Timeline 1973

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1973        Jan 1, The European Economic Community (EEC), the forerunner to the EU, admitted Britain, Ireland and Denmark even though they made chocolate containing a small percentage of vegetable fat. Members as required handed away control of trade-deal negotiation. The EEC's common agricultural policy (CAP) extended to the new members.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_European_Union)(WSJ, 12/4/97, p.A22)(Econ, 7/16/16, p.47)(Econ., 11/28/20, p.15)
1973        Jan 1, New Zealand’s preferential access to British markets ended with Britain’s accession to the European Economic Community (EEC).
    (Econ, 2/11/17, p.60)

1973        Jan 2, The United States admitted the accidental bombing of a Hanoi hospital.
    (HN, 1/2/99)

1973        Jan 3, The Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS) got out of the baseball business this day by selling the New York Yankees to a 12-man syndicate headed by George Steinbrenner III for $8.8 million. Steinbrenner (1930-2010) put up barely $100,000.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1973_New_York_Yankees_season)(Econ, 7/17/10, p.38)

1973        Jan 5, San Francisco Int'l. Airport began screening passengers. This followed Pres. Nixon's mandate for screening due to increased hijackings in the 1960s and early 1970s.
    (SFC, 3/30/19, p.C1)

1973        Jan 6, “You’re So Vain" by Carly Simon peaked in the top 10 singles.

1973        Jan 8, The trial of Watergate burglars began in Washington, DC. In 2006 Andreas Killen authored “1973 Nervous Breakdown: Watergate, Warhol and the Birth of Post-Sixties America."
    (www.watergate.info/chronology/1973.shtml)(SSFC, 4/16/06, p.M3)
1973        Jan 8, Secret peace talks between the US and North Vietnam resumed near Paris.
    (AP, 1/8/98)

1973        Jan 9, All remaining differences were resolved between Kissinger and Le Duc Tho. President Thieu, once again threatened by Nixon with a total cut-off of American aid to South Vietnam, now unwillingly accepts the peace agreement, which still allows North Vietnamese troops to remain in South Vietnam. Thieu labels the terms "tantamount to surrender" for South Vietnam.

1973        Jan 10, An empty liquefied natural gas (LNG) tank in Bloomfield on Staten Island exploded and 40 workers were killed.

1973        Jan 11, Owners of American League baseball teams voted to adopt the designated-hitter rule on a trial basis.
    (AP, 1/11/98)
1973        Jan 11, The Dow Jones Industrials hit a peak of 1051.70. The market then began a 24 month decline of 46%.
    (WSJ, 11/4/96, p.C1)(SFC,10/17/97, p.B2)

1973        Jan 12, Yasir Arafat was re-elected as head of the Palestinian Liberation Organization.
    (HN, 1/12/99)

1973        Jan 13, In Bernardsville, N.J., Rabbit Wells (21) was shot a killed by a local patrolman. In 1998 William Loizeaux authored "The Shooting of Rabbit Wells: An American Tragedy."
    (www.amazon.com/Shooting-Rabbit-Wells-American-Tragedy/dp/1559703806)(SFEC, 2/8/98, BR p.5)

1973        Jan 15, Gene Shalit (b.1932) replaced Joe Garagiola on the Today Show panel.
1973        Jan 15, President Nixon announced the suspension of all U.S. offensive action in North Vietnam, citing progress in peace negotiations.
    (AP, 1/15/98)
1973        Jan 15, Four of six remaining Watergate defendants pleaded guilty.
    (HN, 1/15/99)
1973        Jan 15, Pope Paul VI had an audience with Golda Meir at Vatican.

1973        Jan 16, NBC presented the 440th and final showing of "Bonanza."

1973        Jan 17, The US Public Health Service linked smoking to fetal and infant risks.
    (HN, 1/17/99)
1973        Jan 17, A new Philippine constitution came into force.

1973        Jan 22, The US Supreme Court in a 7-2 ruling handed down its Roe vs. Wade decision, which legalized abortion, using a trimester approach. The court ruled that a woman's right to privacy encompasses her decision to terminate a pregnancy. Norma McCorvey (1947-2017), the anonymous Jane Roe, revealed her identity in 1989. She ended up having her 3rd baby two and a half years before the final decision was made.
    (AP, 1/22/98)(SFC, 1/28/98, p.E1)(SFC, 3/5/99, p.A15)(NW, 6/30/03, p.44)(SSFC, 2/19/17, p.A10)(Econ, 2/25/17, p.78)
1973        Jan 22, Former President Lyndon B. Johnson (1963-1969) died at his Texas ranch at age 64. Robert Dallek in 1998 published the biography "Flawed Giant."
    (SFC, 7/19/97, p.A6)(AP, 1/22/98)(SFC, 3/16/98, p.A2)

1973        Jan 23, President Nixon claimed that Vietnam peace had been reached in Paris and that the POWs would be home in 60 days, claiming the agreement will "end the war and bring peace with honor."
    (AP, 1/23/98)(www.historyplace.com/unitedstates/vietnam/index-1969.html)
1973        Jan 23, Helgafell, an island of Heimaey, Iceland, erupted for the 1st time in 7,000 yrs.

1973        Jan 27, The US Selective Service announced that there would be no further draft calls.
1973        Jan 27, The Paris Agreement froze the status quo on the ground in South Vietnam. The agreement by the United States and North Vietnam included a ban on infiltration of arms or personnel to reinforce North Vietnamese troops in the South, as well as a ban on the use of Laotian or Cambodian territory for that purpose. The Paris Agreement provided for continued US supply of the army of the Republic of Vietnam. Peace Accords were signed in Paris over events in Vietnam.
    (WSJ, 2/5/96, p.A-19)(WSJ, 11/30/95, p.A-23)(HN, 1/27/99)
1973        Jan 27, Lt. Col. William B. Nolde was killed, the last American soldier to die in combat in Vietnam.

1973        Jan 28, A cease-fire officially went into effect in the Vietnam War. The Vietnam War resulted in the death of 58,153 (58,167) Americans, 1.1 million North Vietnamese and Southern resistance fighters (Viet Cong), and 2 million civilians. In 2001 Gerald Nicosia authored "Home to War: A History of the Vietnam Veteran’s Movement."
    (AP, 1/28/04)(WSJ, 11/30/95, p.A-23)(SFEM, 11/10/96, p.12)(SSFC, 6/3/01, DB p.68)

1973        Jan 29, Emily Howell Warner (b.1939) became the 1st woman pilot permanently employed by a commercial airline. Her first flight as co-pilot was on the Frontier Airlines DHC-6 Twin Otter August 1, 1974.
    (SSFC, 12/14/03, p.D2)(http://members.tripod.com/~LAMKINS/Emily_Howell_Warner.txt)

1973        Jan 30, A jury found Watergate defendants Liddy & McCord guilty on all counts.

1973        Jan, Pres. Nixon adopted an austerity policy as another recession began.
    (WSJ, 7/22/98, p.A12)

1973        Feb 2, Crocodile Rock by Elton John peaked in the top 10 singles.

1973        Feb 3, "No, No Nanette" closed at 46th St. Theater in NYC after 861 performances.

1973        Feb 5, Juan Corona was sentenced in Fairfield, Ca., to 25 consecutive life terms for the 25 murders of migrant workers.
1973        Feb 5, Services were held at Arlington National Cemetery for Army Lt. Col. William B. Nolde, the last American soldier killed before the Vietnam cease-fire.
    (AP, 2/5/04)

1973        Feb 8, Pres. Nixon appointed Daniel Patrick Moynihan (1927-2003) ambassador to India.
    (SFC, 11/7/98, p.A2)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Ambassador_to_India)
1973        Feb 8, Senate leaders named seven members of a select committee to investigate the Watergate scandal, including the chairman, Sam J. Ervin Jr., D-N.C.
    (AP, 2/8/99)
1973        Feb 8, Max Yasgur (53), owner Woodstock festival farmland, died of a heart attack. In 1969 his dairy farm was the site of the Woodstock Music and Arts Festival. He had offered his land for the festival over the objection of local officials.

1973        Feb 12, Operation Homecoming began as the first release of American prisoners of war from the Vietnam conflict took place.
    (AP, 2/12/08)(www.historyplace.com/unitedstates/vietnam/index-1969.html)

1973        Feb 13, Musical "El Grande de Coca-Cola," premiered in NYC. The off-Broadway show closed April 13, 1975
1973        Feb 13, In the SF Bay Area Leslie Perlov (21) was last seen at her Palo Alto workplace. Three days later deputies found her body under an oak tree in the foothills west of Stanford. In 2018 DNA evidence led to the arrest of Hayward resident John Arthur Getreu (74). In 1963 Getreu (18), the son of an American sergeant major, was arrested in Germany for sexually assaulting and strangling the daughter (16) of a US Army chaplain.
    (SFC, 11/23/18, p.C1)

1973        Feb 14, The US and Hanoi set up a group to channel reconstruction aid directly to Hanoi. In 1972 the US had begun to "de-Americanize" the Vietnam war. It was a policy of gradual withdrawal.
    (HN, 2/14/98)

1973        Feb 15, Friendsville Academy in Tenn. ended a 138-game basketball losing streak.
1973        Feb 15, The US and Cuba reached an anti-hijacking agreement.
    (SFC, 7/9/96, p.A8)(www.historyofcuba.com/history/time/timetbl4.htm)
1973        Feb 15, The USSR launched Prognoz 3 at Baikonur, Kazakhstan, to study solar flares.

1973        Feb 16, The Heritage Foundation, a conservative public policy think tank, was founded in Washington, DC, by Paul Weyrich, Edwin Feulner, and Joseph Coors.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Heritage_Foundation)(SFC, 12/28/17, p.D5)

1973        Feb 17, President Richard Nixon named Patrick Gray director of the FBI.
    (HN, 2/17/98)

1973        Feb 18, Frank Costello (b.1891), Italian-born US gangster, died in NYC.

1973        Feb 19, Joseph Szigeti (b.1892), Hungarian-born US violinist, died.

1973        Feb 21, Israeli fighter planes shot down a Libyan Arab Airlines Flight 114 over the Sinai Desert, killing over 100 people.
    (AP, 2/21/98)

1973        Feb 22, The United States and Communist China agreed to establish liaison offices.
    (AP, 2/22/99)
1973        Feb 22, Winthrop Rockefeller (b.1912), two-year term Arkansas Governor (1967-1971), died of cancer. He was the 4th son of John D. Rockefeller.
1973        Feb 22, Elizabeth Bowen (b.1899), Irish-British novelist and short story writer, died. Her books included “A Time in Rome" (1959).
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elizabeth_Bowen)(WSJ, 6/14/08, p.W10)

1973        Feb 25, The Stephen Sondheim musical "A Little Night Music" opened at Broadway's Shubert Theater.
    (AP, 2/25/98)
1973        Feb 25, In Northern Ireland Gordon Gallagher (9) stumbled across an IRA bomb while playing in his backyard in Londonderry. In 2012 The IRA admitted responsibility and apologized for killing the boy after his parents called publicly for Sinn Fein politician Martin McGuinness, the former IRA commander in Londonderry, to tell them who planted a bomb in their children's play area and why.
    (AP, 2/24/12)

1973        Feb 26, A publisher and 10 reporters were subpoenaed to testify on Watergate.
    (HN, 2/26/98)
1973        Feb 26, Claiborne Farm announced that Triple Crown horse Secretariat had been syndicated for a then-record $6,080,000, equivalent to 32 shares at $190,000 each.

1973        Feb 27, U.S. Supreme Court ruled that a Virginia pool club could not bar residents because of color.
    (HN, 2/27/98)
1973        Feb 27, Naomi Sanders (57) was found dead inside her apartment in Vallejo, Ca. She had been sexually assaulted and strangled to death. In 2020 police announced that the use of genetic genealogy had led them to her killer, Robert Dale Sanders, who died of a drug overdoes in 1993.
    (SSFC, 3/1/20, p.B10)
1973        Feb 27, Members of the American Indian Movement occupied the hamlet of Wounded Knee in South Dakota, the site of the 1890 massacre of Sioux men, women and children. They protested illegal and discriminatory acts on the part of the Pine Ridge Sioux Tribal Council. The FBI was called in and a siege lasted for 69 days with 2 AIM leaders killed. The story is told in the 1996 book "Like A Hurricane, The Indian Movement From Alcatraz to Wounded Knee" by Paul Chaat Smith and Robert Allen Warrior.
    (SFC, 6/14/96, p.A19)(AP, 2/27/98)(SFC, 12/30/98, p.A17)(SFEC, 1/5/97, BR p.8)

1973        Feb, In Uruguay Gen. Juan Jose Zorrilla (1921-2012) refused to go along when other armed forces staged a rebellion. He ordered his sailors to seal off the port and offered refuge to Pres. Jose Maria Bordaberry. The president turned him down and agreed to the rebels' demands. Several months later, Bordaberry gave up entirely, handing over power in a self-coup to a dictatorship that ruled until 1985.
    (AP, 1/6/12)

1973        Mar 1, In the Paumanok Handicap at Aqueduct, NYC, Robyn Smith rode North Star to victory, becoming the first woman jockey to win a stakes race.

1973        Mar 2, Federal forces surrounded Wounded Knee, South Dakota, which was occupied by members of the militant American Indian Movement who were holding at least 10 hostages.
    (HN, 3/2/99)
1973        Mar 2, Arab commandos, "Black September" terrorists, led by Abu Jihad executed 3 hostages: US ambassador Cleo A. Noel (54), deputy George Curtis Moore (47) and Belgian charge d’affaires Guy Eid (38), in Khartoum, Sudan. Pres. Nixon refused their demands. The operation was later reported to have been organized by Yasser Arafat.
    (WSJ, 1/10/02, p.A12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Khartoum_diplomatic_assassinations)

1973        Mar 3, In the 15th Grammy Awards winners included: “The First Time Ever I Saw Your Face" sung by Roberta Flack.
1973        Mar 3, "Shelter" closed at John Golden Theater in NYC after 31 performances.
1973        Mar 3, Japan disclosed its first defense plan since World War II.
    (HN, 3/3/99)

1973        Mar 4, Khalid Duhham Al-Jawary (b.1947), and possibly others readied cars with bombs in anticipation of Israeli PM Golda Meir's visit to NYC. The bombs failed to detonate and were discovered after two cars on Fifth Avenue were towed. The FBI learned about a third car at JFK and notified police. In 1979 Border police stopped Al-Jawary's car as he and another man tried to cross into Germany from Austria. In the trunk of the car, police found 88 pounds of high explosives, electronic timing-delay devices and detonators hidden in a suitcase. They also unearthed cash and nine passports inside a portable radio that could be used to monitor transmissions from ships, airplanes or the police. Germany released Al-Jawary long before the FBI knew that he had been taken into custody. In 1991 he was detained in Rome and picked up by the FBI. In 1993 a jury convict Al-Jawary, just days after the first attack on the World Trade Center, based on evidence that included his fingerprints on one of the NYC bombs. In 2009 Al-Jawary was deported to Sudan after completing only about half his term, including time served prior to his sentencing and credit for good behavior.
    (AP, 1/25/09)(SFC, 2/27/09, p.A5)(WSJ, 3/5/09, p.A6)

1973        Mar 5, During spring training in Florida, Yankee pitchers Fritz Peterson and Mike Kekich announced they had swapped wives.
1973        Mar 5, Paul Kletzki (b.1900), Polish violinist, composer, conductor, died.

1973        Mar 6, President Richard Nixon imposed price controls on oil and gas.
    (WSJ, 11/4/96, p.C1)(HN, 3/6/98)
1973        Mar 6, Pearl Sydenstricker Buck (b.1892), author, died in Vermont. Her books included “The Good Earth" (1931), for which she won the 1938 Nobel Prize in Literature. In 2010 Hilary Spurling authored “Pearl Buck in China: Journey to the Good Earth."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pearl_S._Buck)(Econ, 4/10/10, p.85)

1973        Mar 7, Pres. Nixon invited Thomas Pappas, a Greek-American businessman, to the oval office to thank him for money that was used to buy the silence of the Watergate burglars.
    (SFC,11/1/97, p.A3)(http://tinyurl.com/3nxt8d)
1973        Mar 7, Sheikh Mujibur Rahman (1920-1975), a leader of the Bangladeshi independence movement and first prime minister of Bangladesh, won a landslide victory in the country's first general elections. Rahman and the Awami League won elections.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bangladeshi_general_election%2C_1973)(SFC, 6/12/96, p.E3)
1973        Mar 7, Dr. Lubos Kohoutek, Czech astronomer, used a double exposure and discovered the comet Kohoutek then 370 million miles from earth.
    (NG, Aug., 1974, p.223)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comet_Kohoutek)

1973        Mar 8, In London a bomb inside a parked car exploded in front of the Old Bailey near Trafalgar Square. It hurled nearby vehicles into the air, wrecked a pub and smashed hundreds of windows. Marian Price and her sister Dolores (d.2013) were among 9 people convicted over the bombing, which killed one person and left almost 200 others injured. Jerry Kelly was convicted of causing explosions and conspiracy to cause explosions after he planted four car bombs in London in March 1973. Dolores received early parole in 1980. She alleged that Gerry Adams was her IRA commander in Belfast in the early 1970s and was involved in ordering several Catholic civilians to be abducted, executed and buried in secret.
    (AP, 11/17/09)(http://tinyurl.com/yfzl7th)(AP, 1/24/13)

1973        Mar 11, An FBI agent was shot at Wounded Knee in South Dakota.
    (HN, 3/11/98)

1973        Mar 12, Argentina held elections. Pres. Gen’l. Lanusse (1918-1996) called elections and the Peronists led by Hector Campora (1909-1980) and Vicente Solano Lima returned to power.
    (http://openweb.tvnews.vanderbilt.edu/1973-3/1973-03-12-CBS-8.html)(SFC, 8/27/96, p.A17)(WSJ, 11/14/96, p.A20)

1973        Mar 13, George Norman skipped out of Denver on a 2-year sentence for embezzling more than $500,000 from the now defunct Rocky Mountain Bank. He evaded arrest for 23 years and made millions by legal means until his capture in Knoxville, Tenn., in 1996.
    (SFC, 11/26/96, p.A8)

1973        Mar 14, John McCain, later US Senator, was released as a POW in Vietnam.
    (SSFC, 2/12/06, Par p.12)

1973        Mar 17, Queen Elizabeth II opened the new London Bridge.
1973        Mar 17, First POWs were released from the "Hanoi Hilton" in Hanoi, North Vietnam.
    (HN, 3/17/98)
1973        Mar 17, Twenty people were killed in Cambodia when a bomb went off that was meant for the Cambodian President Lon Nol.
    (HN, 3/17/98)

1973        Mar 21, Dean told Nixon: "There is a cancer growing on the Presidency."

1973        Mar 23, US performed a nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.
1973        Mar 23, After a 5½ year run, soap "Love is a Many Splendored Thing" ended.
1973        Mar 23, Yoko Ono was granted permanent residence in US. John Lennon was given a final order to leave the US within 60 days, while Yoko was allowed to remain indefinitely.

1973        Mar 25, Edward Steichen (b.1879), pioneer US photographer, died.

1973        Mar 26, The US soap opera "The Young and the Restless" premiered.
1973        Mar 26, Ten newly elected lady members entered the London Stock Exchange on the first working day since their election took place. The decision to break a time-honored tradition and introduce equality was announced on 1 February and ended years of campaigning by women in the financial sector.
1973        Mar 26, Noel Coward (b.1899), English gay playwright, died. He was called "The Master" and his work included "The Vortex," "Hay Fever," "Private Lives," "Brief Encounter" and "Blithe Spirit." In 1970 he was given knighthood. "Noel Coward: A Biography" by Philip Hoare was published in 1996. Another biography, "A Talent to Amuse" by Sheridan Morley, published in 1974, was recommended. In 2007 Barry Day edited “The Letters of Noel Coward."
    (WSJ, 8/15/96, p.A10)(SFEC, 8/25/96, BR p.9)(WSJ, 11/10/07, p.W8)

1973        Mar 27, Ruth Lewis Farkas (1907-1996), was appointed ambassador to Luxembourg by Pres. Nixon after she and her husband, founder of Alexander’s department stores, contributed $300,000 to Nixon’s re-election campaign.
    (SFC, 10/22/96, p.A18)(www.state.gov/r/pa/ho/po/com/10910.htm)
1973        Mar 27, The 45th Academy Awards were held in Los Angeles at the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion. "The Godfather" won the Academy Award for best picture of 1972, but its star, Marlon Brando, refused to accept his Oscar for best actor. Liza Minnelli won best actress for "Cabaret."
    (AP, 3/27/98)(SFC, 3/19/02, p.D1)

1973        Mar 28, The Irish Navy caught Joe Cahill (1920-2004) as he tried to smuggle 5 tons of Russian-made explosives, guns and ammunition from Libya.
    (SFC, 7/26/04, p.B4)(http://tinyurl.com/5lfwh2)

1973        Mar 29, The last United States troops left South Vietnam, ending America's direct military involvement in the Vietnam War.
    (AP, 3/28/97)

1973         Mar 30, Ellsworth Bunker resigned as US ambassador to South Vietnam. He was succeeded by Graham A. Martin.
    (AP, 3/30/97)(HN, 3/30/98)

1973        Mar, In San Francisco the below ground level Hallidie Plaza at the Powell Street Bart Station was dedicated as a shelter from the street bustle.
    (SFC, 11/12/15, p.A11)

1973        Apr 1, Captain Robert White, the last known American POW in Vietnam, was released.

1973        Apr 2, CBS radio began on hour news 24 hours a day.

1973        Apr 3, In NYC Martin Cooper, a general manager for Motorola, called rival AT&T making the first cell phone call using a cell phone the size of a brick.
    (SFC, 4/4/08, p.C1)

1973        Apr 4, In NYC ribbon cutting ceremonies were held for World Trade Center, the highest building in the world. The World Trade Center was completed at a cost of $350 million. The twin 110-story towers housed 55,000 employees working for 350 firms. In 2000 Aric Darton authored "Divided We Stand," the story behind the building of the Trade Center; Angus Kress Gillespie authored "Twin Towers," a cultural history that also covered the engineering challenges overcome by architect Minoru Yamasaki.
    {NYC, USA, World Record}
    (www.wired.com/science/discoveries/news/2008/12/dayintech_1223)(WSJ, 1/18/00, p.A24)(SFC, 9/12/01, p.A6)

1973        Apr 5, Pioneer 11, built to be a backup if Pioneer 10 failed, was launched from Kennedy Space Center in Florida, on an Atlas-Centaur rocket, on a trajectory similar to Pioneer 10. After Pioneer 10 completed the first ever successful encounter with Jupiter, Pioneer 11 was re-targeted, even while it was flying outward, for an eventual encounter with Saturn after its visit to Jupiter in December, 1973.

1973        Apr 6, Yankee Ron Blomberg (b.1948) became the 1st designated hitter. He walked.

1973        Apr 8, Pablo Picasso (b.1881), Spanish artist, died at his home near Mougins, France, at age 91. He left some 50,000 works that included 1,885 paintings, 1,228 sculptures, 2,880 ceramics, 18,095 engravings, 6,112 lithographs, 3,181 linocuts, 7,089 drawings plus 4,669 drawings and sketches in 149 notebooks, 11 tapestries and 8 rugs. Two books of a planned 4-volume biography were published by John Richardson, who then interrupted the series in 2000 with "The Sorcerer’s Apprentice: Picasso, Provence, and Douglas Cooper." Picasso’s estate owed so much in death duties that many of his works fell into government hands. In 2007 John Richardson authored “A Life of Picasso: The Triumphant Years, 1917-1932."
    (AP, 4/8/97)(SFEC, 1/30/00, BR p.6)(SSFC, 5/20/01, p.T8)(Econ, 11/17/07, p.99)

1973        Apr 12, In Swaziland Sobhuza II repealed the constitution and dissolved parliament, making himself absolute ruler. Political parties were banned and a state of emergency was declared.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sobhuza_II)(Econ, 2/18/06, p.48)
1973        Apr 12, Viet Nam and France officially established diplomatic relations.

1973        Apr 13, Henry Darger (b.1892), "outsider artist" and janitor, died in Chicago. He had spent as many as 40 years working on a 15,000 page novel titled "The Story of the Vivian Girls, in What Is Known as the Realms of the Unreal, of the Glandeco-Angelinian War Storm, Caused by the Child Slave Rebellion. He illustrated the work with some 300 watercolors that were lifted and recomposed from popular sources. In 2002 John MacGregor authored a 720-page study of Darger. In 2003 Jessica Wu premiered her documentary film on Darger, “In the Realms of the Unreal," at Sundance.
    (SFC, 9/20/97, p.E1)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Darger)(SFC, 1/15/02, p.A14)(SFC, 12/18/04, p.E1)

1973        Apr 16, Istvan Kertesz (b.1929), Hungarian-born German conductor, drowned. Kertész was the principal conductor of the London Symphony Orchestra from 1965 to 1968,

1973        Apr 19, In New Jersey Joan D'Alessandro (7) was raped and murdered after she knocked on the door of neighbor Joseph McGowan (d.2021) while selling cookies. After McGowan admitted to the murder, little Joan's body was later found at Harriman State Park in New York state. The young girl's murder prompted Joan’s Law, which was passed in 1997 in the state. It bans parole for criminals who murder children under 14 in connection with a sexual offense. A federal version of the law was passed the next year.
    (Fox News, 6/13/21)

1973        Apr 21, The song "Tie a Yellow Ribbon Round the Old Oak Tree" by Dawn featuring Tony Orlando reached the top of the charts.
1973        Apr 21, Merian C. Cooper b.1893), film producer, died in San Diego, Ca. His films included “King Kong" (1933). In 2005 Mark Cotta Vaz authored “Living Dangerously: The Adventures of Merian C. Cooper.
    (www.imdb.com/name/nm0178260/)(WSJ, 8/12/05, p.W4)

1973        Apr 26, "Two Gentlemen of Verona," musical opened in London.
1973        Apr 26, The Chicago Board Options Exchange (CBOE) was founded.

1973        Apr 27, Acting FBI Director L. Patrick Gray resigned after it was revealed that he had handed over bureau files on the Watergate burglary to the Nixon White House.
    (AP, 4/27/08)

1973        Apr 28, In Roseville, Ca., a huge explosion of military ordnance occurred on a trainload of bombs and ammunition headed for the Port Chicago Naval Weapons Station and then to US troops in Vietnam. Nobody was killed. 18 government-owned boxcars, each with more than 330 250-pound bombs, exploded in a daylong series of blasts.
    (SFC, 10/8/97, p.A20)(SFC, 10/9/97, p.A28)

1973        Apr 30, President Nixon announced the resignations of his aides H.R. Haldeman and John Ehrlichman, along with Attorney General Richard Kleindienst and White House counsel John Dean. Nixon announced that he would nominate Elliot Richardson as US attorney general to oversee the Watergate investigation.
    (AP, 4/30/97)(HN, 4/30/98)(SFC, 1/1/00, p.A25)

1973        May 2, A New Jersey state trooper was killed in a gunbattle. Joanne Chesimard (b.1947), a Black Panther activist, was later found guilty in the killing and sentenced to prison. She escaped in 1979 and everntually made her way to Cuba, where she was granted asylum by Fidel Castro.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Assata_Shakur)(SFC, 12/22/14, p.A8)

1973        May 3, Chicago's Sears Tower, the world's tallest building (443 m), topped out. Sears soon moved its headquarters to the Sears Tower. The building was designed by Bruce Graham (d.2010 at 84) of Skidmore, Owings & Merrill. In 2009 the name of the structure was changed to Willis Tower as Willis Group Holdings, a London-based insurance broker, consolidated its area offices in the building.
    (WSJ, 11/18/04, p.B1)(SFC, 3/9/10, p.C4)(http://tinyurl.com/dhd3y6)

1973        May 4, The 1st TV network female nudity appeared in Bruce Jay Smith's Steambath (PBS) with Valerie Perrine.

1973        May 8, Militant American Indians who had held the South Dakota hamlet of Wounded Knee for 10 weeks surrendered.
    (AP, 5/8/97)

1973        May 11, Charges against Daniel Ellsberg and Anthony Russo (1936-2008) for their role in the Pentagon Papers case were dismissed by Judge William M. Byrne, who cited government misconduct.
    (AP, 5/11/97)(SFC, 8/12/08, p.B5)

1973        May 12, In Australia the northeast town of Nimbin was on the verge of closing when a group of university students held the Aquarius hippy festival in a nearby paddock. Many hippies put down roots and build an alternate culture. By 2007 Nimbin's marijuana smoking reputation had become global with busloads of young foreign tourists.
    (Reuters, 4/19/07)(www.milesago.com/Festivals/aquarius73.htm)

1973        May 13, Tennis hustler Bobby Riggs (1918-1995) beat Margaret Smith Court (b.1942) in a Mother's Day match in California.

1973        May 14, Rowan & Martin's Laugh-In last aired on NBC-TV.
1973        May 14, US Supreme court approved equal rights to females in military.
1973        May 14, The United States launched the 85-ton Skylab 1, its first manned space station with crew Kerwin, Conrad and Weitz.
    (AP, 5/14/97)(www.friends-partners.org/partners/mwade/craft/skylab.htm)

1973        May 15, Robert MacNeil and Jim Lehrer teamed up on NPACT’s coverage of the Senate Watergate hearings. In 1975 the MacNeil-Lehrer Report" premiered on PBS.

1973        May 17, The US Senate began its televised hearings into the Watergate scandal and the role of Pres. Nixon.
    (HN, 5/17/98)(AH, 10/04, p.16)(AP, 5/17/08)

1973        May 18, Russian party leader Brezhnev visited West Germany.
1973        May 18, Jeannette Rankin (b.1880) of Montana, the 1st US Congresswoman (1917-19, 41-43), died in California.

1973        May 20, "The Two Gentlemen of Verona" closed at St. James Theater in NYC after 613 performances.
1973        May 20, In the 25th Emmy Awards the winners included The Waltons, All in the Family & Mary Tyler Moore.

1973        May 22, President Nixon made a 4,000-word defense of his own actions in the Watergate scandal.
1973        May 22, Robert Metcalf (b.1946), at Xerox's Palo Alto Research Center (PARC), circulated a memo about his Ethernet ideas to PARC colleagues. He later fixed this day as the birthdate of Ethernet. Metcalf had combined packet switching from the Arpanet and single wire broadcasting to lay the foundations for computer networks. Bob Metcalf described ethernet for the 1st time in a patent memo.
    (Econ, 12/12/09, TQ p.23)(SFC, 10/25/00, p.A16)
1973        May 22, In Greece a coup was planned, but it was put off due to fears and hesitation. The Junta got wind of the conspiracy, many arrests were made and people were tortured. The destroyer HNS Velos followed the original alternative plan in case of failure and sailed to Italy.
    (SFC, 6/28/99, p.A19)(www.greeceindex.com/history-mythology/Greek-Junta.html)

1973        May 25, George Harrison released "Give Me Love" in UK.
1973        May 25, Argentine Peronist Hector Campora (1909-1980) was installed as president.

1973        May 26, Jacques Lipchitz (b.1891), Lithuanian-born, French-US cubist sculptor, died on Capri and was buried in Jerusalem.

1973        May 27, Betty Tyson (24), a prostitute and heroin addict, was arrested for the strangulation death of a businessman. Her murder conviction was overturned in 1998, due to a wrongfully suppressed police report, and she was released from prison 25 years to the day from her arrest in New York.
    (SFC, 5/28/98, p.A3)(http://assembly.state.ny.us/leg/?bn=A01251)

1973        May 28, Hans Schmidt-Isserstedt (b.1900), German composer and conductor, died.

1973        May 29, Tom Bradley (1917-1998) was elected the first black mayor of Los Angeles, defeating incumbent Sam Yorty.
    (AP, 5/29/97)
1973        May 29, Columbia Records fired president Clive Davis for misappropriating $100,000 in funds. Davis went on to start Arista records.
1973        May 29, Eric Applewhite (b.1896), entertainer, died in Miami. He portrayed the inspector in the film "Dial M for Murder.
1973        May, Pres. Nixon told Gen'l. Alexander Haig that "I'd authorize any means to achieve a goal abroad" - including "the break-in of embassies and so forth."
    (SFC, 2/26/99, p.A4)(http://tinyurl.com/56scod)
1973        May, CIA director James R. Schlesinger (b.1929), in response to the unfolding Watergate scandal, ordered employees to report activities which might be construed to be outside the legislative charter of the agency.
    (AH, 10/07, p.16)
1973        May, The state of New York, under Gov. Nelson Rockefeller, passed a set of laws requiring judges to impose sentences of 15 years to life for anyone convicted of selling two ounces or possessing 4 ounces of narcotic drugs. The legislation sent the state’s prison population soaring. New York was the first state to introduce mandatory sentencing for drug crimes. The NY laws were reformed in 2004 and again in 2009.
    (Econ, 9/3/11, p.85)(Econ, 6/20/15, p.26)

1973        Jun 1, Paul McCartney & Wings released "Live & Let Die"
1973        Jun 1, Harvey Jr. Firestone (b.1898), American chairman of Firestone Tire & Rubber Co., died in Akron, Ohio.
.    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harvey_S._Firestone,_Jr.)
1973        Jun 1, Mary A. Kornman (b.1915), leading child actress in “Our Gang" (1922-1926) died.

1973        Jun 3, A Soviet supersonic Tupelov 144, nicknamed Concordski, exploded in flight at the Paris Air Show and crashed into a nearby village, killing the six-man crew and seven people on the ground. The plane beat the French and English through the sound barrier.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tupolev_Tu-144)(SFEC, 10/10/99, p.T4)(AP, 7/27/02)

1973        Jun 5, Doris A. Davis becomes the first African-American woman to govern a city in a major metropolitan area when she is elected mayor of Compton, California.
    (HN, 6/5/00)

1973        Jun 7, Pres. Nixon nominated Clarence M. Kelley (1911-1997), chief of police in Kansas City, to succeed J. Edgar Hoover as director of the FBI. Kelley retired in 1978 when Pres. Carter selected William Webster to serve as the director.
    (SFC, 8/6/97, p.A14)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clarence_M._Kelley)

1973        Jun 9, Secretariat became horse racing's first Triple Crown winner in 25 years by winning the Belmont Stakes. He won by 34 lengths and Twice a Prince came in 2nd.
    (AP, 6/9/97)(SFC, 5/13/00, p.D3)
1973        Jun 9, John Creasey (b.1908), British mystery writer, died. He authored at least 600 mystery novels under 28 pseudonyms. His novel Gideon’s Day was turned into the film “Gideon of Scotland Yard" (1959).
    (WSJ, 1/31/09, p.W8)(www.kirjasto.sci.fi/creasey.htm)
1973        Jun 9, Erich von Manstein (b.1887), one of Hitler’s WW II field marshals, died in Bavaria. In 1958 he authored his autobiography “Lost Victories."
    (WSJ, 10/7/06, p.P12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erich_von_Manstein)

1973        Jun 13, Jonas Aistis (b.1904), Lithuanian born poet, died in Washington, DC.

1973        Jun 18, The NCAA made urine testing mandatory for participants.

1973        Jun 19, Pres. Nixon met with Russia’s leader Leonid Brezhnev at the White House.
1973        Jun 19, The US Congress passed the Case-Church Amendment which forbade any further US military involvement in Southeast Asia, effective August 15, 1973. The veto-proof vote was 278-124 in the House and 64-26 in the Senate. The Amendment paved the way for North Vietnam to wage yet another invasion of the South, this time without fear of US bombing.
1973        Jun 19, The stage production of "The Rocky Horror Picture Show" opened in London.

1973        Jun 20, Juan Peron (1895-1974) returned to Argentina.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Juan_Peron)(SFC, 12/24/96, p.A8)

1973        Jun 21, The US Supreme Court, in Miller v. California, ruled that states may ban materials found to be obscene according to local standards.
    (AP, 6/21/08)
1973        Jun 21, The US Supreme Court, in Keyes v. School District No. 1, ordered the complete desegregation of the Denver school system.
    (SFC, 5/18/99, p.A21)(http://law.jrank.org/pages/13362/Keyes-v-School-District-No-1.html)

1973        Jun 22, Skylab astronauts splashed down safely in the Pacific after a record 28 days in space.
    (HN, 6/22/98)

1973        Jun 24, In New Orleans an arson attack on the Upstairs Lounge, a gay bar, consumed 32 members of the gay-friendly Metropolitan Community Church.
    (Econ, 12/24/16, p.104)

1973        Jun 25, White House Counsel John Dean began testimony before Senate Watergate Committee and admitted that President Nixon took part in the Watergate cover-up.
    (http://www.watergate.info/chronology/1973.shtml)(HN, 6/25/98)

1973        Jun 26, Former White House counsel John W. Dean told the Senate Watergate Committee about an "enemies list" kept by the Nixon White House. Nixon’s Enemies List is the informal name of what started as a list of Pres. Journalist Daniel Schorr soon obtained the list and read it over the air with preview finding his own name listed as #17. Richard Nixon’s major political opponents compiled by Charles Colson, written by George T. Bell (assistant to Colson, special counsel to the White House), were sent in memorandum form to John Dean on September 9, 1971. 
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nixon%27s_Enemies_List)(AP, 6/26/07)(SFC, 7/24/10, p.C4)
1973        Jun 26, Ernest Truex (b.1889), American stage, film and TV actor, died.

1973        Jun 27, Nixon vetoed a Senate ban on Cambodia bombing.
    (HN, 6/27/98)
1973        Jun 27, Former White House counsel John W. Dean told the Senate Watergate Committee about an "enemies list" kept by the Nixon White House.
    (AP, 6/27/97)
1973        Jun 27, In Uruguay Juan Maria Bordaberry (b.1928) dissolved Congress and banned political parties at the behest of military leaders.

1973        Jun, In San Francisco gang leader Yip Yee Tak was shot to death in Chinatown. Chol Soo Lee (1952-2014) was arrested and convicted of first-degree murder in 1974 and sentenced to life in prison. Four years late Lee fatally stabbed another inmate, allegedly in self defense. In 1982 Lee was acquitted of the first murder conviction and in 1983 an appeals court overturned his conviction in the prison stabbing and he was freed. The 1989 film “True Believer" was loosely based on his story.
    (SFC, 12/18/14, p.D6)

1973        Jul 1, The rock opera "Jesus Christ Superstar" closed at the Mark Hellinger Theater on Broadway. It closed July 1, 1973 after 711 performances.
1973        Jul 1, The US Army began its All-Volunteer Force (AVF). Gen. Walter T. Kerwin Jr. (1917-2008) was the architect of the program.
    (www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2003/07/20030701-11.html)(SSFC, 7/20/08, p.B6)
1973        Jul 1, Maryland declared that only a marriage between a man and a woman is valid in the state.
    (SFC, 9/19/07, p.A3)(http://tinyurl.com/5ygqvd)

1973        Jul 2, CIA director James R. Schlesinger (b.1929), nominated on May 10 by Pres. Nixon, became the 12th US Sec. of Defense.
1973        Jul 2, George Macready (b.1899), American film and TV actor, died.
1973        Jul 2, Swede Savage (b.1946), American race car driver, died 33 days after suffering injuries at the Indianapolis 500.

1973        Jul 3, The Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe (CSCE) opened in Helsinki with 35 states sending representatives.

1973        Jul 4, In San Francisco the new Sutro Tower sent its first television transmission.
    (SFC, 7/3/13, p.A13)
1973        Jul 4, Alan Ayckbourne's "Absurd Person Singular," premiered in London.
1973        Jul 4, Eleanor F. Helin, American astronomer, discovered asteroid #5496.
1973        Jul 4, The Treaty of Chaguaramas was signed in Trinidad and established the Caribbean Community CARICOM - Caribbean Community & Common Market.
1973        Jul 4, Leonid Stein (b.1934), Soviet Grandmaster chess player from the Ukraine, died of a heart attack.

1973        Jul 5, Rwanda’s Defense Minister Maj. Gen. Juvénal Habyarimana, a Tutsi, overthrew Gregoire Kayibanda. He suspended the constitution, dissolved the National Assembly and imposed a strict ban on all political activity.

1973        Jul 6, Otto Klemperer (b.1885), German-born conductor and composer, died in Zurich. He had taken United States citizenship in 1937 and Israeli citizenship in 1970.
    (WSJ, 8/20/96, p.A8)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Otto_Klemperer)

1973        Jul 10, The Bahamas became independent after three centuries of British colonial rule. The 760-mile chain of hundreds of islands is off the southeast coast of Florida.
    (AP, 7/10/97)(HNQ, 12/15/98)
1973        Jul 10, Italian Red Brigades kidnapped and held hostage Jean Paul Getty III (1956-2011), nephew of Gordon Getty. Only after his ear was chopped off and sent to a Rome paper did his father J. Paul Getty II, agree to lend money for a ransom. After 5 months Getty senior negotiated a deal and got his grandson back for $2.7 million. Paul III was permanently affected by the trauma, and became a drug addict.
    (SFC, 1/8/95, p.7)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/J._Paul_Getty)(SFC, 2/9/11, p.A4)

1973        Jul 12, Lon Chaney Jr. (1906), film actor born as Creighton Tull Chaney, died in San Clemente, Ca. of a heart attack. As requested, his body was donated to USC for research with hope of helping others.

1973        Jul 13, In Chile a strike began that lasted until the September 11 coup. More than a million workers were on strike demanding that Allende go. American CIA funding was involved.
    (WSJ, 10/30/98, p.A19)(http://foia.state.gov/reports/churchreport.asp)

1973        Jul 16, In testimony before the Senate Select Committee on Presidential Campaign Activities (the Ervin Committee), former presidential assistant Alexander Butterfield disclosed to lawyer Donald Sanders (d.1999 at 69) that President Richard Nixon had tape recorded all of his conversations in the White House and Executive Office Building. Butterfield's revelations led to Nixon's assertion of executive privilege and his refusal to release the tapes to the Ervin Committee on July 17 or to special prosecutor Archibald Cox on July 23. Judge John Sirica ordered Nixon to turn over the tapes on August 29, an order subsequently upheld by U.S. Court of Appeals on October 12. When a Nixon "compromise" of release of written summaries of the tapes was turned down by Cox, Nixon ordered Attorney General Elliot L. Richardson and deputy attorney general William Ruckelshaus to fire Cox. Both refused and resigned. Solicitor General Robert Bork complied with Nixon's order on Saturday, October 20, resulting in the so-called "Saturday Night Massacre."
    (AP, 7/16/97)(HNQ, 10/15/98)(SFC, 9/28/99, p.A26)

1973        Jul 17, Zahir Shah (1914-2007),  the last King of Afghanistan, was on vacation in Europe, when his government was overthrown in a military coup headed by his relative Daoud Khan and PDPA (Afghan Communist Party). Zahir Shah fled to Italy where he lived until his return in 2002. Daoud Khan abolished the monarchy and declared himself President of the Republic of Afghanistan.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mohammed_Zahir_Shah)(SFC, 9/22/01, p.A7)(AP, 7/23/07)

1973        Jul 18, Jack Hawkins (b.1910), English actor, died in London. His films included “Ben Hur" and “Bridge Over River Kwai." His autobiography, “Anything For a Quiet Life," was published after his death.

1973        Jul 20, Bruce Lee (b.1940), [Lee Yuen Kam], American-born martial arts expert and film actor, died in Hong Kong 3 weeks before the opening of his new film "Enter the Dragon." He was born in San Francisco and raised in Hong Kong. In 2000 Davis Miller authored "The Tao of Bruce Lee, A Martial Arts Memoir."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bruce_Lee)(SFEC, 8/13/00, BR p.4)(SFC, 7/21/03, p.D8)
1973        Jul 20, Robert Smithson (b.1938), minimalist land artist, died in a plane crash in Texas while surveying a site for his Amarillo Ramp project. His work included the “Spiral Jetty" (1970) on Utah’s Great Salt Lake.
    (WSJ, 10/29/05, p.P16)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Smithson)
1973        Jul 20, The Japanese Red Army and Lebanese guerrillas hijacked a Japan Airlines plane over the Netherlands. The passengers and crew were released in Libya where the hijackers blew up the plane.
    (SFC, 11/9/00, p.C2)(www.cdi.org/friendlyversion/printversion.cfm?documentID=1771)

1973        Jul 21, "Bad, Bad Leroy Brown" reached the top spot on the "Billboard" pop-singles chart, becoming Jim Croce’s first big hit. He died in a plane crash on September 20.
1973        Jul 21, Israeli intelligence mistakenly assassinated Ahmed Bouchiki, a Moroccan living in Lillehammer, Norway, as part of its retribution for the Sep 5, 1972, terrorist attack in Munich. He was mistaken for Ali Hassan Salameh (d.1979). Mossad agent Michael Harari (1927-2014) escaped from Norway, but six Israeli agents were arrested. Five were later convicted and sentenced one to five years in prison. Norway later pardoned three of the agents.
    (WSJ, 12/21/05, p.D10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ahmed_Bouchiki)(SFC, 9/29/14, p.C3)
1973        Jul 21, The Russian Mars 4 Orbiter braking engine malfunctioned and it failed to go into orbit around Mars.
    (SFC, 11/19/96, p.B1)(http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/masterCatalog.do?sc=1973-047A)

1973        Jul 23, Pres Nixon refused to release Watergate tapes of conversations in the White House relevant to the Watergate investigation.
    (MC, 7/23/02)   

1973        Jul 24, John Ehrlichman, aide to President Richard Nixon, appeared before the Senate Watergate Committee. Testifying before the Select Committee on Presidential Campaign Activities (the Ervin Committee), Ehrlichman asserted that the burglary of anti-war activist Daniel Ellsberg's psychiatrist's office was within the constitutional powers of the president. The televised committee hearings exposed a wide range of activities, including a secret White House program of harassment and IRS audits of political enemies, burglaries, wiretaps, forging of State Department documents, a secret fund to finance spying and sabotage of Democratic Party primary campaigns and more that culminated in the House vote for impeachment and the Nixon's resignation on August 9, 1974.
    (HNQ, 10/9/98)(www.watergate.info/chronology/1973.shtml)

1973        Jul 25, Russia launched its Mars 5 Orbiter.

1973        Jul 26, Peter Shaffer's "Equus," premiered in London.

1973        Jul 27, Eddie Rickenbacker (b.1890), American WW I fighter pilot, died in Zurich. He and several associates bought Eastern Airlines in 1938 and guided it to become one of the most profitable airlines in the postwar era. Rickenbacker had granted mechanics a 40-hour week, profit-related pay and a pension.  
    (www.ohiohistorycentral.org/entry.php?rec=324)(HNPD, 10/7/98)(Econ., 12/12/20, p.65)

1973        Jul 28, Bill Graham produced a rock festival in Watkins Glen, NY, that featured the Allman Brothers, the Band, and the Grateful Dead. The concert drew some 650,000 people, the single largest paying crowd in concert history.
    (www.superseventies.com/watkinsglen.html)(SFC,12/13/97, p.A15)
1973        Jul 28, Astronauts Alan Bean, Owen Garriott & Jack Lousma) launched to continue maintenance at Skylab 3.
1973        Jul 28, In Czechoslovakia a retired major of the communist secret police heard 4 people singing an anti-communist song and called the police. They were convicted of hooliganism and sentenced to up to one year behind bars. In 2011 The Czech Supreme Court canceled the sentence. Ivan Martin Jirous, a poet and artistic leader of the Plastic People of the Universe, a nonconformist rock band banned by the communist regime, was among the four.
    (AP, 6/22/11)
1973        Jul 29, A Greek plebiscite was held by the ruling dictatorial regime under Georgios Papadopoulos and resulted in the abolition of monarchy and the establishment of a Republic.

1973        Jul, David Rockefeller (1916-2017) founded the Trilateral Commission to foster closer cooperation among North America, Western Europe, and Japan.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trilateral_Commission)(Econ, 4/8/17, p.82)
1973        Jul, W. Frank Barton (1917-2000) of Kansas co-founded Rent-A-Center with Tom Devlin (25). In its 1st decade annual sales went from $248k to $45.2 million. In 1987 the company was sold for $584 million.
    (http://amarillo.com/stories/100200/tex_centerdies.shtml)(SFC, 10/3/00, p.C2)
1973        Jul, Russia experienced a weak harvest. Commodity prices were sent soaring as spot prices for wheat rose by 24% and by more than 50% between the start of June and Aug 6.
    (Econ, 8/14/10, p.62)

1973        Aug 2, A flash fire killed 51 at the Summerland leisure center on the Isle of Man, UK.

1973        Aug 5, Russia launched its Mars 6 Orbiter.

1973        Aug 6, Fulgencio Batista y Zaldivar (b.1901), former dictator Cuba (1940-58), died in Spain.

1973        Aug 7, Hermine Braunsteiner Ryan (1919-1999) became the first Nazi war criminal extradited from the United States to Germany. A US judge had certified her extradition to the Secretary of State on May 1, 1973. She became the first Nazi war criminal to be extradited from the US. The NY Times had exposed the local housewife in 1964 as a former guard at the Nazi Majdanek death camp in Poland.
    (SSFC, 4/4/10, Par. p.4)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hermine_Braunsteiner)
1973        Aug 7, A US plane accidentally bombed a Cambodian village, killing 400 civilians.
    (HN, 8/7/98)(www.massviolence.org/+-Cambodia-+?id_rubrique=6&artpage=11-18)
1973        Aug 7, Pat Halley (1950-2007), a Detroit reporter for the Fifth Estate, tossed a pie in the face of the teenage "Lord of the Universe" at a formal session of Common Council in protest of the Guru's claim of divinity. A week later Halley was savagely beaten and almost killed by two devotees of the Guru Maharaj Ji (15). Halley was released from Detroit General Hospital on Aug. 21 in good condition after undergoing surgery to repair a caved-in portion of his skull.

1973        Aug 8, Vice President Spiro T. Agnew branded as "damned lies" reports he had taken kickbacks from government contracts in Maryland and vowed not to resign. He eventually did resign.
    (AP, 8/8/97)
1973        Aug 8, In Texas Elmer Wayne Henley (17) called police in the Houston suburb of Pasadena to report a shooting. The high school dropout said he had killed Dean Corll after the 33-year-old electric company employee threatened to rape and kill Henley and two other teenagers who had gone to party at Corll's modest bungalow. By night's end 8 corpses were recovered from makeshift graves inside the corrugated metal shed in southwest Houston. The next day 9 more were discovered. Another 10 bodies were found on remote High Island beach, 80 miles east of Houston, and in a wooded area near Lake Sam Rayburn in East Texas. 27 dead Some as young as 13, none older than 21, were all victims of one killer, Dean Corll, and his two teenage accomplices, Elmer Wayne Henley and David Owen Brooks. The boys had seemed to vanish over the previous three years. In July, 1974, Henley was convicted in six of the murders and sentenced to six life terms in prison.
    (AP, 6/8/08)
1973        Aug 8, Secret agents of the Korean Central Intelligence Agency kidnapped Kim Dae-jung from a Tokyo hotel, just days before he was to launch a coalition of Japan-based South Korean organizations to work for their country's democratization. Conservative politician Kim Jong Pil (b.1926), the father of the secret police agency, led the kidnapping and near assassination of politician Kim Dae Jung (b.1925). In 2007 a fact-finding panel of the National Intelligence Service said it cannot rule out the possibility that former President Park Chung-hee may have directly ordered the kidnapping of Kim, then his main political rival.
    (AP, 10/24/07)(SFC,12/15/97, p.B1)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-pil)

1973        Aug 9, The Russian Mars 7 Orbiter and lander failed to go into orbit around Mars. The lander missed the planet and both went into solar orbit.
    (SFC, 11/19/96, p.B1)

1973        Aug 13, Pres. Nixon instituted general wage and price controls. Phase IV controls went into effect for the general economy and lasted until Economic Stabilization Program (ESP) expired on April 30, 1974.
    (WSJ, 11/4/96, p.C1)(www.archives.gov/research/guide-fed-records/groups/432.html)

1973        Aug 14, The U.S. "secret" bombing of Cambodia came to a halt, marking the official end to 12 years of American combat in Indochina.
    (AP, 8/14/97)(HN, 8/14/98)

1973        Aug 17, Conrad Aiken (b.1889), American Pulitzer winning poet and novelist, died.

1973        Aug 18, Gene Krupa (1909-1973), drummer, played for the final time with Benny Goodman Quartet.

1973        Aug 19, In Santa Cruz, Ca., Herbert Mullin (b.1947) was declared guilty of first-degree murder in the cases of Jim Gianera and Kathy Francis, because they were premeditated, while for the other eight murders he was found guilty of second-degree murder because they were more impulsive. His story was later told by Donald T. Lunde and Jefferson Morgan in “The Die Song: A Journey in the Mind of a Mass Murderer."

1973        Aug 21, Teamster's Union and AFL-CIO's United Farm Workers' union came to a settlement with regard to organizing grape growers in California. In response Cesar Chavez called an end to the UFW grape strike. A nationwide boycott of California’s non-union grapes, lettuce and Gallo wines was stepped up.
    (SFEM, 4/13/97, p.8)(http://openweb.tvnews.vanderbilt.edu/1973-8/1973-08-21-ABC-16.html)

1973        Aug 22, Henry Kissinger (b.1923), German-born American bureaucrat, succeeded William Rogers as Secretary of State under Pres. Nixon. He continued in office until 1977.
1973        Aug 22, Chile’s Chamber of Deputies issued its “Declaration of the Breakdown of Chile’s Democracy." It accused Pres. Allende of violating laws.

1973        Aug 23, The Intelsat 4 F-7 communications satellite was launched at Cape Canaveral.
1973        Aug 23, Gen'l. Augusto Pinochet was named commander-in-chief of the Chilean army by Pres. Salvadore Allende.
    (SFC, 3/25/99, p.A3)
1973        Aug 23, A bank robbery-turned-hostage standoff began in Stockholm, Sweden; by the time the crisis ended, the four hostages had come to empathize with their captors, an occurrence that came to be known as "Stockholm Syndrome."
    (AP, 8/23/07)

1973        Aug 25, France performed a nuclear test at Muruora Island.
1973        Aug 25, Zambia adopted a constitution.

1973        Aug 26, The Univ. of Texas at Arlington became the 1st accredited school to offer belly dancing.

1973        Aug 28, Abbie Hoffman (1936-1989), "cultural revolutionary," was busted for smuggling and dealing cocaine. He went underground for 7 years and became the environmental activist Barry Freed.
    (SFC, 12/29/96, BR p.5)(www.bookrags.com/biography/abbie-hoffman/)
1973        Aug 28, Princess Anne became the first member of the British royal family to visit the Soviet Union when she arrived in Kiev for an equestrian event.
1973        Aug 28, More than 600 people died as an earthquake shook central Mexico.
    (AP, 8/28/08)

1973        Aug 29, Judge John Sirica ordered President Nixon to turn over secret Watergate tapes. Nixon refused and appealed the order.
1973        Aug 29, Michael Dunn (b.1934), American dwarf actor, died in London.

1973        Aug 31, John Ford (b.1894), US film director, died. He directed some 140 films including “Mary of Scotland" (1936) and “Stagecoach" (1939).

1973        Sep 1, In Copenhagen, Denmark, the 74-year-old Hafnia Hotel burned, killing 35.

1973        Sep 2, John R. R. Tolkien, British story writer, died of ulcer at 81. His work included "The Hobbit" and the "Lord of the Rings" trilogy. In 2007 his son Christopher Tolkien edited “The Children of Hurin," compiled from notes and material left by his father.
    (WSJ, 7/15/96, p.B1)(Econ, 4/21/07, p.94)

1973        Sep 4, William E Colby (1920-1996), became the 10th director of the CIA.

1973        Sep 8, The first Whitbread Round the World Race for yachts began at Portsmouth, England.
    (WSJ, 9/19/97, p.A20)(www.solarnavigator.net/history/whitbread_round_the_world_race.htm)

1973        Sep 10, A second version of the TV game show “Concentration" was syndicated, with Jack Narz as host. It ran through September 8, 1978.
1973        Sep 10, Muhammad Ali defeated Ken Norton in a heavyweight boxing match and avenged a loss to Norton the previous March.

1973        Sep 11, Pres. Salvadore Allende of Chile was toppled in a bloody military coup in Santiago led by 4 commanders: Gen’l Augusto Pinochet, Admiral Jose Toribio Merino (d.8/31/96), air force Gen’l. Gustavo Leigh Guzman (d.1999 at 79) and police director Gen’l. Cesar Mendoza. Allende allegedly blew his head off with an AK 47 given to him by Fidel Castro. The government was taken over by Gen. Augusto Pinochet and his economic managers dubbed the "Chicago boys," for their training at the Univ. of Chicago and belief in free markets. The first 3 months of fighting claimed 1261 victims. The air force bombarded the presidential palace to put down resistance by Allende and a small group of followers. In 2011 two forensics experts, citing a long-lost, 300-page military summary of Allende's death, said they were inclined to conclude that Allende was assassinated. On July 19, 2011, court officials announced that a scientific autopsy has confirmed that Allende committed suicide. 
    (SFC, 8/31/96, p.A23)(WSJ, 10/30/98, p.A19)(SFC, 9/30/99, p.A31)(AP, 7/20/11)

1973        Sep 13, Israel shot down 12 Syrian aircraft to1 Israeli loss when IAF jets were attacked during a reconnaissance mission over Syrian territory.

1973        Sep 14, Pres Nixon signed into law a measure lifting pro football's blackout.

1973        Sep 16, Victor Jara (b.1932), one of the best-known members of Latin America's "New Song" folk movement, died. He had been arrested after the Chilean military coup that overthrew Allende and taken to a soccer stadium used as a detention camp. Court papers indicate Jara was tortured, his hands smashed with rifle butts, and then was shot to death along with former prison service director Littre Quiroga. In 2008 a court charged retired Col. Mario Manriquez in the case, saying he was "responsible" for the death. In 2009 Jara’s body was exhumed for a proper autopsy. Army draftee, Jose Paredes, later described the murder and named the officers he said were responsible. Paredes told interrogators that a lieutenant known as "El Loco," the Crazy One, held Jara against a dressing room wall and played Russian roulette until a bullet blasted through the singer's skull. In 2012 eight retired army officers were charged in Jara’s slaying. On Sep 5, 2013, a civil suit accused Lt. Pedro Barrientos Nunez of ordering torture and firing the fatal shot that killed Jara. In 2014 three more people were charged in the murder of Jara.
    (AP, 5/15/08)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victor_Jara)(AP, 11/26/09)(SFC, 12/29/12, p.A2)(SFC, 9/6/13, p.A5)(SFC, 9/4/14, p.A2)

1973        Sep 17, Charles Horman (31), a US free-lance journalist, was arrested by Chilean security forces. He was executed the next day. His body was found months later. In 1999 US intelligence complicity was reported based on newly declassified material. Horman and student Frank Teruggi (24) worked for a newsletter that reprinted articles and clippings from American newspapers critical of US policy. Teruggi was executed on Sep 22. The 1982 film "Missing" was based on their story. In 2003 retired security officer Rafael Gonzalez (64) became the 1st person formally charged for the murder. On Nov 29, 2011, a Chilean court charged former US Navy Capt. Ray E. Davis (d.2013) in the deaths of Horman Teruggi. The court statement said retired Chilean army Brigadier Pedro Espinoza Bravo was also charged in the murders. In 2014 a court ruling said Davis gave information to Chilean officials about Horman and Teruggi that led to their arrest and execution.
    (SFC, 10/9/99, p.A14)(SFEC, 2/13/00, p.A19)(AP, 12/11/03)(AP, 11/29/11)(AP, 7/1/14)

1973        Sep 18, Sondheim’s "A Little Night Music" moved to the Majestic Theater on Broadway.
1973        Sep 18, Australia abolished the death penalty.
    (SFC, 1/9/02, p.A8)(http://tinyurl.com/6bbah5)

1973        Sep 19, Gram Parsons (26), rock band leader, died from a drug overdose at the Joshua Tree Inn, Ca. His bands included the Byrds and the Flying Burrito Brothers with the young singer Emmylou Harris. Phil Kaufman hijacked Parson’s body and burned it in Joshua Tree. In 1991 Ben Fong-Torres published "Hickory Wind," a biography of Parsons. In 1999 the album "Return of the Grievous Angel - A Tribute to Fram Parson" was released. In 2006 the film documentary “Fallen Angel" was produced.
    (WSJ, 7/18/97, p.A13)(SFC, 9/9/98, p.E1)(WSJ, 9/20/99, p.A26)(SFC, 6/9/06, p.E5)

1973        Sep 20, In their so-called "battle of the sexes," tennis star Billie Jean King defeated Bobby Riggs in straight sets, 6-4, 6-3, 6-3, at the Houston Astrodome. In 2005 Selena Roberts authored “A Necessary Spectacle," an account of the match. In 2017 the film “Battle of the Sexes" re-created the spectacle.
    (AP, 9/20/97)(SSFC, 8/14/05, p.F2)(SFC, 9/22/17 p.E1)
1973        Sep 20, Jim Croce (b.1943), American singer-songwriter, died in an airplane crash near Natchitoches, La., just as he was beginning to capitalize on his success. Maury Muehleisen and four others also died as their plane crashed into a tree while taking off for a concert in Sherman, Texas.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jim_Croce)(AP, 9/20/98)

1973        Sep 21, The painting "Blue Poles" by Jackson Pollock (1912-1956) sold for $2,000,000 to the Australian National Gallery.
1973        Sep 21, The US Senate confirmed Henry Kissinger to be Secretary of State under Pres. Nixon.
    (AP, 9/21/98)
1973        Sep 21, A secret CIA report indicated that severe repression was planned in Chile and that 300 students were killed in the technical university when they refused to surrender to the military. The report was made public in 1999.
    (SFC, 7/1/99, p.C3)

1973        Sep 22, Henry Kissinger (b.1923), German-born American bureaucrat, was sworn in as America's 1st Jewish Secretary of State, the 1st time a naturalized citizen held this office. In 2009 Alistair Horne authored “Kissinger: 1973, The Crucial Year."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Kissinger)(Econ, 7/11/09, p.85)
1973        Sep 22, Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport was dedicated. It was constructed to accommodate the new jumbo jets.
    (Hem., 5/97, p.70)(AP, 9/22/98)
1973        Sep 22, In Chile Michael Woodward (42), a suspended priest, died. He had been taken into custody by security forces in the port city of Valparaiso on Sep. 16, 1973. Woodward was allegedly tortured with other detainees on at least two navy ships used as detention centers. In 2008 retired admirals Sergio Barros, Guillermo Aldoney and Adolfo Walbaum and retired navy captains Sergio Barra and Ricardo Riesgo were indicted for the kidnapping and torture of Woodward and other members of leftist groups.
    (AP, 4/18/08)

1973        Sep 23, Juan Peron was re-elected president of Argentina after being overthrown in 1955. His second wife, Isabel, became vice president, the first woman vice president in Latin American history. She succeeded him when he died 10 months later.
    (AP, 9/23/97)(HN, 9/23/98)
1973        Sep 23, Pablo Neruda (b.1904), Chilean Nobel laureate poet, died of alleged leukemia. One of his last works, "The Book of Questions," was published in an English translation in 1991. In 2003 Ilan Stavans edited "The Poetry of Pablo Neruda." In 2004 Matilda Urrutia’s “My Life With Pablo Neruda" was translated into English. Neruda’s driver later said the poet was poisoned by government agents.
    (SFEC, 6/25/00, BR p.2)(SSFC, 8/31/03, p.M3)(SSFC, 10/31/04, p.M4)(SFC, 6/1/11, p.A2)

1973        Sep 24, The PAIGC (African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde) declared the independence of Guinea-Bissau from Portugal. This became national day for Guinea-Bissau.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Guinea-Bissau)(SSFC, 9/22/13, p.M3)

1973        Sep 25, The three-man crew of the U.S. space laboratory Skylab Two splashed down safely in the Pacific Ocean after spending 59 days in orbit.
    (AP, 9/25/98)

1973        Sep 26, The US federal Rehabilitation Act with Section 504 was passed concerning nondiscrimination and affirmative action. It took effect in May 1977.
1973        Sep 26, Concorde flew from Washington DC to Paris in 3hr. 33m.
1973        Sep 26, Anna Magnani (b.1908), Academy Award winning Italian actress, died in Rome.

1973        Sep 29, Wystan Hugh Auden (b.Feb 21, 1907), English born American poet, critic and playwright (Spain, Platonic Blow), died in Austria after suffering from Touraine-Solente-Gole in which the skin of the forehead, face, scalp, hands, and feet becomes thick and furrowed. He wrote the libretto for Benjamin Britten’s first music drama, "Paul Bunyan." In 1999 Edward Mendelson published "Later Auden," which covered the years 1939-1973.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/W._H._Auden)(WSJ, 1/8/98, p.A7)(SFEC, 4/18/99, BR p.3)

1973        Sep, The American  Legislative Exchange Council (ALEC) was formed in Chicago as a forum to push states to adopt conservative laws.
    (www.alec.org/about-alec/history/)(Econ, 8/17/13, p.32)
1973        Sep, In San Francisco several hundred singles took part in the “first national singles convention" held at the jack Tar Hotel.
    (SFC, 10/31/09, p.C4)
1973        Sep, In North Korea Kim Jong Il assumed the Workers Party's No. 2 post, the secretary for the party's organization, guidance and propaganda affairs.
    (AP, 12/28/11)
1973        Sep, Gen. Jaafar Nimeiri, Sudan’s military ruler, introduced Islamic Sharia law.

1973        Oct 1, An East German border order to border guards from the Ministry for State Security, or Stasi, said: “Do not hesitate with the use of a firearm, including when the border breakouts involve women and children, which the traitors have already frequently taken advantage of." The order was made public in 2007.
    (AP, 8/11/07)

1973        Oct 2, Paavo "Flying Finn" Nurmi (b.1897), Finnish runner, died. He won a total of 9 Olympic gold medals and 3 silver medals between 1920 and 1928.

1973        Oct 3, The Providence Journal in Rhode Island ran a story by journalist Jack White (1942-2005) that revealed Pres. Nixon and his wife paid just $793 in income taxes in 1970 and $878 in 1971 and received tax refunds totaling over $131,000. Nixon claimed a $570,000 tax deduction for donating his vice-presidential papers to the government. Nixon later agreed to pay $476,000 in back taxes.
    (WSJ, 12/15/95, p.A-8)(SFC, 10/13/05, p.B7)
1973        Oct 3, Sierra Leone’s President Stevens engineered the creation of the Mano River Union, an economic federation of Sierra Leone and Liberia. Guinea joined in 1980.

1973        Oct 6, The fourth Arab-Israeli war in 25 years was fought. Israel was taken by surprise when Egypt, Syria, Iraq and Jordan attacked on the Jewish holy day of Yom Kippur, beginning the Yom Kippur War. Syria tried to regain the Golan Heights with a massive attack with 1,500 tanks. The assault, empowered by Russian equipment, was repulsed by air power.
    (WSJ, 5/6/96, p.A-13)(TMC, 1994, p.1973)(AP, 10/6/97)(HN, 10/6/98)(Econ, 3/16/13, p.54)
1973        Oct 6, In Chile Andres Pereira was arrested, assassinated and thrown into the sea. He was considered disappeared until his death was confirmed in a 2001 government report.
    (SFC, 1/9/01, p.A15)

1973        Oct 9, Sister Rosetta Tharpe (b.1915), pioneering gospel singer and recording artist, died. She became the first great recording star of Gospel music in the late 1930s and also became known as the "original soul sister" of recorded music. In 2007 Gayle F. Wald authored “Shout, Sister, Shout: The Untold story of Rock-and-Roll Trailblazer Sister Rosetta Tharpe."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sister_Rosetta_Tharpe)(AH, 10/07, p.68)

1973        Oct 10, US Vice President Spiro T. Agnew (1918-1996), accused of accepting bribes, pleaded no contest (nolo contendere) to one count of federal income tax evasion, and resigned his office. Agnew was the first US Vice President to resign in disgrace and was later convicted and sentenced to three years probation and fined $10,000. President Richard Nixon named Gerald Ford as the new VP.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1973)(SFC, 9/18/96, p.A7)(AP, 10/10/97)(HN, 10/10/98)

1973        Oct 12, The ballet “Remembrances" by Robert Joffrey (1930-1988) premiered in NYC.
1973        Oct 12, President Nixon nominated House minority leader Gerald R. Ford of Michigan to succeed Spiro T. Agnew as vice president.
    (AP, 10/12/97)
1973        Oct 12, Juan Peron was inaugurated as president of Argentina.

1973        Oct 14, US Air Force "Operation Nickel Grass" began resupply missions to Israel for a full month, until November 14.
1973        Oct 14, In Thailand thousands demonstrated against the military dictatorship and some 77 people were killed.
1973        Oct 14, In Turkey the CHP replaced the AP as the most popular party, although it did not achieve a parliamentary majority. The CHP and MSP formed a coalition government under Bulent Ecevit. The National Salvation won 11.8% of votes in general elections, winning 48 seats in the 450-member Parliament.
    (http://tinyurl.com/4hkxfc)(AP, 11/4/02)

1973        Oct 15, Russell E. Train, the US Environmental Protection Agency Administrator, announced final transportation control measures to lower air pollution levels in several of the nation's largest cities. The action marked a final step in developing the transportation controls required under the Clean Air Act of 1972, although several urban plans were yet to be finalized.
1973        Oct 15 Israeli tanks under General Ariel Sharon crossed the Suez Canal and began to encircle two Egyptian armies.

1973        Oct 16, Henry Kissinger, US Secretary of State (1973-77), and Le Duc Tho were named winners of the Nobel Peace Prize; however, the Vietnamese official declined the award.
    (AP, 10/16/98)(http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/peace/laureates/1973/press.html)
1973        Oct 16, Maynard Jackson (1938-2003) was the elected 1st black mayor of Atlanta.
1973        Oct 16, Gene Krupa (b.1909), US jazz and big band drummer, died.
1973        Oct 16,     In Norway the Christian Democrat government of Lars Korvald (1916-2006) resigned as the socialists won a majority in parliamentary elections.
    (AP, 7/4/06)
1973        Oct 16, OPEC, the Arab oil-producing nations, announced they would begin cutting back on oil exports to Western nations and Japan. The next day, the five Arab members of the OPEC committee were joined in Kuwait by the oil ministers of Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Libya, and Syria. The result was a total embargo that lasted until March 1974 and caused oil prices to quadruple. During the OPEC oil embargo oil prices were increased fourfold. Japan experienced its first oil crises with the Middle East war. The US experienced a gasoline shortage.
    (WSJ, 4/24/95, p.R-5) (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)(www.harvardir.org/articles/1659/)(AP, 10/17/97)(WSJ, 7/28/03, p.A8)(Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 216)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)

1973        Oct 17, In Chile Winston Cabello Bravo (28) and 12 other political prisoners were shot to death in Copiago. Bravo's body was carved with a corvo knife. He had been Allende's chief of economic planning in 2 northern regions where copper mines were to be nationalized.
    (SFC, 2/3/99, p.A9)

1973        Oct 18, "Raisin" opened at 46th St. Theater NYC for 847 performances.
1973        Oct 18, Congress authorized a bicentennial quarter, half-dollar and dollar coin.
1973        Oct 18, Walt Kelly (b.1913), US comic strip artist, died. He was notable for his comic strip Pogo featuring characters that inhabited a portion of the Okefenokee Swamp in Georgia.
1973        Oct 18, Leo Strauss (b.1899), German-born political theorist, died. Strauss, who arrived in the US in 1937, contended that Western civilization draws strength from the unresolved contest between reason and revelation. His books included “Liberalism: Ancient and Modern," a collection of essays, “Natural Right and History," “Persecution and the Art of Writing," and “Thoughts on Machiavelli."
    (WSJ, 9/15/07, p.W10)(www.dkosopedia.com/wiki/Leo_Strauss)

1973        Oct 19, President Richard Nixon rejected an Appeals Court demand to turn over the Watergate tapes.
    (HN, 10/19/98)
1973        Oct 19, Peter Townshend and The Who, an English rock group, released the rock opera album "Quadrophenia."
    (WSJ, 7/12/96, p.A9)

1973        Oct 20, In the so-called Saturday Night Massacre, Pres. Nixon ordered the dismissal of special Watergate prosecutor Archibald Cox. Attorney General Elliot L. Richardson and Deputy Attorney General William B. Ruckelshaus refused to fire Cox and resigned. Cox was later dismissed by Solicitor General Robert Bork.
    (AP, 10/20/97)(SFEC, 3/7/99, Z1 p.6)(SFC, 1/1/00, p.A25)
1973        Oct 20, The San Francisco Zebra murders began and lasted for 179 days. 15 people were killed and 8 wounded by a gang of racial extremists.  Police cracked the case in 1974 after Mayor Alioto personally grilled an informant. Police used a special radio band, Z for zebra, during their hunt for the killers. In 1976 Jesse Lee Cooks, Larry Green, Manuel Moore and J.C. X. Simon (d.2015) were convicted and sentenced to life.
    (SFC, 6/21/96, p.E2)(SFEC, 2/1/98, p.C6)(SSFC, 10/12/02, p.AD3)(SFC, 3/14/15, p.C4)
1973        Oct 20, Arab oil-producing nations banned oil exports to the United States, following the outbreak of Arab-Israeli war.
    (HN, 10/20/98)
1973        Oct 20, Queen Elizabeth II opened the Sydney Opera House built on Bennelong Point. It was designed by Danish architect Joern Utzon and cost 102 million Australian dollars, 14 times the original estimate. Utzon left the project in 1966. In 2000 Utzon was named consulting architect and in 2003 was called back to redo the interiors.
    (SFEC, 1/4/98, p.T4)(SFEC, 9/10/00, p.T12)(WSJ, 10/2/03, p.D10)(Econ, 7/15/06, p.83)

1973        Oct 22, Israeli troops reconquered Mount Hermon from Syria. The UN Security Council Resolution 338 called for a cease fire to the Yom Kippur War. The UN Security Council issued Resolution 338 calling for a ceasefire and the start of negotiations aimed at implementation of Resolution 242.
1973        Oct 22, Pablo Casals (96), Spanish cellist, conductor and composer died in Rio Piedras, Puerto Rico.
    (AP, 10/22/98)

1973        Oct 23, President Nixon agreed to turn White House tape recordings requested by the Watergate special prosecutor over to Judge John J. Sirica.
    (AP, 10/23/97)
1973        Oct 23, In the Yom Kippur War Syria announced it had accepted a UN sanctioned cease-fire, and the Iraqi government ordered its forces home.

1973        Oct 24, On the NJ Turnpike heavy fog caused collisions killing 11 people.
1973        Oct 24, John Lennon sued the US government to admit FBI was tapping his phone.
1973        Oct 24, The UNSC passed Resolution 339, serving as a renewed call for all parties to adhere to the cease fire terms established in Resolution 338. Organized fighting on all fronts ended by October 26.

1973        Oct 25, Pres. Nixon put U.S. troops on high alert for just under a week to show the Soviet Union that America would not allow it to send forces to aid Arab states fighting Israel.
    (AP, 1/1/04)

1973        Oct 26, President Nixon released the 1st White House tapes on Watergate scandal.
1973        Oct 26, Organized fighting on all fronts of the Yom Kippur ended. Of Israel’s roughly 2,120 tanks, about 840 were destroyed over the 20 days of the war.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yom_Kippur_War)(Econ, 6/4/11, TQ p.19)

1973         Oct, Tony and Maureen Wheeler produced the first Lonely Planet travel book, "Across Asia on the Cheep," from a kitchen table in Australia. By 2002 it had 600 titles in print.
    (SFEC, 8/29/99, p.T2)(SSFC, 1/18/04, p.C3)
1973        Oct, The US National Park Service welcomed the first visitors to Alcatraz Island.
1973        Oct, Charles Hickson (42) of Mississippi, while fishing with 19-year-old Calvin Parker Jr. on a pier near Pascagoula, was reportedly abducted and probed by aliens. Hickson died in 2011 and never backed off the story despite the ridicule he endured. In 1983 Hickson wrote a book about the incident called "UFO Contact at Pascagoula" with William Mendez.
    (Reuters, 9/13/11)
1973        Oct, A group of military officers toured several cities by helicopter in northern Chile in a "caravan of death" and had 72 dissidents dragged from jail and executed. Five high ranking officers, including Gen'l. Sergio Arellano, were indicted for these executions in 1999. In 2004 Gen. Gonzalo Santelices, head of the Santiago army garrison, resigned amid accusations that he was involved in the “Caravan of death." Santelices acknowledged that as a young lieutenant he followed orders and transferred 14 prisoners from a jail in northern Chile to a desert area where they were executed by firing squad. In 2008 retired Gen. Sergio Arellano was sentenced to six years in prison for the killing of five dissidents in the helicopter tour.
    (SFC, 6/9/99, p.C2)(SFEC, 10/3/99, p.A19)(SFC, 4/28/00, p.D4)(AP, 2/4/08)(AP, 10/16/08)
1973        Oct, In Israel 4 conservative parties, Gahal, Free Centre, State Party, and the Eretz Yisrael movement formed Likud. Menachim Begin became its first leader. Ariel Sharon helped found the Likud Party. He quit the party in 2005 in order to head a new centrist party called Kadima (Forward).
    (Econ, 11/26/05, p.57)(http://i-cias.com/e.o/likud.htm)
1973        Oct, Thailand’s King Bhumibol Adulyadej sheltered pro-democracy demonstrators from the military dictators they were seeking to overthrow. The generals who were in power saw it was time to exit. A student-led uprising ousted 3 military figures who had ruled Thailand for much of the 1960s and early 1970s. Thanom Kittikachorn (d.2004) was ousted in a popular uprising. The military ruler of Thailand had helped the US during the Vietnam War.
    (AP, 12/19/05) (AP, 6/17/04)(WSJ, 9/20/06, p.A12)

1973        Nov 1, In the wake of the Saturday Night Massacre, Acting Attorney General Robert H. Bork appointed Leon Jaworski to be the new Watergate special prosecutor, succeeding Archibald Cox.
    (AP, 11/1/97)
1973        Nov 1, In India the state of Mysore was renamed Karnataka.

1973        Nov 6, Coleman Young (1918-1997) was elected the first African American mayor of Detroit, Mich. He served 5 consecutive terms and chose not to seek re-election in 1993. During WW II he served with the Tuskegee Airmen and after the war founded the National Negro Labor Council. One of his major accomplishments was the integration of the Detroit police force.
    (http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1355/is_23_98/ai_67185237)(SFEC,11/30/97, p.C10)
1973        Nov 6, Abraham D. Beame (1906-2001) was elected as the New York city’s 104th and 1st Jewish mayor. He served until 1978.
    (SFC, 2/12/01, p.A26)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abraham_Beame)
1973        Nov 6, The Symbionese Liberation Army (SLA) assassinated Marcus Foster, the 1st black superintendent of the Oakland school district, and wounded Robert Blackburn, his assistant. The SLA warned against a proposed student ID program. Russell Little and Joseph Remiro were arrested following a shootout in Jan, 1974. Little’s eventual conviction was reversed Feb 28, 1979, due to errant jury instructions. Remiro was sentenced to life in prison.
    (SFEC, 3/1/98, p.W22)(SFC, 1/23/01, p.A13)(SFC, 9/17/02, p.A20)(SFC, 11/14/02, p.A17)

1973        Nov 7, Partly in response to the Vietnam debacle, the US Congress passed the War Powers Resolution requiring the President to obtain the support of Congress within 90 days of sending American troops abroad. Congress overrode President Nixon's veto of the War Powers Act, which limited a chief executive's power to wage war without congressional approval. The act allowed Congress to bring troops home within 60 days unless deployment was approved or war was declared.
    (AP, 11/7/98)(www.historyplace.com/unitedstates/vietnam/index-1969.html)

1973        Nov 10, In China Henry Kissinger (b.1923) briefed Zhou Enlai (1898-1976) in the Great Hall of the People about the Soviets and said that it was in the interests of the US to prevent a Soviet nuclear attack on China.
    (SFEC, 1/10/99, p.A18)

1973        Nov 11, Israel and Egypt signed a cease-fire.
1973        Nov 11, The Soviet Union was kicked out of World Cup soccer for refusing to play Chile.

1973        Nov 13, Brian Stanley Johnson (b.1933), British avant-garde novelist, died by suicide. In 2005 Jonathan Coe authored “Like a Fiery Elephant: The story of B.S. Johnson."
    (SFC, 7/7/05, p.E1)(www.geocities.com/SoHo/9145/johnson.htm
1973        Nov 13, Bruno Maderna (53), Italian composer and conductor (Satyricon), died in Germany.
1973        Nov 13, Elsa Schiaparelli (b.1890), Italian fashion designer, died in France. In 2014 Meryle Secrest authored “Elsa Schiaparelli: A Biography."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elsa_Schiaparelli)(Econ, 10/18/14, p.86)

1973        Nov 14, In China Henry Kissinger and Zhou Enlai agreed to provide China with satellite intelligence on Soviet military buildup "in a manner so that no one feels we are allies."
    (SFEC, 1/10/99, p.A18)
1973        Nov 14, Britain's Princess Anne married Capt. Mark Phillips in Westminster Abbey. However, they divorced in 1992, and Anne re-married.
    (AP, 11/14/97)

1973        Nov 15-1973 Nov 22, Egypt and Israel exchanged prisoners of war.

1973        Nov 16, President Nixon signed the Trans Alaska Pipeline Authorization Act into law. Oil companies formed a consortium that gave British Petroleum 50.1% control of the pipeline.
    (www.alyeska-pipe.com/Pipelinefacts/Chronology.html)(AH, 10/04, p.43)
1973        Nov 16, Skylab 3 carrying a crew of three astronauts, was launched from Cape Canaveral, Fla., on an 84-day mission.
    (HFA, '96, p.18)(AP, 11/1697)

1973        Nov 17, President Nixon told an Associated Press managing editors meeting in Orlando, Fla., that "people have got to know whether or not their president is a crook. Well, I'm not a crook."
    (AP, 11/17/97)
1973        Nov 17, Greek regime attacked students with tanks and at least 24 people were killed in the military crackdown at the Athens Polytechnic. The left-wing November 17 terror group took this date for their name and engaged in over 23 killings through 2002.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Athens_Polytechnic_Uprising)(AFP, 11/17/18)

1973        Nov 18, The Greek regime called an emergency crisis due to mass protests.

1973        Nov 19, Saudi Arabia, Libya and other Arab states proclaimed a total ban on oil exports to the United States. Gasoline prices quadrupled from twenty-five cents per gallon to over one dollar. The New York stock market took its sharpest drop in 19 years.
    (HN, 11/19/98)(www.bullnotbull.com/archive/market-01222006.html)

1973        Nov 20, Allan Sherman (b.1924), American musician, parodist and producer, died. He was the creator and original producer of the popular “I've Got a Secret" from 1952 to 1958.

1973        Nov 21, President Nixon's attorney, J. Fred Buzhardt, revealed the existence of an 18 1/2- minute gap in one of the White House tape recordings related to Watergate.
    (AP, 11/21/97)

1973        Nov 22, Britain announced a plan for moderate Protestants and Catholics to share power in Northern Ireland.
    (HN, 11/22/98)

1973        Nov 23, Sessue Hayakawa (b.1889), Japanese film and TV actor, died in Tokyo of cerebral thrombosis. His films included “Tokyo Joe" and “Bridge Over the River Kwai."

1973        Nov 25, Pres. Nixon called for a ban on Sunday gasoline sales.
1973        Nov 25, Albert DeSalvo, Boston strangler, was stabbed to death in prison. DeSalvo, the self-admitted Boston strangler, had been tried and convicted on unrelated assaults. 13 women were killed in Boston between 1962-1964. DNA evidence was sought in 1999. Susan Kelly wrote a book in 1995 on the Boston Strangler.
    (SFC, 7/10/99, p.A3)(www.us.imdb.com/name/nm1108915/)
1973        Nov 25, Greek President George Papadopoulos was ousted in a bloodless military coup led by police chief Brigadier Dimitris Ioannides. Gen'l. Faidon Gizikis was named president. Adamantios Androutsopoulis (d.2000 at 81) was named premier. The dictatorship ended in 1974.
    (AP, 11/25/97)(SFC, 6/28/99, p.A19)(SFC, 11/15/00, p.B6)
1973        Nov 25, Three Palestinians hijacked a KLM B747 enroute to New Delhi to Abu Dhabi.
1973        Nov 25, Laurence Harvey (b.1928), film actor, died in London of cancer. He was an Academy Award-nominated Lithuanian-born actor who achieved fame in British and American films.

1973        Nov 26, President Nixon's personal secretary, Rose Mary Woods, told a federal court that she'd accidentally caused part of the 18 1/2-minute gap in a key Watergate tape.
    (AP, 11/26/97)

1973        Nov 27, Neil Simon's "Good Doctor," premiered in NYC.
1973        Nov 27, The Senate voted 92-3 to confirm Gerald R. Ford as vice president, succeeding Spiro T. Agnew, who'd resigned.
    (AP, 11/27/97)

1973        Nov 28, Arab League summit in Algiers recognized Palestine.

1973        Nov 30, John Dean (b.1938), White House counsel, pleaded guilty to one count of conspiring to obstruct justice in the Watergate scandal and served 3 months in jail.
    (SFC, 2/26/99, p.A4)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Dean)

1973        Dec 1, David Ben-Gurion (87), Israel's first prime minister (1948-1953 and 1955-1963), died in Tel Aviv.
    (AP, 12/1/97)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_Ben-Gurion)

1973        Dec 2, Monica Seles, tennis star (US Open 1992), was born in Novi Sad, Yugoslavia.

1973        Dec 3, Pioneer 10 passed Jupiter in the 1st fly-by of an outer planet.

1973        Dec 5, Paul McCartney released his "Band on the Run" album.

1973        Dec 6, House minority leader Gerald R. Ford was sworn in as vice president, succeeding Spiro T. Agnew. Agnew, vice president to President Richard M. Nixon, resigned from his office and pleaded no contest to one charge of income tax evasion in return for the dropping of all other charges. Agnew, the only US Vice President to resign in disgrace, was fined $10,000 and given three year's probation.
    (AP, 12/6/97)(SFC, 12/27/06, p.A11)

1973        Dec 7, Paul McCartney and Wings released the album "Band on the Run."

1973        Dec 8, In Chile soldiers shot Argentine primary school teacher Bernardo Lejderman and Maria Avalos, a Mexican citizen, in front of their 2-year-old child. In 2007 a retired general and two former sergeants were fined and sentenced to 10 years in prison for killing the leftist couple, and were ordered to pay $600,000 to Ernesto Lejderman, the son of the slain couple.
    (AP, 12/19/07)(www.usip.org/library/tc/doc/reports/chile/chile_1993_pt3_ch1_a2_e.html)

1973        Dec 10, Amnesty Int’l. held its first worldwide conference to abolish torture. Dr. Leonard Sagan (d.1997 at 69) was the medical reporter at the Paris conference. Dr. Sagan wrote the book "The Health of Nations: True Causes of Sickness and Well-Being" (1987). Amnesty International had launched its first worldwide campaign for the abolition of torture in 1972.
    (http://tinyurl.com/4epdxk)(SFC,12/12/97, p.B12)(www.amnesty.org/en/who-we-are/history)
1973        Dec 10, In Italy the personnel chief of Fiat was kidnapped and held for 8 days.
    (WSJ, 12/13/07, p.A18)
1973        Dec 10, North Korea and India established diplomatic ties.
    (AFP, 2/7/06)(http://tinyurl.com/4vzdbf)

1973        Dec 13, Britain cut the work week to three days to save energy supply.
    (HN, 12/13/98)
1973        Dec 13, Claude Vorilhon, former French race car driver, began the Rael movement in France. While commuting to his job as a sportswriter, he decided to drive past the office and stop at a nearby volcano in Auvergne. During his stop, Vorilhon saw the flashing red light of a space ship, which opened its hatch to reveal a green alien with longish dark hair. Once aboard the spaceship, he said he was entertained by voluptuous female robots and learned that the first human beings were created by aliens called Elohim, who cloned themselves. Vorilhon said that he was instructed to take the name Rael and spread the news that humans were placed on Earth by extraterrestrials who had engineered our DNA. In 1997 Rael founded Clonaid, a company dedicated to cloning people. In 2001 the Raelian movement numbered about 55,000 members world-wide.
    (WSJ, 8/24/01, p.W14)(Reuters, 12/28/02)

1973        Dec 20, Bobby Darin (b.1936), American singer born as Walden Robert Cassotto, died during open heart surgery in LA. He performed in a range of music genres, including pop, rock, jazz, folk, and country. Darin wrote “Simple Song of Freedom" in 1969.
1973        Dec 20, ETA killed PM Adm. Luis Carrero Blanco with a bomb in Madrid.
    (AP, 3/22/06)

1973        Dec 21, Israel, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, US and USSR leaders met in Geneva. The Geneva Conference of 1973 was an attempt to negotiate a solution to the Arab-Israeli conflict as called for in UN Security Council Resolution 338 which was passed after the 1973 Arab-Israeli War.

1973        Dec 24, The US Congress passed the Home rule Act, which allowed residents of Washington DC to elect a mayor. Walter Washington was elected in 1974.
    (WSJ, 10/28/03, p.A1)(Econ, 9/16/06, p.41)(www.abfa.com/ogc/hrtall.htm)
1973        Dec 24, The MGM Grand in Las Vegas opened to the public.

1973        Dec 25, Skylab astronauts took a seven hour walk in space and photographed the comet Kohoutek.
    (HN, 12/25/98)

1973        Dec 26, "The Exorcist," starring Linda Blair, premiered with an X rating.

1973        Dec 28, Pres. Nixon signed into law the Endangered Species Act. The first list of endangered species contained Gray whales. The Gray whale was removed from the list in 1994 when the population climbed back to about 22,000.
    (PacDis, Fall/’96, p.24)(SFC, 10/2/98, p.A6)(SFC, 12/28/98, p.A1)
1973        Dec 28, Alexander Solzhenitsyn published "Gulag Archipelago" in Paris. It was an expose of the Soviet prison system.
    (AP, 12/28/97)(WSJ, 12/11/98, p.W15)

1973        Dec 30, British millionaire Edward Sieff, whose family owns Marks and Spencers stores in London, was wounded. The attack was attributed to Carlos the Jackal, aka Ilich Ramirez Sanchez.
    (SFC,12/11/97, p.C2)(http://tinyurl.com/59cvcn)

1973        Antonio Berni (1905-1981), Argentine artist, made his mixed media piece "La Gallina Ciega," (The Blind hen). In 1997 it sold for $607,500.
    (SFC,11/26/97, p.A9)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antonio_Berni)

1973        Salvador Dali (1904-1989), Spanish artist, painted "Portrait of Alice Cooper's Brain."
    (WSJ, 1/26/00, p.A20)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salvador_Dal%C3%AD)

1973        Ernest Becker (1924-1974), cultural anthropologist, authored "The Denial of Death." It reflected a cultural belief that the denial of death in the US was a pathology responsible for Western woes from materialism to militarism.
    (SSFC, 12/8/02, p.M2)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ernest_Becker)

1973        Daniel Bell (1919-2011) authored “The Coming of Post-Industrial Society."
    (Econ, 2/5/11, p.80)

1973        Raoul Berger (1901-2000), constitutional scholar, authored "Impeachment," which helped undermine Nixon’s claims for executive privilege.
    (SFC, 9/27/00, p.A25)

1973        Timothy Crouse authored “The Boys on the Bus," an account of the press pack covering the 1972 presidential campaigns of Richard Nixon and George McGovern.
    (WSJ, 12/1/07, p.W10)(www.mediabistro.com/articles/cache/a3133.asp)

1973        Mary Daly (1928-2009), Boston College professor and feminist theologian, authored “Beyond God the Father: Toward a Philosophy of Women’s Liberation."
    (SSFC, 1/10/10, p.C10)

1973        Dr. Collin H. Dong (d.1998 at 94) and Jane Banks authored "The Arthritic’s Cookbook."
    (SFC, 4/1/98, p.C2)

1973        Peter Drucker (1909-2005) authored “Management: Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices."
    (Econ, 7/3/10, p.61)

1973        Allen Ginsberg (1926-1997) won the National Book Award for: "The Fall of America: Poems of These States, 1965-1971."
    (SFEC, 4/6/97, p.A11)

1973        Shaun Herron (1912-1989), Ireland-born author, authored “The Whore-Mother," a novel about the Troubles in Northern Ireland.
    (WSJ, 10/28/06, p.P12)(www.mhs.mb.ca/docs/people/herron_s.shtml)

1973        Dr. Mary C. Raugust Howell (1932-1998) contributed to the women’s medical guide: "Our Bodies, Ourselves." The book arose out of a 35-cent, 136-page booklet called Women and Their Bodies, published in 1970 by the New England Free Press, and written by 12 Boston feminist activists.
    (SFC, 2/6/98, p.A23)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Our_Bodies,_Ourselves)

1973        Erica Jong (b.1942), American author, published her novel "Fear of Flying."
    (WSJ, 8/31/98, p.A17)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erica_Jong)

1973        Los Angeles photographer Steve Khan (1943-2018) authored “Stasis."
    (SFC, 2/7/18, p.D6)

1973        Primo Levi (1920-1987) authored "The Periodic Table," a memoir that incorporated many of his experiences at the Auschwitz concentration camp.
    (SSFC, 5/26/02, p.M1)

1973        Burton Malkiel (b.1932) of Princeton Univ. wrote his influential book: "A Random Walk Down Wall Street." Here he explained the "efficient market theory." "A blindfolded monkey throwing darts… could select a portfolio… as well as… experts."
    (WSJ, 10/7/98, p.C1)(WSJ, 4/18/02, p.C1)

1973        James Michener (1907-1997), American author, published "A Michener Miscellany."
    (SFC,10/17/97, p.A12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_A._Michener)

1973        Richard and Christina Milner authored “Black Players: The Secret World of Black Pimps." The book was the product of an anthropological study regarding both the lifestyles and subculture of San Francisco Bay Area pimps and their prostitutes.

1973        Henry Mintzberg authored his classical study “The Nature of Managerial Work." The text summarizes eight current schools of thought on the manager's job and analyzes the consistencies and variations in managers' roles and working characteristics.
    (Econ, 7/2/11, p.59)(http://tinyurl.com/653lmfy)

1973        Iris Murdoch (1919-1999), Irish-born author, published her novel "The Black Prince."
    (SFC, 2/9/99, p.A20)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iris_Murdoch)

1973        Mildred R. Newman (1920-2001) and her husband, Dr. Bernard Berkowitz, authored "How to Be Your Best Friend."
    (SFC, 11/13/01, p.A22)(http://tinyurl.com/4e22d9)

1973        Jean Pasqualini (1926-1997) authored "Prisoner of Mao" with journalist Rudolph Chelminski. He told of his 7 years in China as a political prisoner in a labor camp. He was born in Beijing to a Corsican father and Chinese mother, Mr. Pasqualini was educated in French and British schools in Tianjin and Shanghai. His Chinese name was Bao Ruowang.
    (SFC, 10/14/97, p.A19)(http://tinyurl.com/4oc5vw)

1973        Dilys Powell (1901-1995), film critic for the London Times, authored "The Villa Ariadne," a history and travel memoir of Crete. It was published in the US in 2002.
    (WSJ, 2/8/02, p.W9)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dilys_Powell)

1973        Thomas Pynchon (b.1937), American author, published his 760-page novel "Gravity’s Rainbow."
    (SFEC, 8/6/00, DB p.39)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Pynchon)

1973        Neurologist Oliver Sacks (1933-2015) authored “Awakenings." In 1990 it was turned into a film featuring Robin Williams.
    (SFC, 8/31/15, p.A12)

1973        Carl Sagan authored "The Cosmic Connection."
    (SFEM, 8/22/99, p.13)

1973        Martin Seymour-Smith (d.1998) published "Guide to Modern World Literature." It was revised and expanded in 1986 as the Macmillan Guide. He produced over 40 books that included biographies of Thomas Hardy, Rudyard Kipling and Robert Graves.
    (SFEC, 7/20/98, p.A21)

1973        Gene Sharp (b.1928), Boston based scholar, authored his 902-page “Politics of Nonviolent Action." Following a 1992 trip to Burma (Myanmar) he authored “From Dictatorship to Democracy," a 90-page work that offered a list of 198 methods of nonviolent action. His writings impacted political action in numerous dictatorial regimes.
    (WSJ, 9/13/08, p.A10)

1973        Dr. June Singer (d.2004) authored "Boundaries of the Soul: The Practice of Jung's Psychology."
    (SFC, 2/6/04, p.A25)

1973        Kevin Starr wrote the first volume of his California State history: "Americans and the California Dream, 1850-1915." The 5th volume "The Dream Endures: California Enters the 1940s" was published in 1997.
    (SFEC, 3/30/97, BR. p.4)(WSJ, 11/26/97, p.CA4)

1973        George C. Spunt (1923-1996) wrote "When Nature Speaks," a biography of Forrest C. Shaklee, Sr., founder of the Shaklee Corp. Spunt also wrote "Memoirs & Menus: Confessions of a Culinary Snob" (1967), his partial autobiography "A Place in Time" (1968), and "The Step by Step Chinese Cookbook" (1973).
    (SFC, 8/26/96, p.C2)

1973        Daniel Steel published her first novel. By 1998 she had written 70 books.
    (SFC, 2/26/98, p.E4)

1973        Andrew Tobias, financial guru, published "The Best Little Boy in the World" under the pseudonym John Reid. It was a look inside the gay world.
    (SFEC, 10/25/98, Par p.2)

1973        Hassan Turabi, Sudanese scholar, authored "Women in Islam and Muslim Society."

1973        Kurt Vonnegut published his novel "Breakfast of Champions."
    (SFEC, 10/18/98, DB p.54)

1973        John Weaver (d.2002) authored "Los Angeles: El Pueblo Grande."
    (SFC, 12/7/02, p.A25)

1973        Alan Ayckbourn (b.1939), English playwright, created his 3-part play “The Norman Conquests."
    (WSJ, 1/4/07, p.W7)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Norman_Conquests)

1973        The fantasia "Marco Polo Sings a Solo," by American playwright John Guare (b.1938), was first directed by Mel Shapiro. It was about a nuclear family on an iceberg off of Norway in 1999 confronted by a collapsing planet.
    (WSJ, 9/30/98, p.A16)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Guare)

1973        Robert Stigwood (b.1934), Australian-born impresario, produced "Joseph and the Amazing Technicolor Dreamcoat," a musical by Andrew Lloyd Weber. It had been first performed in 1968 at the Old Assembly Hall, Colet Court, Hammersmith, England.
    (WSJ, 8/24/99, p.A1)(www.andrewlloydwebber.com/theatre/joseph.php)

1973        Twyla Tharp (b.1941) created her dance piece "Deuce Coupe."
    (WSJ, 10/17/96, p.A20)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Twyla_Tharp)

1973        PBS began its series "An American Family" featuring Pat and Bill Loud (1921-2018) and their 5 children in Santa Barbara, Ca. The 12 hour-long episodes were edited down from 300 hours of film.
    (SFC, 1/6/03, p.D1)(SSFC, 7/29/18, p.C9)

1973        “Viva Alegre," a bilingual and bicultural TV show for children, premiered on PBS. It was produced by Claudio Guzman (1928-2008).
    (SFC, 7/18/08, p.B8)

1973        Don Kirshner (1934-2011) began hosting the TV show “Don Kirshner’s Rock Concert" and continued to 1982.
    (SFC, 1/19/11, p.A8)

1973        The TV "Frugal Gourmet" show began in Tacoma, Wa., with minister Jeff Smith (1939-2004) and then went national on PBS.
    (SFC, 7/30/01, p.E1)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jeff_Smith_(TV_personality))

1973        The TV "Schoolhouse Rock" cartoons began to set educational messages to catchy music. The animated series ran to 1985.
    (SFC, 12/23/00, p.A25)

1973        The TV series "All in the Family" began and ran through 1975. [see 1971]
    (SFEC, 11/17/96, Par p.26)

1973        The TV series "Streets of San Francisco" premiered.
    (SFC, 6/3/97, p.B1)

1973        The British TV series "Upstairs, Downstairs," was imported the US as part of PBS’ Masterpiece Theater.
    (SFC, 12/1/01, p.A19)

1973        Eugene Ormandy (1899-1985) ended his direction of the Philadelphia Orchestra.
    (WSJ, 2/11/99, p.A24)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eugene_Ormandy)

1973        Nino Rota (1911-1979), Italian composer, composed his "Trio for Clarinet, Cello and Piano."
    (WSJ, 3/5/99, p.W10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nino_Rota)

1973        Conrad Susa (b.1935), American composer, composed the opera "Transformations" based on the 1971 book by Anne Sexton.
    (WSJ, 7/2/97, p.A12)

1973        Lesbian activist Alix Dobkin (1940-2021) broke new ground with her album "Lavender Jane Loves Women." It was the first album recorded and distributed by women for women.
    (SSFC, 6/6/21, p.F1)

1973        Pink Floyd released their album "Dark Side of the Moon." It spent a record 591 weeks on the Billboard charts.
    (SFC, 6/5/97, p.E1)

1973        The tune "Also Sprach Zarathustra (2001)" won the Grammy best pop instrumental category.
    (SFEC, 2/21/99, DB p.38)

1973        David Bowie (b.1947), English rock singer, had a hit with "Life on Mars."
    (SFC, 8/9/96, p.D8)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_Bowie)

1973        Lou Harrison (1917-2003) completed his "Concerto for Organ and Percussion."

1973        Dr. Hook and the Medicine Show had a hit with their song "The Cover of the Rolling Stone."
    (SFEC, 6/21/98, BR p.12)

1973        Elton John (b.1947), English singer and pianist, and lyricist Bernie Taupin wrote the song "Candle in the Wind" as an ode to Marilyn Monroe on the album "Goodbye Yellow Brick Road." The song was adopted by Elton John in 1997 for the funeral of Princess Diana.
    (SFC, 9/24/97, p.E1)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elton_John)

1973        The Grateful Dead hit gold with their album “The Adventures of Panama Red."
    (SFC, 1/13/05, p.B6)

1973        Maria Muldaur had a hit with her song "Midnight at the Oasis."
    (SFEC, 2/8/98, DB p.7)

1973        The Stealers Wheel had a hit with "Stuck in the Middle With You."
    (SFC, 7/7/97, p.E3)

1973        The Kronos Quartet was founded in Seattle by violinist David Harrington. The original group included, Harrington, violist Hank Dutt, violinist John Sherba, and cellist Joan Jeanrenaud.
    (SFC, 1/22/03, p.D1)

1973        The Pointer Sisters of Oakland, Ca., released their first album. June Pointer died in 2006 at age 52.
    (SFC, 4/13/06, p.B7)

1973        The US Marine Band turned co-ed.
    (WSJ, 1/17/97, p.A11)

1973        The American Psychiatric Assoc. removed homosexual from its list of disorders in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual.
    (SFC, 11/22/96, p.A28)

1973        Mary Rowe, ombudsman at MIT, coined the term “microinequities" to identify subtle putdowns, snubs, dismissive gestures and sarcastic tones that can snub motivation.
    (WSJ, 12/7/04, p.B1)

1973        The Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) was founded as a private, not-for-profit organization, whose primary purpose is to develop generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) within the United States in the public's interest.
    (WSJ, 1/14/08, p.R2)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Financial_Accounting_Standards_Board)

1973        Herbert Leibowitz, Manhattan literary critic and college professor, founded Parnassus, a poetry journal. In 2007 he planned his last issue.
    (WSJ, 1/25/07, p.D12)

1973        Larry Flynt launched his sex magazine "Hustler."
    (SFC, 2/21/96, p.D9)

1973        Christopher Hills (1926-1997), English-born microbiologist, founded the University of the Trees in Boulder Creek in Santa Cruz County, Ca., an alternative education and resource center. He also authored some 30 books.
    (SFC, 2/10/97, p.A20)(www.answers.com/topic/university-of-the-trees)

1973        Roy Carson and Ed Dietz founded the Extra Miler Club. Members sought to visit all of the 3,145 counties of the US. Carson reached his goal in 1985 but did not have records of proof for the Guinness Book of Records, so he started over.
    (SFEC, 2/22/98, p.T10)

1973        Franklin Cary Salisbury (d.1997 at 86), lawyer and entrepreneur, formed the National Foundation for Cancer Research with Albert Szent-Györgyi. It was formerly known as the Bethesda National Foundation of Massachusetts.
    (SFC, 3/31/97, p.C2)

1973        The Organization of Chinese Americans was founded.
    (SFC, 6/27/96, p.A18)

1973        A movement know as Jews for Jesus was incorporated. It was founded by Moishe Rosen (1932-2010), who had converted to Christianity at age 21 and was later ordained as a Baptist minister. By 2010 the organization had 200 employees in 11 countries.
    (SFC, 6/16/10, p.C8)

1973        A white supremacist group was founded and became active in 22 states. The group followed "The White Man's Bible," which preached "racial holy war" (rahowa). In 2004 Matthew Hale (32), head of Chicago-based Hale's World Church of the Creator, was found guilty of trying to have a federal judge killed.
    (SFC, 4/27/04, p.A4)

1973        Ed de la Cruz founded the Pacific American Coalition, the first national effort to obtain social services and funding for the US Asian community.
    (SFC, 9/16/96, p.A15)

1973        George Soros (b.1930), a Hungarian-born financier who emigrated to the United States in 1956, set up Soros Fund Management.
    (AP, 10/6/11)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Soros)

1973        The Alaskan 1,159 mile Iditarod dog-sled race was first run in commemoration of the 1925 dog-sled relay for diphtheria vaccine to Nome.
    (Nat. Hist., 3/96, p.34,41)(SFEC, 3/7/99, p.D3)

1973        In Detroit Wayne State Univ.’s Old Main’s powerhouse, obsolete since the 1930s, was demolished.
    (WSUAN, Winter 1997, p.8)
1973        Patricia Nevins of Michigan won the first US Ms. Wheelchair America pageant.

1973        The first annual Cycle to the Clouds race was held on the Mt. Washington Toll Rd. in New Hampshire.
    (WSJ, 9/4/96, p.A12)

1973        Konrad Lorenz (1903-1989), Austrian zoologist, won the Nobel Prize.
1973        Leo Esaki (b.1925), [Esaki Reona], Japanese-born physicist, won the Nobel Prize.
1973        Patrick White (1912-1990), British-born Australian, won the Nobel Prize in Literature.
    (AP, 10/8/09)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Patrick_White)

1973        Abba Eban (1915-2002), Israeli foreign minister, helped persuade the US administration of Pres. Richard Nixon to carry out an emergency airlift of weapons and supplies.
    (AP, 11/17/02)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abba_Eban)

1973        US military drug problems peaked this year. An estimated 34 percent of American soldiers in Vietnam had commonly used heroin.
    (HNQ, 12/9/02)

1973        The US EPA banned the use of asbestos for fireproofing and insulation purposes. In 1978 the ban was extended to cover decorative purposes. Builders were still allowed to use stock on hand, so use in homes continued to 1979.

1973        George H.W. Bush was named US Republican national Committee Chairman.
    (SSFC, 12/2/18, p.A13)

1973        Marvin Zindler (1922-2007), TV reporter, pressed Texas Gov. Dolph Briscoe to close the Chicken Ranch brothel. His crusade eventually led to the Broadway show and film: “The Best Little Whorehouse in Texas."
    (SFC, 7/30/07, p.B8)

1973        In San Francisco a 27-foot-tall statue of St. Francis, created by artist Ruth Wakefield Cravath, was installed at the bus zone of Candlestick Park.
    (SFC, 1/26/15, p.A1)
1973        In San Francisco a 7-foot-tall fountain facing Union Square, designed by Ruth Asawa (1926-2-13), opened on Stockton St.
    (SFC, 8/27/13, p.A9)
1973        Bananas, a nonprofit organization dedicated to supporting families in northern Alameda County, Ca., was founded.
    (SSFC, 10/19/03, p.E1)
1973        BART (Bay Area Rapid Transit) opened a station in downtown Walnut Creek, Ca.
    (SFC, 7/17/06, p.B5)
1973        The Glen Park BART station opened at 2901 Diamond St. in San Francisco. It was designed by Ernest Born with Corlett and Spackman in a style called “Big-boned Brutalism."
    (SFC, 5/26/00, Wb p.8)(SSFC, 10/4/09, p.C2)
1973        In SF the revolving bar opened atop the new Embarcadero Hyatt Regency Hotel.
    (SFC, 3/28/01, Food p.5)
1973        Poet Jack Hirschman arrived in SF from Los Angeles.
    (SFC, 3/20/00, p.A15)
1973        Michel Tilson Thomas and Edo de Waart made their conducting debuts with the SF Symphony.
    (SFEC, 8/17/97, DB p.46)
1973        Jose Carreras made his SF Opera debut in "La Boheme."
    (SFEC, 8/17/97, DB p.46)
1973        Michael Smuin became the associate artistic director of the SF Ballet with Lew Christensen. They collaborated on a new "Cinderella."
    (SFEC, 8/17/97, DB p.46)
1973        The SF Blues Festival began.
    (SFEC, 3/2/97, DB p.45)
1973        Mel’s Diner at Mission and South Van Ness was used in the George Lucas film "American Graffiti" set in c1962.
    (SFC, 5/19/96,Mag, p.27)
1973        Jazz saxophonist Joe Henderson moved to San Francisco.
    (SFEC, 1/5/97, DB p.32)
1973        In SF Freedom West Homes, the largest private-development of low to moderate income housing, was begun under Rev. J. Austell Hall. It covered the 4 blocks between Gough, Laguna, Fulton and Golden Gate Ave.
    (SFEC, 6/14/98, p.B3)
1973        In SF the owners of the Martin Luther King-Marcus Garvey Square housing complex failed to pay their bills and the complex was taken over by HUD.
    (SFC, 12/29/98, p.A11)
1973        In SF the Jewish Vocational Service was founded to assist recent college graduates of the Jewish community who could not find jobs. it was soon expanded into a nonsectarian employment service.
    (SFC, 9/15/98, p.A9)
1973        Ed Callan (d.2009 at 88), San Francisco stockbroker, formed Callan Associates, a performance-measurement firm for pension funds.
    (SFC, 4/2/09, p.B6)
1973        The SF pub Liverpool Lil’s began operating at 2942 Lyon St.
    (SFCM, 9/2/01, p.5)
1973        Solar Light Books began business in SF.
    (SFEC, 12/13/98, Z1 p.5)
1973        In SF the Washington Square Bar & Grill, aka "The Washbag," opened in North Beach under Sam Deitch (d.2002 at 73) and Ed Moose (1929-2010).  Rose Evangelisti (d.1998 at 90) had sold them her Pistola Saloon on Powell St. and the place became the Washington Square Bar and Grill. Deitch and Moose sold the operation in 1990. It closed for new ownership in 2000. Moose opened Moose’s bar across the park in 1990 and sold it in 2005.
    (SFC, 9/15/98, p.A22)(SFC, 3/18/00, p.A17)(SFC, 2/5/02, p.A19)(SFC, 8/13/10, p.A10)
1973        The Haas-Lilienthal family donated their Haas-Lilienthal House at 2007 Franklin St. to the Foundation for San Francisco’s Architectural Heritage.
    (SFC, 8/30/96, p.D5)(SFC, 10/16/07, p.D9)
1973        The Albion Brewery was declared a SF historical landmark.
    (SFC, 10/17/98, p.A19)
1973        SF Mayor Alioto appointed George Chinn to the Board of Supervisors. He was the first Asian American to serve on the board.
    (SFC, 4/20/98, p.A13)
1973        Alfred J. Nelder (d.2002 at 87), former SF police chief, was elected to the Board of Supervisors and served 2 terms.
    (SFC, 1/4/02, p.A26)
1973        Santa Clara County, Ca., bought 2,455 acres of the New Almaden mine land and named it the Almaden Quicksilver Equestrian Park.
    (SSFC, 12/22/02, p.A26)
1973        In SF the Pacific Coast Stock Exchange was renamed the Pacific Stock Exchange.
    (SFC, 7/24/98, p.B1)
1973        In SF a group of black police officers filed a discrimination suit against the city to establish a truly integrated police force.
    (SFC, 10/10/97, p.A17)
1973        The National Park Service began conducting tours at Alcatraz.
    (SFEC, 3/8/98, p.W39)(SFC, 10/18/02, p.E2)
1973        Dorothy Turner Everett (1932-2007) started a barbecue business in Oakland, Ca., that grew to become the Everett & Jones chain of barbecue restaurants.
    (SFC, 10/12/07, p.B11)
1973        The Good Guys, a retail store home entertainment products, was founded in Alameda, Ca. In 2003 the chain of 71 stores in California, Nevada, Oregon and Washington was sold to CompUSA. In 2005 CompUSA announced the closure of Good Guy stores in California and Hawaii due to waning demand.
    (SFC, 10/6/05, p.C1)
1973        In SF Walter Shorenstein sold his Int’l. Hotel property to the Four Seas Investment Corp., owned by Supacit Mahaguna, a Bangkok liquor baron, for $850,000.
    (SFC, 6/8/01, WBa p.6)
1973        American President Lines moved from SF to the port of Oakland. The line became a subsidiary of Singapore’s Neptune Orient Lines in 1997.
    (SFEC, 11/22/98, p.B1)
1973        Timothy Leary (d.1996) was captured in Afghanistan and returned to jail in California. He was pardoned by Gov. Brown in 1976.
    (SFC, 2/9/02, p.A22)
1973        In Marin County, California, Sylvia Siegel (1918-2007) founded “Toward Utility Rate Normalization" (TURN), a consumer group to battle utility prices increases.
    (SFC, 8/21/07, p.B5)
1973        Joseph Phelps (1927-2015) purchased a 600-acre cattle ranch in Rutherford, Ca. and harvested his first batch of grapes. His Joseph Phelps Winer was completed the following year and produced California’s first varietal-labeled Syrah.
    (SFC, 4/24/15, p.D7)
1973        Count Robert Jean de Vogue, French chairman of Moet-Hennessey, purchased 350 acres in Yountville for his new winery that debuted as Domaine Chandon in 1977.
    (SFEC, 3/28/99, Z1 p.16)
1973        In Occidental, Ca., Marshall Olbrich (d.1991) and Lester Hawkins (d.1985) opened their 3-acre Western Hills Nursery. They had designed and built the nursery in 1961 and proceeded to cultivate and popularize many plants that later thrived in the Bay Area gardens.
    (SFC, 3/15/10, p.A1)(http://tinyurl.com/y9onugc)
1973        Dun-Rite, a Fresno, Ca., maker of a pop-up timer for roasting turkeys, was sold to 3M Co. of St. Paul, Minn. In 1982 3M sued the Volk Enterprises, another Fresno maker of pop-up timers developed by Tony Volk. A few years later a settlement was negotiated. In 1991 Volk acquired 3M’s pop-up business.
    (WSJ, 11/22/05, p.A1)
1973        Albert S. Samuels died. He owned the SF jewelry store at 856 Market St. where a 20-foot-tall clock had marked time since 1943, except for 1967-1970 when BART was under construction. The clock had marked his original store since 1915. The clock stopped working around 1990 and in 2000 was restored.
    (SFC, 11/18/00, p.A1)
1973        Ralph Stackpole, SF sculptor, died.
    (SFC, 12/23/05, p.F2)

1973        In Georgia Ray Anderson (1934-2011) left Milliken Carpet in LaGrange and founded his own carpet firm, Interface, to produce the first free-lay carpet tiles in America. In 1994, inspired by Paul Hawken’s book “The Ecology of Commerce," he shifted the company toward sustainability and soon became known in environmental circles for his advanced and progressive stance on industrial ecology and sustainability.
    (Econ, 9/10/11, p.99)

1973        Vernon Hill founded the US-based Commerce Bancorp. It grew to 435 branches before it was sold to Canada’s TD Bank in 2008.
    (Econ, 5/14/11, SR p.17)
1973        ShoreBank, a Chicago-based lender, was founded. It set out to prove that money could be lent profitably to poor people in poor neighborhoods in what came to be known as community development finance. In 2010 it was taken over by the FDIC despite efforts to rescue it by Citigroup, JPMorganChase, Bank of America and Goldman Sachs.
    (Econ, 8/28/10, p.62)

1973        Montana initiated a ban on homosexual sex. In 1997 this was ruled unconstitutional.
    (SFC, 7/3/97, p.A3)(www.msmagazine.com/news/uswirestory.asp?id=3977)

1973        Oregon adopted “urban growth boundaries" (UGBs) setting rules limiting urban sprawl and preserving farmland.
    (Econ, 10/22/05, p.35)(Econ, 4/17/10, p.32)

1973        Crystal Lee Sutton (1940-2009) was fired for her pro-union activities at a J.P. Stevens textile plant in North Carolina. The 1979 film “Norma Rae" was based on her story. In 1974 the Amalgamated Clothing and Textile workers Union won the right to represent 3,000 employees at seven Roanoke Rapids plants in North Carolina.   
    (SFC, 9/15/09, p.C4)

1973        The reorganized Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority took over D.C. Transit. The Washington, Virginia and Maryland Coach Company, the AB&W Transit Company, and the WMA Transit Company), whose assets were sold to WMATA.

1973        Inflation and the energy crises hit the US. The country moved to a floating exchange rate.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1973)(WSJ, 8/15/96, p.A12)

1973        During the OPEC oil embargo oil prices were increased fourfold. Japan experienced its first oil crises with the Middle East war. The US experienced a gasoline shortage.
    (WSJ, 4/24/95, p.R-5)(Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 216)(WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)

1973        In Tennessee construction began on a nuclear reactor at Watts Bar. Unit 1 was completed in 1996. Completion of the project was expected in 2012.
    (Econ, 12/4/10, p.83)

1973        The market for traded uncertainty came into being with the publication of a paper by Myron Scholes (b.1941) and Fischer Black (1938-1995). Black and Scholes published the paper “The Pricing of Options and Corporate Liabilities" in The Journal of Political Economy. This famous work included the Black-Scholes equation which they had worked out together with Robert Merton. In 1997 Merton and Scholes were awarded a Nobel Prize for their work. In 2012 George Szpiro authored “Pricing the Future: Finance, Physics, and the 300-Year Journey to the Black-Scholes Equation."
    (Econ, 7/24/04, p.67)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fischer_Black)(Econ, 1/14/12, p.82)

1973        Reginald Harold Jones (d.2003) took over as the 7th head of General Electric, based in Fairfield, Conn., succeeding Fred Borch (1967-1972). Jones was followed by John Welch Jr. (1981-2001).
    (SFC, 1/2/04, p.A18)

1973        Dorothy Turner Everett (1932-2007) started a barbecue business in Oakland, Ca., that grew to become the Everett & Jones chain of barbecue restaurants.
    (SFC, 10/12/07, p.B11)

1973        Becton Dickinson Corp. built the first fluorescent activated cell sorter (FACS) instrument from the pioneering work of Prof. Leonard Herzenberg of Stanford Univ. It was capable of sorting, staining, and counting cells at speeds of 1,000 cells per sec.
    (HBDM, Feb-Mar/95)

1973        Stanley Cohen, Stanford geneticist, and Herbert Boyer of UCSF co-discovered the basic process of gene-splicing. They spliced the DNA of one bacteria into another and cultivated a new organism. The discovery was patented by Stanford and UCSF and resulted in 25 year earnings of more than $200 million. Recombinant DNA technology soon led to Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) in food products.
    (SFC, 1/19/98, p.A10)(WSJ, 12/24/04, p.W6)

1973        The U.P.C. or Uniform Product Code, an update of the Universal Grocery Products Identification Code (UGPIC, bar code) was invented by George J. Laurer.

1973        Carl Sontheimer (d.1998 at 83) introduced his redesigned Cuisinart at a show in Chicago. The glorified blender had been a product of the French restaurant supply giant Robot-Coupe since c1963.
    (SFC, 3/26/98, p.B4)

1973        Spencer Silver of 3M Corp. invented a sticky substance that was first used by colleague Arthur Fry on paper edges (post-it) to mark songs in his choir book.
    (SFEC, 5/23/99, p.B7)

1973        The first Magnetic Resonance Image was published and the first study performed on a human took place on July 3, 1977. Lawrence E. Crooks and Jerome Singer, professors at UC in SF and Berkeley, invented Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) technology along with about 20 other univ. employees.
    (SFC, 12/2/97, p.A18)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnetic_Resonance_Imaging)

1973        Jeff Schell (1935-2003), Belgian microbiologist, succeeded in altering the genetic structure of the Agro bacterium. He deleted the genes that governed tumor production.
    (SFC, 5/3/03, p.A20)

1973        Researchers Robert Kahn, of the Pentagon’s Advanced Research Project Agency, and Vinton Cerf, of Stanford Univ., developed a standard for incompatible networks to send messages and files to one another. It was a new language called TCP/IP, and it included a way to route data packages among different kinds of networks. This allowed the Internet to be born.
    (WSJ,11/14/94, p.R28)

1973        Dr. Edward Ahrens Jr. was elected to the National Academy of Sciences. Dr. Ahrens led work from the 1950s that identified the opposite effects of saturated and unsaturated fats on blood cholesterol.
    (SFC, 12/19/00, p.B5)
1973        Dr. Akira Endo of Japan discovered the 1st anticholesterol statin from a mold that grows on oranges. By 2006 the statin market reached $25 billion a year.
    (WSJ, 1/9/06, p.A1)

1973        The gastric brooding frog (Rheobatracchus silus) was discovered in southeastern Queensland. The female frog swallows her eggs which then develop in her stomach and come up fully formed from her mouth.
    (PacDisc, Spring ‘96, p.8)

1973        William Jefferson Clinton graduated from law school at Yale.
    (WSJ, 2/23/99, p.A1)

1973        The class of 1973 was Princeton’s first coeducational class and included Lisa Halaby, who became the Queen Noor of Jordan.
    (WSJ, 6/5/98, p.W13)

1973        Oil was discovered off the coast of Louisiana at the underwater site called Eugene Island 330. By 1989 production slowed to 4,000 barrels from a peak of 15,000 and then suddenly increased and in 1999 produced 13,000 barrels a day. Geologists were unable to account for the source of the oil.
    (WSJ, 4/16/99, p.A1)

1973        The first piece of land to be declared critical habitat was the Antioch sand dunes at the confluence of the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers in the delta region of central California. Case studies of the area by Bruce Pavlik indicated that "plants will face reproductive bottlenecks if the reserves they are nestled in become too small to sustain their animal mutualists, creatures long associated with particular plants which provide them their food and shelter."
    (Pac. Disc., summer, ‘96, p.27)

1973        Murchison Falls National Park, Uganda. 14,300 elephants were in the park. By 1980 only 1,400 were left.
    (NG, May 1985, R. Caputo, p.627)

1973        David Pelzer (12) was rescued from horrifying family abuse that included starvation and physical beating. In 1998 his 2 books, based on his childhood in Daly City, Ca., made the NY Times best-seller list: "A Child Called It" and "A Lost Boy." His father was a SF fireman and his mother was a homemaker with 4 other sons who were spared the abuse.
    (SFC, 7/30/98, p.C1)

1973        John Ford, film director, died. In 1999 Scott Eyman authored "Print the Legend: The Life and Times of John Ford." In 2001 Joseph McBride authored "Searching for John Ford."
    (SFEC, 11/14/99, BR p.3)(WSJ, 11/26/99, p.W8)(SSFC, 7/1/01, DB p.59)

1973        Henry Green (aka Henry Yorke), writer, died. His 1st novel was "Blindness" and his last novel was published in 1952. In 2001 Jeremy Treglown authored "Romancing: The Life and Work of Henry Green."
    (SSFC, 3/25/01, BR p.5)

1973        B.S. Johnson, English novelist, committed suicide.
    (SSFC, 3/31/02, p.M1)

1973        Fritz Kredel (b.1900), German-born artist, died. He emigrated to the US in 1938 and did work in the medieval style of Albrecht Durer.
    (WSJ, 11/7/00, p.A24)

1973        Ben Webster, tenor saxophone player, died in Amsterdam. A documentary by Johan van der Keuken was made earlier called: "Big Ben: Ben Webster in Europe."
    (WSJ, 3/2019/98, p.W6)

1973        Abu Dhabi and other oil producers had a massive surge in revenue following an oil-price surge.
    (WSJ, 10/21/05, p.A10)

1973        From Argentina Colonel Cabanillas returned to Italy to oversea the exhumation of the body of Eva Peron and its return to Buenos Aires.
    (SFC, 2/3/98, p.A15)

1973        In Australia the government eliminated its White Australia Policy, an immigration policy which favored applicants from certain countries.
    (SFC, 5/9/97, p.E3)(www.multiculturalaustralia.edu.au/hotwords/hottext.php?id=78)

1973        The Univ. of Art and Industrial Design in Linz was founded was established.
    (StuAus, April '95, p.83)

1973        A new constitution established a Bahrain national assembly.
    (SFC, 12/25/00, p.B2)

1973        In Bangladesh the Shanti Bahini (Peace Force) guerillas, mostly members of the Chakma tribe, took up arms after Bangladesh rejected their demands for autonomy over 5,500 sq.-mile region bordering India and Burma. They also demanded the removal of more than 300,000 settlers from their tribal homeland.
    (SFC, 9/12/96, p.A14)

1973        The Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunications (SWIFT) was founded in Brussels. After September 11, 2001, it was used by the US to track terrorist financing.
    (WSJ, 6/23/06, p.A1)(www.swift.com/index.cfm?item_id=1243)

1973        Bolivia’s Pres. Hugo Banzer met with Chilean military authorities. The Chilean military Operation Condor sought Chilean exiles in Bolivia and other countries for return to Chile for execution.
    (SFEC, 11/29/98, p.A26)

1973        Brazil’s Agricultural Research Corp. (Empresa Brasileira de Pesquesa Agropecuaria, aka Embrapa) was set up as a public company by the ruling generals. It grew to become the world’s leading tropical research institution.
    (Econ, 8/28/10, p.59)
1973        The Transamazonica Highway (a.k.a. the Highway of Tears) was completed. It stretched over 5,000 km. along the southern edge of the Amazonian plain from the interior town of Rio Branco eastward to Estreito.
    (CNT, Nov., 1994, p.20)
1973        The Arab oil embargo doubled Brazil’s import bill with a year.
    (Econ, 11/14/09, SR p.5)

1973        The Whitbread Book awards were established for residents of Britain and the Republic of Ireland.
    (SFC, 1/30/03, p.E3)
1973        A British law said the yardstick for judging business behavior was the “public interest."
    (Econ, 2/17/07, p.78)
1973        Lord Lambton (1922-2006), British undersecretary of defense for the Royal Air Force, resigned after he was photographed smoking marijuana in bed with two prostitutes.
    (AP, 1/2/07)
1973        Hans Gruneberg (1907-1982), British geneticist, began paying attention to a bundle of nerve cells in mammalian noses that came to be called the Gruneberg ganglion. In 2009 Swiss scientists said research had shown that the bundle in mice was used to detect alarm pheromones in other mice.
    (SSFC, 3/8/09, Par p.12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hans_Gr%C3%BCneberg)

1973        British Honduras legally changed its name to Belize.
    (SFC, 11/2/00, p.A12)

1973        Chile’s Gen’l. Pinochet, following his Sep 11 coup, instituted free-market reforms, but left the mines under state control. He merged them into a single-state owned enterprise (Codelco) and required it to hand over 10% of its export revenues to the armed forces.
    (Econ, 10/23/10, p.44)
1973        In 2006 Chile’s government-owned La Nacion newspaper reported that at least 22 dissidents, who disappeared under the dictatorship of Gen. Augusto Pinochet, were killed at the secretive German commune-like Dignity Colony and their bodies later burned with chemicals. It was later alleged that the leaders of the Dignity Colony under Paul Schaefer engaged in sexual abuse and cult-like activity and helped the Chilean secret police operate a concentration camp after the military coup.
    (AP, 7/23/06)(SFC, 6/27/97, p.A14)
1973        Chile’s secret police took over a mansion in Santiago that had served as the Spanish Embassy in the 1950s. In 2006 the mansion reopened as the Salvador Allende Solidarity Museum.
    (SSFC, 2/26/06, p.F8)
1973        Chilean navy officers allegedly used the tall ship Esmeralda as a hideaway for interrogation and torture.
    (SFC,10/23/97, p.A24)

1973        The Czech government revoked the performance license of The Plastic People of the Universe band.
    (SFEC, 3/7/99, DB p.35)

1973        Denmark instituted a procedure of chemical castration for sex offenders.
    (SFC, 8/31/96, p.A12)

1973        Juan Bosch resigned from the Dominican Revolutionary Party, founded by exiles in Cuba, and formed the moderate Dominican Liberation Party.
    (SFC, 5/12/98, p.A21)(SFC, 11/2/01, p.D6)

1973        In Ethiopia the Oromo Liberation Front (OLF) was formed to seek greater autonomy for Oromia region.
    (AFP, 11/10/06)

1973        Sixteen countries signed a convention establishing a European patent. The first applications were filed 5 years later. By 2012 signatory countires reached 38 including the EU’s 27 members.
    (Econ, 12/15/12, p.66)

1973        French singer Maxime le Forrestier produced his song “La Maison Bleue" (The Blue House). It was based on a house at 3841 18th St. in San Francisco, where he lived in 1971.
    (www.youtube.com/watch?v=q61cFrsB9Gw)(SFC, 9/25/10, p.E1)
1973        French wines were re-ranked according to taste, rather than price, and Mouton Rothschild was elevated to the first rank.
    (SFEC, 2/1/98, p.T4)
1973        A Frenchman invented a standard Eurobarometer poll to show how various member countries agreed and disagreed. The first poll was published in 1974.
    (Econ, 2/23/08, p.72)(http://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/standard_en.htm)
1973        Antoine Riboud (1918-2002) merged his glassware company BSN with the dairy business Gervais Danone, creating Danone, the biggest food group in France. The group stopped making glass in 1981.
    (http://tinyurl.com/7zxts)(Econ, 11/19/05, p.70)

1973        German film director Rainer Werner Fassbinder made "Martha," based on a story by American writer Cornell Woolrich.
    (SFC, 7/24/97, p.E3)
1973        Musica Antiqua Köln was founded by violinist Reinhard Goebel.
    (WSJ, 3/28/97, p.A14)
1973        Germany shut the door to new guest workers, who were mostly Turks, which encouraged migrants to import their families.
    (Econ, 4/5/08, p.32)
1973        Lidl began operating in Germany as a grocery chain. The company was founded in the 1940s by a member of the Schwarz family, and was called Schwarz Lebensmittel-Sortimentsgroßhandlung (Schwarz Assorted Wholesale Foods). By 2015 it was one of the world’s biggest “deep discount" grocers. 
    (Econ., 3/14/15, p.66)

1973        Indian PM Indira Gandhi visited Canada.
    (AP, 4/15/15)
1973        India began Project Tiger and established a network of tiger reserves. Under Indira Gandhi 9 national parks were set aside to protect tigers. 14 more were later added. By 2010 the tiger population dropped to 1,400 from 40,000 a century earlier.
    (http://projecttiger.nic.in/introduction.htm)(SFEC, 8/11/96, p.A16)(NG, 12/97, p.13)(Econ, 9/11/10, p.52)

1973        Iraq launched a biological weapons program.
    (SFEC, 3/7/99, p.A18)

1973        Louise O'Keeffe (9) was sexually abused by a lay teacher at a state-backed Roman Catholic school during lessons in his classroom. She later argued that the Irish state failed to put in place appropriate measures to stop "systematic abuse" at the Dunderrow National School.
    (AP, 1/28/14)

1973        Italian tire maker Pirelli introduced steel-belted radial tires.
    (Econ, 2/27/10, TQ p.5)

1973        The Japanese Red Army and Lebanese guerrillas hijacked a Japan Airlines plane over the Netherlands. The passengers and crew were released in Libya where the hijackers blew up the plane.
    (SFC, 11/9/00, p.C2)
1973        Kikkoman became the first Japanese food company to open a factory in America.
    (Econ, 4/11/09, p.68)
1973        Yamada Denki, a Japanese retailer of home appliances, was founded.
    (Econ, 9/11/10, p.78)

1973        In Kenya the Undugu Society was founded to help needy children. In 2006 children on the streets of Nairobi numbered in the tens of thousands.
    (AP, 7/1/06)

1973        In Kuwait Law No. 14 established the Constitutional Court, which has exclusive jurisdiction to interpret the constitutionality of legislation and is empowered to review electoral contestations. The Court is comprised of five members who are chosen by the Judicial Council.

1973        In Mexico the New Jerusalem community was founded in Michoacan state by Nabor Cardenas, "Papa Nabor," a defrocked parish priest who said it was based on messages from the Virgin Mary relayed by an illiterate old woman. The renegade Catholic priest objected to the abandonment of Latin masses and other modernization moves.
    (AP, 8/22/12)
1973        Peasants in Baja (Mexico) formed a cooperative called the Ejido Coronel Estaban Cantu and leased lots to developers, residents and retirees who built expensive homes other structures. In 1999 officials tried to carry out an eviction notice in favor of the original landowners. In 2000 the Supreme Court ruled in favor of several private companies, including Purua Punta Estero SA, and began evicting US retirees.
    (SFEC, 11/21/99, p.A23)(SFC, 10/31/00, p.A12)

1973        Montana Wines introduced grapevines to the Marlborough region of New Zealand pushing out the garlic that had been the area’s hallmark crop.
    (SFC, 4/11/08, p.F4)

1973        The Dutch government built the Van Gogh Museum.
    (Econ, 1/21/06, p.81)

1973        Nigeria created a National Youth Service Corps to promote national unity in a country with more than 150 ethnic groups and to help reconcile the people after a 31-month civil war claimed as many as 1 million lives. It called for a mandatory yearlong assignment for all Nigerians who graduate from university before the age of 30.
    (AP, 4/23/11)

1973        North Korea made a filmed version of the 8-act opera "The Flower Girl" and showed it across China.
    (WSJ, 2/23/99, p.A20)
1973        Kim Jong il, son of North Korean leader Kim Il Sung, authored “On the Subject of the Cinema." A collection of his reviews, titled “The Art of Cinema," was published in 2001.

1973        Kashmir Singh (b.1941) was arrested for espionage in the Pakistani city of Rawalpindi. His cover story was that he was a trader in electronic goods traveling on business. During his trial in the 1970s, Singh had repeatedly denied he was an agent for Indian military intelligence. Following his release in 2008 he admitted that he had been a spy.
    (AP, 3/8/08)

1973        Sheikh Ahmed Yassin (1937-2004), Palestinian co-founder of Hamas, founded Al-Mujamma Al-Islami (the Islamic Association), an Islamic charity group.
    (SFC, 4/25/02, p.A1)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ahmed_Yassin)

1973        Paraguay’s Pres. Stroessner led a $20 billion joint venture with Brazil to build Itaipu, at this time the world’s largest hydroelectric dam.
    (SFC, 8/17/06, p.A10)

1973        Peru outlawed the export of rain forest birds.
    (NG, Jan. 94, p.124)

1973        In Poland scientists gathered to celebrate the 500th anniversary of Copernicus. Cambridge physicist Brandon Carter gave a lecture and coined the phrase "anthropomorphic principle" to describe to describe the idea of an intelligent guide at work in the evolution of humans. This is one item used by Patrick Glynn in his 1997 book: "God: The Evidence" to support the idea of god with scientific evidence.
    (WSJ, 12/23/97, p.A12)

1973        The Saudi Arabian government acquired a 25% stake in Aramco, following US support for Israel during the Yom Kippur War. It increased its shareholding to 60% by 1974, and finally took full control of Aramco by 1980 by acquiring a 100% percent stake in the company.

1973        In Singapore the Bukit Brown Chinese cemetery, the largest outside of China, closed to new applicants. In 2013 plans proceeded on an 8-lane expressway through it.
    (Econ, 4/6/13, p.52)

1973        In South Africa Eugene Terre’Blanche (1941-2010) founded the Afrikaner Resistance Movement, with an ideology that blacks were not only inferior but also a mortal threat to the Afrikaner volk.
    (Econ, 4/10/10, p.88)
1973        Fossils of 190 million year old dinosaur embryos were unearthed in South Africa. They belonged to a plant-eating group called prosauropods named Massospondylus (bulky vertebrae) first discovered in 1854.
    (SFC, 7/29/05, p.A2)

1973        In South Korea the government imported live bullfrogs as a meat supplement. The frogs thrived but did not catch on with diners. In 1997 a bullfrog eradication program was established.
    (WSJ, 9/10/97, p.A14)
1973        Chung Ju-yung (1915-2001), North Korea-born founder of Hyundai (1947), founded Hyundai Heavy Industries, a South Korean ship builder. It grew to become the world’s largest ship builder.

1973        Canadian Judy Feld Carr established a network to help Syrian Jews, barred from traveling, to leave the country clandestinely. Over the next 28 years she helped over 3,000 Jews leave Syria.
    (SSFC, 6/28/09, p.A8)

1973        In Swaziland political parties were banned and a state of emergency was declared.
    (Econ, 2/18/06, p.48)

1973        Syria acquired chemical weapons from Egypt just before war with Israel.
    (SSFC, 5/4/03, p.A11)

1973        Taiwan’s Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI) was founded.
    (Econ, 5/29/10, p.66)

1973        Tunisia banned the marriage of Muslim to non-Muslims. The ban was lifted in 2017.
    (AFP, 9/14/17)

1973        In Uganda some 14,300 elephants were in the Murchison Falls National Park at this time. By 1980 only 1,400 were left.
    (NG, May 1985, p.627)

1973        In Vietnam many of the Nung joined the South Vietnamese army after American ground forces were withdrawn.
    (SFC, 6/18/97, p.A10)
1973        The Vietnam War (1959-1973) resulted in the death of 58,153 (58,167) Americans, 1.1 [1.2] million North Vietnamese and Southern resistance fighters (Viet cong), and 2 million civilians. In 2002 the book "War Torn: Stories of War From the Women Reporters Who Covered Vietnam" was published. The reporters included Tad Bartimus, Denby Fawcett, Jurate Kazickas, Edie Lederer, Ann Moriano, Anne Merrick, Laura Palmer, Kate Webb, and Tracy Wood.
    (WSJ, 11/30/95, p.A-23)(SFEM, 11/10/96, p.12)(SFC, 10/3/97, p.B14)(SSFC, 9/1/02, p.M3)

1973-1974    A market collapse was experienced on Wall Street. Warren Buffet used the market weakness to purchase stocks at attractive values.
    (WSJ, 8/18/95, p.C-1)
1973-1974    Britain experienced a secondary-banking crises after too much lending to property developers helped cause London’s worst year of the 20th century.
    (Econ, 10/13/07, p.83)
1973-1974    Erskine Hamilton Childers (1905-1974) served as the 4th president of Ireland.
    (SFC, 4/9/96, p.A17)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erskine_Hamilton_Childers)
1973-1974    In Pakistan sporadic fighting between the Baluchi insurgency and the army started in 1973. The largest confrontation took place in September 1974 when around 15,000 Balochs fought the Pakistani Army and the Air Force.

1973-1975    Alan Davidson served as the British ambassador to Laos.
    (WSJ, 11/12/99, p.W13)

1973-1979    Some 15,000 Balochi men, women and children were killed by the Pakistan army and the Frontier Corps.

1973-1980    Gen’l. Augusto Pinochet led a 17-year dictatorship. He enacted a constitution that reserves 4 Senate seats for former military commanders and the national police. Under his rule the Chilean military Operation Condor was begun where Chilean exiles in Bolivia and other countries were sought for return to Chile for execution. Some 3,000 people were killed or disappeared during Pinochet’s rule. In 2004 John Dinges authored "The Condor Years: How Pinochet and His Allies Brought Terrorism to Three Continents."
    (SFC,12/12/97, p.B6)(SFEC, 11/29/98, p.A26)(SSFC, 2/14/04, p.M6)(Econ, 9/27/08, p.52)

1973-1985    In Uruguay a dictatorship during this period resulted in least 30 victims disappearing. In 2009 Uruguay's ruling party planned to pay $17.4 million in reparations to victims of state oppression during this period.
    (AP, 8/13/09)(AP, 12/2/11)

1973-1989    In north Dublin, Ireland, Ray Burke, a Fianna Fail lawmaker, was accused in 2002 of corruption and taking some $300,000 in payments from property developers during this period.
    (SSFC, 9/29/02, p.F6)

1973-1990    Chile’s National Information Center was the secret police agency under Gen. Pinochet. It was headed by Gen. Hugo Salas. Some 3,000 people were killed or disappeared during this period. Another 38,254 were imprisoned or tortured.
    (SFC, 10/30/99, p.A13)(Econ, 9/14/13, p.48)

1973-1996    In Brazil the Pastoral Land Commission, a Catholic supported human rights group, said that there have been 575 murders of rural workers over this time in the Para state and only three trials. One defendant received a suspended sentence and the other 2 escaped from jail.
    (SFC, 6/26/96, p.A8)

1973-1997    Some 11,000 Laotians were killed or wounded during this period by left over American bombs.
    (SFEC,11/2/97, p.A19)

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