Timeline 1975

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1975        Jan 1, The Watergate verdict was guilty when a jury convicted Richard Nixon's three top advisers on all counts in the Watergate coverup: former attorney general John Mitchell and White House aides Bob Haldeman and John Ehrlichman. "Watergate" became shorthand for the burglary of Democratic Party offices in Washington's Watergate office complex. The burglars were caught and found to have White House connections. Robert Mardian (1923-2006), attorney for the Committee to Re-elect the President (CREEP), was also convicted, but an appeals court in October, 1996, reversed his conviction.
    (SFC, 7/21/06, p.B9)
1975        Jan 1, The Federal Hourly Minimum Wage rose to $2.10 an hour.
1975        Jan 1, On New Year's Day Communist troops launched an offensive which, in 117 days of the hardest fighting of the war, collapsed the Khmer Republic.

1975        Jan 2, Milton J. Cross (b.1897), TV announcer (Met Opera), died.
1975        Jan 2, Ken Brugger, searching on behalf of Canadian entomologist Dr. Fred A. Urquhart, found that vast numbers of monarch butterflies, wintered at Cerro Pelon, an inactive volcano a hundred miles west of Mexico City. Urquhart had been tagging butterflies and searching for their winter quarters since 1954. In 1986 the Mexican government established some protection over 5 sites where monarchs were known to overwinter.
    (ON, 4/07, p.12)

1975        Jan 3, President Ford signed Public Law 93-620. This Act, written to enlarge the Grand Canyon National Park, also provided in Section 10 for the enlargement of the adjacent Havasupai Indian Reservation by 185,000 acres and designated a contiguous 95,300 acres of the enlarged National Park as a permanent traditional use area of the Havasupai Indians of Havasu Canyon, Arizona.
    (SSFC, 2/19/06, p.F4)(www.tribal-institute.org/envirotext/89.htm)
1975        Jan 3, President Gerald Ford signed the Jackson-Vanik amendment into law, after both houses of the United States Congress unanimously voted for its adoption. Congress had passed the Jackson-Vanik amendment for economic sanctions on Russia to pressure the Soviet Union to allow unfettered emigration for Soviet Jews. Pres. Bush in 2001 proposed that it be lifted.
    (WSJ, 11/5/01, p.A1)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jackson-Vanik_amendment)
1975        Jan 3, The US Trade Act of 1974 was enacted on Jan 3, 1975.

1975        Jan 4, Pres. Ford’s signed Executive Order No. 11828 on CIA Activities within the US. He directed the Commission, chaired by VP Nelson A. Rockefeller, to determine whether or not any domestic CIA activities exceeded the Agency's statutory authority and to make appropriate recommendations.
1975        Jan 4, Pres. Ford signed into law the US Indian Self-Determination Act. It began the transfer of administration from the Bureau of Indian Affairs to the tribal governments.
    (http://tinyurl.com/6rh5v3y)(Econ, 4/7/12, p.35)

1975        Jan 5, "The Wiz," a musical version of L. Frank Baum's "The Wonderful Wizard of Oz," opened at the Majestic Theater on Broadway with an all-black cast. It ran for 1672 performances.
    (AP, 1/5/00)

1975        Jan 6, The NBC TV game show “Wheel of Fortune", created by Merv Griffin (1925-2007), premiered.
    (WSJ, 8/15/07, p.D12)(www.imdb.com/title/tt0072584/)
1975        Jan 6, George Price (b.1922), American scientist, exhausted his generosity by slashing his own throat with a pair of scissors. In 2010 Oren Harman authored “The Price of Altruism: George Price and the Search for the Origins of Kindness."
    (Econ, 5/22/10, p.89)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_R._Price)
1975        Jan 6, Raul Hector Castro (1916-2015) began serving as Arizona’s 14th governor. After two years he was selected by President Jimmy Carter to be ambassador to Argentina and held that post until 1980.
    (SFC, 4/11/15, p.A6)

1975        Jan 7, "Shenandoah" opened at Alvin Theater, NYC, for 1050 performances.
1975        Jan 7, Hanoi troops took Phuoc Binh in new full-scale offensive.
    (HN, 1/7/99)

1975        Jan 8, Judge John J. Sirica ordered the release of Watergate figures John W. Dean III, Herbert W. Kalmbach and Jeb Stuart Magruder from prison.
    (AP, 1/8/06)
1975        Jan 8, Richard Tucker (b.1913), [Reuben Ticker], US tenor, cantor (La Gioconda), died.
1975        Jan 8, NVA general staff plan for the invasion of South Vietnam by 20 divisions is approved by North Vietnam's Politburo. By now, the Soviet-supplied North Vietnamese Army is the fifth largest in the world. It anticipates a two year struggle for victory. But in reality, South Vietnam's forces will collapse in only 55 days.

1975        Jan 12, The Pittsburgh Steelers beat the Minnesota Vikings (16-6) in the Superbowl in New Orleans. Bob McCurry of Chrysler Corp. introduced the auto rebate in a 1975 Superbowl commercial.

1975        Jan 14, The House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC), created in 1938 to inquire into subversive activities in the US, was terminated following the efforts of the National Committee to Abolish HUAC, co-founded by Richard Criley (d.2000 at 88). In 1969, the House changed the committee's name to "House Committee on Internal Security". When the House abolished the committee, its functions were transferred to the House Judiciary Committee.
    (SFC, 6/22/00, p.C2)(http://tinyurl.com/3hqzjd)
1975        Jan 14, Donald Neilson (1936-1911) kidnapped heiress Lesley Whittle (17) from her bedroom in Highley, Shropshire. Her body was found on 7 March 1975, hanging from a wire at the bottom of a drainage shaft following failed attempts at ransom. Neilson received five life sentences in July 1976 for the murder of Whittle.

1975        Jan 16, The Irish Republican Army called an end to a 25-day cease fire in Belfast.
    (HN, 1/16/99)

1975        Jan 17, A 25-day cease-fire in Northern Ireland ended.
    (SFC, 6/18/96, p.A8)

1975        Jan 18, The TV situation comedy series "The Jeffersons" with Sherman Helmsley and Isabel Sanford (d.2004) began and ran through 1985. The spin-off from "All in the Family," premiered on CBS-TV.
    {TV, USA}
    (SFEC, 11/17/96, Par p.24)(AP, 1/18/00)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Jeffersons)
1975        Jan 18, Ray Blanton (1930-1996) began serving as governor of Tennessee. In 1979 he was ousted from office 3 days early in a cash for clemency scandal.
    {Tennessee, USA}
    (SFC, 11/25/96, p.A3)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ray_Blanton)

1975        Jan 19, Thomas Hart Benton (b.1889), US artist, died in Kansas City, Missouri. In 2009 Henry Adams authored “Tom and Jack: The Intertwined Lives of Thomas Hart Benton and Jackson Pollock.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Hart_Benton_(painter))(Econ, 12/12/09, p.94)

1975        Jan 22, The US Supreme Court in the Goss vs. Lopez case ruled that students had the right to due process, informal hearings were considered sufficient, when threatened with suspension of more than 10 days.
    (WSJ, 5/4/99, p.A22)(www.acluprocon.org/SupCtCases/266Goss.html)

1975        Jun 23, Former US Pres. Richard Nixon met with grand jurors at a California Coast Guard Station to testify under oath about the Watergate affair. The transcript was made public on Nov 10, 2011.
    (SFC, 11/11/11, p.A9)
1975        Jan 23, "Barney Miller" premiered on ABC with James Gregory (d.2002 at 90) as Inspector Luger based in a NYC police precinct. Hal Linden played Capt. Barney Miller. Steve Landesberg (1945-2010) played the role of Detective Sgt. Arthur P. Dietrich. Ron Glass (1945-2016) played Detective Ron Harris. The series ended in 1982 after 172 episodes. A spin-off called "Fish" was created in 1977 based on detective Phil Fish played by Abe Vigoda.
    (www.tv.com/barney-miller/show/345/summary.html)(SFC, 10/11/03, p.A18)(SFC, 12/22/10, p.C5)(SFC, 11/28/16, p.C3)

1975        Jan 24, In New York City, the FALN, a militant group seeking independence for Puerto Rico, sets off a bomb in Fraunces Tavern. Four people were killed and 53 injured.
    (NYT, 2/7/75, p.1)

1975        Jan 27, The US Senate voted to establish a special 11-member investigating body to examine FBI and CIA activities. Under the chairmanship of Idaho Senator Frank Church, with Texas Senator John Tower as vice-chairman, the select committee was given nine months and 150 staffers to complete its work. On November 20 the committee released a report, charging both US government agencies with illegal activities.

1975        Jan 31, The 1974 song "Mandy" by Barry Manilow (b.1943 as Barry Alan Pincus) went gold.

1975        Jan, In Tennessee Martha Cunningham (34) was found dead near Knoxville. Her body was bruised, her clothes had been pulled off and she was missing her purse. In 2019 her family learned that Cunningham was one of scores of people killed by serial killer Samuel Little, who began confessing to killings in 2018 from a prison cell in California.
    (NY Times, 10/9/19)

1975        Feb 6, President Gerald Ford asked Congress for $497 million in aid to Cambodia.
    (HN, 2/6/99)

1975        Feb 7, Pres. Edward H. Levi (1911-2000), former president of the Univ. of Chicago, began serving as the attorney general under Pres. Ford.
    (WSJ, 3/13/00, p.A46)(http://www-news.uchicago.edu/citations/00/000308.levi-nyt.html)

1975        Feb 8, 1800 Unification church couples were wed in Korea.
1975        Feb 8, Martyn Green (b.1899), English actor (Gilbert & Sullivan, Mikado), died.

1975        Feb 11, Margaret Thatcher was elected leader of the Tory Party, the first woman to lead the British Conservative Party. in England. She later became Prime Minister and held office from 1979-1990. Her second volume of memoirs is titled The Path to Power, (Harper-Collins, 1995) and documents her rise to power.
    (WSJ, 7/6/95, p. A-7)(HN, 2/11/99)

1975        Feb 14, Julian S. Huxley (b.1887), English biologist, died. He served as the first Director-General of UNESCO (1946-1948).
1975        Feb 14, Pelham Graham (PG) Wodehouse (b.1881), English, US writer (Piccadilly Jim), died at age 93. 58 Penguin editions of his books were done by artist Jos Armitage (d.1998 at 84), who also contributed to "Punch." In 2004 Robert McCrum authored “Wodehouse."
    (SFC, 2/7/98, p.21)(SFC, 11/19/04, p.W16)

1975        Feb 15, In local elections 78.8% of the residents approved a covenant under which the Northern Marianas would become a US Commonwealth. In 1976 the US Congress approved a covenant whereby Saipan became the capital of the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. The 34,000 permanent residents became US citizens but could not vote in US presidential elections. The CNMI was allowed to set its own tax, immigration and labor policies. A new government and constitution went into effect in 1978.
    (SFEC, 3/7/99,Z1 p.4)(http://macmeekin.com/Library/NMIchron/1971.htm)(WSJ, 2/20/97, p.A20)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Northern_Mariana_Islands)

1975        Feb 17, Art by Cezanne, Gauguin, Renoir, and van Gogh, valued at $5 million, was stolen from the Municipal Museum in Milan.
    (HN, 2/17/98)

1975        Feb 18, The Tigray People’s Liberation Front began a rebellion in northern Ethiopia.
1975        Feb 18, Italy broadened its abortion law.
1975        Feb 18, In Italy Renato Curcio, Red Brigades leader, was freed in a daring prison assault led by Margherita Cagol. She was later killed while trying to kidnap a businessman and Curcio was recaptured.
    (WSJ, 12/13/07, p.A18)

1975        Feb 21, Former Attorney General John N. Mitchell and former White House aides H.R. Haldeman and John D. Ehrlichman were sentenced to 2 1/2 to 8 years in prison for their roles in the Watergate cover-up. Mitchell was found guilty of conspiracy, obstruction of justice and perjury. He served 19 months behind bars.
    (AP, 2/21/00)(SFC, 11/6/98, p.D5)

1975        Feb 24, Hans Bellmer (b.1902), German surrealist artist, died in Paris. He made paper-mache female dolls and photographed them in skewed configurations.
    (NW, 2/18/02, p.70)(www.artnet.com/Magazine/reviews/oisteanu/oisteanu3-14-05.asp)
1975        Feb 24, In Nepal Birendra, who came to the throne on January 31, 1972, was crowned.

1975        Feb 25, Elijah Muhammad (b.1897 as Elijah Poole), US leader of the Detroit-based Nation of Islam and Black Muslims, died in Chicago. His son W. Deen Mohammed (1933-2008) was soon elected supreme minister of the Nation of Islam.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elijah_Muhammad)(USAT, 2/13/97, p.6D)(SFC, 2/28/00, p.A3)(SFC, 9/11/08, p.B5)
1975        Feb 25, In Tennessee Marcia Trimble (9) disappeared while delivering Girl Scout cookies in her Nashville neighborhood. Her body was discovered on Easter Sunday and evidence led police to believe that she had been sexually assaulted and strangled to death. In 2009 Jerome Barrett (62) was convicted of 2nd-degree murder based on DNA testing. He was already serving a life sentence for the 1975 rape and murder of a Vanderbilt Univ. student.
    (SSFC, 7/19/09, p.A13)(www.wsmv.com/news/14760190/detail.html)

1975        Feb 26, "Night... Made America Famous" opened at Barrymore in NYC for 75 performances.
1975        Feb 26, The 1st televised kidney transplant was shown on the Today Show.

1975        Feb 28, AMC introduced the Pacer, the first wide, small car.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/AMC_Pacer)
1975        Feb 28, The EU signed another trade deal in Lome, Togo, to keep markets open to former European colonies in Africa, the Caribbean and Pacific Islands (ACP).
    (Econ, 5/28/05, p.78)(http://europa.eu.int/abc/history/1975/index_en.htm)
1975        Feb 28, A London subway train smashed into the end of a tunnel at Moorgate Underground station and 43 people were killed.
    (AP, 1/23/06)

1975        Feb, Biotechnologists met in Pacific Grove, Ca., at the Asilomar conference on recombinant DNA and agreed on self-denying ordinances that went a long way to establishing their credentials as responsible and trustworthy people.
    (Econ, 9/2/06, p.70)(www.biotech-info.net/asilomar_revisited.html)

1975        Mar 1, In the 17th Grammy Awards: I Honestly Love You, Marvin Hamlisch won.
1975        Mar 1, Eagles' "Best of My Love" reached #1.

1975        Mar 2, Linda McCartney (1941-1998) was arrested in Los Angeles with possession of marijuana.
1975        Mar 2, Madeleine Vionnet (b.1876), French dressmaker, died at age 98. In 1999 Betty Kirke published the biography: "Madeleine Vionnet."
    (SFEC, 5/16/99, BR p.8)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Madeleine_Vionnet)

1975        Mar 3, "Goodtime Charley" opened at Palace Theater in NYC for 104 performances.

1975        Mar 4, Charlie Chaplin (1889-1977), British-born American film comedian, was knighted by Queen Elizabeth.

1975        Mar 5, The Homebrew Computer Club, founded by peace activist Fred Moore, held its first meeting in Menlo Park, Ca. It was an outgrowth of the store-front based People’s Computer Co. The meeting inspired Steve Wozniak (24) to design and build the first Apple computer.
    (SSFC, 4/23/05, p.B1)(Reuters, 9/27/06)

1975        Mar 6, OPEC held a meeting in Algiers attended for the first time by its members’ top leaders. Here the Algiers Accord between Baghdad and Teheran put an end to their border dispute and brought all Iranian help to the Kurdish rebellion to a halt. The United States abruptly withdrew its support for the Kurds and the rebellion collapsed. Many thousands of Kurdish fighters and their families were forced to flee to Iran to escape the pursuing Iraqi army.
    (http://mondediplo.com/2002/10/06timeline)(SFC, 11/19/07, p.A11)

1975        Mar 7, The US Senate revised its filibuster rule "cloture vote," allowing 60 senators to limit debate in most cases, instead of the previously required two-thirds (67) of senators present.
    (AP, 3/7/98)(Econ, 5/21/05, p.30)

1975        Mar 8, The United Nations began observing International Women's Day.
1975        Mar 8, George Stevens (b.1904), US director (Swing Time, Gunga Din), died.

1975        Mar 9, Iraq launched an offensive against the rebellious Kurds.
    (HN, 3/9/98)

1975        Mar 10, "Rocky Horror Show" opened at Belasco Theater in NYC for 45 performances.
1975        Mar 10, The final North Vietnamese Army offensive began as 25,000 troops attacked the South Vietnamese town of Ban Me Thout, in the central highlands.
    (HN, 3/10/99)(www.historyplace.com/unitedstates/vietnam/index-1969.html)

1975        Mar 12, Maurice Stans, former Nixon Cabinet member, pleaded guilty to three counts of violating the reporting sections of the Federal Election Campaign Act and two counts of accepting illegal campaign contributions. He was fined $5,000.
    (SFC, 11/6/98, p.D5)(http://tinyurl.com/45uwm3)
1975        Mar 12, A passenger plane, operated by Air Vietnam, crashed into Vietnamese territory after being hit by a MANPAD, killing 26 passengers and crew.
    (AP, 6/11/13)

1975        Mar 13, Bernard Slade's "Same Time, Next Year," premiered in NYC. In 1978 it was made into a film starring Ellen Burstyn and Alan Alda.

1975        Mar 15, Ted Bundy victim Julie Cunningham (26) disappeared from Vail, Colo.
1975        Mar 15, Aristotle Onassis (69) Greek shipping magnate died near Paris.
    (AP, 3/15/97)

1975        Mar 16, Mariner 10 flew past Mercury a 3rd time.
    (NH, 5/01, p.38)

1975        Mar 17, In the Dominican Republic Journalist Orlando Martinez Howley, editor of the opposition magazine Ahora and columnist for El Nacional, was slain. In 1997 police arrested retired Gen’l. Salvador Lluberes Montes, former chief of the armed forces, in connection with the slayings. In 2000 retired Gen. Joaquin Pou Castro, gunman Rafael Lluberes Ricart, former air force officer Mariano Cabrera Duran and Luis Emilio de la Rosa Beras were sentenced to 30 years in prison each for their role in the murder.
    (SFC, 11/25/96, p.A9)(SFC, 4/2/97, p.A12)(SFC, 8/5/00, p.A11)

1975        Mar 18, Mulla Mustafa gave the order to the Kurdish army to abandon the struggle. This time round, Mulla Mustafa obtained refuge in the United States.
1975        Mar 18, South Vietnam abandoned most of the Central Highlands of Vietnam to Hanoi.
    (HN, 3/18/02)

1975        Mar 21, Ethiopia ended its monarchy after 3000 years. In May the monarchy was formally abolished, and Marxism-Leninism was proclaimed the ideology of the state.
1975        Mar 21, As North Vietnamese forces advanced, Hue and other northern towns in South Vietnam were evacuated.
    (HN, 3/21/98)

1975        Mar 22, In Alabama a fire at the Browns Ferry Unit 1 nuclear power plant caused $10 million in damage and knocked the reactor out of service for over a year. A worker checking for air leaks with a candle ignited insulation near the control room. The reactor was mothballed in 1985. It was scheduled to reopen in 2007 following a 5 year, $1.8 billion restoration.
    (SFC, 5/5/07, p.A6)(http://tinyurl.com/33l4hc)

1975        Mar 25, Hue was lost and Da Nang was endangered. The U.S. ordered a refugee airlift to remove those in danger. The South Vietnamese army is now in full retreat.
    (HN, 3/24/98)(www.historyplace.com/unitedstates/vietnam/index-1969.html)
1975        Mar 25, In Maryland sisters Sheila (12) and Katharine Lyon (10) vanished from the Wheaton Plaza Mall. On July 15, 2015, authorities announced an indictment on first-degree felony murder charges in the disappearances. Lloyd Michael Welch Jr. (58) said he was with the girls when they were abducted but denied any role in their deaths. Welch told investigators that he left the mall with the two girls and that he saw his uncle sexually assaulting one of them at his home the next day. On Sep 12, 2017, Lloyd Michael Welch Jr. was sentenced to 48 years in prison after pleading guilty to two counts of first-degree felony murder. On September 21 Welch pleaded guilty to sexually assaulting two girls in 1996.
    (http://tinyurl.com/phqudb7)(SFC, 7/16/15, p.A5)(SFC, 9/13/17 p.A8)(SFC, 9/22/17 p.A5)
1975        Mar 25, King Faisal ibn Abd al-Aziz (68) of Saudi Arabia was shot to death by a nephew with a history of mental illness. The nephew was beheaded the following June. In 2008 Joseph A. Kechichian authored “Faisal: Saudi Arabia’s King for All Seasons." In 2013 Alexei Vassiliev authored “King Faisal of Saudi Arabia: Personality, Faith and Times." (AP, 3/25/00)(Econ, 10/04/08, p.92)(Econ, 1/26/12, p.74)

1975        Mar 26, The film "Tommy" premiered in London.
1975        Mar 26, The US ratified a ban on poison gas established in the 1925 Geneva Protocol. Production, stockpiling and the use of anthrax was outlawed by an int’l. treaty of chemical and biological weapons. 140 nations adopted the Int'l. Biological Weapons Convention, but these did not include Russia. The treaty had no organization, no budget, no sanctions and no inspections provisions. By 2019 it was ratified by 183 parties.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biological_Weapons_Convention)(SFC,11/12/97, p.C2)(SFC, 2/20/98, p.A9)(SFC, 2/19/00, p.A14)
1975        Mar 26, Clela Rorex, Boulder, Colo., county clerk, allowed 6 same-sex couples to wed after changing the license application to read "person" rather than "male" and "female."
    (SFC, 2/14/04, p.A1)(www.dailykos.com/storyonly/2008/3/26/22117/6384)

1975        Mar 27, The 1st pipe of the Alaska oil pipeline was laid at Tonsina River.
1975        Mar 27, Arthur Bliss (b.1891), English composer, conductor (Checkmate), died.
1975        Mar 27, In Laos Communist Pathet Lao launched an attack against Hmong defenders.

1975        Mar 29, Egyptian president Anwar Sadat declared that he would reopen the Suez Canal on June 5, 1975.
    (HN, 3/29/98)

1975        Mar 30, As the North Vietnamese forces moved toward Saigon, desperate South Vietnamese soldiers mobbed rescue jets. Gen. Vo Nguyen Giap masterminded the North Vietnamese victory. Da Nang fell as 100,000 South Vietnamese soldiers surrender after being abandoned by their commanding officers.
    (SFEC, 4/9/00, p.C16)(www.historyplace.com/unitedstates/vietnam/index-1969.html)

1975        Mar 31, The TV show Gunsmoke, which premiered in 1955, aired its last original episode. The show was canceled in September.
1975        Mar 31, In Tajikistan the first pouring of aluminum took place at the new state-run aluminum smelting plant at Tursunzadeh. By 2013 TALCO produced hundreds of millions of dollars in profits that were routed to a shell company in the British Virgin Islands".
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tajik_Aluminium_Company)(Econ, 7/27/13, p.36)

1975        Mar, Sylvester Stallone wrote "Rocky" and insisted on playing the lead role when he sold the script. Five Rocky films were made.
    (SFEC, 7/6/97, p.5)
1975        Mar, US Sen. William Proxmire (1915-2005), Wisconsin Democrat, started his monthly Golden Fleece Awards to highlight examples of government waste. The 1st award went to the National Science Foundation for squandering $84,000 to try to find out why people fall in love.
    (SFC, 12/16/05, p.A4)(www.taxpayer.net/awards/goldenfleece/1975-1980.htm)

1975        Apr 3, Bobby Fischer (1943-2008) was stripped of the world chess title for refusing to defend it.
1975        Apr 3, Mary Ure (b.1933), Scottish actress (Sons & Lovers, Where Eagles Dare), died.

1975        Apr 4, The first group of boat people from Vietnam began arriving in Malaysia. More than 1 million people fled from the close of the war to the early 1980s.
    (SFC, 4/17/96, p.A-9)   
1975        Apr 4, Some 155 people, most of them children, were killed when a U.S. Air Force C-5A transport plane evacuating Vietnamese orphans as part of "Operation Babylift" crashed shortly after takeoff from Saigon.144 adults and 76 babies were killed. There were over 170 survivors.
    (AP, 4/4/97)(SFC, 4/3/00, p.A8)

1975        Apr 5, Chiang Kai-shek (b.1887), Chinese statesman and president of the Republic (1943-1950) and President of the Republic of China, Taiwan (1950-1975), died at age 87. Madame Chiang Kai-shek (Soong Mayling) moved to New York following her husband's death. In 1982 Sterling Seagrave authored "The Soong Dynasty." In 2009 Jay Taylor authored “The Generalissimo: Chiang Kai-shek and the Struggle for Modern China."
    (WUD, 1994, p.254)(AP, 5/5/97)(SFC, 1/27/00, p.E1,5)(Econ, 5/9/09, p.86)

1975        Apr 6, Bundy victim Denise Oliverson (25) disappeared from Grand Junction, Colo.

1975        Apr 8, In the 47th Academy Awards "Godfather II," Ellen Burstyn and Art Carney won.
1975        Apr 8, Frank Robinson, major-league baseball's first black manager, got off to a winning start as his team, the Cleveland Indians, defeated the New York Yankees, 5-3.
    (AP, 4/8/97)(HN, 4/8/98)

1975        Apr 10, Walker Evans (b.1903), American photographer, died. In 1999 the biography "Walker Evans" by James R. Mellow was published.
    (WSJ, 7/27/99, p.A21)(SFC, 8/18/01, p.B3)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Walker_Evans)

1975        Apr 12, Josephine Baker (b.1906), US-French revue artist (Folies-Bergere), died in Paris, France.
1975        Apr 12, The US removed its embassy personnel from Phnom Penh. Some of Cambodia's most senior government ministers, including the Acting President, Saukham Khoy, were among the evacuees.

1975        Apr 13, In Lebanon the right-wing Christian Falange (Phalange) opened fire on a bus packed with Palestinians in a low-income neighborhood after a drive-by attack earlier in the day on a nearby church. The attacks killed 27 Palestinians and three Lebanese Christians. The ambush sparked a civil war that lasted to 1990. The attack was made to avenge an attempted assassination on Bashir Gemayel.
    (SFEC, 4/13/97, p.T5)(AP, 4/12/05)(Econ, 11/25/06, p.46)

1975        Apr 15, Karen Ann Quinlan went into a coma after drinking several gin-and-tonics on top of a mild tranquilizer. She lived in a coma for over 10 more years. The New Jersey Supreme Court allowed the removal of the respirator that assisted her in 1976.
    (SFC, 12/12/96, p.C8)
1975        Apr 15, Richard Conte (b.1910), film actor, died. He appeared in films such as “I'll Cry Tomorrow" and “The Godfather."
1975        Apr 15, Egypt’s Pres. Anwar Sadat chose Hosni Mubarak to serve as vice president.
    (SFC, 2/12/11, p.A4)(www.aawsat.com/english/news.asp?section=1&id=24129)

1975        April 17, The US-backed Lon Nol government of Cambodia surrendered to the Khmer Rouge. The nominal leader of the Khmer Rouge was Khieu Samphan. Pol Pot, leader of the Khmer Rouge (Red Cambodia), occupied the capital Phnom Penh ending Cambodia's five-year war. This began the brutal regime that resulted in the death of one to three million people. The Khmer Rouge began to immediately clear Phnom Penh. Agrarian communism was forced on the people and purges extended from the leadership down to the masses. The country was renamed Democratic Kampuchea. After the Khmer Rouge took power they employed a system of forced marriages to help engineer a classless society.
    (NG, 5/85, p.574)(WSJ,4/17/95, p.A-12)(AP, 4/17/97)(SFC, 6/14/97, p.A15)(WSJ, 6/16/97, p.8)(SFC, 4/17/98, p.A16)(http://tinyurl.com/qot7t)(SFC, 1/23/96, p.A10)

1975        Apr 18, Jesus Ibarra Piedra, a member of a Mexican leftist urban guerrilla group, was kidnapped and never seen again. On Nov 8, 2004, Juventino Romero Cisneros, a former agent of the Federal Security Directorate, was arrested for the kidnapping. Carlos Solana Macias, ex-director of the Judicial Police for the northern state of Nuevo Leon, was arrested Dec 29, 2005. In 2006 both Cisneros and Solano were released from prison.
    (AP, 10/9/04)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rosario_Ibarra_de_Piedra)(AP, 5/21/06)

1975        Apr 19, India announced it had launched its 1st satellite, from the Soviet Union atop a Soviet rocket.
    (AP, 4/19/05)

1975        Apr 21, Bill Rodgers won the Boston Marathon, the 1st local winner in 30 years.
    (WSJ, 9/30/02, p.R3)(http://boston.com/marathon/history/1975.shtml)
1975        Apr 21, Members of the SLA robbed the Carmichael Bank in suburban Sacramento, Ca. Myrna Opsahl, a mother (42) of four, was shot dead. Patty Hearst drove the getaway car. Emily Harris shot Opsahl with a 12-gauge shotgun. 4 SLA members were arrested for the murder of Opsahl in 2002. Michael Bortin, William Harris, Sara Jane Olson and Emily Montague all pleaded guilty. Fugitive James Kilgore was arrested in South Africa Nov 8, 2002. In 2003 Montague was sentenced to 8 years, Harris to 7 years, Olson and Bortin to 6 years. In 2004 Kilgore was sentenced to 4 ½ years. Kilgore was paroled in 2009.
    (SFC, 2/4/99, p.A8)(SFC, 1/23/01, p.A13)(SFC, 1/18/02, p.A22)(SFC, 1/19/02, p.A1)(SFC, 11/8/02, p.A1)(SFC, 11/9/02, p.A1)(SFC, 2/15/03, p.A3)(SFC, 4/27/04, p.B1)(SFC, 5/11/09, p.B2)
1975        Apr 21, Nguyen Van Thieu, the last South Vietnamese President, resigned after 10 years in office condemning the United States. Thieu resigned and was succeeded by Vice President Tran Van Huong. With the collapse of the Saigon regime imminent, Thieu addressed his nation on April 21, accused the U.S. of breaking its promises of support and military aid, and then resigned.  Huong took control but at the National Assembly meeting on April 27, he named General Duong Van Minh to become president and end the war. On April 30, President Minh announced the unconditional surrender of South Vietnam to the Provisional Revolutionary Government of South Vietnam.
    (AP, 4/21/97)(HN, 4/21/99)(HNQ, 6/5/00)

1975        Apr 23, Harold Pinter's "No Man's Land," premiered in London.

1975        Apr 24, Hanna Krabbe (b.1945), a German Red Army faction guerrilla, took part in a Baader-Meinhof gang attack on the German embassy in Stockholm in which two German diplomats died. German chancellor Helmut Schmidt approved the storming of the building by  Swedish police. Krabbe was arrested and sentenced to 21 years confinement and was released in 1996.
    (SFC, 5/11/96, p.A-9)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/West_German_embassy_siege)

1975        Apr 25, The 1st Boeing Jetfoil revenue service began between Hong Kong and Macao.
    (SS, 4/25/02)(http://pdf.aiaa.org/preview/1979/PV1979_2017.pdf)
1975        Apr 25, In Vietnam former Foreign Minister Vu Van Mau (d.1998 at 84) was named prime minister.
    (SFC, 9/12/98, p.C3)

1975        Apr 26, The top Billboard song was "(Hey Won’t You Play) Another Somebody Done Somebody Wrong Song" by B.J. Thomas.

1975        Apr 27, Saigon was encircled by North Vietnamese troops. NVA fire rockets into downtown civilian areas as the city erupts into chaos and widespread looting.
    (HN, 4/27/99)(www.historyplace.com/unitedstates/vietnam/index-1969.html)

1975        Apr 28, Gen. Duong Van Minh was named the interim President of South Vietnam and promised to seek reconciliation with North Vietnam.
    (SFC, 8/8/01, p.A20)

1975        Apr 29, US forces pulled out of Vietnam. The US embassy was evacuated as North Vietnamese forces fought their way into Saigon. Just hours after the last American was lifted out by helicopter from the roof of the embassy, James Reston of the NY Times issued an apologia for the press. NVA shelled Tan Son Nhut air base in Saigon, killing two US Marines at the compound gate. The last C-130A Hercules at Tan Son Nhut Air Base carried 452 people to Thailand. South Vietnamese civilians looted the air base. President Ford ordered Operation Frequent Wind, the helicopter evacuation of 7000 Americans and South Vietnamese from Saigon. At Tan Son Nhut, frantic civilians begin swarming the helicopters. The evacuation then shifted to the walled-in American embassy, secured by US Marines in full combat gear. Thousands of civilians attempted to get into the compound. Three US aircraft carriers stood by off the coast to handle incoming Americans and South Vietnamese refugees. Many South Vietnamese pilots also landed on the carriers, flying American-made helicopters which were then pushed overboard to make room for more arrivals.
    (http://tinyurl.com/gmqh5)(WSJ, 10/5/98, p.A21)(http://tinyurl.com/qerc2wt)
1975        Apr 29, The last four Americans killed in action in Vietnam included two Marines: Lance Corporal Darwin Judge of Marshalltown, Iowa, and Corporal Charles McMahon Jr. of Woburn, Massachusetts, by rocket and artillery bombardment following an air raid on Tan Son Nhut. Two Marine helicopter pilots died when their chopper crashed into the sea near an aircraft carrier taking part in the evacuation: Captain William Craig Nystul of Coronado, California, and First Lieutenant Michael John Shea of El Paso, Texas.

1975        Apr 30, The city of Saigon fell to the North Vietnamese and National Liberation Front forces. The last American forces evacuated Saigon as South Vietnam surrendered unconditionally to the Communist North Vietnamese. At 8:35 a.m. the last Americans, ten Marines from the embassy, departed as North Vietnamese troops pour into Saigon and encounter little resistance. By 11 a.m. the Viet Cong flag flew from the presidential palace. President Minh broadcast a message of unconditional surrender. Graham Martin, the US ambassador to South Vietnam, made a hasty departure. The city was renamed Ho Chi Minh City and Nguyen Huu Tho was the first mayor. The war left 58,200 Americans dead, 153,300 wounded, and 2,124 missing in action. The Communists listed 1 million dead, 300,000 missing and 2 million dead civilians. President Gerald Ford, closing a chapter in United States history, called upon Americans "to avoid recriminations about the past, to look ahead to the many goals we share."
    (SFC, 5/10/97, p.A1)(www.historyplace.com/unitedstates/vietnam/index-1969.html)

1975        May 1, The US brokerage industry, acting on a mandate by the SEC, deregulated commissions. Charles Schwab soon became one of the first to slash the price of equity trades.
    (SSFC, 5/1/05, p.E3)(Econ, 10/21/06, p.87)
1975        May 1, United Aircraft became United Technologies Corp.
    (WSJ, 4/8/04, p.C4)

1975        May 3, Gov. Jerry Brown of California began a round of private meetings to resolve the issues between the UFW, agribusiness, and the Teamsters Union.
    (SFEM, 4/13/97, p.22)

1975        May 5, Michael Shaara won Pulitzer Prize in fiction for his novel “Killer Angels."

1975        May 6,  In hockey the Philadelphia Flyers won the semifinal series over Boston 4 games to 1.
1975        May 6, Bundy victim Lynette Culver disappeared from Pocatello, Idaho.
1975        May 6, A tornado swept through Omaha, Nebraska, along 72nd St. the site of many motels on a weekday noon. All sorts of folks had to explain just how they wound up in a state of dishabille in a roofless motel room.
    (Nat. Hist., 3/96, p.65)(www.crh.noaa.gov/oax/archive/may1975/may675.php)
1975         May 6, Hungarian Cardinal Jozsef Mindszenty (b.1892) died in Vienna, Austria. The staunch foe of Communism spent more than seven years in prison in his homeland and several years in asylum at the US Embassy in Budapest. He later was granted permission by Hungarian authorities to live in exile in Vienna.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/J%C3%B3zsef_Mindszenty)(AP, 2/13/19)

1975        May 7, The "Matt Helm" TV series, featured Gene Evans (d.1998 at 75), premiered.
    (SFC, 4/2/98, p.A23)(www.imdb.com/title/tt0073361/)
1975        May 7, President Ford formally declared an end to the "Vietnam era."
    (AP, 5/7/97)(HN, 5/7/98)
1975        May 7, The Viet Cong staged a rally to celebrate the takeover of Ho Chi Minh City -- formerly Saigon.
    (AP, 5/7/97)(HN, 5/7/98)

1975        May 10, In El Salvador leftist poet and novelist Roque Dalton (b.1937) was executed by a group of commandos. In 2010 his relatives petitioned prosecutors to file homicide charges against two ex-rebel commanders, who they claim participated in the decision to kill the writer. The complaint named former Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front leader Joaquin Villalobos and Jorge Melendez, who serves in the current government as head of the civil defense office. In 2012 a judge closed the case ruling it's too late for a prosecution.
    (AP, 5/15/10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roque_Dalton)(AP, 1/10/12)

1975        May 11, The Cambodian government seized an American merchant ship, the Mayaguez.
    (SFEC, 5/11/97, p.T10)

1975        May 12, The White House announced the new Cambodian government had seized an American merchant ship, the Mayaguez, with 39 crew members in international waters. Pres. Gerald Ford sent a company of Marines to rescue the ship. The ship was freed but there were 41 Americans killed or missing and more than 50 wounded.
    (SFEC, 5/11/97, p.T10)(AP, 10/12/97)
1975        May 12, In San Francisco Fredrick Elmer Capin was found dead. He was the 4th of at least five gay victims stabbed to death by a serial killer, dubbed the Doodler.
    (SSFC, 6/6/21, p.S2)

1975        May 13, Jonas Rimsa (b.1903), Lithuania-born artist, died in Santa Monica.
1975        May 15, US forces raided the Cambodian island of Koh Tang and recaptured the American merchant ship Mayaguez. All 40 crew members were released safely by Cambodia, but some 40 US servicemen were killed in the military operation. Some 200 Marines stormed the island of Koh Tang to rescue the crew of the Mayaguez, but the crew had been moved. The Marines fought all day against the Khmer Rouge and escaped by helicopter in the evening. Three comrades were left behind and later died under the Khmer Rouge. The crew was freed about the same time that the Marine assault began.
    (SFEC, 5/16/99, p.A14)(AP, 5/15/08)

1975        May 16, Junko Tabei (1939-2016), Japanese mountain climber, became the first woman to reach the summit of Mt. Everest. In 1992, she also became the first woman to complete the "Seven Summits," reaching the highest peaks of the seven continents.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Junko_Tabei)(AP, 5/16/97)
1975        May 16, India annexed the Principality of Sikkim. The people of Sikkim had revolted against the monarchy and Sikkim became India’s 22nd and second smallest state.  The Lepchas are the original inhabitants of Sikkim.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sikkim)(SSFC, 2/27/05, p.F5)(AFP, 11/6/11)

1975        May 17, NBC paid $5M for rights to show "Gone with the Wind" one time. The film aired over 2 nights in November, 1976.

1975        May 18, Leroy Anderson (b.1908), American composer, died.

1975        May 20, The European Economic Community adopted a trade agreement with Israel.

1975        May 21, The trial against the Baader-Meinhof gang  began in Stuttgart.

1975        May 23, The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) banned the sale of turtles with shells that measured less than four inches in length. The turtles were identified as major carriers of salmonella bacterium and had been widely sold as pets for kids.
    (WSJ, 5/30/96, p.B1)(http://tiny.cc/IEWJ3)
1975        May 23, Jackie "Moms" Mabley (b.1894), comedienne, died. Her films included  “Amazing Grace" (1974).

1975        May 25, The Golden Gate Warriors won the NBA title in a 4-game sweep over the Washington Bullets.
    (SFC, 4/26/10, p.A8)(www.nba.com/history/finals/19741975.html)
1975        May 25, ECOWAS Treaty1 was signed. The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) was formed in Nigeria with 15 members that included: Benin, Cape Verde, Côte d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo and Upper Volta (later Burkina Faso).

1975        May 26, In California Jim Bridwell (1944-2018), John Long and Billy Westbay made the first one-day ascent of El Capitan in Yosemite Valley.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jim_Bridwell)(SSFC, 2/18/18, p.C12)

1975        May 29, Melanie Janine Brown "Scary Spice", British vocalist (Spice Girls), was born in Leeds.

1975        May 30, Steve Prefontaine (b.1951), American long distance runner, flipped his gold MG and died at age 24. Tests revealed that he was legally drunk. In 1997 two films based on his life were released.
    (SFC,1/22/97, p.E1)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Steve_Prefontaine)

1975        May, Spain moved out of Spanish Sahara and the native Sahrawi called for independence. Both Morocco and Mauritania laid claim to Spanish Sahara (Western Sahara) following Spain’s withdrawal. The Polisario Front, an armed nationalist movement, sought to turn Western Sahara into an independent state for its largely nomadic people.
    (www.africaaction.org/docs02/wsah0205.htm)(WSJ, 6/7/00, p.A1)(Econ, 9/24/05, p.56)

1975        Jun 1, The Rolling Stones opened their North American Tour in Baton Rouge, Louisiana with Ron Wood (b.1947) replacing Mick Taylor (b.1949) as the lead guitarist. Other cities they played in included, Kansas City, Milwaukee, St. Paul, Cleveland, Buffalo, Toronto, New York, Philadelphia, Memphis, Dallas, Los Angeles, San Francisco, Seattle, Chicago, Detroit, Atlanta, and Jacksonville.

1975        Jun 2, Vice President Nelson Rockefeller said his commission had found no widespread pattern of illegal activities at the Central Intelligence Agency.
    (AP, 6/2/97)
1975        Jun 2, In Lyon, France, more than a hundred sex workers occupation of Église Saint-Nizier  to draw attention to their inhumane working conditions. In 1976 this day became celebrated as International Whores' Day or International Sex Workers Day.

1975        Jun 3, The musical "Chicago" opened on Broadway with a book by Fred Ebb and Bob Fosse, and music by John Kander.
    (WSJ, 11/15/96, p.A14)(http://broadwaymusicalhome.com/shows/chicago.htm)
1975        Jun 3, Ozzie Nelson (b.1906), actor (Adventures of Ozzie & Harriet), died.

1975        Jun 4, In San Francisco Harald Gullberg was found stabbed to death in the area of Golden Gate Park. He was the 5th gay man stabbed to death by the Doodler serial killer over the last year and a half.
    (SFC, 2/7/19, p.A9)(SSFC, 6/6/21, p.S2)
1975        Jun 4, The oldest animal fossils to date in the US were discovered in North Carolina.

1975        Jun 5, Gov. Jerry Brown of California announced the new Agricultural Labor Relations Act. It was a temporary truce in the struggle between the state’s  farm workers (UFW) led by Cesar Chavez and farmers. Chavez officially ended the table grape, lettuce and wine boycott on Jan 31, 1978.
    (SFEM, 4/13/97, p.22)(SFC, 1/31/03, p.E4)
1975        Jun 5, The outcome of a British referendum revealed that 67.2% of voters were in favor of the United Kingdom remaining a member of the Community. The Labor Party under PM Harold Wilson had renegotiated Britain’s terms of EU membership. The changes were largely cosmetic, but this allowed him to persuade the electorate that Britain’s position was profoundly improved.
    (http://europa.eu.int/abc/history/1975/index_en.htm)(Econ., 3/28/15, p.62)(Econ., 4/4/15, p.78)
1975        Jun 5, The Scottish National Party (SNP) wanted to leave the European project in a referendum as Britain voted to stay.
    (Econ, 3/18/17, p.60)
1975        Jun 5, Egypt reopened the Suez Canal to international shipping, eight years after it was closed because of the 1967 war with Israel.
    (AP, 6/5/97)

1975        Jun 10, The Rockefeller panel reported on illegal CIA files on Americans.

1975        Jun 11, Australia’s Racial Discrimination Act became law under Australia's multicultural policy to protect minorities against intolerance. It is not enforced by prison sentences or fines, but enables judges to make orders to correct breaches.
    (AP, 9/28/11)(www.comlaw.gov.au/Details/C2004C06314)

1975        Jun 12, In India the High Court of Allahabad declared Indira Gandhi's election invalid on grounds of alleged malpractices in an election petition filed by Raj Narain, who had repeatedly contested her Parliamentary constituency of Rae Bareli without success.

1975        Jun 16, The cartoon “Travels With Farley" by Phil Frank (1943-2007) launched in 50 newspapers.
    (SFC, 6/16/05, p.E2)
1975        Jun 16, The US Supreme Court ruled that uniform minimum legal fees are a violation.

1975        Jun 18, Faisal Ibn Mussed Abdul Aziz, Saudi prince, was beheaded in a Riyadh shopping center parking lot for killing his uncle the king.

1975        Jun 19, Sam Giancana (b.1908), Italian-American mob boss, was murdered at his home in Oak Park, Ill. He had a romance with Phillis McGuire, of the McGuire Sisters vocal group, and was credited with assisting John F. Kennedy in efforts to win the presidential election. A movie was made in 1995 that depicts the Giancana-McGuire romance.
    (WSJ, 11/16/95, p.A-18)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sam_Giancana)

1975        Jun 20, The Steven Spielberg shark thriller "Jaws" was first released.
    (AP, 6/20/05)

1975        Jun 21, The West Indies, captained by Clive Lloyd won the first World Cup Cricket series, beating Australia by 17 runs at Lords.

1975        Jun 24, In New York 113 people were killed when an Eastern Airlines Boeing 727 crashed while attempting to land during a thunderstorm at John F. Kennedy International Airport. The crash was later attributed to a microburst, not experienced at the control tower because of a sea breeze front.
    (AP, 6/24/97)(SFC, 6/24/09, p.D8)

1975        Jun 25, Mozambique became an independent state (twice the size of California), ending nearly five centuries of Portuguese rule and a long civil war began that lasted to 1992. The first government embraced Marxism soon after taking power. 600,000 Portuguese farmers abandoned their farms and the agricultural industry was devastated. Frelimo took power in opposition to Renamo, which was supported by white-led governments in Rhodesia and South Africa. The UN Children’s Education Fund estimated that at least 850 children were kidnapped by guerillas of Renamo. Some were forced to fight but most were put to work as cooks and cleaners.
    (WSJ, 3/21/96, p.A-11)(SFC, 6/25/96, p.A8)(AP, 6/25/97)(SFC, 10/13/97, p.A12)

1975        Jun 26, Citing what she called a "deep and widespread conspiracy" against her government, Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi declared a state of emergency, which lasted to 1977.
    (AP, 6/26/97)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indira_Gandhi)
1975        Jun 26, There was a firefight on Pine Ridge Reservation in South Dakota as FBI agents pursued a robbery suspect. In 1977 Leonard Peltier, an Ojibwa-Sioux Indian, was found guilty of murdering 2 FBI agents, Ronald Williams and Jack Coler as they lay wounded. In 1983 Peter Matthiessen wrote "In the Spirit of Crazy Horse," that described the related events. The book was pulled out of bookstores after an FBI agent and a former governor sued him for libel. Matthiessen claims to have spoken to the man who actually shot the agents.
    (SFC,11/22/97, p.D1)(SFEC,12/797, p.B11)(SFC, 11/9/99, p.A10)(SFC, 6/26/00, p.A4)

1975        Jun 27, Two French intelligence agents, Raymond Dous and Jean Donatini, who were investigating attacks on planes of Israel’s El Al airline at Orly Airport, were killed by Carlos the Jackal, aka Ilich Ramirez Sanchez. Sanchez was identified by an arrested Palestinian Front militant, Michel Moukharbal, and was also killed.
    (SFC,12/11/97, p.C2)(SFC,12/13/97, p.A10)
1975        Jun 27, Robert Stolz (b.1880), Austrian composer (Freuhling im Prater), died.

1975        Jun 28, Rod Serling (b.1924), writer and director of the TV series "Twilight Zone" and "Night Gallery," died. He was remembered in the 1995 PBS production titled: "Submitted for Your Approval."
    (WSJ, 11/27/95, p.A-14)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rod_Serling)

1975        Jun 30, Russian writer Alexander Solzhenitsyn, having accepted a request from George Meany, a stalwart anti-communist labor leader, spoke at an AFL-CIO dinner in Washington. The former prisoner cut loose, freely blasting away not merely at the USSR but at any effort to accommodate it, particularly through the prevailing policy of détente. US Pres. Gerald Ford refused to meet with Solzhenitsyn.
    (http://tinyurl.com/y8hhg7fn)(Econ 6/3/17, p.54)

1975        Jun, From June to July the US launched covert operations in Angola to prevent a Communist takeover. In 2002 Dr. Piero Gleijeses authored “Conflicting Missions, Havana, Washington and Africa: 1959-1976."
    (SSFC, 3/29/02, p.A12)
1975        Jun, In California Sonya Higginbotham (19) was raped and stabbed to death in her 98th Ave. Oakland home. DNA evidence in 2002 identified Charles Jackson, a recently deceased Folsom inmate, as her killer.
    (SFC, 3/19/02, p.A10)(SFC, 9/30/05, p.B5)
1975        Jun, The Patriotic Union of Kurdistan (PUK) broke off from the KDP after Iran and Iraq resolved a border dispute and the US ended support for a Kurdish rebellion. The Patriotic Union of Kurdistan (PUK) was founded by Jalal Talabani as a breakaway faction of the KDP. The PUK favored armed struggle with other Kurdish groups against Saddam Hussein.
    (http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/country_profiles/2893067.stm)(SFC, 9/4/96, p.A7)

1975        Jul 1, Cesar Chavez and sixty supporters of the UFW embarked on a thousand-mile march across California to rally the state’s farm workers.
    (SFEM, 4/13/97, p.23)
1975        Jul 1, Shelley Robertson, a Bundy victim, disappeared in Colorado. Her body was found on August 21,1975, in a mine in Berthoud Pass, Colorado.
1975        Jul 1, Eamon Molloy, a Belfast IRA member, disappeared after being branded a traitor. His body was recovered in 1999. His mother-in-law vanished from the Divis Flats in Belfast in March 1972. Jean McConville (38) was a widowed mother of 10. His brother, Anthony, was shot dead by loyalists in June 1975.
1975        Jul 1, Thailand and China signed a formal agreement on diplomatic relations.

1975        Jul 3, The US Civil Service Commission adopted new suitability regulations devoid of the previous language about "immoral" conduct or "sexual perversion." This voided Pres. Eisenhower’s 1953 executive order on firing gays.

1975        Jul 4, Architects Doug Michels (1943-2003) and Chip Lord, founders of the Ant Farm in SF, created the performance work "Media Burn," in which Michels drove a 1959 Cadillac Eldorado through a pyramid of 40 burning television sets. Ant Farm disbanded in 1978. In 2019 art curator Steve Seid authored "Media Burn: Ant Farm and the making of an Image."
    (SSFC, 6/22/03, p.A1)(SFC, 1/9/21, p.E1)
1975        Jul 4, Nancy Baird (23), a Bundy victim, disappeared from a convenience store where she worked in Layton, Utah.

1975        Jul 5, Arthur Ashe became the first black man to win a Wimbledon singles title as he defeated Jimmy Connors.
    (AP, 7/5/97)
1975        Jul 5, The Cape Verde Islands officially became independent after 500 years of Portuguese rule. Aristides Pereira, a former guerrilla fighter against the Portuguese colonial administration, became head of state following independence. He ruled until 1991 when he lost the country's first democratic elections.
    (SFC, 8/5/9, p.A8)(AP, 7/5/00)(AP, 9/22/11)

1975        Jul 6, The state of Comoros became independent with Ahmed Abdallah Abderemane (1919-1989) as its first head of state. Three of the four islands between Africa and Madagascar declared independence from France and became the nation of Comoros. Mayotte voted to remain a colony.
    (SFC, 9/12/97, p.A12)(www.worldstatesmen.org/Comoros.html)
1975        Jul 6, Otto Skorzeny (b.1908), German-Austrian SS officer, died. He was the commando leader who rescued Italian dictator Benito Mussolini from imprisonment after his overthrow.

1975        Jul 7, Philippines’ President Ferdinand E. Marcos signed Presidential Decree No. 742 and Letter of Instruction 290 creating Western and Central Mindanao regions in Mindanao and establishing the Office of the Regional Commissioner in both regions.

1975        Jul 8, President Ford announced he would seek the Republican nomination for the presidency in 1976.
    (AP, 7/8/97)
1975        Jul 8, An earthquake struck Pagan (Bagan), Burma, and destroyed many monuments.
    (Econ, 2/28/04, p.42)(www.myanmars.net/travel/bagan.htm)
1975        Jul 8, Israeli premier Yitzhak Rabin began a 4-day visit to West-Germany.

1975        Jul 11, Archaeologists unearthed an army of 8,000 life-size clay figures created more than 2,000 years ago for the Emperor Qin Shi Huangdi (Shihuangdi). [see 210BC] Villagers had uncovered the first of the figures in 1974.
    (HN, 7/11/01)(Econ, 9/8/07, p.87)

1975        Jul 12, The islands of Sao Tome and Principe achieved independence from Portugal. Pinto da Costa ruled Sao Tome with an iron fist for 15 years after independence.
    (AP, 7/18/03)(AFP, 9/3/11)

1975        Jul 15, Three American astronauts blasted off aboard an Apollo spaceship hours after two Soviet cosmonauts were launched aboard a Soyuz spacecraft for a mission that included a linkup of the two ships in orbit.
    (AP, 7/15/97)

1975        Jul 17, A US Apollo spaceship docked with a Soyuz spacecraft in orbit in the first superpower linkup of its kind. Soviet cosmonauts Valery Kubasov (1935-2014) and lt. Col. Alexei A. Leonov spent 44 hours with Brig. Gen. Thomas P. Stafford, Deke Slayton and Vance D. Brand.
    (AP, 7/17/97)(SFC, 3/3/14, p.D2)
1975        Jul 19, The Apollo and Soyuz space capsules that were linked in orbit for two days separated.
    (AP, 7/19/97)

1975        Jul 22, The House of Representatives joined the Senate in voting to restore the American citizenship of Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee.
    (AP, 7/22/97)

1975        Jul 24, An "Apollo" spacecraft splashed down in the Pacific, completing a mission which included the first-ever docking with a "Soyuz" capsule from the Soviet Union.
    (AP, 7/24/00)

1975        Jul 25, Jay R. Ferguson Jr., American actor (Taylor Newton-Evening Shade), was born in Dallas, Tx.
1975        Jul 25, "A Chorus Line," the longest-running Broadway show (6,137), premiered on Broadway. It had opened off-Broadway at The Public Theater on May 21, 1975.

1975        Jul 28, The US Dept of Interior designated the grizzly bear a threatened species in the lower 48 states under the US Endangered Species Act. Most of the bears in the lower US lived in and around Yellowstone National Park in Idaho, Montana and Wyoming.
    (http://fieldguide.mt.gov/detail_AMAJB01020.aspx)(Econ, 11/5/05, p.88)

1975        Jul 29, President Ford became the first U.S. president to visit the site of the Nazi concentration camp Auschwitz in Poland as he paid tribute to the camp's victims.
    (AP, 7/29/97)

1975        Jul 30, Former Teamsters union president Jimmy Hoffa disappeared from the parking lot of the Machus Red fox Restaurant in suburban Detroit. Although presumed dead, his remains have never been found. He was scheduled to meet with Mafia captain Tony Jack Giacalone (d.2001 at 82) and New Jersey Teamster boss Anthony Provenzano. In 2004 Charles Brandt authored “I Heard You Paint Houses," in which he says Teamster official Frank Sheeran (d.2003) claimed to have shot Hoffa. Hoffa was declared legally dead in 1982.
    (HFA, '96, p.34)(AP, 7/30/97)(SFC, 2/26/01, p.A24)(SFC, 5/29/04, p.A2)
1975        Jul 30, James Benjamin Blish (b.1921), sci-fi author (Star Trek Reader, Black Sunday), died. Blish also wrote criticism of science fiction using the pen-name William Atheling Jr.
1975        Jul 30, Representatives of 35 countries convened in Finland for a conference on security and human rights that resulted in the Helsinki accords.
    (AP, 7/30/00)

1975        Jul 31, In 2006 Donovan Wells, a prisoner in Kentucky, said he witnessed a grave being dug for Jimmy Hoffa at a horse farm in Milford, Mich., that was owned by Rolland McMaster, a Teamster official. A search of the site proved fruitless.
    (SFC, 5/24/06, p.A5)(SFC, 5/30/06, p.A2)
1975        Jul 31, The Bangkok Agreement was signed as an initiative of the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP). As Asia’s 1st preferential trade agreement between developing countries it aimed at promoting intra-regional trade through exchange of mutually agreed concessions by member countries. Five countries, Republic of Korea, India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Lao People’s Democratic Republic, were the initial signatories. China joined in April, 2000. Thailand and the Philippines did not ratify the agreement due to their ASEAN commitments.

1975        Jul, In Chile 119 dissidents were kidnapped as part of Operation Colombo. Their bodies were never found. In 2008 98 people were indicted on charges of kidnapping the victims.
    (SFC, 5/27/08, p.A3)

1975        Aug 1, A 35-nation summit in Helsinki, Finland, concluded with the signing the Helsinki Accords, dealing with European security, human rights and East-West contacts.  The Helsinki Final Act, signed by 35 states, was an attempt to improve the relations between the Communist bloc and the West. The Soviet Union reluctantly signed as a token of East -West détente.
    (AP, 8/1/00)(www.hri.org/docs/Helsinki75.html)(Econ, 4/11/20, p.66)

1975        Aug 3, The Louisiana Superdome was dedicated.

1975        Aug 4, In Malaysia the Japanese Red Army raided a building in Kuala Lumpur that housed US, Swedish, Japanese and Canadian embassies. 52 hostages were exchanged for Red Army members.

1975        Aug 7, In China a dam collapse in Henan province killed tens of thousands of people. The event was covered up for many years. A typhoon from the South China Sea brought three successive days of enormous rain storms to the area of southern Henan Province. Altogether 62 dams failed in one night, including two major dams. As a result of this catastrophe 85,600 people died according to the official government figures but others place the toll at 230 thousand.
    (WSJ, 8/29/07, p.A12)(www.sjsu.edu/faculty/watkins/3gorges.htm)

1975        Aug 8, Julian "Cannonball" Adderley (b.1928), sax player, died of a stroke.
    (SFC, 1/5/00, p.C3)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cannonball_Adderley)

1975        Aug 9, Samuel Bronfman (21), the eldest son of Seagram distillery owner, Edgar Bronfman, was kidnapped in suburban New York and held for ransom for over a week. A $2.3 million ransom was paid. Samuel was rescued in a raid on a Brooklyn apartment. a former limousine operator and former fireman were later convicted of extortion and spent several years in prison.
    (SSFC, 4/10/11, p.C8)
1975        Aug 9, Dimitri D. Shostakovich (b.1906) Soviet composer of 15 symphonies, died. His work included Sun Over Motherland and the Violin Concerto No. 2. Symphony No. 13, "Babi Yar," written to commemorate the massacre of Jews during WW II. It premiered in the US in 1970. Symphony No. 12, "The Year 1917," was dedicated to the memory of Lenin. In 2004 Solomon Volkov authored Shostakovich and Stalin: The Extraordinary Relationship Between the Great Composer and the Brutal Dictator."
    (WUD, 1994, p.1320)(SFC, 1/30/98, p.E5)(HN, 9/25/98)(WSJ, 6/29/99, p.A12)(SSFC, 3/28/04, p.M3)

1975        Aug 10, Television personality David Frost announced he had purchased the exclusive rights to interview former President Nixon.
    (AP, 8/10/00)

1975        Aug 11, The United States vetoed the proposed admission of North and South Vietnam to the United Nations, following the Security Council's refusal to consider South Korea's application.
    (AP, 8/11/97)
1975        Aug 11, Alfred Loomis (b.1887), financier and amateur physicist, died. In 2002 Jennet Conant authored "Tuxedo Park," an account of how Loomis led research that enhanced radar and led to the atom bomb.
1975        Aug 11, Anthony C. McAuliffe (b.1898), US general and commandant of 101st division, died. He is famous for his WWII single-word reply to a German surrender ultimatum: "Nuts!"

1975          Aug 15, Bangladesh army officers killed Sheik Mujibar Rahman, the country's founding leader and father of Hasina Wajed. A total of 20 people, including domestic staff, were killed when the group of officers stormed his house. General Ziaur Rahman, father of Khaleda Zia, became the military ruler. Rahman had introduced a one-party socialist system and assumed almost dictatorial powers. In 1997 the government charged two people with his assassination. In 1998 15 men were found guilty and sentenced to death. Three were acquitted in 2001. Of the remaining 12, five appealed the verdict to the Supreme Court, six are in hiding and one is believed to have died in Zimbabwe. In 2010 the Supreme Court upheld the death sentence for five killers.
    (SFC, 6/12/96, p.A9)(SFC, 6/14/96, p. A14)(SFC, 4/7/97, p.A10)(AFP, 1/27/10)

1975        Aug 17, Sig Arno (b.1895), German film actor (My Friend Irma), died in Hamburg, Germany.

1975        Aug 20, Viking 1, the first of 2 unmanned Viking landers, was launched from Cape Canaveral, Florida, on a mission to Mars. It reached Mars in the summer of 1976.
    (SFEC, 9/28/97, p.A14)

1975        Aug 21-22, In Los Angeles Kathleen Ann Soliah (later known as Sarah Jane Olson) and other members of the SLA placed 2 pipe bombs under parked police cars at an Int'l. House of Pancakes on Sunset Blvd. They did not explode. Olson pleaded guilty to 2 felony accounts in 2001. Olson was convicted and sentenced in 2002 to 20 years to life in prison and was then arraigned with 3 others for the Apr 21 murder of Myrna Opsahl.
    (SFEC, 6/20/99, p.A3)(SFC, 1/23/01, p.A13)(SFC, 11/1/01, p.A1)(SFC, 1/19/02, p.A1)

1975        Aug 23, In Greece Col. Papadopoulos (d.1999 at 80) was sentenced to death for insurrection and high treason. He had refused to testify: "let history judge my action." The sentence was later commuted to life in prison.
    (SFC, 6/28/99, p.A19)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Papadopoulos)
1975        Aug 23, In Laos Communists took over the administration of Vientiane city.

1975        Aug 24, Charles H. Revson (b.1906), US cosmetic magnate, died.

1975        Aug 26, An international plan began to show significant results to stop Venice from sinking into the sea. Venice was built on 118 small islands. By the early 1960s, rising seawater and floods threatened Venice. Scientists determined that Venice was sinking, and that much of the city would disappear if swift measures were not taken.

1975        Aug 27, Haile Selassie, the last emperor of Ethiopia’s 3,000-year-old monarchy, died in Addis Ababa at age 83 almost a year after he was overthrown in a military coup. It was later discovered that the Derg, the ruling military committee, had voted to murder the imprisoned emperor. Selassie was born of royal blood and originally named Ras Tafari, and is regarded as the savior by a religious sect originating in Jamaica whose members are called Rastafarians. Crowned emperor in 1930 under the title Haile Selassie I (meaning "Power of the Trinity"), he was by tradition a descendant of King Solomon and the Queen of Sheba. He reigned as emperor of Ethiopia until 1974. Ryszard Kapuscinski later authored "The Emperor," a biography of Selassie.
    (AP, 8/27/00)(HNQ, 2/4/00)(WSJ, 4/18/01, p.A20)(Econ, 9/29/07, p.49)

1975        Aug 29, Star in Cygnus went nova becoming 4th brightest in sky.
1975        Aug 29,  Eamon de Valera (92), Irish president (1937-59), died near Dublin. De Valera was born in NYC (1882) and emigrated to Ireland as a child and joined the Easter Rebellion of 1916 against British rule. He was saved from execution because of his American citizenship, and was released under a general amnesty in 1917.
    (AP, 8/29/97)(ON, 9/04, p.7)
1975        Aug 29, In Peru Gen. Francisco Belaunde (b.1921) began serving as president. He continued to July 28, 1980.
    (WSJ, 12/27/96, p.A7)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francisco_Morales_Berm%C3%BAdez)

1975        Aug, In, Oakland, California, Ann Johnson (27) was raped and stabbed to death in her Montclair District home. DNA evidence in 2002 identified Charles Jackson, a recently deceased Folsom inmate, as her killer.
    (SFC, 3/19/02, p.A10)
1975        Aug, North Korea seized 33 South Korean fisherman near their maritime border. In 2006 Choi Uk-il, one of the 33, escaped to China and returned home to South Korea.
    {North Korea, South Korea}
    (Econ, 1/13/07, p.38)(www.asiafinest.com/forum/index.php?showtopic=102448)

1975        Sep 1, NYC transit fares rose from 35 cents to 50 cents.
1975        Sep 1, Bougainville Island announced the formation of the "Republic of the North Solomons," but failed in its bid to secede from Papua New Guinea.
    (WSJ, 3/18/98, p.A14)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Bougainville)
1975        Sep 1, Israel and Egypt initialed the Sinai II agreement on disengagement. A ceremonial signing was held in Geneva on Sep 4.

1975        Sep 2, Joseph W. Hatcher of Tallahassee, Florida, became the state's first African-American supreme court justice since Reconstruction.
    (HN, 9/2/98)

1975        Sep 5, President Ford escaped an attempt on his life by Lynette "Squeaky" Fromme, a disciple of Charles Manson, in Sacramento, Calif. In 1997 Jess Bravin wrote her biography: "Squeaky: The Life and Times of Lynette Alice Fromme."
    (SFC, 6/18/97, p.E5)(AP, 9/5/97)
1975        Sep 5, Czech tennis ace Martina Navratilova asked for political asylum in NYC.

1975        Sep 6, A 6.8 quake along the Anatolian Fault kills over 2,000 in Lice, Turkey.

1975        Sep 7, The NBC drama “The Family Holvak" featured Glenn Ford (1916-2006). The show aired for the last time on Dec 28.
    (SFC, 8/31/06, p.B7)(www.tv.com/the-family-holvak/show/9109/summary.html)

1975        Sep 8, Leonard Matlovich (b.1943) appeared in his Air Force uniform on the cover of Time magazine. He challenged the ban against homosexuals in the US military and was given a "general" discharge by the Air Force after publicly declaring his homosexuality. NBC subsequently made a TV movie of his story. His suit dragged on until 1980 when a federal judge ordered Matlovich reinstated. Instead of re-entering the Air Force, Matlovich accepted a settlement of $160,000. Matlovich became a gay rights activist and dies of AIDS in 1988."
1975        Sep 8, Boston's public schools began their court-ordered citywide busing program amid scattered incidents of violence.
    (AP, 9/8/97)

1975        Sep 9, The TV sitcom “Welcome Back, Kotter" featured Ron Palillo (1949-2012) as student Arnold Horshack and Gabe Kaplan as teacher Gabe Kotter. The series propelled John Travolta to stardom and continued to 1979.
    (SFC, 8/15/12, p.C5)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Welcome_Back,_Kotter)

1975        Sep 11, In central California college teacher Claude Snelling (45) was shot and killed in Visalia while trying to save his teenage daughter, Elizabeth Hupp (16) from the clutches of a masked intruder, dubbed the Visalia Ransacker. In 2018 Joseph James De Angelo, already linked to 12 killings and at least 50 rapes, was charged with the murder.
    (SFC, 8/14/18, p.C2)

1975        Sep 13, Shiko Munakata (b.1903), renowned Japanese artist and printmaker, died in Tokyo from liver cancer.
    (SFC, 8/8/02, p.D9)(www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/397376/Munakata-Shiko)

1975        Sep 14, Rembrandt's "Nightwatch" was slashed and damaged in Amsterdam.
1975        Sep 14, Pope Paul VI declared Mother Elizabeth Ann Bayley Seton the first native-born American saint in the Roman Catholic Church.
    (AP, 9/14/97)(HN, 9/14/98)

1975        Sep 15, Feng Zikai (b.1898), influential Chinese painter and pioneering manhua artist popular in the 1920s and 1930s, died.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Feng_Zikai)(Econ, 12/20/14, p.66)

1975        Sep 16, Administrators for Rhodes Scholarships announced the decision to begin offering fellowships to women.
    (HN, 9/16/98)
1975        Sep 16, Papua New Guinea (PNG), a former Australian colony, became independent.
    (WSJ, 12/20/96, p.B8)(WSJ, 3/18/98, p.A14)

1975        Sep 18, Police and FBI arrested SLA members Patty Hearst, William and Emily Harris, Steven Soliah and Wendy Yoshimura in SF. James Kilgore disappeared and later surfaced a Univ. of Cape Town Prof. Charles William Pape. He was arrested in 2002. Hearst was convicted of bank robbery and served over 22 months in federal prison. Pres. Carter commuted her sentence in 1979. Kathleen Ann Soliah remained a fugitive until 1999 when she was picked up in St. Paul, Minn., under the name of Sara Jane Olson. She was wanted for placing 2 pipe bombs under police cars in LA.
    (SFEC, 3/1/98, p.W23)(SFC, 2/4/99, p.A8)(SFC, 6/17/99, p.A1)(SFC, 5/11/09, p.B2)
1975        Sep 18, Fairfield Porter (b.1907), American artist, died. Much of his work was done along the Maine coastline.
    (WSJ, 9/4/03, p.D8)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fairfield_Porter)

1975        Sep 19, The British sitcom "Fawlty Towers," created by John Cleese, premiered. Six episodes aired in this year and 6 more in 1979. PBS brought the show to America in 1980.
    (WSJ, 3/8/99, p.A16)(www.imdb.com/title/tt0072500/)

1975        Sep 20, The Kansas City Lyric Opera premiered Jack Beeson’s "Captain Jinks of the Horse Marines." It was commissioned to celebrate founder and director Russell Patterson’s 40th and final year with the company.

1975        Sep 21, In Sacramento, Ca., a psychiatric interview with Lynette “Squeaky" Fromme, arrested for aiming a pistol at Pres. Ford on Sep 5, was recorded.  Fromme was later convicted of attempted assassination and remained in prison until release on parole in 2009. The 132-minute recording was released in April, 2014.
    (SFC, 4/25/14, p.D4)

1975        Sep 22, President Gerald R. Ford dodged a second assassination in less than three weeks. Sara Jane Moore, an FBI informer and self-proclaimed revolutionary, attempted to shoot President Ford outside a San Francisco hotel, but missed. Oliver Sipple (1941-1989), a disabled former Marine, knocked Moore’s arm aside. A bullet she fired slightly wounded a man in the crowd. Moore was sentenced to life in prison, but was paroled at the end of 2007 after serving over 30 years without getting into trouble.
    (AP, 9/22/97)(SFC, 1/1/08, p.A1)(SSFC, 2/2/14, DB p.42)

1975        Sep 23, California’s Gov. Jerry Brown signed the Medical Injury Compensation Reform Act (MICRA). It imposed limits on attorney fees and capped jury awards in medical malpractice suits for “noneconomic" damages to $250,000.
    (SFC, 4/25/01, p.A7)(WSJ, 7/13/04, p.D4)(http://tinyurl.com/m852rv)

1975        Sep 26, Herman G. Fisher (b.1898), co-founder of the Fisher-Price toy company (1930), died. In 1930 he got together with Irving Price and Helen Schelle to establish a toy company under the name of Fisher-Price.

1975        Sep 29, Peter Sutcliffe, who became known as the Yorkshire Ripper, killed his 1st victim.

1975        Sep 30, In Rome Donatella Colasanti (17) was found bloodied and battered, but alive in the boot of a car. Beside her was the dead body of her friend Rosaria Lopez (20). Both had undergone hours of torture before Lopez was finally drowned in a bath. Colasanti had escaped the same fate only by playing dead. Andrea Ghira was found guilty in the "Circeo Massacre," named for the town near Rome where two girls were held captive for 36 hours and then left wrapped in plastic in a car trunk, where one girl died. He was convicted in absentia for the slaying. In 2005 his body was found in a cemetery in a Spanish enclave in Morocco, where he was buried in 1994.
    (AP, 10/29/05)(http://rome.wantedineurope.com/articles/complete_articles.php?id_art=559)

1975        Sep, In San Bernadino County, Ca., Lorrie Sue McClary (16) and her boyfriend were arrested for the murder of Anna Mills (79), who had hired her and her boyfriend, Fred Wilson (23). She later claimed that she pleaded guilty to protect her boyfriend. McClary was sentenced 7 years to life and her boyfriend, who testified against her, drew a 4 year sentence. In 1998 her request for parole was denied by Gov. Wilson.
    {California, Murder, USA, Teens amuck}
    (SFC, 6/15/98, p.A22)(www.feminist.com/news/vaw28.html)
1975        Sep, Byte Magazine began publishing with the birth of the PC. It was regarded as the most technically minded of the new computer magazines. Publication was suspended in 1998.
    (WSJ, 5/28/98, p.B4)(www.vintage-computer.com/byte.shtml)

1975        Oct 1, Muhammad Ali beat Joe Frazier after 14 rounds for the heavyweight boxing title in Manila.

1975        Oct 2, President Ford welcomed Japan’s Emperor Hirohito to the United States.
    (AP, 10/2/00)
1975        Oct 2, Armand Hammer (1898-1992) pleaded guilty to three misdemeanor charges of making illegal contributions in the names of other persons to the 1972 Nixon re-election campaign.
    (WSJ, 6/29/00, p.A26)(http://tinyurl.com/4nv5yw)

1975        Oct 6, Chilean Vice Pres. Bernardo Leighton and his wife, Anita Fresno, were shot in Rome. Anita was left permanently disabled. In 2000 Chilean authorities arrested former Gen. Eduardo Iturriaga for the shooting.
    (SFC, 3/15/00, p.A10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leighton_case)

1975        Oct 7, Pres. Ford signed Public Law 94-106, a bill authorizing the admission of women to military academies.
1975        Oct 7, US decided John Lennon won't be deported due to UK pot conviction.

1975        Oct 8, Chiura Obata (b.1885), Japanese American artist, died in Berkeley, Ca. He was a faculty member in the Art Department at the University of California at Berkeley from 1932 to 1953, interrupted by World War II, when he spent over a year in internment camps.
    (SFC, 11/12/08, p.E1)(http://tinyurl.com/yzykwlg)

1975        Oct 9, Soviet scientist Andrei Sakharov was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.
    (AP, 10/9/97)

1975        Oct 10, August Dvorak (b.1894), educational psychologist, died. In the 1930s he and his brother-in-law, Dr. William Dealey, designed a keyboard layout that was much superior to the QWERTY keyboard.
    (SFC, 4/19/97, p.E4)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/August_Dvorak)

1975        Oct 11, The TV show "Saturday Night Live" made its debut with guest host George Carlin. Writer Michael O’Donoghue (d.1994) made his debut. In 1998 Dennis Perrin published "Mr. Mike: The Life and Work of Michael O’Donoghue." Don Pardo (1918-2014) began his stint as the announcing voice of SNL.
    (SFEC, 8/23/98, BR p.12)(AP, 10/11/99)(SFC, 8/20/14, p.E3)
1975        Oct 11, Bill Clinton married Hillary Rodham in Fayetteville, Ark.
    (SFEC, 3/28/99, Par p.4)

1975        Oct 12, Archbishop Oliver Plunkett (1625-1681) became the 1st Irish-born saint in 700 years. He was  beheaded by Cromwell's troops.

1975        Oct 13, The Maharishi Yogi (1917-2008), India-born founder of Transcendental Meditation, appeared on the cover of Time Magazine.

1975        Oct 14, South Africans secretly launched Operation Savannah when the first of several South African columns (task force Zulu) crossed into Angola from Namibia.

1975        Oct 15, Iceland moved its intl. boundary for fishing rights from 50 to 200 miles.

1975        Oct 16, In East Timor five Australian journalists were killed when Indonesian troops overran the border town of Balibo. A 6th died weeks later when Jakarta launched a full-scale assault on Dili. In 2009 the film “Balibo," by Australian director Rob Connolly, depicted the killings.
    (AP, 7/22/09)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Balibo_Five)
1975        Oct 16, Vittorio Gui (b.1885), Italian composer (Batture d'aspetto), died.

1975        Oct 17, A UN committee passed a resolution saying "Zionism is a form of racism." The resolution was reversed in 1991.
    (www.heritage.org/Research/InternationalOrganizations/bg851.cfm)(Econ, 4/25/09, p.62)

1975        Oct 20, The US Supreme Court ruled that teachers could spank their pupils even if parents do not approve.
1975        Oct 20, China and India engaged in a border skirmish at Tulung La that left a number of soldiers killed. Four Assam Rifles personnel were ambushed and killed at Tulung La.
    (https://tinyurl.com/y9rsg23b)(Econ., 5/16/20, p.30)
1975        Oct 20, Mexico City's 1st major subway accident took 20 lives.

1975        Oct 21, "Treemonisha," a 1911 opera by Scott Joplin (1868-1917), opened at Uris Theater NYC for 64 performances. The 1st full professional staging was done in 1975 by the Houston Grand Opera.
    (www.nodanw.com/shows_t/treemonisha.htm)(SFC, 6/21/03, p.D1)

1975        Oct 22, Arnold Toynbee (b.1889), English historian (A Study of History) and cultural sociologist, died. He held that civilizations proceed from bondage to spiritual faith, then to courage, then to liberty, then to abundance, then to selfishness, then to apathy, then to dependency and then back to bondage.
    (AP, 3/24/98)(http://tinyurl.com/yoserm)(Econ, 3/31/07, p.63)

1975        Oct 23, A Battle between Cuban and South Africa troops took place in Angola.

1975        Oct 25, Vladimir Herzog (b.1937), Croatia-born Jewish journalist, was murdered by Brazil’s military regime.
    (Econ, 11/27/04, p.37)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vladimir_Herzog)

1975        Oct 26, Anwar Sadat became the first Egyptian president to pay an official visit to the United States.
    (AP, 10/26/97)

1975        Oct 30, The New York Daily News ran the headline "Ford to City: Drop Dead" a day after President Ford said he would veto any proposed federal bailout of New York City.
    (HN, 10/30/98)
1975        Oct 30, Martha Moxley, 15-years-old, was bludgeoned to death with a gulf club in Greenwich, Conn., on Halloween eve. The last person to see her was 17-year-old Thomas Skakel, a nephew of Ethel Kennedy. No one has ever been charged. Michael (15) and Thomas (17) Skakel were suspects. Michael Skakel was charged with the killing in 2000. The 1993 novel "A Season in Purgatory" by Dominick Dunne, and "Murder in Greenwich" by Mark Fuhrman in 1998 were based on this murder. In 2002 a jury found Skakel guilty of murder. He was sentenced 20 years to life in prison.
    (WSJ, 5/6/96, p.A-11)(SFC, 10/17/98, p.A6)(SFC, 6/8/02, p.A1)(WSJ, 8/29/02, p.A1)
1975        Oct 30, Juan Carlos (37) assumed power in Spain after General Franco, near death, gave him control.

1975        Oct, The MacNeil-Lehrer Report" premiered on PBS.
1975        Oct, US National Security Advisor Henry Kissinger told his staff: "I'm assuming you're really going to keep your mouth shut on the subject,"  in response to reports that Indonesia had begun its attack on East Timor. This statement was only made public in 2005.
    (AFP, 12/02/05)
1975        Oct, Vladimir Prelog (d.1998 at age 91), a Swiss chemist, won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work in stereochemistry and the architecture of molecules like cholesterol and antibiotics. John Cornforth, Australia-born chemist, also shared the prize.
    (SFC, 1/17/98, p.A19)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Nobel_laureates)
1975        Oct, Aage Nills Bohr (b.1922), Denmark-born physicist, won the Nobel Prize in Physics for his study of the atomic nucleus. Ben Mottelson (b.1926), Danish-American physicist and James Rainwater (1917-1986), American physicist, also shared the prize.
1975        Oct, Eugenio Montale (1896-1981), Italian poet, won the Nobel Prize for Literature. In 1999 two collections of his poetry were translated and published in English: Collected Poems 1920-1954" and "Satura 1962-1970."
    (SFEC, 2/28/99, BR p.8)

1975        Nov 1, Pier Paolo Pasolini (b.1922), Italian poet, author and director was murdered. A young male prostitute was tried and convicted for the murder in 1976.

1975        Nov 3, Queen Elizabeth formally began the operation of the UK's first North Sea oil pipeline at a ceremony in Scotland.

1975        Nov 5, The scrapped passenger ship Queen Elizabeth rolled over and disgorged several tons of oil in Hong Kong.
1975        Nov 5, Lionel Trilling (b.1905), American author and literary critic, died. His books included “Beyond Culture" (1965), a collection of essays concerning modern literary and cultural attitudes toward selfhood.
    (SFC, 10/25/96, p.A24)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lionel_Trilling)

1975        Nov 6, Morocco occupied Western Sahara. King Hassan dispatched 350,000 unarmed Moroccans on a "Green March" to the former Spanish Sahara. This began a long war with the Polisario Front guerrilla group, tribal Bedouin who sought independence.
    (SFC, 5/7/97, p.C2)(SFC, 7/24/99, p.A9)(WSJ, 6/7/00, p.A1)(SFC, 11/27/00, p.A8)

1975        Nov 7, "Wonder Woman" debuted as a pilot on ABC.
1975        Nov 7, On the eve of the anniversary of the Bolshevik Revolution Capt. Valery Sablin (1939-1976) seized control of the Storozhevoy (Vigilant), a Russian destroyer in the Baltic, intending to proclaim a new revolution. The Russian air force managed to disable the vessel and Sablin was executed for the mutiny. This incident inspired Tom Clancy’s novel and the film “The Hunt for Red October."
    (WSJ, 7/1/05, p.W4)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Valery_Sablin)

1975        Nov 10, The ore-hauling, 729-foot ship "Edmund Fitzgerald" broke in half and sank during a storm at the eastern end of Lake Superior and its crew of 29 perished. Oglebay Norton Co., the ship's Cleveland-based owner, filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy in 2004. In 1976 Gordon Lightfoot’s song “The Wreck of the Edmund Fitzgerald" went to #2 on the pop charts. In 2005 Michael Schumacher authored "Mighty Fitz," an examination of debates over what happened. In 2005 Michael Schumacher authored “Mighty Fitz," an examination of debates over what happened.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Wreck_of_the_Edmund_Fitzgerald)(SFC, 2/24/04, p.B2)(WSJ, 11/5/05, p.P8)
1975        Nov 10, In Angola the MPLA and Cuban troops warded off the last big attack of the FNLA.
1975        Nov 10, The UN General Assembly approved a resolution equating Zionism with racism. However, the world body repealed the resolution in December 1991.
    (AP, 11/10/97)(www.heritage.org/Research/InternationalOrganizations/bg851.cfm)
1975        Nov 10, The UN General Assembly adopted Resolution 3237 that conferred on the PLO the status of observer in the Assembly and in other international conferences held under UN auspices.

1975        Nov 11, Angola proclaimed independence from Portugal. Civil war began following the 14-year fight for independence. The Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA) proclaimed unilateral independence. Jonas Savimbi led UNITA and the FLNA was backed by Zaire.
    (SFC, 6/20/96, p.A10)(SFC, 12/26/98, p.A12)(SFC, 4/19/00, p.A10)
1975        Nov 11, Sir John Kerr, Australia’s governor-general, fired PM Edward Gough Whitlam. He was the 1st elected PM removed in 200 years. Kerr asserted his authority as the constitutional representative of Queen Elizabeth. In 2020 the "palace letters," correspondence between Kerr and Buckingham Palace, were made public revealing that Kerr never informed the Queen directly of his plan.
    (SFC, 11/2/99, p.A14)(http://whitlamdismissal.com/)(Econ., 7/18/20, p.28)
1975        Nov 11, In India the Shillong Accord was an agreement signed between the Government of India and Nagaland's underground government to accept the supremacy of Constitution of India without condition, surrender their arms and renounce their demand for the secession of Nagaland from India.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shillong_Accord_of_1975)(Econ, 8/8/15, p.34)

1975        Nov 12, Supreme Court Justice William O. Douglas retired because of failing health, ending a record 36-and-a-half-year term.
    (AP, 11/12/00)

1975        Nov 15, The first Summit of 6 leading industrialist nations, G-6, met in Rambouillet, France, for discussions on currency and oil prices. The Group of Six included leaders from Britain, France, Germany, Italy, Japan and the United States. They were joined a year later by Canada making the "G7". The group was originally established as a vehicle for leading industrialized democracies to discuss the global economy. It later expanded its scope to issues such as peace, the environment and terrorism. Russia, which attended the summit as a guest in 1992, was in 1998 allowed for the first time to attend all summit meetings. The grouping was officially renamed the "G8". In 2014 Vladimir Putin's Russia was suspended from the G8 after it annexed Ukraine's Crimea peninsula and sanctions were imposed on Moscow.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1st_G6_summit)(SFC, 6/20/97, p.A16)(AFP, 6/9/18)

1975        Nov 18, Black Panther leader Eldridge Cleaver (1935-1998) returned to US to face assault charges from 1958.

1975        Nov 19, Elizabeth Taylor (b.1912), English writer, died of cancer. Her work included 12 novels and 5 short story collections.
    (SFC, 7/25/06, p.E3)(www.imdb.com/name/nm0852331/)

1975        Nov 20, Ronald Reagan announced his intention to battle Gerald Ford for the Republican presidential nomination.
    (SSFC, 6/6/04, A16)(www.ford.utexas.edu/grf/timeline.asp)
1975        Nov 20, An interim report by the US Senate’s Church Committee said that the CIA failed to assassinate Fidel Castro at least 8 times. The report also covered CIA activity in Chile, the Congo, the Dominican Republic and elsewhere.
    (WSJ, 8/5/06, p.A9)(http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Church_Committee)
1975        Nov 20, After nearly four decades of absolute rule (1936-1975), Spain's General Francisco Franco died, two weeks before his 83rd birthday. He was entombed in a mausoleum built by his regime between 1940 and 1959, in part by the forced labor of some 20,000 political prisoners. Juan Carlos, grandson of King Alfonso, was his designated successor and the monarchy was restored. In 2002 Gabrielle Ashford Hodges authored "Franco: A Concise Biography."
    (SFC, 11/12/96, p.A12)(SFEC, 10/5/97, p.A17)(AP, 11/20/97)(SSFC, 4/21/02, p.M4)(AFP, 8/24/18)

1975        Nov 22, Juan Carlos was proclaimed king of Spain.
    (AP, 11/22/97)

1975        Nov 25, The Portuguese Communist Party under Alvaro Cunhal attempted a coup in Lisbon with leftist army paratroops.
    (WSJ, 10/14/98, p.A22)
1975        Nov 25, Suriname gained Independence from the Netherlands and adopted a new flag.
    (SFC, 9/6/96, p.A14)( http://flagspot.net/flags/sr.html)

1975        Nov 26, A federal jury in Sacramento, Calif., found Lynette Fromme, a follower of Charles Manson, guilty of trying to assassinate President Ford. [see Sep 5]
    (AP, 11/26/97)(HN, 11/26/98)

1975        Nov 28, "The Edge Of Night", TV Daytime Soap; last aired on CBS who wanted to expand one of its soaps to an hour; "Edge" moved to ABC, which had a time slot available.
1975        Nov 28, Wings release "Venus & Mars/Rock Show" medley.
1975        Nov 28, President Ford nominated Federal Judge John Paul Stevens to the U.S. Supreme Court seat vacated by William O. Douglas.
    (AP, 11/28/97)
1975        Nov 28, The Portuguese colonial rule collapsed and East Timor proclaimed independence, but 10 days later it was invaded by Indonesia.
    (SFC, 7/21/96, Z1, p.8)(SFC, 10/16/96, p.A18)   

1975        Nov 29, President Ford required states to provide free education for handicapped.

1975        Dec 2, George Moscone (1929-1978) was elected mayor of San Francisco in a runoff election with electoral support from the neighborhoods rather than downtown interests. Moscone was elected over John Barbagelata by a margin of 51-49.
    (SFC, 11/26/98, p.A19)(SFC, 12/15/99, p.A19)

1975        Dec 3, King Savang Vatthana of Laos abdicated his throne and the communist Lao People's Democratic Republic (LPDR) was established. The Lao People’s Revolutionary Party (LPRP) had seized power with backing from Vietnam.
    (www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/2770.htm)(Econ, 7/23/16, p.33)

1975        Dec 4, Ramos Horta helped form an independent East Timor government but was forced to flee 3 days before Indonesia invaded.
    (SFEC, 6/27/99, p.A22)
1975         Dec 4, Hannah Arendt (b.1906), German-born American historian and philosopher, died. Her books included "The Origins of Totalitarianism." In 2001 Lotte Kohler edited "Within Four Walls: The Correspondence Between Hannah Arendt and Heinrich Blucher 1936-1938."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hannah_Arendt)(WSJ, 8/31/99, p.A22)(SSFC, 4/15/01, BR p.8)

1975        Dec 6, US President Ford and Secretary of State Kissinger met with Indonesian President Suharto and explicitly approved Indonesia’s invasion of East Timor. This information was only made public in 2005.
    (AFP, 12/02/05)(www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB62/)
1975        Dec 6, The US Congress authorized a $2.3 billion emergency loan to save New York City from bankruptcy.
1975        Dec 6, Robert Dole (b.1923) of Kansas, Republican presidential candidate in 1996, married Mary Elizabeth Hanford.

1975        Dec 7, Thornton Wilder (b.1897), American novelist and playwright, died. In 2008 his selected letters, edited by Robin G. Wilder and Jackson R. Bryer, were published.
    (HN, 4/17/99)(WSJ, 10/4/08, p.W8)
1975        Dec 7, Indonesia invaded East Timor nine days after the Timorese political party Fretilin claimed independence. Some 600,000 were left dead after a prolonged war.
    (SFC, 7/21/96, Z1, p.8)(SFEC, 8/29/99, p.A19)(HNQ, 11/9/00)

1975        Dec 8, "Raisin" closed at 46th St Theater NYC after 847 performances.

1975        Dec 9, President Ford signed a $2.3 billion seasonal loan-authorization that officials of New York City and State said would prevent a city default.
    (AP, 12/9/00)
1975        Dec 9, William Wellman (b.1896), American filmmaker, died. His film “Wings" received the 1st Academy Award for Best Picture.
    (SFC, 7/20/96, p.E1)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_A._Wellman)

1975        Dec 10, Elena Bonner Sacharova (b.1923) read Andrei Sacharov’s Nobel Peace Prize acceptance speech in Oslo.

1975        Dec 12, Sara Jane Moore pleaded guilty to a charge of trying to kill President Ford in San Francisco the previous September.
    (AP, 12/12/97)
1975        Dec 12, In South Dakota Anna Mae Pictou Aquash (b.1945) was shot to death. American Indian Movement (AIM) members suspected her of being an FBI informant. Her body was found on Feb 24, 1976, on Pine Ridge Indian Reservation. In 2003 Arlo Looking Cloud (50) was convicted in the murder. John Graham, a Canadian, and Fritz Arlo Looking Cloud, a US citizen, were indicted in 2003 in the United States for Aquash's murder. In 2007 a Canadian court ruled that Graham should be extradited to the United States to face trial. In 2011 Graham was sentenced to serve life in prison.
    (SFC, 2/7/04, p.A3)(Reuters, 6/26/07)(www.dickshovel.com/time.html#1976)(SFC, 1/25/11, p.A6)
1975        Dec 12, In New Zealand Robert Muldoon (1921-1992) began serving as prime minister and continued to July 26, 1984. His interventionist policies threatened to send the country to the financial wall.
    (WSJ, 10/9/96, p.A16)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Muldoon)

1975        Dec 14, Six South Moluccan extremists surrendered after holding 23 hostages for 12 days on a train near the Dutch town of Beilen.
    (AP, 12/14/00)

1975        Dec 16, The daytime soap "One Day At a Time" premiered. It featured Bonnie Franklin as a divorced mother in Indianapolis with Valerie Bertinelli as her teenage daughter. The show ran until 1984.
    (SFC, 10/5/02, p.A19)(www.imdb.com/title/tt0072554/)

1975        Dec 17, Lynette Fromme was sentenced to life in prison for her attempt on the life of President Ford.
    (AP, 12/17/97)

1975        Dec 19, John Paul Stevens, appointed by Pres. Gerald Ford, was sworn in as a US Supreme Court judge.
    (NW, 7/7/03, p.48)

1975        Dec 21, In Austria there was a terrorist kidnapping of Saudi oil minister Sheik Ahmed Zaki Yamani and other ministers at the OPEC gathering in Vienna, Austria. Three people were killed and 11 taken hostage. The oil ministers were taken to North Africa in a hijacked plane in a $1 billion ransom drama. Carlos the Jackal, aka Ilich Ramirez Sanchez, later admitted to planning the attack. In 2001 Germany sentenced Hans-Joachim Klein to 9 years for his role in the attack.
    (WSJ, 12/4/95, p.B-1)(SFC,12/11/97, p.C2)(SFC, 2/16/01, p.D2)
1975        Dec 21, Didier Ratsiraka, Madagascar military commander, was elected to a seven-year term as president in a national referendum. He published a "red book" of Marxist principles and nationalized much of the economy. In the 1980s with severe economic decline Ratsiraka changed course and established ties with the world Bank and the IMF.
    (SFC, 8/19/96, p.A10)(www.wildmadagascar.org/overview/loc/16-history_1975-1992.html)

1975        Dec 22, The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) made it policy for the US to establish a reserve up to one billion barrels (159 million m³) of petroleum. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve was created to provide a guaranteed domestic supply. The oil was put into salt domes on the Gulf Coast near the Texas-Louisiana border. The storage capacity was 700 million barrels.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Strategic_Petroleum_Reserve)(SFC, 11/14/01, p.A15)

1975        Dec 23, Richard S. Welch, the Central Intelligence Agency station chief in Athens, was shot and killed outside his home. The left-wing November 17 urban guerrilla group was responsible. In 2002 Pavlos Serifis was arrested in connection with the murder.
    (AP, 12/23/00)(SFC, 7/5/02, p.A9)

1975        Dec 26, The Soviet Union inaugurated the world's first supersonic transport service with a flight of its Tupolev-144 airliner from Moscow to Alma-Ata.
    (AP, 12/26/99)

1975        Dec 29, A bomb exploded in the main terminal of New York's LaGuardia Airport, killing 11 people.
    (AP, 12/29/97)

1975        Dec 30, Tiger Woods, later professional golfer, was born as Eldrick Woods in Cypress, California.

1975        Dec, The bodies of Tourists Connie Jo Bronzich (29) and Laurent Armand Carriere were found badly burned in a field outside Kathmandu, Nepal. In 2003 Charles Sobhraj (59) was ordered to stand trial for their murder. Police said he had killed as many as 20 people. In 2004 he was convicted in Nepal and sentenced to life in prison.
    (SFC, 11/21/03, p.D1)(www.abc.net.au/am/content/2004/s1175776.htm)

1975        Alexander Calder created his monumental sculpture "The Arch."
    (WSJ, 5/18/01, p.W2)
1975        Jasper Johns painted "The Dutch Wives."
    (SFEC, 11/24/96, C15)

1975        Roy Lichtenstein created his work: "Purist Painting With Pitcher, Glass, Classical Column."
    (SFC, 1/16/99, p.E1)

1975        Tony Smith, sculptor, began his work "Ten Elements." It was a cluster of black metal polygons completed in 1979.
    (SFC, 10/26/96, p.B1)

1975        In Missouri Ernest Trova (d.2009 at 82), artist, co-founded the Laumeier Sculpture Park with a gift of over 40 large-scale artworks to St. Louis County.
    (SFC, 3/12/09, p.B6)

1975        The battered suitcase containing 53 pieces of artwork by C.T. McCluskey was found at an Alameda, Ca., swapmeet. Little is known except that he worked as a circus clown, lived in Oakland in the winter months, and created wonderful paper on cardboard collages featuring circus themes.
    (SFC, 5/26/96, DB p.14)

1975        Thomas Babe (d.2000 at 59), playwright, had his first success with "Kid Champion."
    (SFC, 12/16/00, p.C4)

1975        Edward Abbey wrote "The Monkey Wrench Gang." It was inspired by the fantasy of demolishing Glen Canyon Dam.
    (SFEC, 8/24/97, p.A10)

1975        Philip Agee, former CIA agent, authored "Inside the Company."
    (SFC, 6/28/00, p.A12)

1975        Stephen Ambrose authored "Crazy Horse and Custer." In 2002 he was accused of plagiarizing from the 1955 book "Custer" by Jay Monaghan (d.1980).
    (SFC, 1/9/02, p.A2)

1975        Fred Brooks authored "The Mythical Man Month: Essays on Software Engineering."

1975        Ernest Callenbach (1929-2012) published his novel "Ecotopia." It was based on strict bioregional and green city principles set in the US Pacific Northwest.
    (PacDis, Spring/'94, p. 30)(SFC, 4/30/12, p.C3)

1975        Truman Capote published a chapter from his never-completed novel "Answered Prayers" in Esquire Magazine. It covered society secrets of his two best friends, Babe Paley and Slim Keith, who immediately broke ties with him.
    (SFEC,12/14/97, p.D9)

1975        Lew Dietz (d.1997 at 90) co-authored "A Seal Called Andre"  with Harry Goodridge. Dietz also wrote "The Allagash," in the rivers of America series and "A Touch of Wilderness."
    (SFC, 4/30/97, p.A18)

1975        E.L. Doctorow wrote "Ragtime," a novel about pre-WW I America.
    (SFEC, 12/8/96, p.C21)(SFC, 6/17/97, p.E1)

1975        Adam Fergusson authored "When Money Dies," a history of hyperinflation in Germany in the early 1920s.
    (Econ., 12/12/20, p.25)

1975        John Kenneth Galbraith authored “Money," a history of currency in America.
    (WSJ, 3/14/09, p.W8)

1975        Rev. Billy Graham wrote his book "Angels." It sold a million copies in 90 days.
    (SFEC, 10/20/96, Par, p.4)

1975        Thomas Harris authored “Black Sunday," a novel set around a terrorist conspiracy targeting the Super Bowl.
    (WSJ, 10/28/06, p.P12)

1975        V.S, Naipaul (b.1932), Trinidad-born English novelist, authored "Guerrillas."
    (SFC, 10/12/01, p.C1)

1975        Michael Oakshott (1901-1990), British philosopher, authored “On Human Conduct."
    (Econ, 6/14/14, p.18)

1975        Georgia O’Keeffe, painter, authored her autobiography.
    (WSJ, 1/02/00, p.A20)

1975        Charles. Louis Thourot Pichel authored “Samogitia".

1975        Judith Rossner (1935-2005) published "Looking for Mr. Goodbar." It was based on the true story of a NYC schoolteacher who was murdered by a man she brought home from a bar. In 1977 the novel was made into a movie.
    (SFEC, 10/5/97, BR p.4)(SFC, 8/12/05, p.B9)

1975        Edward Said, Prof. of literature at Columbia, introduced the poststructuralism ideas of Michel Foucault to American literary criticism in his book "Beginnings."
    (WSJ, 9/30/99, p.A26)

1975        Jack Sarfatti, Bob Toben and Fred Alan Wolf wrote: "Space-Time and Beyond."
    (SFEC, 8/17/97, Z1 p.3)

1975        Anthony Sampson authored "The Seven Sisters: The Great Oil Companies and the World They Made."
    (SSFC, 2/8/04, p.A31)

1975        Michael Shaara wrote the Civil War novel "The Killer Angels."
    (WSJ, 5/14/97, p.A20)

1975        Ronald Sheridan and Ann Ross wrote "Gargoyles and Grotesques: Paganism in the Medieval Church."
    (Hem, 4/96, p.121)

1975        Peter Singer authored "Animal Liberation," in which he argued that the life of a person is not necessarily more valuable than that of an animal.
    (SFC, 10/4/99, p.A10)

1975        Paul Theroux (b.1941) authored “The Great Railway Bazaar," an account of his 1973 train travels through Europe and Asia. In 2008 he authored “Ghost Train to the Eastern Star," a follow up to his 1973 itinerary.
    (SFC, 8/6/08, p.E2)

1975        Samuel Beckett, playwright, wrote "Footfalls."
    (WSJ, 8/5/96, p.A10)

1975        David Mamet wrote his play "American Buffalo." It was made into a film in 1996 with Dustin Hoffman and Dennis Franz.
    (SFC, 9/13/96, p.D17)(SFC, 1/24/03, p.D3)

1975        Edward Albee won a 2nd Pulitzer Prize for his play "Seascape," in which a pair of talking lizards are injected into a married couple’s beach picnic.
    (SFC, 9/5/96, p.B2)(SFC, 10/19/96, E1)

1975        "Turtle Island," poems by Gary Snyder, won the Pulitzer prize.
    (SFC, 9/1/96, DB p.30)

1975        Garry Trudeau won a Pulitzer Prize for his social and political satire in the Doonesbury cartoon.
    (USAT, 5/4/98, p.1D)

1975        John Cleese created the British sitcom "Fawlty Towers." Six episodes aired in this year and 6 more in 1979. PBS brought the show to America in 1980.
    (WSJ, 3/8/99, p.A16)

1975        Guitarist Lindsey Buckingham and his girlfriend Stevie Nicks joined the Fleetwood Mac band led by drummer Mick Fleetwood with bassist John McVie and keyboardist Christine McVie.
    (SFC, 10/12/97, DB p.44)

1975        Bob Dylan released his "Blood on the Tracks" album.
    (WSJ, 10/9/97, p.A16)

1975        The Band, the backup group for Bob Dylan, released "The Basement Tapes" album. The music was recorded in 1967 in a pink house in West Saugerties rented by bass player Rick Danko (d.1999 at 56).
    (WSJ, 12/15/99, p.A20)

1975        Ida Guillory was crowned “Queen of Zydeco Accordion" during a Mardi Gras celebration.
    (SFC, 8/20/05, p.E3)

1975        Freddy Fender’s “Before the next Teardrop Falls" climbed to No. 1 as did his song “Wasted Days and Wasted Nights." Fender had recorded Wasted Days in 1960 but got stuck in prison in Angola, La., for 3 years for marijuana possession.
    (SFC, 10/16/06, p.B6)

1975        Freddie Mercury (d.1991) and the rock group Queen made a hit with "Bohemian Rhapsody." The song became a hit a 2nd time when Mercury died. In 2002 a British poll voted it the greatest hit of the last 50 years.
    (SSFC, 11/10/02, p.A2)

1975        Waylon Jennings and Willie Nelson made a hit with their duet: "Good Hearted Woman."
    (SFC, 2/14/02, p.A2)

1975        Zakir Hussain, drummer, co-founded the India-Jazz band Shakti with John McLaughlin and L. Shankar.
    (SFEC, 8/15/99, DB p.34)

1975        Joonas Kokkonen (1921-1996), Finnish composer, had his opera "The Last Temptations" first performed by the Finnish National Opera. He also composed 4 symphonies and numerous chamber and choral pieces.
    (http://virtual.finland.fi/netcomm/news/showarticle.asp?intNWSAID=26983)(SFC, 10/3/96, p.C6)

1975        Willie Nelson sang "Blue Eyes Crying in the Rain."
    (WSJ, 7/10/98, p.W3)

1975        Bos Scaggs recorded his multi-million selling album "Silk Degrees."
    (SFEC, 4/6/97, DB p.36)

1975        Gary Stewart (28) had a No. 1 country hit with his song "She's Actin' Single (I'm Drinkin' Doubles)." Stewart committed suicide in Ft. Pierce, Fla., in 2003 at age 59.
    (SSFC, 12/21/03, p.A31)

1975        Singer Paul Williams popularized the song "Feelings."
    (SFC, 9/13/99, p.A10)

1975        The mystery film "Picnic at Hanging Rock" starred Rachel Roberts and Dominic Guard and was directed by Peter Weir. It was set in 1900 in Australia.
    (SFC, 7/1/98, p.E4)

1975        Merv Griffin (1925-2007) created the TV game show “Wheel of Fortune."
    (WSJ, 8/15/07, p.D12)

1975        The USS Constitution (aka Old Ironsides) was restored and reopened to the public in Boston Harbor.
    (SFEC, 7/13/97, Par p.14)

1975        Robert Hoffmann (d.1997 at 74), human potential movement pioneer, established the Quadrinity Center in San Anselmo, Ca., to promote his holistic model of the human being that included physical, intellectual, emotional and spiritual elements.
    (SFC, 8/21/97, p.C4)

1975        Jude Wanniski (1936-2005), economist and journalist, coined the term supply-side economics to describe the theory that cutting personal income tax rates would lead to increased investment and create economic growth.

1975        Claude Rex Nowell (1944-2008), founded his Church of Summum in Utah and changed his name to Summum Bonum Amen Ra following an alleged visit by extraterrestrial beings.
    (WSJ, 11/13/08, p.A14)(www.summum.us/about/corkybio.shtml)

c1975        Rev. Don Wildmon of Tupelo, Miss., founded the National Federation for Decency. It was later renamed the American Family Association.
    (WSJ, 8/14/01, p.A1)

1975        L. Ron Hubbard (1911-1986), founder of Scientology, secretly purchased a historic hotel in Clearwater, Florida, and began to establish the town as home for his Church of Scientology.
    (SFC, 9/24/07, p.A6)

1975        Gary Dahl, a California advertising man, dreamed up the pet rock fad.
    (SFC, 7/12/00, p.A16)

1975        The Elderhostel program was begun on a few college campuses as a learning experience for older adults. By 1998 some 2,300 institutions participated in the program.
    (SFEC, 3/22/98, p.T6)

1975        It was a good year for Burgundy wines made from the Pinot Noir grapes of Oregon. In 1979 David Lett’s vintage from this year ranked among the top 10 at a prestigious Paris tasting. Lett (d.2008 at 69) had introduced Pinot Noir to Oregon in 1965.
    (SFC, 8/28/96, zz-1 p.4)(SSFC, 10/12/08, p.B6)

1975        General Foods was awarded US Patent No. 3,870,803 for its Instant Stuffing Mix (Stove Top Stuffing). Ruth M. Siems (1931-2005) was listed first among the inventors.
    (SFC, 11/25/05, p.B4)

1975        Proctor & Gambol introduced the dehydrated potato flakes known as Pringles. Chip makers filed suit on the chip name and Pringles were redefined as potato crisps.
    (WSJ, 9/5/96, p.A4)

1975        W. Donald Fletcher (1908-1996) founded the Liaison Citizen Program in Los Angeles to encourage citizen involvement in government.
    (SFC, 8/29/96, p.C4)

1975        The Millard Fillmore Society was founded "for the enhancement of the recognition of Millard Fillmore , last of the Whigs." The society held Fillmore to have been the dullest and unluckiest president, whose only accomplishment was to have kept Texas from annexing New Mexico.
    (SFC, 2/21/97, p.A25)

1975        Robert H. Clampitt (1927-1996) founded Children’s Express. It was a non-profit news service that trained children 8-18 to be reporters and editors.
    (SFC, 8/10/96, p.A20)

1975        Stephen H. Schneider (d.2010 at 65), Stanford climate scientist, founded the journal Climactic Change.
    (SFC, 7/20/10, p.C3)

1975        The Women's Ordination Conference was founded to push for the ordination of women in the Roman Catholic Church. In 1997 Sheila Dierks published "Women Eucharist," a study of the underground movement for women's ordination.
    (SFEC, 4/11/99, p.A12)

1975        Ray Dalio founded Bridgewater Associates in Connecticut. By 2016 it was the world’s largest hedge fund. In early 2020 it made $58.5 billion net of fees.
    (SFC, 5/31/16, p.D2)(Econ., 8/1/20, p.59)

1975        Gov. Brendan Byrne of New Jersey appointed Constance Woodruff (1922-1996) as the first chairwoman of the Advisory Commission on the Status of Women.
    (SFC, 10/24/96, p.C7)

1975        The first Human Powered Vehicle Speed Competition was held in Mercury, Nevada.
    (SFC, 8/18/96, p.A5)

1975        Frank Robinson joined the Cleveland Indians as the 1st African American manager in major league baseball.
    (SFC, 4/11/03, p.E15)

1975        Pres. Gerald Ford appointed Daniel Patrick Moynihan as ambassador to the United Nations.
    (SFC, 11/7/98, p.A2)
1975        The US interagency Committee on Foreign Investment (CFIUS) was established by Pres. Gerald Ford to review the national security implications of foreign investments of US companies or operations.
    (http://www.wileyrein.com/publication.cfm?publication_id=13209)(Econ, 7/12/08, p.36)
1975        The US Ford administration resumed limited military aid to Pakistan.
    (SSFC, 3/27/17, p.E2)

1975        The US earned income tax credit (EITC) began as a means of encouraging the poor into the labor force.
    (Econ, 11/10/12, p.24)

1975        The US began minting a special 1976 Bicentennial quarter with a colonial drummer on the reverse side of the G. Washington face.
    (SFC, 7/12/96, p.A11)

1975        America banned crude oil exports.
    (Econ, 2/15/14, p.24)

1975        A safety and performance rating system for tires, devised by F. Cecil Brenner (d.1998 at 79) was adopted as a national standard.
    (SFC, 3/24/98, p.B2)

1975        Alaska’s Supreme Court ruled that what a person does in his home is protected under a strong privacy provision in the state’s Constitution. Justices concluded that cultivating small amounts of cannabis was harmless. Marijuana remained illegal under federal law.
    (SFC, 5/24/10, p.A1)

1975        John Embry (d.2010 at 83) founded Drummer, a gay leather lifestyle magazine, and ran it until 1986. In 1986 Tony DeBlase and partner Dr. Andrew Charles moved from Chicago to San Francisco and purchased the Drummer family of magazines from Alternate Publishing.
    (SFC, 11/16/10, p.C4)(www.leatherarchives.org/exhibits/deblase/drummer/drum.htm)
1975        The Bolinas, Ca., based Coastal Post began publishing news of Muir Beach, Stinson Beach, Bolinas, Olema and Dog Town.
    (SFC, 6/30/99, p.C2)
1975        The 62-story United California Bank Tower in downtown LA was built by C.L. Peck Contractor.
    (SFC, 12/26/98, p.A23)
1975        The Hospice of Marin was founded to care for dying patients. It was the first hospice in California. Connecticut founded the first hospice in the US in 1974.
    (SFC, 8/2/10, p.E1)
1975        Gary Dahl, a California advertising man, dreamed up the pet rock fad.
    (SFC, 7/12/00, p.A16)
1975        Robert Hoffmann (d.1997 at 74), human potential movement pioneer, established the Quadrinity Center in San Anselmo, Ca., to promote his holistic model of the human being that included physical, intellectual, emotional and spiritual elements.
    (SFC, 8/21/97, p.C4)
1975        California Assemblyman Willie Brown won the narrow approval of a bill that decriminalized various sex acts, including sodomy, by consenting adults.
    (SFC, 12/27/99, p.A10)
1975        The California Medical Injury Compensation Reform act imposed limits on attorney fees and capped jury awards in medical malpractice suits for “noneconomic" damages to $250,000.
    (SFC, 4/25/01, p.A7)(WSJ, 7/13/04, p.D4)
1975        California enacted a strict fire-safety law requiring that furniture withstand 12 seconds of flame without catching fire. Manufacturers used large amounts of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) to comply. In 2012 researchers said PBDEs appear to delay the neurological development of children of children. In 2013 state officials moved change Technical Bulletin 117 easing the requirements on flame retardants. 
    (SFC, 11/15/12, p.A16)(SFC, 2/9/13, p.A1)
1975        The Mexican Museum in San Francisco, the first in the US to feature Mexican and Chicano art, was founded by Peter Rodriguez 1926-2016) in a storefront on Folsom St. In 2001 ground was broken for a new building near Yerba Buena Gardens. In 2016 a cornerstone was unveiled for the new $63 million museum at 701 Mission St.
    (SFC, 5/26/96, DB p.27)(SFC, 10/27/01, p.F1)(SFC, 7/26/16, p.C4)
1975        SF police officer Gerald A Crowley (1933-2014) led a 3-day officer strike after the Board of Supervisors refused a 13% pay raise.
    (SFC, 10/24/14, p.D5)
1975        The short-handled hoe ("el cortito") was banished from California’s farm fields due to its debilitating effect on worker’s health.
    (SFEM, 4/13/97, p.28)
1975        Mrs. Roth, daughter of Capt. William Matson, gave her 654-acre Filoli estate in Woodside, Ca., to the National Trust for Historic Preservation along with $2.5 million. This included the Filoli orchard, established in 1919 by William Bowers Bourn II. Capt. Matson was the founder of the Matson Steamship Navigation Lines.
    (Ind, 12/26/98, p.5A)(SSFC, 9/26/10, p.E2)
1975        Cameron Hooker kidnapped a 20-year-old woman and kept her in his Red Bluff, Ca., home as a sex slave for 7 years. The case was dubbed "The Girl in the Box" when it was learned that hooker kept her in a box for 3 years under a bed he shared with his wife. Hooker was prosecuted and found guilty in 1985.
    (SSFC, 2/8/04, p.A28)
1975        The Wilder Ranch, formerly Rancho Refugio, was sold to California state and became Wilder Ranch State Park. It and the adjacent Gray Whale ranch north of Santa Cruz, totaled 8,300 acres of coastal beach and country forest.
    (Ind, 7/11/00,10A)
1975        Film director Francis Ford Coppola purchased part of the Inglenook Winery in Napa County, Ca. He purchased the rest in 1995.
    (SFC, 3/30/01, Wba p.8)
1975        The New Almaden mine south of San Jose, Ca., was closed. It had mined mercury for over 120 years. In the 1980s it was placed on the state’s list of Superfund cleanup sites.
    (SSFC, 12/22/02, p.A26)
1975        The Marine Mammal Center in Sausalito, Ca., began treating marine mammals rescued along the California coast.
    (SFC, 11/11/05, p.B3)
1975        Dutch elm disease was first found to have spread to California.
    (SFC, 7/31/98, p.A21)

1975        Brazilian soccer star Pele (b.1940) signed a $4.7 million contract with the New York Cosmos. Pele left the Cosmos in 1977 and 8 years later the team disbanded.
    (Econ, 2/16/13, p.32)
1975        New York’s Gov. Carey convinced the teachers’ union to invest a significant amount of its pension funds in state bail-out bonds. In 2010 Seymour Lachman later authored “The Man Who Saved New York: Hugh Carey and the Great Fiscal Crisis of 1975."
    (Econ, 2/26/11, p.32)

1975        In Pennsylvania a company called McAdoo Associates began operating to extract and recycle metals from chemical wastes. The company accepted hundred of thousands of gallons of paint sludge, waste oils, used solvents, PCBs, cyanide, pesticides and many other known or suspected carcinogens. In 1979, when the EPA stepped in, McAdoo Associates had stockpiled enough chemicals to nearly fill an Olympic-size swimming pool. The EPA placed it on the Superfund list and began a cleanup. The US Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry began looking into polycythemia vera (PCV) in August 2006 after 97 cases in Schuylkill, Carbon and Luzerne counties were reported to the state cancer registry between 2001 and 2005.
    (AP, 10/23/07)

1975        American Smelting & Refining changed its name to Asarco. The company mines about 12% of the world’s copper, 10% of its silver and 21% of its lead.
    (WSJ, 5/28/96, p. R-46)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ASARCO)

1975        Gary Kildall, working as a consultant to Intel, was asked to design and develop a language called PL/M for the 8080 chip. He wrote a primitive operating system for it which he called CP/M.
1975        Paul Allen and Bill Gates began working on the first computer language for personal computers. Allen became a minority owner with a 35% stake.
    (WSJ, 4/4/00, p.A16)(WSJ, 1/22/04, p.A1)
1975        Dr. Henry Edward Roberts (1941-2010), American engineer and medical doctor, developed and introduced the MITS Altair 8800. His Micro Instrumentation & Telemetry Systems of Albuquerque, N.M., sold the build-it-yourself kit by mail-order. Bill Gates and Paul Allen developed the first software program for it.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ed_Roberts_%28computers%29)(WSJ, 11/16/98, p.R10)(SFC, 4/2/10, p.C7)
1975        PARC engineers demonstrated an improved user interface using icons and the 1st use of pop-up menus.
    (SFC, 10/25/00, p.D1)

1975        Mattel introduced its "Growing up Skipper" doll. When her arms were twisted she would grow taller and her breasts would get larger.
    (SFC,1/22/97, Z1 p.7)

1975        Dan Storper founded Putumayo to sell clothing made in South America. In 1997 he sold the clothing stores to concentrate on world music sales.
    (WSJ, 12/30/04, p.D8)

1975        John Bogle (b.1929) founded the Vanguard 500 mutual fund after research showed few mutual funds performed well enough to justify their fees. It was the world’s first index mutual fund. His 1999 book Common Sense on Mutual Funds: New Imperatives for the Intelligent Investor became a bestseller and is considered a classic within the investment community.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_C._Bogle)(Economist, 10/6/12, p.86)(Econ, 11/2/13, p.20)

1975        Dutch elm disease was first found to have spread to California.
    (SFC, 7/31/98, p.A21)

1975        Lyme disease was first recognized in Lyme, Conn.
    (SFEC, 8/15/99, Z1 p.8)

1975        Rocky Mountain Fever was reported to have been transmitted by an accidental needle stick.
    (SFC, 4/13/98, p.A6)

1975        Rohypnol was first marketed as a sleeping pill. It was 10 times more powerful than Valium.
    (SFC, 6/21/96, p.A10)

1975        Physicist Martin L. Perl and associates discovered a new lepton they called the tau particle and assumed the existence of the tau neutrino. The tau neutrino was detected in 2000.
    (SFC, 7/21/00, p.B2)

1975        The U of M Institute for Social Research (ISR) began a "Monitoring the Future" program. It was an annual survey of lifestyles, attitudes and substance abuse among teens and young adults.
    (MT, Fall. ‘97, p.4)

1975        The Jonah gas field was discovered in western Wyoming.
    (Econ, 8/20/05, p.27)

1975        A new medium priced home in the US was priced at $39,300.
    (WSJ, 6/14/96, p.B10)

1975        The American crocodile was listed as an endangered species when only 20 breeding females were counted in Florida. The crocodile is distinguished from the alligator by its more tapered snout.
    (PacDisc. Spring/’96, p.37)

1975        In Texas the fossils of a huge prehistoric flying reptile with a wingspan of 50 ft. were found.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1975)

1975        In Albania Enver Hoxha embarked on a massive bunker building program.
    (WSJ, 5/10/99, p.A1)

1975        The Algerian film "Chronicle of the Years of Embers" was produced.
    (SFC, 9/6/99, p.B5)

1975        Angola proclaimed independence from Portugal. Civil war began following the 14-year fight for independence. The Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA) proclaimed unilateral independence. Jonas Savimbi led UNITA and the FLNA was backed by Zaire.
    (SFC, 6/20/96, p.A10)(SFC, 12/26/98, p.A12)(SFC, 4/19/00, p.A10)

1975        Das Brucknerhaus, a new concert hall in Linz, Austria, was dedicated to Anton Bruckner, who had played regularly on the organ of the Old Cathedral.
    (StuAus, April '95, p.76)

1975        The Bakkonditzioner air-conditioning manufacturer opened in Baku, Azerbaijan, USSR.
    (WSJ, 8/30/96, p.A4)

1975        The Bahrain national assembly was dissolved.
    (SFC, 12/25/00, p.B2)

1975        Dahomey was renamed as Benin. From 1960-1975 Benin was called the Republic of Dahomey.

1975        In Brazil the military government launched a "pro-alcohol" program as a source of fuel in response to the first oil crisis which hit in 1973. The country at the time was importing 80% of its fuel and suffered in its balance of payments.
    (WSJ, 6/27/97, p.A9A)
1975        The “Black Frost" harmed half of Brazil’s coffee trees. In response to the frost groves were moved north from Parana state.
    (WSJ, 5/26/06, p.C5)
1975        An oil tanker from Iraq dumped nearly 8 million gallons of crude oil into Guanabara Bay and washed onto Rio’s beaches, which closed for 3 weeks.
    (SFC, 7/19/00, p.A12)

1975        In England V.S. Pritchett (1900-1997), writer, was knighted for his services to literature. He was noted for his brilliant portraits of people.
    (SFC, 3/22/97, p.A21)
1975        Britain’s Sex Discrimination Act was passed. The Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom was designed to protect men, women and transgendered people from discrimination on the grounds of gender. The Act is mainly in relation to employment, training, education, the provision of goods and services and in the disposal of premises.
    (AP, 2/6/07)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sex_Discrimination_Act_1975)
1975        British economist Charles Goodhart (b.1936) advanced the idea that "Any observed statistical regularity will tend to collapse once pressure is placed upon it for control purposes." It later became used popularly to criticize the United Kingdom government of Margaret Thatcher for trying to conduct monetary policy on the basis of targets for broad and narrow money.
1975        Britain's Advanced Passenger Train set a railway speed record of 152.3 miles per hour.
    (Econ., 10/31/20, p.51)

1975        Public radio on the Canadian Broadcasting network (CBC) went free of advertising.
    (Econ, 6/8/13, p.42)

1975        Abdelkader Wadal Kamougue, a southern Chad leader, led a coup.
    (SFC, 7/12/96, p.A1)

1975        The Torres del Paine National park opened in the Patagonia region of southern Chile.
    (SSFC, 12/17/00, p.T6)

1975        In China Mou Qizhong co-authored the book "Whither China" that criticized the Cultural Revolution and earned him a four-year prison term.
    (WSJ, 8/28/96, p.A1,4)
1975        Aides of Chairman Mao ordered pieces of white porcelain dappled with pink plum and peach blossoms to gain his favor. They were made at the Ceramics Industry Research Institute in southern Jiangxi province. In 1986 there was an auction in Beijing that drew about $1 million for 87 of the pieces.
    (SFEC, 12/15/96, p.C4)
1975        China’s First Vice Premier Deng Xiaoping (1904-1997) ordered the army to crackdown on a Muslim village in Yunnan province. This resulted in some 1,600 deaths including 300 children.
    (Econ, 10/22/11, p.104)
1975        In China Yu Qiuli was appointed Vice-Minister of Metallurgy.
1975        Chen Xilian (d.1999 at age 84) was named vice-premier of China. He resigned after 5 years to make way for economic reformers favored by Deng Xiaoping.
    (SFC, 6/12/99, p.A23)
1975        Jiang Hua (d.1999 at 93) was appointed president of China’s Supreme People's Court.
    (SFC, 12/25/99, p.B4)

1975        In Corsica the separatist militant movement started. It initially kept its attacks limited to French government buildings.
    (SFC, 2/10/98, p.A10)

1975        In Cuba the first national congress of the Communist Party of Cuba elected Raul Castro as the 2nd in command.
    (SFC, 10/12/97, p.)

1975        In Egypt Lake Nasser behind the Aswan High Dam was filled.
    (NG, May 1985, p.602)

1975        The EU signed another trade deal in Lome, Togo, to keep markets open to former European colonies in Africa, the Caribbean and Pacific Islands (ACP).
    (Econ, 5/28/05, p.78)

1975        French law began to permit abortions.
    (SFC, 8/25/97, p.A8)
1975        French retailer Carrefour began operating in Brazil.
    (Econ, 10/10/09, p.68)

1975        In Germany Richard Weize of Hamburg founded Bear Family Records, dedicated to the preservation of American country music.
    (WSJ, 9/11/98, p.W3)
1975        In Germany with the fall of Saigon about 10,000 Vietnamese arrived in West Germany.
    (SFEC, 9/15/96, p.A14)

1975        Sir Shridath Ramphal of Guyana became secretary-general of the Commonwealth and continued to 1990.
    (Econ, 3/19/15, p.63)

1975        In France Ricard merged with Pernod, another French maker of the pastis aperitif.
    (Econ, 11/12/05, p.66)

1975        In Greece the November 17 terrorist group began a series of killings and bombings.
    (SFC, 1/14/98, p.C3)(www.emergency.com/nov17rpt.htm)

1975        In Honduras Lopez Arellano was ousted by the armed forces after dissident officers accused him of receiving a $2.5 million bribe they said US banana company United Brands offered to reduce a banana export tax.
    (AP, 5/17/10)

1975        Hong Kong established China’s first reserve to protect migrating shore birds at Mai Poi.
    (Econ, 12/20/08, p.67)

1975        The Takacs Quartet was founded by Gábor Takács-Nagy (first violin), Károly Schranz (second violin), Gábor Ormai (viola), and András Fejér (cello) at the Music Academy in Budapest. In 2016 Edward Dusinberre, the current group’s first violinist, authored “Beethoven for a Later Age: The Journey of a String Quartet."
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tak%C3%A1cs_Quartet)(Econ, 2/6/15, p.75)

1975        In 2005 Christopher Andrew and Vasili Mitokhin, a former KGB officer, authored “The Mitokhin Archive II: The KGB and the World," and said a high-ranking KGB officer used agents to persuade PM Indira Gandhi to declare a state of emergency in India in 1975. The officer was identified as Leonid Shebarshin, who served in New Delhi in the mid-1970s.
    (AP, 9/18/05)
1975        Indira Gandhi started fitting the law to her needs in India.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1975)
1975        India banned debt bondage with a stipulated fine of 2000 rupees ($37), but the law was rarely prosecuted.
    (Econ, 11/3/12, p.42)
1975        India launched its Integrated Childhood Development Service (ICDS), an early childhood development scheme.
    (Econ, 9/25/10, p.36)
1975        In eastern India mob killings left 11 people in a Muslim village. It was part of a campaign to gain political influence for tribal people in eastern India. In 2006 lawmaker Shibu Soren was indicted for his alleged role in the killings.
    (AP, 12/7/06)
1975        Charles Sobhraj, aka "The Serpent," was jailed in India for forgery, fraud and murder. He was released in 1997 and admitted to killing young tourists.
    (SFC, 3/11/97, p.B1)
1975        Mohan Lal Mittal, tired of India’s semi-socialism, bought a tiny steel firm in Indonesia. His son, Lakshmi (b.1950), soon led the operations there. In 2006 he created the world’s largest steel firm with the acquisition of Luxembourg-based Arcelor. In 2008 Tim Bouquet and Byron Ousey authored “cold Steel: Britain’s Richest Man and the Multi-Billion-dollar Battle for a Global Empire.
    (Econ, 10/30/04, p.66)(Econ, 4/19/08, p.101)
1975        Smallpox was eradicated in India and Bangladesh.
    (SFC, 10/19/01, p.A17)

1975        In Iran future film director Mohsen Makhmalbaf was imprisoned at 17 for protesting against the Shah. He was spared execution due to his youth.
    (SFC, 5/14/97, p.E6)

1975        Tony Ryan (1921-2007), Irish-born aviation entrepreneur, set up Guinness Peat Aviation with money from Air Lingus, bankers in London and some of his own cash. GPA rented planes to airlines around the world. Its IPO in 1992 stumbled and General Electric Co. picked up most of the company at a bargain price.
    (WSJ, 10/6/07, p.A17)

1975        Japan’s Shimano Corp. conceived the systems engineering approach to component development in bicycle part manufacturing.
    (Hem, 8/96, p.33)
1975        Japan’s Sony Corp. launched a home use ½ inch Betamax VCR.
    (WSJ, 3/7/05, p.A8)
1975        Japan’s Subaru, a division of Fuji Heavy Industries, rolled out its 1st 4-wheel-drive car in the US market.
    (WSJ, 9/16/05, p.W12)

1975        Imam Moussa al-Sadr founded Amal, the first major militia and political force for Lebanon's Shiites. They had historically been under the thumb of Christians and Sunnis.
    (AP, 3/2/11)
1975        Civil war erupted in Beirut, Lebanon.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1975)

1975        Libya’s leader Muammar Qaddafi published The Green Book. The 3-part book rejects modern conceptions of liberal democracy and encourages the institution of a form of direct democracy based on popular committees.

1975        Rufino Tamayo established a five-room museum in Oaxaca, Mexico, devoted to pre-Hispanic Mexican art.
    (Smith., 4/95, p.32)
1975        The first UN Women’s Conference was held in Mexico City.
    (SFEC, 6/11/00, p.A27)

1975        Morocco’s claims to Western Sahara were rejected by the Int’l. Court of Justice.
    (Econ, 2/25/17, p.40)

1975        In New Zealand Matiu Rata (d.1997 at 63) set up the Waitangi Tribunal to resolve Maori claims to land lost to white settlement.
    (SFC, 7/26/97, p.A24)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Waitangi_Tribunal)

1975        In Northern Ireland the practice of interning suspected extremists ended as it clearly fueled support for terrorism.
    (Econ, 10/6/07, p.70)

1975        Pakistan’s PM Zulfikar Ali Bhuto created a political cell within the Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) through an executive order. The cell monitors Pakistani politics and politicians.
    (WSJ, 12/31/08, p.A6)
1975        Pakistan’s atomic development program took off with the return of Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan (b.1935), a Belgian trained metallurgist. China was reported to have supplied highly enriched uranium and a nuclear bomb design. Khan was convicted in absentia by the Netherlands in 1983 for stealing confidential material, but the conviction was later overturned on a technicality. Khan retired in 2001.
    (SFC, 5/28/98, p.A9)(ST, 1/28/04, p.A9)

1975        Peru’s sugar output peaked at 1 million tons.
    (Econ, 2/10/07, p.38)

1975        In the Philippines Tony Tan Caktiong opened a pair of ice cream parlors in Manila. He found that his customers liked his soy and sugar seasoned burgers better than his sundaes and opened Jollibee in 1978.
    (Econ, 1/9/16, p.56)

1975        The Soviet film "The Captivating Star of Happiness" featured the music of Isaac Schwartz (1923-2009).
    (AP, 12/28/09)
1975        Victor Astafyev (d.2001 at 77) won the State Prize of Russia for his novel "The Damned and the Dead."
    (SFC, 11/30/01, p.A27)
1975        In Russia Vladimir Putin joined the Soviet KGB.
    (WSJ, 2/23/05, p.A14)
1975        A Russian SL3 rocket body began orbiting the Earth. It re-entered the atmosphere in 2001.
    (SFC, 9/7/01, p.A12)
1975        Soviet scientist Vladimir Uglev first synthesized A-234, an odorless liquid deadlier than any other chemical weapons that existed at the time. A-234 is from a class of nerve agents known as "Novichok".
    (AP, 4/23/18)

1975        Saudi Arabia began nationalizing foreign oil assets with full compensation.
    (WSJ, 10/4/01, p.A1)
1975        Jubail was designated as a site for a new industrial city by the Saudi government, and has seen rapid expansion and industrialization since.

1975        Dr. Hans W. Kosterlitz (1903-1996) led a team in Aberdeen, Scotland, that discovered the small enkaphalin proteins, opiate-like substances. This led to the discovery of the endorphins, larger opiate-like proteins in the brain.
    (SFC, 11/9/96, p.A22)

1975        Singapore introduced the world’s first congestion-charging zone (CCZ). It used paper permits until switching to electronic sensors in 2008.
    (Econ, 8/5/17, p.46)

1975        In South Africa the residential building Ponte City opened in Johannesburg’s inner-city district of Hillbrow.
    (Econ, 1/12/13, p.44)
1975        Breyten Breytenbach (b.1939), Afrikaner writer, was charged with sabotage during a clandestine visit. He was sentenced to 9 years in prison but was released in 1982 with the intervention of Francois Mitterand.
    (WSJ, 10/4/99, p.A40)

1975        Spain created the Cervantes Prize, the Spanish speaking world’s highest literary prize.
    (SFC, 11/28/08, p.E10)
1975        Rosalia Mera (1944-2013), a seamstress, and her husband, Armancio Ortega, co-founded a clothing store in La Coruna, Spain. It grew into Zara, one of the world's largest retail chains.
    (AP, 8/16/13)
1975         Spain passed a law under which non-EU homebuyers in areas deemed important to national security must be vetted by the Defence Ministry. In 2021 British would-be homebuyers in Spain faced disruption and delays of up to a year on property deals because of the Franco-era security law.
    (The Telegraph, 1/22/21)

1975        In Sri Lanka Velupillai Prabhakaran, after being part and parcel of the Tamil movement, carried out his first political murder. He assassinated Jaffna Mayor Alfred Duraiappah at point blank range while the Mayor was about to enter the Hindu temple at Ponnaalai.

1975        Sweden established one of the world’s first national biobanks.
    (Econ, 12/10/05, TQ p.28)

1975        Thailand issued a warrant for the arrest of Charles Sobhraj on charges of drugging and killing six women, all wearing bikinis, on a beach at Pattaya. Sobhraj is also accused of killing more than 20 young Western backpackers across Asia, usually by drugging their food or drink, in the 1970s and 1980s. Sobhraj, serving 20 years in India, escaped from prison in the mid-1980s, but was caught and returned to jail until 1997. In 2003 French national Sobhraj was arrested from a casino in Kathmandu on charges that he traveled to the Himalayan nation on a fake passport 32 years ago. He was subsequently sentenced to life in prison for murdering an American backpacker in 1975.
    (Reuters, 12/19/07)

1975        Maestro Jose Antonio Abreu (b.1939) founded the "National Network of Youth and Children Orchestras of Venezuela," which came to be called “El Sistema." He believed that introducing kids to classical music could heal the "spiritual poverty" that perpetuates social and economic inequality. The school became a network of schools and received UNESCO’s international music prize in 1995.
    (Econ, 8/25/07, p.37)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jos%C3%A9_Antonio_Abreu)

1975        The film "The People's War," shot in North Vietnam by Robert Kramer (d.1999 at 60) in 1969, was released in the US. Kramer's work also included the opposition war films "Ice," "In the Country," and "The Edge."
    (SFC, 11/12/99, p.D6)
1975        Upon re-unification Nguyen Huu Tho (1910-1996) was appointed vice-president of Vietnam and served to 1992.
    (SFC, 12/27/96, p.A24)
1975         By the end of the Vietnam war, Vietnamese SA-2 missile effectiveness had been reduced to a kill-ratio of less than 2 percent. Elint (Electronic Intelligence) collected information on and analyzed the strengths and weaknesses of all forms of hostile electronic transmissions. Focusing on the "Fan Song" radar system that acquired targets for and then guided the dreaded SA-2 SAM, Elint was able to identify four key weakness that pilots could use to defeat the missile.
    (HNQ, 11/23/01)
1975        After Saigon fell some 65,000 South Vietnamese were killed as the North Vietnamese overran the south. Thousands of boat people died fleeing the communist regime. An estimated 250,000 South Vietnamese died in re-education camps.
    (WSJ, 4/7/09, p.A13)

1975-1977     In Afghanistan Daoud Khan during this period presented a new constitution. Women's rights were confirmed. Daoud starts to oust suspected opponents from his government.
1975-1977    During this period Indira Gandhi clamped down on India’s free-wheeling democracy, locked up her fractious opposition, censored the press and imposed police tyranny that included forced sterilization and slum demolitions. Over 8 million Indians were sterilized in a single year. The 22-month period is covered in a novel by Rohinton Mistry titled "A Fine Balance." His 1991 novel "Such A Long Journey" was set in the same period.
    (WSJ, 4/29/96, p.A-20)(Econ, 5/24/08, p.107)

1975-1979    Pol Pot (1925-1998), whose real name is Saloth Sar, led the Khmer Rouge and ruled Cambodia. He regarded artists as superfluous saying “to keep you is no gain, to kill you is no loss." In 1987 Joan D. Criddle and Teeda Butt Mam authored "To Destroy You Is No Loss: The Odyssey of a Cambodian Family." The work was recorded on cassette in 1992 and told the extraordinary story of a Cambodian family caught up in the genocide under Pol Pot's Khmer Rouge. An estimated 1.7 million  people were killed under the Khmer Rouge. In 2000 Loung Ung authored "First They Killed My Father: A Daughter of Cambodia Remembers."
    (WSJ, 6/7/96, p.A11)(AR, 9/4/99)(SFC, 9/8/99, p.A15)(SFEC, 6/11/00, BR p.6)(Econ, 4/6/13, p.96)
1975-1979    During this period the Khmer Rouge of Cambodia executed hundreds of thousands of Cambodians and condemned more than a million to death by starvation and disease. Some 14,000 men, women and children entered Cambodia’s Tuol Sleng prison, but only a dozen survived. In 1997 two of the administrators of the prison, known as Duch and Chan, were living openly in territory controlled by the government.
    (WSJ, 4/17/95, p.A-12)(SFC, 8/5/97, p.A9)(Econ, 6/27/09, p.52)
1975-1979    During this period the Khmer Rouge of Cambodia about 90,000 of some 250,000 Cham people died as the government tried to exterminate both the tribe and Islam. Only 21 of 113 imams survived.
    (Econ, 10/2/10, p.46)

1975-1980    A third of the Hmong people were killed during this period after the US withdrew from Laos.
    (SFC, 6/9/96, DB p.2)

1975-1981    Stanford Opotowsky (d.1997 at 73) served as director of news coverage for ABC TV. He was the author of several books that included: "TV: The Big Picture," "The Longs of Louisiana," "The Kennedy Government," and "Men Behind Bars."
    (SFC, 10/3/97, p.B13)

1975-1983    David Saxon (1920-2005) served as president of the Univ. of California. He left in 1983 to serve as chairman of MIT Corp. and served there until 1990.
    (SFC, 12/9/05, p.B5)

1975-1987    Daniel Boorstin, historian, ran the US Library of Congress. "When we make our history into literature--with the genius of a Shakespeare, a Parkman, a Joyce--we find refuge from the discouragement of the vast ocean. Making our history into literature becomes a way of confessing the limits of our knowledge, of expressing our hope to find some meaning in experience and of playing on the frontiers." His work includes the trilogy: "The Discoverers" publ. in 1983, "The Creators," and "The Seekers" publ. in 1998. In the last work he traced the movement of Western religious and philosophical energy from the time of the Old Testament to Einstein.
    (WSJ, 3/29/96, p.A-9)(WSJ, 9/30/98, p.A16)
1975-1987    Dr. Richard LeBlond Jr. (d.2000 at 76) served as the president of the SF Ballet.
    (SFC, 11/30/00, p.C22)

1975-1988    Some 350,000 Angolans died in the Civil War. Cuba sent in 50,000 soldiers to back the MPLA and the USSR contributed billions of dollars. South African troops and US guns and money supported UNITA.
    (SFC, 4/5/02, p.A11)

1975-1991    An estimated 17,000 Lebanese were reported missing during the civil war. In 2000 a government commission ended a 7-month investigation and said the missing were probably all dead. The civil war allowed an illicit drug trade to flourish in the Bekaa Valley.
    (SFC, 9/29/98, p.A9)(SFC, 7/27/00, p.C16)

1975-1999    A 2005 Australian report prepared for the UN said Indonesia killed up to 180,000 East Timorese through massacres, torture and starvation during its 24-year occupation.
    (AP, 1/19/06)

1975-2000    US aid to Egypt totaled some $52 billion over this period.
    (SFC, 12/29/00, p.B4)

1975-2003    Former US Army General Andrew Lolli (1907-2006) ran Castagnola’s Restaurant at San Francisco’s Fisherman’s Wharf.
    (SSFC, 6/18/06, p.B3)

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