Timeline 1989

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1989        Jan 1, British PM Margaret Thatcher distanced herself from US vows to punish whoever bombed Pam Am Flight 103, saying in a TV interview that revenge "can affect innocent people."
    (AP, 1/1/99)

1989        Jan 2, PTL founders Jim and Tammy Faye Bakker returned to the television pulpit for the first time in two years, broadcasting from a borrowed house in Pineville, N.C.
    (AP, 1/2/99)

1989        Jan 4, US Navy F-14s shot down 2 Libyan jet fighters over Mediterranean.

1989        Jan 5, Lawrence E. Walsh, the special prosecutor in the Iran-Contra case, asked for a dismissal of two charges against Oliver North, citing the Reagan administration's refusal to release material sought by North.
    (AP, 1/5/99)

1989        Jan 6, The United States presented photographic evidence to the U.N. Security Council to justify its shootdown of two Libyan jet fighters as self-defense, evidence the Libyan ambassador said was faked.
    (AP, 1/6/99)

1989        Jan 7, Emperor Hirohito of Japan died at age 87 after the longest reign in the history of Japan (1922-89); he was succeeded by Crown Prince Akihito. Heisei, which means Peace and Prosperity, was adopted as the new reign name. For the first time since 1955, the Liberal Democratic Party lost its majority in the Diet's Upper House. In 1989 Edward Behr authored "Hirohito: Behind the Myth." In 2000 Herbert P. Bix authored "Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan." Hirohito was a marine biologist and collector. His work included the illustrated book "Crabs of Sagami Bay."
    (Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 217)(AP, 1/7/98)(WSJ, 8/30/00, p.A24)(WSJ, 5/29/01, p.A20)

1989        Jan 8, "42nd Street" closed at Winter Garden Theater, NYC, after 3,486 performances.
1989        Jan 8, Forty-seven people were killed when a British Midland Boeing 737-400 carrying 126 passengers crashed in central England. The pilots shut down the good engine and tried to land with a bad one.
    (AP, 1/8/99)(WSJ, 10/3/01, p.A20)
1989        Jan 8, Soviet Union promised to eliminate stockpiles of chemical weapons.

1989        Jan 9, The Supreme Court agreed to consider the Webster abortion case the same day that Surgeon General C. Everett Koop advised President Reagan he would not issue a report on the health risks of abortion.
    (AP, 1/9/99)
1989        Jan 9, Evan Bayh (b.1955) began office as Indiana state governor and continued to 1997. In 1998 he was elected as a US Senator for Indiana. In 2010 he decided not to seek re-election.   
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Evan_Bayh)(Econ, 2/20/10, p.28)

1989        Jan 10, Cuba began withdrawing its troops from Angola, more than 13 years after its first contingents arrived.
    (AP, 1/10/99)
1989        Jan 10, In Montenegro  Communist League members like Momir Bulatovic and Svetozar Marovic, Dukanovic and Milo Dukanovic (26) effectively gained power through full institutional control.

1989        Jan 11, President Reagan bade the nation farewell in an address from the Oval Office.
    (AP, 1/11/99)
1989        Jan 11, A kindergarten student was caught with loaded handgun at a Bronx school.

1989        Jan 12, President-elect Bush completed the selection of his Cabinet, naming retired Adm. James D. Watkins secretary of energy and former education secretary William J. Bennett drug czar.
    (AP, 1/12/99)
1989        Jan 12, Idi Amin was expelled from Zaire (later CongoDRC) and forced to return to Saudi Arabia.

1989        Jan 13, New York City subway gunman Bernhard H. Goetz was sentenced to one year in prison for possessing an unlicensed gun that he used to shoot four youths he said were about to rob him. Goetz was freed the following September.
    (AP, 1/13/99)
1989        Jan 13, There was a sit-in at SF General Hosp. by ACT-UP to call attention to the difficulty of obtaining foscarnet, a drug to stabilize CMV retinitis, a common AIDS illness that could lead to blindness.
    (SFC, 3/22/97, p.A13)

1989        Jan 14, President Reagan delivered his 331st and last weekly radio address, telling listeners, "Believe me, Saturdays will never seem the same. I'll miss you." In 2001 Peggy Noonan authored the Reagan biography "When character Was King."
    (AP, 1/14/99)(WSJ, 11/15/01, p.A24)

1989        Jan 15, Betty Jeanne Solomon was shot and killed in Greenburgh, NY. Schoolteacher Carolyn Warmus was later convicted and sentenced 25 years to life in prison for killing her lover's wife in a case dubbed "Fatal Attraction." Warmus, who maintained her innocence, was released from prison in 2019.
    (SFC, 6/19/19, p.A5)
1989        Jan 15, NATO, the Warsaw Pact and 12 other European countries adopted a human rights and security agreement in Vienna, Austria.
    (AP, 1/15/99)

1989        Jan 16, Three days of rioting erupted in Miami when a police officer fatally shot a black motorcyclist, causing a crash that also claimed the life of a passenger.
    (AP, 1/16/99)

1989        Jan 17, Five children were shot to death at the Cleveland Elementary School in Stockton, Calif., by a drifter who then killed himself. Patrick Henry Purdy (27), an alcoholic with a gun fetish, had gone to school there.
    (AP, 1/17/99)(SFC, 10/4/06, p.A1)

1989        Jan 18, The US Supreme Court upheld a tough, year-old sentencing system for people convicted of federal crimes, overruling more than 150 trial judges who had struck down the guidelines.
    (AP, 1/18/99)
1989        Jan 18, Astronomers discovered pulsar in remnants of Supernova 1987A (LMC).
1989        Jan 18, Bruce Chatwin (b.1940), British travel writer, died of AIDS in France. His books included "In Patagonia" (1984) "Songlines," "The Viceroy of Ouidah," and "On the Black Hill." In 1997 a collection of incidental writing was published: "Anatomy of Restlessness."
    (SFEC, 8/10/97, BR p.3)(http://myweb.lsbu.ac.uk/stafflag/brucechatwin.html)

1989        Jan 19, Pres Reagan pardoned George Steinbrenner for illegal funds for Nixon.
1989        Jan 19, The US Senate Foreign Relations Committee voted unanimously to recommend that the full Senate approve the nomination of James A. Baker to be secretary of state.
    (AP, 1/19/99)
1989        Jan 19, Israel’s Minister of Defense Rabin proposed that Palestinians end the intifadah in exchange for an opportunity to elect local leaders who would negotiate with the Israeli government.

1989        Jan 20, George Bush was sworn in as the 41st president of the United States; Dan Quayle was sworn in as vice president. Reagan became the 1st pres elected in a "0" year, since 1840, to leave office alive.
    (AP, 1/20/99)

1989        Jan 21, Former Ku Klux Klan leader David Duke led a field of seven candidates in an open primary to advance to a runoff election for a Louisiana state House seat.
    (AP, 1/1/99)
1989        Jan 21, Billy Tipton (b.1914), jazz musician, died. Billy passed for a man for over 50 years with 5 marriages. In 1998 Diane Wood Middlebrook published "Suits Me: The Double Life of Billy Tipton."
    (SFEC, 6/28/98, BR p.1,8)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Billy_Tipton)

1989        Jan 22, In Super Bowl XXXIII, the San Francisco 49ers came from behind to defeat the Cincinnati Bengals 20-to-16 in Miami's Joe Robbie Stadium. Joe Montana rifled a 10-yard touchdown pass to John Taylor with just 34 seconds left in the game to win.
    (AP, 1/22/99)(SSFC, 1/19/14, DB p.42)

1989        Jan 23, Vital Gaguine, leftist Argentine guerrilla, during a rebel attack on a military barracks in Buenos Aires. He was later identified as the bomber hired by the Sandinistas to kill Eden Pastora Gomez (May 30, 1984), a Nicaraguan anticommunist revolutionary.
    (AP, 8/26/11)
1989        Jan 23, A challenge to "Who is a Jew" law was filed in Israeli Supreme Court.
    (MC, 1/23/02)
1989        Jan 23, Surrealist artist Salvador Dali died in his native Spain at age 84. His autobiography was titled "Secret Life of Salvadore Dali." His work included 2 surrealist films made with Luis Bunuel: "Un Chien Andalou" and "L'Age d'Or." In 1984 Rafael Santos Torroella (d.2002 at 88), art historian, authored "La Miel Es Mas Dulce Que La Sangre" (Honey Is Sweeter Than Blood), considered one of the most important studies of Dali’s art. In 1998 Albert Field (d.2003), Dali expert, published his "Official Catalogue of the Graphic Works of Salvador Dali." In 1999 Ian Gibson published "The Shameful Life of Salvador Dali."
    (AP, 1/23/99)(WSJ, 1/25/99, p.A16)(SFEC, 7/16/00, p.T4)(SFC, 10/4/02, p.A26)(SFC, 8/15/03, p.A25)

1989        Jan 24, Physicians 1st reported a case of AIDS transmitted by heterosexual oral sex.
1989        Jan 24, Confessed serial killer Theodore Bundy was put to death in Florida's electric chair for the 1978 kidnap-murder of 12-year-old Kimberly Leach.
    (AP, 1/24/99)

1989        Jan 25, Michael Jordan scored his 10,000th NBA point in his 5th season.
1989        Jan 25, The US Senate Armed Services Committee opened confirmation hearings on the nomination of John Tower to be secretary of defense.
    (AP, 1/25/99)

1989        Jan 26, L. Douglas Wilder, the lieutenant governor of Virginia, launched his successful campaign to become the first elected black governor of a U.S. state.
    (AP, 1/26/99)

1989        Jan 27, President Bush held an informal White House news conference in which he defended a widely criticized pay raise for Congress scheduled to go into effect the following month.
    (AP, 1/27/99)

1989        Jan 28, In Antarctica an Argentine navy ship, the Bahia Paraiso, was wrecked on rocks next to DeLaca Island, near the US Palmer Station scientific base. It was still leaking diesel fuel in 1996 and had decimated imperial cormorant and kelp gull bird population.
    (SFC, 1/4/97, p.A19)(www.antarcticmarc.com/bahia.html)
1989        Jan 28, In Hungary official Imre Pozsgay described the 1956 Hungarian Revolution as a popular uprising, a startling contradiction of the official Communist view that the revolt was a counter-revolution.
    (AP, 1/28/99)

1989        Jan 29, West German Chancellor Helmut Kohl's Christian Democratic Union suffered a major setback in West Berlin municipal elections.
    (AP, 1/29/99)

1989        Jan 30, Former criminal defense lawyer Joel Steinberg was convicted in NYC of first-degree manslaughter in the 1987 death of his illegally adopted 6-year-old daughter, Lisa. On March 24 he was sentenced from 8 1/3 to 25 years in prison.
    (AP, 1/30/99)(www.crimelibrary.com/notorious_murders/family/lisa_steinberg/12.html)
1989        Jan 30, Ilene Misheloff (13) disappeared in Dublin, Ca., while walking home from school.
    (SFC, 1/29/99, p.A18)(SFC, 1/29/09, p.A1)

1989        Jan 31, Jury selection began in the trial of former National Security Council aide Oliver North, charged in connection with the Iran-Contra affair. He was later convicted on three counts, but those convictions were set aside, and the case was not retried.
    (AP, 1/31/99)
1989        Jan 31, Jack Douglas (b.1908), humorist and comedy writer, died. His several books included “My Brother Was an Only Child" (1960), “Never Trust a Naked Bus Driver" (1960), and “Rubber Duck" (1979).

1989        Jan, In South Africa Abu Baker Aswat, a Soweto doctor, was killed. Thulani Dlamini was later convicted and sentenced to 25 years in prison. Dlamini testified in 1997 that Winnie Madikizela Mandela paid him for the murder.
    (SFC, 12/3/97, p.C2)
1989         Jan, In Spain ETA called a unilateral truce to help ultimately unsuccessful peace talks in Algeria.
    (AP, 3/22/06)
1989        Jan, In Tibet Choekyi Gyaltsen, the Panchen Lama, died in Tashilumpo Monastery. In 2000 Isabel Hilton authored "The Search for the Panchen Lama."
    (SFEC, 10/7/96, A12)(WSJ, 6/9/00, p.W9)

1989        Jan-1989 Feb, Robert Young (20) of Oakland, Ca., shot and killed 3 people over three weeks in drug-related incidents. He was sentenced to death in 1990, but a psychologist testified that Young had an IQ of 75. In 2006 the California Supreme court ordered new legal proceedings for possible exemption from death due to his being mentally retarded.
    (SFC, 10/14/06, p.B2)

1989        Feb 1, In his first diplomatic mission of the Bush administration, Vice President Dan Quayle began a trip to Venezuela and El Salvador.
    (AP, 2/1/99)

1989        Feb 2, President Bush met at the White House with Japanese Prime Minister Noboru Takeshita, after which both leaders sounded upbeat about U.S-Japanese relations.
    (AP, 2/2/99)

1989        Feb 3, John Cassavetes (b.1929), Greek-American actor and film director, died. His films included "Gloria" (1980), "Love Streams" (1984) and "A Woman Under the Influence." An unproduced script was later made into the 1997 film "She’s So Lovely," by his son. In 2006 Marshall Fine authored “Accidental Genius," a biography of Cassavetes.
    (WSJ, 8/29/97, p.A9)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Cassavetes)(WSJ, 3/3/06, p.W6)
1989        Feb 3, Gen’l. Andres Rodriguez (d.1997 at 73) staged a coup to oust Gen’l. Alfredo Stroessner. Stroessner, president of Paraguay for more than three decades, was overthrown in the military coup. Some 300 people were killed. Col. Lino Oviedo (1943-2013) led the army unit that captured Stroessner.
    (SFC, 4/22/97, p.A3)(AP, 2/3/99)(SFC, 8/17/06, p.A10)(Econ, 2/9/13, p.38)

1989        Feb 4, Soviet Foreign Minister Eduard Shevardnadze wrapped up four days of high-level talks in China, the first visit by a Soviet foreign minister in three decades.
    (AP, 2/4/99)

1989        Feb 5, Kareem Abdul-Jabbar (b.1947) became the 1st NBA player to score 38,000 points.
1989        Feb 5, The Soviet Union announced that all but a small rear-guard contingent of its troops had left Afghanistan.
    (AP, 2/5/99)

1989        Feb 6, Lech Walesa began negotiating with Polish government.
1989        Feb 6, Pulitzer Prize-winning historian Barbara W. Tuchman died in Greenwich, Conn., at age 77.
    (AP, 2/6/99)

1989        Feb 7, Bowing to public outrage, both US houses of Congress voted to kill their scheduled 51 percent pay increase.
    (AP, 2/7/99)
1989        Feb 7, In Argentina devaluation caused a wild panic in the financial district of Buenos Aires.

1989        Feb 8, Jockey Chris Antley (1966-2000) began a record of 64 consecutive winning days.
1989        Feb 8, In the Azores 144 people were killed when an American-chartered Boeing 707 filled with Italian tourists slammed into fog-covered Santa Maria mountain.
    (AP, 2/8/99)

1989        Feb 9, President Bush, in his first major speech to Congress, proposed a $1.16 trillion "common sense" budget for fiscal 1990.
    (AP, 2/9/99)
1989        Feb 9, In Missouri Kelli Hall (17) was abducted as she finished her shift at a gas station in suburban St. Louis. Her naked body was found 13 days later on a St. Louis County farm. Jeffrey Hall (59), who was convicted for her murder and sentenced to death, was executed on March 26, 2014.
    (SFC, 3/27/14, p.A9)

1989        Feb 10, Ron Brown was elected chairman of the Democratic National Committee, becoming the first black to head a major U.S. political party.
    (AP, 2/10/99)
1989        Feb 10, In Jamaica Michael Manley (1924-1997) re-emerged and trounced Seaga in national elections. He dropped his anti-imperialist rhetoric and espoused capitalism, private investment and good relations with the US. He began an economic overhaul program.
    (SFC, 3/8/96, p.A21)(WSJ, 4/29/97, p.A19)(http://tinyurl.com/fx5ps)

1989        Feb 11, Reverend Barbara C. Harris became the first woman consecrated as a bishop in the Episcopal Church, in a ceremony held in Boston.
    (AP, 2/11/99)

1989        Feb 12, The special prosecutor in the Iran-Contra case and the Justice Department reached an agreement on protecting classified materials aimed at allowing the trial of Oliver North to proceed.
    (AP, 2/12/99)
1989        Feb 12, In Ohio the body of Joy Stewart (22) was found raped and fatally stabbed in Preble County. She was eight months pregnant at the time. Dennis McGuire was later convicted and sentenced to death. On Jan 16, 2014, McGuire (53) was executed by a new combination of lethal drugs. The process took nearly 25 minutes from injection to death and left him gasping for air in the final minutes.
    (SFC, 1/8/14, p.A5)(http://tinyurl.com/kdp2x6z)(SFC, 1/17/14, p.A8)
1989        Feb 12, Thomas Bernhard (b.1931), Austrian novelist and playwright, died. He hated petty and conservative Austrian qualities and was known as a teller of difficult truths. His 1963 novel “Frost" was published in the US in 2006.
    (SSFC, 10/22/06, p.M4)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Bernhard)
1989        Feb 12, In Belfast Pat Finucane, a lawyer active in the defense of IRA suspects, was shot and killed by a lone gunman as he sat down to dinner with his family at home. The Ulster Defense Association claimed responsibility but nobody was ever charged. In 1999 a report asserted that the British army was linked to the slaying. A suspect (48) was arrested in 1999. In 2003 a London police report said the British Army and police were involved in the murder. In 2004 Ken Barrett (41), former Protestant paramilitary and police informer in Northern Ireland, was sentenced to 22 years in prison for the murder of Finucane. In Oct 12, 2011, Britain offered an official apology for its forces' role in the 1989 killing of a Northern Ireland lawyer and pledged to publish a public report into the extent of police and army collusion in the attack. The report in December 2012 found shocking levels of state collusion.
    (SFC, 2/12/99, p.A3)(SFC, 6/24/99, p.A12)(AP, 4/17/03)(AP, 9/16/04)(AP, 10/12/11)(AP, 12/12/12)
1989        Feb 12, In Pakistan 5 Moslem rioters were killed in Islamabad protesting the "Satanic Verses" novel.

1989        Feb 13, The judge in the Iran-Contra trial of Oliver North sent the jury home amid a continuing disagreement between the prosecution and defense over protecting classified materials.
    (AP, 2/13/99)
1989        Feb 13, The racing yacht Thursday’s Child broke the 1851, 89-day record, set by the clipper Flying Cloud, for sailing from NY to San Francisco around South America.
    (SSFC, 9/22/13, p.C1)(http://tinyurl.com/m8bbh4f)

1989        Feb 14, Iran's Ayatollah Khomeini called on Muslims to kill Salman Rushdie, author of "The Satanic Verses," a novel condemned as blasphemous. Several translators of the book were later killed or wounded.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1989)(SFEC, 8/31/97, p.A2)(AP, 2/14/99)
1989        Feb 14, Union Carbide agreed to pay $470 million to the government of India in a court-ordered settlement of the 1984 Bhopal gas leak disaster.
    (AP, 2/14/99)

1989        Feb 15, The Soviet Union announced that the last of its troops had left Afghanistan, after more than nine years of military intervention.
    (SFC, 9/28/96, p.A8)(AP, 2/15/98)

1989        Feb 16, Investigators in Lockerbie, Scotland, said a bomb hidden inside a radio-cassette player was what brought down Pan Am Flight 103 the previous December, killing all 259 people aboard and 11 on the ground.
    (AP, 2/16/99)

1989        Feb 17, Iran's President Ali Khamenei said Salman Rushdie, author of "The Satanic Verses," could save himself from a death sentence pronounced by Ayatollah Khomeini if he were to apologize for his book, which was regarded as blasphemous.
    (AP, 2/17/99)

1989        Feb 18, Author Salman Rushdie, under a death sentence from Iran's Ayatollah Khomeini for his book "The Satanic Verses," expressed regret for any distress he'd caused Muslims.
    (AP, 2/18/99)

1989        Feb 19, Iran's Ayatollah Khomeini rejected the apology of "Satanic Verses" author Salman Rushdie, exhorting Muslims to "send him to hell" for committing blasphemy.
    (AP, 2/19/99)

1989        Feb 20, US agents and NYC police arrested 12 people and confiscated 100 lbs heroin at 3 homes in Queens.
1989        Feb 20, Members of the European Economic Community decided to withdraw their top diplomats from Iran to protest Ayatollah Khomeini's order for Muslims to kill author Salman Rushdie.
    (AP, 2/20/99)

1989        Feb 21, President Bush called Ayatollah Khomeini's death warrant against "Satanic Verses" author Salman Rushdie "deeply offensive to the norms of civilized behavior."
    (AP, 2/21/99)
1989        Feb 21, Fifty four members of the 14 K triad were arrested in 4 countries (US, Canada, Hong Kong and Singapore). Some 800 pounds of heroin were seized, supposedly worth a billion dollars at street prices. US police estimated that Chinese organized crime, and not the Mafia, provided 70 to 80 per cent of all heroin smuggled into New York City.

1989        Feb 22, Iran's Ayatollah Khomeini, who had sentenced author Salman Rushdie to death, said economic sanctions would not change his stance, and that publication of Rushdie's "The Satanic Verses" was a sign from God that Iran should not reach out to the West.
    (AP, 2/22/99)

1989        Feb 23, The US Senate Armed Services Committee voted against recommending the nomination of John Tower to become secretary of defense.
    (AP, 2/23/99)
1989        Feb 23, Algeria adopted a new, relatively liberal constitution. It disestablished the ruling party and made no mention of socialism, while promising freedom of expression, association, and assembly.
    (WSJ, 12/3/96, p.A22)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constitution_of_Algeria)

1989        Feb 24, A cargo door blew off a United Air Lines Boeing 747-100 flying near Hawaii; the explosive release of pressure pulled nine passengers to their deaths.
    (AP, 2/24/99)
1989        Feb 24, In Utah a 150-million-year-old fossil egg, still inside the mother, was found by CAT scan to contain the oldest dinosaur embryo.
1989        Feb 24, Writer Salman Rushdie was sentenced to death by the Iranian government for writing Satanic Verses.
    (HN, 2/24/99)
1989        Feb 24, A state funeral was held in Japan for Emperor Hirohito, who died the month before at age 87.
    (AP, 2/24/99)

1989        Feb 25, President Bush left Japan, where he had attended the funeral of Emperor Hirohito, and arrived in China for a three-day visit.
    (AP, 2/25/99)

1989        Feb 26, The musical "Jerome Robbins' Broadway" opened at Imperial Theater in NYC for 634 performances.
1989        Feb 26, US Defense Secretary-designate John Tower, dogged by questions about a possible drinking problem, publicly pledged not to drink any alcohol during his term of office if confirmed by the Senate.
    (AP, 2/26/99)
1989        Feb 26, President Bush's visit to China was marred by the refusal of Chinese authorities to allow dissident Fang Lizhi to attend a banquet hosted by Bush.
    (AP, 2/26/99)

1989        Feb 27, President Bush warned of what he called the "fool's gold" of trade protectionism as he addressed South Korea's National Assembly before returning home.
    (AP, 2/27/99)
1989        Feb 27, Konrad Lorenz (b.1903), Austrian zoologist (Nobel 1973), died. He studied instinctive behaviour in animals, especially in grey geese and is considered to be the founder of modern ethology. He discovered the principle of imprinting in psychology. His books included “King Solomon’s Ring" (1952).
1989        Feb 27, In Venezuela riots took place in Caracas. Known as the "Caracazo," they were triggered by a hike in gasoline prices and public transportation fares. The government said at least 300 people died, but some rights activists say hundreds more were killed — many of them shot by security forces struggling to re-establish order. In 2011 retired generals Freddy Maya Cardona of the National Guard and Luis Fuentes Serra of the Caracas police were charged for their roles in some of the deaths.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caracazo)(AP, 2/9/11)

1989        Feb 28, In Chicago Richard M. Daley, son of Mayor Richard J. Daley who served as mayor for 21 years, defeated acting Mayor Eugene Sawyer in a Democratic primary election.
    (SFC, 2/24/99, p.A3)(AP, 2/28/99)
1989        Feb 28, Early morning firebombs exploded in two Berkeley bookstores that sold the controversial novel “The Satanic Verses." No injuries were reported.
    (SSFC, 2/23/14, DB p.42)
1989        Feb 28, Humorist-poet Richard Armour (82) died in Claremont, Calif.
    (AP, 2/28/99)

1989        Feb, The Slovenes formed an opposition party to Communist rule.
    (SFC, 6/11/96, p.A14)
1989        Feb, In Paraguay Gen’l. Andres Rodriguez (d.1997 at 73) staged a coup to oust Gen’l. Alfredo Stroessner.
    (SFC, 4/22/97, p.A3)
1989        Feb, In Venezuela Carlos Andres Peres took office and instituted bold reform plans. Increases in fuel costs and government reforms in Venezuela sparked extensive rioting and looting with hundreds of people killed.
    (WSJ, 4/15/96, p.A-1)    (WSJ, 5/22/96, p.A-16)(WSJ, 4/27/98, p.A16)

1989        Mar 1, The Senate overwhelmingly approved Dr. Louis W. Sullivan to be secretary of health and human services and Adm. James D. Watkins to be secretary of energy.
    (AP, 3/1/99)
1989        Mar 1, Charlie Francis, the coach of Canadian sprinter Ben Johnson (b.1961), testified that Johnson began using steroids in 1981.
    (SC, 3/1/02)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ben_Johnson_(athlete))
1989        Mar 1, The 1987 divorce between Julianne Phillips and Bruce Springsteen (b.1949) was finalized.
1989        Mar 1, Prairie Meadows racetrack in Polk County near Des Moines, Iowa, opened for business. It lost money until it was converted to a casino in April, 1995.
    (WSJ, 6/24/96, B1,11)
1989        Mar 1, Three teenagers in New Jersey assaulted a mentally retarded girl with a broom and a baseball bat as up to ten classmates watched. They were sentenced to up to 15 years in a youth facility in 1997. In 1997 Prof. Bernard Lefkowitz wrote "Our Guys," an investigation of the events surrounding the crime.
    (SFC, 7/1/97, p.A3)(SFEC, 11/16/97, BR p.3)

1989        Mar 2, Madonna's "Like a Prayer" premiered on worldwide Pepsi commercial.
    (SC, 3/2/02)
1989        Mar 2, Gloria Estefan (b.1957) and the Miami Sound Machine received the 1st star on the Latin Star Walk on Calle Ocho, the main street of Little Havana in Miami, Fl.
1989        Mar 2, Exxon Houston ran aground in Hawaii and spilled 117,000 gallons of oil.
    (SC, 3/2/02)
1989        Mar 2, Representatives from the 12 European Community nations agreed to ban all production of CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons) by the end of this century.
    (AP, 3/299)

1989        Mar 3, US Senate Republican leader Bob Dole suggested that Defense Secretary-designate John Tower be given the opportunity to appear before the Senate to answer allegations against him.
    (AP, 3/3/99)
1989        Mar 3, Robert McFarlane, former US National Security Advisor under Pres. R. Reagan, got a $20,000 fine and 2 years probation for the Iran-Contra affair.
1989        Mar 3, Machinists struck Eastern Airlines and pilots honored the picket lines.
    (SC, 3/3/02)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eastern_Airlines)

1989        Mar 4, Time Inc. and Warner Communications Inc. announced a deal valued at $14 million to merge into the world's largest media and entertainment conglomerate. The supreme court of Delaware had judged that Time’s directors could reject a $200-per-share hostile offer from Paramount, forcing shareholders to accept a $138 friendly bid from Warner.
    (AP, 3/4/99)(WSJ, 1/11/00, p.B1)(Econ, 3/11/06, p.69)
1989        Mar 4, Eastern Airlines machinists went on strike and were joined by pilots and flight attendants.
    (AP, 3/4/99)

1989        Mar 5, Machinists striking Eastern Airlines withdrew an immediate threat to picket the nation's railroads, after a federal judge issued an order temporarily prohibiting rail workers from honoring the Eastern picket lines.
    (AP, 3/5/99)

1989        Mar 6, With nearly 90 percent of its pilots honoring the picket lines of striking machinists, Eastern Airlines shut down operations on all but three routes.
    (AP, 3/6/99)
1989        Mar 6, Harry Andrews (b.1911), English actor, died in Sussex, England. His films included “Helen of Troy" (1956) and “Equus" (1977).

1989        Mar 7, US Secretary of State James A. Baker III met with Soviet Foreign Minister Eduard Shevardnadze in Vienna, Austria. Baker agreed to visit Moscow the following May to discuss prospects for a summit between Pres. Bush and Soviet Pres. Mikhail S. Gorbachev.
    (AP, 3/7/99)
1989        Mar 7, Britain dropped diplomatic relations with Iran over Salmon Rushdie's book.

1989        Mar 8, In Lebanon daily artillery barrages between Christian and Syrian forces and their militia allies began in Beirut; at least 930 people were killed before a cease-fire took hold the following September.
    (AP, 3/8/99)

1989        Mar 9, Wendy Wasserstein's "Heidi Chronicles," first produced by the Seattle Repertory Theater, opened on Broadway at the Plymouth Theater.
1989        Mar 9, The Senate rejected President Bush's nomination of John Tower to be defense secretary by a vote of 53-47.
    (AP, 3/9/99)
1989        Mar 9, Eastern Airlines filed for bankruptcy.
    (HN, 3/9/98)
1989        Mar 9, Soviet Union officially submitted to jurisdiction of the World Court.
1989        Mar 9, Robert Mapplethorpe (42), US photographer, died. In 2010 Patti Smith (63), his former girlfriend, authored “Just Kids," a memoir of their 2-decade relationship.
    (www.mapplethorpe.org/foundation.html)(SSFC, 1/17/10, p.F1)

1989        Mar 10, One day after the Senate rejected the defense secretary nomination of John Tower, President Bush announced he would nominate Wyoming Rep. Dick Cheney, who was later confirmed.
    (AP, 3/10/99)

1989        Mar 11, The TV show "Cops," a reality TV crime series created by John Langley (1943-2021), made its debut on Fox. In 2013 the show moved to Spike TV and continued to 2020.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cops_(TV_program))(SSFC, 7/4/21, p.F10)
1989        Mar 11, Former World Bank head John J. McCloy, who had advised several presidents, died in Stamford, Conn., at age 93.
    (AP, 3/11/99)

1989        Mar 12, Some 2,500 veterans and supporters marched at the Art Institute of Chicago to demand that officials remove an American flag placed on the floor as part of a student's exhibit.
    (AP, 3/12/99)
1989        Mar 12, In the SF Bay Area two hikers found the sexually assaulted body of Sheila Lorraine Hatcher (27), a Daly City resident, in a ravine on San Bruno Mountain. In 2014 police arrested Gabriel O’Neill (45) of Brisbane after DNA evidence linked him to the case. In 2017 Gabriel Ray O’Neill (48) of Brisbane was found not guilty following nearly a month-long trial. His DNA had been found on the victim.
    (SFC, 6/13/14, p.D4)(SFC, 5/24/17, p.D5)
1989        Mar 12, In India the National Liberation Front of Tripura (NLFT) was formed with Dhananjoy Reang (former Vice-President of the Tripura National Volunteers) as its "chairman."

1989        Mar 13, The U.S. Food and Drug Administration began a quarantine of all fruit imported from Chile after traces of cyanide were found in two Chilean grapes.
    (AP, 3/13/99)
1989        Mar 13, The space shuttle Discovery blasted off from Cape Canaveral, Fla., on a five-day mission.
    (AP, 3/13/99)
1989        Mar 13, In Canada a transformer failure on one of the main power transmission lines in the HydroQuebec system precipitated a catastrophic collapse of the entire power grid. The string of events that produced the collapse took only 90 seconds from start to finish. The transformer failure was a direct consequence of ground induced currents from a solar flare. 6 million people lost electrical power for 9 or more hours.
    (www.windows.ucar.edu/spaceweather/blackout.html)(ON, 4/12, p.6)

1989        Mar 14, In a policy shift, the Bush administration announced an indefinite ban on imports of semiautomatic assault rifles.
    (AP, 3/14/99)

1989        Mar 15, Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev convened a two-day meeting of the Communist Party's Central Committee to decide on agricultural reforms.
    (AP, 3/15/99)

1989        Mar 16, The Soviet Communist Party's Central Committee approved sweeping agricultural reforms and elected the party's 100 members to the Congress of People's Deputies, a new legislative body.
    (AP, 3/16/99)

1989        Mar 17, The Senate unanimously confirmed Wyoming Congressman Dick Cheney to be secretary of defense, following the failed nomination of former Sen. John Tower.
    (AP, 3/17/99)

1989        Mar 18, The space shuttle Discovery landed at Edwards Air Force Base in California, completing a five-day mission.
    (AP, 3/18/99)

1989        Mar 19, Alfredo Cristiani of the right-wing ARENA party was elected president of El Salvador, defeating Fidel Chavez Mena of the Christian Democratic Party.
    (AP, 3/19/99)
1989        Mar 19, Muslim gunners fire rockets into Christian areas of Lebanon.
    (AP, 3/19/03)

1989        Mar 20, Baseball Commissioner Peter Ueberroth confirmed that his office was investigating "serious allegations" involving Cincinnati Reds Manager Pete Rose. Ueberroth's successor, A. Bartlett Giamatti, later banned Rose from baseball for betting on games.
    (AP, 3/20/99)
1989        Mar 20, In Northern Ireland Harry Breen and Bob Buchanan, two senior Northern Ireland police officers, were murdered by the Irish Republican Army outside the village of Jonesborough, County Armagh. On Dec 3, 2013, a judge-led inquiry in London found that Irish police colluded in the murder.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1989_Jonesborough_ambush)(AP, 12/3/13)

1989        Mar 21, Randall Dale Adams, whose conviction for killing a police officer was overturned after the documentary "The Thin Blue Line" challenged evidence, was released from a Texas prison.
    (AP, 3/21/99)

1989        Mar 22, US Supreme Court upheld 1 person 1 vote rule of NYC Board of Estimate.
1989        Mar 22, National Football League Commissioner Pete Rozelle announced plans to retire.
    (AP, 3/22/99)
1989        Mar 22, Fawn Hall, Oliver North's former secretary, began two days of testimony at North's Iran-Contra trial in Washington.
    (AP, 3/22/99)
1989        Mar 22, Ann Harrison (15) was abducted as she waited for a school bus in front of her home in Raytown, Missouri. African-Americans Roderick Nunley and Michael Taylor forced her into a stolen car, raped and stabbed her to death. They left her body in the boot of the car. Taylor and Nunley were convicted and sentenced to death. In 2006 their execution was postponed pending a decision on whether lethal injection constitutes cruel and unusual punishment. On Feb 26, 2014, Taylor was executed.
    (http://columbiamissourian.com/news/story.php?ID=18038)(Econ, 7/22/06, p.36)(SFC, 2/27/14, p.A8)

1989        Mar 23 Fawn Hall, former secretary to onetime National Security Council aide Oliver North, completed two days of testimony at North’s Iran-Contra trial.
    (AP, 3/23/99)
1989        Mar 23, Stanley Pons and Martin Fleischmann, Univ. of Utah scientists, claimed they had produced atomic fusion at room temperature.
    (SS, 3/23/02)(WSJ, 9/5/03, p.B1)

1989        Mar 24, Good Friday. The nation's worst oil spill occurred as the supertanker Exxon Valdez ran aground on a reef in Alaska's Prince William Sound and began leaking 11 million gallons of crude. The Exxon Valdez struck ground in Alaska’s Prince William Sound and spilled 10.6 million gallons of oil. It was later renamed the Mediterranean and operated between Europe and the Middle East. Exxon then spent some $2.5 billion to clean up the spill and filed suit against Lloyd’s of London for reimbursement under a $210 million insurance policy. In 1996 a jury in Houston voted that Lloyd’s and some 250 other underwriters should compensate Exxon $250 million. The Exxon Valdez oil spill fouled approximately 1,000 miles of Alaska shoreline. The oil tanker ran aground in Prince William Sound, spilling some 11 million gallons of crude oil. An estimated 250,000 seabirds were killed. The Exxon Valdez spilled 240,000 barrels of oil in Alaska's Prince William Sound.
    (AP, 3/23/97)(TMC, 1994, p.1989)(SFC, 5/5/96, p.A-11)(SFC, 6/11/96, p.A10)(SFEC, 2/8/98, p.T5)(HNQ, 8/14/99)

1989        Mar 25, In the wake of the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska's chief environmental officer, Dennis Kelso, criticized cleanup efforts as too slow.
    (AP, 3/25/99)

1989        Mar 26, The first free elections took place in the Soviet Union. Boris Yeltsin was elected. Voters in the Soviet Union filled 1,500 of more than 2,000 seats in the new Congress of People's Deputies, beginning embarrassing defeats for the Communist Party.
    (AP, 3/26/99)(HN, 3/25/98)

1989        Mar 27, Boris N. Yeltsin and other anti-establishment candidates claimed victory in parliamentary elections for the new Congress of People's Deputies.
    (AP, 3/27/99)

1989        Mar 28, President Bush sent three high-ranking officials to Alaska to "take a hard look" at the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Alaska's Prince William Sound. '
    (AP, 3/28/99)

1989        Mar 29, In the 61st Academy Awards the movie "Rain Man" won Academy Awards for best picture, best director Barry Levinson and best actor Dustin Hoffman; Jodie Foster was named best actress for "The Accused."
    (AP, 3/29/99)
1989        Mar 29, In the 9th Golden Raspberry Awards: Cocktail won.
1989        Mar 29, I.M. Pei's glass pyramidal entrance to the Louvre opened in Paris.
    (SFC, 6/16/96, T-5)(http://tinyurl.com/emvfc)
1989        Mar 29, Michael Milken, junk bond king, was indicted in NYC for racketeering.

1989        Mar 30, "The Heidi Chronicles" by Wendy Wasserstein won the Pulitzer Prize for drama; in the journalism category, the Anchorage Daily News won the public service award for its reports on alcoholism and suicide among native Alaskans.
    (AP, 3/30/99)

1989        Mar 31, The FBI announced it would conduct a criminal investigation into the massive oil spill in Alaska's Prince William Sound.
    (AP, 3/31/99)

1989        Mar, The first versions of HTML that launched the Web appeared. Tim Berners-Lee invented the World Wide Web. His document describing the initial project was titled: “Information Management: A Proposal."
    (SFEC, 3/15/98, p.W26)(SFEC, 5/30/99, Z1 p.4)(Econ, 3/10/07, p.32)

1989        Apr 1, Alaska Gov. Steve Cowper announced that a "strike force" of state officials and local fishermen were taking over some of the cleanup operations following the massive Exxon Valdez oil spill.
    (AP, 4/1/99)
1989        Apr 1, In Canada the Oka conflict began when some 200 Mohawks from the Kanesatake reserve marched though the town of Oka protesting plans to expand the village's nine-hole golf course to 18 holes, saying expansion encroaches on their burial ground. A 78-day standoff began on July 11, 1990 and ended Sep 26, 1990. The Oka Crisis cost the Quebec government an estimated $180 million not including the cost of the army. 
1989        Apr 1, A Japanese 3% consumption, or sales tax, took effect. It earned Sadanori Yamanaka (d.2004) the nickname "Mr. Consumption Tax." In 1997 it rose to 5%. Yamanaka led the ruling Liberal Democratic Party's tax commission for eight years, beginning in 1979.
    (AP, 2/20/04)(Econ, 6/23/12, p.43)

1989        Apr 2, Soviet leader Mikhail S. Gorbachev began a visit to Cuba amid differences with President Fidel Castro over the type of reforms Gorbachev was instituting in the Soviet Union.
    (AP, 4/2/99)

1989        Apr 3, The University of Michigan Wolverines won the NCAA championship by defeating Seton Hall in overtime, 80-79.
    (AP, 4/3/99)

1989        Apr 4, Democrat Richard M. Daley was elected mayor of Chicago, defeating Republican Edward R. Vrdolyak and independent Timothy C. Evans.
    (AP, 4/4/99)
1989        Apr 4, Censu Tabone (1913-2012) began serving as the 4th president of Malta and continued to 1994.
    (AP, 3/14/12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C4%8Aensu_Tabone)

1989        Apr 5, Joseph Hazelwood, former captain of the Exxon Valdez supertanker that leaked nearly 11 million gallons of oil into Alaska's Prince William Sound, surrendered to authorities in New York.
    (AP, 4/5/99)

1989        Apr 5, The government of Poland signed an agreement restoring the independent labor movement Solidarity after a seven-year ban.
    (AP, 4/5/99)

1989        Apr 6, Soviet leader Mikhail S. Gorbachev met with British PM Margaret Thatcher in London, holding daylong talks that were characterized as argumentative, but friendly.
    (AP, 4/6/99)

1989        Apr 7, A week after the Exxon Valdez oil spill disaster, President Bush pledged federal assistance to help in the clean-up.
    (AP, 4/7/99)
1989        Apr 7, A Soviet nuclear-powered submarine, the Komsomolets, caught fire and sank in the Norwegian Sea, claiming 42 of 69 lives.
    (AP, 4/7/99)(SFC, 8/14/00, p.A13)

1989        Apr 8, In San Francisco Roshawn Johnson (20) and Charles Hughes (18), described as innocent bystanders, were slain in a gang gun battle at Newcomb Ave and Mansell in Hunters Point. In 1992 Caramad Conley was locked up for 2 life terms. In 2010 a SF Superior court judge ruled that Conley was denied a fair trial after the star witness, Clifford Polk, lied on the stand about whether he was being paid to testify. Earl Sanders, later SF police chief, acknowledged in 2010 that that he had made payments to Polk. In 2011 Conley was freed. In 2014 Conley was poised to get $3.5 million from SF for being wrongfully convicted.
    (SFC, 11/14/00, p.A23)(SFC, 12/15/10, p.A1)(SFC, 1/12/11, p.C3)(SFC, 7/14/14, p.C1)
1989        Apr 8, The Soviet Union acknowledged that one of its nuclear submarines, the Komsomolets, caught fire and sank 210 miles north of Norway the day before. 42 of 69 lives were reported lost.
    (AP, 4/8/99)(SFC, 8/14/00, p.A13)

1989        Apr 9, Hundreds of thousands of people marched in Washington, D.C, demanding continued access to safe and legal abortion.
    (AP, 4/9/99)
1989        Apr 9, Boxer Mike Tyson struck a parking attendant when asked to move his car.
1989        Apr 9, Troops under Gen’l Lebed killed 18 protestors, including 16 women and children, in Tbilisi, Georgia. Colonel Gen’l. Igor Rodionov ordered troops to break up anti-Kremlin protests in Tbilisi.
    (WSJ, 6/18/96, p.A12)(SFC, 6/26/96, p.A11)(WSJ, 8/7/96, p.A15)

1989        Apr 10, Federal drug czar William J. Bennett unveiled details of the Bush administration's plan for fighting drug abuse and drug-related crime in the nation's capital.
    (AP, 4/10/99)
1989        Apr 10, In Ohio Jeffrey Lundgren (b.1950), a self-proclaimed prophet, led his cult in planning and executing murders of the Avery family in order to bring about a prophecy he interpreted from the Old Testament. Lundgren was convicted of five counts of murder and executed on October 24, 2006 at the Southern Ohio Correctional Facility in Lucasville, Ohio.

1989        Apr 11, Mexican officials unearthed the remains of 12 of 13 victims of a drug-trafficking cult near Matamoros. The dead included University of Texas student Mark Kilroy, who had disappeared while on spring break.
    (AP, 4/11/99)

1989        Apr 12, NY State leaders agreed to raise unemployment benefits to $245 per week.
1989        Apr 12, Abbie Hoffman (52), radical activist, was found dead at his home in New Hope, Penn. He suffered from bipolar mental illness that was only diagnosed in 1980. In 1996 Jonah Raskin wrote: "For the Hell of It: The Life and Times of Abbie Hoffman." In 1994 Jack Hoffman, Abbie’s brother, wrote a biography, as did Marty Jezer in 1992. His wife, Anita, died in 1998. She wrote "Trashing," a fictional memoir of her activity as a Yippie. In 1999 Larry Sloman published "Steal This Dream: Abbie Hoffman and the Countercultural Revolution in America."
    (SFC, 12/29/96, BR p.5,6)(SFC, 12/31/98, p.D4)(SFEC, 2/14/99, BR p.7) (AP, 4/12/99)   
1989        Apr 12, Sugar Ray Robinson (b.1921), former middleweight boxing champion, died in Culver City, Ca., after suffering from Alzheimer’s disease. In 2009 Wil Haygood authored “Sweet Thunder: The Life and Times of Sugar Ray Robinson."
    (AP, 4/12/99)(Econ, 10/24/09, p.96)

1989        Apr 13, US House Speaker Jim Wright delivered an emotional defense of his conduct against ethics charges, declaring he would "fight to the last ounce of conviction and energy" he possessed.
    (AP, 4/13/99)

1989        Apr 14, Testimony concluded in the Iran-Contra trial of former National Security Council staff member Oliver L. North.
    (AP, 4/14/99)
1989        Apr 14, Former winery worker Ramon Salcido killed 6 relatives, including his wife and daughters, and a co-worker in Sonoma County. He was tried and convicted in Oct. 1990 by Judge Littrell (d.1997) and sentenced to death. In 2007 Salcedo was still on death row with his case in the appeal process.
    (SFC, 1/31/97, p.E2)(AP, 4/14/99)

1989        Apr 15, In Sheffield, England, 96 people died in a crush of soccer fans at Hillsborough Stadium after police allowed spectators to pour onto a crowded terrace. On Sep 12, 2012, secret documents were released that said British police tried to blame soccer fans to cover up mistakes that contributed to the deaths of those who were crushed at a stadium.
    (AP, 4/15/08)(Econ, 4/18/09, p.61)(AP, 9/12/12)
1989        Apr 15, In China Hu Yaobang, former party chief, died. Thousands of students in Shanghai and Beijing took to the streets to mourn his death. The protests culminated in the June 5 Tiananmen Square massacre.
    (SFC, 2/20/96, p.A4)(AP, 4/15/99)   

1989        Apr 16, Spain's ambassador to Lebanon (Pedro Manuel de Aristegui) was killed by shellfire that broke out between Christian militiamen and an alliance of Syrian and Muslim gunners.
    (AP, 4/16/99)

1989        Apr 17, The US House Ethics Committee released its report accusing Speaker Jim Wright of violating House rules on the acceptance of gifts and outside income -- charges denied by the Texas Democrat.
    (AP, 4/17/99)
1989        Apr 17, Solidarity in Poland was legalized.
    (HFA, '96, p.28)

1989        Apr 18, Thousands of Chinese students demanding democracy tried to storm Communist Party headquarters in Beijing.
    (AP, 4/18/99)

1989        Apr 19, A jogger was raped and beaten in Central Park. 5 black and Latino youths (14-16) were soon arrested and convicted. In 2002 DNA evidence identified Matias Reyes (31) as the rapist. A judge then overturned the original convictions. 3,254 other rapes were reported in the park in 1989. In 2003 Trisha Meili identified herself as the victim in her book “I Am the Central Park Jogger." In 2014 the five men initially convicted agreed to settle their civil rights lawsuit for about $40 million.
    (NG, 5/93, p.16)(SFC, 9/6/02, p.A3)(SFC, 11/21/09, p.A7)(SFC, 6/20/14, p.A11)
1989        Apr 19, The battleship USS Iowa's number 2 turret exploded while on maneuvers northeast of Puerto Rico. 47 sailors were killed and a $4 million investigation was launched. The Navy attempted to lay the blame on Clayton Hartwig, a seaman described as gay soldier disappointed in a gay affair. In 1999 Charles C. Thompson II published "A Glimpse of Hell: The Explosion of the USS Iowa and Its Cover-Up."
    (AP, 4/19/97)(SFEC, 6/13/99, BR p.1,8)(HN, 4/19/00)
1989        Apr 19, Daphne Du Maurier (b.1907), English writer, died. Her books included “Jamaica Inn" (1936) and “Rebecca" (1938).
1989        Apr 19, Adnan Khashoggi, a Saudi financier, was arrested in Switzerland at the request of the US Government, which is seeking his extradition to New York to stand trial on charges of racketeering, fraud and obstruction of justice. He faced charges stemming from ''illegal property dealings'' on behalf of Ferdinand E. Marcos, the ousted President of the Philippines, and his wife, Imelda. In 1992 Khashoggi and Imelda Marcos were found not guilty of racketeering by a jury in Manhattan.

1989        Apr 20, Ramon Salcido, a California winery worker later convicted of killing six relatives and a co-worker, was deported from Mexico to the U.S.
    (AP, 4/20/99)
1989        Apr 20, The case of Oliver North went to the jury in his Iran-Contra trial.
    (AP, 4/20/99)

1989        Apr 21, Tens of thousands of people crowded into Beijing's Tiananmen Square, cheering students who waved banners demanding greater political freedoms.
    (AP, 4/21/99)
1989        Apr 21, In the Philippines there was a communist guerrilla ambush on Col. James Nicolas Rowe. His car was raked with bullets near his office in the Manila suburb of Quezon City, killing him and wounding his driver. Donato Continente and co-defendant Juanito Itaas, who admitted being a member of the communist New People's Army, were convicted and sentenced to life in prison in 1991. The Supreme Court later affirmed Itaas' sentence and reduced Continente's to 14 years after establishing he was an accomplice. Continente was released in 2005.
    (AP, 6/28/05)

1989        Apr 22, The Xinhua News Agency reported the first outbreak of violence stemming from China's pro-democracy protests, in the provincial capital of Xian.
    (AP, 4/22/99)

1989        Apr 23, Troy Aikman of UCLA became the first player chosen in the NFL draft in New York City as he was selected by the Dallas Cowboys.
    (AP, 4/23/99)
1989        Apr 23, Students in Beijing China announced class boycotts.

1989        Apr 24, President Bush led a memorial service at the Norfolk Naval Station in Virginia for the 47 sailors killed in a gun-turret explosion aboard the USS Iowa.
    (AP, 4/24/99)
1989        Apr 24, Richard M. Daley was inaugurated as the 45th mayor of Chicago. He went on to serve 6 terms. His father, Richard Daley, had served 6 terms as mayor (1955-1976).
    (AP, 4/24/99)(Econ, 9/11/10, p.40)
1989        Apr 24, Thousands of students went on strike in Beijing.
    (HN, 4/24/98)

1989        Apr 25, Japanese Prime Minister Noboru Takeshita announced his resignation in order to take responsibility for his involvement in Japan's Recruit stock scandal.
    (AP, 4/25/99)

1989        Apr 26, Lucille Ball (b.1911), Actress-comedian and star of I Love Lucy, died at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles at age 77. She left behind a manuscript that was published in 1996 titled "Love, Lucy." "The tremendous drive and dedication necessary to succeed in any field... often seems to be rooted in a disturbed childhood." In 1993 Tom Gilbert wrote: "The Story of Lucille Ball and Desi Arnaz." Lucille Ball was married to Gary Morton (d.1999 at 74) for 29 years. In 2003 Stefan Kanfer authored "Ball of Fire: The Tumultuous Life and Comic Art of Lucille Ball."
    (SFC, 9/23/96, D1)(SFC, 4/1/99, p.C4)(AP, 4/26/99)(WSJ, 8/15/03, p.W10)

1989        Apr 27, In China more than 150,000 students and workers calling for democracy marched, cheered and sang as they took over Tiananmen Square in central Beijing.
    (HN, 4/27/98)(AP, 4/27/99)
1989        Apr 27, In South Africa Frans "Ting-Ting" Masango (1958-2009), an anti-apartheid activist, was sentenced to death following the historic "Delmas Four" trial. He was released in 1991 after the ANC was unbanned. In 2008 Peter Harris authored “In A Different Time, the Story of the Delmas Four."
    (www.sowetan.co.za/News/Article.aspx?id=802399)(AP, 9/21/09)

1989        Apr 28, President Bush announced the U.S. and Japan had concluded a deal on joint development of a new Japanese jet fighter, the FSX, despite concerns that U.S. technology secrets would be given away.
    (AP, 4/28/99)

1989        Apr 29, In a sign that student demonstrators in Beijing had gained influence, China's government conducted informal talks with leaders of the democracy protests, and then televised the discussions.
    (AP, 4/29/99)

1989        Apr 30, President Bush attended a parade in New York City celebrating the bicentennial of the American presidency.
    (AP, 4/30/99)
1989        Apr 30, Sergio Leone (60), Italian director (Good, Bad & Ugly), died.

1989        May 1, The Supreme Court ruled that an employer has the legal burden of proving that its refusal to hire or promote someone is based on legitimate and not discriminatory reasons.
    (AP, 5/1/99)
1989        May 1, Disney held a grand opening for its 135 acre MGM studio in Orlando, Fl.
1989        May 1, David Webster, an anti-apartheid campaigner, was shot and killed outside his Eleanor Street home in Troyeville, Johannesburg, on South Africa's first official Workers' Day. In 1999 apartheid hitman Ferdi Barnard was sentenced to life imprisonment for the assassination of Webster. He was sentenced to two life terms plus 63 years for a number of crimes, including the murder of Webster.

1989        May 2, At a Baltimore gathering, physicists said they were persuaded that claims of "cold fusion" were based on nothing more than experimental errors by scientists in Utah.
    (AP, 5/2/99)
1989        May 2, California announced that San Jose had passed San Francisco in population. In 2003 the Census Bureau decided to rank San Jose as the seat of the Bay Area.
    (SFEC, 5/30/99, Z1 p.4)(SFC, 7/18/03, p.A1)

1989        May 3, An Israeli soldier, Ilan Saadon, disappeared while hitchhiking north of the Gaza Strip. He was said to have been kidnapped by Hamas militants. In 1996 his bones were unearthed south of Tel Aviv.
    (SFC, 8/12/96, p.C1)
1989        May 3, PLO leader Yasser Arafat, ending a two-day visit to France, said the PLO charter calling for the destruction of Israel had been "superseded" by a declaration urging peaceful coexistence of the Jewish state and a Palestinian state.
    (AP, 5/3/99)
1989        May 3, Christine Jorgensen (b.1926), Denmark-born 1st transsexual (1952), died in California. Her book “Christine Jorgensen: A Personal Autobiography" was published in 1967, and its film adaptation was released in 1970 as The Christine Jorgensen Story.

1989        May 4, Fired White House aide Oliver North was convicted of shredding documents and two other crimes and acquitted of nine other charges stemming from the Iran-Contra affair. The 3 convictions were later overturned on appeal.
    (AP, 5/4/99)
1989        May 4, The US launched its Magellan spacecraft to Venus.

1989        May 5, A federal judge ordered sweeping changes in the FBI's promotion system, months after the judge found that the bureau had systematically discriminated against its Hispanic employees in advancements and assignments.
    (AP, 5/5/99)

1989        May 6, Sunday Silence scored an upset victory over Easy Goer in the 115th Kentucky Derby at Churchill Downs.
    (AP, 5/6/99)

1989        May 7, Both sides claimed victory in Panama's national elections, with the opposition also charging a pattern of fraud. Panamanian voters rejected dictator Manuel Noriega's bid for reelection. Backed by a coalition of civilian parties, Guillermo Endara (1936-2009) overwhelmingly won the presidential election, but Noriega refused to recognize the results and unleashed a wave of repression against his opponents. 
    (AP, 5/7/99)(AP, 9/29/09)
1989        May 7, Guy Williams (b.1924), actor (Zorro, Lost in Space), died in Argentina. He was born as Armando Catalano in NYC.

1989        May 8, Former President Carter, a leader of an international team observing Panama's elections, declared that the armed forces were defrauding the opposition of victory.
    (AP, 5/8/99)
1989        May 8, Slobodan Milosevic was elected president of Serbia.

1989        May 9, President Bush complained that Panama's elections were marred by "massive irregularities," and he called for worldwide pressure on General Manuel Antonio Noriega to step down as military leader.
    (AP, 5/9/99)
1989        May 9, VP Quayle said in United Negro College Fund speech: "What a waste it is to lose one's mind" instead of "a mind is terrible thing to waste."

1989        May 10, In Panama, the government of Gen. Manuel Antonio Noriega announced it had nullified the country's elections, which independent observers said the opposition had won by a 3-1 margin.
    (AP, 5/10/99)

1989        May 11, President Bush recalled the US ambassador and planned to dispatch about 1,700 soldiers and 165 marines in phases to reinforce troops already in Panama.
1989        May 11, US Federal Judge Walter Nixon (61) of Mississippi was impeached by the House of Representatives. The US Senate voted to remove Nixon from the bench on November 4, 1989. He had been convicted in 1986 on perjury charges and sentenced to five years in prison.
    (SFC, 9/18/08, p.A6)(http://tinyurl.com/3qfr28)
1989        May 11, The Franklin Mills mega-mall, the former Liberty Bell Racetrack, opened in Philadelphia.
    (SFC, 5/27/97, p.A15)(www.northeasttimes.com/2000/1108/franklinmills.html)
1989        May 11, Kenya announced that it would seek a worldwide ban on the trade of ivory -- a move intended to preserve its fast-dwindling elephant herds.
    (AP, 5/11/99)

1989        May 12, The nation's largest airline computer reservation system, the American Airlines Sabre system, shut down for nearly 12 hours, disrupting the operations of thousands of travel agencies nationwide.
    (AP, 5/12/99)
1989        May 12, The MTA declared victory over graffiti. The last graffiti covered NYC subway car was retired.

1989        May 13, In unusually strong language, President Bush called on the people of Panama and the country's defense forces to overthrow their military leader, Gen. Manuel Antonio Noriega.
    (AP, 5/13/99)
1989        May 13, Trinidad & Tobago tied the US 1-1, in 3rd round of 1990 world soccer cup.
    (SS, Internet, 5/13/97)
1989        May 13, Some 2,000 students began a hunger strike in Tiananmen Square, China.

1989        May 14, Moonlighting, TV Crime Drama, last aired on ABC.
1989        May 14, Peronist candidate Carlos Saul Menem won Argentina's presidential election. He was a Muslim who converted to Catholicism, which was previously a requirement for the presidency. The annual inflation rate was 5000%.
    (WSJ, 12/12/95, p.A-15)(Hem., 1/96, p.11)(SFC, 12/24/96, p.A8)(AP, 5/14/99)
1989        May 14, The 2nd day of a hunger strike for democratic reforms took place in Beijing's Tiananmen square.

1989        May 15, Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev arrived in Beijing for the first Sino-Soviet summit in 30 years. His 3-day visit was overshadowed by pro-democracy demonstrations led by Chinese students.
    (SFC, 2/20/96, p.A4)(AP, 5/15/99)

1989        May 16, During his visit to Beijing, Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev met with Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping, formally ending a 30-year rift between the two Communist powers.
    (AP, 5/16/99)

1989        May 17, Robert Webber (b.1924), actor (Nuts, SOB, Assassin, 10), died in California.
1989        May 17, More than 1 million people swarmed into central Beijing to express support for Chinese students fasting for democracy.
    (AP, 5/17/99)
1989        May 17, A court in Frankfurt, West Germany, sentenced Mohammed Ali Hamadi to life in prison for his role in the 1985 TWA hijacking.
    (AP, 5/17/99)

1989        May 18, In China a million protestors filled Tiananmen Square.
    (SFC, 2/20/96, p.A4)
1989        May 18, Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev concluded his historic visit to China, which officially marked the end of a 30-year Sino-Soviet rift.
    (AP, 5/18/99)

1989        May 19, The NCAA announced sanctions against the University of Kentucky's basketball program for recruiting and academic violations.
    (AP, 5/19/99)
1989        May 19, On Wall Street, the Dow Jones Industrial Average passed the 2500 mark, ending the day at 2,501.10.
    (AP, 5/19/99)
1989        May 19, In Argentina shortly after the presidential elections, stores and supermarkets in several cities were looted.

1989        May 20, Comedian Gilda Radner died in Los Angeles at age 42.
    (AP, 5/20/99)
1989        May 20, China declared martial law in Beijing. During the pro-democracy protests, Beijing officials ordered CBS and CNN to end their live on-scene reports.
    (AP, 5/20/99)

1989        May 21, Thousands of native Chinese marched in Hong Kong, Paris, Tokyo and scores of other cities in a worldwide show of support for the pro-democracy demonstrators in Beijing.
    (AP, 5/21/99)

1989        May 22, In West Los Angeles football star O.J. Simpson (41) pleaded no contest to battering his wife, Nicole Simpson (29), during a New Years Day argument.
    (SFC, 6/22/96, p.A8)(SSFC, 5/18/14, DB p.50)
1989        May 22, More than 100 top Chinese military leaders vowed to refrain from entering Beijing to suppress pro-democracy demonstrations.
    (AP, 5/22/99)

1989        May 23, An estimated 1 million people in Beijing and tens of thousands in other Chinese cities marched to demand that Premier Li Peng resign.
    (AP, 5/23/99)
1989        May 23, In China Yu Zhijian (25) led two others in throwing paint-filled eggs at a giant portrait of Mao Zedong in Tiananmen Square. They were all jailed and served almost 12 years after which they fled the country.
    (http://tinyurl.com/yc46499r)(Econ 6/10/17, p.88)

1989        May 24, The US film "Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade" premiered nationwide.
1989        May 24, China's top army command published a letter strongly supporting hard-line Premier Li Peng, who was reportedly locked in a power struggle with rival factions who opposed his strong stance against student protesters.
    (AP, 5/24/99)
1989        May 24, French war criminal Paul Touvier was arrested in a monastery in Nice.

1989        May 25, Weird Al Yankovic recorded "She Drives Like Crazy."
    (SC, 5/25/02)
1989        May 25, Eastern Airlines graduated its 1st class of non-union pilots.
    (SC, 5/25/02)
1989        May 25, The Calgary Flames won their first Stanley Cup by defeating the Montreal Canadiens in game six of their championship series.
    (AP, 5/25/99)
1989        May 25, Mikhail Gorbachev was elected Executive President in the Soviet Union.
    (SC, 5/25/02)

1989        May 26, Reports began circulating that House Majority Whip Tony Coelho would resign to spare himself and the Democratic Party the ordeal of an investigation into his ethics.
    (AP, 5/26/99)
1989        May 26, Danish parliament allowed legal marriage among homosexuals.

1989        May 27, Leaders of the Chinese student protest movement proposed that demonstrators hold one more rally, then end their occupation of Tiananmen Square, an idea that was later abandoned.
    (AP, 5/27/99)

1989        May 28, Emerson Fittipaldi of Brazil won the Indianapolis 500 auto race.
    (AP, 5/28/99)

1989        May 29, The first Weedstock Festival, a pro-marijuana event, was held on Memorial Day in Wisconsin. Steve Wessing worked the event as a stage manager.
    (SFC, 5/27/97, p.A12)(www.facebook.com/groups/460746184020328/)
1989        May 29, John Cipollina (45), lead guitarist with the Quicksilver Messenger Service rock group, died in Marin, Ca. of complications from respiratory problems.
    (SSFC, 5/25/14, DB p.42)
1989        May 29, Student protesters in Tiananmen Square China constructed a replica of the Statue of Liberty.
    (SC, 5/29/02)
1989        May 29, Bowing to public demand, the Supreme Soviet allowed Boris N. Yeltsin to take a seat in the standing legislature.
    (AP, 5/29/99)

1989        May 30, US Rep. Claude Pepper (b.1900), D-Fla., a champion of the nation's elderly, died in Washington, DC, at age 88.
    (AP, 5/30/99)
1989        May 30, Student demonstrators at Tiananmen Square in Beijing erected a 33-foot statue they called the "Goddess of Democracy."
    (AP, 5/30/99)
1989        May 30, In Brazil landless farmer-workers stormed a farm in the state of Espirito Santo to pressure for agrarian reform. Jose Machado, the owner, opened fire with hired guns. Machado and a hired off-duty policeman were killed and four squatters were injured. In 1997 Jose Rainha, a land reform advocate, was sentenced to 26.5 years in prison for the killing. Rainha argued that he was in another state with witnesses and that the squatters acted in self defense but was still convicted in a 4-3 vote.
    (SFC, 6/12/97, p.A14)

1989        May 31, Pres. G.W. Bush met with Chancellor Kohl and addressed the citizens of Mainz, Germany. He offered Germany a “partnership in leadership."
    (Econ, 7/8/06, p.43)(http://usa.usembassy.de/etexts/ga6-890531.htm)
1989        May 31, US House Speaker Jim Wright, dogged by questions about his ethics, announced he would resign. Thomas Foley succeeded him.
    (AP, 5/31/99)
1989        May 31, Charles A. Hufnagel (b.1917), artificial heart valve pioneer, died at his home in Washington, DC.

1989        May, In Washington DC a 7-year-old boy was raped, stabbed and castrated by a repeat sex offender. The event gave rise to the nation’s first civil commitment law for sex offenders.
    (SFEC, 6/29/97, p.A8)
1989        May, In Portland, Maine, Jessica Briggs (16) was repeatedly stabbed before being thrown into Portland harbor. Hope Cady (13), a lone witness, testified at trial in 1992 that she saw a group of boys surround Briggs and then saw Tony Sanborn (16) stab her. Sanborn was sentenced to 70 years in prison. Cady claimed she’d watched the event unfold from a nearby pier. In 2017 Cady recanted and Sanborn was freed on bond after serving 27 years in prison.
    (http://digitalcommons.portlandlibrary.com/news_pph/3212/)(SFC, 4/14/17, p.A6)
1989        May, Afghanistan guerrillas elect Sibhhatullah Mojadidi as head of their government-in-exile.
    (www.afghan, 5/25/98)
1989        May, Sheik Ahmed Yassin, the founder and spiritual leader of Hamas, was arrested by Israel and sentenced to life in prison for involvement in attacks against Israelis. He was released to Jordan in 1997.
    {Israel, Palestine}
    (SFC, 10/2/97, p.A12)(www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/biography/yassin.html)
1989        May, In Papua New Guinea fighting on Bougainville Island forced the closure of Bougainville Copper, one of the world’s ten largest copper mines. It was jointly owned by RTZ-CRA and the government. Part of the cause for the civil war was environmental damage caused by the huge Panguna copper mine and insufficient land royalties paid to landowners.
    (WSJ, 3/4/97, p.A15)(SFC, 10/10/97, p.A13)(WSJ, 3/18/98, p.A14)
1989        May, In Paraguay the first free presidential elections in 35 years elected Andres Rodriguez as president.
    (SFC, 4/22/97, p.A15)

1989        Jun 1, Former Sunday school teacher John E. List, sought for 18 years in the slayings of his mother, wife and three children in Westfield, N.J., was arrested in Richmond, Va. List was later sentenced to life in prison.
    (AP, 6/1/99)

1989        Jun 2, President Bush returned from a European trip, calling it "a triumph of hope" for a world moving beyond the Cold War.
    (AP, 6/2/99)
1989        Jun 2, 10,000 Chinese soldiers were blocked by 100,000 citizens protecting students demonstrating for democracy in Tiananmen Square, Beijing
    (HN, 6/2/99)
1989        Jun 2, Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto of Pakistan told a joint session of the US Congress that Pakistan does not have nuclear weapons.
    (SFC, 11/6/96, p.A21)

1989        Jun 3, Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini (89), Iran's spiritual and supreme leader, died.
    (AP, 6/3/97)(SFC, 8/15/97, p.A15)
1989        Jun 3, Japan’s Foreign Minister Sousuke Uno was named prime minister. He replaced Noboru Takeshita, who resigned to save his ruling Liberal Democratic Party from further embarrassment over an influence peddling scandal.
1989        Jun 3, An explosion of a liquefied gas pipeline engulfed two Trans-Siberian Railroad trains parked outside the Central Asian city of Ufa in the Soviet Union. 575 people were killed.
    (AP, 4/23/04)

1989        Jun 3-1989 Jun 4, Chinese troops entered Beijing. They fired into the crowd at Tiananmen Square and killed at least hundreds of demonstrators.
    (SFC, 2/20/96, p.A4)

1989        Jun 4, "Jerome Robbins's Broadway" won best musical at the 43rd annual Tony Awards; "The Heidi Chronicles" by Wendy Wasserstein won best play.
    (AP, 6/4/99)
1989        Jun 4, In San Francisco thousands of demonstrators gathered in front of the Chinese Consulate to protest the slaughter of students and other citizens at Tiananmen Square in Beijing. In Chinese Tiananmen translates as Gate of Heavenly Peace.
    (SSFC, 6/1/14, DB p.46)
1989        Jun 4, In China hundreds of people died as Chinese army troops stormed Beijing to crush the pro-democracy movement. Hundreds of thousands of discontented Chinese took to the streets of Beijing, demanding more reform, but the military crushed the protests in the Tiananmen Square crackdown. Zhao Ziyang was ousted. The West and Japan cut off aid. Bao Tong was the only Communist Party official arrested in the Tiananmen Square uprising. He was released with ill-health in 1996. Han Dongfang, leader of China’s first independent trade union spent 22 months behind bars for his role in the pro-democracy uprising. Ren Wanding was also again jailed for giving speeches in the pro-democracy protests.   
    (WSJ 12/10/93)(SFC, 5/28/96, p.A6)(SFC, 6/4/96, p.A11)(SFC, 6/10/96, C2)(AP, 6/4/97)
1989        Jun 4, Poland held Eastern Europe's 1st somewhat free election in 40 years. The 2-part election (June 4 and 19) resulted in a land-slide victory of the opposition organized in the Citizens' Committee, which won all 161 seats available to it in the Sejm, and 99 out of 100 seats in the senate.
1989        Jun 4, A gas explosion in the Soviet Union engulfed two passing trains, killing 645.
    (AP, 6/4/97)

1989        Jun 5, In NYC Huwe Burton (16) made a false confession to killing his mother as he sat with detectives in a cramped, windowless room of a Bronx police precinct. He had not eaten or slept much in 48 hours. In 2019 a judge exonerated him after the Innocence Project unearthed evidence not only that detectives used psychologically coercive techniques to get his confession, but that the prosecution had withheld evidence suggesting someone else was the killer.
    (NY Times, 2/15/21)
1989        Jun 5, Chinese soldiers slaughtered pro-democracy students at Tiananmen Square in Beijing. In one of the most remembered images of China's crushed pro-democracy movement, a lone man stood defiantly in front of a line of tanks in Beijing until friends pulled him out of the way. In 2001 "The Tiananmen Papers," a book based on classified documents smuggled out of China, was published. Zhang Liang was the pseudonym of the compiler. In 2009 Philip Cunningham authored “Tiananmen Moon: Inside the Chinese Student Uprising of 1989."   
    (HN, 6/5/99)(AP, 6/5/99)(SFC, 1/6/01, p.A7)(SFCM, 3/18/01, p.4)(Econ, 8/22/09, p.75)

1989        Jun 6, In Washington, DC, Thomas Foley was elected the 49th speaker of the House of Representatives.
    (AP, 6/6/99)

1989        Jun 7, A Suriname Airways airplane crashed in a tropical forest near the Paramaribo airport killing 169 people.
    (AP, 6/7/99)

1989        Jun 8, Chinese Premier Li Peng appeared on TV, praising a group of army soldiers, apparently for their role in crushing the student-led pro-democracy movement.
    (AP, 6/8/99)

1989        Jun 9, China began reporting large-scale arrests in the wake of the crushed pro-democracy movement. The arrests coincided with the public reappearance of Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping, who was rumored to have been seriously ill. Li Wangyang (d.2012) was arrested for his labor activism, five days after the military crackdown on protesters in Tiananmen Square. Sentenced for "counterrevolutionary propaganda and incitement," he spent much of his 11-year term at hard labor.
    (AP, 6/9/99)(AP, 6/6/12)

1989        Jun 11, The government of China issued a warrant for the arrest of dissident physicist Fang Lizhi (1936-2012), who had taken refuge inside the US Embassy in Beijing. Fang and his wife were allowed to go into exile.
    (AP, 6/11/99)(Econ, 4/14/12, p.106)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fang_Lizhi)

1989        Jun 12, The US Supreme Court expanded the abilities of white males to challenge court-approved affirmative action plans, even years after they take effect.
    (AP, 6/12/99)

1989        Jun 13, The Detroit Pistons won their first National Basketball Association title, sweeping the Los Angeles Lakers in four games.
    (AP, 6/13/99)

1989        Jun 14, Former President Reagan received an honorary knighthood from Britain's Queen Elizabeth II.
    (AP, 6/14/99)
1989        Jun 14, US House Democrats chose Richard Gephardt to be majority leader and William H. Gray to be majority whip, the highest leadership position in Congress held by an African American.
    (AP, 6/14/99)(HN, 6/14/99)
1989        Jun 14, Actress Zsa Zsa Gabor was arrested for slapping a Beverly Hills motorcycle patrolman.
    (AP, 6/14/99)

1989        Jun 15, Three Chinese workers in Shanghai were sentenced to death for helping to set fire to a train during recent pro-democracy protests.
    (AP, 6/15/99)

1989        Jun 16, Hungarians paid homage to former premier Imre Nagy and four associates executed for leading the anti-Soviet revolt of 1956. At least 250,000 people attended the ceremonial reburial of PM Imre Nagy and four others hanged 31 years earlier and buried face down in unmarked graves. The reburial, broadcast live on TV from Budapest's Heroes' Square, came as Hungary's communist leadership and the democratic opposition were beginning to negotiate the country's transition to democracy. Sandor Racz, a 1956 veteran, called on the world to "help the Soviet Union" withdraw its troops from Hungary. Viktor Orban, then 26 and later to become prime minister, also urged the Russians to withdraw but blasted the country's communist leadership for making the 1956 revolution a taboo subject.
    (AP, 6/16/99)(AP, 6/16/09)

1989        Jun 17, In China's crackdown on the pro-democracy movement, eight people were sentenced to death for allegedly beating soldiers and burning vehicles in Beijing.
    (AP, 6/17/99)

1989        Jun 18, John Wayne Bobbitt (b.1967) married Lorena L Gallo (b.1970). [see Jan 10, 1994]
1989        Jun 18, Greek Premier Andreas Papandreou's Panhellenic Socialist Movement suffered a defeat as the center-right New Democracy Party finished first in general elections.
    (AP, 6/18/99)

1989        Jun 19, Cincinnati Reds manager Pete Rose sued baseball, arguing that Commissioner A. Bartlett Giamatti should be prevented from hearing allegations that Rose had gambled on baseball games.
    (AP, 6/19/99)
1989        Jun 19, The government of Burma renamed the country Myanmar. Rangoon was renamed Yangon.
    (SFC, 5/7/02, p.A9)

1989        Jun 20, Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev greeted the speaker of Iran's parliament, Hashemi Rafsanjani, who was visiting Moscow.
    (AP, 6/20/99)

1989        Jun 21, The US Supreme Court ruled that burning the American flag as a form of political protest is protected by the First Amendment.
    (AP 6/21/97)

1989        Jun 22, The government of Angola and the anti-Communist rebels of the UNITA movement agreed to a formal truce in their 14-year-old civil war. Some 1.5 million people were killed during this period and over 4 million forced to flee their homes. 
    (AP, 6/22/99)(Econ, 1/30/10, p.55)

1989        Jun 23, The movie "Batman" premiered across the US.
1989        Jun 23, The US Supreme Court refused to shut down the "dial-a-porn" industry, ruling Congress had gone too far in passing a law banning all sexually oriented phone message services.
    (AP, 6/23/99)

1989        Jun 24, In China Communist Party general secretary Zhao Ziyang (1920-2005) was ousted for allegedly supporting the protests and put under house arrest. Jiang Zemin became the third hand-picked successor to Deng Xiaoping. Deng resigned from his last official post.
    (AP, 6/24/99)(SFC, 1/17/05, p.B4)

1989        Jun 25, A judge in Cincinnati temporarily blocked a hearing by baseball Commissioner A. Bartlett Giamatti into allegations that Cincinnati Reds manager Pete Rose had gambled on baseball games.
    (AP, 6/25/99)

1989        Jun 26, The Supreme Court ruled that the death penalty may be imposed for murderers who committed their crimes as young as age 16, and for mentally retarded killers as well.
    (AP, 6/26/99)(WSJ, 5/26/04, p.B1)

1989        Jun 27, President Bush, criticizing a Supreme Court decision upholding the right to desecrate the American flag as a form of political protest, called for a constitutional amendment to protect the Stars and Stripes.
    (AP, 6/27/99)
1989        Jun 27, Austrian Foreign Minister Alois Mock (d.2017) and Hungarian Foreign Minister Gyula Horn made headlines by cutting through fencing that represented the communist Iron Curtain separating the two countries.
    (AP, 6/1/17)

1989        Jun 28, China's new Communist Party chief, Jiang Zemin, said his government would show no mercy to leaders of the crushed pro-democracy movement, which he termed a "counterrevolutionary rebellion."
    (AP, 6/28/99)
1989        Jun 28, In a speech at Kosovo Polje Slobodan Milosevic stated that "Yugoslavia is a multinational community and it can survive only under the conditions of full equality for all nations that live in it."

1989        Jun 29, The U.S. House of Representatives voted unanimously in favor of new sanctions against China because of its crackdown on the pro-democracy movement.
    (AP, 6/29/99)

1989        Jun 30, The NY State Legislature passed the Staten Island secession bill.
1989        Jun 30, Gen. Khin Nyunt, Myanmar’s prime minister and intelligence chief, brokered a ceasefire and autonomy deal with Sai Leun (Lin Mingxian), warlord of Mongla, who built the area into a gambling destination for Chinese tourists. The Kokang guerrillas, the main fighting force for the Burmese Communist Party, signed a cease-fire with the military government.
    (http://tinyurl.com/q8saxvf)(Econ, 1/29/05, p.41)(AP, 2/10/15)
1989        Jun 30, General Wojciech Jaruzelski announced he would not run for Poland's new presidency, saying the people viewed him as the man who imposed martial law.
    (AP, 6/29/99)
1989        Jun 30, In Sudan the elected coalition government was overthrown. Omar Hassan al-Bashir and Sheik Hassan al-Turabi, brother-in-law of Sadiq el-Mahdi, seized power. They imposed an Iranian style theocracy along with the strict Muslim Shariah law on the country including the Christian southern Sudan. The National Islamic Front (NIF), the political arm of the Muslim Brotherhood, backed the overthrow of a democratic government under PM Sadiq el-Mahdi and have ruled ever since. The Umma Party and the Democratic Union party established bases in Cairo and Eritrea and later allied with rebel groups that included the Southern People's Liberation Party.
    (SFC, 4/5/97, p.A12)(SFC, 2/20/98, p.A12)(SFC, 12/29/98, p.A6)(Econ, 2/18/12, p.50)

1989        Jun, Alfred Winslow Jones (b.1901), Australia born US journalist and investor, died. He is known as the father of the hedge fund industry. In 1949 he created the first hedge fund eliminating market risk by taking off-setting positions, selling some stocks short while taking a "long" position (i.e. buying) others.
1989        Jun, In Greece political scandals and a messy divorce forced Papandreou and his party from office.
    (SFC, 6/23/96, p.B6)

1989        Jul 1, The NY State Legislature passed the Staten Island secession bill.
1989        Jul 1, "Playboy" magazine founder Hugh Hefner married Kimberley Faye Conrad at his mansion in Los Angeles. The couple separated in 1998.
    (AP, 7/1/99)
1989        Jul 1, The 1987 Montreal Protocol, an international treaty dealing with ozone-destroying pollutants, went into effect. The treaty sought to cut in half production of chemicals posing the greatest risk to ozone.
    (HNQ, 8/11/99)(NYT, 10/8/04, p.A16)

1989        Jul 2, In West Berlin, Germany, the Love Parade festival was begun to celebrate techno music. About 150 people cavorted down Ku’damm to the blare of techno music from a single Volkswagen bus. It was started by the Berlin underground at the initiative of Matthias Roeingh (also known as "Dr Motte") and his then girlfriend Danielle de Picciotto.
    (SFC, 8/18/97, p.E4)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Love_Parade)
1989        Jul 2, In Greece PM Tzannis Tzannetakis (1927-2010) began leading a coalition government for that included his conservative New Democracy party and the Greek Communist Party.
    (AP, 4/2/10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tzannis_Tzannetakis)
1989        Jul 2, Andrei Gromyko (79), former Soviet Foreign Minister died in Moscow.
    (AP, 7/2/99)
1989        Jul 2, Jean Painleve (b.1902), French film maker, died. His science and nature films inspired the Surrealists.
    (WSJ, 6/19/00, p.A44)(http://tinyurl.com/z8n2m)

1989        Jul 3, By a 5-4 decision, the US Supreme Court upheld abortion restrictions in the state of Missouri. The court ruled that states do not have to provide funds for abortions.
    (AP, 7/3/9)
1989        Jul 3, The movie "Batman," set a record of quickest $100 million (10 days).
1989        Jul 3, Jim Backus (76), actor (Magoo, Gilligan's Island), died of pneumonia.

1989        Jul 4, Drew Barrymore (b.1975), actress, attempted suicide.
1989        Jul 4, Unmanned Russian Mig-23 crashed in Bellegem-Kooigem, Belgium, and 1 person died. The pilot had ejected over Poland.
1989        Jul 4, Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev arrived in France for a three-day visit that included an address to the Council of Europe in Strasbourg.
    (AP, 7/4/99)

1989        Jul 5, The Seinfeld Chronicles premiered on US TV. [see May 31, 1990]
1989        Jul 5, Former National Security Council aide Oliver North received a $150,000 fine and a suspended prison term for his part in Iran-Contra. The convictions were later overturned.
    (AP, 7/5/99)
1989        Jul 5, South-African Pres Pieter Botha visited ANC leader Nelson Mandela.

1989        Jul 6, The U.S. Army destroyed its last Pershing 1-A missiles at an ammunition plant in Karnack, Texas, under terms of the 1987 (INF) Intermediate-range Nuclear Forces Treaty.
    (AP, 7/6/99)
1989        Jul 6, Janos Kadar, who helped restore Soviet domination and led Hungary for over 30 years before being replaced in May 1988, died. This same day Hungary's Supreme Court finally rehabilitated the 1956 revolutionaries.
    (AP, 6/16/09)
1989        Jul 6, A Palestinian grabbed the steering wheel of an Israeli bus, causing a crash that claimed 15 lives.
    (AP, 7/6/99)

1989        Jul 7, The US Labor Dept. reported that unemployment rose 0.1% in June to 5.2%.
    (AP, 7/7/99)

1989        Jul 8, Carlos Saul Menem was inaugurated as president of Argentina in the country's first transfer of power from one democratically elected civilian leader to another in six decades.
    (AP, 7/8/99)

1989        Jul 9, West German tennis players Steffi Graf and Boris Becker won the women's and men's singles titles at Wimbledon.
    (AP, 7/9/99)
1989        Jul 9, President Bush began a visit to Poland.
    (AP, 7/9/99)
1989        Jul 9, Two bombs explode in Mecca, killing one pilgrim, wounding 16. Saudi authorities blame Iranian-inspired terrorists and later beheaded 16 Kuwaiti Shiite Muslims for bombings. Iran denied involvement.
    (AP, 2/1/04)

1989        Jul 10, Mel Blanc (81), the "man of a thousand voices," including such cartoon characters as Bugs Bunny, Daffy Duck, Porky Pig, Sylvester and Tweety, Tazmanian Devil, Wile E. Coyote and Roadrunner, died in Los Angeles.
    (AP, 7/10/99)(SFC, 1/16/03, p.A19)

1989        Jul 11, The American League won the 60th All-Star Game, defeating the National League 5-3 in Anaheim, Calif.
    (AP, 7/11/99)
1989        Jul 11, Laurence Olivier (b.1907), British actor, director and producer, died in West Sussex, UK. In 1991 Donald Spoto authored the biography “Laurence Olivier." In 2005 Terry Coleman authored the biography “Olivier." In 2013 Philip Ziegler authored the biography “Olivier."
    (AP, 7/11/99)(SSFC, 11/13/05, p.M6)(Econ, 10/15/05, p.92)(Econ, 9/7/13, p.82)

1989        Jul 12, President Bush continued his visit to Hungary, where he held talks with officials and made a speech at Karl Marx University in Budapest.
    (AP, 7/12/99)
1989        Jul 12, The European Space Agency launched an experimental communications satellite named Olympus. It malfunctioned in 1991 and was lost for a year before communication was re-established. It was damaged during a Perseid meteor shower in 1993 and was taken out of service.
    (Econ, 6/1/13, TQ p.17)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Olympus-1)
1989        Jul 12, A farmer in eastern France went on a shooting rampage, killing 14 people before being captured.
    (AP, 7/12/99)

1989        Jul 13, Washington, D.C. attorney Thomas L. Root was rescued after ditching his private plane in the Atlantic Ocean near the Bahamas; he had suffered a mysterious gunshot wound.
    (AP, 7/13/99)
1989        Jul 13, Cuba executed four military officers for conspiring to smuggle drugs to the United States. Antonio de la Guardia, a colonel in the Interior Ministry, was executed along with army general Arnaldo Ochoa and 2 other officers in a drug trafficking case. Gen’l. Patricio de la Guardia, Antonio’s twin, was sentenced to 30 years in prison. Patricio was released in 1997. Patricio had led an int’l. para-military brigade in Chile during the Allende years that was estimated at 15,000 men.
    (SFC, 3/19/97, p.A14)(WSJ, 10/30/98, p.A19)(AP, 7/13/99)
1989        Jul 13, Abdul Rahman Qassemlu, Kurd leader in Iran, was murdered.

1989        Jul 14, 16th James Bond movies "License to Kill" premiered in the US.
1989        Jul 14, Leaders of the seven richest nations opened a summit in Paris, which was also celebrating the bicentennial of the French Revolution with pomp and pageantry.
    (AP, 7/14/99)
1989        Jul 14, In San Francisco promoters staged a four-round exhibition match between legendary boxer Roberto Duran (38) and Irishman Pat Lawlor (25) of the Sunset District before 4,787 fans at the Civic Auditorium.
    (SSFC, 7/13/14, DB p.38)

1989        Jul 15, Leaders of the seven major industrial democracies, meeting in Paris, voiced support for democracy behind the Iron Curtain and condemned repression in China.
    (AP, 7/15/99)

1989        Jul 16, Leaders of the seven major industrial democracies called at their economic summit in Paris for "decisive action" against global pollution.
    (AP, 7/16/99)
1989        Jul 16, Conductor Herbert von Karajan (b.1908) died near Salzburg, Austria.
    (AP, 7/16/99)

1989        Jul 17, The controversial B-2 Stealth bomber underwent its first test flight at Edwards Air Force Base in California, two days after a technical problem forced a postponement.
    (AP, 7/17/99)
1989        Jul 17, Isidore Feinstein Stone (b.1907), author (I.F. Stone's Weekly), died in Boston. In 2006 Myra MacPherson authored “All Governments Lie," a biography of Stone. In 2009 D.D. Guttenplan authored “American Radical: The Life and Times of I.F. Stone."
    (http://tinyurl.com/nm97z)(WSJ, 9/30/06, p.P8)(Econ, 5/16/09, p.90)

1989        Jul 18, Actress Rebecca Schaeffer (21) was shot to death at her Los Angeles home by obsessed fan Robert Bardo, who was later sentenced to life in prison.
    (AP, 7/18/99)

1989        Jul 19, In Iowa 112 people were killed when a United Air Lines DC-10 crashed while making an emergency landing at Sioux City; 184 other people survived. In 2014 Laurence Gonzales authored “Flight 232: A Story of Disaster and Survival."
    (AP, 7/19/08)(SSFC, 7/27/14, p.N2)

1989        Jul 20, President Bush called for a long-range space program to build an orbiting space station, establish a base on the moon and send a manned mission to the planet Mars.
    (AP, 7/20/99)
1989        Jul 20, In Burma the military authorities placed Aung San Suu Kyi and her deputy Tin Oo under house arrest where she was confined for the next 6 years.
    (SFEC, 8/23/98, BR p.4)(SFC, 5/7/02, p.A9)

1989        Jul 21, The State Department confirmed an ABC News report that Felix S. Bloch, a veteran U.S. diplomat, was being investigated as a possible Soviet spy. Bloch was never charged with espionage, but was fired from his job in 1990.
    (AP, 7/21/99)
1989        Jul 21, Greg LeMond (US) won the Tour de France in record time.
    (MC, 7/21/02)

1989        Jul 22, Nearly 200,000 Palestinian children returned to classrooms in the West Bank after the Israeli army lifted an order that had kept their schools closed during the Palestinian uprising.
    (AP, 7/22/99)

1989        Jul 23, Greg LeMond of the United States won the Tour de France.
    (AP, 7/23/99)
1989        Jul 23, Donald Barthelme (b.1931), US writer, died. His work included over a hundred short stories and 4 novels. In 2009 Tracy Daugherty authored “Hiding Man: A Biography of Donald Barthelme."
    (WSJ, 2/21/09, p.W8)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Donald_Barthelme)
1989        Jul 23, Japan's ruling Liberal Democratic Party lost its majority in the upper house of the Diet in parliamentary elections.
    (AP, 7/23/99)

1989        Jul 24, President Bush said he was "aggrieved" about allegations that veteran U.S. diplomat Felix S. Bloch might have spied for the Soviet Union.
    (AP, 7/24/99)
1989        Jul 24, Japan’s PM Sousuke Uno (1922-1998) resigned in the wake of Japan's ruling party's defeat. Uno resigned amid a scandal involving his geisha mistress. Criticism focused on allegations that he treated her in a miserly fashion.
    (http://openweb.tvnews.vanderbilt.edu/1989-7/1989-07-24-ABC-11.html)(SFC, 8/20/96, p.A18)

1989        Jul 25, The pilot of the United DC-10 that crashed in Sioux City, Iowa, July 19, Alfred C. Haynes, appeared at a news conference in which he dismissed descriptions of himself as a hero after he and his crew managed to save 184 of the 296 people aboard the crippled aircraft.
    (AP, 7/25/99)

1989        Jul 27, Workers at the Nissan Motor Corp. assembly plant in Smyrna, Tenn., voted against representation by the United Auto Workers.
    (AP, 7/27/99)
1989        Jul 27, Charles Stevens (20) of Oakland, Ca., was arrested on a freeway on-ramp while watching police attend to the wrecked car of his last murder victim. Over the last 4 months he had shot to death 4 people and fired at 10 others. In 2007 the California state Supreme Court upheld his death sentence.
    (SFC, 6/5/07, p.C2)
1989        Jul 27, Eighty people were killed when a Korean Air DC-10 crashed in Libya.
    (AP, 7/27/99)

1989        Jul 28, Israeli commandos abducted a pro-Iranian Shiite Muslim Hezbollah cleric, Sheik Abdul-Karim Obeid, from his home in south Lebanon.
    (SFEC, 11/17/96, p.A14)(AP, 7/28/99)

1989        Jul 29, Ji Yun Lee (20) died in a fire at a church camp near East Stroudsburg, Pa. Her father Han Tak Lee (54), a South Korean-born operator of a clothing store in NYC, was arrested for arson. He was convicted of murder on Sep 17, 1990. In 2006 Lee’s attorneys appealed to the state Supreme Court citing new advances in arson investigations.
    (SSFC, 12/10/06, p.A39)
1989        Jul 29, Poland's newly elected president, Wojciech Jaruzelski, resigned as Communist Party general secretary and was succeeded by Mieczyslaw Rakowski (1927-2008). Rakowski, a historian and journalist, remained chairman of the communist Polish United Workers' Party until the party was dissolved at its January 1990 congress during the country's bloodless transition to democracy.
    (AP, 7/29/99)(AP, 11/8/08)

1989        Jul 30, In Lebanon, the pro-Iranian group Organization for the Oppressed on Earth threatened to kill an American hostage, Marine Lt. Col. William R. Higgins, unless Israel released Sheik Abdul-Karim Obeid, a cleric seized by Israeli commandos.
    (AP, 7/30/99)

1989        Jul 31, A pro-Iranian group in Lebanon released a grisly videotape purportedly showing the hanged body of American hostage William R. Higgins.
    (AP, 7/31/97)

1989        Aug 1, The Revolutionary Justice Organization, a pro-Iranian group in Lebanon which had threatened to kill American hostage Joseph Cicippio, extended its deadline a day after another group released a videotape showing a body said to be that of hostage William R. Higgins.
    (AP, 8/1/99)

1989        Aug 2, The House of Representatives voted against including abortion curbs in a spending bill for the District of Columbia.
    (AP, 8/2/99)
1989        Aug 2, NASA confirmed Voyager 2's discovery of 3 more moons of Neptune designated temporarily 1989 N2 (Larissa), 1989 N3 (Despina) and 1989 N4 (Galatea).

1989        Aug 3, Shiite Muslim kidnappers in Lebanon suspended their threat to execute another American hostage, three days after the purported hanging of Lt. Col. William R. Higgins.
    (AP, 8/2/99)
1989        Aug 3, Hashemi Rafsanjani was sworn in as president of Iran.
    (AP, 8/3/99)

1989        Aug 4, Iranian President Hashemi Rafsanjani offered to help end the hostage crisis in Lebanon, prompting President Bush to say he was "encouraged."
    (AP, 8/4/99)

1989        Aug 5, Five Central American presidents began meeting in Honduras to discuss a timetable for dismantling Nicaraguan Contra bases.
    (AP, 8/5/99)

1989        Aug 6, "Oh! Calcutta!" closed at Edison Theater in NYC after 5959 performances.
1989        Aug 6, Jaime Paz Zamora was inaugurated as president of Bolivia.
    (AP, 8/6/99)

1989        Aug 7, A small plane carrying Congressman Mickey Leland, D-Texas, and 15 others disappeared during a flight in Ethiopia. The wreckage of the plane was found six days later; there were no survivors.
    (AP, 8/7/99)

1989        Aug 8, The space shuttle Columbia blasted off from Cape Canaveral, Fla., on a secret, five-day military mission to deploy a new Pentagon spy satellite.
    (AP, 8/8/99)(SSFC, 2/2/03, p.A6)

1989        Aug 9, The Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery and Enforcement Act of 1989 was signed by Pres. George H.W. Bush. It allowed prosecutors more time to bring cases, compel testimony and apply a lower burden of proof involving banks.
    (http://tinyurl.com/cl36wsp)(Econ, 8/30/14, p.23)
1989        Aug 9, Toshiki Kaifu was elected prime minister of Japan, succeeding Sousuke Uno.
    (AP, 8/9/99)
1989        Aug 9, In Mexico, a train fell into the San Rafael River after a bridge collapsed, killing 112 people.
    (AP, 8/9/99)

1989        Aug 10, Poland's Roman Catholic church suspended an agreement to move nuns from a convent on the edge of Auschwitz, blaming Jewish groups for creating what it called an "atmosphere of aggressive demands."
    (AP, 8/10/99)

1989        Aug 11, Poland's Solidarity-dominated Senate adopted a resolution expressing sorrow for the nation's participation in the 1968 Soviet-led invasion of Czechoslovakia.
    (AP, 8/11/99)

1989        Aug 12, The Pentagon said it was stepping up efforts to find missing Texas Rep. Mickey Leland and 15 companions in Ethiopia. The wreckage of the group's airplane, with no survivors, was found the next day.
    (AP, 8/12/99)

1989        Aug 13, The space shuttle Columbia returned from a secret military mission.
    (AP, 8/13/99)
1989        Aug 13, Thirteen people were killed when their hot air balloon collided with another over the Australian outback near the town of Alice Springs. The two balloons were flying at an altitude of 600 meters when one plunged to the ground after the collision.
    (AP, 2/26/13)
1989        Aug 13, Searchers in Ethiopia found the wreckage of a plane which had disappeared almost a week earlier while carrying Texas Congressman Mickey Leland and 15 other people. There were no survivors.
    (AP, 8/13/97)

1989        Aug 14, South African President P.W. Botha announced his resignation after losing a bitter power struggle within his National Party.
    (AP, 8/14/99)

1989        Aug 15, In NYC Darryl Rush was shot to death. Jonathan Fleming, a friend of Rush, was later arrested and convicted, despite proof that he was in Disney World on vacation. On April 8, 2014, Fleming (51) was released from jail and cleared of the murder charges.
    (SFC, 4/9/14, p.A4)
1989        Aug 15, F.W. de Klerk was sworn in as acting president of South Africa, one day after P.W. Botha resigned as the result of a power struggle within the National Party.
    (AP, 8/15/99)

1989        Aug 16, A rare "prime time" lunar eclipse occurred over most of the United States, although clouds spoiled the view for many.
    (AP, 8/16/99)

1989        Aug 17, The Commerce Department reported the U.S. trade deficit had shrunk to $8.7 billion in June.
    (AP, 8/17/99)

1989        Aug 18, The US Labor Department reported that the Consumer Price Index rose only 0.2% in July 1989, easing fears of a recession.
    (AP, 8/18/99)
1989        Aug 18, In Colombia, leading presidential hopeful Luis Carlos Galan was assassinated outside Bogota; the Medellin drug cartel was strongly suspected. On May 12, 2005, Alberto Santofimio Botero, former justice minister, was arrested in connection with the assassination. In 2008 a court overturned the conviction of Alberto Santofimio for lack of evidence. In 2010 Colombian prosecutors issued an arrest warrant for retired Gen. Miguel Maza Marquez (73), a former domestic security chief, who they say participated in the assassination of Galan. In 2011 the Supreme Court reinstated Galan’s murder conviction and reinstated the 24-year prison sentence a lower court imposed in 2007 on Alberto Santofimio.
    (AP, 8/18/99)(AP, 12/22/05)(AP, 10/22/08)(AP, 11/25/10)(AP, 9/1/11)

1989        Aug 19, In San Francisco Roderick "Cooley" Shannon (18) was beaten and shot to death at Leland and Rutland streets. Officers Earl Sanders and Napoleon Hendrix determined that J.J. Tennison and Anton Goff did the killing and withheld evidence in the case. Lovinsky Ricard later confessed to the murder, but refused to testify. Goff and Tennison were convicted in Oct, 1990. In 2003 a federal judge threw out the conviction and Scheduled Goff and Tennison for release. In 2004 Tennison sued SF, Earl Sanders and others for 13 years of wrongful imprisonment. In 2009 SF officials tentatively agreed to pay $4.6 million to Tennison and $2.9 million to Goff.
    (SSFC, 3/16/03, p.A13)(SSFC, 4/6/03, p.A1)(SFC, 8/27/03, p.A1)(SFC, 8/30/03, p.A1)(SFC, 7/28/09, p.C2)
1989        Aug 19, Mark MacPhail, an off duty police officer was killed in Savannah, Georgia. Troy Davis was convicted and sentenced to death in 1991 for killing MacPhail. In 2008 his execution was reprieved for a 3rd time after 7 of 9 witnesses had recanted their testimony. In 2011 his execution was rescheduled for a 4th time.
    (SFC, 10/25/08, p.A3)(www.fop9.net/markmacphail/)(Econ, 11/29/08, p.35)(SFC, 9/7/11, p.A6)
1989        Aug 19, The "Pan-European Picnic" helped precipitate the fall nearly three months later of the Berlin Wall. Members of Hungary's budding opposition organized a picnic at the border with Austria to press for greater political freedom and promote friendship with their Western neighbors. Some 600 East Germans got word of the event and turned up among the estimated 10,000 participants. They took advantage of the excursion to escape to Austria.
    (AP, 8/19/09)
1989        Aug 19, Polish President Wojciech Jaruzelski formally nominated Tadeusz Mazowiecki to become Poland's first non-Communist prime minister in four decades.
    (AP, 8/19/99)

1989        Aug 20, Entertainment executive Jose Menendez and his wife, Kitty, were murdered in their Beverly Hills, Calif., mansion. Eric and Lyle Menendez stood accused of murdering their parents. In their first trial the jury deadlocked, but in 1996 they were convicted of first-degree murder. They based their defense on a history of parental abuse.
    (SFC, 4/18/96, p.a-15)(WSJ, 3/21/96, p.A-1)
1989        Aug 20, British conservationist George Adamson (83) was shot and killed by bandits in Kenya. The husband of Joy Adamson was slaughtered at his Kora wilderness preserve. In 2000 the TV documentary “To Walk with Lions" dramatized his final days.
    (AP, 8/20/99)(WSJ, 9/8/00, p.W4)
1989        Aug 20, Fifty-one people died when a pleasure boat sank in the Thames River in London.
    (AP, 8/20/99)

1989        Aug 21, The US space probe Voyager 2 fired its thrusters to bring it closer to Neptune's mysterious moon Triton.
    (AP, 8/21/99)
1989        Aug 21, Colombian soldiers and police raided the estates of drug lords as part of a crackdown that followed the shooting death of a presidential candidate.
    (AP, 8/21/99)

1989        Aug 22, Nolan Ryan of the Texas Rangers struck out his 5,000th batter, Rickey Henderson.
1989        Aug 22, Black Panther co-founder Huey P. Newton (47) was shot to death in Oakland, Calif., by a drug dealer. On Dec 11, 1991, gunman Tyrone Robinson (25) was sentenced to 32 years to life in prison.
    (AP, 8/22/97)(SFC, 10/24/97, p.A15)(SSFC, 11/27/16, DB p.50)

1989        Aug 23, In a case that inflamed racial tensions in New York City, Yusuf Hawkins, a black teen-ager, was shot dead after he and his friends were confronted by white youths in a Brooklyn neighborhood.
    (AP, 8/23/99)
1989        Aug 23, Approximately two million people joined their hands to form an over 600 km (373 mi) long human chain across the three Baltic states: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. This original demonstration was organized to draw the world's attention to the common historical fate which these three countries suffered. It marked the 50th anniversary of August 23, 1939, when the Soviet Union and Germany in the secret protocol of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact divided spheres of interest in Eastern Europe, which led to the occupation of these three states.
1989        Aug 23, Hungary removed its physical border defenses with Austria, and in September more than 13,000 East German tourists in Hungary escaped to Austria.

1989        Aug 24, Commissioner A. Bartlett Giamatti banned Cincinnati Reds manager Pete Rose from major league baseball for gambling.
    (AP, 8/24/99)
1989        Aug 24, Voyager II passed within three thousand miles of Neptune sending back striking photographs.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.388)(AP, 8/24/99)
1989        Aug 24, British brewery Bass bought the Holiday Inn hotel chain.
1989        Aug 24, Colombian drug lords declared "total war" on the government.
    (AP, 8/24/99)
1989        Aug 24, Poland appointed Tadeusz Mazowiecki prime minister, becoming the first country in the Soviet bloc to name a non-communist prime minister since the late 1940s. Krzysztof Skubiszewski (d.2010 at 83) became foreign minister under PM Mazowiecki. Skubiszewski served under three more prime ministers before leaving the job in 1993.
    (Reuters, 8/24/01)(AP, 2/8/10)

1989        Aug 25, Rep. Barney Frank, D-Mass., acknowledged hiring a male prostitute as a personal employee, then firing him after suspecting the aide was selling sex from Frank's apartment.
    (AP, 8/25/99)
1989        Aug 25, NASA scientists received stunning photographs of Neptune and its moons from Voyager 2.
    (HN, 8/25/98)

1989        Aug 26, A team from Trumbull, Conn., became the first American team since 1983 to win the Little League World Series in Williamsport, Pa.
    (AP, 8/26/99)
1989        Aug 26, Irving Stone, US writer born as Irving Tennenbaum (Love is Eternal, Lust for Life), died in Los Angeles.

1989        Aug 27, Some 100 marched through Bensonhurst, NYC, protesting racial killings.
1989        Aug 27, The first U.S. commercial satellite rocket was launched from Cape Canaveral, Fla., a Delta booster carrying a British communications satellite.
    (AP, 8/27/99)
1989        Aug 27, Chuck Berry performed his tune Johnny B. Goode for NASA staff in celebration of Voyager II's encounter with the planet Neptune.
    (HN, 8/27/98)

1989        Aug 28, Former televangelist Jim Bakker's fraud and conspiracy trial opened in Charlotte, N.C.; Bakker was convicted of all 24 counts the next October and then served 4 ½ years of an 8 year sentence.
    (AP, 8/28/99)(SSFC, 7/22/07, p.B7)

1989        Aug 29, Seven bombs believed set off by drug traffickers exploded in Medellin and Bogota, Colombia.
    (AP, 8/29/99)

1989        Aug 30, A federal jury in New York found "hotel queen" Leona Helmsley guilty of income tax evasion but acquitted her of extortion. Helmsley served 18 months behind bars, a month at a halfway house and two months under house arrest.
    (AP, 8/30/99)
1989        Aug 30, Dorothy Schiff (b.1903) former owner of the New York Post, died. In 2007 Marilyn Nissenson authored “The Lady Upstairs: Dorothy Schiff and the New York Post."
    (WSJ, 4/7/07, p.P10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dorothy_Schiff)
1989        Aug 30, The Cambodian peace talks in Paris collapsed.
    (Hem, 4/96, p.15)(http://tinyurl.com/nz3x5)

1989        Aug 31, Arbitrator Thomas Roberts ordered Major League sports owners to pay $105 million for collusion against free agents after the 1985 baseball season.
1989        Aug 31, Britain's Princess Anne and husband Mark Phillips announced they were separating.
    (AP, 8/31/99)

1989        Aug, WorldCom, formerly LDDS Communications, went public through a merger with Advantage Cos.
    (WSJ, 6/27/02, p.A11)

1989        Sep 1, A. Bartlett Giamatti (51), Baseball Commissioner, died of heart attack at his summer home in Martha's Vineyard, Mass.
    (AP, 9/1/99)

1989        Sep 2, In Nicaragua, a 14-party opposition coalition chose Violeta Barrios de Chamorro as its presidential candidate. Chamorro went on to win the election the following February.
    (AP, 9/2/99)

1989        Sep 3, "Into the Woods" closed at Martin Beck Theater NYC after 764 performances.
1989        Sep 3, The United States began shipping a $65 million package of military aircraft and weapons to help Colombia's war against drug lords.
    (AP, 9/3/99)
1989        Sep 3, In Brazil a Varig 737-300 plane crashed in the Amazon jungle with 52 people aboard. 14 died and 34 were injured.
1989        Sep 3, A Cubana de Aviacion jetliner crashed after takeoff in Havana, killing all 126 aboard and 26 people on the ground.
    (AP, 9/3/99)

1989        Sep 4, The Air Force launched its last Titan 3 rocket, which reportedly carried a reconnaissance satellite. Since 1964, the Titan 3 had sent more than 200 satellites into space.
    (AP, 9/4/99)
1989        Sep 4, Georges Simenon (86), Belgian/French writer and director (Maigret), died. The Belgian born writer, authored some 200 novels. Many featured the crime-busting hero Inspector Maigret.
    (SFC, 6/9/00, p.D5)(www.kirjasto.sci.fi/simenon.htm)

1989        Sep 5, In his first nationally broadcast address from the White House, President Bush outlined a plan to fight illicit drugs, which he called the "quicksand of our entire society."
    (AP, 9/5/99)

1989        Sep 6, The Guardian reported that a French police computer had mixed codes and accused 41,000 Parisians of murder and prostitution rather than traffic fines.
1989        Sep 6, The National Party, the governing party of South Africa, lost nearly a quarter of its parliament seats to far-right and anti-apartheid rivals, its worst setback in four decades.
    (AP, 9/6/99)

1989        Sep 7, The US Senate voted 76-8 to approve the Americans with Disabilities Act, forbidding discrimination in employment, public accommodations, transportation and communications.
    (AP, 9/7/99)
1989        Sep 7, A robbery by 2 bandits took place at the BofA headquarters. A Brink’s guard was killed and another wounded along with a passer-by. The bandits escaped on mountain bikes with undisclosed sums that were later believed to be bearer bonds.
    (SFEC, 6/25/00, Z1 p.3)

1989        Sep 8, Former President Reagan underwent surgery at the Mayo Clinic in Minnesota to relieve fluid build-up on his brain after a horse-riding accident.
    (AP, 9/8/99)

1989        Sep 9, West German Steffi Graf won the women's tennis title at the U.S. Open in New York, defeating second-ranked Martina Navratilova.
    (AP, 9/9/99)

1989        Sep 10, Hungary gave permission for thousands of East German refugees and visitors to emigrate to West Germany.
    (AP, 9/10/99)

1989        Sep 11, The exodus of East German refugees from Hungary to West Germany began, by way of Austria.
    (AP, 9/11/99)

1989        Sep 12, David Dinkins, Manhattan borough president, won New York City's Democratic mayoral primary, defeating incumbent Mayor Ed Koch and two other candidates on his way to becoming the city's first black mayor.
    (AP, 9/12/99)

1989        Sep 13, Fay Vincent was named commissioner of Major League Baseball, succeeding the late A. Bartlett Giamatti.
    (AP, 9/13/97)
1989        Sep 13, Desmond Tutu led the biggest anti-apartheid protest march in S. Africa.

1989        Sep 14, ACT-UP AIDS activists shut down the New York Stock Exchange for a short time when they chained themselves to a balcony overlooking the floor.
    (SFC, 3/22/97, p.A13)
1989        Sep 14, Joseph T. Wesbecker, a 47-year-old pressman on disability for mental illness, killed himself after he shot 8 people dead and wounded 12 at a printing plant in Louisville, Ky.
    (AP, 9/14/99)

1989        Sep 15, Pulitzer Prize-winning author Robert Penn Warren (b.1905), the first poet laureate of the United States, died in Stratton, Vt., at age 84. He authored 16 poetry collections and 10 novels that included the 1946 "All the King’s Men."
    (WSJ, 2/27/97, p.A15)(AP, 9/14/99)

1989        Sep 16, Debbye Turner of Missouri was crowned Miss America at the pageant in Atlantic City, N.J.
    (AP, 9/16/99)

1989        Sep 17, In the 41st Emmy Awards winners included LA Law, Cheers, Dana Delany & Candice Bergen.
1989        Sep 17, Hurricane Hugo slammed into several Caribbean islands, including St. Croix, which was the hardest hit. The 4 day sweep through the Caribbean killed 62.
    (AP, 9/17/99)

1989        Sep 18, California’s Gov. Deukmejian signed into law a bill making it illegal to eat household pets.
    (SSFC, 9/14/14, DB p.42)
1989        Sep 18, The NeXT computer with NeXTSTEP 1.0 software was released. The computer was priced at $6,500.
    (SFC, 8/25/11, p.A10)
1989        Sep 18, Hurricane Hugo reached Puerto Rico, causing extensive damage as it continued to barrel toward the U.S. mainland.
    (AP, 9/18/97)

1989        Sep 19, A Paris-bound French DC-10, UTA Flight 772, was bombed over the Sahara desert of Niger and all 170 passengers died. French authorities placed the blame on Libya’s Abdallah Senoussi, brother-in-law of Moammar Khadafy and chief of foreign operations for the Libyan secret service. The six Libyan suspects were named by a French judge in 1998 and tried in absentia in 1999. The attack was in retaliation for French intervention on behalf of Chad in a war with Libya since the mid 1980s. In 2004 Libya signed a $170 million compensation accord with families of the people killed. In 2008 a federal judge in Washington ordered Libya and six of its officials to pay more than $6 billion in damages to the families of 7 Americans killed in the attack.
    (SFC, 5/7/97, p.C3)(SFEC, 10/19/97, p.A26)(WSJ, 1/30/98, p.A1)(SFC, 6/13/98, p.A11)(SFC, 3/9/99, p.B10)(AP, 9/19/99)(AP, 1/9/04)(Reuters, 1/16/08)

1989        Sep 20, The musical "Miss Saigon," premiered in London.
1989        Sep 20, Soviet leader Mikhail S. Gorbachev pulled off a major shake-up of the Soviet Communist Party, dropping three Politburo members.
    (AP, 9/20/99)
1989        Sep 20, F.W. de Klerk (b.1936) was sworn in as president of South Africa. Frederik Willem de Klerk was the last president (1989-1994) of Apartheid-era South Africa.
    (AP, 9/20/99)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frederik_Willem_de_Klerk)

1989        Sep 21, General Colin Powell was confirmed by the U.S. Senate as Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
    (HN, 9/21/98)
1989        Sep 21, Hurricane Hugo, packing winds of up to 135 mph, crashed into Charleston, S.C.
    (AP, 9/21/99)
1989        Sep 21, In Alton, Texas, 21 students died when their school bus collided with a truck and careered into a water-filled pit.
    (AP, 9/21/99)

1989        Sep 22, Irving Berlin, one of America's most prolific songwriters, died in New York City at age 101.
    (AP, 9/22/99)
1989        Sep 22, An IRA-bomb killed 10 British marines in Kent.

1989        Sep 23, President Bush, saying he was "very pleased" with talks between Secretary of State James Baker and Soviet Foreign Minister Eduard Shevardnadze, told reporters there would be a superpower summit later in the year.
    (AP, 9/23/99)

1989        Sep 24, Residents of Charleston, S.C., attended church services as they faced a third day of recovering from the devastation of Hurricane Hugo. Hugo caused 56 deaths in the Caribbean and 29 in the United States. The storm hit Guadeloupe, Montserrat, the U.S. Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico before striking South Carolina.
    (AP, 9/24/99)(AP, 9/11/04)

1989        Sep 25, President Bush, addressing the UN General Assembly, offered to slash American stocks of chemical weapons by more than 80%, provided the Soviets did the same.
    (AP, 9/25/99)

1989        Sep 26, In a speech to the UN General Assembly, Soviet Foreign Minister Eduard Shevardnadze accepted President Bush's call for deep cuts in US and Soviet chemical weapon stockpiles. Shevardnadze called for the total destruction of Soviet and US chemical weapons.
    (AP, 9/26/99)(www.fas.org/nuke/control/bwc/chron.htm)
1989        Sep 26, The last Vietnamese soldiers left Cambodia. Vietnam withdrew the last of 26,000 troops.
    (SFC, 6/14/97, p.A15)(PC, 1992 ed, p.1113)

1989        Sep 27, Columbia Pictures Entertainment Inc. agreed to a $3.4 billion buyout by Sony Corporation.
    (AP, 9/27/99)

1989        Sep 28, Deposed Philippine President Ferdinand E. Marcos died in exile in Hawaii at age 72. He was the author of 2 books: "The Law of Human Rights in the Philippines" and "Democracy in the Philippines." Marcos’ corrupt US backed regime in the Philippines spanned over twenty years. Corazon Aquino was his successor.
    (SFC, 8/23/96, p.A26)(AP, 9/28/97)(SFC, 5/12/97, p.A18)

1989        Sep 29, In California The Integrated Waste Management Act of 1989 was signed into law. Republican Gov. George Deukmejian and Democratic lawmakers in control of the Legislature had negotiated the creation of the Integrated Waste Management Board to oversee the reduction of waste going to landfills.
    (SSFC, 6/14/09, p.A10)(http://tinyurl.com/l9wx7d)
1989        Sep 29, Actress Zsa Zsa Gabor was convicted of battery for slapping a Beverly Hills police officer who had pulled over her Rolls-Royce for expired license plates. As part of her sentence, Gabor served three days in jail.
    (AP, 9/29/99)

1989        Sep 30, Virgil Thomson (b.1896), US composer and critic, died at age 92. His work included “4 Saints in 3 Acts" (1934) and "The Mother of Us All," products of the collaboration between the closeted gay composer and the extroverted lesbian poet, Gertrude Stein. In 1997 Anthony Tommasini wrote "Virgil Thomson: Composer on the Aisle."
    (www.glbtq.com/arts/thomson_v.html)(SFEC, 10/19/97, Par p.18)
1989        Sep 30, Thousands of East Germans who had sought refuge in West German embassies in Czechoslovakia and Poland began emigrating under an accord between Soviet bloc and NATO nations.
    (AP, 9/30/99)

1989        Sep, Ten workers of the Kentucky Pyro Mining Co. were killed in a mine explosion of methane gas. In 1996 3 executives were sentenced to prison for safety-law violations.
    (SFC, 6/13/96, p.A4)(WSJ, 6/14/96, p.A7)
1989         Sep, Ramiz Alia, head of Albania, addressed the Eighth Plenum of the Central Committee and signaled that radical changes to the economic system were necessary.
1989        Sep, Israel outlawed Hamas as a terrorist organization following dozens of shooting attacks that killed Israelis.
    (SFC, 3/23/04, p.A11)(www.ict.org.il/inter_ter/orgdet.cfm?orgid=13)
1989        Sep, Werner Aspenstrom (1919-1997), Swedish poet, resigned from the Nobel Academy for literature, along with novelists Kerstin Ekman and Lars Gyllensten, for the academy’s weak response to the Salmon Rushdie controversy. Aspenstrom’s work included "Snolegend" (1949) and "Varelser" (1989).

1989        Oct 1, Gen. Colin Powell was appointed Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff for the US Dept. of Defense.
    (SSFC, 12/17/00, p.A14)
1989        Oct 1, The San Francisco Health Department reported the first two documented cases in which men became infected with the AIDS virus through oral sex.
1989        Oct 1, Thousands of East Germans received a triumphal welcome in West Germany after the communist government agreed to let them leave for the West.
    (AP, 10/1/99)
1989        Oct 1, In Copenhagen, Denmark, 11 homosexual couples were married. It was the first time any country allowed such marriages.
    (SFC, 5/26/96, Z1 p.6)(SFC, 12/12/98, p.B3)

1989        Oct 2, Nearly 10,000 people marched through Leipzig, East Germany, demanding legalization of opposition groups and adoption of democratic reforms in the country's largest protest since 1953.
    (AP, 10/2/99)

1989        Oct 3, Art Shell became the first African-American to coach a professional football team, the Los Angeles Raiders.
    (HN, 10/3/98)
1989        Oct 3, In a move to stem the flow of refugees to the West, East Germany suspended unrestricted travel to Czechoslovakia.
    (AP, 10/3/99)
1989        Oct 3, The EU Parliament issued its “Television Without Frontiers" directive.
1989        Oct 3, Troops loyal to Panamanian leader General Manuel Noriega crushed a coup attempt by rebel mid-level officers. The officers, including Maj. Moises Giroldi, who led the failed coup against Noriega were later executed. Noriega was convicted in absentia in 1995 and in 1999 Panama sought his extradition to face trial.
    (AP, 10/3/99)(WSJ, 4/7/99, p.A1)(SFC, 1/25/07, p.A14)

1989        Oct 4, Fawaz Younis, a Lebanese hijacker convicted of commandeering a Jordanian jetliner in 1985 with two Americans aboard, was sentenced in Washington to 30 years in prison.
    (AP, 10/4/99)
1989        Oct 4, Famed race horse Secretariat, the 1973 Triple Crown winner, died at Claiborne Farm, Paris, Ky., at age 19 ½.
    (AH, 10/04, p.15)

1989        Oct 5, The Dalai Lama, the spiritual and temporal leader of Tibet, was named winner of the Nobel Peace Prize.
    (AP, 10/5/99)
1989        Oct 5, A jury in Charlotte, N.C., convicted former PTL evangelist Jim Bakker on all 24 counts of fraud and conspiracy. He used his television show to defraud followers.
    (AP, 10/5/99)

1989        Oct 6, Actress Bette Davis (81) died in Neuilly-sur-Seine, France. In 1962 she authored her memoir “The Lonely Life." In 2006 Charlotte Chandler authored “The Girl Who Walked Home Alone," a personal biography of Davis.
    (AP, 10/6/97)(WSJ, 3/4/06, p.P8)(WSJ, 2/21/09, p.W8)
1989        Oct 6, Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev joined in festivities in East Berlin marking the 40th anniversary of East Germany, while thousands of refugees migrated to the West.
    (AP, 10/6/99)

1989        Oct 7, Hungary's Communist Party renounced Marxism in favor of democratic socialism during a party congress in Budapest.
    (AP, 10/7/99)

1989        Oct 8, The Oakland A's won the American League pennant for the second year in a row by defeating the Toronto Blue Jays.
    (AP, 10/8/99)

1989        Oct 9, The San Francisco Giants won the National League championship by defeating the Chicago Cubs.
    (AP, 10/9/99)
1989        Oct 9, The official Soviet news agency Tass reported that a spaceship of some kind, complete with a trio of tall aliens, had visited a park in the city of Voronezh.
    (AP, 10/9/99)

1989        Oct 10, South African President F.W. de Klerk announced that eight prominent political prisoners, including African National Congress official Walter Sisulu, would be unconditionally freed, but that Nelson Mandela would remain imprisoned.
    (AP, 10/10/99)

1989        Oct 11, The US House narrowly approved an amendment to an appropriations bill that would restore Medicaid for abortions in cases of rape or incest. President Bush later vetoed the bill, and the veto was upheld.
    (AP, 10/11/99)
1989        Oct 11, In California Cathy Paternoster (32) was shot and killed and her boyfriend Carl Fuerst (41) was wounded outside their Spring Valley Lake home. In 2009 Eric Fagan (74) was arrested in connection with the killing of Paternoster, his girlfriend’s daugher. Police said Fagan had killed Cathy Paternoster so that her mother, Betty Paternoster, could gain custody of her 3 granddaughters.
    (SFC, 10/23/09, p.D4)(www.sbsun.com/news/ci_13618941)

1989        Oct 12, The US House approved a statutory federal ban on desecration of the American flag. The Senate defeated the measure a week later.
    (AP, 10/12/99)
1989        Oct 12, Jay Ward (b.1920), cartoonist, died. He and Bill Scott produced the 1959 TV show "Rocky and His Friends," which featured Rocket J. Squirrel and Bullwinkle J. Moose.
    (SFEC, 12/15/96, DB p.63)(http://members.shaw.ca/fffff/ward.html)
1989        Oct 12, Greek PM Tzannis Tzannetakis resigned when the Synaspismos withdrew its support. Yiannis Grivas then formed a caretaker government until fresh elections could be held.

1989        Oct 13, The Dow Jones Industrial Average plunged 190 points, triggering memories of the 1987 crash.
    (AP, 10/13/99)

1989        Oct 14, Colombia extradited three suspected drug traffickers to the United States as part of a war on the cocaine cartel.
    (AP, 10/14/99)

1989        Oct 15, The NHL's Wayne Gretzky of the Los Angeles Kings surpassed Gordie Howe's scoring record of 1,850 points, in a game against the Edmonton Oilers.
    (AP, 10/15/99)
1989        Oct 15, South African officials released eight prominent political prisoners, including Walter Sisulu, a leader of the African National Congress.
    (AP, 10/15/99)

1989        Oct 16, President Bush signed an order cutting federal programs by $16.1 billion under the Gramm-Rudman budget-reduction law.
    (AP, 10/16/99)

1989        Oct 17, The SF Marriott Marquis Hotel opened at 780 Mission St. The Olympia & York Real Estate Dev. Co. opened the 1,500 room Marriott, which was quickly dubbed the Jukebox Marriott for its garish design by Daniel Mann Johnson & Mendenhall.
    (SF E&C, 1/15/1995, SFE Mag. p.26)(SFC, 1/4/99, p.E3)(SSFC, 8/17/14, p.E2)
1989        Oct 17, The 7.1 Loma Prieta earthquake [Watsonville] hit the Bay Area minutes before the start of a World Series game at San Francisco’s Candlestick Park. 67 people died and 3,000 were injured. It caused $7 billion worth of damage. The Spreckels Temple of Music in Golden Gate Park was damaged and later restored. 28,000 structures were damaged and several freeways ruined. 42 people died on the Cypress Freeway. At the train station in SF Dr. Margaret McChesney commandeered a tour bus to take frightened passengers home and navigated the driver safely through barricades of cars and gangs of marauding youths on 3rd St. In 1999 new measuring methods changed the magnitude to 6.9.
    (SFC, 4/15/96, A-6)(SFC, 10/17/96, A15)(SFC, 7/23/97, p.A13)(AP, 10/17/97)(AR, 9/12/98)(HN, 10/17/98)(SFC, 10/7/99, p.A21)

1989        Oct 18, The space shuttle Atlantis was launched on a five-day mission that included deployment of the Galileo space probe on a course for Jupiter.
    (SFC, 6/28/96, p.A2)(AP, 10/18/99)
1989        Oct 18, In East Germany after 18 years in power, Erich Honecker resigned from his offices as head of state and party leader. He was succeeded by Egon Krenz.
    (AP, 10/18/97)(http://tinyurl.com/akpba)(http://tinyurl.com/84fnq)

1989        Oct 19, Camilo Jose Cela of Spain received the Nobel Prize for literature.
    (AP, 10/19/99)
1989        Oct 19, The US Senate rejected a proposed constitutional amendment barring desecration of the American flag.
    (AP, 10/19/99)
1989        Oct 19, The Guildford Four, cleared from earlier conviction for the 1975 IRA bombings of public houses in Guildford and Woolwich, England, were cleared of all charges after 14 years in prison. Sarah Conlon (1926-2008) struggled for years to clear her son, Gerry Conlon, imprisoned as one of the Guildford Four. Conlon's autobiography, "Proved Innocent" (1990), became the basis for the 1993 film, "In the Name of the Father," starring Daniel Day-Lewis as Conlon.
    (http://tinyurl.com/7dyb2)(Econ, 8/2/08, p.88)(AP, 6/21/14)

1989        Oct 20, The Senate convicted U.S. District Judge Alcee L. Hastings of perjury and conspiracy and removed him from office. The conviction was later overturned and Hastings was later elected in Florida to the House of Representatives.
    (AP, 10/20/99)(SFC, 9/18/08, p.A6)
1989        Oct 20, Former President Reagan and his wife, Nancy, began a visit to Japan sponsored by a media conglomerate.
    (AP, 10/20/99)
1989        Oct 20, Smith Dairy at Orrville, Ohio, made the largest milk shake (1,575.2 gal).
1989        Oct 20, Anthony Quayle (76), English actor (Moses, Operation Crossbow), died in London of liver cancer.

1989        Oct 21, Rescue workers in Oakland, Calif., pulled longshoreman Buck Helm alive from the wreckage of the Nimitz Freeway, part of which had collapsed during the Oct. 17 earthquake. Helm died less than a month later.
    (AP, 10/21/99)

1989        Oct 22, Survivors of the Northern California earthquake attended church services as the cleanup and recovery efforts continued.
    (AP, 10/22/99)
1989        Oct 22, Jacob Erwin Wetterling (b.1978) was abducted in St. Joseph, Minnesota. Neither he or his abductor have been found. In 1994, the Jacob Wetterling Crimes Against Children and Sexually Violent Offender Registration Act, more simply known as the Jacob Wetterling Act, was passed in his honor.
1989        Oct 22, Khmer Rouge occupied Pailin in Cambodia. The Khmer Rouge used the gem mining town of Pailin near the Thai border to finance its operations with gem and timber profits.
1989        Oct 22, The Lebanese parliament agreed on a power-sharing formula between Christians and Muslims that ended civil war a year later.
    (SFC, 5/24/00, p.A15)

1989        Oct 23, In a case that inflamed racial tensions in Boston, Charles Stuart claimed he and his pregnant wife, Carol, had been shot in their car by a black robber. Carol Stuart and her prematurely delivered baby died; Charles Stuart later died, an apparent suicide, after he was implicated.
    (AP, 10/23/99)
1989        Oct 23, Twenty-three people were killed in an explosion at Phillips Petroleum Co.'s chemical complex in Pasadena, Texas.
    (AP, 10/23/99)
1989        Oct 23, Hungary proclaimed itself a republic and declared an end to communist rule.

1989        Oct 24, TV evangelist Jim Bakker was sentenced to 45 years in prison and fined half-a-million dollars for fleecing his flock.
1989            Oct 24, In East Germany Egon Krenz assumed the chairmanship of the Council of State. [see Dec 3,6]

1989        Oct 25, Novelist and critic Mary McCarthy (b.1912) died in New York at age 77. Her work included: "The Company She Keeps," "Memoirs of a Catholic Girlhood," "The Group," and "Ideas and the Novel." In 2000 Frances Kiernan authored the biography "Seeing Mary Plain."
    (AP, 10/25/99)(WSJ, 3/17/00, p.W9)(SFEC, 4/30/00, BR p.3)
1989        Oct 25, Soviet leader Mikhail S. Gorbachev began a three-day visit to Finland.
    (AP, 10/25/99)

1989        Oct 26, Washington, D.C. attorney Paul Tagliabue was tapped by NFL team owners to be the league's new commissioner, succeeding Pete Rozelle.
    (AP, 10/26/99)

1989        Oct 27, The third game of the World Series, delayed by the Northern California earthquake, was played at Candlestick Park. The Oakland A's defeated the SF Giants, 13-7.
    (AP, 10/27/99)

1989        Oct 28, The Oakland A's won the earthquake-interrupted World Series, completing a four-game sweep of the San Francisco Giants.
    (AP, 10/28/99)
1989        Oct 28, Twenty people were killed in the crash of a commuter plane on the island of Hawaii.
    (AP, 10/28/99)

1989        Oct 29, Angelo Mercurio (1936-2006), an FBI informant, attended a Mafia induction ceremony at a suburban Boston home. His evidence helped bring down the crime family led by Raymond “Junior" Patriarca.
    (SFC, 2/13/07, p.B4)(http://tinyurl.com/36ccng)
1989        Oct 29, At least 20,000 East Berliners observed a minute of silence for those killed while attempting to flee over the Berlin Wall, the first such public mourning since Communist Party authorities built the wall in 1961.
    (AP, 10/29/99)

1989        Oct 30, Mitsubishi Estate Co., a major Japanese real estate concern, announced it was buying 51 percent of Rockefeller Group Inc. of New York.
    (AP, 10/30/99)

1989        Oct 31, President Bush announced he and Soviet leader Mikhail S. Gorbachev would hold an early December summit aboard ships in the Mediterranean near Malta.
    (AP, 10/31/99)

1989        Oct, Al Martino, pop singer, was inducted into the Philadelphia Hall of Fame.
    (SFEC, 10/5/97, DB p.74)
1989        Oct, Britain’s chancellor Nigel Lawson resigned, infuriated that PM Margaret Thatcher was trying to undermine his policy of shadowing the Deutschmark.
    (Econ, 4/13/13, p.28)
1989        Oct, The Nobel Prize in Economics was awarded to Trygve Haavelmo of Norway, for clarification of the probability theory foundation of econometrics.
    (SFC, 10/15/98, p.A2)(AP, 10/11/09)
1989        Oct, Pres. Menem issued pardons to 277 of those already convicted or indicted for crimes during the rule of the military junta, including nearly 40 generals and several guerrilla leaders.
    (Econ, 4/14/07, p.40)(www.hrw.org/reports/1989/WR89/Argentin.htm)
1989        Oct, In El Salvador the CIA station in San Salvador began providing the Salvadoran security forces with money to the resettle Marxist guerilla turned informer, Pedro Antonio Andrade Martinez (aka Mario Gonzalez), in the US. He had been recently captured and became a highly paid informer for the Salvadoran armed forces. Information from Andrade later led to the capture, torture or disappearance of some 200 guerrillas. In 1996 he was arrested in the US for failure to renew his visa. In 1997 the Clinton administration sought to deport him.
    (SFC, 11/22/96, p.A21)(SFC, 2/22/96, p.A7)

1989        Nov 1, Sadie Tanner Mossell Alexander (b.1898), the first African-American to earn a PhD in economics (1921), died in Philadelphia. She was also the first woman to receive a law degree from the University of Pennsylvania Law School.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sadie_Tanner_Mossell_Alexander)(Econ., 12/19/20, p.42)
1989        Nov 1, East Germany reopened its border with Czechoslovakia, prompting tens of thousands of refugees to flee to the West.
    (AP, 11/1/99)
1989        Nov 1, A Scandinavian Airlines System (SAS) and Finnair ban on smoking took effect for all Nordic flights.

1989        Nov 2, President Bush and congressional Republicans dropped their Capitol Hill quest for a cut in the capital gains tax.
    (AP, 11/2/99)
1989        Nov 2, Sister Diana Ortiz was raped and tortured in Guatemala. She has claimed that a man called Allejandro appeared in charge and that he spoke colloquial English and spoke of contacts with the US Embassy. The US government has denied any connection.
    (SFC, 5/4/96, p.A-6)(SFC, 5/7/96, p.A-10)

1989        Nov 3, East German leader Egon Krenz delivered a nationally broadcast speech in which he promised sweeping economic and political reforms and called on East Germans to stay.
    (AP, 11/3/99)

1989        Nov 4, Up to a million East Germans filled the streets of East Berlin for a pro-democracy rally.
    (AP, 11/4/99)
1989        Nov 4, Typhoon Gay hit India. It claimed 69 lives there and destroyed or damaged some 20,000 homes. In total it caused 1,060 direct casualties.

1989        Nov 4, Iran marked the 10th anniversary of the seizure of the U.S. Embassy.
    (AP, 11/4/99)
1989        Nov 4, In Japan Yokohama lawyer, Tsutsumi Sakamoto, was kidnapped with his wife and infant son. He had been leading a legal crusade against the Aum Shinri Kyo cult. Later top members of the cult admitted to killing the family. In 1998 Kazuaki Okazaki (38) was sentenced to death for the murder. In 2000 Satoru Hashimoto was sentenced to death for the strangling deaths of the Sakamoto family and for the 1995 sarin gas attacks.
    (SFC, 4/24/96, p.A-8)(SFC, 10/24/98, p.A12)(SFC, 7/26/00, p.A14)

1989        Nov 5, Vladimir Horowitz, Russian-born pianist, died at age 85. His wife, Wanda, (d.1998), was the daughter of conductor Arturo Toscanini.
    (SFEC, 8/23/98, p.D4)(AP, 11/5/99)
1989        Nov 5, Singer-songwriter Barry Sadler, 49, died in Murfreesboro, Tenn.
    (AP, 11/5/99)

1989        Nov 6, Kitty Dukakis, wife of Massachusetts Gov. Michael S. Dukakis, was hospitalized after ingesting rubbing alcohol.
    (AP, 11/6/99)
1989        Nov 6, Word Perfect 5.1 was released.
1989        Nov 6, The Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) forum, initiated by Australia, began as an informal Ministerial-level dialogue group with 12 members: Australia, Brunei, Canada, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, New Zealand, Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Thailand, United States.
    (SFEC, 11/23/97, p.A21)(www.apec.org/apec/member_economies.html)

1989        Nov 7, NYC elected its 1st black mayor, David N. Dinkins, and female comptroller, Elizabeth Holtzman.
    (AP, 11/7/97)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_Dinkins)
1989        Nov 7, L. Douglas Wilder won the governor's race in Virginia, becoming the first elected black governor in US history.
    (AP, 11/7/97)
1989        Nov 7, Richard Ramirez, convicted of California's "Night Stalker" killings, was sentenced to death.
    (AP, 11/7/99)

1989        Nov 8, In an attempt to strengthen his 3-week-old leadership, East German Communist Party chief Egon Krenz ousted the old guard of the ruling Politburo, replacing them with reformers.
    (AP, 11/8/99)
1989        Nov 8, Jordan held elections. Each voter cast one ballot for an individual candidate and another for an electoral list. Islamists formed the largest bloc in parliament.
    (AP, 1/23/13)

1989        Nov 9, The Berlin Wall broke open after East German bureaucrat Guenter Schabowski (1929-2015) pulled a sheet of paper from his pocket and read out a decree stating that visas would be freely granted to those wanting to travel outside or leave the Stalinist state. Joyous Germans danced atop the Berlin Wall. Over its 28-year history at least 136 people were confirmed killed trying to cross the Wall into West Berlin, according to official figures. However, a prominent victims' group claimed that more than 200 people were killed trying to flee from East to West Berlin. Peter Wyden in this year authored "Wall: The Inside Story of Divided Berlin." In 2004 William F. Buckley authored "The Fall of the Berlin Wall." In 2014 Mary Elise Sarotte authored “The Collapse: The Accidental Opening of the Berlin Wall."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Berlin_Wall)(SFC, 5/30/96, p.A12)(AP, 11/9/97)(SSFC, 6/24/01, p.A27)(WSJ, 3/18/04, p.D10)(Econ, 9/27/08, p.25)(Econ, 11/8/14, p.83)(AFP, 11/1/15)
1989        Nov 9, Turgut Ozal became the 8th president of Turkey elected by the Grand National Assembly of Turkey.

1989        Nov 10, In Bulgaria Communist ruler Todor Zhivkov (1911-1998) was thrown out of office after a 35-year dictatorship. The ouster was led by Foreign Minister Petar Mladenov who later became president.
    (SFC, 11/29/96, p.B3)(SFC, 5/2/97, p.A14)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Todor_Zhivkov)
1989        Nov 10, Workers began punching a hole in the Berlin Wall, a day after East Germany abolished its border restrictions.
    (AP, 11/10/99)

1989        Nov 11, In a telephone conversation with West German Chancellor Helmut Kohl, East German leader Egon Krenz ruled out any possibility reunification.
    (AP, 11/11/99)

1989        Nov 12, The Broadway musical "Grand Hotel," written by George Forrest and Robert Wright, opened at the Martin Beck Theater for 1018 performances. William A. Drake's 1932 screenplay was based on his own play adaptation of Vicki Baum's novel Menschen im Hotel.
    (SFC, 10/13/99, p.C2)(www.ibdb.com/production.asp?ID=4254)
1989        Nov 12, Abortion rights advocates rallied in cities across the country, including Washington, D.C.
    (AP, 11/12/99)
1989        Nov 12, A triple conjunction of Neptune and Saturn took place.

1989        Nov 13, IBM and Microsoft expanded their partnership and agreed to develop software for MS-DOS, MS OS/2, and MS LAN.
    (Wired, 12/98, p.197)

1989        Nov 14, The U.S. Navy, alarmed over a recent string of serious accidents, ordered an unprecedented 48-hour stand-down.
    (AP, 11/14/99)

1989        Nov 15, Solidarity leader Lech Walesa was cheered by American lawmakers as he told a joint meeting of Congress that U.S. aid to Poland "will not be wasted, and will never be forgotten."
    (AP, 11/15/99)

1989        Nov 16, In El Salvador 6 Jesuit priests and two other people were slain by uniformed gunmen at the Jose Simeon Canas University in an attack later blamed on army troops. In 2020 it was reported that two days before the killing, members of an elite military group, the Atlacatl Battalion, had done a "cateo," or targeted reconnaissance, of the priests' residence. Later 19 Salvadoran soldiers, trained at the US Army School of the Americas, were linked to the killing. In 2006 US police in Los Angeles arrested a Salvadoran ex-lieutenant convicted of killing the 6 Jesuits. In 2009 a Spanish judge opened an investigation into 14 ex-Salvadoran military officials and considered indicting them over the killings. In 2009 the 6 Jesuits were decorated with the country's highest honor. In 2011 twenty Salvadorans were indicted in Spain for their alleged roles in the killings. On Feb 5, 2016, police arrested four former soldiers wanted in Spain for the murder of the six Jesuit priests.
    (AP, 11/16/99)(SFC, 9/21/96, p.A3)(WSJ, 10/27/06, p.A1)(AP, 1/13/09)(AP, 11/16/09)(SFC, 9/12/12, p.A8)(AP, 2/6/16)(NBC News, 9/7/20)

1989        Nov 17, A US Senate Ethics Committee hired an outside counsel to look into allegations of improprieties against six senators.
    (AP, 11/17/99)
1989        Nov 17, The Cosmic Background Explorer Satellite (COBE) was launched. It provided evidence for the "Big Bang" that spawned the universe 10-20 billion years ago. Dr. David T. Wilkinson (1935-2002) was the driving force behind the launch.
    (SFEC, 9/28/97, p.A14)(SFC, 9/16/02, p.A20)
1989        Nov 17, Emerson Buckley (b.1917), conductor and composer, died.
1989        Nov 17, In Prague, Czechoslovakia, a protest began as a legal rally to commemorate the death of Jan Opletal, but turned instead into a demonstration demanding democratic reforms. Riot police stopped the students halfway in their march, in Narodni trida. After a stand-off in which the students offered flowers to the riot police and showed no resistance, the police began beating the young demonstrators with night sticks. The six-week period between November 17 and December 29, 1989, also known as the "Velvet Revolution" brought about the bloodless overthrow of the Czechoslovak communist regime.

1989        Nov 18, Pennsylvania became the 1st state to restrict abortions after Supreme Court gave states the right to do so.
1989        Nov 18, Longshoreman Buck Helm died at a hospital in Oakland, almost a month after he was pulled from a section of the Nimitz Freeway flattened by the northern California earthquake.
    (AP, 11/18/99)

1989        Nov 19, Funeral services were held in El Salvador for six Jesuit priests slain by uniformed gunmen.
    (AP, 11/19/99)

1989        Nov 20, More than 200,000 people rallied peacefully in Prague, Czechoslovakia, demanding democratic reforms and the ouster of Communist Party leader Milos Jakes.
    (AP, 11/20/99)
1989        Nov 20, The Int’l. Convention on the Rights of the Child was established to protect the economic, social and civil rights of children. The US and Somalia did not ratify the Convention.
    (SFEC, 10/8/00, Z1 p.4)(AP, 11/20/09)

1989        Nov 21, A law banning smoking on most domestic flights signed by President Bush.
1989        Nov 21, The proceedings of Britain's House of Commons were televised live for the first time.
    (AP, 11/21/99)

1989        Nov 22, Eastern Airlines pilots and flight attendants ended their strike. President Bush vetoed a bill that would set up panel to investigate walkout. The strike by machinists continued.
1989        Nov 22, The space shuttle Discovery blasted off at night.
    (AP, 11/22/99)
1989        Nov 22, President Rene Moawad of Lebanon was assassinated less than three weeks after taking office.
    (AP, 11/22/99)

1989        Nov 23, Lucia Barrera de Cerna, a housekeeper who said she had witnessed the slaying of six Jesuit priests and two other people at the Jose Simeon Canas University in El Salvador, was flown to the U.S. under heavy security.
    (AP, 11/23/99)
1989        Nov 23, At least 300,000 people jammed Prague's Wenceslas Square to demand democratic reforms in Czechoslovakia.
    (AP, 11/23/02)

1989        Nov 24, In Washington state college student Mandy Stavik (18) disappeared after going out for a jog in Acme. Her body was found three days later in the Nooksack River. In 2017 police arrested Tim Bass (50) based on DNA evidence.
    (https://tinyurl.com/y27c36rn)(CBS News, 7/18/20)
1989        Nov 24, Czechoslovakia's hard-line Communist party leadership resigned after more than a week of protests against its policies.
    (AP, 11/24/99)
1989        Nov 24, In Peshawar, Pakistan, Abdulla Yusuf Azzam, a Palestinian intellectual, was assassinated in a car bombing reportedly ordered by Osama bin Laden for suspected CIA ties.
    (SFC, 8/19/98, p.A16)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abdullah_Yusuf_Azzam)
1989        Nov 24, Romanian leader Nicolae Ceausescu was unanimously re-elected Communist Party chief. Within a month, he was overthrown in a popular uprising and executed along with his wife, Elena, on Christmas Day.
    (AP, 11/24/04)

1989        Nov 25, More than 500,000 demonstrators gathered in Prague, Czechoslovakia, where they scoffed at a Communist Party shakeup and cheered Alexander Dubcek, the reformer ousted in 1968.
    (AP, 11/25/99)

1989        Nov 26, In the Comoro Islands Pres. Ahmed Abdallah was assassinated in his presidential palace in Moroni. In 1999 Bob Denard (Gilbert Bourgeaud), a French mercenary and head of the presidential guard, and Dominique Malacrino were put on trial for the killing. Denard was acquitted.
    (SFC, 5/6/99, p.A15) (SFC, 5/20/99, p.A13)(www.reference.com/browse/wiki/Ahmed_Abdallah)
1989        Nov 26, El Salvador broke relations with Nicaragua after a weapons-loaded plane from that country was downed in El Salvador.
    (AP, 11/26/02)
1989        Nov 26, In a national referendum, voters decided that Hungary's next president would be chosen by parliament, following free elections.
    (AP, 11/26/99)

1989        Nov 27, A bomb, blamed by police on drug traffickers, destroyed a Colombian jetliner minutes after takeoff from Bogota's international airport. 107 people were killed.
    (AP, 11/27/99)

1989        Nov 28, In San Francisco a 16-story crane snapped apart during the morning rush hour. It plunged to the pavement at the 20-story Federal Home Loan Bank Board building at California and Kearny. 4 workers were killed and a bus driver was crushed. 20 others were injured.
    (SSFC, 11/23/14, DB p.42)
1989        Nov 28, Romanian gymnast Nadia Comaneci arrived in New York after escaping her homeland by way of Hungary.
    (AP, 11/28/99)

1989        Nov 29, The Czechs ended the Communist party's 40-year monopoly on power. The revolution in Czechoslovakia was called the "Velvet Revolution" because of the little violence.
    (HFA, '96, p.18)(SFEC, 2/2/97, DB. p.34)(AP, 11/29/99)
1989        Nov 29, India president Rajiv Gandhi resigned.

1989        Nov 30, President Bush left Washington for his first summit with Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev that took place aboard ships off the Mediterranean island of Malta.
    (AP, 11/30/99)
1989        Nov 30, Alfred Herrhausen, chairman of West Germany's largest bank, was killed in a bombing claimed by the Red Army Faction. No Red Army member was charged and in 2007 officials began to focus on Stasi, the East German police.
    (AP, 11/30/99)(Econ, 4/29/06, p.88)(WSJ, 9/15/07, p.A1)

1989        Nov, Rebellion erupted in India-held Kashmir and small arms sniping between Indian soldiers and rebels became routine. Many of the Islamic separatists trained in Pakistan
    (SFC, 6/12/99, p.A12)(SFC, 6/8/02, p.A20)
1989        Nov, In Mexico Jose Madariaga joined Raul Salinas and TV exec Abraham Zabludovsky in buying Mexicana de Autobuses SA, a bus manufacturing company, for $4.4 million.
    (WSJ, 8/7/96, p.A10)
1989        Nov, Turkey’s Pres. Turgut Ozal (1927-1993) alarmed Syria and Iraq when he announced that the flow of the Euphrates River would be held back for a month to fill the Ataturk dam. Flow was increased for 2 months before the cutback to offset the loss.
    (NG, 5/93, p.49)(http://tinyurl.com/2mmycb)

1989        Dec 1, Alvin Ailey (b.1931), leader of the Alvin Ailey American Dance Theater (Blues Suite, Revelations), died. In 1996 Jennifer Dunning wrote his biography: "Alvin Ailey, A Life in Dance."
    (SFEC, 12/15/96, BR p.4)(WSJ, 5/13/98, p.A20)(www.the-ballet.com/ailey.php)
1989        Dec 1, East Germany's Parliament abolished the Communist Party's constitutional guarantee of supremacy.
    (AP, 12/1/99)
1989        Dec 1, In an extraordinary encounter, Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev met with Pope John Paul II at the Vatican.
    (AP, 12/1/99)

1989        Dec 2, President Bush and Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev held the first talks of their wind-tossed Malta summit aboard the Soviet cruise ship "Maxim Gorky."
    (AP, 12/2/99)
1989        Dec 2, V.P. Singh was sworn in as prime minister of India.
    (AP, 12/2/99)

1989            Dec 3, The East German SED Politburo resigned. 3 days later Communist leader Egon Krenz stepped down as Chairman of the Council of State.
1989        Dec 3, Presidents George Bush and Mikhail Gorbachev, in Malta, announced  the official end to the Cold War.
    (SSFC, 12/2/18, p.A13)

1989        Dec 4, President Bush briefed NATO leaders in Brussels, Belgium, on the just-concluded Malta summit with Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev.
    (AP, 12/4/99)

1989        Dec 5, East Germany's former leaders, including ousted Communist Party chief Erich Honecker, were placed under house arrest.
    (AP 12/5/97)
1989        Dec 5, A French TGV train reached a world record speed of 482.4 kph.

1989        Dec 6, In Canada 14 women were shot to death at the University of Montreal's school of engineering by Marc Lepine, who then took his own life.
    (AP, 12/6/97)
1989            Dec 6, Egon Krenz resigned as leader of East Germany. In 1997 Krenz was convicted with 2 colleagues of manslaughter for the shooting deaths of those who tried to flee across the Berlin Wall prior to its demise.
    (WSJ, 11/9/99, p.A14)(http://tinyurl.com/akpba)

1989        Dec 7, East Germany's Communist Party agreed to cooperate with the opposition in paving the way for free elections and a revised constitution.
    (AP, 12/7/99)

1989        Dec 8, Communist leaders in Czechoslovakia offered to surrender their control over the government and accept a minority role in a coalition Cabinet.
    (AP, 12/8/99)

1989        Dec 9, President Bush's national security adviser, Brent Scowcroft, and Deputy Secretary of State Lawrence Eagleburger began a surprise visit to Beijing, six months after China's crackdown on pro-democracy demonstrators.
    (AP, 12/9/99)

1989        Dec 10, Czechoslovakia's president, Gustav Husak, resigned after swearing in a coalition cabinet in which Communists were relegated to a minority role.
    (AP, 12/10/99)

1989        Dec 11, President Bush, facing criticism at home for sending two U.S. officials to China, defended the diplomatic overture despite the Beijing government's crackdown on pro-democracy demonstrators the previous June.
    (AP, 12/11/99)

1989        Dec 12, In New York, hotel queen Leona Helmsley was sentenced to four years in prison for tax evasion. Helmsley served 18 months behind bars, plus a month at a halfway house and two months of house arrest.
    (AP, 12/12/99)
1989        Dec 12, Amid international criticism, Britain forcibly removed 51 Vietnamese from Hong Kong and returned them to their homeland.
    (AP, 12/12/99)

1989        Dec 13, In Alaska Mt. Redoubt began erupting. Nearly every one of the volcanic events during the 1989-90 eruption of Redoubt Volcano generated lahars in the Drift River Valley.
1989        Dec 13, South African President F.W. de Klerk met for the first time with imprisoned African National Congress leader Nelson Mandela, at de Klerk's office in Cape Town.
    (AP, 12/13/99)

1989        Dec 14, Opposition leader Patricio Aylwin, representing the left and center opposition alliance, was elected president in Chile's first free election since 1970. However the generals maintained great power that included the right to veto political decisions.
    (AP, 12/14/02)(WSJ, 1/9/96, p.A-10)(http://web.mit.edu/17.508/www/week8.html)
1989        Dec 14, Nobel Peace laureate (1975) Andrei D. Sakharov died in Moscow at age 68.
    (AP, 12/14/99)

1989        Dec 15, GM and SAAB agreed to form a 50-50 joint auto-making company, called Saab Automobile A.B. GM acquired the rest of SAAB a decade later.
    (http://tinyurl.com/oktgl)(Econ, 1/31/09, p.72)
1989        Dec 15, Mt. Redoubt erupted in Alaska and sent baseball-sized pieces of pumice over 20 miles from the volcano. A 747 jet flew into its ash cloud, lost all four engines and dropped 4,000 feet before it recovered. No one was hurt but the plane sustained $80 million in damage.
    (AAM, 3/96, p.84)(PacDisc. Spring/’96, p.31)
1989        Dec 15, Drug trafficker Gonzalo Rodriguez Gacha was killed in northern Colombia following a shootout with police.
    (AP, 12/15/99)
1989        Dec 15, A popular uprising that resulted in the downfall of Romania's Nicolae Ceausescu began as demonstrators gathered in Timisoara to prevent the arrest of the Reverend Laszlo Tokes, a dissident clergyman.
    (AP, 12/15/99)

1989        Dec 16, US Federal appeals court judge Robert S. Vance was killed by a mail bomb at his Alabama home. Walter Leroy Moody Junior was later sentenced to death for killing Vance, and received seven life terms on federal charges in that killing and the death of civil rights attorney Robert E. Robinson.
    (AP, 12/16/99)
1989        Dec 16, In Romania a revolt began in Timisoara when authorities tried to forcibly move ethnic Hungarian pastor Laszlo Toekes to a remote rural parish. Supporters gathered outside his house and soon the site was teeming with protesters. 6 days of fighting left 118 people killed.
    (AP, 12/16/09)

1989        Dec 17, The cartoon series “The Simpsons" premiered on Fox TV.
1989        Dec 17, More than 100,000 Soviet citizens turned out to honor the late human rights advocate Andrei D. Sakharov, a day before he was buried in Moscow.
    (AP, 12/17/99)

1989        Dec 18, Robert E. Robinson, an attorney and alderman in Savannah, Ga., was killed by a mail bomb similar to a device that had claimed the life of a federal judge in Alabama two days earlier. Walter Leroy Moody Junior was later convicted of both bombings, and is on Alabama's death row.
    (AP, 12/18/99)

1989        Dec 19, Police in Jacksonville, Fla., disarmed a parcel bomb at the local NAACP office, the fourth in a series of mail bombs to turn up in the Deep South. One bomb killed a Savannah, Ga., alderman, and another a federal judge in Alabama. Walter L. Moody Jr. was convicted in both bombings.
    (AP, 12/18/99)

1989        Dec 20, The United States launched Operation Just Cause, sending troops into Panama to topple the government of Gen. Manuel Noriega. Guillermo Endara replaced Noriega. The US ended on Feb 13, 1990. It cost $182 million and left 23 US casualties with 320 wounded. A 1997 book: "The Memoirs of Manuel Noriega" by Noriega and Peter Eisner told his version.
    (SFEC, 4/13/97, BR p.3)(AP, 12/20/99)(WSJ, 9/22/99, p.A8)(HN, 12/20/99)
1989        Dec 20, The European Commission advised against Turkey’s membership in the EEC.
    (Econ, 10/23/10, SR p.8)(http://tinyurl.com/29sr46p)

1989        Dec 21, VP Quayle sent out 30,000 Xmas cards with the word beacon spelled beakon.
1989        Dec 21, Kentuckian Larry Mahoney was convicted on 27 counts of manslaughter for a 1988 collision with a church bus. It was the nation's most deadly drunken-driving accident.
1989        Dec 21, Romanian President Nicolae Ceausescu delivered what turned out to be his final public speech. The hard-line Communist ruler was visibly stunned as his listeners began booing. Ceausescu fled from power and was executed four days later.
    (AP, 12/21/99)

1989        Dec 22, Samuel Beckett (83, playwright, died in Paris. His work included the novel "The Unnamable." In 1997 2 biographies of Beckett were published: "Damned to Fame" by James Knowlson and "Samuel Beckett: The Last Modernist," by Anthony Cronin. In 1999 Maurice Harmon published "No Author Better Served: The Correspondence of Samuel Beckett and Alan Schneider." Schneider (d.1984) was Beckett's American director.
    (SFEC, 9/30/96, p.A23)(WSJ, 7/11/97, p.A12)(SFEC, 1/17/99, BR p.7)(AP, 12/22/99)
1989        Dec 22, Germany’s Brandenburg Gate opened for border crossings.
1989        Dec 22, In Romania there was a revolt and miners riots. Romania's hard-line Communist ruler, Nicolae Ceausescu, was toppled in a popular uprising following 23 years of dictatorial rule. Ion Ileascu and other top Communist functionaries of Ceausescu seized control. Ileascu ruled until Nov 1996.
    (SFC, 11/18/96, p.A10)(SFC, 11/20/96, p.C4)(AP, 12/22/97)(SFC, 6/15/98, p.A11)

1989        Dec 23, Ousted Romanian President Nicolae Ceausescu and his wife, Elena, were captured as they were attempting to flee their country.
    (AP, 12/23/99)

1989        Dec 24, Charles Taylor, a former cabinet minister under Samuel Doe, led a small group of fighters across the border from the Ivory Coast into Liberia. Within a few months he had looted and terrorized much of the countryside and reached the capital. Taylor led the NPFL or National Patriotic Front. The NPFL was composed mainly of the Mano and Gio tribes from northern Nimba County.
    (SFC, 4/16/96, p.A-9)(SFC, 4/17/96, p.A-8)(SFC, 1/30/97, p.A9)(SFC, 7/19/97, p.A8)
1989        Dec 24, Ousted Panamanian ruler Manuel Noriega, who had succeeded in eluding US forces, took refuge at the Vatican's diplomatic mission in Panama City. It took weeks of negotiation and loud rock music played incessantly outside the embassy by American forces before Noriega agreed to give himself up.
    (AP, 12/24/99)

1989        Dec 25, Billy Martin (b.1928), former baseball manager, died in a truck crash in Fenton, NY.
    (AP, 12/25/99)
1989        Dec 25, In Canada a 6.3 earthquake, the Ungava event, struck northern Quebec and was later attributed to retreating ice sheets from 10,000 years earlier.
    (WSJ, 6/9/06, p.A11)
1989        Dec 25, The Bank of Japan raised interest rates to slow the heated economy.
    (Econ, 7/22/06, p.66)
1989        Dec 25, Ousted Romanian President Nicolae Ceausescu and his wife, Elena, were executed following a popular uprising. His regime had mobilized some 700,000 informants to keep tabs on the population of 23 million people.
    (SFC, 12/27/96, p.B1)(AP, 12/25/97)(SSFC, 8/20/06, p.A20)

1989        Dec 26, Romanian television broadcast videotape of ousted President Nicolae Ceausescu and his wife, Elena, at their secret trial and footage of Ceausescu's body after his execution. That same day, a provisional government took control of Romania.
    (AP, 12/26/99)

1989        Dec 27, President Bush, on a visit to Beeville, Texas, said he was determined to bring deposed Panamanian leader Manuel Noriega to justice "for poisoning the children of the United States" with illegal drugs.
    (AP, 12/27/99)

1989        Dec 28, Alexander Dubcek, former Czechoslovak Communist leader deposed in 1968 in a Soviet-led Warsaw Pact invasion, was named chairman of the country's parliament.
    (AP, 12/28/99)

1989        Dec 29, Playwright Vaclav Havel was elected president of Czechoslovakia, the country's first non-Communist leader in more than four decades.
    (AP, 12/29/99)

1989        Dec 30, A Northwest Airlines DC-10, target of a telephoned threat, flew safely from Paris to Detroit amid extra-tight security.
    (AP, 12/30/99)

1989        Dec 31, "Me & My Girl," a revival of the 1937 British musical, closed at Marquis Theater, NYC, after 1420 performances.
1989        Dec 31, The Japanese Nikkei Index peaked at 38,915. The DJIA was at 2753.
    (WSJ, 9/5/01, p.C1)
1989        Dec 31, Israeli PM Yitzhak Shamir fired Science Minister Ezer Weizman, accusing him of meeting with officials of the Palestine Liberation Organization.
    (AP, 12/31/99)

1989        Dec, In San Francisco the Coalition on Homelessness produced its first newsletter. In 1990 a special edition was created for a Phil Collins concert at the Shoreline Amphitheater, but concertgoers were not much interested. Copies were returned to SF where homeless men began selling them on the street giving birth to the modern Street Sheet.
    (SFC, 9/11/14, p.D5)

1989        John Cage made his color spit bite aquatint "75 Stones" at Crown Point Press.
    (SFEC, 9/28/97, DB p.37)

1989        Bruce Conner (1933-2008) created his lithograph collage "Bombhead."
    (SFEM, 5/28/00, p.17)(SFC, 5/4/09, p.E3)

1989        Sculptor Arturo Di Modica placed his 7,000-pound sculpture of a charging bull in front of the New York Stock Exchange. It was soon moved to the foot of Broadway, where it remained on “temporary" display. In 1998 he registered a copyright on the bull.
    (WSJ, 9/22/06, p.C3)

1989        A painting of the US flag by Jasper Johns (b.1930) sold at auction for $12.1 million. This was one of a series that he began in 1954. In 2010 another of his “Flag" paintings, owned since 1974 by writer Michael Crichton (1942-2008), went on auction.
    (www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/john/hd_john.htm)(SFC, 2/9/10, p.E45)
1989        Tilted Arc, a sculpture by Richard Serra, was hauled off to a city warehouse after being displayed at Federal Plaza in Manhattan. It had become a symbol of the bullying demands of public art.
    (WSJ, 10/1/96, p.A20)

1989        Wayne Thiebaud made his color etching "Steep Street" at Crown Point Press.
    (SFEC, 9/28/97, DB p.37)

1989        Martin Sherman wrote the play "A Madhouse in Goa."
    (WSJ, 11/26/97, p.A12)

1989        Robert Allen wrote "The Port Chicago Mutiny." It described a 1944 explosion at Port Chicago, now the Concord Naval Weapons Station in Ca., that killed 320 seamen. The Navy court-martialed 50 black sailors for refusing to go back to work after the catastrophe.
    (SFEC, 3/2/97, z1 p.3)

1989        Don Anderson (1933-2014), professor of geophysics at Caltech, published the first edition of “Theory of the Earth."
    (SFC, 12/17/14, p.E3)

1989        Warren Bennis (1925-2014) authored “On Becoming a Leader."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Warren_Bennis)(Econ, 8/9/14, p.57)

1989        California’s Gov. Brown and journalist Dick Adler co-authored "Public Justice, Private Mercy: A Governor’s Education on Death Row."
    (SFC, 1/13/03, p.A1)

1989        Thomas Chinn (d.1997 at 88) published "Bridging the Pacific, San Francisco Chinatown and Its People," a History of Chinatown.
    (SFC, 9/16/97, p.A18)

1989        Stephen R. Covey (d.2012) authored “Seven Habits of Highly Effective People: Restoring the Character Ethic."
    (WSJ, 10/27/07, p.W6)(AFP, 7/17/12)

1989        Miles Davis wrote his autobiography.
    (SFC, 11/14/97, p.C12)

1989        David Hackett Fischer authored “Albion’s Seed: Four British Folkways in America, a look at early American settlers from their origins as: Puritans, Quakers, Cavaliers, and Scots-Irish.
    (Econ, 11/13/04, p.39)

1989        Stanley Fischer and Olivier Blanchard authored “Lectures on Macroeconomics."
    (Econ, 5/2/09, p.78)

1989        British writer Ken Follett's 1,000-page historical novel "The Pillars of the Earth" sold tens of millions of copies and spent 18 weeks atop The New York Times best sellers' list. Its story about the construction of a 12th-century cathedral in a fictional English town traced the same era as that in which Notre-Dame assumed its majestic place in Paris. In 2010 it was turned into a TV miniseries.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Pillars_of_the_Earth)(AFP, 4/16/19)

1989        Milton Friedman authored “Agnelli, Fiat and the Network of Italian Power."
    (Econ, 1/28/12, p.80)

1989        Peggy Lee wrote her biography "Peggy Lee."
    (SFC, 8/28/96, E10)

1989        Caroline Reynolds Milbank, fashion historian, authored "New York Fashion."
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R40)

1989        Wayne Newton authored "Once Before I Go.".
    (SFC, 8/28/96, E10)

1989        Joseph Garber (1943-2005) authored his novel “Rascal Money." It was initially intended as a nonfiction work titled “In Search of Shabiness," a response to the Tom Peters book “In Search of Excellence."
    (SSFC, 6/5/05, p.A21)

1989        Prof. Charles M. Hardin (1908-1997) wrote "Constitutional Reform in America."
    (SFC, 7/4/97, p.E2)

1989        Oscar Hijuelos (1951-2013) published his novel "The Mambo Kings Play Songs of Love." It was made into a movie in 1992.
    (SFC, 2/22/99, p.E5)(SFC, 10/15/12, p.C3)

1989        Michael Lewis authored “Liar’s Poker," his semi-autobiographical account of his work with Salomon Brothers in the 1980s.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liar%27s_Poker)(Econ, 1/24/09, SR p.16)

1989        Prof. Nicholas Howe 1953-2006) of UC Berkeley authored “Migration and Mythmaking in Anglo-Saxon England."
    (SFC, 10/16/06, p.B6)

1989        "Prisoners of Ritual: An Odyssey into Female Genital Circumcision in Africa" by Hanny Lightfoot-Klein was published.
    (NH, 8/96, p.65)

1989        James M. McPherson wrote "Battle Cry of Freedom," a Pulitzer Prize winning work on the Civil War.
    (WSJ, 3/21/97, p.A17)

1989        Vance Packard (1914-1996) wrote "The Ultra Rich: How Much Is Too Much."
    (SFC, 12/13/96, p.B6)

1989        Jimmy M. Skaggs wrote "Clipperton: A History of the Island the World Forgot."
    (NH, 12/96, p.70)

1989        Allan Gurganus published his novel "Oldest Living Confederate Widow Tells All."
    (SFC, 11/21/97, p.C6)

1989        Kazuo Ishiguro won this year's Booker Award for his novel: "The Remains of the Day."
    (WSJ, 10/11/95, p. A-12)

1989        In Japan Shintaro Isihara and Akio Morita, former chairman of Sony, co-authored "The Japan That Can Say No." It argued that Japan should challenge US hegemony and act as a geopolitical free agent.
    (SFC, 4/10/99, p.A10)

1989        Tooru Joe Kanazawa (d.2002 at 95) authored "Sushi and Sourdough," a glimpse into the world of Japanese immigrants in Alaska’s salmon canneries in the 1920s.
    (SFC, 10/22/02, p.A16)

1989        Kanan Makiya authored "Republic of Fear," a portrayal of Saddam Hussein's brutality, under the pseudonym Samir al-Khalil while in exile in the US. The book became a best seller in 1990, a year after its publication, when Saddam invaded Kuwait.
    (AP, 7/29/03)

1989        James Michener wrote his novel "Caribbean."
    (SFC, 10/17/97, p.A17)

1989        James Michener wrote "Six Days in Havana" with John Kings.
    (SFC, 10/17/97, p.A17)

1989        Patrick Rance (d.1999) authored "The French Cheese Book."
    (SFC, 8/30/99, p.A24)

1989        Maureen Reagan (d.2001 at 60), daughter of Pres. Ronald Reagan, authored the autobiography "First Father, First Daughter."
    (SFC, 8/9/01, p.A20)

1989        Jose Saramago of Portugal authored "The History of the Siege of Lisbon."
    (SFC, 10/9/98, p.A2)

1989        Gunther Schuller authored “The Swing Era."
    (WSJ, 9/27/08, p.W10)

1989        John Updike (1932-2009), American writer, authored his memoir “Self-Consciousness."
    (SSFC, 4/13/14, p.F3)

1989        William L. Urban authored "The Samogitian Crusade".

1989        Karel Von Wolferen authored “The Enigma of Japanese Power."
    (Econ, 11/14/09, p.78)

1989        In China Wang Shuo published “Whatever You Do, Don’t Treat Me as a Human." He had began a literary movement known as "hooligan literature" in the 1980s.  His novels included "The Operators." In 1996 the government halted the printing of his books on the basis of moral decay.
    (SFC, 11/29/96, p.B9)

1989        Cliff Stoll authored “The Cuckoo’s Egg," an account of a computer break-in at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.
    (SSFC, 10/23/11, p.F1)

1989        "The Joy Luck Club" by Amy Tan was published.
    (SFEC, 8/18/96, BR p. 2)

1989        The Broadway musical "Grand Hotel" was written by George Forrest and Robert Wright.
    (SFC, 10/13/99, p.C2)

1989        Hans van Manen created his ballet "Black Cake."
    (SFC, 4/4/00, p.B1)

1989        Astor Piazzolla (d.1992), bandoneon player, recorded his album "Five Tango Sensations."
    (BAAC, 1/96, p.4,5)(Esq., 5/91, p.60,61)

1989        The TV series “Father Dowling Mysteries" (1989-1991) began with Tom Bosley (1927-2010) as a crime-fighting Chicago priest. Tracy Nelson played Sister Stephanie.
    (SFC, 10/20/10, p.A8)

1989        The TV miniseries "Lonesome Dove" starred Robert Duvall and Tommy Lee Jones.
    (SFC, 5/28/01, p.C1)

1989        The TV show Singstation, featuring gospel music, began airing around Chicago.
    (WSJ, 10/15/96, p.A12)

1989        Bill Monroe received the first Grammy Award for the Best Bluegrass Recording of the year.
    (SFC, 9/10/96, p.A17)

1989        Milli Vanilli, a duo composed of Rob Pilatus (d.1998 at 32) and Fabrice Morvan, won a Grammy for Best New Artist after their hits "Blame It on the Rain" and "All or Nothing." It was later learned the duo lip-synched the songs that were done by uncredited studio musicians and the award was revoked in 1990. John Davis (1955-2021) and Brad Howell did the vocals, but did not want to travel. Producer Frank Farian then hired Pilatus and Morvan.
    (SFC, 4/6/98, p.A26)(BS, 5/3/98, p.6F)(SFC, 6/1/21, p.B4)

1989        Nirvana with Kurt Cobain released its debut album "Bleach" on the Sub Pop label.
    (SFC, 7/30/97, p.E6)

1989        The Texas Tornados were formed with Doug Sahm (d.1999 at 58) on steel guitar, Augie Meyers (vocalist), Freddie Fender (guitar) and Flaco Jimenez (accordion).
    (SFC, 11/20/99, p.A22)

1989        Sir Michael Tippett (84), British composer, composed his 5th opera, "New Year." It premiered in Houston, Texas.
    (SFC, 1/10/98, p.A19)(http://tinyurl.com/gpbwl)

1989        In Chicago the AT&T Corporate Center was completed. The 60-story building was designed by architects Skidmore, Owings & Merrill.
    (WSJ, 1/3/97, p.B10)

1989        In Las Vegas the 3,044-room, $630 million Mirage Casino was completed.
    (WSJ, 1/21/97, p.A18)

1989        Dallas opened The Sixth Floor Museum dedicated to the 1963 assassination of JFK. It was located on the 6th floor of the former School Book Depository near the site of the murder.
    (SSFC, 11/16/03, p.C8)

1989        Philip Berman (d.1997 at 82), art collector and philanthropist, became chairman of the Philadelphia Museum of Art. He had prospered and retired from the trucking business and led a capital campaign that raised $63.4 million for the museum between 1989 and 1993.
    (SFC, 12/2/97, p.A22)

1989        The National Film Preservation Board began selecting 25 films for entry to a national list of film treasures.
    (SFC, 1/21/98, p.E6)

1989        Kathy Keeton Guccione (d.1997 at 58), associate founder of Penthouse Magazine, founded the health magazine "Longevity."
    (SFC, 9/25/97, p.B2)

1989        In Chicago Marc Smith founded the National Poetry Slam at the Green Mill outsider poetry readings.
    (WSJ, 9/10/98, p.A20)

1989        The Studio for Creative Inquiry was founded at Carnegie-Mellon Univ. in Pittsburgh, Pa.
    (WSJ, 6/17/96, p.A12)

1989        The Center for Nonproliferation Studies was founded by William Potter based at the Monterey Inst. for Int’l. Studies. Potter was a Soviet specialist worried about weapons of mass destruction falling into the wrong hands.
    (SFC, 10/13/97, p.A21)

1989        The Financial Action Task Force (FATF) came into existence on the initiative of the G7. The inter-governmental body’s purpose was the development and promotion of policies, both at national and international levels, to combat money laundering and terrorist financing.

1989        Kalle Lasn founded the Media Foundation in Vancouver to produce alternative advertising.
    (WSJ, 11/19/97, p.A1)

1989        The Lannan Lifetime Achievement Award was established to honor writers whose work was of exceptional quality. J. Patrick Lannan Sr. (d.1983), entrepreneur and financier, founded the Lannan foundation in 1960.
    (SFC, 10/5/99, p.B2)(www.lannan.org/lf/about/history/)

1989        The National Computer Security Association (NCSA) was founded.
    (Wired, 10/96, p.88)

1989        In the aftermath of the Oct 17 Loma Prieta earthquake artist Bill Roan welded into place a 14-inch troll, visible only by boat, as a good luck charm for workers on the SF Bay Bridge.
    (SSFC, 8/25/13, p.C5)
1989        In San Francisco the music group “Those Darn Accordions" formed and played their first gig at the Paradise Lounge. The group included Clyde Forsman (1915-2009), who quickly gained notoriety for his full body tattoos.
    (SFC, 6/12/09, p.B6)(www.thosedarnaccordions.com/clyde.php)
1989        In San Francisco a 6-story office building at 200 California was built by Home Savings of America and featured a clock tower at the top. Plans in 2014 called for the removal of the clock tower and recoloring the red sandstone to two shades of beige.
    (SFC, 2/14/14, p.D1)
1989        The Getty family gave $15 million to the Univ. of California at Berkeley to build and renovate the biology and anthropology facility in the Life Sciences Building.
    (SFC, 1/8/95, p.7)
1989        In California the Hess Collection in Napa opened as a combination winery and modern art museum. Donald Hess, a Swiss water wizard, had acquired the former Theodore Gier Winery in the 1970s.
    (SFEC, 2/22/98, p.T5)
1989        The new Pelican Bay prison opened in northern California.
    (SFC, 9/20/96, p.A24)
1989        21 tons of cocaine powder were found in a San Fernando Valley warehouse. It was the largest single US seizure of drugs.
    (SFEC, 10/20/96, A13)
1989        The city of Berkeley Ca., passed a ban on Styrofoam.
    (SFC, 4/29/08, p.A1)
1989        In California a Parking and Business Improvement Area Law authorized the formation of a Business Improvement District enabling a city, county, or joint powers authority (made up of cities and/or counties only) to establish a BID and levy annual assessments on businesses within its boundaries. In 1994 the Property and Business Improvement District Law allowed the financing of streets, rehabilitation or removal of existing structures, and security facilities and equipment.
    (www.californiataxdata.com/pdf/BusinessImprovement.pdf)    (Econ, 4/10/10, p.77)

1989        The Miss America beauty pageant began to require that contestants have an issue on which to speak if selected.
    (SFEC, 9/15/96, p.A6)

1989        The PASS (Promoting Achievement in School through Sport) organization was founded.
    (SFEM, 5/11/97, p.10)

1989        William Edgar Bowers (d.2000 at 75) won the $10,000 Bollingen Prize from Yale Univ. for his poetry.
    (SFC, 2/8/00, p.A23)

1989        John Casey won the National Book Award for the novel "Spartina."
    (USAT, 11/19/97, p.22A)

1989        Michael Dorris (d.1997 at 52), a Modoc Indian descendent, won the National Book Critics Circle Award for his work: "The Broken Cord." It described the problem of fetal alcohol syndrome.
    (SFC, 4/15/97, p.A2)

1989        Bharati Mukherjee won a National Book Critics Circle award for her short-story collection "The Middleman and Other Stories."
    (SFEC, 6/1/97, BR p.1)

1989        The biography "Machiavelli in Hell" by Sebastian de Grazia won the Pulitzer Prize.
    (SFC, 7/14/96, p.C11)

1989        Alberto Calderon (1920-1998), born in Argentina, won the Wolf Prize, the highest award in mathematics. He contributed to developing singular integrals and with his mentor, Antoni Zygmund, founded the Chicago school of analysis.
    (SFC, 4/21/98, p.A26)

1989        The Dalai Lama won the Nobel Peace Prize.
    (WSJ, 12/2/98, p.A22)

1989        Sidney Altman, Canadian-born US physicist, won the Nobel Prize in chemistry for his studies of ribonucleic acid.
    (SFC, 8/5/97, p.A3)(www.almaz.com/nobel/chemistry/1989a.html)

1989        J. Michael Bishop and Harold E. Varmus of the UC San Francisco won the Nobel Prize in medicine for their 1976 discovery of a family of genes, oncogenes in chickens, that helped scientists understand how cancer develops.  In 1998 Robert A. Weinberg published "One Renegade Cell," a primer on the discovery of oncogenes.
    (SFEC, 10/8/96, A9)(SFC, 2/6/98, p.A1)(WSJ, 11/25/98, p.A16)

1989        Frank Gehry (60) was awarded architecture’s Nobel, the Pritzker Prize.
    (Econ, 10/31/15, p.81)

1989        The Financial Action Task Force (FATF) was created. It is an inter-governmental body whose purpose is the development and promotion of national and international policies to combat money laundering and terrorist financing. The FATF is therefore a "policy-making body" created in 1989 that works to generate the necessary political will to bring about legislative and regulatory reforms in these areas.
    (http://tinyurl.com/yo2ha2)(WSJ, 5/23/96, p.A-12)

1989        Pres. Bush required a presidential waiver for the sale of commercial satellites to China. He later approve the export of 9 such satellites for launch on Chinese rockets.
    (SFC, 5/25/98, p.A3)

1989        Shirley Temple was appointed US ambassador to Czechoslovakia.
    (SFC, 1/26/06, p.E3)

1989        US Congress approved a ban on refitting of US registered ships abroad.
    (WSJ, 11/25/97, p.A1)

1989        Senior US Defense Dept. officials tried to cancel the experimental Osprey military aircraft but Congress continued to fund the program.
    (SFC, 4/11/00, p.A3)

1989        The US Office of the Inspector General was created to investigate alleged wrongdoing by Justice personnel in various agencies.
    (SFC, 1/21/99, p.A3)

1989        The Resolution Trust Corp., a US government owned asset management company, was created to take over failing savings and loans institutions. Alan Greenspan served on the board.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Resolution_Trust_Corporation)(Econ, 8/9/08, p.68)

1989        The Teamsters settled a suit brought by the government that charged ties to the Mafia. The union agreed to rank-and-file elections for president and to an independent review board.
    (SFEC, 11/17/96, p.C9)

1989        Bart Chamberlain (1914-2007, Alabama oil man, fled to Switzerland following court ordered penalties of $25 million for oil sales that circumvented price controls.
    (WSJ, 6/2/07, p.A5)

1989        In Florida Richard DeLisi and his older brother Ted were sentenced to 90 years in prison for conspiring to traffic more than 100 pounds of cannabis into the US from Jamaica. Ted DeLisi appealed his conspiracy conviction and was released from prison in 2013. Richard DeLisi hoped to be released in late 2020. DeLisi (71) was freed on December 8, 2020.
    (NBC News, 11/21/20)(SFC, 12/11/20, p.A6)

1989        The late Manhattan real estate developer Seymour Durst put the National Debt Clock up in New York City to call attention to what was then a $2.7 trillion debt. In 2008 the clock ran out of digits to record the growing figure as it passed $10.2 trillion.
    (AP, 10/9/08)
1989        NYC’s pioneering Street News began publishing on behalf of homeless people. It closed in 2007.
    (Econ, 2/2/13, p.50)

1989        Steve Wynn opened his 3,000-room “The Mirage" casino resort in Las Vegas.
    (Econ, 10/8/16, p.57)

1989        Dallas opened The Sixth Floor Museum dedicated to the 1963 assassination of JFK. It was located on the 6th floor of the former School Book Depository near the site of the murder.
    (SSFC, 11/16/03, p.C8)
1989        Jerry Jones, the new owner of the Dallas Cowboys, let go coach Tom Landry, who had led the team since 1960.
    (WSJ, 2/16/00, p.A26)
1989        In Texas Steven Mark Chaney was convicted of murder and sentenced to life in prison in the 1987 stabbing death of John and Sally Sweek. Chaney’s teeth reportedly caused the bite marks on the arm of drug dealer John Sweek. In 2015 Chaney (59) was freed after a judge found that the bite evidence against him was unsound.
    (http://tinyurl.com/plpy3q4)(SFC, 10/14/15, p.A12)
1989        In Texas Claude Howard Jones was convicted for the slaying of Allen Hilzendager. Jones was executed in 2000.
    (SFC, 12/8/00, p.D4)
1989        A Dallas police narcotics officer was killed. Javier Suarez Medina (20) was convicted and sentenced to death. In 2002 Mexico’s Pres. Fox called for a halt to the execution.
    (SFC, 8/13/02, p.A5)

1989        A Seattle ballot initiative limited new buildings in the downtown core to 540 feet and to varying heights in other parts of the city. In 2006 the City Council repealed the limits.
    (WSJ, 4/5/06, p.B4)
1989        The first Weedstock Festival, a pro-marijuana event, was held. Steve Wessing worked the event as a stage manager.
    (SFC, 5/27/97, p.A12)(EW, 6/8/13)

1989        An int'l. accord on coffee prices was lifted. When entire inventories were sold the market was flooded and prices dropped.
    (SFC, 1/30/99, p.A12)

1989        Frank Lorenzo sold Eastern Air Lines Shuttle to real estate mogul Donald Trump (who named it the Trump Shuttle). Lorenzo sold other parts of Eastern to his Texas Air holding company and its subsidiary, Continental Airlines, at terms disadvantageous to Eastern.

1989        Bank of America declared its first dividend since 1985 and expanded retail operations into Nevada and Washington. It became the first major California bank to open all branches on Saturdays.
    (SFC, 4/14/98, p.B4)

1989        Aubrey McClendon (b.1959) and Tom L. Ward co-founded Chesapeake Energy in Oklahoma City. They took the company public in 1993. In 2012 Chesapeake was the second-largest producer of natural gas, a Top 15 oil producer and the most active driller in the United States.
    (Econ, 5/5/12, p.64)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aubrey_McClendon)

1989        Chrysler was the first car maker to install air bags in all vehicles.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)

1989        The DC-10, a wide-bodied, 3-engine aircraft, was taken out of production. A total of 446 were built since 1970, when American Airlines began using them.
    (SFC, 4/27/00, p.A24)

1989        Ford acquired Jaguar.
    (Econ, 9/25/04, p.77)

1989        The Hearst Corp. formed Hearst Entertainment & Syndication to oversee activities in cable TV, syndication and entertainment. Hearst also acquired Phoenix Entertainment Group and renamed it Hearst Entertainment. Hearst Magazines Int'l. was formed to pursue publishing opportunities worldwide.
    (SFC, 8/7/99, p.A9)

1989        The Honda Accord was the best-selling car in the US.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)

1989        Uniroyal Chemical Inc. purchased by Avery Inc. was taken private in a management-led buyout. It was renamed Uniroyal Chemical Corp.
    (WSJ, 5/28/96, R45)

1989        The Univ. of Phoenix began teaching online.
    (Econ, 12/22/12, p.101)

1989        America Online (AOL) made its debut. In 1998 Kara Swisher wrote "aol.com: How Steve Case beat Bill Gates, Nailed the Netheads, and Made Millions in the War for the Web. [see Control Video in 1982]
    (SFEC, 8/2/98, BR p.1,8)

1989        Cray Computing Corp. was founded by Seymour Cray. It went bankrupt in 1995.
    (SFEC, 10/6/96, C12)

1989        Crazy Eddie Inc. went broke. The retail electronics chain burned out in scandal of missing inventory, stolen cash and bogus merchandise bookings. In 1990 assets were frozen and founder Eddie Antar disappeared under charges of bilking investors out of $74 mil. He was nabbed in Israel in 1992 and sent to a US prison.
    (WSJ, 6/13/96, p.A1,8)

1989        Creative Labs introduced the SoundBlaster sound card that became a standard in personal computers.
    (WSJ, 3/4/97, p.B1)

1989        Del Monte fresh fruits was sold to London-based Polly Peck for $804 million. The rest of Del Monte was sold to a group of investors that included senior management and Merrill Lynch for $1.47 billion.
    (SFC, 3/1/97, p.B1)

1989        Federal Express bought the Flying Tiger Airlines, the largest cargo line in the world. Jules Watson (d.2001 at 84) was one of the founders of Flying Tiger.
    (SFC, 8/18/01, p.E3)

1989        General Dynamics began building the Seawolf nuclear submarines. Each one cost about $2.1 billion.
    (WSJ, 12/13/99, p.A6)

1989        Phil Harvey founded DKT Int’l. to provide contraceptives at knock-down prices to some of the poorest parts of the world. His PHE group included Adam & Eve, America’s biggest mail order and online retailer of sexual toys.
    (Econ, 10/9/04, p.62)

1989        Intel shipped the first 486 microprocessor, an enhanced version of the 386. It held more than 1 million transistors and included a built-in floating point unit and 8K of internal RAM.
    (TAR, 1996, p.28)

1989        The Patron brand of tequila was started by Americans John Paul DeJoria and Martin Crowley. In 2013 Ilana Edelstein, Crowley’s former partner, authored “The Patron Way: From Fantasy to Fortune – Lessons on Taking Any Business From Idea to Iconic Brand."
    (Econ, 7/13/13, p.77)

1989        The Pillsbury Company was purchased in a hostile takeover by Grand Met, a British conglomerate.
    (Hem., 1/97, p.36)

1989        Quaker Oats modernized Aunt Jemima, making her thinner, eliminating her bandanna, and giving her a perm and a pair of pearl earrings.

1989        SmithKline Beckman merged with Beecham Group PCL of Britain to create the world’s 2nd largest drug company.
    (SFC, 1/21/98, p.B2)

1989        Sony Corp. paid $4.8 billion to take over Columbia Pictures. Jon Peters and Peter Guber worked their way into positions of co-chiefs and promptly lost huge sums over the next few years. Their legacy left Sony with losses of $3.2 billion and a $520 million write-off for abandoned projects. The fiasco is chronicled in the 1996 book "Hit and Run" by Nancy Griffin and Kim Masters.
    (WSJ, 6/11/96, p.A12)

1989        Philip Anschutz with backing from Morgan Stanley picked up the Southern Pacific Railroad for just over $1 billion.
    (WSJ, 6/18/96, p.A17)

1989        CDMA (Code division multiple access), a wireless technology, was introduced by Irwin Jacobs. It was supposed to cram more calls onto wireless networks than available analog systems.
    (WSJ, 9/66/96, p.A1,6)

1989        Don Eigler of IBM used a scanning-tunneling microscope to manipulate 35 xenon atoms to spell out IBM.
    (Econ, 12/8/07, TQ p.10)

1989        Garmin Ltd., an American multinational technology company formerly known as ProNav, was founded by Gary Burrell and Min Kao in Lenexa, Kansas, United States, with headquarters in Olathe, Kansas, to extend the Global Positioning System (GPS) beyond military use. In 2010 the company was incorporated in Schaffhausen, Switzerland.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Garmin)(Econ, 12/1/12, TQ p.9)

1989        John McAfee, an engineer for Lockheed, posted his VirusScan software on an Internet bulletin board as freeware. He earned $5 million in the first year and founded McAfee Associates. The company merged with Network General in 1997.
    (SFC, 11/13/12, p.A8)

1989        Ralph Merkle, computer scientist at Xerox PARC, evaluated intellectual processing power 3 different ways. An average of his methods indicated that the brain runs about 1 quadrillion operations per second. With computing power doubling every 18 months, he reasoned that hardware would catch up with brainpower around 2020.
    (Wired, 8/96, p.204)

1989        The Group O AIDS virus was identified in West Africa. It had marked genetic differences from the more common Group M strains that were responsible for a worldwide pandemic.
    (SFC, 7/5/96, p.A5)

1989        Scientists used "positional cloning" to identify the gene that causes cystic fibrosis.
    (WSJ, 6/11/01, p.A1)

1989        The Hepatitis C virus was first isolated. It causes an infection of the liver that is usually lifelong and incurable. Scientists in 1999 found evidence of the virus in frozen blood samples from 1948.
    (SFC, 3/25/97, p.A4)(SFC, 5/21/99, p.A3)

1989        Merck Corp. announced the discovery of the 3-dimensional structure of the enzyme protease. It was seen as a promising target for attacking the virus that causes AIDS.
    (WSJ, 11/5/96, p.A1)
1989        Josh Boger, a scientist with Merck, left the drug company to found Vertex. In 1994 Barry Werth authored “The Billion-Dollar Molecule," the story of the early days of Vertex.
    (Econ, 2/15/14, p.78)

1989        The P53 gene was found to act as a tumor suppressor gene.
    (SFC, 11/12/96, p.A5)

1989        Dr. Ray White led a team that found the NF-1 gene. A mutation of the gene was found to be responsible for neurofibromatosis.
    (WSJ, 2/27/97, p.B1)

1989        There was an outbreak of the deadly Ebola virus among 450 primates in Reston, Va.
    (FB, 9/12/96, Neighbors p.1)

1989        Tim Berners-Lee wrote a proposal at CERN, Switzerland, that a global hypertext space be created in which any network-accessible information could be referred to by a single "Universal Document Identifier". In 1990 he wrote a program called WorldWideWeb.
    (http://www3.org/People/Berners-Lee/ShortHistory.html)(SFEC, 3/15/98, p.W26)
1989        Jeff Hawkins developed software for the GridPad, the first computer was a pen-based interface.
    (Econ, 3/8/08, TQ p.31)
1989        Dean Kamen, inventor, started a robotics competition for high-schoolers, for Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology (FIRST).
    (NW, 4/24/03, p.44)(Econ, 6/12/10, TQ p.25)
1989        Brewster Kahle founded WAIS, a company named after the Wide Area Information Server protocol, to make software for online publishing. The protocol was an early form of internet search engine, which had been developed by Thinking Machines with Apple, Dow Jones and KPMG. In 1995 AOL bought the firm.
    (Econ, 3/7/09, TQ p.34)

1989        The nickel-metal-hydride battery appeared on the market.
    (Econ, 3/8/08, TQ p.23)

1989         Gerardo Beni and Jing Wang introduced the expression “swarm intelligence" (SI) in the context of cellular robotic systems. Marco Dorigo (b.1961) helped found the field. It describes the collective behavior of decentralized, self-organized systems, natural or artificial. The concept is employed in work on artificial intelligence.
    (Econ, 8/14/10, p.65)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swarm_intelligence)

1989        Jeremy Burroughs, Cambridge scientist, discovered that certain plastic polymers emit light while conducting electricity. The light emitting polymers (LEP) opened up a new field for the visual display of data.
    (WSJ, 12/3/96, p.B6)

1989        Jack Jewell at Bell Labs figured out how to make vertical cavity surface emitting lasers practical. They were first described by Prof. Kenichi Iga at the Tokyo Institute of Tech. in the late 1970s. They became fabricated like computer chips were capable of transmitting data at 6 Gbps.
    (Wired, 2/98, p.77)

1989        Scientists confirmed the existence of sprites and blue jets, the odd light effects of pulses of electromagnetic energy emitted above thunderstorms.
    (SFC, 12/16/96, p.B1)

1989        Caltech's Kip Thorne and colleagues theorized that general relativity permits wormholes, tunnels that cut across regions of space-time, and showed that with enough negative energy, they can be propped open.
    (WSJ, 11/21/03, p.B1)

1989        The Univ. of Phoenix enrolled 8 students in the world’s first online campus.
    {Education, USA}
    (LT, 9/30/96, p.76)(www.uopphx.edu/online)

1989        The U of M Institute for Social Research (ISR), began its World Values Survey to be conducted every 5 years.
    (MT, Fall. ‘97, p.4)

1989        The world fish catch peaked at 86.4 million metric tons.
    (SFC, 7/7/96, A10)

1989        The Russian wheat aphid arrived from Mexico and began to damage US wheat fields.
    (SFC, 8/17/00, p.A2)

1989        The UN Convention on Int’l. Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) imposed a total ban on the trade of ivory and elephant hide. In 2007 the ban was extended for another 9 years.
    (WSJ, 1/7/97, p.A1)(SFC, 6/20/97, p.A20)(SFC, 4/18/00, p.A9)(Econ, 3/8/08, p.85)

1989        The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was set up by the World Meteorological organization and the UN Environment Program at the request of the G7.
    (Econ, 6/2/07, SR p.3)(http://tinyurl.com/3xx4te)

1989        Buffalo clover, last seen in 1907, emerged in some topsoil delivered to a botanist’s backyard. In 1788 historian S.P. Hildreth penned an image of the fertile frontier that described the plant: "Buffalo clover... nearly knee-high... afforded a rich pasture."
    (NG, Jan. 94, p.144)

1989        Gene Savoy, explorer, discovered pottery and monolithic tablets in the cloud forest of northern Peru that he said showed native contact with ancient cultures in other parts of the world. The area was the homeland of the Chachapoya Indian kingdom.
    (SFC, 12/13/97, p.A13)

1989        Hurricane Hugo caused $8 billion in damage and killed 35 people. Most of the damage was in South Carolina where winds reached 135-mph. Damage was $4.2 billion.
    (SFC, 9/6.96, p.A12)(SFEC, 9/15/96, p.A10)

1989        In Noblesville, Ind., the parents of Brian and David Setters were shot to death. The brothers took over the family insurance business. In 1998 the 2 brothers were charged with the murder.
    (SFC, 10/1/98, p.A3)

1989        An AK-47 assault rifle was used in an assault on school children in Stockton, Ca.
    (SFC, 5/27/96, p.A9)

1989        In Kansas City, Mo., a firebomb was thrown into a house and 6 people died.
    (SFC, 12/6/97, p.A7)

1989        A federal judge and a civil rights lawyer in Alabama were killed by a mail bomb. Walter Leroy Moody was convicted in 1991 on federal charges and sentenced to life. In 1996 Moody was convicted on state charges with recommended execution and sentenced to be executed in 1997.
    (WSJ, 11/6/96, p.A1)(WSJ, 2/11/97, p.A1)

1989        Lester "Benny" Binion, founder of the Las Vegas Horseshoe Casino, died.
    (WSJ, 8/24/98, p.A1)
1989        Jay DeFeo, SF artist, died. Her work "The Rose" weighed a ton and in 1965 was moved out of a house and later to the SF Art Institute where it languished for 26 years.
    (SFEC, 10/13/96, DB p.8)
1989        Gilda Radner (42), comedian and wife of Gene Wilder, died.
    (SFC, 11/8/96, p.C10)
1989        Artist Louis Bassi Siegriest (b.1889), died. He was a member of the Oakland-based Society of Six, known for their plein air paintings. The other members included Maurice George Logan (1886-1971), William Henry Clapp (1879-1954), August Francois Gay (1891-1949), Selden Conner Gile (1877-1947) and Bernard James von Eichman (1899-1970).
    (SFC, 1/20/11, p.C6)(www.tfaoi.com/aa/2aa/2aa660.htm)

1989        In Afghanistan the Mujahedeen drove the Russians out of the country.
    (SFC, 9/23/96, A9)
1989        In Afghanistan Osama bin Laden formed al Qaeda.
    (SSFC, 5/9/04, p.M6)

1989        The Arab Maghreb Union was created to encourage free trade between Algeria, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco and Tunisia. It failed to hold summit meetings after 1994.
    (Econ, 5/29/10, p.50)

1989        Argentina broke with the past and positioned itself as a US ally. Castro’s Cuba was denounced and frigates were sent to support Desert Storm.
    (SFC, 10/12/97, p.A15)
1989        The central bank of Argentina suffered losses in Q2 worth 23.5% of GDP.
    (Econ, 4/30/05, p.74)

1989        In Australia ATSIC was established by Bob Hawke's Labor government through the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Commission Act 1989 (the ATSIC Act). It took effect on 5 March 1990. It provided a means of self-determination for indigenous people.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aboriginal_and_Torres_Strait_Islander_Commission)(SFC, 4/20/04, p.F1)

1989        In Belgium Marc Dutroux (b.1956) was sent to prison for 13 years for abducting and raping 5 girls. He was released after serving 3 years and quickly reverted to his former self. He was again arrested in 1996 for kidnappings in 1995.
    (SFC, 8/20/96, p.A10)

1989        Arce Gomez was captured in eastern Bolivia and extradited to the United States, where he was convicted of drug trafficking and sentenced to 30 years. Gomez, known as "the minister of cocaine," took part in the July 1980 coup led by then-Gen. Luis Garcia Meza and backed by drug traffickers. In 2009 Gomez was returned to Bolivia to serve a 30-year prison sentence for crimes including genocide and political assassinations.
    (AP, 7/10/09)

1989        Brazil’s United Health system (SUS) was created from the merger of two state systems.
    (Econ, 7/30/11, p.33)
1989        In Brazil Jorge Paulo Lemann and two partners bought the Brahma beer company for $50 million. A decade later they acquired Antarctica, a rival, to become AmBev. In 2004 a merger with Belgium-based Interbrew created InBev. In 2008 InBev paid $52 billion for Anheuser-Busch of America.
    (Econ, 9/19/15, p.60)

1989        Martin Amis authored his novel “London Fields," a black comedy about lust and low-lifes that fizzed with a rare energy.
    (Econ, 6/30/12, p.85)
1989        In Britain Channel Four began its "Out on Tuesday" series, the first regular gay and lesbian programming.
    (SFC, 5/21/97, p.D3)
1989        British PM Margaret Thatcher's government introduces the hugely unpopular poll tax in Scotland a year before England. The tax was abolished across Britain in 1993.
    (Reuters, 2/16/12)
1989        Britain’s economics began a current account reversal. British property values dropped after a decade-long rise. Prices did not recover for almost a decade.
    (Econ, 8/19/06, p.64)(Econ, 11/4/06, p.66)
1989        Michal Porulski (74), a Polish Catholic artist and Holocaust survivor, died in St. Mary's Hospital near Hereford, England, of pneumonia and tuberculosis. He spent time in Dachau and left behind ink and watercolor drawings of his experiences there.
    (AP, 9/16/07)

1989         Bulgaria's State Security was dissolved. It had worked closely with the Soviet KGB, operated a network of some 100,000 agents and informers and was dissolved following the collapse of the communist regime.
    (Reuters, 3/28/18)
1989        Bulgaria’s new government apologized for "crimes of the past" and rescinded the 1972 Communist law for Muslim men to change their names.
    (SFC, 3/27/00, p.A12)
1989        To avoid assimilation 300,000 Turks left Bulgaria. The communist government of Bulgaria deported 340,000 ethnic Turks.
    (SFC, 9/9/96, p.A11)(Econ, 2/11/17, p.70)

1989        In Burma the military authorities placed Aung San Suu Kyi under house arrest where she was confined for the next 6 years.
    (SFEC, 8/23/98, BR p.4)

1989        In Cameroon representatives of King Seidou Njimoluh Njoya, the 18th monarch of the kingdom of Foumban, announced that Joseph Ngoupou (39) would succeed his father as chief of the village of Koupa Ngagnou. Mr. Ngoupou lived in Maryland and worked there as an engineer.
    (WSJ, 9/23/06, p.A1)

1989        In Canada a human rights tribunal ruled that equal rights must be provided for women. This opened Canadian military jobs for women except for submarine duty.
    (SFC, 3/26/98, p.B2)
1989        Canada ceased issuing C$1 notes. Canada had replaced the C$1 note with a coin in 1987 and the C$2 note with a coin in 1996.
    {Canada, Money}
    (WSJ, 11/6/97, p.A22)(www.dallasfed.org/research/swe/1997/swe9704.html)

1989        Sebastian Pinera (b.1949), Chilean businessman and politician, was elected senator in Chile. His fortune in 1996 was estimated at $300 mil.
    (WSJ, 3/26/96, p.A-10)

1989        In China the low-level Gezhouba Dam on the Yangtze River was completed.
    (NH, 7/96, p.38)
1989        The US and the EU imposed an arms embargo on China to protest the post-Tiananmen clampdown.
    (Econ, 5/7/05, p.27)
1989        Chinese scientists and scholars in New York founded the non-profit group “Human Rights in China."
    (WSJ, 2/13/06, p.A9)

1989        In Colombia a Time Magazine investigative team that included Tom Quinn (1943-1996) found evidence indicating that Gen’l. Guillermo Medina Sanchez, national police chief, had taken money from drug traffickers.
    (SFC, 10/21/96, p.A17)
1989        In Colombia the M-19 rebel group agreed to disarm.
    (SFC, 8/23/97, p.A20)
1989        In Colombia drug kingpin Jose Rodriguez Gacha was killed.
    (SFC, 4/7/97, p.A10)

1989        In Croatia Franjo Tudjman began airing his views on Zagreb Radio 101.
    (WSJ, 7/25/96, p.A1)

1989        Fidel Castro Inaugurated the National Botanical Gardens, located just south of Havana. The 1,500-acre park fell on hard times after Cuba's 1990s economic crisis precipitated by the collapse of the Soviet Union.
    (AP, 1/27/12)

1989        Jiri Dienstbier (1937-2011) became Czechoslovakia’s deputy prime minister and first post-revolution foreign minister. He continued serving to 1992.
    (Econ, 1/15/11, p.55)(http://jiri.dienstbier.cz/en/curriculum-vitae/)

1989        Egypt’s Pres. Mubarak sacked Defense Minister Abdel-Halim Abu Ghazala, widely popular among troops and civilians and even talked about as a possible successor to Mubarak.
    (AP, 2/16/11)
1989         Pres. Mubarak's lobbying culminated in a majority of Arab League foreign ministers endorsing Egypt's readmission to the league after 10 year absence caused by Arab rejection of Sadat's peace treaty signing with Israel.
    (AP, 7/9/04)
1989        Egypt signed a treaty with the British that ostensibly allowed it to block any big projects upstream of the Aswan Dam.
    (Econ., 3/14/15, p.50)

1989        The right-wing ARENA party of El Salvador began to be supported by the US government.
    (SFC, 5/8/96, p.A-19)
1989        El Salvador military officers Colonel Carlos Eugenio Vides Casanova, director of the National Guard and Gen’l. Jose Guillermo Garcia, the minister of defense, retired to Florida. In 2002 a Florida jury found Casanova and Garcia responsible for torture and atrocities committed in 1983 and ordered payment of $54.6 million to 3 victims living in Florida. [see El Salvador Dec 4, 1980]
    (SFC, 7/24/02, p.A12)
1989        Lori Helene Berenson, an American, began work in El Salvador as the personal secretary to Leonel Gonzalez, top commander of the FMLN guerrillas. She stayed for about for about 4 1/2 years and moved to Peru.
    (www.discoverthenetwork.org/individualProfile.asp?indid=1881)(WSJ, 12/27/96, p.A7)

1989        Finland’s YLE radio launched a five-minute weekly news program in Latin to a small group of committed listeners around the globe. It inspired Latin students, academics and language lovers around the globe, from China and Vietnam all the way to Belgium and the United States. In 2017 YLE leadership agreed to extend it until at least its 30th anniversary in 2019.
    (AP, 12/29/17)
1989        The Finnish ministry of Public health suggested a sex vacation to thwart stress.

1989        In France construction of the new Tres Grand Bibliotheque (aka TGB, the national library) was begun in Paris. It was designed by Dominique Perrault and the first quarter was scheduled to open in 1997.
    (WSJ, 8/28/97, p.A12)
1989        In France the I.M. Pei glass pyramid next to the Louvre Museum was built.
    (SFC, 6/16/96, T-5)
1989        Gerard Fusil, a French journalist, conceived "adventure racing" as a sport.
    (WSJ, 5/19/00, p.A1)
1989        In France Christine Deviers-Joncour was hired by state-owned Elf oil company to use her wiles on foreign minister Roland Dumas to go along with a sale of 6 French-made warships to Taiwan. In 1998 she published "The Whore of the Republic," and told her story.
    (SFC, 11/28/98, p.A14)
1989        The National Geographical Institute of France calculated that Europe’s geographical center was in Lithuania, close to Vilnius.
    (WSJ, 7/14/04, p.A7)
1989        Pernod Ricard SA acquired the Australian wine brand Jacob’s Creek.
    (WSJ, 9/7/05, p.B2)
1989        A cable car accident killed 8 people in the Isere region of the French Alps.
    (SFC, 7/2/99, p.A10)
1989        Bernard Villemot (b.1911), French poster artist, died. In 1945-1946 he carried out many posters for the Red Cross.
    (SFC, 10/21/06, p.F3)(http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Villemot)

1989        In Greece corruption charges alleged Socialist party involvement in a $210 million bank embezzlement scandal that later led to the imprisonment of former banker George Koskotas, who spent 12 years in jail.
    (AP, 4/2/10)

1989        In Haiti Guy Francois (d.2006), commander of the feared Dessalines Battalion in Port-au-Prince, was accused of conspiring with other officers in a failed attempt to topple dictator Lt. Gen. Prosper Avril. The plot was foiled and Francois fled to Venezuela. He later returned.
    (AP, 9/15/06)

1989        Iceland stopped whaling.
    (SFC, 5/10/97, p.A8)
1989        Jon Asgeir Johannesson (20) and his unemployed father opened a discount grocery store, Bonus, in Reykjavik, Iceland. Until this time dominant grocery chains had kept food prices high throughout the nation.
    (WSJ, 7/11/06, p.A1)

1989        India again had a non-Congress government but it fell before the end of its 5-year term.
    (WSJ, 4/26/96, p.A-10)
1989        In India the Bofors scandal, centered on kickbacks for a 1986 contract between the Indian government and Swedish arms company AB Bofors, brought down the government.
    (Econ, 3/12/11, p.18)
1989        PepsiCo. Inc. began operations in India.
    (WSJ, 9/12/06, p.A6)

1989        In Iran Grand Ayatollah Hossein Ali Montazeri protested the execution of thousands of political prisoners. This frustrated Ayatollah Khomeini and caused him to dump Montazeri as heir apparent.
    (WSJ, 1/13/98, p.A20)

1989        In Israel Dov Moran founded M-Systems, the original maker of USB flash drives (1999). He sold the business to SanDisk in 2006 for $1.6 billion.

1989         Japan’s Praemium Imperiale began annual awards in five different disciplines -- music, painting, sculpture, architecture and theatre/film. The awards were created in 1988 in honor of the late Japanese Prince Takamatsu, who served as honorary patron of the private association for 58 years until his death in 1987.
    (AP, 9/12/17)
1989        Japan’s PM Sousuke Uno resigned over a scandal involving his geisha mistress. Criticism focused on allegations that he treated her in a miserly fashion.
    (SFC, 8/20/96, p.A18)(SFEC, 1/25/98, Z1 p.2)
1989        In Japan mutilated skulls and bones were found near the former Tokyo headquarters of Unit 731, a covert body charged with developing techniques of chemical and biological warfare during WWII.
    (Econ, 2/26/11, p.48)
1989        Nintendo Co. of Japan launched its Game Boy product, a portable, hand-held game system with interchangeable game packs. The game was designed by Gunpei Yokoi (d.1997 at 56).
    (Hem, 4/96, p.29)(SFC, 10/11/97, p.A19)
1989        The Showa Shinzan snowball-fight championship was begun as a tourist attraction in Sobetsucho, Japan.
    (WSJ, 2/26/04, p.A1)
1989        Japan’s Toyoto Corp. launched the Lexus, a premium brand car, in the US.
    (Econ, 6/7/14, p.69)

1989        Ahmad Chalabi (b.1944), founding head of Petra Bank (1977), fled Jordan following a bank scandal that involved an Iraqi account in exile. 13 people were convicted including 9 Chalabis. Ahmed, who claimed the charges were politically motivated, was sentenced in absentia to 22 years hard labor for embezzling $300 million of state funds.
    (Econ, 10/4/03, p.44)(WSJ, 11/7/05, p.A4)

1989        Javed Hussain Shah completed 6 months of training in Afghanistan and led a Kashmiri insurgent group later dubbed the Jihad Force. He fought along with al-Qaida members and later became a Kashmiri legislator.
    (SSFC, 6/23/02, p.A13)

1989        Nursultan Nazarbaev succeeded Gennady Kolbin as head of Kazakhstan.
    (Econ, 12/23/06, p.59)
1989        Soviet nuclear test explosions ended in Kazakhstan. Between 1949 and the cessation of atomic testing in 1989, 456 explosions were conducted at the STS, including 340 underground shots and 116 atmospheric.
    (SFC, 11/20/97, p.B2)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Semipalatinsk_Test_Site)
1989        Kazakhstan’s population numbered about 16.5 million people. By the late 1990s it fell to 14.9 million as the economy declined.
    (Econ, 3/24/07, p.47)

1989        Kenya burned a vast pile of elephant tusks in Nairobi National Park in an effort to curb the killing of elephants.
    (Econ, 2/8/14, p.60)

1989        Chingiz Aitmatov (b.1928), Kyrgyzstan writer and member of the Soviet Parliament, returned home to help mediate a conflict between Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan. His novels included “The Day Lasts More Than a 100 Years" (1980).
    (WSJ, 2/24/05, p.D8)

1989        Laos opened to foreign tourists for the first time since 1975.
    (SFEC, 3/29/98, p.T4)

1989        Rafik Hariri financed a gathering of Lebanese politicians at the Saudi city of Taif to hammer out a deal to disband militias and distribute power more equitably. The Taif Agreement maintained sectarian divisions in government and led to the end of the civil war. It stipulated that Syria withdraw its troops to the border and leave within 2 years.
    (SFC, 9/28/98, p.A10)(SFC, 4/4/02, p.A13)(Econ, 2/19/05, p.43)
1989        In Lebanon PM Michel Aoun waged a “war of liberation" against Syrian forces. Pro-Syrian legislator Elias Hrawi was elected president.
    (SFC, 4/27/05, p.A8)

1989        In Liechtenstein, the 6th smallest country in the world, Prince Hans-Adam II assumed the throne upon the death of his father.
    (WSJ, 7/22/97, p.A1)

1989        In Lithuania Dr. Saulius Caplinskas started an AIDS Center in Vilnius. In 1997 there were 60 reported cases of HIV, but the actual number was estimated to be between 200-300.
    (SFC, 4/16/97, p.A10)

1989        UNESCO declared Mali's Cliff of Bandiagara, famous for its homes carved into the rock as well as the traditional way of life, a world heritage site.
    (AP, 8/5/20)

1989        In Mexico Gerardo de Prevoisin led an investor group in the buyout of Aeromexico. In 1994 he was forced out as chairman and in 1996 was accused of embezzling $72 mil.
    (WSJ, 7/1/96, p.A6)
1989        In Mexico Ernesto Zedillo as a Cabinet secretary granted a $7 mil payment to Maseca, a corn-flour maker, run by Roberto Gonzalez Barrera, a close friend of Pres. Carlos Salinas. It was supposed to be compensation money for government failure to pay subsidies in the late 1980s, although 16 mil was paid in 1988.
    (SFC, 7/6/96, p.A10)
1989        In Mexico Raul Salinas under the name of Juan Guillermo Gomez Gutierrez approached the Swiss Pictet Bank to open an account. Later info came out that Raul Salinas lent $29.8 mil for 6 years at 12% to Mr. Salinas Pliego for use in TV Azteca. News also surfaced that Jose Madariaga Lomelin, chairman of BBV Probursa SA, a banking group, and Abraham Zabludovsky, an executive with Grupo Televisa SA, invested in a bus manufacturing company with Raul Salinas.
    (WSJ, 6/7/96, p.A11)(SFC, 7/8/96, p.A6)

1989        In Mozambique Frelimo dropped its socialist ideas in favor of a free-market economy.
    (SFC, 10/14/97, p.A12)

1989        In Namibia the South West Africa People’s Organization (SWAPO) ended its rebellion against South African rule with the UN supervised elections that elected Sam Nujoma as President.
    (LVRJ, 11/1/97, p.20A)

1989        Ter Beek (d.2008 at 64) became defense minister in a centrist coalition led by PM Ruud Lubbers and served until 1994. He worked to streamline the Dutch military in the aftermath of the Cold War, including scrapping the draft.
    (AP, 9/30/08)

1989        New Zealand became the 1st country to introduce inflation targets.
    (Econ, 2/26/05, p.76)
1989        In New Zealand Graeme Hart purchased the Government Printing Office on its privatization for NZ$23 million (then 14m). By 2010 his net worth reached $5.3 billion.
    (Econ, 5/29/10, p.65)
1989        Questar of New Zealand agreed to pay $200,000 a year for eight years to the California Academy of Sciences as part of a deal to develop a new aquarium at San Francisco’s Fisherman’s Wharf.
    (SSFC, 7/20/14, DB p.42)

1989        The central bank of Nicaragua suffered losses worth 13.8% of GDP.
    (Econ, 4/30/05, p.74)

1989        Pakistan ordered 60 F-16 fighter jets from the US and paid for 28 of them. The US Congress stopped the sale in 1990.
    (SFC, 12/3/98, p.A18)
1989        Lashker-e-Tayyaba was created in Pakistan to fight against India in Kashmir. Pres. Musharraf banned Lashker-e-Tayyaba in January, 2002, under pressure from the US.
    (SSFC, 7/30/06, p.A10)
1989        In Pakistan the Suzuki Mehran, a small boxy car, made its debut.
    (Econ, 5/9/15, p.34)

1989        In Paraguay Horacio Cartes spent time in jail on suspicion of currency fraud. In 2013 Cartes was elected president.
    (Econ, 4/27/13, p.35)

1989        In Peru squatters occupied a Lima site known as Puruchuco-Huaquerones. As they built homes they kept bumping into Inca mummy bundles.
    (Arch, 7/02, p.16)
1989        Eduardo Nycander and Kurt Holle co-founded Rainforests Expeditions in Peru to use tourism to foster conservation.
    (Econ, 4/12/08, p.42)

1989        In Romania some 1,200 deaths occurred during the revolution after the army officially changed sides.
    (SFC, 6/15/98, p.A11)

1989        The Supreme Soviet issued a resolution that criticized the 1939 Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact as "a personal decision by (Soviet leader Josef) Stalin that contradicted the interests of the Soviet people."
    (AP, 5/6/05)
1989        Vladimir Pasechnik defected to the US from the Biopreparat biological weapons program. He revealed that the Soviet program was ten times larger than US estimates.
    (WSJ, 3/10/98, p.A22)
1989        Alexander Smolensky established Bank Stolichny, one of the Soviet Union’s 1st private banks.
    (WSJ, 10/4/00, p.A10)
1989        In Russia a group of sociologists led by Yuri Levada began to study what they called the Soviet Man, an artificial construct of doublethink, paternalism, suspicion and isolationism.
    (Econ, 12/10/11, p.27)
1989        The Kremlin appointed Islam Karimov as the communist boss of Uzbekistan.
    (Econ, 9/3/16, p.33)

1989        In Saudi Arabia the $140 million King Fahd Cultural Center was completed on the outskirts of Riyadh. It has never been opened to the public and was maintained by a fulltime staff of 180 people.
    (SFC, 11/22/96, p.A20)

1989         The Milosevic regime in Yugoslavia made constitutional changes to consolidate power over the provinces of Kosovo and Vojvodina. Kosovo, whose 1.9 million people are 90% Albanian, lost its autonomy and was placed under Serbian rule. The constitution passed without the approval of the parliament of Kosova. The Serbs fired most Albanians and closed many enterprises. Muslim unrest followed and Kosovo was occupied. 90% of the population of Kosovo was made up of some 2.2 million ethnic Albanians.
    (SFC, 6/11/96, p.A14)(SFC, 5/11/96, p.A-10)(WSJ, 8/5/96, p.A13)(SFC, 12/10/97, p.C2)(www, Albania, 1998)
1989        Bujar Bukoshi was elected the prime minister of the Kosovo Regional Government.
    (WSJ, 4/28/99, p.A14)
1989        Wealthy émigrés lent the Milosevic regime some $87 million as a "Loan for the Regeneration of Serbia." Lenders never got back their investment.
    (WSJ, 8/9/99, p.A14)
1989        In Serbia Radio B-92 was founded by a Youth Council that vanished in the dissolution of Yugoslavia. It got a legal license for 15 days but has not had legal status since. It continued to operate and was the only independent station broadcasting in 1996.
    (SFC, 12/3/96, p.A12)
1989        The Zastava car plant in Kragujevac, Serbia, produced 180,950 cars. In 1999 NATO bombed parts of the plant which also made arms.
    (Econ, 10/1/05, p.47)

1989        In South Africa Eugene de Kock’s covert Vlakplaas unit began to be exposed in newspapers and court proceedings.
    (SFC, 9/19/96, p.A8)
1989        In South Africa Rev. Frank Chikane almost died after his underwear was laced with poison. In 2007 Adriaan Vlok, former security minister, and Johann van der Merwe, former police chief, faced charges of attempted murder.
    (Econ, 8/4/07, p.41)
1989        In South Africa Winnie Mandela sent a young man to the mission of Paul Verryn, a Methodist minister, to try to trap him into a sexual liaison. She then kidnapped 4 youths from the mission and beat them until they agreed to accuse the minister of having sex with them.
    (SFC, 11/27/97, p.B2)
1989        The African Management Services Company (AMSCO) was formed in South Africa by the Int’l. Finance Corp., the private sector arm of the World Bank, to help small African firms become competitive. In 2004 Ayisi Makatiani took over the leadership of AMSCO.
    (Econ, 8/5/06, p.58)
1989        Executive Outcomes, a private military company (PMC), was founded in South Africa by Eeben Barlow, a former lieutenant-colonel of the South African Defence Force. It later became part of the South African-based holding company Strategic Resource Corporation.
1989        South Africa banned the use of the sjambok, a three-foot-long whip traditionally made of rhino hide.
    (Economist, 4/4/20, p.37)

1989        A report from Seoul National University estimated that 48,000 buildings housing 720,000 people were destroyed during the five years preceding the 1988 Olympic Games in Seoul.
    (AP, 3/11/18)
1989        In South Korea the National Council of Regional and Industrial Trade Unions formed. The nationwide May Day rally was the first one since 1945.
1989        In South Korea some 400,000 workers downed their tools in strikes that lasted months.
    (SFC, 1/10/97, p.A14)(www.country-data.com/cgi-bin/query/r-12349.html)
1989        Humax, a maker of digital set top boxes, was founded in South Korea. By 2011 annual revenues exceeded $865 million.
    (Econ, 5/14/11, p.82)
1989        In South Korea Park In-keun (d.2016), the owner of a state-funded facility for the homeless and disabled, was acquitted of charges linked to illegal confinement of inmates. Hundreds of deaths, rapes and beatings at the Brothers Home, dating back to the 1970s and 1980s, were documented in a 2016 report. In 2020 South Korea's Supreme Court said it will reopen the case.
    (SFC, 4/18/20, p.A2)

1989        The Spanish government paid $350 million for half of the (German-Hungarian) Thyssen-Bornemusza art collection and provided a substantial gallery to house the collection. In 2007 David R.L. Litchfield authored “The Thyssen Art Macabre."
    (Econ, 3/3/07, p.88)
1989        In Spain the 300-sq. km. Donana wetland, the richest in Europe, was declared a national park. The belt around Donana was managed by the regional government of Andalusia. The Madrid government managed the park.
    (WSJ, 4/28/98, p.A13)

1989        A devastating draught prompted the international community to launch a massive relief effort called Operation Lifeline Sudan.
    (SFC, 4/15/96, A-8)

1989        In Zurich, Switzerland, authorities experimented with an open access to drugs program, which caused an escalation in drug dealing and violence.
    (SFEC, 11/29/98, p.A21)

1989        Mintimer Shaimiyev became First Secretary of Tatar Regional CPSU Committee in Kazan, Tatarstan.
    (Econ, 6/2/07, p.56)(www.kcn.ru/tat_en/politics/dfa/presid/car.htm)

1989        The government of Thailand granted investment incentives to the Sahaviriya group to build the first mills for making steel.
    (WSJ, 8/27/96, p.A10)
1989        In Thailand John Gray formed Sea Canoe, an ecotourism venture, to show tourists the southwestern coast limestone caves known as hongs.
    (SFC, 11/23/99, p.A14)
1989        Saudi diplomat Abdullah al-Maliki was gunned down in Bangkok. Adbullah A al-Besri, Fahad AZ Albahli and Ahmed A Alsaif were assassinated in January 1990. All were linked to the so-called Blue Diamond theft committed by Thai laborer Kriangkrai Techamong, who was working at Prince Faisal's palace in Saudi Arabia in 1989. The legendary diamond was among several valuable stones and jewelry pieces stolen from the palace of a Saudi Prince when he was employed as a gardener in the Arab kingdom.

1989        In Thailand Typhoon Gay left more than 400 dead.
    (AP, 1/3/19)

1989        Trinidad and Tobago appealed for an Int’l. World Court to help it and other small countries fight int’l. drug trafficking.
    (SFEC, 12/1/96, p.A16)

1989        Tunisia held elections which were heavily falsified. An Islamist-backed coalition still managed to win 17 percent of the vote. Islamist leader Rached Ghannouchi fled to Algeria. Hundreds of Islamist activists who stayed behind were thrown into prison, often on flimsy charges. In 1991 Ghannouchi moved to Britain.
    (AFP, 1/30/11)

1989        Uruguay voters approved a referendum on amnesty to military officials accused of murders, disappearances and other human rights violations during the country's 1973-85  dictatorship.
    (Econ, 3/23/13, p.39)

1989        In Zimbabwe the Communal Areas Management Program for Indigenous Resources (CAMPFIRE) was established as a compromise settlement between park rangers and local communities.
    (SFC, 8/10/98, p.A12,14)

1989        In Zimbabwe elephant floppy trunk disease was first reported around Lake Kariba. Initial paralysis at the tip of the trunk gradually moved up and resulted in total paralysis. Scores of cases were reported in 2000 in South Africa and Zimbabwe.
    (SFC, 2/26/00, p.A8)

1989        The Save Outdoor Sculpture (SOS), organization was founded as a non-profit and largely volunteer organization. It is housed in Washington at the National Institute for the Conservation of Cultural Property (NIC). The SOS has 15,000 works entered into its Inventory of American Sculpture.
    (Smith., 4/1995, p.140)(http://tinyurl.com/hrt5r)

1989-1990    Extreme violence shook Colombia when guerillas and drug traffickers mounted a brutal anti-government campaign known as narcoterrorism. Three pres. candidates were killed including the popular Luis Carlos Galan.
    (WSJ, 5/3/96, p.A-11)

1989-1990    During a border war with Senegal, tens of thousands of black Mauritanians, from high ranking civil servants to herdsmen, were accused of being Senegalese, rounded up and deported.
    (Econ, 5/5/07, p.62)(AP, 7/29/11)

1989-1990    In Mexico Javier Coello Trejo served as deputy attorney general and was the first drug czar under Pres. Carlos Salinas de Gortari.
    (SFC, 2/19/96, p.A11)

1989-1990    In Norway Jan P. Syse (d.1997 at 66) served as prime minister of a conservative-led coalition government. He led the conservative party from 1988-1991.
    (SFC, 9/18/97, p.C2)

1989-1990    In Slovenia Janez Drnovsek served as the Communist president.
    (SFC, 11/11/96, p.A11)

1989-1990    In Sri Lanka the government staged an offensive against the Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna (JVP, People’s Liberation Front), a Marxist rebel group. In 1997 the government admitted that nearly 17,000 people died or vanished during the offensive. Human rights groups estimated that some 60,000 people were killed or disappeared.
    (WSJ, 9/4/97, p.A1)(SFC, 9/4/97, p.A3)
1989-1990    In Sri Lanka a group of 25 high school students disappeared. It was later learned that school principle Dayananda Lokugalappathi had convinced the military that the students were linked to the JVP. In 1999 a court sentenced 6 soldiers and the principle to 10 years in prison.
    (SFC, 2/11/99, p.C3)

1989-1991    About 2 million small arms were imported legally into the US, including semiautomatic weapons that could be bought in US gun stores for $250-400.
    (SFC, 5/27/96, p.A9)

1989-1991    Somaliland fought a civil war with the regime of Somali Pres. Mohamed Siad Barre.
    (SFC, 4/15/98, p.C2)

1989-1992    Warren Zimmerman was the US ambassador to Yugoslavia. He later wrote "Origins of a Catastrophe" that documents this period.
    (SFEC, 10/20/96, p.C13)

1989-1992    Susan McDougal worked as a bookkeeper and personal assistant for conductor Zubin Mehta and his wife. McDougal was later charged with embezzlement of $150,000 and tax fraud. Her trial began in 1998. She was acquitted.
    (SFC, 9/9/98, p.A3)(SFC, 11/24/98, p.A1)

1989-1992    South Ossetia defended itself from Georgia with aid from Russia and about 1,000 people died in the fighting. Some 25-40,000 people fled the area.
    (SFC, 9/1/98, p.A10)

1989-1993    It is estimated that Chinese military companies exported more than 3 million guns to the US.
    (SFC, 5/26/96, p.A-13)

1989-1993    In Libya an outbreak of Old World Screwworm was eradicated by a coordinated int’l. effort.
    (SFC, 6/13/98, p.A7)

1989-1995    The US Congress established a program to ease the nursing shortage and allowed foreign nurses to work at hospitals under one-year visas where US workers were not available.
    (SFC, 1/15/98, p.A10)

1989-1997    More than 275,000 Hong Kong residents emigrated to Canada during this period. A Canadian residency permit could be secured by an investment of $112,000.
    (Econ., 8/1/20, p.33)

1989-2002    Some 6,000 people disappeared in Indian-Kashmir over this period. Violence over this time claimed some 60,000 lives.
    (SFC, 9/27/02, p.A16)

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