
    (AP, 12/29/08)
2008        Dec 29, Abdullahi Yusuf, the president of Somalia's UN-backed government, resigned amid deepening international pressure, a move that could usher in more chaos as a strengthening Islamic insurgency scrambles for power.
    (AP, 12/29/08)
2008        Dec 29, In Sudan Lt. Commander Pape Lamine Ndiaye, a Senegalese military officer, died after being shot in Darfur on Dec 27, whilst serving with the AU peacekeeping force.
    (AFP, 12/31/08)
2008        Dec 29, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon demanded an immediate cease-fire in Gaza and urged Mideast and world leaders to do more to help end the Israeli-Hamas conflict and promote political dialogue.
    (AP, 12/30/08)

2008        Dec 30, US President George W. Bush signed a nuclear inspection agreement with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), which will boost international monitoring of nuclear activities,
2008        Dec 30, A US federal judge on awarded more than $65 million to several men who were captured and tortured by North Korea after the communist country seized the U.S. spy ship USS Pueblo on Jan 23, 1968. North Korea never responded to the lawsuit filed by William Thomas Massie, Donald Raymond McClarren, Dunnie Richard Tuck and the estate of Lloyd Bucher. U.S. District Judge Henry H. Kennedy Jr. entered the judgment against the country.
    (AP, 12/31/08)
2008        Dec 30, Illinois Gov. Rod Blagojevich named former state Attorney General Roland Burris (71) to replace Barack Obama as state senator. The surprise move put opponents in the uncomfortable position of trying to block Burris from becoming the Senate’s only black member.
    (SFC, 12/31/08, p.A3)
2008        Dec 30, The Bahamas' foreign affairs minister said China will help build a national sports stadium. Construction will start early next year in the capital of Nassau. China will send the Bahamas a $7.3 million grant as well as Chinese construction workers who will build the stadium.
    (AP, 12/31/08)
2008        Dec 30, Belgium's Flemish Christian Democrat Herman Van Rompuy reached agreement on a new coalition government of five parties, opening the way for his nomination as prime minister by King Albert II. A new government took office that is nearly a replica of the quarrelsome alliance of Christian Democrats, Liberals and Socialists that quit earlier this month in a bank bailout scandal.
    (AP, 12/30/08)
2008        Dec 30, A Chinese state-run newspaper said the companies, whose tainted milk products sickened nearly 300,000 children and were blamed in the deaths of six, will likely pay 1.1 billion yuan ($160 million) in compensation to victims' families.
    (AP, 12/30/08)
2008        Dec 30, China’s state press said paleontologists in east China have dug up what they believe is one of the world's largest group of dinosaur fossils including the remains of an enormous "platypus."
    (AFP, 12/30/08)
2008        Dec 30, Congo’s health minister said An Ebola virus outbreak has killed 11 people in western Congo. Caritas, a Catholic charity, reported that over 400 people have been killed in northeaster Congo since Christmas day.
    (AP, 12/30/08)(SFC, 12/31/08, p.A3)
2008        Dec 30, Coup leaders in Guinea named Kabine Komara, a civilian banker, as prime minister, making good on a key promise a week after seizing power upon the death of the country's dictator.
    (AP, 12/30/08)
2008        Dec 30, Iraqi forces arrested Arshad Abid Dayem, a leader of the "Soldiers of Heaven" cult, along with 4 of his aides. The cult has carried out bloody attacks during the Shiite Ashura holiday the past two years. Ashura this year falls on Jan 7.
    (AP, 12/31/08)
2008        Dec 30, In Indian Kashmir the National Conference, which with 28 seats won more than any other party, and the Congress party, which won 17, struck an agreement to form a new coalition, giving them a majority in the state parliament.
    (AP, 12/30/08)
2008        Dec 30, Paul Hofmann (96), Austria-born writer, died in Rome. During WWII he informed on his Nazi commanders in occupied Rome and later became a New York Times correspondent. Hofmann authored over a dozen books, including "That Fine Italian Hand," "The Seasons of Rome: A Journal" and "O Vatican! A Slightly Wicked View of the Holy See."
    (AP, 1/1/09)
2008        Dec 30, Libya asked oil companies to slash production by 270,000 barrels per day from Jan. 1, the latest such reduction by an OPEC member as the producer group struggles to boost faltering oil prices.
    (AP, 12/30/08)
2008        Dec 30, Pakistan closed the main route used to ferry supplies to US and allied troops in Afghanistan after launching a fresh offensive against militants in the area.
    (AP, 12/30/08)
2008        Dec 30,  Palestinian militants, armed with deadlier missiles than ever before, kept up rocket assaults against Israel, despite relentless air attacks against Gaza's Hamas rulers and unwelcome word from Egypt that it would not bail them out. More than 370 Palestinians have died since the Israeli air onslaught against Gaza's Islamic Hamas rulers began on Dec 27.
    (AP, 12/30/08)
2008        Dec 30, The Kremlin said President Dmitry Medvedev has signed a law extending presidential terms from four years to six, a move seen as paving the way for Vladimir Putin's return to the presidency.
    (AP, 12/30/08)
2008        Dec 30, Russia's natural gas company Gazprom said it will stop energy shipments to Ukraine and sharply raise the price for future deliveries if it doesn't pay a $2 billion debt by New Year's Eve. The Ukrainian government issued a decree saying two state banks would lend state energy company Naftogaz Ukrainy up to $2 billion to pay its arrears to Russia’s Gazprom. Disagreements remained on future gas costs.
    (AP, 12/30/08)(WSJ, 12/31/08, p.A5)
2008        Dec 30, In Somalia mortars slammed into a busy market in Mogadishu, as the country's weak government crumbled and the impending pullout of allied Ethiopian troops raised fears that Islamic insurgents might seize the opportunity to take over.
    (AP, 12/30/08)
2008        Dec 30, Sri Lanka's Tamil Tiger separatists said are open to restarting peace talks with the government, despite the continuing military offensive aimed at crushing the group.
    (AP, 12/31/08)
2008        Dec 30, In Thailand anti-government protesters abandoned their siege of the Foreign Ministry building, easing a standoff that threatened to re-ignite a long-running political crisis.
    (AP, 12/30/08)

2008        Dec 31, US mortgage lender Freddie Mac said interest rates on the 30-year fixed-rate mortgage dropped to an average of 5.10% for the week ending this day, down from the previous week's 5.14%.
    (AP, 12/31/08)
2008        Dec 31, In Aspen, Colorado, James Chester Blanning (72), walked into two downtown banks afternoon and left gift-wrapped bombs made of gasoline and cell phone components. He had skied competitively as a teen but had grown bitter about his hometown. His bombs caused the evacuation of a 16-block area, which lasted until 4 a.m. Police found Blanning dead in his Jeep Cherokee a few hours later in a rural area east of Aspen.
    (AP, 1/2/09)
2008        Dec 31, SF ended the year with 98 homicides. In Milwaukee, Wisc., the total number of homicides dropped 32%, from 105 in 2007 to 71 in 2008, the lowest number since 1985. Detroit had 344 slayings, a 13% drop from the 396 in 2007; Philadelphia's 332 killings were a 15% drop from the 392 in 2007; and the 234 homicides in Baltimore were 17% less than the 392 the year before. Cleveland recorded 102 homicides in 2008, down from a 13-year high of 134 in 2007. Homicides in New York rose 5.2%, to 522 from 496 the year before. Slayings in Los Angeles were down to 376 in 2008 compared to 400 the prior year. Preliminary data in Chicago showed 508 homicides were reported in 2008, the first time the city had more than 500 murders since 2003 and about 15% more than the 442 homicides reported in 2007. Washington, D.C., ended 2008 with 186 homicides, up from 181 in 2007.
    (SFC, 1/2/09, p.1)(AP, 1/3/09)
2008        Dec 31, Donald Westlake (1933), American mystery author, died while vacationing in Mexico. He authored over 90 books and a number of screenplays.
    (SFC, 1/2/09, p.B6)
2008        Dec 31, In Afghanistan Taliban militants attacked a district governor's compound in southern Helmand province, killing 20 police guards and fatally shooting the mother of one as she pleaded unsuccessfully for her son's life. Two foreign soldiers helping to fight the extremists were killed in separate incidents. US-led forces killed eight armed Taliban militants in Zabul province.
    (AFP, 1/1/09)(AP, 1/1/09)
2008        Dec 31, In Brazil Christian Wolffer (70), owner of the Wolffer Estate winery, bled to death after suffering two deep cuts on his back while swimming on New Year's Eve near the colonial town of Paraty, about 150 kilometers (100 miles) west of Rio de Janeiro. A man suspected of piloting a motorboat that struck and killed Wolffer was detained on Jan 4.
    (AP, 1/4/09)
2008        Dec 31, It was reported that China has delayed plans to start the central section of its massive South-to-North water diversion project by 4 years due to environmental concerns.
    (WSJ, 12/31/08, p.A4)
2008        Dec 31, China’s state-run Xinhua news agency reported that a pair of Chinese forestry executives cheated thousands of investors out of 160 million dollars by selling off "timber lands" in a barren desert region. Chairman Chen Xianggui of Inner Mongolia's Wanli Afforestation Co. was sentenced to 11 years in prison by a court in the region while general manager Liu Yanying received nine years for the pyramid scheme.
    (AFP, 12/31/08)
2008        Dec 31, Tian Wenhua, former chairwoman of the Sanlu Group, one of China’s biggest dairy producers, pleaded guilty to selling fake and substandard milk powder.
    (SFC, 1/1/09, p.A3)
2008        Dec 31, In Denmark a gunman shot and wounded two Israelis working at the Rosengaard mall in Odense. Police son arrested a 27-year-old Dane born in Lebanon of Palestinian parents.
    (AP, 1/1/09)(AP, 1/2/09)
2008        Dec 31, India's president signed an anti-terror bill into law to boost police powers in the wake of a bloody attack on the country's financial capital.
    (AP, 12/31/08)
2008        Dec 31, In Iraq Oil Minister Hussein al-Shahristani kicked off the country's second postwar bidding round, naming 11 oil and gas fields or groups of fields as eligible for development proposals. 8 people were killed in four bombings in the north. At least 314 US soldiers died in 2008, down from 904 in 2007.
    (AP, 12/31/08)(AP, 1/1/09)
2008        Dec 31, Israel rejected international pressure for a two-day cease-fire with Hamas and sent warplanes to demolish smuggling tunnels that are the lifeline of Gaza's Islamic rulers. Gaza officials said the five days of airstrikes have killed 390, including 200 uniformed members of Hamas security forces.
    (AP, 12/31/08)
2008        Dec 31, Mexico sent 10 alleged drug smugglers to the United States, capping an already record year for extraditions between the two countries. 2 Canadian tourists were hospitalized with gunshot wounds after assailants opened fire at a nightclub in the resort town of Cabo San Lucas.
    (AP, 1/1/09)
2008        Dec 31, In Pakistan tanks, artillery and helicopter gunships continued their attacks in the Khyber Pass. Over the last two days, security forces destroyed 19 suspected militant compounds and arrested 28 Pakistanis. Government troops reportedly killed three militants in the operation to secure the major supply route to US and NATO troops in Afghanistan.
    (AP, 12/31/08)
2008        Dec 31, A senior Pakistani government official said Zarar Shah, a militant arrested in Pakistan, has confessed involvement in the Mumbai terror attacks and is giving investigators details of the plot. Shah and another suspect, Zaki-ur-Rehman Lakhvi, were said to be cooperating with investigators.
    (AP, 12/31/08)
2008        Dec 31, In Bangkok, Thailand, a New Year's Eve fire erupted at the Santika nightclub. Before the revelry was over, 62 people were killed and more than 200 injured after they tried to flee what swiftly became a charred, gutted ruin in a glitzy Bangkok entertainment area.
    (AP, 1/1/09)(AP, 1/4/09)
2008        Dec 31, The UN Security Council held an emergency meeting on an Arab request for a binding and enforceable resolution condemning Israel and halting its military attacks on Gaza. The US immediately called the draft resolution circulated by Libya on behalf of the 22-member Arab League "unacceptable" and "unbalanced" and because it makes no mention of halting the Hamas rocket attacks that led to the Israeli offensive.
    (AP, 1/1/09)
2008        Dec 31, The Vatican announced that it will no longer automatically adopt new Italian laws as its own, citing the vast number of laws Italy churns out, many of which are in odds with Catholic doctrine.
    (AP, 12/31/08)

2008        Dec, Most Australian taxpayers received checks for $900 to help stimulate the economy.
    (Econ, 5/28/11, SR p.5)
2008        Dec, Bolivia banned imports of 2nd-hand cars over 5-years old. In 2011 the government provided a 25-day amnesty for owners to register illegal imports and pay a fine.
    (www.startribune.com/templates/Print_This_Story?sid=36387719)(Econ, 6/25/11, p.48)
2008        Dec, In Chile engraver Pedro Urzua Lizana unknowingly left off the bottom part of the letter "l" while hurriedly fixing a minor deformity in the original mold for making dies to stamp out Chilean 50-peso pieces for 2009. The coins were released to the public, but no one at the mint, including himself, knew about the error until a coin collector called in October to point it out. Urzua was fired in December, 2009.
    (AP, 2/12/10)
2008        Dec, Ecuador’s Central Bank signed an agreement under which Iran’s Central Bank would set up a credit line of $40 million, extendable by $80 million, for the use of Ecuadorean importers.
    (Econ, 4/17/10, p.44)
2008        Dec, Unemployment in Iran was estimated at 4 million people and expected to rise under falling oil prices.
    (Econ, 12/6/08, p.66)
2008        Dec, Italy’s public debt, the world’s 3rd biggest, was the equivalent of 104% of GDP.
    (Econ, 12/13/08, p.61)
2008        Dec, In Norway Think Global AS, a front runner in the plug-in car market, filed for Bankruptcy after its failure to get capital financing under the current credit crunch.
    (WSJ, 1/24/09, p.B2)
2008        Dec, Moscow agreed to provide Lebanon with 10 MiG-29 fighter jets. A few days later Washington promised to deliver tanks to Beirut.
    (AP, 1/21/09)
2008        Dec, Russia’s Finance Leasing Co. (FLC), a subsidiary of United Aircraft Corp., defaulted on $250 million of bonds, the first default by a state-owned company on foreign debt since the country’s 1998 financial meltdown.
    (WSJ, 3/23/09, p.A1)
2008        Dec, Serbia sold its state oil monopoly NIS to Russia’s Gazprom at a discount. Officials expected the payoff would be a steady fuel supply. In January gas supplies to Serbia stopped as Russia halted deliveries via Ukraine.
    (SFC, 1/12/09, p.A6)
2008        Dec, Sierra Leone again earned the distinction of being the world’s least developed country. Over 70% of the population lived on less than 70 American cents per day.
    (Econ, 12/13/08, p.55)
2008        Dec, Tanganyika Oil was acquired by a subsidiary of China Petroleum & Chemical Corp. (Sinopec) for $2 billion.
    (Econ, 6/27/09, p.72)
2008        Dec, A 131-page report by the UN Procurement Task Force said former officials Ventzislav Stoykov and Edgar Casals each scammed hundreds of thousands of dollars and ran outside ventures at the UN's Economic Commission for Africa. The task force recommended providing the ECA report to prosecutors in Ethiopia and the Philippines and to US authorities to review visas Casals apparently obtained through Santiago "Sonny" Busa, a former US consular chief in Addis Ababa.
    (AP, 6/19/10)

2008        Dec-2009 Jan, In 2009 Human Rights Watch issued a report saying 6 missile strikes in Gaza by Israeli drones killed 29 civilians, including 8 children, during this period.
    (SFC, 7/1/09, p.A3)

2008        Dennis Avery, heir to the Avery labels fortune, commissioned artist Ricardo Arroyo Breceda to produce life-size sculptures on private property located in California’s 937-square-mile Anza Borrega Desert State Park, the 2nd largest state park in the US.
    (SSFC, 3/11/12, p.N6)

2008        The term mansplaining took off after an essay from author Rebecca Solnit, “Men Explain Things To Me." The term covers scenarios in which arrogant men impose their knowledge on women. In 2016 Sweden’s largest trade unions, Unionen, launched a mansplaining hotline.
    (CSM, 11/20/16)

2008        Mark Abley authored “The Prodigal Tongue: Dispatches from the Future of English," a look at the changing English language.
    (WSJ, 6/28/08, p.W8)
2008        Peter Ackroyd authored “Thames: The Biography."
    (SSFC, 11/16/08, Books p.5)
2008        L.K. Advani, head of India’s Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) authored “My Country My Life," a history of Indian politics.
    (Econ, 5/31/08, p.88)
2008        Spencer E. Ante authored “Creative Capital: Georges Doriot and the Birth of Venture Capital." In 1946 Doriot (1899-1987), a French-born Harvard professor, took public his Boston-based American Research & Development (ARD) company.
    (WSJ, 5/21/08, p.A17)
2008        Dan Ariely authored “Predictably Irrational: The Hidden Forces That Shape Our Decisions."
    (SSFC, 4/13/08, Books p.8)
2008        Margaret Atwood authored :Payback: Debt and the Shadow Side of Wealth."
    (Econ, 10/18/08, p.96)
2008        Nena Baker authored “Body Toxic: How the Hazardous Chemistry of Everyday Things Threatens Our Health and Well-Being."
    (SSFC, 10/12/08, Books p.4)
2008        Stephen Baker authored “The Numerati," a look at the new technology of data mining and how it is used.
    (WSJ, 9/15/08, p.A21)
2008        Maria Balinska authored “The Bagel: The Surprising History of a Modest Bread."
    (WSJ, 11/29/08, p.W11)
2008        James Bamford authored “The Shadow Factory: The Ultra-Secret NSA From 9/11 to the Eavesdropping on America.
    (SSFC, 10/26/08, Books p.1)
2008        Halima Bashir and Damien Lewis authored “Tears of the Desert: One woman’s True Story of Surviving the Horrors of Darfur."
    (Econ, 8/16/08, p.80)
2008        Gary J. Bass authored “Freedom’s Battle: The Origins of Humanitarian Intervention."
    (WSJ, 8/21/08, p.A11)
2008        Mark Bauerlein authored “The Dumbest Generation: How the Digital Age Stupefies Young Americans and Jeopardizes Our Future."
    (WSJ, 5/13/08, p.A15)
2008        Jasper Becker authored “City of Heavenly Tranquility: Beijing in the History of China."
    (Econ, 8/2/08, p.85)
2008        Ronen Bergman authored “The Secret War with Iran: The 30-Year Clandestine Struggle Against the World’s Most dangerous Terrorist Power."
    (Econ, 9/6/08, p.98)
2008        William J. Bernstein authored “A Splendid Exchange: How Trade Shaped the World."
    (Econ, 7/19/08, p.91)
2008        Linda J. Bilmes and Joseph E. Stiglitz authored “The Three Trillion Dollar War: The True Cost of the Iraq Conflict.
    (Econ, 3/15/08, p.98)
2008        Bill Bishop authored “The Big Sort: Why the Clustering of Like-Minded America is Tearing Us Apart."
    (Econ, 4/29/17, p.24)
2008        Matthew Bishop and Michael Green authored “Philanthrocapitalism: How the Rich Can Save the World."
    (WSJ, 10/10/08, p.W10)
2008        Douglas A. Blackmon authored “Slavery by Another Name: The Re-Enslavement of Black Americans from the Civil War to World War II." In 2009 Blackmon, an editor at the Wall Street Journal, won a Pulitzer Prize for the book.
    (WSJ, 4/21/09, p.B6)
2008        Botanist Patrick Blanc authored “The Vertical Garden."
    (SSFC, 3/6/11, p.N6)
2008        Philip Bobbit, American professor of Law, authored “Terror and Consent: The Wars for the Twenty-first Century."
    (Econ, 4/5/08, p.87)
2008        Kasia Boddy authored “Boxing: A Cultural History."
    (Econ, 6/21/08, p.104)
2008        Eavan Boland and Edward Hirsch edited “The Making of a Sonnet," a documentation of the sonnet’s long life.
    (WSJ, 3/22/08, p.W11)
2008        John R. Bradley, British writer, authored "Inside Egypt: The Land of the Pharaohs on the Brink of a Revolution."
    (AFP, 7/27/08)
2008        Sir Richard Branson, chairman of the British Virgin Group, authored “Business stripped Bare: Adventures of a Global Entrepreneur."
    (Econ, 9/27/08, p.80)
2008        Jonathan Brent authored “Inside the Stalin Archives: Discovering the New Russia."
    (WSJ, 12/2/08, p.A17)
2008        Wallace S. Broecker and Robert Kunzig authored “Fixing climate: What Past Climate Changes Reveal About the current Threat – And How to Counter It."
    (Econ, 5/17/08, p.101)
2008        Willie Brown, former mayor of SF (1996-2004) and speaker of the California State Assembly (1981-1995), authored his autobiography “Basic Brown: My Life and Our Times."
    (WSJ, 2/7/08, p.D9)
2008        Robert Bryce authored “Gusher of Lies: the Dangerous Delusions of Energy Independence."
    (WSJ, 3/26/08, p.D9)
2008        Michael Burleigh authored “Blood and Rage: A Cultural History of Terrorism."
    (Econ, 3/8/08, p.94)
2008        John Burrow authored “A History of Histories," a survey of history writing.
    (WSJ, 4/19/08, p.W9)
2008        David Carr (1956-2015), NY Times media columnist, authored his memoir: “The Night of the Gun."
    (SFC, 2/12/15, p.A11)
2008        Paul B. Carroll and Chunka Mui authored “Billion dollar Lessons: What You Can Learn from the Most Inexcusable business Failures of the Last 25 Years."
    (WSJ, 9/24/08, p.A27)
2008        Ha-Joon Chang, South Korean-born economist, authored “Bad Samaritans: The Myth of Free Trade and the Secret History of Capitalism."
    (SSFC, 2/3/08, p.M3)
2008        Leslie Chang, American journalist, authored “Factory Girls: From Village to City in a Changing China." This followed her 3 years of reporting on women workers in Dongguan.
    (Econ, 5/11/13, p.51)
2008        Amit Chaudhuri (b.1962) authored “Clearing a Space: Reflections on India, Literature and Culture."
    (Econ, 7/5/08, p.92)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amit_Chaudhuri)
2008        Joanne Chen authored “The Taste of Sweet," a thumbnail history of sweetness.
    (WSJ, 4/26/08, p.W8)
2008        George Clarke authored “Justice and Science: Trials and Triumphs of DNA.
    (SFC, 2/29/08, p.E3)
2008        Patrick Cockburn authored “Muqtada: Muqtada al-Sadr, the Shia Revival, and the Struggle for Iraq."
    (Econ, 3/29/08, p.110)
2008        Steve Coll authored “The Bin Ladens: An Arabian Family in the American Century."
    (Econ, 4/12/08, p.92)
2008        Paul K. Conkin authored “A Revolution Down on the Farm: The Transformation of American Agriculture since 1929."
    (WSJ, 9/29/08, p.A23)
2008        Matthew Connelly authored “Fatal Misconception: The Struggle to Control World Population," a look at the rise and fall of the population control movement.
    (WSJ, 4/1/08, p.D10)(Econ, 5/24/08, p.106)
2008        George Cooper authored “The Origin of Financial Crises: Central Banks, Credit Bubbles and the Efficient Market Fallacy."
    (Econ, 9/13/08, p.79)
2008        Gary Cross authored “Men to Boys: The Making of Modern Immaturity."
    (WSJ, 9/20/08, p.W8)
2008        Andrew Darby authored “Harpoon: Into the Heart of Whaling," an examination of whale hunting and the anti-whaling movement.
    (Econ, 5/10/08, p.94)
2008        Leonard J. Davis authored “Obsession: A History," a historical look at the characteristic two-mindedness where a compulsive self acts while an observing self watches helplessly.
    (Econ, 11/1/08, p.96)
2008        Felix Dennis, English high school dropout and publishing magnate, authored “How to Get Rich: One of the World’s Greatest Entrepreneurs Shares His Secrets."
    (WSJ, 6/11/08, p.A21)
2008        John Diamond authored “The CIA and the Culture of Failure: US Intelligence From the end of the Cold War to the Invasion of Iraq."
    (SFC, 9/7/08, Books p.1)
2008        Jay P. Dolan authored “The Irish Americans: A History."
    (WSJ, 10/27/08, p.A15)
2008        Bruce Dover authored “Rupert’s Adventures in China: How Murdoch Lost a Fortune and Found a Wife."
    (Econ, 1/26/08, p.79)
2008        Christopher Duggan authored “The Force of Destiny: A History of Italy Since 1796."
    (Econ, 2/26/11, p.89)
2008        Edzard Ernst and Simon Singh authored “Trick or Treat: The Undeniable Facts About Alternative Medicine."
    (SSFC, 8/24/08, Books p.3)
2008        William N. Eskridge Jr. authored Dishonorable Passions: Sodomy Laws in America, 1861-2003.
    (SSFC, 5/11/08, Books p.4)
2008        Chris Fair authored “Cuisines of the Axis of Evil," an analysis of the national cuisines of 10 countries and their foreign policy records.
    (WSJ, 10/3/08, p.W5)
2008        Dan Falk authored “In Search of Time: The Science of a Curious Dimension."
    (SFC, 11/25/08, p.E2)
2008        Alice Feiring authored “The Battle for Wine and Love: Or How I Saved the World From Parkerization."
    (SFC, 5/23/08, p.E6)
2008        Douglas J. Feith, for Undersecretary for Policy, authored “War and Decision: Inside the Pentagon at the Dawn of the War on Terrorism."
    (WSJ, 4/8/08, p.D8)
2008        Niall Ferguson authored “The Ascent of Money: A Financial History of the World."
    (Econ, 10/11/08, p.113)
2008        Alec Foege authored “Right of the Deal: The Rise of Clear Channel and the Fall of Commercial Radio." Clear Channel sponsored its own story “Clear Vision: The Story of Clear Channel Communications," written under contract by Reed Bunzel.
    (WSJ, 7/10/08, p.B1)
2008        R.F. Foster authored “Luck and the Irish: A Brief History of Change from 1970."
    (WSJ, 2/23/08, p.W8)
2008        Donna Freitas authored “Sex and the Soul: Juggling Sexuality, Spirituality, Romance, and Religion on America's College Campuses."
    (WSJ, 4/29/08, p.A11)
2008        Patrick French authored “The World Is What It Is: The Authorized Biography of V. S. Naipaul." V.S, Naipaul (b.1932), English novelist  born in Chaguana, Trinidad, won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 2001.
    (SFC, 10/12/01, p.C1)(WSJ, 11/7/08, p.W10)
2008        Betty Fussell (70) authored “Raising Steaks: The Life and Times of American Beef."
    (SFC, 11/18/08, p.E5)
2008        Dan Gardner authored “Risk: The Science and Politics of Fear."
    (Econ, 3/15/08, p.99)
2008        Urs Gasser and John Palfrey authored “Born Digital."
    (Econ, 2/27/10, TQ p.10)
2008        Michael S. Gazzaniga authored “Human: The Science Behind What Makes Us Unique."
    (WSJ, 7/8/08, p.A19)
2008        Steven M. Gelber authored “Horse Trading in the Age of Cars: Men in the Marketplace."
    (WSJ, 12/3/08, p.A15)
2008        Rose George authored “"The Big Necessity: The Unmentionable World of Human Waste and Why It Matters."
    (Econ, 10/11/08, p.114)
2008        Ted Gioia authored Delta Blues: The Life and Times of the Mississippi Masters Who Revolutionized American Music.
    (Econ, 10/18/08, p.97)
2008        Tom Gjelton, NPR correspondent, authored “Bacardi and the Long Fight for Cuba," a history of Bacardi rum.
    (SFC, 9/9/08, p.E3)
2008        Misha Glenny authored “McMafia: A Journey Through the Global Criminal Underworld."
    (WSJ, 4/12/08, p.W9)
2008        Jonah Goldberg authored “Liberal Fascism: The Secret History of the American Left from Mussolini to the Politics of Meaning." It quickly became America’s biggest-selling political book.
    (WSJ, 1/4/08, p.W5)(Econ, 2/9/08, p.89)
2008        Marshall Goldman authored “Petrostate: Putin, Power and the New Russia."
    (WSJ, 6/19/08, p.A13)
2008        Gordon Goldstein authored “Lessons in Disaster: McGeorge Bundy and the Path to War in Vietnam."
    (AP, 10/11/09)
2008        Ronald M. Green authored “Babies by Design: The Ethics of Genetic Choice."
    (Econ, 2/9/08, p.89)
2008        Steven Greenhouse authored “The Big Squeeze: Tough Times for the American Worker."
    (SFC, 4/29/08, p.E2)
2008        David Hajdu authored “The Ten-Cent Plague: The Great Comic-Book Scare and How It Changed America."
    (SFC, 9/7/08, Books p.7)
2008        James Harding authored “Alpha Dogs: The Americans Who Turned Political spin into a Global Business."
    (Econ, 5/24/08, p.109)
2008        Tim Harford authored “The Logic of Life: The Rational Economics of an Irrational World," a reader-friendly guide to the economics of everyday life.
    (Econ, 2/23/08, p.102)
2008        David Boyd Haycock authored “Mortal Coil: A Short History of Living Longer."
    (WSJ, 7/10/08, p.A13)
2008        Michael Heller authored “The Gridlock Economy," in which he argued how vaguely defined and aggresively asserted property rights stifle innovation and cost lives.
    (www.gridlockeconomy.com/)(Econ, 5/30/09, SR p.10)
2008        Henry Hitchings authored “The Secret Life of Words: How English Became English."
    (Econ, 9/20/08, p.103)
2008        Philip Hoare authored “Leviathan, or the Whale." In 2009 his book won the $33,000 Samuel Johnson Prize, Britain’s leading nonfiction book prize.
    (SFC, 7/1/09, p.E2)
2008        Heidi Holland authored “Dinner with Mugabe: The Untold Story of a Freedom Fighter who Became a Tyrant."
    (Econ, 3/22/08, p.94)
2008        Jeff Howe authored “Crowdsourcing: Why the Power of the Crowd is Driving the Future of Business."
    (Econ, 9/27/08, p.98)
2008        Alan Jacobs authored “Original Sin: A Cultural History."
    (WSJ, 6/13/08, p.A13)
2008        Rowan Jacobsen authored “Fruitless Fall: The Collapse of the Honeybee and the Coming Agricultural Crises."
    (WSJ, 9/19/08, p.A21)
2008        Brian Michael Jenkins authored “Will Terrorists Go Nuclear."
    (WSJ, 10/5/08, p.A25)
2008        Ayesha Jalal authored “Partisans of Allah: Jihad in South Asia."
    (WSJ, 4/4/08, p.W5)
2008        Brett Kahr authored “Who’s Been Sleeping in Your Head: The Secret World of Sexual Fantasies."
    (Econ, 2/2/08, p.96)
2008        Michio Kaku authored “Physics of the Impossible: A Scientific Exploration of the world of Phasers, Force Fields, Teleportation, and Time Travel.
    (Econ, 3/8/08, p.95)
2008        Michael Kane authored “Game Boys: Professional Videogaming’s Rise From the Basement to the Big Time."
    (SFC, 6/17/08, p.E2)
2008        Eugene Karecki, documentary filmmaker, authored “The American Way of War: Guided Missiles, Misguided Men, and the Republic in Peril."
    (SSFC, 11/2/08, Books p.5)
2008        Craig Karmin authored “Biography of the Dollar: How the Mighty Buck Conquered the World and Why It’s Under Siege.
    (WSJ, 3/1/08, p.B1)
2008        Dec 29, Elin Kelsey authored “Watching Giants: The Secret Lives of Whales."
    (Econ, 12/13/08, p.101)
2008        Tarun Khanna authored “Billions of Entrepreneurs: How China and India are Reshaping The Futures and Yours."
    (Econ, 1/26/08, p.80)
2008        Tubten Khetsun authored “Memories of Life in Lhasa Under Chinese Rule."
    (Econ, 3/22/08, p.93)
2008        Michael Kimmel authored “Guyland: The Perilous World Where Boys Become Men."
    (WSJ, 9/20/08, p.W8)
2008        Stephen Kinzer authored “A Thousand Hills: Rwanda’s Rebirth and the Man Who Dreamed It," the story of Paul Kagame and Rwanda.
    (Econ, 8/23/08, p.73)
2008        Torkel Klingberg authored “The Overflowing Brain: Information Overload and the Limits of working Memory."
    (WSJ, 12/13/08, p.A17)
2008        Dan Koeppel authored “Banana: The Fate of the Fruit that Changed the World."
    (SSFC, 2/17/08, p.M3)
2008        Richard Koo authored “The Holy Grail of Macroeconomics."
    (Econ, 12/20/14, p.112)
2008        Edward Kritzler authored Jewish Pirates in the Caribbean: How a Generation of Swashbuckling Jews Carved Out an Empire in the New World in Their Quest for Treasure, Religious Freedom – and Revenge."
    (SSFC, 11/2/08, Books p.7)
2008        Arthur B. Laffer, Stephen Moore and Peter J. Tanous authored “The End of Prosperity:  How Higher Taxes Will Doom the Economy--If We Let It Happen."
    (WSJ, 10/10/08, p.W10)
2008        Alan Lafley, the boss of Proctor & Gamble (P&G), authored “The Game-Changer: How You Can Drive Revenue and Profit With Innovation."
    (Econ, 8/22/09, p.55)
2008        Robert Lawrence authored “Blue Collar Blues: Is Trade to Blame for Rising US Income Inequality?"
    (Econ, 10/11/08, SR p.33)
2008        Jane Lawson authored “The Spice Bible: Essential Information and More Than 250 Recipes Using Spices, Spice Mixes, and Spice Pastes."
    (WSJ, 5/24/08, p.W8)
2008        Mary Lefkowitz authored “History Lesson: A Race Odyssey," an account of what she experienced after questioning the veracity of Afrocentrism and the motives of its advocates.
    (WSJ, 4/15/08, p.D9)
2008        Tony Leon, former head of South Africa’s Democratic Alliance, authored “On the Contrary: Leading the Opposition in a Democratic South Africa."
    (Econ, 8/16/08, p.81)
2008        Seth Lerer authored “Children’s Literature: A Reader’s History From Aesop to Harry Potter."
    (SSFC, 7/6/08, Books p.1)
2008        Diandra Leslie-Pelecky authored “The Physics of NASCAR."
    (WSJ, 9/12/08, p.W6)
2008        James Lever, a book editor, authored “Me Cheetah: My Life in Hollywood," a pseudo-autobiography by Tarzan’s friendly chimpanzee. It was first published in Britain before the author’s name was revealed. The American edition came out in 2009.
    (WSJ, 3/13/09, p.W10)
2008        David Levering Lewis authored “God’s Crucible: Islam and the Making of Europe 570-1215."
    (SSFC, 2/3/08, p.M1)
2008        Steve LeVine authored “Putin’s Labyrinth: Spies, Murder, and the Dark Heart of the New Russia."
    (Econ, 7/19/08, p.92)
2008        Bernard-Henri Levy (1948), Algeria-born French philosopher, published “Left In Dark Times: A Stand Against the New Barbarism." It offered a polemic explaining why he remains faithful to the core principles of the democratic left. It was an abridged translation of book published last year in France.
    (SFC, 10/22/08, p.E2)
2008        Ben Lewis authored “Hammer & Tickle: A History of Communism Told Through Communist Jokes.
    (Econ, 7/5/08, p.92)
2008        William A. Link authored “Righteous Warrior: Jesse Helms and the Rise of Modern Conservatism," a biography of the former 5-term senator from North Carolina.
    (WSJ, 2/12/08, p.D8)
2008        Genevieve Lloyd authored “Providence Lost," a work of intellectual history in which the author attempts to restore some of the lost continuities that connect modern philosophy to its ancient sources.
    (WSJ, 11/28/08, p.W6)
2008        Andrew W. Lo authored “Hedge Funds: An Analytic Perspective."
    (Econ, 6/14/08, p.102)
2008        Edward Lucas authored “The New Cold War: Putin’s Russia and the Threat to the West."
    (WSJ, 2/26/08, p.D6)
2008        Sandra Mackey authored “Mirror of the Arab World: Lebanon in Conflict."
    (SFC, 3/22/08, p.E2)
2008        Kishore Mahbubani, former Singaporean diplomat, authored “The New Asian Hemisphere: The Irresistible Shift of Global Power to the East."
    (Econ, 8/20/11, p.42)
2008        James Mann authored “The China Fantasy: Why Capitalism Will Not Bring Democracy to China."
    (Econ, 10/24/09, SR p.14)
2008        Hara Estroff Marano authored “A Nation of Wimps," in which she complains that over-involved parents are sapping the will of American youths.
    (WSJ, 5/29/08, p.A15)
2008        Andy Mullholland and Nick Earle authored “Mesh Collaboration: Creating New Business Value in the Network of Everything."
    (Econ, 10/25/08, p.17)
2008        Marion Nestle authored “Pet Food Politics: The Chihuahua in the Coal Mine," which illuminates the connections  between the food supplies of humans, farm animals and pets.
    (Econ, 9/6/08, p.97)
2008        Kevin Mattson authored “Rebels All: A Short History of the Conservative Mind in Postwar America."
    (SSFC, 8/24/08, Books p.3)
2008        Scott McClellan, former George W. Bush White House press secretary, authored “What Happened: Inside the Bush White House and Washington’s Culture of Deception."
    (SFC, 5/29/08, p.A1)
2008        Patrick J. McCloskey authored “The Street Stops Here: A Year at a Catholic High School in Harlem."
    (WSJ, 12/5/08, p.A19)
2008        Paul R. McHugh, M.D., authored Try to Remembers: Psychiatry’s Clash over meaning Memory and Mind," in which he recounts the history of the movement to recover “repressed" memories of abuse.
    (WSJ, 11/20/08, p.A19)
2008        Anand Menon authored “Europe: The State of the Union," a history of the EU.
    (Econ, 5/17/08, p.103)
2008        Robert S. Miller, chairman of Delphi Corp., authored “The Turnaround Kid: What I Learned Rescuing America's Most Troubled Companies."
    (WSJ, 4/16/08, p.D8)
2008        Stephen Miller authored “The Peculiar Life of Sundays."
    (WSJ, 11/22/08, p.W10)
2008        Charles R. Morris authored “The Trillion Dollar Meltdown: Easy Money, High Rollers, and the Great Credit Crash.
    (Econ, 3/8/08, p.93)
2008        Marwan Muasher (52), former Jordanian ambassador to Israel (1995-1996). authored “The Arab Center: The Promise of Moderation."
    (Econ, 8/23/08, p.72)
2008        John Mullan authored “Anonymity: A Secret History of English Literature." The work consisted of a series of case histories of anonymous or pseudonymous publication.
    (WSJ, 9/4/08, p.A17)
2008        Richard Muller, a physicist at UC Berkeley, authored “Physics for Future Presidents: The Science Behind the Headlines.
    (SSFC, 8/3/08, Books p.1)
2008        Shuja Nawaz authored “Crossed Swords: Pakistan, its Army and the Wars Within."
    (Econ, 6/21/08, p.100)
2008        Geoff Nicholson authored “The Lost Art of Walking: The History, Science, Philosophy, and Literature of Pedestrianism.
    (Econ, 11/29/08, p.87)
2008        Walter Nugent authored “Habits of Empire: A History of American Expansion."
    (Econ, 6/21/08, p.100)
2008        Joseph S. Nye authored “The Powers to Lead," a look at the nature of leadership in today’s world.
    (Econ, 5/17/08, p.103)
2008        Duncan O’Brien authored “The White Ships: A Tribute to Matson’s Luxury Liners." These ships included the Malolo, Mariposa, Monterey, and Matsonia from 1927-1978.
    (SSFC, 11/30/08, p.E3)
2008        Dr. Paul A. Offit authored “autism’s False Prophets: Bad Science, Risky Medicine, and the Search for a Cure."
    (WSJ, 9/23/08, p.A27)
2008        Gary Y. Okihiro authored “Island World: A History of Hawaii and the United States."
    (WSJ, 10/17/08, p.A11)
2008        James Orbinsky, Canadian physician and former head of Doctors without Borders, authored “An Imperfect Offering: Humanitarian Action for the Twenty-First Century."
    (SSFC, 10/5/08, Books p.1)
2008        David B. Ottaway authored “The King’s Messenger: Prince Bandar bin Sultan and America’s Tangled Relationship with Saudi Arabia."
    (Econ, 11/8/08, p.101)
2008        Josh Ozersky authored “The Hamburger: A History."
    (Econ, 4/26/08, p.107)
2008        Max Page authored “The City’s End: Two Centuries of Fantasies, Fears, and Premonitions of New York's Destruction."
    (WSJ, 10/3/08, p.A19)
2008        Arvind Panagariya authored “India: The Emerging Giant."
    (Econ, 3/8/08, p.94)
2008        Jay Parini authored “Promised Land: Thirteen Books That Changed America."
    (WSJ, 11/8/08, p.W8)
2008        Irene Pepperberg authored “Alex & Me: How a Scientist and a Parrot Uncovered a Hidden World of Animal Intelligence – And Formed a Deep bond in the Process.
    (Econ, 10/25/08, p.100)
2008        Rufus Phillips authored “Why Vietnam Matters: An Eyewitness Account of Lessons Not Learned."
    (Econ, 10/3/09, p.55)
2008        T. Boone Pickens, former head of Mesa Petroleum, authored “The first Billion is the Hardest."
    (WSJ, 9/10/08, p.A13)
2008        Daniel H. Pink (43) authored “The Adventures of Johnny Bunko: The Last Career Guide You’ll Ever Need," a career-coaching book rendered in Japanese manga format.
    (WSJ, 4/9/08, p.D11)
2008        Christopher Plummer, Canadian-born Shakespearean actor, authored his memoir “In Spite of Myself."
    (WSJ, 11/4/08, p.A17)
2008        Paul Polak, founder of International Development Enterprises (IDE) authored “Out of Poverty: What Works When Traditional Approaches Fail." The former Denver-based psychologist cashed out his business in 1981 and soon developed an irrigation treadle pump for poor farmers.
    (Econ, 2/23/08, p.103)(www.boulderweekly.com/?id_sub=16255&page_id=16255)
2008        Kenneth M. Pollack authored “A Path Out of the Desert: A Grand Strategy for America in the Middle East."
    (WSJ, 7/17/08, p.A13)(Econ, 7/26/08, p.94)
2008        Michael Pollan authored “In Defense of Food: An Eater's Manifesto," an exploration of the relationship between nutrition and the Western diet. In 2009 it became the basis for the PBS TV documentary “The Botany of Desire."
    (SFC, 10/28/09, p.E1)
2008        David A. Price authored “The Pixar Touch: The making of a Company."
    (Econ, 5/24/08, p.107)
2008        Alan Prince and Lewis Schiff authored “The Middle-class Millionaire: The Rise of the New Rich and How They Are Changing America."
    (WSJ, 3/5/08, p.D9)
2008        Ahmed Rashid authored “Descent Into Chaos: The United States and the Failure of Nation Building in Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Central Asia.
    (Econ, 7/26/08, p.95)
2008        John Reader authored “Propitious Esculent: The Potato in World History."
    (Econ, 3/1/08, p.92)
2008        Mary Roach authored “Bonk: The Curious Coupling of Science and Sex."
    (SSFC, 4/6/08, Books p.1)
2008        Andrew Roberts authored “Gandhi and Churchill."
    (WSJ, 5/2/08, p.W5)
2008        Alexander Rose authored “American Rifle: A Biography."
    (Econ, 10/18/08, p.96)
2008        Patrick Rosenkranz authored “Rebel Visions: The Underground Comix Revolution."
    (SFC, 3/15/17, p.D6)
2008        David Rothkopf authored “Superclass: The Global Power Elite and the World They Are Making." He calculated that Harvard, Stanford and the Univ. of Chicago are now the world’s top three superclass producers.
    (SSFC, 3/30/08, Books p.1)(Econ, 4/26/08, p.106)
2008        Anthony Rudel authored “Hello Everybody: The Dawn of American Radio."
    (WSJ, 10/9/08, p.A15)
2008        Marcus du Sautoy authored “Finding Moonshine: A Mathematician’s Journey Through Symmetry."
    (Econ, 2/2/08, p.94)
2008        Michael Scheuer, former CIA veteran, authored “Marching Toward Hell: American and Islam After Iraq."
    (SSFC, 2/17/08, p.M1)
2008        Jeffrey D. Sachs, director of the Earth Institute and special adviser to the UN Sec. Gen. on the Millennium Development Goals, authored “Common Wealth: Economics For a Crowded Planet."
    (Econ, 3/29/08, p.111)
2008        Robert J. Samuelson authored “The Great Inflation and its Aftermath: The Past and Future of American Affluence."
    (Econ, 11/22/08, p.96)
2008        Mark Sandalow authored “Madame Speaker: Nancy Pelosi’s Life, Times, and Rise to Power."
    (SSFC, 6/15/08, Books p.4)
2008        Alice Schroeder authored “The Snowball: Warren Buffett and the Business of Life." Bantam paid $7.2 million for the North American rights.
    (WSJ, 8/23/08, p.W1)(WSJ, 10/15/08, p.A17)
2008        Anthony Seldon authored “Blair Unbound," a continuation of his 2004 book “Blair," which covered the career of former British PM Tony Blair.
    (WSJ, 4/28/08, p.A17)
2008        Tushaar Shah authored “Taming the Anarchy: Groundwater Governance in South Asia."
    (Econ, 5/22/10, SR p.11)
2008        James J. Sheehan, Stanford historian, authored “Where Have All the Soldiers Gone," an exploration of the rise and fall of militarism in Europe.
    (WSJ, 1/17/08, p.D7)
2008        Raja Shehadeh authored “Palestinian Walks," a “highly original consideration of the Palestinian-Israeli issue structured around a series of vigorous, attentive hikes through the occupied territories."
    (Econ, 8/14/10, p.69)(http://tinyurl.com/26lulh5)
2008        Kathryn Shevelov authored “for the Love of Animals: The Rise of the Animal Protection Movement."
    (SSFC, 7/13/08, Books p.4)
2008        Lewis H. Siegelbaum authored “Cars for Comrades: The Life of the Soviet Automobile."
    (Econ, 7/12/08, p.94)
2008        Julian Sivulka authored “Ad Women: How They Impact What We Need, Want, and Buy," a history of women’s role in American advertising.
    (WSJ, 12/17/08, p.A19)
2008        Hugo Slim authored “Killing Civilians: Method, Madness and Morality in War."
    (Econ, 2/16/08, p.92)
2008        David M. Smick authored “The World Is Curved: Hidden Dangers to the Global Economy."
    (WSJ, 9/19/08, p.A21)
2008        Barbara Smit authored “Sneaker Wars: The Enemy Brothers Who Founded Adidas and Puma and the Family Feud That Forever Changed the Business of Sport." She traced the story of brothers Adolf Dassler (1900-1978) and Rudolf Dassler (1898-1974), who launched shoe-making operations in Germany in the 1920s and later split to form Adidas and Puma.
    (WSJ, 3/21/08, p.W5)
2008        Michael Soussan authored “Backstabbing for Beginners: My Crash Course in International Diplomacy," in which he tells of his 3-year close-up experience in the UN’s Oil for Food program beginning in 1997.
    (WSJ, 11/14/08, p.A15)
2008        Mark Stein authored “How the States Got Their Shapes."
    (WSJ, 5/31/08, p.W9)
2008        Randall Stross authored “Planet Google: One Company’s Audacious Plan to Organize Everything We Know."
    (WSJ, 9/17/08, p.A25)
2008        Eluned Summers-Bremmer authored “Insomnia: A Cultural History."
    (WSJ, 2/29/08, p.W4)
2008        Cass Sunstein and Richard Thaler co-authored “Nudge: Improving Decisions about Health, Wealth, and Happiness," a look at the potential for behavioral economics to improve the effectiveness of government.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nudge_%28book%29)(Econ, 3/24/12, p.78)
2008        Leonard Susskind authored “The Black Hole War: My Battle With Stephen Hawking to Make the World Safe for Quantum Mechanics."
    (WSJ, 7/28/08, p.A13)
2008        Ron Suskind authored “The Way of the World," in which he claimed that the White House in 2003 ordered the CIA to forge a back-dated, handwritten letter from Tahir Jalil Habbush al-Tikriti, the head of Iraqi intelligence, to Saddam Hussein.
    (http://tinyurl.com/5tzhxl, 8/5/08)
2008        Darcy Tell authored “Times Square Spectacular," a history of NYC’s Times Square.
    (WSJ, 3/22/08, p.W11)
2008        Christina Thompson authored “Come on Shore and We Will Kill and Eat You All: A New Zealand Story."
    (Econ, 8/9/08, p.78)
2008        E. Fuller Torrey authored “The Insanity Offense: How America’s Failure to Treat the Seriously Mentally Ill Endangers Its Citizens." He describes the grim consequences of laws that, beginning in the late 1960s, released the seriously mentally ill from the oversight of state mental health services.
    (WSJ, 6/14/08, p.W10)
2008        William Tucker authored “Terrestrial Energy: How Nuclear Power Will Lead the Green Revolution and Lead America’s Energy Odyssey."
    (WSJ, 12/16/08, p.A21)
2008        Ted Turner (69), broadcasting entrepreneur and self-said largest private landowner in the US, authored his memoir: "Call Me Ted."
    (WSJ, 11/10/08, p.B10)
2008        Christine Varney (b.1955) authored “The Folklore of Capitalism." The book was seen as a satire on the inadequacy of US antitrust laws. In April, 2009, she became Assistant Attorney General for Antitrust at the Department of Justice.
    (Econ, 8/29/09, p.53)(www.whorunsgov.com/Profiles/Christine_Varney)
2008        Benito Vergara authored “Pinoy Capital: The Filipino Nation in Daly City."
2008        Rob Walker authored “Buying In: The Secret Dialogue Between What We Buy and Who We Are."
    (WSJ, 7/2/08, p.A11)
2008        Barbara Walters (b.1929), former NBC TV journalist, authored “Audition: A Memoir."
    (Econ, 5/17/08, p.104)
2008        Craig Walzer compiled and edited “Out of Exile: Narratives from the Abducted and Displaced People of Sudan."
    (SSFC, 12/14/08, Books p.1)
2008        Physicist Frank Wilczek, Nobel Prize winner (2004), authored “The Lightness of Being: Mass, Ether, and the Unification of Forces."
    (Econ, 9/6/08, p.98)
2008        Hugh Wilford authored “The Mighty Wurlitzer: How the CIA Played America," an account of the CIA’s post war front groups.
    (WSJ, 1/23/08, p.D8)
2008        Eric G. Wilson authored “Against Happiness: In Praise of Melancholy."
    (WSJ, 2/8/08, p.W5)
2008        David Wolman authored “Righting the Mother Tongue: From Olde English to Email," an historical look at English language spelling reform.
    (WSJ, 10/30/08, p.A17)
2008        Gordon S. Wood authored “The Purpose of the Past: Reflections of the Use of History."
    (SFC, 3/15/08, p.E3)
2008        Bob Woodward authored “The War Within: A Secret White House History, 2006-2008." It included allegations of US espionage on Iraq’s PM al-Maliki and other top Iraqi leaders.
    (SFC, 9/6/08, p.A5)
2008        Martin Wolf authored “Fixing Global Finance."
    (Econ, 1/17/09, p.81)
2008        Michael Wolff authored “The Man Who Owns the News," a biography of Rupert Murdoch.
    (Econ, 12/6/08, p.86)
2008        Sam Wyly (b.1934), American billionaire entrepreneur, authored “1,000 Dollars & and Idea."
    (WSJ, 12/29/08, p.A11)
2008        The book “The Corpse Walker: Real Life Stories, China From the Bottom Up" by Liao Yiwu, Chinese poet, was translated to English by Wen Huang. The book was banned as soon as it was published in China. Wen had been imprisoned for 5 years for an epic poem published after the 1989 Tiananmen Square massacre.
    (SSFC, 5/18/08, Books p.1)
2008        Gabriel Zaid, Mexican writer, authored “The Secret of Fame: The Literary Encounter in an Age of Distraction."
    (SFC, 5/14/08, p.E5)
2008        Fareed Zakaria authored “The Post-American World."
    (WSJ, 5/6/08, p.A21)(Econ, 5/24/08, p.108)
2008        Adam Zeman authored “A Portrait of the Brain."
    (Econ, 3/1/08, p.88)
2008        Jonathan Zittrain, Harvard professor, authored “The Future of the Internet – And How To Stop It," in which he explains how the promise of the Internet might not be realized, and points the way toward reducing the current risks.
    (Econ, 9/4/10, p.76)
2008        Slavoj Zizek, Slovenian writer, authored “Violence." It was a smaller offspring of his larger book “In Defense of Lost Causes," also published this year.
    (SSFC, 9/28/08, Books p.7)

2008        TLC began airing its reality show “Nineteen Kids and Counting" featuring the Arkansas family of Jim Bob and Michelle Duggar. The series was cancelled in 2015 when reports surfaced that Josh Duggar (27), the oldest child, had fondled four of his sisters and a babysitter a dozen years earlier.
    (SFC, 7/17/15, p.A6)

2008        Lisa F. Jackson (57), American filmmaker, produced her 75-minute film: “The Greatest Silence: Rape in the Congo.
    (SFC, 4/5/08, p.E1)
2008        Some 610 films were released this year in the US.
    (Econ, 11/28/09, p.79)

2008        The term Alt-Right was reputedly coined by Richard Spencer of the US National Policy Institute.
    (Econ, 9/17/16, p.23)

2008        The US signed weapons agreements this year valued a $37.8 billion, or 68.4% of all business in the global arms bazaar, up from $25.4 billion in 2007. Italy was 2nd with $3.7 billion and Russia 3rd with $3.5 billion.
    (SFC, 9/7/09, p.A3)
2008        Foreign intelligence inserted a flash drive into a US military laptop on a post in the Middle East. In 2010 it was disclosed that the malicious code placed on the drive uploaded itself onto a network run by the US military’s Central Command and resulted in the most significant breach of US military computers.
    (SFC, 8/26/10, p.A7)
2008        US Attorney Richard Streeter received a $65 million judgment on behalf of US Navy crewmen held captive for nearly a year by North Korea in 1968. The former crewmen have never collected any money.
    (AP, 8/4/15)

2008        Tyler and Cameron Winklevoss settled a lawsuit with Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg. The brothers requested payment of their $45 million settlement to be made in shares of Facebook. By the time Facebook went public in 2012 their stock was worth some $300 million.
    (SSFC, 12/24/17, p.D5)

2008        In San Francisco the 16-story Arterra residential tower, designed by Kwan Henmi, was built at 300 Berry St.
    (SSFC, 2/6/11, p.C2)
2008        The Chronicle of Life Foundation was established by Kai Pommerenke, a UC Santa Cruz economist, as a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization. Its mission was to save personal memories and any photos or other files, thus creating a chronicle of one’s life. The service was launched for public use on Dec 20, 2010.
    (SFC, 1/10/11, p.D4)(www.chronicleoflife.com/index)
2008        San Francisco-based Castlight Health was founded to enable employers and health plans to lower the cost of health care and provide individuals unbiased pricing and quality information to make smart health care purchase decisions.
    (http://www.castlighthealth.com/company/)(SFC, 5/21/12, p.D1)
2008        Airbnb, an online sharing service for accomodations, was founded in San Francisco. Nate Blecharszyk was among the co-founders.
    (Econ, 3/9/13, TQ p.13)
2008        San Francisco landlords Kip and Nicole Macy faced charges relating to their illegal attempts to evict their 5 tenants at 744-746 Clementina St. They failed to show up for trial in 2010 and fled to Italy, where they were detained in 2011. In 2013 they pleaded guilty to residential burglary, attempted grand theft and stalking. Under a plea deal they faced 4 years and 4 months in prison.
    (SFC, 6/20/13, p.D6)
2008        Leah Busque founded TaskRabbit, an online and mobile marketplace that allows users to outsource small jobs and tasks to others in their neighborhood. Users name the task they need done, name the price they are willing to pay, and a network of pre-approved TaskRabbits bid to complete the job. By 2013 TaskRabbit employed some 15,000 workers.
    (Econ, 6/1/13, p.64)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TaskRabbit)(SFC, 8/16/13, p.D2)

2008        IXPI (Intellectual Property Exchange Int’l.) was set up by Ocean Tomo, a Chicago-based merchant bank set up in 2003 that specializes in intellectual property. The IXPI financial exchange would let companies buy, sell and hedge patent rights. It planned to debut in 2012.
    (Econ, 5/12/12, p.72)(http://www.oceantomo.com/)

2008        Toy maker Chris Nee pitched her Doc McStuffins doll idea to Disney executives. The company changed the doll’s race from white to black and by 2013 it was a top seller.
    (SSFC, 12/8/13, p.D7)

2008        Give Directly was founded by a team that included Michael Faye and Paul Niehaus at Cambridge, Massachusetts. The charity hands out no-strings-attached cash to the poorest people it can find. Google and Facebook were among the prviders of the cash.
    (Econ, 10/26/13, p.67)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GiveDirectly)
2008        In Boston a biohacker movement began when Jason Bobe co-founded a 2-member group called DIYbio (do-it-yourself biology).
    (SSFC, 12/20/09, p.A18)
2008        Nathan Eagle founded a service called txteagle, a Boston-based service, to distribute small jobs via text messaging in return for small payments.
    (Econ, 10/30/10, p.73)(http://smlxtralarge.com/2010/01/19/the-future-of-worktxteagle/)

2008        Roadrunner, a $121 million supercomputer housed at Los Alamos, NM, became the first computer to break the petaflop barrier by processing just over a quadrillion mathematical calculations per second. In 2013 it was decommissioned, replaced by something smaller, faster and more energy efficient.
    (SSFC, 3/31/13, p.A8)

2008        By this year high-frequency trading made up the majority of equity trading in America.
    (Econ., 12/19/20, p.98)

2008        Royal Dutch Shell set up its 22,000 ton Perdido spar off the coast of Texas and chained it to the seabed 2,400 meters below the surface. The platform had been constructed in Finland.
    (Econ, 3/6/10, TQ p.15)

2008        Raytheon Corp. deployed Zeus, its directed energy weapon, to detonate unexploded ordnance from, a safe distance. Under development by Raytheon was the Laser Area Defense System (LADS) for the destruction of incoming artillery rounds.
    (Econ, 11/1/08, p.91)

2008        Geologists proposed a new epoch of history called the Anthropocene to encompass the years in which people have had profound effects on the the workings of planet Earth.
    (Econ, 7/20/13, p.70)
2008        In Utah scientists discovered the fossils of a predator dinosaur that lived about 100 million years ago. In 2013 it was named Siats meekerorum, and said to be related to allosauroids.
    (SFC, 11/23/13, p.A10)

2008        The planet WASP-12b was discovered in the Auriga Constellation, about 600 light-years from Earth. It is more than 300 times the size of Earth. In 2010 the Hubble space telescope discovered that the planet in our galaxy is in the process of being devoured by the star that it orbits and could be devoured over the next ten million years.
    (AFP, 5/24/10)

2008        The average salary for an American baseball player was around $3 million as compared to $500,000 for a player in Japan.
    (Econ, 3/29/08, p.84)

2008        In the US 2.3 million families lost their home or faced foreclosure, reducing home the home ownership rate from 69% in 2004 to 67.5%.
    (Econ, 4/18/09, p.76)
2008        Phoenix, Az., known as America’s kidnapping capital, reached a 10-year high with 359 kidnappings. The majority were committed by drug and immigrant smugglers.
    (SFC, 12/28/09, p.A5)

2008        SIGAR, the special investigator general for Afghanistan reconstruction, was formed. By 2015 it identified more than $1 billion in potential savings to US taxpayers as well as millions in wasted projects.
    (SFC, 11/27/15, p.A3)
2008        The population of Afghanistan stood at about 32 million with over half living in poverty. The country suffered its 7th year of drought.
    (SFC, 12/12/08, p.A1)
2008        Nearly 4,000 Afghan civilians were killed this year in insurgency-linked unrest, more than two-thirds in rebel attacks and about 1,100 by foreign forces according to Afghanistan Rights Monitor (ARM). The UN recorded 2,118 civilian deaths in 2008 of which 55% were attributed to the Taliban.
    (AFP, 1/21/09)(Econ, 2/21/09, p.29)
2008        The UN estimated that Afghanistan’s illegal opium trade for this year was worth about $3.4 billion, or 33% of the country’s GDP.
    (Econ, 8/22/09, p.22)

2008        Luanda, Angola, became one of the most expensive cities in the world as office space costs reached $8,000 a square meter and rents for a 2-room apartment downtown reached $15,000 a month. Large oil reserves and diamond mines sparked development in the port with limited seafront land.
    (SSFC, 9/14/08, p.A19)

2008         In Armenia Levon Arakelyan (67) died from a heart attack. In 1995 he had begun building by hand a twisting network of subterranean caves and tunnels known as "Levon's divine underground" beneath the family home in Arinj.
    (AFP, 7/29/18)

2008        In Australia a video was made showing an unarmed, dark-skinned man, who refused to undergo a strip search in a Perth detention facility, screaming in apparent agony after being zapped with a stun gun eight times while surrounded by nine police officers. He was stunned another five times off-camera. The video was made public in 2010 as an example of the wrongful use of a stun gun.
    (AP, 10/5/10)

2008        The population of Bhutan numbered about 642,000.
    (SFC, 12/4/08, p.A1)

2008        Jacob Ostreicher, owner of a Brooklyn flooring company, and Swiss investors, including principal  Andre Zolty, began investing $25 million in a rice growing operation in Bolivia. Claudia Liliana Rodriguez, the woman they entrusted to manage the investment, turned out to be a Colombian con artist. In 2011 Ostreicher was imprisoned in Bolivia and the state agency in charge of seized drug assets called transport companies to pick up operation’s rice.
    (AP, 8/24/11)

2008        Gen. Rasim Delic (d.2010 at 61), wartime commander of the Bosnian Army, was convicted of cruelty to Bosnian Serb prisoners during Bosnia's 1992-95 war. Delic was the most senior Muslim Bosniak officer convicted by the court in its 17-year history.
    (AP, 4/16/10)

2008        In Botswana Pres. Festus Mogae planned to retire after 10 years in office with Ian Khama, the half-white son of Botswana’s first president,  as his anointed successor.
    (Econ, 3/29/08, p.62)

2008        In Brazil police began setting up Pacifying Police Units (UPPS) in some of the favelas of Rio de Janeiro to help restore law and order.
    (Econ, 6/12/10, p.42)
2008        Banco do Brazil bought Nossa Caixa, a mid sized state-owned banking firm.
    (Econ, 5/15/10, SR p.11)

2008        Britain enacted a law protecting transgender people at work.
    (Reuters, 6/17/15)
2008        The British Royal Mint produced at least 100,000 20-pence coins with no date. The error was acknowledged in June, 2009. The last time a similar error occurred was in 1672.
    (SFC, 6/30/09, p.A2)
2008        BP bypassed its private Russian partners and negotiated a deal with Gazprom, Russia’s state controlled gas company.
    (Econ, 2/5/11, p.73)
2008        Britain’s National Ballistics Intelligence Survey (NABIS) was set up to identify guns and bullets as the number of shootings rose.
    (Econ, 10/5/13, p.61)

2008        Cameroon airline Camair ceased trading. Yves Michel Fotso and Paul Gamo Hamani, two former bosses of the airline were detained and placed under formal investigation for embezzlement of public funds: Hamani in 2009 and Fotso in 2010.
    (AFP, 4/17/12)

2008        Canada raised its heterosexual age of consent from 14 to 16.
    (Econ, 11/15/14, p.62)
2008        In Alberta, Canada, the opposition Wildrose Party was founded by disaffected Conservatives who wanted the government to rein in spending and taxes.
    (Econ., 5/2/15, p.30)
2008        The first Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) began in Canada as an online computing course. By 2012 MOOCS were offering college students lectures for a fraction of the cost of attending a university.
    (Econ, 6/28/14, p.21)

2008        Chinese journalist Yang Jisheng authored "Tombstone," a 1,200-page account of the 1958-1961 famine — which he estimated claimed at least 36 million Chinese lives. In 2016 Jisheng was blocked from traveling to the United States to accept a Harvard University prize for the book.
    (AP, 2/16/16)
2008        Chinese writer Liu Cixin (b.1963) published "The Three-Body Problem," the first of a three-part science fiction series. The work was serialized in Science Fiction World in 2006 and published as a book in 2008.
2008          In China regulations took effect on open government information (OGI).
    (Econ, 5/3/14, p.40)
2008        China legalized horse racing.
    (Economist, 9/29/12, p.66)
2008        China executed some 1,700 convicts this year.
    (Econ, 1/2/10, p.31)
2008        Commercial Aircraft Corporation of China (COMAC) was founded to develop a range of aircraft. Its first airplane, a regional jet called ARJ21, entered into service in June 2016.
    (Econ, 11/5/16, p.58)
2008        In China Eric Pan founded Saeed Studio, a Shenzhen contract manufacturer. By 2014 it was one of the world’s largest manufacturers of open sourced hardware.
    (Econ, 1/18/14, p.14)
2008        China became Mozambique's second-largest investor after neighboring South Africa, pouring 76.8 million dollars (58.6 million euros) into the country.
    (AFP, 12/26/10)
2008        Chad’s population was about 10 million.
    (SFC, 11/23/00, p.D5)
2008        China became the world’s largest emitter of carbon dioxide this year as it spewed some 6.5 billion tons of CO2 into the atmosphere, about 22% of the world’s total.
    (Econ, 4/17/10, p.64)

2008        In CongoDRC Col. Samy Matumo, the commander of a renegade brigade, controlled the tin operations in Bisie, North Kivu province. He and his men extorted, taxed and appropriated as much as $80 million a year from mining operations in the area.
    (SSFC, 11/16/08, p.A21)
2008        In CongoDRC some 16,000 new cases of sexual violence, 65% of them involving children, were registered this year.
    (Econ, 8/15/09, p.54)

2008        Dubai handled an estimated 60% of Iran’s merchandise trade, hosted nearly 10,000 Iranian-owned firms and was linked to Iran by over 250 flights a week.
    (Econ, 11/8/08, p.65)
2008        Jack Shahin, an American businessman, was detained in Dubai as part of a probe into alleged embezzlement by executives at Deyaar Development, one of several Dubai-based property developers that rose to prominence during the emirate's building boom last decade. He spent the next four years behind bars without trial.
    (AP, 9/6/12)

2008        A report by the Egyptian Center for Women's Rights said two-thirds of women in Egypt experienced sexual harassment on a daily basis.
    (AP, 6/7/12)

2008        El Salvador this year had the world’s highest murder rate.
    (Econ, 3/14/09, p.39)

2008        Equatorial Guinea was ranked by Transparency Int’l. as the world’s 9th most corrupt country. Pres. Nguema spent less than 2% of the GDP on public health and less than 1% on education.
    (Econ, 7/18/09, p.44)

2008        NATO set up a research center in cyberdefence in Tallinn, Estonia. It was scheduled to be formally inaugurated in 2009.
    (Econ, 12/6/08, TQ p.21)

2008        Ethiopian authorities burned half a million pirated CDs and DVDs in the center of Addis Ababa.
    (Econ 7/8/17, p.43)
2008        Ethiopia’s population stood at about 85 million and was growing by 2 million a year. The country’s defense budget was $300 million.
    (Econ, 8/13/05, p.38)(Econ, 10/11/08, p.36)

2008        In Europe an upward trend in suicides began as the euro zone entered a recession. The term “economic suicides" was soon adopted by media outlets to describe the rise.
    (SFC, 8/15/12, p.A2)

2008        France dismantled its Renseignements Generaux, a network of domestic information gathering field agents. It was merged into a new internal service that over relied on communications surveillance and under-detected information on the ground.
    (Econ, 7/9/16, p.42)
2008        France’s banking supervisor fined Societe Generale (SocGen) €4m for its laxity in the case of futures trader Jerome Kerviel.
    (Econ, 5/24/14, p.68)

2008        In Germany the Storch Heinar (stork Heinar) cartoon character was originally hatched by members of a group that fights the far right and linked to the left-leaning Social Democratic Party, which heads Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania's state government. The bird was initially meant to combat the rise in popularity of a fashion label popular with neo-Nazis, Thor Steinar.
    (AP, 9/2/11)
2008        In what came to be called “dieselgate" German car companies agreed to install inadequately small tanks of urea, used to cut nitrogen-oxide emissions from diesel engines, in order to save cash.
    (Econ 7/29/17, p.56)
2008        In Germany David Schneider and Robert Gentz, the founders of Zalando, started selling flipflops online from the Berlin flat. By 2016 the online company was Europe’s largest vendor of clothing and footwear.
    (Econ, 9/3/16, p.59)

2008        Guinea’s new military junta fueled inflation by printing extra money. Military strongman Capt. Moussa Dadis Camara ordered the central bank to send a truck full of cash each week to the barracks from which he ran the country before he went into exile after surviving an assassination attempt.
    (AP, 3/7/11)

2008        India’s Congress Party boasted of paying bribes to wavering lawmakers to secure passage of a landmark civilian nuclear deal between India and the US. In 2011 WikiLeaks revealed a diplomatic cable that described Congress insiders showing off chests of money to achieve this end.
    (SFC, 3/18/11, p.A2)
2008        India's ruling Congress party amended the 1967 Unlawful Activities Prevention Act.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unlawful_Activities_(Prevention)_Act)(SFC, 8/17/21, p.A3)
2008         Research in India began to document two little known languages, Aka and Miji. A third language, Koro, was discovered in the process. In 2010 researchers said Koro, spoken by only about 1,000 people, was a distinct language with an entirely different vocabulary and linguistic structure from Aka.
    (AP, 10/6/10)
2008        India’s treated sewage was estimated 13%. An estimated 700 million people in India had no access to a proper toilet.
    (Econ, 12/13/08, SR p.11)
2008        A study published in Delhi estimated that 40% of the city’s residents had damaged lungs along with a range of other ill effects due to pollution.
    (Econ, 11/12/16, p.38)
2008        India-based Tata Consultancy Services opened a new facility in Milford, Ohio.
    (Econ, 11/5/11, p.74)

2008        In Indonesia Prabowo Subianto (b.1951), a former son-in-law of Suharto, formed the Great Indonesia Movement Party (Gerindara) with backing from his billionaire brother Hashim Dojohadikusumo. Subianto had led a special forces unit under Suharto (1995-1998) that over the years was accused of many atrocities.
    (Econ, 3/14/09, p.45)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prabowo)
2008        Indonesia achieved rice self-sufficiency for the first time in 24 years.
    (Econ, 1/10/09, p.38)

2008        Abu Deraa, the nom de guerre of Ismail al-Lami, fled Iraq to Iran. He was a military leader of Sadr's Mahdi Army until he was disowned by the militia for alleged atrocities during sectarian Shiite-Sunni conflicts that peaked in 2006-2007.
    (AFP, 8/10/11)

2008        Israeli soldiers began using a smelly liquid named Skunk to disperse Palestinian protesters. It was developed by Odortec, an Israeli pesticide specialist.
    (Econ, 6/6/15, p.40)
2008          In Israel a human cranium dating to about 53,000BC was found in the Manot Cave. Anthropologists later said the cranium was a missing connection between African and European populations.
    (SFC, 1/29/15, p.A7)

2008         Jamaica’s population was about 2.8 million.
    (AP, 1/27/09)

2008        The Japanese film “Departures" depicted the beauty and dignity of nokan, a Buddhist-derived ritaul cleansing ceremony for the recently deceased.
    (Econ, 8/6/16, p.32)
2008        Japan began allowing city residents to divert a proportion of their income to a furusato (a home town area) of their choice.
    (Econ., 4/18/15, p.35)
2008        Japan’s Olympus Corp. paid a $687 advisory fee relating to the purchase of Gyrus, a British medical devices firm. The fee was over 30% of the purchase price. In 2011 the company confessed that the deals were designed to hide losses on securities dating back to the 1990s.
    (Econ, 11/12/11, p.74)

2008        Bridge International Academies, a for-profit school system, opened its headquarters in Kenya. It was founded by friends Shannon May, Jay Kimmelman and Phil Frei, who met at Harvard University to solve for some of the most intractable problems in education and development.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bridge_International_Academies)(Econ, 1/28/17, p.53)

2008        Libya, under the leadership of Colonel Muammar Gaddafi, signed a 50-year, renewable lease for 100,000 hectares of agricultural land with Mali's government. The land in the Malibya project was provided rent free, with water rights included, on the condition that Libya build canals and roads to cultivate rice and cattle there. Some 60,000 small farmers residing within the area were left without water rights.
    (Reuters, 5/18/15)
2008        Libya exported some $46 billion worth of oil this year. Its population stood at about 6 million people.
    (Econ, 8/22/09, p.41)

2008        The population of Macedonia was about 2 million with about a quarter of them being ethnic Albanian.
    (Econ, 6/7/08, p.64)

2008        Madagascar banned exports of rough sapphires in hopes of creating local polishing centers with better jobs. The export ban was lifted in 2010.
    (AFP, 4/3/12)
2008        In Madagascar seven of ten people lived on less than $2 per day. By 2014 this rose to nine of ten.
    (Econ, 1/4/14, p.36)

2008        Malaysia founded Terengganu Investment Authority (TIA), a sovereign wealth fund aimed at ensuring economic development for the state of Terengganu. In 2009 it was renamed 1Malaysia Development Berhad.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1Malaysia_Development_Berhad)(Econ., 3/7/15, p.41)

2008        The population of the Maldives stood at about 370,000 people.
    (Econ, 11/1/08, p.52)

2008        About 62,000 inhabited the Marshall Islands.
    (AP, 12/26/08)

2008        In Mexico drug related violence this year left 6,268 people dead. The killings were concentrated in just 3 states, and most of those in 3 cities: Ciudad Juarez in Chihuahua, Tijuana in Baja California, and Culiacan in Sinaloa.
    (Econ, 3/7/09, p.30, 31)

2008        The population of Montenegro numbered about 650,000.
    (Econ, 1/10/09, p.46)

2008        In Nepal a WWF survey found just 121 adult tigers of breeding age in the country.
    (AFP, 6/3/11)

2008        Netherlands ended a record period of economic expansion that lasted nearly 26 years.
    (Econ, 5/21/16, p.68)
2008        In the Netherlands Saban Baran (38) was convicted of leading a gang notorious for forcing more than 100 women into prostitution, tattooing some of them to mark them as the gang's property. Prosecutors also say some women who came from Germany and eastern Europe were forced to have breast implants and illegal abortions while working in brothels in Amsterdam and other Dutch cities. In 2009 he fled while on a temporarily release from prison, where he was serving a 7½ year term, to visit his wife and newborn baby.
    (AP, 9/17/09)

2008        Nicaragua’s population was about 5.8 million with a third living in Managua.
    (www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/nu.html)(Econ, 11/15/08, p.45)

2008        Pakistan was stripped of its emerging market status. In 2016 index provider MSCI said it would readmit Pakistan in May, 2017.
    (Econ, 6/18/16, p.77)

2008        In Peru city officials of Cerro de Pasco gave mine owner, Peru-based Volcan Compania Minera S.A., permission to take another 28 acres (11.33 hectares) of the town, including the center square and its colonial church, rebuilt in 1748 after an earthquake. If not, the company threatened to close the pit-mine, putting 4,000 jobs at risk. About the same time, Peru's congress passed a bill to condemn and relocate Cerro de Pasco, based on US Centers for Disease Control studies that found soil, homes and water saturated with toxic levels of lead.
    (AP, 4/19/10)

2008        Qatar and Sudan set up a joint venture for investments in Sudan, which focused on developing agricultural land.
    (Econ, 5/23/09, p.62)

2008        Rwanda banned plastic bags. This led to a thriving underground industry smuggling bags from Congo DRC.
    (Econ, 3/25/17, p.42)

2008        Saudi Arabia abandoned its self-sufficiency agricultural program when it discovered that farmers were burning through water coming from a non-replenishable aquifer.
    (Econ, 5/23/09, p.62)
2008        In Saudi Arabia Raif Badawi co-founded a website as a platform for open debate on religion. He was banned from travel in 2009 after criticizing the official Wahhabist doctrine. In 2012 he was jailed for ridiculing Islamic religious figures.
    (Econ, 4/6/13, p.58)(Econ, 5/17/14, p.46)
2008        UNESCO proclaimed Madain Saleh, as a site of patrimony, becoming Saudi Arabia's first World Heritage Site. It was chosen for its well-preserved remains from late antiquity, especially the 131 rock-cut monumental tombs, with their elaborately ornamented facades, of the Nabatean kingdom.

2008        Scotland gained control over its planning rules.
    (Econ, 9/27/14, p.55)

2008        The assets of Zastava, a Serbian maker of Yugo cars and Kalashnikov rifles, were transferred to a new company, Fiat Automobili Srbija (FAS).
    (Econ, 11/2/13, p.70)
2008        Serbian military exports this year were worth about $200 million. This amount was doubled in 2010.
    (Econ, 1/8/11, p.51)

2008        Singapore sentenced Yong Vui Kong (19) of Malaysia to hang for smuggling 47 grams (1.65 ounces) of heroin into Singapore. His third and final appeal was rejected on April 4, 2012.
    (AFP, 4/4/12)

2008        In South Africa the top 10% of households pocketed 58% of the nation’s income this year, making it one of the most unequal countries in the world.
    (Econ, 12/15/12, p.74)
2008        South Africa this year had over 100 policemen killed while on duty. They in turn shot dead some 600 suspects and innocent bystanders.
    (Econ, 10/3/09, p.58)
2008        In South Africa anti-foreigner violence left some 62 people dead this year.
    (Econ., 4/25/15, p.44)

2008        In Spain Simona Levi, a theater director, launched Xnet with a plan to protect cultural freedom. The project changed radically on May 15, 2011, referred to colloquially as 15-M, when the economic crisis gripping Spain gave birth to the "Indignados" movement. It then developed into an Internet-based project for stamping out Spanish corruption.
    (AP, 12/12/14)
2008        Spain’s population reached 45 million, up from 40 million in 2000, mostly due to immigration. 12% of the population was foreign born, up from 3% in 1998.
    (Econ, 11/8/08, SR p.11,16)

2008        The population of St. Kitts stood at about 40,000.
    (Econ, 2/2/08, p.46)

2008        Sudan and Iran signed an agreement to strengthen bilateral military relations.
    (AP, 10/31/12)
2008        Jok Madut Jok, Sudanese-born associate professor of history at Loyola Marymount University in Los Angeles, returned to southern Sudan and built the Marol Academy in his home village. In October, 2010, Southern Sudan announced that Jok is joining the Ministry of Culture and Heritage as undersecretary.
    (AP, 11/6/10)
2008        The ICC issued an arrest warrant for Ahmed Haroun, Sudan’s Minister of Humanitarian Affairs, on 51 charges of war crimes and crimes against humanity allegedly committed in Sudan's western Darfur region in 2003 and 2004.
    (AP, 1/28/09)

2008        The population of Suriname numbered about 480,000.
    (SSFC, 12/7/08, p.E5)

2008        In Swaziland Amos Mbedzi of South Africa survived a botched bomb attack against King Mswati III at a bridge of the Lozitha Royal Palace in the commercial hub Manzini. The bomb exploded prematurely. Mbedzi survived with serious injuries while two others in the car were killed. In 2w012 Mbedzi was convicted of high treason.
    (AFP, 8/29/12)

2008        Sweden eliminated its taxes on residential property.
    (Economist, 10/13/12, SR p.20)
2008         Sweden-based Spiber Technologies, an advanced biomaterials company, was founded. Its primary goal was to develop and commercialize state-of-the-art patented technologies based on the recombinant spider silk protein.
2008        Spotify, a Swedish Internet music streaming service, was founded.
    (Econ, 3/22/14, p.64)

2008        Herve Falciani, a native of Monaco, walked out of a Geneva branch of HSBC, where he had worked for three years, with five CD-ROMS containing data on thousands of account holders.
    (Econ, 10/19/13, p.79)
2008        The ATLAS particle detector at CERN, Switzerland, was completed.
    (Econ, 4/27/13, p.66)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ATLAS_experiment)

2008        Syrian authorities blocked 225 internet sites this year, up from 159 in 2007.
    (Econ, 7/25/09, SR p.13)

2008        The population of Tristan da Cunha, the most remote settlement in the world, stood at 269. Access to the outside world required a 6-7 day ocean voyage.
    (Econ, 6/7/08, TQ p.28)

2008        Turkish hacker Ercan Findikoglu was taken into custody by the police after a four-year chase by the Anti-Smuggling and Organized Crime Bureau.
2008        In Turkey working women were able to retire at age 43, and men at age 47. A newly adopted retirement age of 65 was set to become effective in 2048.
    (Econ, 8/9/08, p.50)

2008        In Uganda Isaac Nabwana began making films in Wakaliga, a slum area in Kampala. By 2016 he had written, directed and edited more than 47 films and the area became known as Wakaliwood.
    (Econ, 3/5/15, p.46)

2008        Kiev university students established Femen, a group whose main aims are to improve the role of women in Ukraine's male-dominated, post-Soviet society. By 2010 it had become a small army of 300 mainly student activists ready to peel off in public to support Ukrainian women's rights.
    (Reuters, 11/15/10)

2008        A Human Rights Watch report said Venezuela’s Pres. Chavez had effectively neutralized the judiciary as an independent branch of government.
    (Econ, 2/19/11, p.40)

2008        The Vietnamese German University (VGU) opened in Ho Chi Minh City. It focused on engineering and economics with programs taught in English by visiting German professors.
    (Econ, 10/2/10, p.45)

2008        The World Bank launched its "Strategic Framework for Development and Climate Change" to help stimulate and coordinate public and private sector activity to combat climate change. It began using green bonds with proceeds tied to environmental activities. The idea was invented by Christopher Flensborg, with SEB, a Swedish bank.
    (http://tinyurl.com/y9dznbz)(Econ, 3/22/14, p.73)

2008        Zimbabwe’s President Mugabe sent in the police and army to stop the "informal" diamond panning at the Marange fields in favor of mining companies.
    (AFP, 12/28/11)

2008-2009    In Hungary six Roma, including a 5-year-old boy, were killed in a series of attacks. In 2015 an appeals court agreed with the life sentences without the possibility for parole given to Zsolt Peto and brothers Arpad and Istvan Kiss. It also confirmed the 13-year prison sentence for Istvan Csontos, the driver in some of the attacks.
    (AP, 5/8/15)

2008-2011    In San Mateo, Ca., Catherine Marie Abou-Remeleh of Hayward, an employee of the Mid-Peninsula Water District, embezzled $238,000 during this period to pay off gambling debts. In 2014 she was sentenced to nine months in home detention at an assisted care facility. Remeleh (54) was also placed on five years probation.
    (SFC, 10/28/14, p.C4)

2008-2012    In Ireland as many as 560 suicides during this period were later linked to the country’s economic recession.
    (SSFC, 3/9/14, p.A4)

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