Timeline 1993 A: January-June

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1993        Jan 1, President Bush continued to tour Somalia, greeting hundreds of cheering youngsters and foreign relief workers at an orphanage in Baidoa.
    (AP, 1/1/98)
1993        Jan 1, Czechoslovakia peacefully split into two new countries, the Czech Republic and Slovakia. The Slovak people never voted on the 1993 split with the Czechs.
    (WSJ, 4/26/96, p.A-1)(AP, 1/1/98)(AP, 9/21/02)

1993        Jan 2, President Bush arrived in Moscow to sign a strategic arms treaty with Russian President Boris Yeltsin, who hailed the agreement as "our joint gift to the people of the Earth."
    (AP, 1/2/98)
1993        Jan 2, Leaders of the three warring ethnic groups in Bosnia-Herzegovina met face-to-face in Geneva.
    (AP, 1/2/98)

1993        Jan 3, The START II Treaty was signed between the US and Russia by President Bush and Russian President Boris Yeltsin. It was to eliminate land-based multiple-warhead missiles and reduce the long-range nuclear arsenals. The treaty was not ratified by the Russian parliament.
    (SFEC, 12/1/96, Par p.6)(AP, 1/3/98)(SFC, 11/4/99, p.A14)
1993        Jan 3, Three days after he was jeered in Sarajevo, U.N. Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali took refuge from angry Somalis in Mogadishu.
    (AP, 1/3/98)

1993        Jan 4, President-elect Clinton spoke by telephone with Russian President Boris Yeltsin about the newly signed START II treaty; Clinton pledged to do all he could to get early ratification.
    (AP, 1/4/98)
1993        Jan 4, Junk bond king Michael Milken was released from jail after 22 months.

1993        Jan 5, The state of Washington executed Westley Allan Dodd, an admitted child sex killer, in America's first legal hanging since 1965.
    (AP, 1/5/98)
1993        Jan 5, The Braer, a Liberian-registered tanker, ran aground in Scotland's Shetland Islands, spilling some 26 million gallons of light crude oil.
    (AP, 1/5/98)(SFC, 11/20/02, p.A14)

1993        Jan 6, Authorities rescued Jennifer Stolpa and infant son after her husband found help after an eight-day ordeal in the snow-covered Nevada desert.
    (AP, 1/6/98)
1993        Jan 6, Jazz trumpeter Dizzy Gillespie died in Englewood, N.J., at age 75. In 1999 Alyn Shipton published "Groovin' High: The Life of Dizzy Gillespie."
    (SFEC, 7/27/97, DB p.34)(AP, 1/6/98)(SFEC, 8/29/99, BR p.4)
1993        Jan 6, Ballet dancer Rudolf Nureyev died of AIDS in Paris at age 54. In 1961 his defection from the Soviet Union made headline news. In 2007 Julie Kavanagh authored “Nureyev: The Life."
    (AP, 1/6/98)(WSJ, 10/1/98, p.A20)(SSFC, 10/14/07, p.M3)

1993        Jan 7, The US claimed that Saddam Hussein moved surface-to-air missiles into southern Iraq. Baghdad refused to remove them and allied warplanes attacked the missile sites and warships fired cruise missiles at a nuclear facility near Baghdad.
    (SFC, 9/4/96, p.A8)
1993        Jan 7, US forces in Somalia unleashed tank, helicopter and rocket fire on two clan camps in Mogadishu where snipers had been taking potshots at the troops. Cpl. James Perciavalle of Leetsdale, Pa., became the 1st US Marine wounded by friendly fire in Somalia.
    (AP, 1/7/98)(Sewickley Herald (Pa), 3/3/93, p.11)
1993        Jan 7, In San Francisco the number of people dying from AIDS passed 10,000.
    (SSFC, 1/7/18, DB p.53)
1993        Jan 7, A preliminary report prepared for the European Community said Serb fighters may have raped about 20,000 women in Bosnia-Herzegovina.
    (AP, 1/7/98)

1993        Jan 8, At post offices across America, commemorative Elvis Presley stamps went on sale on what would have been "the King's" 58th birthday.
    (AP, 1/8/98)
1993        Jan 8, In Palatine, a suburb of Chicago, 7 people were shot to death at a fried chicken restaurant. The victims were forced into two walk-in coolers and shot a total of 24 times with a .38. Some were also stabbed and one had their throat slit. Their bodies were found the next day. On May 16, 2002, Juan Luna (28) and James Degorski (29) were arrested and confessed to the killings. "They just did it to do something big." In 2009 Degorski was convicted in the slayings of 7 people.
    (AP, 1/9/03)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brown's_Chicken_massacre)(SFC, 9/30/09, p.A8)
1993        Jan 8, Bosnian deputy Prime Minister Hakija Turajlic was shot 7-8 times and killed by Serb gunmen in the presence of French peacekeepers while riding in a UN personnel carrier at a Serb checkpoint near the Serajevo airport. In 1998 government agents arrested Goran Vasic, the suspected gunman of the murder.
    (WSJ, 6/11/96, p.A14)(AP, 1/8/98)(SFC, 2/7/98, p.A12)
1993        Jan 8, Asif Nawaz Khan Janjua (56), Pakistan’s 10th Chief of Army, died under mysterious circumstances while jogging near his home in Rawalpindi. His widow later accused the government of poisoning her husband.

1993        Jan 9, Felix Grucci (87), fireworks expert, died of Alzheimer's disease.
1993        Jan 9, In France Jean-Claude Romand killed his parents, wife and children in an effort to save his pride following years of lies. He had spent nearly 20 years pretending he was a successful doctor and researcher working for the Geneva-based World Health Organization. In 2001 Emmanuel Carrere authored “The Adversary: A True Story of Murder and Deception."
    (www.truecrimeink.com/bkreview01.htm)(WSJ, 6/9/07, p.P8)(AFP, 6/28/19)
1993        Jan 9, Two Red Cross officials visited a camp of Palestinians who had been deported by Israel to a no man's land in southern Lebanon.
    (AP, 1/9/03)

1993        Jan 10, An unidentified 62-year-old man at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center underwent the world's second baboon liver transplant. The man died less than a month later without regaining full consciousness.
    (AP, 1/10/98)

1993        Jan 11, Former independent presidential candidate Ross Perot publicly returned to politics, recruiting Americans for a watchdog group that, he told CNN, would counter special interests that were preventing government reform and deficit reduction.
    (AP, 1/11/98)

1993        Jan 13, American and allied warplanes raided southern Iraq.
    (AP, 1/13/98)
1993        Jan 13, The space shuttle Endeavor blasted off from Cape Canaveral.
    (AP, 1/13/98)
1993        Jan 13, Marine Pvt. 1st Class Domingo Arroyo became the first U.S. serviceman to be killed in Somalia.
    (AP, 1/13/98)
1993        Jan 13, Former East German leader Erich Honecker was freed from prison and allowed to leave for Chile.
    (AP, 1/13/00)

1993        Jan 14, Retreating from a campaign promise, President-elect Clinton said he would continue President Bush's policy of forcibly returning Haitian boat people to Haiti.
    (AP, 1/14/98)
1993        Jan 14, Talk show host David Letterman announced he was moving from NBC to CBS.
    (AP, 1/14/98)
1993        Jan 14, In Colombia the Galeras Volcano erupted as 15 people gathered at the crater. Only 6 survived. In 2001 Stanley Williams and Fen Montaigne authored "Surviving Galeras."
    (WSJ, 4/20/01, p.W12)

1993        Jan 15, Lyricist Sammy Cahn, who wrote the words to "Call me Irresponsible" and "High Hopes," died in Los Angeles at age 79.
    (AP, 1/15/98)
1993        Jan 15, In Paris a historic disarmament ceremony ended with the last of 125 countries signing a treaty banning chemical weapons.
    (AP, 1/15/98)
1993        Jan 15, A 7.5 earthquake struck northern Japan and 2 people died.
1993        Jan 15, In Sicily Salvatore "The Beast" Riina was arrested. "Toto" Riina, the Sicilian boss of bosses, was arrested for his role in the murder of prosecutor Giovanni Falcone. Bernardo Provenzano was considered to have taken over as boss of the Sicilian Mafia following Riina’s arrest. Provenzano’s right-hand man was Mariano Troia.
    (USAT, 9/16/98, p.14A)(www.answers.com/topic/salvatore-riina)(SFC, 1/22/00, p.A11)

1993        Jan 16, US Attorney General-designate Zoe Baird and her husband paid a $2,900 fine for employing illegal aliens in their home. Controversy over the hirings derailed her nomination.
    (AP, 1/16/98)
1993        Jan 16, Glenn Corbett (63), US actor (Shenandoah, Chisum, Midway), died.
    (MC, 1/16/02)

1993        Jan 17, The United States, accusing Iraq of a series of military provocations, unleashed Tomahawk missiles against a military complex eight miles from downtown Baghdad. President-elect Clinton, arriving in Washington for his inauguration, backed the action.
    (AP, 1/17/98)
1993        Jan 17, Albert Hourani (b.1915), British academic of Lebanese origin, died. His books included “A History of the Arab Peoples" (1991).

1993        Jan 18, Allied warplanes attacked targets in "no fly" zones in southern and northern Iraq.
    (AP, 1/18/98)
1993        Jan 18, The Martin Luther King Jr. holiday was observed in all 50 states for the first time.
    (AP, 1/18/98)

1993        Jan 19, US Attorney General-designate Zoe Baird apologized to the Senate Judiciary Committee for hiring illegal aliens as domestic help.
    (AP, 1/19/98)
1993        Jan 19, The first American combat troops flew home from their humanitarian mission in Somalia.
    (AP, 1/19/98)
1993        Jan 19, IBM announced a $4.97 billion loss for 1992, which was at that time the largest single-year corporate loss in United States history.
1993        Jan 19, Israel recognized the PLO as no longer criminal.

1993         Jan 20, Bill Clinton was sworn in as the 42nd president of the United States; Al Gore was sworn in as vice president. The Senate confirmed Lloyd Bentsen as treasury secretary, Les Aspin as defense secretary and Warren Christopher as secretary of state. That night, Clinton picked up a saxophone and jammed at five of the 12 inaugural balls he and his wife, Hillary, attended. Christopher served for 4 years and in 1998 published "In the Stream of History: Shaping Foreign Policy for a new Era," a compilation of 41 of his major speeches.
    (SFC, 11/8/96, p.C6)(SFEC, 11/17/96, Par p.2)(AP, 1/20/98)(SFEC, 7/12/98, BR p.3)
1993        Jan 20, Audrey Hepburn, actress died in Switzerland at age 63. The 8th biography of her life was written by Barry Paris in 1996.
    (SFC, 11/8/96, p.C6)(AP, 1/20/98)

1993        Jan 21, Congressman Mike Espy of Mississippi was confirmed as Secretary of the Department of Agriculture.
    (HN, 1/21/99)
1993        Jan 21, Two U.S. warplanes bombed a defense site in northern Iraq after radar was turned on them. Iraq denied provoking the attack.
    (AP, 1/21/98)

1993        Jan 22, President Clinton resumed his search for an attorney general, following the early-morning withdrawal of nominee Zoe Baird in the face of a complaints over her hiring of illegal aliens. Clinton reversed the federal policy barring the mention of abortion by doctors in federally financed institutions.
    (AP, 1/22/98)(SFC, 9/13/01, p.C7)
1993        Jan 22, On the 20th anniversary of the Roe vs. Wade decision, President Clinton lifted a series of abortion restrictions imposed by his Republican predecessors.
    (AP, 1/22/98)
1993        Jan 22, Donna E. Shalala became US Secretary of Health and Human Services (HHS).
1993        Jan 22, Norwegian Air Shuttle was founded by Bjorn Kjos to take over the regional airline services produced by Busy Bee for Braathens in Western Norway.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Norwegian_Air_Shuttle)(Econ 7/15/17, p.55)

1993        Jan 23, FBI Director William S. Sessions dismissed a Justice Department report accusing him of ethical abuses, accusing former Attorney General William P. Barr of a "crassly calculated attack."
    (AP, 1/23/98)

1993        Jan 24, Thurgood Marshall (b.1908) died in Bethesda, Md., at age 84. He served on the US Supreme from 1967-1991. As a civil rights lawyer in the 1950s he had maintained a confidential relationship with the FBI. In 1997 Mark V. Tushnet published the book: "Making constitutional Law: Thurgood Marshall and the Supreme Court."
    (SFC, 12/3/96, p.A3)(WSJ, 7/24/97, p.A16)(AP, 1/24/98)

1993        Jan 25, President Clinton appointed his wife, Hillary, to head a committee on health-care reform.
    (AP, 1/25/98)
1993        Jan 25, Sears announced it was closing its catalog sales dept after 97 years.
1993        Jan 25, Five commuters were shot outside the gates of the US CIA headquarters in Langley, Va. Two people died. Mir [Amil] Aimal Kasi, a Pakistani national, was tracked down for the shooting in 1997 in Afghanistan and returned to the US. He was convicted of murder in 1997 and was executed Nov 14, 2002.
    (SFC, 6/18/97, p.A3)(SFC, 11/11/97, p.A3)(SFC, 11/15/97, p.A3)(AP, 1/25/98)(SFC, 11/15/02, p.A3)
1993        Jan 25, Lance Cpl. Anthony D. Botello (21) of Wilburton, Oklahoma, was killed by a sniper in Mogadishu, Somalia.
    (LCNT, 2/4/93)

1993        Jan 26, U.N. Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali called on the Security Council to take "whatever measures are necessary" to compel Israel to readmit 400 deported Palestinians.
    (AP, 1/26/98)
1993        Jan 26, Former Czechoslovak President Vaclav Havel was elected president of the new Czech Republic.
    (AP, 1/26/98)

1993        Jan 27, The US Commerce Department imposed temporary tariffs on steel imports from 19 countries, drawing sharp criticism from some of the affected nations.
    (AP, 1/27/98)
1993        Jan 27, US warships fired 24 cruise missiles at Baghdad in retaliation for what the US called a plot to assassinate former Pres. Bush. Iraq said 8 people were killed.
    (SFC, 2/24/98, p.A9)
1993        Jan 27, Mumcu, a reporter for the secular daily Cumhuriyet, was killed by a car bomb while he was in his vehicle outside his home in Ankara, Turkey. Among groups that have claimed responsibility are the Islamic Liberation Organization, the Raiders of Islamic Great East, and Islamic Jihad.

1993        Jan 28, The Israeli Supreme Court unanimously upheld the deportations of 400 Palestinians from the occupied territories to Lebanon.
    (AP, 1/28/98)   

1993        Jan 29, President Clinton announced that he was ordering the draft of a formal directive by July 15 to end the longstanding ban on homosexuals in the U.S. military.
    (AP, 1/29/98)

1993        Jan 30, Los Angeles inaugurated its Metro Red Line, the city's first modern subway.
    (AP, 1/30/98)
1993        Jan 30, A car bombing in Bogota, Colombia, killed at least 20 people.
1993        Jan 30, On the 60th anniversary of Hitler's swearing-in as chancellor of Germany, more than 300,000 Germans carried candles to denounce the Nazi era.
    (AP, 1/30/98)

1993        Jan 31, The Dallas Cowboys defeated the Buffalo Bills 52-17 in Super Bowl XXVII, played at the Rose Bowl in Pasadena, Calif.
    (AP, 1/31/98)
1993        Jan 31, A gamma ray burst that exceeded the NASA’s detector capability for measurement took place on the same day as the football Super Bowl.
    (SFC, 1/28/97, p.E1)(NH, 6/97, p.79)

1993        Jan, Wired Magazine in SF published its first issue under Louis Rossetto and Jane Metcalf as a bimonthly with 12 employees. The 1st issue featured a cover story on the military's use of computer war simulations and sold 100,000 copies. In 1998 the monthly magazine was sold to S.I. Newhouse's Advance Publications for $90 million. Before the end of the year it became a monthly. In 2003 Gary Wolf authored "Wired: A Romance," the story of Wired and its 1996 IPO.
    (SFEC, 1/18/98, p.C1)(SFEC, 5/10/98, p.B1)(SFC, 6/7/99, p.E1)(WSJ, 7/9/03, p.D8)
1993        Jan, In Florida Bonnie Haim was murdered by her husband. Their son Aaron (3) told police his father had shot his mother but her body was not found. In 2014 Aaron found his mother's remains while removing a pool at his Jacksonville home, acquired in a wrongful death suit against his father. In 2019 Michael Haim was convicted of 2nd-degree murder.
    (http://tinyurl.com/y2naknel)(SSFC, 4/14/19, p.A12)
1993        Jan, Heavy fighting and the bitter Serb siege of Serajevo continued. The UN and European Union peace efforts failed and war broke out between Muslims and Croats in Bosnia.
    (SFC, 10/16/97, p.A12)
1993        Jan, In Bosnia on the Orthodox Christmas Day Muslim forces in Kravica killed at least 30 people.
    (Econ, 7/25/05, p.18)
1993        Jan, Edward John Maher, a British armored car driver, disappeared after driving off with $1.5 million. He was arrested on Feb 8, 2012, in the small town of Ozark, Missouri. On May 11 he agreed to be deported to Britain. On Feb 5, 2013, he was sentenced in London to five years in jail.
    (SFC, 2/10/12, p.A8)(AFP, 5/12/12)(AP, 3/5/13)

1993        Feb 1, Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin announced that his country would repatriate about 100 Palestinians deported to Lebanon, an offer rejected by the deportees.
    (AP, 2/1/97)

1993        Feb 2, In a speech to the National Governors' Association, President Clinton pledged to transform welfare into a "hand up, not a handout" by giving recipients training and then requiring them to work.
    (AP, 2/2/97)
1993        Feb 2, IRS and Willie Nelson settled on $9M tax bill (of $16.7M). In November 1990 the IRS had raided Willie Nelson's home in Texas and seized everything. The IRS auctioned off Nelson's home and his property, though friends and fans bought most of his things and gave them back later.
1993        Feb 2, Vaclav Havel, president of Czechoslovakia, began serving as the first president of the Czech Rep. He served 2 terms to 2003.

1993        Feb 3, Marge Schott was suspended as Cincinnati Reds owner for one year for repeatedly using racial and ethnic slurs. The suspension was lifted after eight months.
    (AP, 2/3/97)
1993        Feb 3, In Los Angeles, the federal trial began for four police officers charged with civil rights violations in the videotaped beating of Rodney King.
    (AP, 2/3/97)

1993        Feb 4, A jury in Atlanta found General Motors negligent in the fuel-tank design of a pickup truck and awarded $105.2 million to the parents of a teen-ager killed in a fiery 1989 crash. The negligence verdict was later overturned, and the parents of Shannon Moseley reached an out-of-court settlement with GM.
    (AP, 2/4/03)

1993        Feb 5, Federal judge Kimba Wood, President Clinton's expected choice for attorney general, withdrew from consideration, saying her baby sitter had been an illegal alien for seven years.
    (AP, 2/5/97)

1993        Feb 6, Tennis Hall-of-Famer and human rights advocate Arthur Ashe died of AIDS in New York at age 49. He was the first black man to win the Wimbledon tennis match.
    (SFC, 7/4/96, p.A3)(AP, 2/6/97)

1993        Feb 7, Commerce Secretary Ron Brown acknowledged on NBC's "Meet the Press" that he'd failed to pay Social Security taxes for a domestic worker.
    (AP, 2/7/97)

1993        Feb 8, General Motors sued NBC, alleging that the "Dateline NBC" program had rigged two car-truck crashes to show that 1973-1987 GM pickups were prone to fires in side impact crashes. NBC settled the lawsuit the following day.
    (AP, 2/8/03)

1993        Feb 9, In Arkansas Debra Reese (26) was murdered. Ledell Lee was sentenced to death in October 1995 in Pulaski County, Arkansas, after he was convicted of murdering Reese. He maintained his innocence from the time of his arrest until his April 20, 2017, execution. In 2021 attorneys working on behalf of Lee's family said they have uncovered new DNA profiles that belong to someone else.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ledell_Lee)(AP, 5/8/21)
1993        Feb 9, NBC News announced it had settled a defamation lawsuit brought by General Motors over the network's "inappropriate demonstration" of a fiery pickup truck crash on its "Dateline NBC" program.
    (AP, 2/9/03)
1993        Feb 9, Saburo Okita (b.1914), Japanese economist and former foreign minister (1979-80), died. He to a large part introduced the “flying geese" pattern of economic development to the Western political and business audiences. Kaname Akamatsu, Japanese economist, had developed the multi-tier hierarchical 'flying geese' model in the 1930s to describe how industrialization spreads from developed countries to the developing countries.
    (www.risklatte.com/Articles_new/BraveEconomist/Brave_10.php)(Econ, 11/13/10, p.50)

1993        Feb 10, The Clinton administration said U.S. troops could be sent to enforce peace in former Yugoslavia provided warring factions there negotiated a settlement.
    (AP, 2/10/97)

1993        Feb 11, President Clinton announced his choice of Miami prosecutor Janet Reno to be the nation's first female attorney general, after two earlier candidates stumbled because they'd hired illegal aliens.
    (AP, 2/11/97)
1993        Feb 11, In Afghanistan some 800 Hazzara civilians were massacred in the Afshar district of West Kabul.
    (Econ, 2/17/07, p.45)(http://tinyurl.com/34h7bu)

1993        Feb 12, In a crime that shocked Britons, two 10-year-old boys, Jon Venables and Robert Thompson, lured 2-year-old James Bulger from his mother at a shopping mall in Liverpool, England, then beat him to death and left his battered body on a railway track. The 2 boys were later sentenced to serve 8 years in prison. The sentence was later increased to 10 years and then 15 years. After 8 years in a reformatory, Thompson and Venables were released in 2001, after a parole board found they no longer posed a danger to the public. Venables returned to jail in 2010 after pleading guilty to downloading and distributing child pornography, only to be returned again in November 2017 after allegedly being caught with child abuse images.
    (SFC, 4/18/96, p.A-12)(SFC, 12/17/99, p.D5)(SFC, 6/23/01, p.A8)(AP, 2/12/03)(AFP, 1/5/18)

1993        Feb 13, The government of Bosnia-Herzegovina began blocking the distribution of food in the capital of Sarajevo to protest ineffective international attempts to stop the war.
    (AP, 2/13/98)

1993        Feb 14, The body of James Bulger, a 2-year-old boy who had been lured away from his mother in a Liverpool, England, shopping mall two days earlier, was found along a stretch of railroad track. Two boys (10), Robert Thompson and Jon Venables, were later convicted of murdering James; they spent eight years in detention before being paroled.
    (AP, 2/14/03)

1993        Feb 15, President Clinton issued an economic "call to arms," asking Americans to accept a painful package of tax increases and spending cuts.
    (AP, 2/15/98)

1993        Feb 16, Prices fell as Wall Street reacted unfavorably to President Clinton's economic austerity plan outlined in a White House address the night before.
    (AP, 2/16/98)
1993        Feb 16-1993 Feb 17, An overcrowded ferry carrying up to 1,500 people sank between Jeremie and Port-au-Prince, Haiti, killing an estimated 500-700 people; only 285 people were known to have survived.
    (AP, 2/17/98)(AP, 2/3/06)

1993        Feb 17, President Clinton addressed a joint session of Congress, asking Americans to accept one of the biggest tax increases in history as part of a plan to stimulate the economy and curb massive budget deficits.
    (AP, 2/17/98)

1993        Feb 18, President Clinton hosted a campaign-style rally at St. Louis' Union Station to enlist citizen support for his economic plan.
    (AP, 2/18/98)

1993        Feb 19, President Clinton's economic plan won praise from Federal Reserve Chairman Alan Greenspan. The president, visiting Hyde Park, N.Y., suggested the United States might have to consider a national sales tax "not too long in the future," then said he'd meant in 10 years or so.
    (AP, 2/19/98)
1993        Feb 19, Gerhard Gesell (82), judge (Pentagon Papers), died of liver cancer.

1993        Feb 14, In San Francisco a knife-wielding motorcyclist stabbed and killed Gordon McEntire (51) outside the Saloon at 1232 Grant St. McEntire was owner of a boat service and diving business in the Mission Rock area.
    (SSFC, 2/18/18, DB p.50)
1993        Feb 20, Police in Liverpool, England, charged two 10-year-old boys with the abduction and slaying of toddler James Bulger, a crime that shocked the country and terrified parents. Jon Venables and Robert Thompson were later convicted.
    (AP, 2/20/98)
1993        Feb 20, Ferrucio Lamborghini (76), Italian auto-designer (Lamborghini, Miura), died.

1993        Feb 21, Four days after suspending Bosnian relief operations because of interference from Serbs, Muslims and Croats, U.N. High Commissioner for Refugees Sadako Ogata ordered full resumption of the aid effort. U.N. Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali had rebuked the suspension.
    (AP, 2/21/98)

1993            Feb 22, The UN passed Resolution 808 that established the Hague Int'l. War Crimes Tribunal for the Prosecution of Persons Responsible for Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law committed in the Territory of the Former Yugoslavia since 1 January 1991.

1993        Feb 23, President Clinton won United Nations support for a plan to airdrop relief supplies to starving Bosnians during an Oval Office meeting with Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali.
    (AP, 2/23/98)

1993        Feb 24, At the Grammy Awards in Los Angeles, Eric Clapton won six trophies, including album of the year for "Unplugged" and record and song of the year for "Tears in Heaven."
    (AP, 2/24/98)
1993        Feb 24, Canadian Prime Minister Brian Mulroney announced he was stepping down.
    (AP, 2/24/98)

1993        Feb 25, President Clinton ordered the Pentagon to mount an airdrop of relief supplies into Bosnia-Herzegovina.
    (AP, 2/25/98)
1993        Feb 25, Kim Young-sam (1927-2015) began serving as the 7th president of South Korea and continued to 1998.
    (Econ, 11/28/15, p.37)

1993        Feb 26, The parking garage of the 107-story World Trade Center was bombed in NYC by terrorists. The bombing killed 6 and injured over 1000 people. 4 Islamic extremists were convicted and each sentenced to 240 years in prison. Militant Muslims Ramzi Yousef and Eyad Ismoil fled the country. Yousef was captured in Pakistan in 1995 and Ismoil was picked up in Jordan. The two were convicted in 1997 of conspiracy. In 1998 Yousef was sentenced to life plus 240 years in prison after declaring: "I am a terrorist and I am proud of it." Ismoil was sentenced to 240 years in prison. In 2000 Laurie Mylroie authored "Study of Revenge," an investigation of the bombing.
    (WSJ, 10/24/96, p.A16)(SFC, 1/9/98, p.A2)(AP, 2/26/98)(SFC, 4/4/98, p.A3)(WSJ, 10/24/01, p.A20)
1993        Feb 26, In Egypt a bomb in a coffee shop killed 3 people and injured 18 In Cairo.
    (SFC, 11/19/97, p.C2)

1993        Feb 27, President Clinton, in his weekly radio address, promised to find out who was behind the huge explosion at New York City's World Trade Center, a bombing later blamed on Islamic militants.
    (AP, 2/27/98)
1993        Feb 27, Jose Duval (72), actor and singer, died. He played coffee pitchman Juan Valdez.
1993        Feb 27, Actress Lillian Gish died in New York at age 99.
    (AP, 2/27/98)

1993        Feb 28, Agents of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms raided the ranch of the Branch Davidian sect under David Koresh in Waco, Texas. A shootout followed when Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms agents tried to serve warrants on the Branch Davidians; four agents and six Davidians were killed as a 51-day standoff began. In 1997 the film "Waco: The Rules of Engagement" was released that documented the story.
    (SFC, 2/28/97, p.D3)(AP, 2/28/98)
1993        Feb 28, Three U.S. planes carried out the first mission to drop relief supplies over Bosnia-Herzegovina. The US Operations Deny Flight, Provide Promise, Deliberate Force, Decisive Edge, Joint Endeavour and others began in Bosnia and Macedonia. They cost $9.7 billion to date in 1999 and left 4 US casualties with 5 wounded.
    (AP, 2/28/98)(WSJ, 9/22/99, p.A8)
1993        Feb 28, Ishiro Honda (81), Japanese director, producer (Godzilla), died.

1993        Feb, Apple shipped its 10 millionth Mac computer.
    (SFC, 1/24/04, p.A12)

1993        Feb, The UN declared safe areas in Serajevo and five other Muslim enclaves in Bosnia.
    (WSJ, 6/11/96, p.A14)

1993        Feb, A 15-year-old girl, later identified as FWS-87 by the UN Hague war tribunal, was enslaved, raped and tortured by countless soldiers and then sold for $330 on this date to two soldiers. This was during the assault on the town of Foca in 1992-1993. In 1998 Dragoljub Kunarac (37) pleaded guilty to raping 4 Muslim women. Testimony by FWS-75 was provided against him.
    (SFC, 6/28/96, p.A13)(SFC, 3/10/98, p.A9)

1993        Feb, The Chinese A share index in Shanghai rose to 10,000.
    (Hem. 1/95, p. 49)

1993        Feb, Communists of all stripes gathered in the village of Sorokino outside Moscow and created the Communist Party of the Russian Federation, KPRF, and chose Gennady Zyuganov to lead. The Russian Federation is made up of 89 regions, 21 of which are classified as republics. Udmurtiya, 650 miles east of Moscow, is a republic.
    (SFC, 6/10/96, p.A16)(SFC, 3/25/97, p.A13)

1993        Feb, Lien Chan was named premier of Taiwan.
    (SFC, 8/29/97, p.A18)

1993        Mar 1, George Steinbrenner was reinstated as owner of New York Yankees.
    (SC, 3/1/02)
1993        Mar 1, The new expansion NHL (hockey) team, owned by Disney, was named the Mighty Ducks.
    (SC, 3/1/02)
1993        Mar 1, Authorities near Waco, Texas, continued negotiating with Branch Davidians holed up in their bullet-scarred compound, a day after a furious gun battle between the Davidians and federal agents that left 10 people dead.
    (AP, 3/1/98)
1993        Mar 1, Luis Kutner (b.1908), US human rights activist, died. He and Peter Benenson co-founded Amnesty International (1961).

1993        Mar 2, In the third day of a standoff between federal agents and Branch Davidians near Waco, Texas, local radio stations broadcast a taped statement in which the group's leader, David Koresh, promised to surrender; however, the standoff continued.
    (AP, 3/2/98)

1993        Mar 3, Howard Stern radio show premiered in Boston on WBCN 104.1 FM-evenings.
    (SC, 3/3/02)
1993        Mar 3, Albert Sabin (86), physician, developer of the oral polio vaccine, died in Washington.
    (AP, 3/3/98)

1993        Mar 4, "Goodbye Girl" opened at Marquis Theater in NYC for 188 performances.
    (SC, 3/4/02)
1993        Mar 4, Authorities announced the arrest of Mohammad Salameh, a suspect in the bombing of the World Trade Center in New York City. Salameh was later convicted of playing a key role.
    (AP, 3/4/98)

1993        Mar 6, As a standoff at the Branch Davidian compound near Waco, Texas, ended its first week, authorities appealed publicly to David Koresh and his followers to give themselves up.
    (AP, 3/6/98)

1993        Mar 7, Authorities said David Koresh, the leader of the Branch Davidians, was becoming irritable and had rejected proposals to end a week-long standoff at his compound near Waco, Texas.
    (AP, 3/7/98)

1993        Mar 8, On Wall Street, the Dow Jones industrial average soared to a record high, climbing 64.84 to end the day at 3,469.42.
    (AP, 3/8/98)
1993        Mar 8, Singer-bandleader Billy Eckstine died in Pittsburgh at age 78.
    (AP, 3/8/98)

1993        Mar 9, Janet Reno sailed through her confirmation hearing en route to becoming the nation's first female attorney general.
    (AP, 3/9/98)
1993        Mar 9, Rodney King testified at the federal trial of four Los Angeles police officers accused of violating his civil rights, saying he'd been "attacked" by the defendants.
    (AP, 3/9/98)
1993        Mar 9, Bob Crosby (b.1913), swing-era bandleader (Bobcats), died of cancer.
1993        Mar 9, The All Parties Hurriyat Conference, a coalition of 26 parties, formed as a united political front to raise the cause of Kashmiri separatism and advocated separation from India by peaceful means.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/All_Parties_Hurriyat_Conference)(Econ 5/27/17, p.36)

1993        Mar 10, Authorities announced the arrest of Nidal Ayyad, a second suspect in the bombing of the World Trade Center in New York City.
    (AP, 3/10/98)
1993        Mar 10, Dr. David Gunn (47) was shot to death outside a Pensacola, Fla., abortion clinic by Michael Griffin, who was convicted and sentenced to life.
    (AP, 3/10/98)(SSFC, 1/19/03, p.A3)
1993        Mar 10, C. Northcote Parkinson (b.1909), historian and sociologist, died in Canterbury, England. In 1955 he authored an essay in The Economist that described Parkinson's Law: "Work expands so as to fill the time available for its completion."
    (AP, 3/10/98)(www.britannica.com/eb/article-9058517)(Econ., 7/11/20, p.54)

1993        Mar 11, Janet Reno was unanimously confirmed by the Senate to be attorney general.
    (AP, 3/11/98)
1993        Mar 11, Dino Bravo (b.1948), wrestler (WWF), was shot to death in Laval, Quebec, Canada. Bravo, born as Adolfo Bresciano, was known as the “World’s Strongest Man." 
1993        Mar 11, North Korea withdrew from the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty in a harsh rebuff of Western demands to open suspected nuclear weapons development sites for inspection. It later suspended its withdrawal.
    (AP, 3/11/98)(AP, 4/24/03)

1993        Mar 12, Janet Reno was sworn in as the first US female attorney general.
    (AP, 3/12/98)
1993        Mar 12, In Bombay (Mumbai), India, 13 bombs exploded killing 257 people. Abu Salem, alleged terrorist mastermind, Mafia boss and one of India's most wanted men, was arrested in Portugal in 2002. Salem was accused by Indian police of being involved in the country's worst bombing attack, as well as a string of murder and extortion cases. More than 100 people, most of them Muslims, were accused of involvement in the attacks. In 2006 4 family members were found guilty in the first verdict in the prosecution of India's deadliest terror attack. Asgar Yusuf Mukadam and Shahnawaz Qureshi were convicted for murdering 10 people in one of the bombings. Abdul Turk (40) was convicted of leaving an explosives-laden jeep in a crowded shopping and residential area of Mumbai, killing 113 people and injuring scores. In 2007 Parvez Shaikh, Mushtaq Tarani and Abdul Ghani Turk were sentenced to death for planting explosives in Mumbai. Also sentenced to death were Asgar Muqadam and Shahnawaz Qureshi for involvement in placing bombs at a cinema in Mumbai and Shoaib Ghansar for involvement in the bombing at the Zaveri Bazaar. Yakub Memon was sentenced to death for playing a key role in procuring the weapons and explosives used in the serial attacks. Memon was accused of assisting his brother Tiger Memon and Dawood Ibrahim, the suspected masterminds in a series of bombings.
    (AP, 3/12/98)(AP, 9/20/02)(AP, 9/12/06)(AP, 9/18/06)(AP, 9/19/06)(AP, 7/18/07)(AP, 7/19/07)(AP, 7/27/07)(SFC, 7/22/15, p.A3)

1993        Mar 13, A deadly blizzard paralyzed much of the East Coast, leaving more than 100 dead in its wake. Syracuse, NY, was covered with fresh snow 43 inches thick.
    (AP, 3/13/98)(SFC, 3/13/09, p.D8)

1993        Mar 13, The Russian Congress adjourned after a session that seriously weakened President Boris Yeltsin's power.
    (AP, 3/13/98)

1993        Mar 14, An independent U.N.-sponsored commission released a report blaming the bulk of atrocities committed during El Salvador's civil war on the country's military.
    (AP, 3/14/98)

1993        Mar 15, Searchers found the body of the sixth and last missing victim of the World Trade Center bombing in New York.
    (AP, 3/15/98)
1993        Mar 15, Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin met at the White House with President Clinton, after which Rabin offered to negotiate the return of part of the Golan Heights to Syria.
    (AP, 3/15/98)

1993        Mar 16, President Clinton met with ousted Haitian President Jean-Bertrand Aristide; afterward, Clinton announced he was sending a special envoy to Haiti to seek a return to democracy.
    (AP, 3/16/98)
1993        Mar 16, Mohammed Hussein Nagdi, Iran diplomat, resistance fighter, was murdered in Rome, Italy.
1993        Mar 16, Canadian soldiers in Somalia beat to death a local teenager, Shidane Arone, during their participation in the UN humanitarian efforts. An inquiry led to the disbanding of Canada's elite Canadian Airborne Regiment, greatly damaged the morale of the Canadian Forces, and damaged both the domestic and international reputation of Canadian soldiers.

1993        Mar 17, Helen Hayes (92), the "First Lady of the American Theater," died in Nyack, N.Y. Hayes quit the theater in 1971 due to severe asthma.
    (AP, 3/17/98)(SSFC, 12/2/07, Par p.4)
1993        Mar 17, A bomb attack in Calcutta, India, killed 60 people.

1993        Mar 18, On Capitol Hill, the House approved President Clinton's deficit-reduction blueprint on a virtual party-line 243-183 vote.
    (AP, 3/18/98)
1993        Mar 18, In Pennsylvania Amish man Edward Gingerich outraged his normally peaceful religious community of Rockdale Township, where he crushed his wife's skull and used a kitchen knife to remove her stomach organs from her dead body. Gingerich was diagnosed with schizophrenia and convicted of manslaughter in 1994. After serving his maximum sentence of four years in prison for the killing, moved to a mental institution in Michigan before going to Indiana and eventually returning to Pennsylvania and the Brown Hill Amish community in 2007. In 2011 Gingerich (44) committed suicide in a barn in Cambridge Springs, Pa.
    (www.bellaonline.com/articles/art68724.asp)(Reuters, 1/16/11)

1993        Mar 19, US Supreme Court Justice Byron R. White announced plans to retire. His departure paved the way for Ruth Bader Ginsburg to become the court's second female justice.
    (AP, 3/19/98)
1993        Mar 19, Georgia shot down a Russian warplane over the separatist Abkhazia region, killing its pilot and heightening tensions.
    (AP, 3/19/03)

1993        Mar 20, An Irish Republican Army bomb exploded in Warrington, England, killing 3-year-old Jonathan Ball and 12-year-old Tim Parry.
    (AP, 3/20/98)
1993        Mar 20, Russian President Boris Yeltsin declared emergency rule, setting a referendum on whether the people trusted him or the hard-line Congress to govern.
    (AP, 3/20/98)
1993        Mar 20, Pope John Paul II declared Duns Scotus (1266-1308) a saint.

1993        Mar 21, Voters in France handed the Socialist government a devastating defeat in first-round parliamentary elections.
    (AP, 3/21/03)

1993        Mar 22, Microsoft began shipping its Encarta encyclopedia on CD-ROM. It had licensed content from Funk & Wagnalls after being rebuffed by Britannica.
    (Wired, 12/98, p.198)(WSJ, 3/18/09, p.A13)
1993        Mar 22, Intel introduced its Pentium processor (80586): 64 bits-60 MHz-100+ MIPS.
1993        Mar 22, The launch of the space shuttle Columbia was scrubbed with three seconds left in the countdown.
    (AP, 3/22/97)
1993        Mar 22, Cleveland Indians pitchers Steve Olin and Tim Crews were killed when the boat they were riding in slammed into a Florida pier; pitcher Bob Ojeda was seriously injured.
    (AP, 3/22/97)
1993        Mar 22, The 1st World Water Day. On Dec 22, 1992, the UN General Assembly adopted resolution A/RES/47/193 by which 22 March of each year was declared World Day for Water, to be observed starting in 1993.

1993        Mar 23, In his first formal news conference since taking office, President Clinton suggested restricting the duty assignment of homosexuals in the military as a way of allowing openly gay personnel; however, the idea was quickly abandoned.
    (AP, 3/23/98)
1993        Mar 23, Scientists announced they'd found the renegade gene that causes Huntington's disease.
    (AP, 3/23/98)
1993        Mar 23, Hans Werner Richter (b.1908), German writer, founder (Gruppe 47), died.

1993        Mar 24, Mahmoud Abouhalima, a cab driver implicated in the 1993 World Trade Center bombing, was flown back to the United States from Egypt. Abouhalima was later convicted of conspiracy and sentenced to life in prison.
    (AP, 3/24/03)
1993        Mar 24, Ezer Weizman was elected Israel's seventh president.
    (AP, 3/24/98)
1993        Mar 24, South African Pres F.W. de Klerk admitted for the 1st time that his country had built 6 nuclear bombs, but that the weapons had been dismantled.
    (AP, 3/24/03)

1993        Mar 25, The Senate approved an outline of President Clinton's plan to spark the economy and trim the budget deficit by a vote of 54-45.
    (AP, 3/24/98)

1993        Mar 26, President Clinton promised a "full-court press" against Bosnian Serbs to secure their agreement to a United Nations peace plan endorsed by Bosnian Muslims and Croats.
    (AP, 3/25/98)

1993        Mar 27, A top U.N. relief official accused Bosnian Serbs of breaking their promises by blocking an aid convoy for trapped Muslims in eastern Bosnia, a day after a cease-fire agreement.
    (AP, 3/27/98)

1993        Mar 28, Francisco Garcia Diaz discovered a type II supernova in M81 (NGC 3031).
1993        Mar 28, Chinese Premier Li Peng won a second term.
    (AP, 3/28/98)
1993        Mar 28, About 10,000 people marched in Dublin, Ireland, to protest an IRA bombing that killed two young boys.
    (AP, 3/28/98)
1993        Mar 28, Russian President Boris Yeltsin and his chief political rival, parliament speaker Ruslan Khasbulatov, claimed victory after surviving attempts by the Russian Congress to oust them.
    (AP, 3/28/98)

1993        Mar 29, In the 65th Academy Awards "Unforgiven" won the Academy Award for best picture as well as best director for Clint Eastwood; Emma Thompson won best actress for "Howards End" and Al Pacino won best actor for "Scent of a Woman."
    (AP, 3/29/98)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/65th_Academy_Awards)

1993        Mar 30, Washington attorney Robert Altman went on trial in New York City, charged with wrongdoing in connection with the Bank of Credit and Commerce International (BCCI). He was later acquitted.
    (AP, 3/30/98)
1993        Mar, 30, Richard Diebenkorn (b.1922), SF Bay Area artist, died. He moved between figuration and abstraction when the two modes were widely thought to be inimical. In 2012 his 1971 painting “Ocean Park #48" fetched $13.5 million.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Diebenkorn)(SFEC, 9/28/97, DB p.36)(SFC, 10/9/97, p.E1,6)(Econ, 11/24/12, p.69)
1993        Mar 30, Israeli authorities barred West Bank Palestinians from entering Israel after two traffic police officers were shot to death.
    (AP, 3/30/98)

1993        Mar 31, Actor Brandon Lee, 28, was killed during the filming of a movie in Wilmington, N.C., by a prop gun that fired part of a dummy bullet instead of a blank.
    (AP, 3/31/98)
1993        Mar 31, "Star Dust" lyricist Mitchell Parish died in New York City at age 92.
    (AP, 3/31/98)
1993        Mar 31, The U.N. Security Council increased international pressure on Bosnian Serbs, authorizing NATO warplanes to shoot down aircraft that violated a ban on flights over Bosnia.
    (AP, 3/31/98)

1993        Mar, The Getty family’s Boeing 727, The Jetty, received a make-over. It’s the family station wagon, in terms of use, explained interior designer Stephen Weaver.
    (SFC, 1/8/95, p.7)

1993        Mar, Drinking water in Milwaukee became contaminated with the cryptosporidium bacterium and more than 100 people died and some 400,000 got sick.
    (SFC, 6/26/96, p.A6)(SFC, 6/24/98, Z1 p.5)(SFC, 8/1/98, p.A11)
1993        Mar, Belgian PM Jean-Luc Dehaene tendered his resignation, but the king refused to accept it.
1993        Mar, A broad amnesty was given to all combatants of the 1980-1992 El Salvador civil war. The Salvadoran war raged over 12 years and left around 75,000 people dead.
    (SFC, 7/24/02, p.A12)(AP, 5/30/11)(Econ, 6/8/19, p.34)
1993        Mar, In Pakistan Benazir Bhutto began a campaign to oust Nawaz Sharif.
    (SFC, 11/6/96, p.A21)
1993        Mar, In Thailand the Supreme Court threw out the cases against the 10 politicians who were ousted in the 1991 coup.
    (WSJ, 12/11/96, p.A16)

1993        Apr 1, In an impassioned plea for Russian aid, President Clinton told newspaper editors in Annapolis, Md., that America should help "not out of charity" but as a crucial investment in peace and prosperity.
    (AP, 4/1/98)

1993        Apr 2, President Clinton presided at a daylong conference in Portland, Ore., on how much logging should be allowed on federal land.
    (AP, 4/2/98)
1993        Apr 2, Ellie Nesler (1952-2008) shot and killed Daniel Driver in a Jamestown, Ca., courtroom. Driver had been accused of molesting her son and three other boys. She was sentenced to 10 years in prison. She later admitted to investigators that she had taken “crank" that morning. She was freed in 1997 after serving 3 and 1/2 years in prison. The events were made into a 1999 TV movie. In 2002 she was sentenced to 6 years in prison for selling and possessing illegal drugs. In 2005 her son Willy was convicted of 1st degree murder for the stomping death in 2004 of a man on their property.
    (SFC, 11/21/96, p.A22)(SFC, 8/22/97, p.A1)(SFC, 6/23/99, p.B1)(SFC, 6/6/06, p.B8)(SFC, 12/30/08, p.B1)
1993        Apr 2, In Illinois Andy Ascher (22) was killed in Rockford. In 1994 Patrick Pursley was convicted in the murder of Ascher based on ballistic evidence from the crime scene. In 2017 technological advances eroded confidence in the evidence and Pursley faced a new trial.
    (SFC, 8/10/17, p.A7)
1993        Apr 2, The Bosnian Serb parliament rejected a peace plan drafted by U.N. and European mediators and already approved by Bosnian Muslims and Croats.
    (AP, 4/2/98)

1993        Apr 3, The Norman Rockwell Museum in Stockbridge, Mass., opened. it replaced the Old Corner House Museum on Main St. that had housed the artist’s nearly 600 works.
1993        Apr 3, President Clinton and Russian President Boris Yeltsin opened a weekend summit in Vancouver, B.C., beginning talks after a luncheon with Canadian Prime Minister Brian Mulroney.
    (AP, 4/3/98)
1993        Apr 3, Pinky Lee (85), former children's TV show host, died of a heart attack at his California home.
    (AP, 4/3/03)

1993        Apr 4, President Clinton and Russian President Boris Yeltsin wrapped up their two-day summit in Vancouver, B.C. Clinton extended $1.6 billion in aid; Yeltsin proclaimed the two countries "partners and future allies."
    (AP, 4/4/98)
1993        Apr 4, Alfred Mosher Butts (b.1899), US architect and inventor of the Scrabble game, died.
    (WSJ, 6/28/01, p.B1)(MC, 4/4/02)

1993        Apr 8, President Clinton unveiled his $1.52 trillion budget for fiscal 1994.
    (AP, 4/8/98)
1993        Apr 8, Singer Marian Anderson died in Portland, Ore., at age 96.
    (AP, 4/8/98)
1993        Apr 8, The U.N. General Assembly admitted the former Yugoslav republic of Macedonia as its 181st member.
    (AP, 4/8/98)

1993        Apr 10, Chris Hani, leader of the South African Communist Party, was killed by Janusz Walus and Clive Derby-Lewis (d.2016). The 2 men appealed for amnesty in 1997. Amnesty was denied and the 2 continued to serve life sentences. On March 10, 2016, Walus won a bid for parole. On August 18, 2017, the top court blocked the release from jail of Polish immigrant Janusz Walus. Walus became a symbol for young Polish nationalists and fascists and from about 2010 started receiving letters from supporters in Poland.
    (SFC, 8/12/97, p.A8)(SFC, 4/8/99, p.C3)(AP, 3/10/16)(AFP, 8/18/17)(BBC, 9/20/20)

1993        Apr 11, A deadly riot erupted at the Southern Ohio Correctional Facility in Lucasville, beginning an 11-day siege that left one guard and nine inmates killed.
    (AP, 4/11/98)

1993        Apr 12, NATO warplanes began enforcing a United Nations no-fly zone over Bosnia-Herzegovina; meanwhile, Bosnian Serbs bombarded the besieged eastern town of Srebrenica.
    (AP, 5/9/98)

1993        Apr 13, Tom Stoppard's "Arcadia," premiered in London.
1993        Apr 13, Pulitzer Prizes were awarded to David McCullough for his biography "Truman," to Robert Olen Butler for his collection of short stories "A Good Scent from a Strange Mountain" and to Tony Kushner for his drama "Angels in America: Millennium Approaches." The gold medal for public service went to The Miami Herald for its Hurricane Andrew coverage.
    (AP, 4/13/98)(SFEC, 1/16/00, BR p.3)
1993        Apr 13, The day before a visit by Pres. Bush, fourteen people were arrested in Kuwait for plotting to assassinate him. Washington said the plot was organized by Iraqi intelligence.
    (SFC, 9/4/96, p.A8)
1993        Apr 13, NATO forces began combat patrols over Bosnia to enforce a UN ban on flights.
    (SFC, 10/16/97, p.A12)

1993        Apr 14, A U.S. government-funded study said that of 3,321 men surveyed, only 1.1 percent identified themselves as exclusively homosexual, a finding disputed by gay activists.
    (AP, 4/14/98)
1993        Apr 14, Millions of black workers in South Africa went on strike to protest the slaying of activist Chris Hani.
    (AP, 4/14/98)
1993        Apr 14, Sam Ntombani, ANC-secretary in Soweto South Africa, was shot to death.

1993        Apr 15, The Group of Seven nations unveiled a $28.4 billion aid package for Russia at the conclusion of an emergency two-day meeting in Tokyo.
    (AP, 4/15/98)
1993        Apr 15, Leslie Charteris (85), British mystery writer (Saint), died.

1993        Apr 16, President Clinton received gay and lesbian activists in the Oval Office for a one-hour meeting.
    (AP, 4/16/98)
1993        Apr 16, At the White House, President Clinton pressed Japanese Prime Minister Kiichi Miyazawa to help ease Japan's persistent trade surplus with the United States.
    (AP, 4/16/98)
1993        Apr 16, A jury reached guilty verdict in the Federal case against cop who beat Rodney King, but the verdict was not read until April 17th.
1993        Apr 16, Bosnian Croats took part in a killing spree in the village of Ahmici and 116 Muslims were massacred and the village set fire. 6 Bosnian Croats went on trial in 1998 in the Hague on charges of war crimes. In 2000 Vladimir Santic, head of the Croat Jokers police unit, was sentenced to 25 years in prison; Drago Josipovic was sentenced to 15 years; Zoran and Mirjan Kupreskic were sentenced to 10 and 8 years, and Vlatko Kupreskic received 6 years. In 2001 the tribunal overturned the convictions, released 3 defendants and reduced the sentences of 2 others. In 2001 an indictment was opened against Pasko Ljubicic, a former Bosnian-Croat military police officer, for war crimes in Ahmici.
    (SFC, 8/19/98, p.C2)(SFC, 1/15/00, p.A11)(SFC, 10/24/01, p.C2)(SFC, 11/1/01, p.C7)
1993        Apr 16, A Bosnian army unit massacred 16 Croatian civilians and at least 4 disarmed soldiers in the village of Trusina.
    (SFC, 4/14/11, p.A5)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trusina_case)
1993        Apr 16, In Israel 20 soldiers and civilians were injured in Hamas's first suicide attack against Israelis. Shahar al-Nabulsi, detonated a car, rigged by bombmaker Yahya Ayyash, between two buses at Mehola Junction. The blast killed al-Nabulsi and a Palestinian who worked in the rest area.

1993        Apr 17, A federal jury in Los Angeles convicted two former police officers of violating the civil rights of beaten motorist Rodney King; two other officers were acquitted. Los Angeles Police Department Sergeant Stacey C. Koon and officer Laurence M Powell were convicted for beating Rodney King. [see Apr 16]
    (SFC, 6/14/96, p. A4)(AP, 4/17/98)
1993        Apr 17, The U.N. Security Council voted to tighten sanctions against Yugoslavia for its role in the Bosnian war.
    (AP, 4/17/98)
1993        Apr 17, Turkish President Turgut Ozal died at age 66. In 2012 authorities investigating Ozal's death found traces of toxic material in samples from his exhumed body but could not conclude he died of poisoning.
    (AP, 4/17/98)(AP, 12/12/12)

1993        Apr 18, The government of Bosnia-Herzegovina agreed to a truce, effectively relinquishing besieged Srebrenica. Meanwhile, Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic threatened to boycott further U.N. peace talks if tougher sanctions against Yugoslavia went into effect.
    (AP, 4/18/98)
1993        Apr 18, In Pakistan Nawaz Sharif’s government was dismissed by Ishaq Khan on corruption charges. The interim government was led by Balkh Sher Mazari.
    (SFC, 1/30/97, p.A9)

1993        Apr 19, The 51-day siege at the Branch Davidian compound near Waco, Texas, ended as fire destroyed the structure after federal agents began smashing their way in; dozens of people, including leader David Koresh (Vernon Howell), were killed. In 1999 the FBI admitted that it used incendiary tear gas canisters but still maintained that it did not start the fire. An undisclosed tape recording of the assault was also disclosed in 1999.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1993)(AP, 4/19/97)(SFC, 8/25/99, p.A3)(SFC, 9/2/99, p.A30)
1993        Apr 19, South Dakota Gov. George S. Mickelson (52) died in an Iowa plane crash.
    (AP, 4/19/97)

1993        Apr 20, President Clinton said he accepted responsibility for the decision to try to end the 51-day siege at the Branch Davidian compound in Texas, yet laid "ultimate responsibility" on David Koresh for the deaths that resulted.
    (AP, 4/20/98)
1993        Apr 20, Mario Moreno (81), Mexican comedian known as Cantinflas, died in Mexico City. His films included "Around the World in 80 Days."
    (AP, 4/20/98)

1993        Apr 21, An 11-day siege at the Southern Ohio Correctional Facility near Lucasville, Ohio, ended after rioting inmates reached an agreement with prison officials. One guard and nine inmates were killed during the siege.
    (AP, 4/11/98)(AP, 4/21/98)
1993        Apr 21, Brazil voted against a monarchy.

1993        Apr 22, The U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum was dedicated in Washington, D.C., to honor the victims of Nazi extermination.
    (AP, 4/22/97)
1993        Apr 22, Peter Townshend's rock musical "Tommy," premiered in NYC.
1993        Apr 22, In London, England, Stephen Lawrence (b.1974), a black teenager of Jamaican parentage, was brutally killed by a gang of white youths with a history of race baiting. 5 youths were identified, but none were prosecuted. Three of the suspects were acquitted in 1996. In 1999 a play called "The Color of Justice" was made based on the testimony of the trial. The 1999 Macpherson inquiry concluded that the police force’s mishandling of the case betrayed “institutional racism." In 2000 police arrested 3 men in connection with the killing. In 2002 two of those accused in the Lawrence case, David Norris and Neil Acourt, were convicted and jailed for a racist attack on a black police officer. In 2011 Gary Dobson (36) and David Norris (35) both white men from south London, faced trial for murder. On Jan 3, 2012, Dobson and Norris were found guilty. On Jan 4 Gary Dobson was sentenced to a minimum 15 years and two months and David Norris to 14 years and three months for the murder.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stephen_Lawrence)(SFC, 3/23/00, p.D2)(Econ, 9/20/08, p.72)(AFP, 11/15/11)(Reuters, 1/4/12)

1993        Apr 23, President Clinton said he was giving "serious consideration" to limited U.S. air strikes against Bosnian Serb positions.
    (AP, 4/23/98)
1993        Apr 23, Labor leader Cesar Chavez (b.1927) died in San Luis, Ariz. He founded the United Farm Workers Union on his birthday Mar 31, 1962. In 1996 a 2-hr documentary of his life was made: "The Fight in the Fields: Cesar Chavez and the Farmworkers Struggle." In 2011 Frank Bardacke authored “Trampling Out the Vintage: Cesar Chavez and the Two Souls of the United Farm Movement." In 2014 Miriam Pawel authored “The Crusades of Cesar Chavez."
    (SFC, 11/2/96, p.E1)(AP, 4/23/98)(SSFC, 4/7/02, p.A14)(Econ, 11/19/11, p.96)(Econ, 4/5/14, p.74)
1993        Apr 23-1993 Apr 25, Eritrea voted to secede from Ethiopia.

1993        Apr 24, The Irish Republican Army (IRA) exploded a truck bomb in London's financial district. It killed a photographer and injured 44 people and cost millions of dollars' worth of damage.
    (SFEC, 12/22/96, Z1 p.7)(AP, 4/24/98)
1993        Apr 24, Former African National Congress president Oliver Tambo (75) died in Johannesburg, South Africa.
    (AP, 4/24/98)

1993        Apr 25, Hundreds of thousands of gay rights activists and their supporters marched in Washington, D.C., demanding equal rights and freedom from discrimination.
    (AP, 4/25/98)
1993        Apr 25, Voters in Russia participated in a referendum, giving President Boris N. Yeltsin a sturdy vote of confidence.
    (AP, 4/25/98)
1993        Apr 26, President Clinton signed an executive order imposing new economic sanctions against Yugoslavia after the Serbian leadership in Bosnia voted against accepting a U.N.-sponsored plan to end the war.
    (AP, 4/26/98)
1993        Apr 26, Conan O'Brien was named to succeed David Letterman as host of NBC's "Late Night" program.
    (AP, 4/26/03)

1993        Apr 27, After a hiatus of more than four months, Israeli and Arab delegates resumed Middle East peace talks in Washington, D.C.
    (AP, 4/27/98)
1993        Apr 27, Eritrea declared itself an independent state.

1993        Apr 28, The first "Take Our Daughters to Work Day," promoted by the New York City-based Ms. Foundation, was held to boost self-esteem of girls with invitations to a parent's workplace.
    (AP, 4/28/98)
1993        Apr 28, Carlo Azeglio Ciampi began serving as prime minister of Italy as the country's post- war order, dominated by Christian Democrats and Communists, was falling apart. He continued in office until May 10, 1994. From 1999 to 2006 he served as president.

1993        Apr 29, Britain's Queen Elizabeth II announced that, for the first time, Buckingham Palace would be opened to tourists to help raise money for repairs at fire-damaged Windsor Castle.
    (AP, 4/29/98)

1993        Apr 30, Top-ranked women's tennis player Monica Seles was stabbed in the back during a match in Hamburg, Germany, by a man who called himself a fan of second-ranked German player Steffi Graf. Convicted of causing grievous bodily harm, he received a suspended sentence.
    (AP, 4/30/98)

1993        Apr, L.G. Sherrod, a New York journalist and economics consultant, wrote an essay in "Essence" that called on Blacks to enter $43,209 as a claim on their tax forms as the equivalent of 40 acres and a mule voted by Congress after the Civil War, but vetoed by Pres. Andrew Johnson. In 2000-2001 the IRS paid out some $30 million for the illegal credits.
    (SFC, 6/29/99, p.A7)(SFC, 4/13/02, p.A2)
1993        Apr, Wallace Stegner, author and editor of American West magazine, died. His work included the novels "Angle of Repose" and "The Spectator Bird." His biography, written by Jackson J. Benson, was published in 1996.
    (SFEC, 11/17/96, BR p.8)(SFC, 2/26/00, p.A19)
1993        Apr, Louis Gerstner became the CEO of IBM. In 2001 Gerstner received British knighthood (K.B.E.), Knight of the British Empire.
    (SFC, 9/7/01, p.B1)
1993        Apr, An IRA bomb in London’s financial district killed a photographer and injured 44 people.
    (SFEC, 12/22/96, Z1 p.7)
1993        Apr, In North Korea Kim Jong Il was named Chairman of the National Defense Commission.
    (AP, 12/28/11)
1993        Apr, In Peru a younger sister of Luz Dina Villoslada was raped by the son of a local coffee grower. Authorities were bribed to drop the investigation. Luz Dina joined the Tupac Amaru guerrillas in rebellion. She was 20 years old and one of the 14 rebels slain in the 1997 Lima hostage siege.
    (SFC, 5/1/97, p.A14)
1993        Apr, Desi Bouterse quit as head of Suriname’s armed forces.
    (WSJ, 10/8/07, p.A6)(www.world66.com/southamerica/suriname/history)

1993        May 1, The horse Sea Hero won the Kentucky Derby.
    (AP, 5/1/98)
1993        May 1, President Clinton held a strategy session with top military and foreign policy advisers on Bosnia.
    (AP, 5/1/98)
1993        May 1, Violence erupted during a May Day protest in Moscow.
    (AP, 5/1/98)
1993        May 1, Pres. Ranasinghe Premadasa (b.1924), the 3rd president of Sri Lanka, was killed by a Tiger suicide bomber in Colombo.
    (SFC, 7/24/96, p.A9)(AP, 5/1/98)(SFC, 6/8/00, p.A16)

1993        May 2, Authorities said they had recovered the remains of David Koresh from the burned-out Branch Davidian compound near Waco, Texas.
    (AP, 5/2/98)
1993        May 2, Julio Gallo (b.1910), wine maker (Gallo), died in a car accident.
1993        May 2, Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic approved a plan to end the Bosnian war. Four days later, the Bosnian Serb assembly rejected it.
    (AP, 5/2/98)

1993        May 3, "Kiss of the Spider Woman" opened at Broadhurst in NYC for 906 performances. John Kander composed the music and Fred Ebb (d.2004) wrote the lyrics.
    (www.imagi-nation.com/moonstruck/albm57.html)(SFC, 9/13/04, p.B4)
1993        May 3, American sailor Terry M. Helvey confessed to stomping to death Allen Schindler, a homosexual shipmate, but told his court-martial in Japan that he was drunk and did not plan the killing. Helvey was later sentenced to life in prison.
    (AP, 5/3/98)
1993        May 3, In southern California an arson fire killed ten people in the Westlake district of Los Angeles. Police suspected gang members who had been kicked off the property. In 2017 police made arrests related to the fire.
    (SSFC, 2/5/17, p.A11)

1993        May 4, The United States handed over control of the relief effort in Somalia to the United Nations.
    (AP, 5/4/98)

1993        May 5, In West Memphis, Arkansas, Cub Scouts Steve Branch (8), Christopher Byers (8) and Michael Moore (8) were found dead, nude and hogtied. Rumors of Satanism roiled the community in the weeks following their deaths. In 1994 Jason Baldwin (16) was sentenced to life in prison; Jessie Misskelley (18) was sentenced to life plus 40 years; Damien Echols (19) was sentenced to death. The case was largely based on a confession by Misskelley, who was mentally handicapped. In 1996 Jo Berlinger and Bruce Sinofsky made an HBO documentary: "The Child Murders at Robin Hood Hills." In 2007 new DNA tests and forensic evidence challenged the guilt of the teenagers. In 2011 the defendants, known by their supporters as the West Memphis 3, agreed to a legal maneuver that let them maintain their innocence while acknowledging prosecutors have enough evidence against them.
    (www.wm3.org/live/trialshearings/chrono_detail.php?guy=1&chrono_Id=151&page=8)(WSJ, 6/11/96, p.A16)(WSJ, 3/13/00, p.A44)(SFC, 12/20/07, p.A6)(AP, 8/20/11)
1993        May 5, The Bosnian Serb parliament began debating a U.N. peace plan for Bosnia, rejecting the plan the following day. U.N. Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali recommended creation of a tribunal to try those responsible for war crimes in former Yugoslavia.
    (AP, 5/5/98)

1993        May 6, The space shuttle "Columbia" landed safely in California after a 10-day mission.
    (AP, 5/6/98)
1993        May 6, The Bosnian Serb parliament, for the third time, rejected a U.N. peace plan for Bosnia-Herzegovina. The president of Serbia, Slobodan Milosevic, ordered a blockade of all supplies, except food and medicine, to the Bosnian Serbs.
    (AP, 5/6/98)

1993        May 7, President Clinton proposed dramatic changes in political campaign financing.
    (AP, 5/7/98)
1993        May 7, In South Africa, representatives of 23 political parties signed a declaration of intent to hold multiracial elections within a year.
    (AP, 5/7/98)

1993        May 8, Keron Thomas (16) disguised himself as a motorman and took a NYC subway train and 2,000 passengers on a 3 hour ride.
1993        May 8, The Muslim-led government of Bosnia-Herzegovina and rebel Bosnian Serbs signed an agreement for a nationwide cease-fire.
    (AP, 5/8/98)

1993        May 9, The White House said President Clinton had directed Secretary of State Warren M. Christopher to contact U.S. allies to discuss how they could ensure Serbia's promise to cut supplies to the Bosnian Serbs.
    (AP, 5/9/98)
1993        May 9-1993 Aug, Major flooding began in the Mississippi Valley. 1700 square miles flooded in Kansas, Illinois, Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota and Wisconsin. Total damage was later estimated at $20 billion.
    (SSFC, 9/4/05, p.A7)
1993        May 9, Pope John Paul II made an anti-Mafia speech in Agrigento, Sicily.
1993        May 9, Paraguay held its 1st presidential and parliamentary elections in 50 years. A democracy was established in Paraguay. Juan Carlos Wasmosy was elected president.
    (WSJ, 4/24/96, A1)
1993        May 9, Penelope Gilliatt [Conner], British author, died.

1993        May 10, A Paul Cezanne still life, Les Grosses Pommes, sold for $28,602,500 in NYC.
1993        May 10, Members of the Senate Armed Services Committee visited the Norfolk Naval Base in Virginia for a hearing on the issue of homosexuals in the military; most of the sailors said they favored keeping the ban on gays.
    (AP, 5/10/98)
1993        May 10, Nelson Mandela moved into the president’s office of South Africa.
    (Hem. 1/95, p.19)
1993        May 10, At least 188 workers were killed in a doll factory fire in Bangkok, Thailand.
    (AP, 5/10/98)

1993        May 11, The US Senate approved the so-called "motor voter" bill, designed to make voter registration easier.
    (AP, 5/11/98)
1993        May 11, The US Senate Armed Services Committee heard emotional testimony from Marine Col. Fred Peck, who affirmed his love for his homosexual son, Scott, while reiterating his opposition to lifting the ban on openly gay servicemen.
    (AP, 5/11/98)

1993        May 12, President Clinton proposed putting all money raised from new taxes and spending cuts into a trust fund dedicated solely to reducing the nation's huge budget deficit.
    (AP, 5/12/98)

1993        May 13, The House Ways and Means Committee gave final approval to President Clinton's deficit-cutting package, containing a tax increase of $246 billion over five years.
    (AP, 5/13/98)
1993        May 13, In suburban Paris, a masked man armed with dynamite took a roomful of nursery school children hostage, demanding $18.5 million. The man was shot to death by police two days later.
    (AP, 5/13/98)

1993        May 14, President Clinton told a news conference his threat of military force to halt the war in the former Yugoslavia was "still on the table" despite opposition from European allies.
    (AP, 5/14/98)

1993        May 15, Prairie Bayou won the Preakness.
    (AP, 5/15/98)
1993        May 15, The $186 million Alamodome opened in San Antonio, Texas.
1993        May 15, Bosnian Serbs began voting in a two-day referendum that overwhelmingly rejected a U.N.-backed peace plan.
    (AP, 5/15/98)
1993        May 15, In Senegal Babacar Seye, the vice-president of the Constitutional Court, was assassinated before ruling on an election petition.
    (https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Babacar_S%C3%A8ye)(Econ., 6/27/20, p.35)

1993        May 16, A two-day Bosnian Serb referendum on a U.N.-backed peace plan ended, with voters rejecting the proposal by a wide margin.
    (AP, 5/16/98)

1993        May 17, President Clinton visited the Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico, the birthplace of the atomic bomb to promote a five-year, $20 billion defense-conversion plan.
    (AP, 5/17/98)

1993        May 18, Voters in Denmark ratified the European Community's Maastricht Treaty on closer economic and political union.
    (AP, 5/18/98)(SC, 5/18/02)
1993        May 18, Italian police arrested Mafia boss Benedetto "Nitto" Santapaola.
    (SC, 5/18/02)
1993        May 18, Heinrich Albertz (78), theologist, mayor of Berlin (1966-67), died.
    (SC, 5/18/02)
1993        May 18, Pamela M. Cunnington (67), English architect, writer, died.
    (SC, 5/18/02)

1993        May 19, The US White House set off a political storm by abruptly firing the entire staff of its travel office; five of seven staffers were later reinstated and assigned other duties.
    (AP, 5/19/98)
1993        May 19, Dow Jones closed above 3,500 for the first Time (3,500.03).
1993        May 19, A Boeing 727 of Columbian SAM regional airline crashed into a jungle mountain near Medellin and killed all 132 on board.
    (SFC, 11/1/96, p.A18)

1993        May 20, An estimated 93 million people tuned in for the 274th & final episode of "Cheers" on NBC-TV.
    (AP, 5/20/98)
1993        May 20, Max Klein (77), inventor of paint by numbers, died.
1993        May 21, President Clinton met at the White House with Russian Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev; afterward, Clinton expressed pessimism over resolving the ethnic conflict in the Balkans and pledged not to send American soldiers into a "shooting gallery."
    (AP, 5/21/98)

1993        May 22, The United States, Russia, France, Britain and Spain agreed to enforce safe areas in Bosnia-Herzegovina, but stopped short of endorsing President Clinton's proposal to use military force.
    (AP, 5/22/98)

1993        May 23, A jury in Baton Rouge, La., acquitted Rodney Peairs of manslaughter in the shooting death of Yoshi Hattori, a Japanese exchange student he'd mistaken for an intruder.
    (AP, 5/23/98)

1993        May 24, "Farewell My Concubine" and "The Piano" jointly won the Golden Palm award at the Cannes Film Festival.
    (AP, 5/24/98)
1993        May 24, The US Senate confirmed Roberta Achtenberg, an acknowledged lesbian, to be a top federal housing official.
    (AP, 5/24/98)
1993        May 24, Microsoft launched Windows NT.
    (Wired, 12/98, p.198)
1993        May 24, Eritrea achieved independence from Ethiopia after a 30-year civil war. Some 65,000 Eritreans lost their lives in the fight for independence. Pres. Meles Zenawi of Ethiopia allowed Eritrea to secede as a reward for the support of its rebel forces in 1991.
    (WSJ, 3/4/97, p.A14)(SFC, 6/11/97, p.C16)(MC, 5/24/02)
1993        May 24, Juan Jesus Posada Ocampo (66), Roman Catholic Cardinal, and six other people were killed at the Guadalajara, Mexico, airport in what was described as a shootout involving drug gangs. Gunmen of the four Arellano Felix Brothers murdered Ocampo apparently mistaking him for a rival drug lord. Drug cartel leader Hector Luis Palma was charged and sentenced in connection to the killing on Jan 3, 1997. In 1998 members of a San Diego street gang were indicted as hired hit men in the slayings that left 7 dead. In 2005 a court sentenced Humberto Rodriguez Banuelos, a former police commander, to 40 years in prison for his role in the murders. In all, 12 gunmen, including Rodriguez, were convicted and sentenced in the attack on the cardinal. In 2008 Araujo Avila, an alleged drug cartel hit man, was arrested in Tijuana in relation to Ocampo’s murder.
    (WSJ, 10/7/96, p.A16)(SFC, 1/9/96, p.A12)(SFC, 2/11/98, p.A3)(AP, 5/24/98)(AP, 12/9/05)(AP, 1/27/08)
1993        May 24, Separatist Kurdish rebels fatally shot 33 Turkish soldiers and two civilians after forcing them and about two dozen other persons off a bus in the southeastern province of Bingol. This ended a unilateral cease-fire and led the military to intensify a campaign to annihilate the PKK. Testimony in 1999 by Abdullah Ocalan said a regional PKK commander carried out the slaying.
    (www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1P2-948140.html)(SFC, 6/2/99, p.C2)

1993        May 25, The US White House announced it was putting five fired employees of its travel office on paid leave during an investigation of accusations of financial mismanagement.
    (AP, 5/25/98)
1993        May 25, Dan Seymour (78), actor (Bombs over Burma, Intrigue, Watusi), died.
    (SC, 5/25/02)
1993        May 25, Louise Tazewell (93), entertainer, died.
    (SC, 5/25/02)
1993        May 25, In Guatemala President Jorge Serrano Elias engineered a "self-coup." He moved to live in Panama and faced extradition attempts. After the failed coup the Congress designated Ramiro de Leon Carpio as president and Arturo Herbruger as vice president to serve to Jan 1996.
    (SFC, 7/24/97, p.A11)(SFC, 10/26/99, p.B4)
1993        May 25, In the Philippines Rogelio Roxas, a coin-collector and treasure hunter, died from apparent poisoning as he prepared to leave for a court appearance in Hawaii. In 1996 a Hawaiian court awarded the Golden Buddha Corp., a consortium established by Roxas, $22 billion in damages to be collected from the Marcos estate for the stolen Yamashita treasure.
    (SFC, 10/12/97, p.A18)(www.state.hi.us/jud/20606.htm)
1993        May 25, The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) was established by Resolution 827 of the UN Security Council. Judges were elected on 15 September 1993 and on 15 August 1994 the Prosecutor was appointed.
    (SFC, 5/8/96, p.A-11)(www.un.org/icty/glance-e/index.htm)

1993        May 26, In what amounted to a sales pitch for health reform, first lady Hillary Rodham Clinton denounced price gougers and profiteers in medicine before an enthusiastic audience of union activists in Washington, D.C.
    (AP, 5/26/98)
1993        May 26, DJs Mancow Muller and Chewy Gomez from the KSOL radio station stopped all traffic on the Bay Bridge for "8 minutes" during the morning commute for a haircut. Muller was fined $500 and sentenced to 100 hours of community service. They were inspired by news reports that Pres. Clinton had held up air traffic in LA for a haircut in Air Force One 8 days before. United Broadcasting Corp. agreed to pay $1.5 million plus expenses for some bridge improvements.
    (SFC, 9/9/96, p.A1, 13)(SFC, 2/5/97, p.A20)
1993        May 26, In Pakistan the Supreme Court restored the government of Nawaz Sharif.
    (SFC, 1/30/97, p.A9)

1993        May 27, The US House of Representatives approved a massive deficit-reduction, tax-increase bill by a vote of 219-213.
    (AP, 5/27/98)
1993        May 27, The Canadian House of Commons approved the North American Free Trade Agreement.
    (AP, 5/27/98)
1993        May 27, Five people were killed in a bombing at the Uffizi museum of art in Florence, Italy; some three dozen paintings were ruined or damaged. Giovanni Brusca was believed to have led teams that damaged the Uffizi museum in Florence with car bombs. He is believed by many to be the leader of the Italian Mafia teams. In 1996 he was arrested in Sicily and charged with masterminding the murder of Giovanni Falcone, his wife and three bodyguards in 1992. In 1998 Mafia boss Lelluca Bagarella and 13 others were sentenced to life in prison for the May and July bombings.
    (AP, 5/27/98)(SFC, 5/21/96, p.A-11)(SFC, 8/24/96, p.A12)(SFEC, 6/7/98, p.A23)

1993        May 28, A jury in Orlando, Fla., acquitted Miami police officer William Lozano of manslaughter in the 1989 shooting death of a black motorcyclist and the resulting crash-caused death of the cyclist's passenger. Lozano had been convicted in an earlier trial, but that verdict was overturned.
    (AP, 5/28/98)
1993        May 28, Eritrea became a member of the United Nations.

1993        May 29, President Clinton tapped Republican David Gergen to assume responsibility for White House communications and press operations.
    (AP, 5/29/98)
1993        May 29, In Solingen, Germany, four right-wing extremist skinheads aged 16 to 23 set fire to a Turkish family's home. Five Turks, including three young girls, were killed in the firebombing. The attack led to large demonstrations. The events were documented in essays by Jane Kramer collected in 1996 in "The Politics of Memory: Looking for Germany in the New Germany."
    (SFEC, 10/20/96, BR, p.5)(AP, 5/29/98)(AFP, 5/29/18)
1993        May 29, The Convention of 29 May 1993 on Protection of Children and Co-operation in Respect of Intercountry Adoption was concluded. It said that governments should verify children’s origins and oversee all adoptions. America ratified the convention in 2008.
    (http://tinyurl.com/howj9v7)(Econ, 8/6/16, p.46)

1993        May 30, Emerson Fittipaldi won the 77th Indianapolis 500, driving at an average speed of 157.2 mph.
    (AP, 5/30/98)

1993        May 31, President Clinton paid a Memorial Day visit to the Vietnam Veterans Memorial, where some in the crowd jeered him for avoiding military service. "Disagreement is freedom's privilege," Clinton exhorted critics.
    (AP, 5/31/98)

1993        May, The symphony "Frontiers" by Fredric Myrow was premiered by the Los Angeles Philharmonic. It was commissioned by the National Endowment for the Arts.
    (SFC, 1/18/99, p.A21)
1993        May, The Clinton administration fired the White House travel office staff.
    (SFC, 6/21/96, p.A3)
1993        May, "Reengineering the Corporation" was published by Michael Hammer and Jim Champy. It is the most popular business book of the '90s.
    (Wired, 8/95, p.125)
1993        May, The Keck I telescope on the dormant Mauna Kea volcano in Hawaii began science observations. The twin telescopes at the W.M. Keck Observatory were based on a design by Prof. Jerry Nelson (1944-2017).
    (www.keckobservatory.org/geninfo/about.php)(SSFC, 6/25/17, p.C10)
1993        May, The Greek government demanded the return of Mycenaean art objects up for sale in New York. In 1978 Greek grave robbers at Aidonia had dug into ancient tombs believed to be a 3,500-year-old palatial cemetery of the Mycenaeans. The looters plundered 18 graves but left one undisturbed. Objects from the single grave matched those for sale in New York.
    (SFC, 8/13/96, p.B2)
1993        May, From Mexico Mr. Raul Salinas began sending out large quantities of money into his New York concentration account with Citibank. He was afraid the unstable markets and the possibility of a peso devaluation.
    (WSJ, 11/1/96, p.A6)
1993        May, A massive nighttime explosion rocked Managua, Nicaragua, and revealed not only a massive weapons cache but also the bunker of an int’l. kidnapping ring that relied on false papers and passports provided by the Sandinistas. Tomas Borge, one of the 9 commandants of the Sandinistas, was seen standing in his pajamas amidst the weapons cache.
    (WSJ, 7/30/04, p.A11)
1993        May, In Thailand a fire at Bangkok’s Kader doll factory killed 187 people and injured 600.
    (SFC, 11/26/96, p.B1)
1993        May, Venezuela Pres. Carlos Andres Perez was impeached. He was later charged with misusing $17 million security fund for election debts and a lavish inauguration. He said the money was used to help Violeta Chamorro win the presidency of Nicaragua.
    (SFC, 5/31/96, A16)(Econ, 1/8/11, p.86)

1993        Jun 1, Connie Chung joined Dan Rather as co-anchor of the "CBS Evening News". She was dropped from the show two years later in May, 1995.
1993        Jun 1, The US Supreme Court ruled that a criminal conviction must be overturned if the jury received a constitutionally flawed definition of "beyond reasonable doubt."
    (AP, 6/1/98)
1993        Jun 1, A mortar attack on a holiday soccer game in a suburb of Sarajevo, Bosnia-Herzegovina, killed at least 15 people and wounded more than 80.
    (AP, 6/1/98)

1993        Jun 2, South Africa's Supreme Court upheld Winnie Mandela's conviction for kidnapping four young blacks, but said she would not have to serve her five-year prison term.
    (AP, 6/2/98)

1993        Jun 3, President Clinton abandoned his nomination of Lani Guinier to head the Justice Department's civil rights division, hearing critics who accused her of far-out views on minority rights.
    (AP, 6/3/98)

1993        Jun 4, Rejecting allegations of "quota queen," Lani Guinier expressed regret President Clinton had dropped her nomination to head the Justice Department's civil rights division.
    (AP, 6/4/98)
1993        Jun 4, The U.N. Security Council agreed to send up to 10,000 more U.N. peacekeepers to six Bosnian cities to protect Muslim havens.
    (AP, 6/4/98)

1993        Jun 5, In Texas, Republican Kay Bailey Hutchison won the U.S. Senate seat vacated by Treasury Secretary Lloyd Bentsen.
    (AP, 6/5/98)
1993        Jun 5, Colonial Affair, ridden by Julie Krone, won the Belmont Stakes.
    (AP, 6/5/98)
1993        Jun 5, Country star Conway Twitty (born as Harold Lloyd Jenkins) died in Springfield, Mo., at age 59. He was entombed in Gallatin, Tenn.
    (AP, 6/5/98)(SSFC, 12/15/02, Par p.2)
1993        Jun 5, In Somalia, militiamen loyal to Mohamed Farrah Aidid killed 24 Pakistani soldiers.
    (AP, 6/5/98)

1993        Jun 6, At the Tony Awards, "Kiss of the Spider Woman" won best musical; "Angels in America: Millennium Approaches," won best play.
    (AP, 6/6/98)
1993        Jun 6, The freighter Golden Venture, a 150 foot cargo vessel carrying illegal immigrants from Fujian Province on the southern coast of China ran aground in New York harbor. It carried 286 illegal Chinese passengers, 10 of whom drowned while trying to swim ashore. In 1997 Lee Peng Fei (47) was extradited from Thailand for running the immigrant smuggling ring that was responsible. In 2000 Hong Kong police arrested Cheng Chui Ping for her role in the operation. A TV Dateline special was presented in 2001. In 2005 gangster Ah Kay turned government witness in the federal trial of Cheng Chui Ping, the reputed mastermind of the smuggling attempt.
    (WSJ, 2/27/96, p.A-16)(SFC, 10/7/97, p.A8)(SFC, 4/21/00, p.A8)(AP, 6/6/98)(WSJ, 8/3/01, p.W9)(AP, 5/21/05)
1993        Jun 6, The Armed forces of Liberia (AFL) killed some 600 refugees at Harbel.

1993        Jun 7, The Supreme Court ruled that religious groups can sometimes meet on school property after hours. The justices also let stand, without comment, a federal appeals court ruling allowing student-led prayers at graduation ceremonies in Texas, Louisiana and Mississippi.
    (AP, 6/7/98)
1993        Jun 7, In New York, Woody Allen lost his bitter custody battle against Mia Farrow.
    (AP, 6/7/98)

1993        Jun 8, Los Angeles voters elected their first registered Republican mayor since 1961, choosing Richard Riordan over City Councilman Michael Woo.
    (AP, 6/8/98)
1993        Jun 8, In New Jersey, Christie Todd Whitman defeated four other Republicans for the chance to face Governor Jim Florio in the November election.
    (AP, 6/8/98)
1993        Jun 8, In Cairo, Egypt, a bomb exploded near a tour bus on Pyramids Road killing 2 people and wounding 22 others.
    (WSJ, 10/11/04, p.A17)

1993        Jun 9, The Montreal Canadiens won the Stanley Cup in Game 5 against the Los Angeles Kings.
    (AP, 6/9/98)
1993        Jun 9, Actress Alexis Smith died in Los Angeles at age 72.
    (AP, 6/9/98)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexis_Smith)
1993        Jun 9, As millions of Japanese watched on television, Crown Prince Naruhito wed commoner Masako Owada in an elaborate Shinto religious ceremony.
    (AP, 6/9/98)

1993        Jun 10, Scientists announced they had extracted genetic material from the preserved remains of an insect that had lived when dinosaurs roamed the Earth.
    (AP, 6/10/98)
1993        Jun 10, Richard Webb (77), actor (Captain Midnight), shot himself.

1993        Jun 11, The Steven Spielberg movie "Jurassic Park" opened.
    (AP, 6/11/98)
1993        Jun 11, The US Supreme Court ruled that people who commit "hate crimes" motivated by bigotry may be sentenced to extra punishment; the court also ruled religious groups have a constitutional right to sacrifice animals in worship services.
    (AP, 6/11/98)
1993        Jun 11, In San Pablo, Ca., the body of Mueylin Saechao was found half naked in the backyard of her boyfriend’s home. In 2015 DNA evidence linked William Huff (51) to her murder and another in Berkeley’s Tilden Park in 1987.
    (SFC, 4/8/15, p.F1)
1993        Jun 11, North Korea pulled Asia back from the brink of a possible nuclear arms race by reversing its decision to withdraw from a treaty preventing spread of nuclear weapons.
    (AP, 6/11/03)
1993        Jun 11, United Nations forces launched a nighttime attack against the forces of Somali warlord Mohamed Farrah Aidid.
    (AP, 6/11/98)

1993        Jun 12, Reports surfaced that Judge Stephen Breyer, considered a likely candidate to the Supreme Court, had failed to pay Social Security taxes for a domestic employee. (Although Breyer was passed over by President Clinton in favor of Ruth Bader Ginsburg, he was later nominated to serve on the nation's highest court.)
    (AP, 6/12/98)
1993         Jun 12, In Nigeria Chief Moshood Abiola, a Yoruba, was elected to the presidency but the election was annulled by the ruling Hausa and the country plunged into turmoil. Gen’l. Ibrahim Babangida cancelled the elections. The northern Hausa and Fulani tribes tended to dominate the military governments.
    (WSJ, 12/15/95, p.A-16)(SFEC, 7/19/98, p.A20)

1993        Jun 13, Vijay Singh of Fiji Island won the Buick Classic Tournament at the Westchester Country Club in Harrison, New York.
    (HN, 6/13/99)
1993        Jun 13, Astronaut Donald K. "Deke" Slayton died in League City, Texas, at age 69.
    (AP, 6/13/98)
1993        Jun 13, Canada's Progressive Conservative Party chose Defense Minister Kim Campbell to succeed Brian Mulroney as prime minister; she was the first woman to hold the post.
    (AP, 6/13/98)

1993        Jun 14, President Clinton chose Ruth Bader Ginsburg, an advocate of women's rights, to serve on the Supreme Court, surprising observers who had predicted that Clinton's choice would be Stephen Breyer.
    (AP, 6/14/98)

1993        Jun 15, Former Texas Gov. John Connally, who was wounded in the gunfire that killed President Kennedy, died at age 76.
    (AP, 6/15/98)
1993        Jun 15, In Azerbaijan former Communist party chief Geidar Aliyev (1923-2003) became head of parliament.  A fifth of Azerbaijan was controlled by Armenian insurgents when Abulfaz Elchibey was ousted from the presidency and replaced by former Communist party chief Geidar Aliyev. Under Aliyev Azerbaijan joined the Commonwealth of Independent States in Sept.
    (CO, Grolier’s Amer. Acad. Enc./ Azerbaijan)
1993        Jun 15, James Hunt, English motor-racing driver, died.
    (HT, 6/15/00)

1993        Jun 16, The Dan Quayle Center and Museum opened in Huntington, Indiana.
    (DFP, 7/28/96, p.J1)
1993        Jun 16, The UN authorized an arms and oil embargo against Haiti.

1993        Jun 17, President Clinton told a news conference his economic package was making "remarkable progress."
    (AP, 6/17/98)
1993        Jun 17, The US Food and Drug Administration could not confirm reports of tampering with Diet Pepsi-Cola cans at the manufacturing level, despite reports of foreign objects turning up in containers.
    (AP, 6/17/98)
1993        Jun 17, In Afghanistan Gulbuddin Hekmatyar (b.1947) began serving his first term as Prime Minister and continued to 1994. His 2nd term covered 1996-1997.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gulbuddin_Hekmatyar)(SFC, 9/23/96, A12)
1993        Jun 17, U.N. forces in Somalia searched in vain for warlord Mohamed Farrah Aidid.
    (AP, 6/17/98)

1993        Jun 18, The US Supreme Court ruled that deaf parochial school students may be provided publicly funded sign-language interpreters.
    (AP, 6/18/98)
1993        Jun 18, In Japan, the government of Prime Minister Kiichi Miyazawa fell.
    (AP, 6/18/98)
1993        Jun 18, In the Seychelles Albert Rene restored multiparty democracy and went on to win three straight elections. This was later marked as National Day.
    (AP, 8/1/06)(SSFC, 6/1/14, p.P3)(SSFC, 6/1/14, p.P3)

1993        Jun 19, Sir William Golding (b.9/19/1911), English Nobel Prize-winning author (1983), died at his home in Cornwall, England, at age 81. His novel “Lord of the Flies" was published in 1954. other novels included “Pincher Martin" (1956) and “The Inheritors" (1955). In 2009 John Carey authored “William Golding: The Man Who Wrote Lord of the Flies."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_G._Golding)(AP, 6/19/98)(Econ, 9/5/09, p.93)
1993        Jun 19, Abraham Kaplan (b.1918), American philosopher, died. He is best for being the first philosopher to systematically examine the behavioral sciences in his book "The Conduct of Inquiry" (1964). He dubbed “duologue" as a conversation in which neither party listened to the other.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abraham_Kaplan)(Econ, 8/16/14, p.64)

1993        Jun 20, The Chicago Bulls won their third NBA title in a row as they defeated the Phoenix Suns in Game 6 of their championship series, 99-98.
    (AP, 6/20/98)

1993        Jun 21, The US Supreme Court ruled that Haitian boat people could be stopped at sea and returned home without asylum hearings.
    (AP, 6/21/98)

1993        Jun 22, A bomb mailed from Sacramento attributed to the Unabomber Theodore Kaczynski maimed Univ. of Calif. San Francisco geneticist Charles Epstein at his home in Tiburon. Epstein (d.2011 at 77) had new eardrums installed, got a nerve transplant to raise his wrist and spent a year retraining his damaged hands to play his cello.
    (WP, 6/29/96, p.A3)(AP, 6/22/98)(SSFC, 2/20/11, p.C11)
1993        Jun 22, Former first lady Pat Nixon died in Park Ridge, N.J., at age 81.
    (AP, 6/22/98)

1993        Jun 23, John Wayne Bobbitt had his penis severed by his wife, Ecuadorian born Lorena Bobbitt, in a domestic dispute. In 1996 he was ordained a minister in the Universal Life Church. Lorena Bobbitt of Prince William County, Va., sexually mutilated her husband, John, after he allegedly raped her. John Bobbitt was later acquitted of marital sexual assault; Lorena Bobbitt was later acquitted of malicious wounding by reason of insanity.
    (SFC, 12/5/96, p.A3)(AP, 6/23/98)
1993        Jun 23, Canada's Senate ratified the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).
    (AP, 6/23/02)

1993        Jun 24, Eight Muslim fundamentalists were arrested in New York, accused of plotting a day of bombings of the United Nations, a federal building and the Holland and Lincoln tunnels. They and two others were later convicted of seditious conspiracy.
    (AP, 6/24/03)
1993        Jun 24, Yale University computer expert David Gelernter was injured in his office by a bomb sent from Sacramento by Unabomber Theodore Kaczynski.
    (SFEC, 11/9/97, Z1 p.5)(AP, 6/24/98)
1993        Jun 24, In Texas Jennifer Ertman (14) and Elizabeth Pena (16) were confronted by six teenage members of a loose-knit "Black and White" gang who savagely raped, tortured, and beat them to death. Police soon arrested Jose Ernesto Medellin, who gave a written confession but was not told that he could request assistance from the Mexican consulate. Five of the six defendants received death sentences at trial. Medellin was sentenced to death in 1994, but the World court in 2004 ruled that his conviction, and that of 50 other Mexicans in the US, violated the 1963 Vienna Convention. In 2007 his case went before the US Supreme Court. In 2010 Peter Anthony Cantu was executed for his role in the rapes and murders.
    (www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=7051821)(SFC, 10/11/07, p.A7)(SFC, 8/18/10, p.A4)

1993        Jun 25, Vice President Gore cast the tie-breaking vote as the Senate approved a record deficit-reduction plan.
    (AP, 6/25/98)
1993        Jun 25, Kim Campbell was sworn in as Canada's 19th prime minister, the first woman to hold the post.
    (CFA, '96, p.81)(AP, 6/25/98)

1993        Jun 26, President Clinton announced the U.S. had launched missiles against Iraqi targets because of "compelling evidence" Iraq had plotted to assassinate former President Bush.
    (AP, 6/26/98)
1993        Jun 26, Roy Campanella, legendary catcher for the Negro Leagues and the Los Angeles Dodgers and baseball Hall-of-Famer, died in Woodland Hills, Calif., at age 71.
    (HN, 6/26/98)(AP, 6/26/98)

1993        Jun 27, Actress Julia Roberts and singer Lyle Lovett were wed in Marion, Ind. The marriage ended in divorce.
    (AP, 6/27/98)
1993        Jun 27, US warships fired 24 Tomahawk cruise missiles at intelligence headquarters in Baghdad in retaliation for the assassination plot. The Iraqis claimed 8 dead. Iraqis pulled their dead from the rubble of buildings wrecked by U.S. missiles during an early morning raid ordered by President Clinton in reprisal for an alleged assassination plot against former President Bush.
    (SFC, 9/4/96, p.A8)(AP, 6/27/98)
1993        Jun 27, Laila al-Attar (48), painter and head of Iraq’s institute for the arts, was one of at least 6 civilians killed when 23 US Tomahawk cruise missiles hit Baghdad. She had painted an unflattering portrait of Pres. Bush on the floor of a hotel lobby.
    (WSJ, 5/31/02, p.A1)

1993        Jun 28, The US Supreme Court kept alive a "racial gerrymandering" case, saying congressional districts designed to benefit racial minorities may violate white voters' rights.
    (AP, 6/28/98)
1993        Jun 28, Byron R. White (1917-2002), US Supreme Court Justice (1962-1993), retired after serving 31 years.
1993        Jun 28, Kirk Noble Bloodsworth (b.1960), a former Marine discus champion, was exonerated by DNA evidence of the rape and murder of Dawn Hamilton (9). He was the first US prisoner freed from death row based on DNA.
    (Econ, 2/9/13, p.34)(http://tinyurl.com/a7zma7h)
1993        Jun 28, The US National Commission on AIDS ended its work after four years, with members expressing frustration over how little national leaders had done to combat the disease.
    (AP, 6/28/98)
1993        Jun 28, Boris Christoff (b.1914), Bulgaria born bass singer, died in Rome.

1993        Jun 29, A one-day stock transaction netted Sen. Alfonse D’Amato a profit of $37,125. D’Amato was the ranking Republican on the Senate Banking Committee and appeared to have gotten special consideration in getting shares on the IPO of Computer Marketplace.
    (SFC, 6/7/96, p.A1)(www.congressproject.org/ethics/damstrat.html)
1993        Jun 29, Joel Rifkin pleaded innocent at an arraignment in Mineola, N.Y., to one count of murder, a day after police found a woman's body in his pickup truck. Rifkin, who later confessed to killing 17 women, is serving multiple life sentences.
    (AP, 6/29/98)
1993        Jun 29, In Budapest, Hungary, the Szobor Park Museum held its grand opening. It was a collection of Communist era sculpture about 20 minutes from Budapest.
    (WSJ, 12/27/96, p.A5)(www.szoborpark.hu/en/en_museum_faq.php)

1993        Jun 30, Agriculture Secretary Mike Espy promised federal help for Midwestern farmers as he toured flood-damaged areas of Iowa, South Dakota and Wisconsin.
1993        Jun 30, Actor George "Spanky" McFarland of "Our Gang" and "Little Rascals" fame died in Grapevine, Texas, at age 64.
    (AP, 6/30/98)

1993        Jun, American national League umpire Terry Tata failed to show up for a Giants game in San Francisco and was found drugged in a Burlingame hotel room. He had been robbed of $16,500 in valuables and $500 cash.
    (SFC, 12/11/96, p.A17)
1993        Jun, In San Francisco hundreds of thousands marched in the Lesbian/Gay Freedom Day Parade behind a banner proclaiming 1993 as "the year of the queer".
    (SSFC, 6/3/18, DB p.54)
1993        Jun, Michael Spindler replaced John Sculley as CEO of Apple Comp.
    (SFC, 1/24/04, p.A12)
1993        Jun, Marc Andreeson and Eric Bina at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications at the Univ. of Illinois released their first version of the Mosaic Browser, a software tool that simplified searching for material on the World Wide Web. Andreeson went on to found Netscape Corp. In 1998 Joshua Quittner and Michella Slatalla published "Speeding the Net," a history of Netscape Communications.
    (Wired, Dec. '95, p.242)(WSJ, 6/25/98, p.A20)
1993        Jun, The UN Security Council voted with 2 abstentions to authorize the use of air strikes by the US and its allies against Serb forces in Bosnia-Herzegovina. Gen. Colin Powell vigorously opposed US military intervention.
    (WSJ, 6/11/96, p.A14)(SSFC, 12/17/00, p.A15)
1993        Jun, NATO offered close air support to UN troops in Bosnia.
    (SFC, 10/16/97, p.A12)
1993        Jun, In Burundi Melchior Ndadaye was elected president in the country's first democratic election.
    (SFC, 5/15/99, p.A14)
1993        Jun, EU membership criteria were laid down at the European Council in Copenhagen, Denmark. Under the “Copenhagen criteria" would-be EU members were required to show that they meet the political and institutional standards of membership.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Copenhagen_criteria)(Econ, 12/2/06, p.55)
1993        Jun, In Mexico Raul Salinas married Paulina Castanon.
    (WSJ, 11/1/96, p.A6)
1993        Jun, In Japan the Aum Shinri Kyo cult pumped a slurry of liquid anthrax into a sprayer and created a cloud that would settle on victims, but it didn’t work.
    (SFC, 5/27/98, p.A12)

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