Timeline 1971

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1971        Jan 1, The United States began a second decade of involvement in Vietnam.
    (HN, 1/1/99)
1971        Jan 1, The US government ban on TV  Cigarette ads went into effect.
    (SFEC, 9/15/96, DB p.55)(AP, 4/1/98)

1971        Jan 3, At the top of the record charts: "My Sweet Lord and Isn’t It" a Pity by George Harrison; "Knock Three Times" by Dawn; "Black Magic Woman" by Santana; and "Rose Garden" by Lynn Anderson.

1971        Jan 5, Pres. Nixon named Robert Dole as chairman of the Republican National Party.
    (HN, 1/5/01)
1971        Jan 5, Sonny Liston (b.1932), World Champion boxer (1962-64), was found dead in his Las Vegas home.

1971        Jan 6, The 1964 Gulf of Tonkin resolution, which amounted to a declaration of war against Vietnam, was repealed by Congress. US Senators Wayne Morse of Oregon and Ernest Gruening of Alaska share the distinction of casting the only votes against the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution on August 7, 1964. The resolution supported President Lyndon Johnson's military actions against North Vietnam in retaliation for its attack on a US spy ship in the Tonkin Gulf. The resolution passed in the House 414-0 and the Senate 88-2.

1971        Jan 8, 29 pilot whales beached themselves and died at San Clemente Island, off Calif.

1971        Jan 10, "Masterpiece Theatre" premiered on PBS with host Alistair Cooke introducing a drama series, "The First Churchills."
    (AP, 1/10/01)
1971        Jan 10, Gabrielle "Coco" Chanel (b.1883), French fashion designer, died in Paris. In 2011 Hal Vaughan authored “Sleeping With the Enemy: Coco Chanel’s Secret War."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coco_Chanel)(SSFC, 8/21/11, p.F5)

1971        Jan 12, The situation comedy "All in the Family" with Carroll O’Connor (1924-2001) as Archie Bunker, began on CBS TV and ran to 1983. It later became "Archie Bunker’s Place." It was the first video-taped sitcom. Producers Bud Yorkin (1926-2015) and Norman Lear adopted the 1964 British series "Till Death Do Us Part," written by Johnny Speight (d.1998 at 78) for the sitcom.
    (SFEC, 5/24/98, DB p.39)(AP, 1/12/00)(SFC, 6/22/01, p.A1)(SFC, 8/19/15, p.A10)
1971        Jan 12, Dale Bumpers (1925-2016) began serving as the 38th governor of Arkansas and continued to 1975. He then served four terms in the US Senate (1975-1999).
    (SSFC, 1/3/16, p.A15)
1971        Jan 12, Jimmy Carter (b.1924) was sworn in as the 76th governor of Georgia.
1971        Jan 12, A federal grand jury indicted Rev. Philip Berrigan and 5 others, including a nun & 2 priests, on charges of plotting to kidnap Henry Kissinger. On 5 September 1972 the Justice Department dropped all charges.

1971        Jan 15, George Harrison’s "My Sweet Lord" was released in the UK. The US release was in 1970.
1971        Jan 15, Egypt’s Aswan High Dam, 600 miles upstream from Cairo, was formally inaugurated. It had been completed Jul 21, 1970.

1971        Jan 18, Two Standard Oil tankers collided in the fog a quarter mile west of the Golden Gate Bridge. The Arizona Standard ripped into the Oregon Standard and caused the spill of some 1.9 million gallons of heavy bunker oil.
    (SFEC, 2/23/96, Z1 p.5)

1971        Jan 19, The revival of "No, No Nanette," first produced on March 11, 1925, opened at 46th St Theater NYC and continued for 861 performances.

1971        Jan 22, Communist forces shelled Phnom Penh, Cambodia for the first time.
    (HN, 1/22/99)

1971        Jan 24, Bill Wilson (b.1895), co-founder of AA (1935), died. In 2004 Susan Cheever authored "My Name Is Bill: Bill Wilson, His life and the Creation of Alcoholics Anonymous."
    (SSFC, 2/07/04, p.M3)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bill_W.)
1971        Jan 24, Pvt. Rogelio Roxas (d.1993), a former Filipino soldier, allegedly discovered the war treasure of Japanese Gen’l. Tomoyuki Yamashita in caves near Baguio City. Roxas was arrested on May 18, 1971, and jailed for 5 years. The gold bullion was reportedly taken away by Pres. Marcos.
    (SFC, 10/12/97, p.A18)(SSFC, 3/4/01, p.A28)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rogelio_Roxas)

1971        Jan 25, Charles Manson and three female followers were convicted in Los Angeles of murder and conspiracy in the 1969 slayings of seven people, including actress Sharon Tate.
    (AP, 1/25/98)(SFEC, 5/23/99, Z1 p.4)
1971        Jan 25, The Philadelphia mint made its 1st trial strike of the Eisenhower dollar.
1971        Jan 25, In Milan, Italy, firebombs damaged the Pirelli tire factory.
    (WSJ, 12/13/07, p.A18)
1971        Jan 25, In Uganda Gen. Idi Amin (d.2003) led a military coup that seized power while Pres. Obote was at a summit in Singapore. Obote sought refuge in Tanzania.
    (WUD, 1994, p. 1688)(SFC, 10/12/05, p.B7)

1971        Jan 29, "My Sweet Lord" by George Harrison hit #1 on UK pop chart.

1971        Jan 31, Astronauts Alan B. Shepard Jr., Edgar D. Mitchell and Stuart A. Roosa blasted off aboard Apollo 14 on a mission to the moon.
    (AP, 1/31/98)

1971        Jan, Fred Speaker (1930-1996), attorney general of Pennsylvania, ordered the dismantling of the electric chair at the Rockview Correctional Institution on his last day in office.
    (SFC, 9/17/96, p.A22)(http://tinyurl.com/6qxtu6)
1971        Jan, Intel Corp. created the first microprocessor. The 4004, the world's first microprocessor, is signed with the initials F.F., for Federico Faggin, its designer. The 4004 was released in 16-pin CERDIP packaging on November 15, 1971.
1971        Jan, Gen. Juan Jose Torres dismissed Hugo Banzer from his position as director of the military academy. Banzer followed with a coup attempt and was exiled to Argentina.

1971        Feb 1, The soundtrack album from the movie, "Love Story", starring Ryan O’Neal and Ali McGraw, with music by Frances Lai, was certified as a gold record on this day.
    (440 Int'l, 2/1/1999)
1971        Feb 1, Evonne Goolagong (b.1951) scored her first major senior singles victory as she defeated Margaret Court in the finals of the Victorian Open, played in Melbourne, Australia.
    (440 Int'l, 2/1/1999)
1971        Feb 1, The three astronauts aboard the Apollo XIV overcame a difficult docking problem but faced a critical test to determine whether they could land on the moon.
    (G&M, 1/31/96, p.A-2)

1971        Feb 2, The Apollo XIV astronauts confirmed that they would attempt a lunar landing.
    (G&M, 2/2/96, p.A-2)
1971        Feb 2, The Ramsar Convention, officially titled “The Convention on Wetlands of International Importance, especially as Waterfowl Habitat," was developed and adopted by participating nations at a meeting in Ramsar, Iran. Swiss conservationist Luc Hoffman (1923-2016) oversaw the signing. It came into force on December 21, 1975. The US ratified the Ramsar agreement in 1986.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ramsar_Convention)(NH, 5/01, p.35)(Econ, 8/6/16, p.74)
1971        Feb 2, Idi Amin assumed power in Uganda, following a coup that ousted President Milton Obote. Idi Amin Dada (1925-2003) appointed himself president.
    (AP, 2/2/97)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Idi_Amin)

1971        Feb 3, OPEC decided to set oil prices without consulting buyers.
    (HN, 2/3/99)

1971        Feb 4, Rolls-Royce collapsed due to rising development costs on the RB.211, the sole powerplant selected for the Lockheed TriStar. The Conservative nationalized the company to save it from collapse.
    (http://widebodyaircraft.nl/chro1971.htm)(Econ, 1/10/09, p.11)

1971        Feb 5, Apollo 14 lander Antares landed on Moon. Astronauts Shepard & Mitchell walked on the moon.
    (http://www.astronautix.com/flights/apollo14.htm)(HN, 2/5/99)

1971        Feb 6, In Wilmington, NC, Mike's Grocery, a white-owned business, was firebombed. When firefighters arrived to put out the flames, they were fired upon by snipers positioned on the roof of Gregory Congregational Church. The National Guard was mobilized to quell rioting. The violence resulted in two deaths. Reverend Benjamin Chavis, Jr. of Oxford, North Carolina, and nine others, eight African American men and one white woman, were arrested and tried and convicted for arson and conspiracy in connection with the firebombing. They were sentenced to nearly 28 years in prison. Chavis Muhammad (b.1948), a member of the Wilmington 10, was sentenced in 1972 to 34 years in prison. He spent 4 years in prison before his conviction was overturned on appeal. In 1980 a federal appeals court threw out the convictions.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wilmington_Ten)(SFC, 2/25/97, p.A10)(SFC, 1/1/13, p.A4)(www.notablebiographies.com/Ch-Co/Chavis-Muhammad-Benjamin.html)
1971        Feb 6, Alan Shepard hit a golf ball on the Moon during the Apollo 14 mission.

1971        Feb 7, Switzerland voted to introduce female suffrage at the federal but not the cantonal level.
    (WUD, 1994, p. 1688)(AP, 2/7/01)

1971        Feb 8, NASDAQ, an automated unit of the National Association of Securities Dealers, went live under the leadership of Gordon Macklin (1928-2007).
    (WSJ, 2/3/07, p.A8)(Econ., 12/19/20, p.98)
1971        Feb 8, South Vietnamese ground forces, backed by American air power, began Operation Lam Son 719, a 17,000 man incursion into Laos that ended three weeks later in a disaster.

1971        Feb 9, Satchel Paige became the 1st negro-league player elected to baseball HOF.
1971        Feb 9, The "Apollo 14" spacecraft returned to Earth after man's third landing on the moon.
    (AP, 2/9/99)
1971        Feb 9, In San Fernando, Ca., a 6.5 earthquake killed 65 people.
    (SFEC, 10/17/99, p.A3)

1971        Feb 10, The play "The House of Blue Leaves" by John Guare (b.1938), American playwright, opened off Broadway.
    (SFEC, 5/30/99, DB p.37)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_House_of_Blue_Leaves)
1971        Feb 10, Combat photographers Henri Huet of AP, Kent Potter of UPI, Larry Burrows (b.1926) of Life Magazine and Keisaburo Shimamato of Newsweek were killed in a helicopter crash over Laos. In 2003 Richard Pyle and Horst Faas authored "Lost Over Laos: A True Story of Tragedy, Mystery and Friendship."
    (WSJ, 5/22/98, p.W12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Larry_Burrows)(SSFC, 3/23/03, p.M5)

1971        Feb 11, Pres. Nixon issued Executive Order 11582 dealing with holidays given to federal employees.
    (SFC, 2/21/05, p.A7)
1971        Feb 11, John Connally (1917-1993) replaced David Kennedy as Treasury Secretary under Richard Nixon. He instituted a 10% surcharge on imports and repudiated fixed exchange rates.
1971        Feb 11, In SF Officer Charles Lagasa was killed in an accidental helicopter crash at Lake Merced.
    (SFC, 1/27/07, p.A8)
1971        Feb 11, Whitney Young Jr. (b.1921), National Urban League director, drowned in Nigeria.

1971        Feb 12, James Cash Penney (b.1875), US founder of the J.C. Penney stores, died in NYC. His first store, a branch of the Colorado based Golden Rule stores (1902), was in Kemmerer, Wyoming.

1971        Feb 14, Moscow publicized a new five-year plan geared to expanding consumer production.
    (HN, 2/14/98)

1971        Feb 15, Britain abandoned the unit of the penny on Decimal Day, February 15, 1971, replacing the shilling with five new pence, so that one pound sterling became divided into 100 new pence.

1971        Feb 16, Richard Nixon began secret recordings using a newly installed taping system in White House.
    (SFC, 12/1/97, p.A7)( http://tapes.millercenter.virginia.edu/tapes/nixon/overview)
1971        Feb 20, The National Emergency Warning Center in Colorado erroneously ordered radio and TV stations across the US to go off the air; some stations heeded the alert, which was not lifted for about 40 minutes.
    (AP, 2/20/01)
1971        Feb 20, Young people protested having to cut their long hair in Athens, Greece.
    (HN, 2/19/98)

1971        Feb 21, A series of tornadoes cut through the lower Mississippi River Valley. The two-day outbreak, which produced 19 tornadoes, killed 123 people across 3 states, including 11 in Louisiana, 110 in Mississippi, and 2 in North Carolina.

1971        Feb 24, Algeria nationalized French oil companies.

1971        Feb 25, "Oh, Calcutta" opened at the Belasco Theater.
    (www.broadwayworld.com/bwidb/sections/productions/index.php?var=2746)(SFEC, 11/3/96, DB p.38)

1971        Feb 28, The male electorate in Lichtenstein refused to give voting rights to women.
    (HN, 2/28/98)

1971        Feb, Fusako Shigenobu broke from the Japanese Communist league and founded a faction of The Japanese Red Army with the goal of worldwide communist revolution. She entered Lebanon and linked with the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine. Shigenobu was arrested in 2000 and in 2006 was sentenced to 20 years in prison.
    (SFC, 11/9/00, p.C2)(AP, 2/22/06)(www.fas.org/irp/world/para/jra.htm)
1971        Feb-1973 Jul,    Pres. Nixon kept over 3000 hours of tapes that were ordered to be released by Congress in 1975. Univ. of Wisconsin historian Stanley Kutler won release of the tapes and had 201 hours transcribed for his 1997 book "Abuse of Power."
    (SFC, 4/13/96, p.A-2)(LVRJ, 11/1/97, p.4A)

1971        Mar 1, The Weather Underground bombed the US Capitol building claiming it to be in protest of US involvement in Laos. The bomb exploded in a Capitol restroom 30 minutes after a telephone warning. Some $200,000 in damage was caused with no injuries.
    (HNQ, 7/30/98)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Capitol)(SFC, 7/25/98, p.A6)

1971        Mar 3, Levi Strauss & Co., SF-based jeans maker, went public.
    (SFC, 4/29/03, B1)(http://tinyurl.com/5wnfjx)
1971        Mar 3, South African Broadcasting Corp lifted its ban on the Beatles.

1971        Mar 4, Five Turkish militants (the Turkish Revolutionay Army) kidnapped 4 US military men in Ankara. The kidnappers released the four airmen unharmed on March 8, and were subsequently arrested, tried and convicted. Three were hanged, one was imprisoned, and one was killed in a gunfight with Turkish authorities.
    (www.prophetofdoom.net/Islamic_Terrorism_Timeline_1971.Islam)(Econ, 8/13/16, p.21)
1971        Mar 4, Canadian Prime Minister Pierre Elliott Trudeau (52) married Margaret Sinclair (22) in North Vancouver, B.C. They later divorced.
    (AP, 3/4/99)(SFC, 9/29/00, p.D7)

1971        Mar 8, Radio Hanoi broadcast Jimi Hendrix's "Star Spangled Banner."
1971        Mar 8, Joe Frazier fought Muhammad Ali for the heavyweight championship at Madison Square Garden. Frazier won. They fought rematches in 1974 and 1975. In 2001 Mark Kram authored "Ghosts of Manila," and account of the Frazier-Ali boxing matches.
    (WSJ, 5/25/01, p.W8)(http://espn.go.com/classic/s/silver_ali_frazier.html)
1971        Mar 8, Pres. Nixon expressed his bigotry against women, blacks and Mexicans and Italians on tape recordings that were only made public in 1998.
    (SFEC, 12/27/98, p.a15)
1971        Mar 8, Catholic radicals in Media, Pa., broke into the local FBI offices and stole documents that revealed the agency’s illegal activities against radical groups and leaked them to the media. In 2014 Betty Medsger authored “The Burglary: The Discovery of J. Edgar Hoover’s Secret FBI." Prof. John Raines (1933-2017) and his wife Bonnie were among the eight antiwar activists who took part in the burglary.
    (SSFC, 1/12/14, p.F1)(SSFC, 11/19/17, p.C9)(SSFC, 3/7/21, p.A1)
1971        Mar 8, Harold Lloyd (b.1893), US comic, actor (Why Worry), died of cancer. Lloyd, an avid 3-D photographer, left behind a large collection that included thousands of nude women as subjects. In 2004 granddaughter Suzanne Lloyd published “Hollywood Nudes in 3-D."
    (www.haroldlloyd.us/articles/biog3.htm)(SSFC, 11/21/04, p.M1)
1971        Mar 8, Joe Frazier fought Muhammad Ali for the heavyweight championship. Frazier won. They fought rematches in 1974 and 1975. In 2001 Mark Kram authored "Ghosts of Manila," and account of the Frazier-Ali boxing matches.
    (WSJ, 5/25/01, p.W8)

1971        Mar 10, The US Senate approved an amendment to lower the voting age to 18. On June 30, 1971, the amendment received ratification by the 38 required states, and became law.
1971        Mar 10, In France a group of homosexuals of both sexes disrupted a live general public radio show, devoted to “Homosexuality, that painful problem," and put the newly-born gay movement on the French political map.

1971        Mar 11, Philo T. Farnsworth (b.1906), inventor of television, died in Salt Lake City, Utah. Later Prof. Donald Godfrey authored "Philo T. Farnsworth: The Father of Television" and Evan I. Schwartz authored "The Last Lone Inventor."
    (SFC, 9/7/02, p.D1)(www.aoc.gov/cc/art/nsh/farnsworth.cfm)

1971        Mar 12, A Turkish coup d'état took place amid worsening domestic strife. It was the second to take place since 1960. Known as the "coup by memorandum," which the military delivered in lieu of sending out tanks, as it had done previously.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1971_Turkish_coup_d'%C3%A9tat)(WSJ, 3/7/97, p.A10)

1971        Mar 13, Rockwell Kent (b.1882), artist, illustrator and printmaker, died in New York. He was a member of the rugged realist school of landscape painters. In the 1930s he created a set of illustrations for "Moby Dick." In 1935 he authored “Salamina," a memoir of his first Arctic winter (1931–32) painting and exploring while based in the settlement of Igdlorssuit, Greenland. In 1960 he donated 80 paintings and 800 watercolors to the people of the Soviet Union.
    (WSJ, 8/15/00, p.A24)(SFC, 8/25/01, p.D12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rockwell_Kent)

1971        Mar 16, Thomas E. Dewey (b.1902), US president candidate (R 1944, 1948), died of a heart attack.

1971        Mar 18, U.S. helicopters airlifted 1,000 South Vietnamese soldiers out of Laos.
    (HN, 3/18/98)

1971        Mar 19, At least 160 people perished in landslides north of Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    (AP, 3/19/03)

1971        Mar 21, Daniel Ellsberg obtained a copy of the Pentagon Papers, commissioned by then-Defense Secretary Robert McNamara, from his former pentagon colleagues and showed it to Neil Sheehan, a young New York Times reporter, at Cambridge, Massachusetts.
    (SFC, 7/7/96, BR p.6)(www.topsecretplay.org/index.php/content/timeline)
1971        Mar 21, Two US platoons in Vietnam refused their orders to advance.
    (HN, 3/21/98)(www.isreview.org/issues/09/soldiers_revolt.shtml)
1971        Mar 21, In Laos South Vietnamese Marines at FSB Delta, south of Route 9, came under intense ground and artillery attacks. During an attempted extraction of the force, seven helicopters were shot down and another 50 were damaged, ending the evacuation attempt.
1971        Mar 21, Sheik Mujibur Rahman (Mujeeb-ur Rehman), head of the Awami League, declared East Pakistan (later Bangladesh) independent of Pakistan. Pakistani Pres. Yahya Khan ordered the army in; several million East Bengali refugees fled to India. Rahman was the father of later PM Hasina Wajid.
    (WUD, 1994, p. 1688)(SFC, 12/31/00, p.B3)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/East_Pakistan)

1971        Mar 23, The US Congress proposed the 26th Amendment lowering the voting age from 21 to 18. it was ratified on July 1, 1971. A similar law in 1970 had been challenged in court.
1971        Mar 23, USSR performed underground nuclear test.
1971        Mar 23, In Argentina General Alehandro Lanusse seized power in a bloodless coup from General Roberto Levingston. He proceeded to re-establish ties with China and allowed Juan Domingo Peron to return to Argentina after 17 years of forced exile.
    (SFC, 8/27/96, p.A17)(WUD, 1994, p. 1688)

1971        Mar 24, The Washington Post, after affirming the veracity of files sent by the Citizens' Commission to Investigate the FBI, ran a front-page story, at which points other media organizations followed suit. The files had been obtained on March 8 by anti-war activists in Media, Pa. The documents revealed the COINTELPRO operation, and led to the 1975 Church Committee and the cessation of this operation by the FBI.

1971        Mar 25, Sheik Mujibur Rahman was arrested in Dhaka. Pakistani forces started Operation Searchlight, a systematic plan to eliminate any resistance. Thousands of people were killed in student dormitories and police barracks in Dhaka.
    (WUD, 1994, p. 1688)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indo-Pakistani_War_of_1971)

1971        Mar 26, East Pakistan proclaimed its independence, taking the name Bangladesh. [See Mar 21] This is considered the official Independence day of Bangladesh. This sparked a nine-month war. Pakistani forces surrendered on Dec. 16, 1971.
    (AP, 3/26/97)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bangladesh_Liberation_War)(AP, 3/24/21)

1971        Mar 27, PM of India, Indira Gandhi, expressed full support of her government to the Bangladeshi struggle for independence. The Bangladesh-India border was opened to allow the Bangladeshi Refugees safe shelter in India.

1971        Mar 28, CBS aired the final broadcast of its Ed Sullivan Show. Reruns and pre-emptions aired in that time slot throughout the following April and May, and in June, CBS announced that The Ed Sullivan Show had been cancelled.
1971        Mar 28, In the 25th Tony Awards held in NYC “Sleuth" won for best play & “Company" won for best musical.

1971        Mar 29, Army Lt. William L. Calley Jr. (b.1943) was convicted of murdering at least 22 Vietnamese civilians in the March 16, 1968, My Lai massacre. Calley ended up spending three years under house arrest.
1971        Mar 29, A jury in Los Angeles recommended the death penalty for Charles Manson and three female followers for the 1969 Tate-La Bianca murders. The sentences were later commuted.

1971        Mar 31, US Lt. William Calley (b.1943) was sentenced to life for the My Lai Massacre.

1971        Mar, In Washington DC a bomb exploded in a Senate rest room. It caused extensive damage but no injuries. It occurred at a time of rising opposition to US policies in Vietnam.
    (SFC, 7/25/98, p.A6)
1971        Mar, Mexican fisherman Rudesindo Cantarell took geologists of Petroleos Mexicanos to an site where oil impacted his nets. The Cantarell field turned out to be one of the largest offshore oil fields ever found. In 2006-2006 production fell 20% as the reserve declined.
    (WSJ, 4/5/07, p.A1)

1971        Apr 1, President Richard M. Nixon ordered Lt. William Calley transferred from prison to house arrest at Fort Benning, Georgia, pending appeal.
1971        Apr 1, In San Francisco the Bay Area Reported published its first issue as a community and culture publication. It was begun by Bob Ross (d.2003 at 69) and Paul Bentley. Over the next 45 years it evolved to become a local news source and advocate for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) rights.
    (SFC, 12/12/03, p.A29)(SFC, 6/25/16, p.A9)

1971        Apr 2, The ABC sci-fi soap opera "Dark Shadows," which premiered in 1966, aired for the last time.

1971        Apr 3, Manfred Bennington Lee (65), detective writer, died. Brooklyn cousins Daniel  Nathan, alias Frederic Dannay (1905-1982) and Manford Lepofsky, alias Manfred Bennington Lee (b.1905), used Ellery Queen as both a fictional character and a pseudonym.
1971        Apr 3, Joseph Valachi (b.1903), US gangster, died at La Tuna Federal Correctional Institution in Texas. A biography heavily influenced by Valachi’s memoirs and by interviews with Valachi was written by journalist Peter Maas and published in 1968 as The Valachi Papers.

1971        Apr 4, Stephen Sondheim’s musical "Follies" was produced at the Winter Garden in NYC and ran for 524 performances. The book was written by James Goldman (d.1998 at 71).
    (www.nodanw.com/shows_f/follies.htm)(SFC, 1/20/98, p.E1)(SFC, 10/30/98, p.D4)

1971        Apr 5, In Sicily, Italy, Mount Etna began a series of eruptions.
1971        Apr 5-1971 Apr 23, In Ceylon (later Sri Lanka) the People’s Liberation Front attempted a nationwide coup, but the army and Mr. Bandaranaike’s government regained control.
    (WUD, 1994, p. 1688)

1971        Apr 6,    Igor Stravinsky (b.1882), Russian-born composer, died in NYC.
    (AP, 4/6/97)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Igor_Stravinsky)

1971        Apr 7, President Nixon pledged a withdrawal of 100,000 more men from Vietnam by December.
    (HN, 4/7/97)
1971        Apr 7, Pres. Nixon ordered Lt. Calley, imprisoned for the Mi Lai massacre, free.
    (MC, 4/7/02)
1971        Apr 7, Miro Baresic (b.1950), a declared pro-Ustasha who strived for Croatia's independence from Yugoslavia, and his friend Andelko Brajkovic shot Ambassador Vladimir Rolovic inside the Yugoslav embassy in Stockholm. A group of Croatian far-right radicals hijacked a Scandinavian Airlines passenger plane in 1972, forcing his release. He found refuge in Paraguay, but was eventually captured again and extradited to Sweden in 1980, where his life sentence was converted to 18 years. He returned to Croatia in 1991 where he was killed in fighting against Serb-led forces fighting against Croatia's independence.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Miro_Bare%C5%A1i%C4%87)(AP, 8/1/16)

1971        Apr 8, The 1st legal off-track betting (OTB) system began in NYC.

1971        Apr 9, Demonstrators occupying the Stanford Univ. Hospital administration offices clashed with police and 9 Palo Alto officers were injured. Police later raided the Stanford Daily to recover photos of the demonstrators.
    (SFC, 1/17/03, p.E8)

1971        Apr 10, The American table tennis team arrived in China.
    (HN, 4/10/98)(www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/china/peopleevents/pande07.html)

1971        Apr 14, President Nixon ended a blockade against People's Republic of China.

1971        Apr 15, In the 43rd Academy Awards "Patton" won for best picture and George C Scott won best actor for his role as Patton. Glenda Jackson won as best actress for her role in “Women in Love." George C. Scott (b.1927) refused his Oscar nomination for on grounds that actors should not have to compete against each other. He had refused it before in 1962 for his performance in "The Hustler."
    (www.super70s.com/Super70s/Movies/1970/Academy_Awards.asp)(WSJ, 5/13/96, p.A-16)
1971        Apr 15, North Vietnamese troops ambushed a company of Delta Raiders from the 101st Airborne Division near Fire Support Base Bastogne in Vietnam. The American troops were on a rescue mission.
    (HN, 4/15/99)

1971        Apr 17, In Vietnam Lance Corporal John Gillespie (24), an Australian army medic, died when his helicopter crashed and caught ablaze after coming under fire during a medical evacuation in the Minh Dam Mountains of southern Phuoc Tuy province. His remains were returned to Australia in 2007.
    (Reuters, 12/18/07)

1971        Apr 19, Charles Manson and 3 accomplices were sentenced to death for the Sharon Tate murders.
1971        Apr 19, Russia launched its first Salyut space station.
    (HN, 4/19/97)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salyut_1)

1971        Apr 20, The US Supreme Court, in Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education, upheld the use of busing to achieve racial desegregation in schools. The ruling allowed Charlotte, NC., and other cities nationwide to use mandatory busing and student assignment based on race to attempt to further integrate schools. The case arose in 1965 when a black parent, James E. Swann, challenged the system that kept Charlotte's black students apart from the white majority. In 2001 an appeals court ruled that the dual school system was dismantled and busing could end. A failed appeal to the Supreme Court ended the case in 2002.
    (http://tinyurl.com/6lntd5)(SFEC, 7/13/97, p.D1)(AP, 4/20/07)(SFC, 4/16/02, p.A3)

1971        Apr 21, In SF the 710-ton Vaillancourt Fountain, sculpted by French-Canadian artist Armand Vaillancourt, was unveiled on Justin Herman Plaza. The fountain put out 30,000 gallons of water per minute.
    (SFC, 3/17/04, p.B4)(SFC, 8/5/17, p.A8)
1971        Apr 21, In Haiti Francois "Papa Doc" Duvalier (b.1907) died. He was succeeded by his teenage son Jean-Claude "Baby-Doc" Duvalier (19), under the guidance of Simone Duvalier, aka "Mama Doc."
    (SFC,12/31/97, p.A9)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fran%C3%A7ois_Duvalier)

1971        Apr 22, Former US Navy lieutenant John Kerry (27) testified before the US Senate Foreign Relations Committee and talked about hearing from fellow veterans about war crimes and atrocities committed in Vietnam by US forces.
    (SFC, 9/11/04, p.A5)(SSFC, 10/17/04, p.E6)

1971        Apr 23, In the final event of Operation Dewey Canyon III, nearly 1,000 Vietnam War veterans threw their combat ribbons, helmets, and uniforms on the Capitol steps.
1971        Apr 23, The Rolling Stones released their Sticky Fingers album. Following the release of Sticky Fingers, the Stones left England after allegations by the UK Inland Revenue service of unpaid income tax.
1971        Apr 23, The Soviet Union launched Soyuz 10; the cosmonauts became the first in Salyut 1 space station.
    (HN, 4/23/02)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soyuz_10)

1971        Apr 25, US canal rights in Nicaragua and rights to Nicaragua’s Corn Islands expired.

1971        Apr 27, In South Korea Kim Dae-jung, a serious challenger to Park's dictatorship, nearly defeated Park in the presidential election. After the stunning election outcome, Park revised the constitution to guarantee himself victory in future elections.
    (AP, 10/24/07)(http://tinyurl.com/569aqp)

1971        Apr 28, The US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) was established within the Dept. of Labor under the Occupational Safety and Health Act, which was passed on Dec 29, 1970. It was formed to protect workers from on-the-job injuries and illnesses.

1971        Apr 29, Bill Graham announced the close of the Fillmore in SF and the Fillmore East in NYC along with his retirement from concert promotion. He was angered by his perceived greed of rock bands and the anger and distrust of his audience. He soon relented and put on shows with Led Zeppelin, the Allman Brothers, Pink Floyd, the Who and the Grateful Dead. The final concert at Fillmore East took place on June 27.
    (SFC,12/13/97, p.A15)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fillmore_East)

1971        Apr, The world table tennis championship was held in Japan. Zhuang Zedong (d.2013 at 72) of China met Glenn Cowan of Santa Monica and their friendship inspired Chairman Mao to invite the American team to China thus starting ping-pong diplomacy.
    (Econ, 2/23/13, p.90)

1971        May 1, Amtrak, which combined and streamlined the operations of 18 US intercity passenger railroads, went into service. The Southern Pacific Railroad turned over its money-losing passenger service and railroad cars to the government which formed Amtrak.
    (AP, 5/1/97)(SFC, 7/8/96, p.D1)

1971        May 3, The National Public Radio “All Things Considered" program premiered on 112 NPR stations. NPR, the US national, non-commercial radio network, was founded in 1970 and hit the airwaves in April, 1971.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Public_Radio)(SFC, 12/30/99, p.E3)
1971        May 3, John Toland (1912-2004), American author and historian, won a Pulitzer prize  for “Rising Sun" (1970) which chronicles Imperial Japan from its Manchurian involvement following World War I to the end of World War II.
1971         May 3, James Earl Ray (1928-1998), Martin Luther King's assassin (1968), was caught in a jail break attempt in Tennessee.
    (HN, 5/3/98)(www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,915028,00.html)
1971        May 3, Anti-war protesters calling themselves the Mayday Tribe began four days of demonstrations in Washington aimed at shutting down the nation's capital. 13,000 anti-war protesters were arrested in 3 days.
    (AP, 5/3/97)(MC, 5/3/02)

1971        May 9, In the 23rd Emmy Awards: Jack Klugman won for his role in “The Odd Couple" & Jean Stapleton won for her role in “All in the Family."
1971        May 9, Friends of Earth returned 1500 non-returnable bottles to Schweppes. Friends of Earth became an international network this year with a meeting of representatives from the US, Sweden, the UK and France.

1971        May 10, The Russian KOSMOS 419 Probe failed to leave Earth orbit.
    (SFC, 11/19/96, p.B1)

1971        May 12, A 6.3 earthquakes in western Turkey killed about 100 people.

1971        May 13, Pres. Nixon set his standards for a new IRS commissioner: I want to be sure he is a ruthless son of a bitch, that he will do what he’s told, that every income tax return I want to see I see, that he will go after our enemies and not go after our friends."
    (SFC, 1/3/97, p.A2)

1971        May 14, Pope Paul VI (1897-1978), the 262nd pontiff, delivered his Octagesima Adveniens apostolic letter on the 80th anniversary of the Rerum Novarum encyclical by Leo XIII. Paul VI was born in Lombardy, Italy, as Giovanni Battista Enrico Antonio Maria Montini.
    (SFC, 11/20/96, p.C1)(http://tinyurl.com/65jr23)

1971        May 17, The musical "Godspell," by Stephen Schwartz and John-Michael Tebelak, premiered off-Broadway.

1971        May 18, The documentary "Powers That Be" aired for one time and went under litigation from PG&E. Don Widener (d.2003 at 72) produced the work about environmental and nuclear dangers.
    (SFC, 5/2/03, p.A26)
1971        May 18, President Nixon rejected the 60 demands of the Congressional Black Caucus.
1971        May 18, The last victim of Wayne Boden (1948-2006), Canadian serial killer and rapist, was found. He earned the nickname "the Vampire Rapist" because he had the penchant of biting the breasts of his victims.
1971        May 18, The 3rd Bulgarian constitution went into effect.

1971        May 19, The Russian Mars 2 Orbiter and Lander made it to Mars but the Lander crashed when braking rockets failed. The orbiter returned late until 1972.
    (SFC, 11/19/96, p.B1)

1971        May 20, The US Congress cancelled the supersonic SST airplane program.
    (WSJ, 7/26/00, p.A26)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boeing_2707)
1971        May 20, In Turkey the National Order Party was shut down by Constitutional Court for being anti-secular. Erbakan went to Switzerland in self-exile.
    (AP, 11/4/02)(http://tinyurl.com/5vabve)

1971        May 22, A 6.9 earthquake in eastern Turkey killed about a thousand people.

1971        May 23, In California poet Lou Welch (b.1926) walked away from Gary Snider’s residence in the Sierra foothills and was never seen again.
    (SFC, 8/15/97, p.A21)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lew_Welch)

1971        May 25, Justin Henry Rye, actor (Kramer vs. Kramer, 16 Candles), was born in Rye, NY.
1971        May 25, Jo Etha Collier (18), a black woman, was killed by 3 drunken white males in Drew, Miss.
1971        May 25, Mark Brunswick (b.1902), American composer, died in London.
1971        May 25, Terence De Marney (b.1908), English film and TV actor, died.
1971        May 25, USSR performed a nuclear test at Eastern Kazakhstan, Semipalitinsk.

1971        May 26, Juan Corona (b.1934) was arrested for 25 murders. Authorities had found 25 mutilated bodies of male farmworkers in orchards along the Feather River in Sutter County. The farm labor contractor from Yuba City Ca., was convicted in 1973 and again in 1982 and sentenced to life in prison.
    (SFEC, 5/4/97, p.B12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Juan_Corona)(SFC, 3/5/19, p.C4)

1971        May 28, Pres. Nixon ordered John Haldeman to do more wiretapping and political espionage against the Democrats. The orders were recorded on tape.
    (SFEM, 4/11/99, p.41)
1971        May 28, The Russian Mars 3 Orbiter and Lander was launched successfully.
    (SFC, 11/19/96, p.B1)
1971        May 28, Audie Murphy (b.1926), WW II hero and actor, was killed in plane crash near Roanoke, Va.

1971        May 29, Max Trapp (b.1887), German composer, died in Berlin (other sources say he died May 31).

1971        May 30, The American space probe Mariner 9, the first satellite to orbit Mars, blasted off from Cape Kennedy, Fla. It later transmitted photos of possible riverbeds.
    (AP, 5/30/97)(SFEC, 9/28/97, p.A14)(HN, 5/30/98)

1971        May 31, A US proposal was made to the North Vietnamese that included a cease-fire-in-place, US withdrawal, and the return of prisoners. 58,167 Americans were killed in the Vietnam war.
    (WSJ, 2/5/96, p.A-19)(SFEM, 11/10/96, p.12)

1971        May, Mr. Kissinger decided to let Hanoi keep its army inside South Vietnam. His decision was made just after the May Day protests in Washington. Many of the protestors were unconstitutionally arrested.
    (WSJ, 1/23/96, p.A-15)
1971        May, In South Dakota two girls disappeared on their way to an end of school year party. In 2013 the remains of Cheryl Miller and Pamella Jackson were found in a creek in their 1960 Studebaker.
    (SFC, 4/18/14, p.A7)
1971        May, In Argentina Jacobo Timerman founded the La Opinion newspaper.
    (SFC, 11/12/99, p.D6)
1971        May, PM Indira Gandhi of India proclaimed the established royalty to be ordinary citizens and abolished their government perks. She made them pay taxes on their property or pass it to the state. The wealth tax doubled to 8% of net income.
    (WSJ, 1/9/95, Aa-8)(www.indembsofia.org/shtml/en/includes/ind.html)

1971        Jun 1, The two-room shack in Tupelo, Mississippi, where Elvis Presley was born, was opened to the public as a tourist attraction.
1971        Jun 1, Harold Pinter's play "Old Times" premiered in London.
    (Econ, 2/9/13, p.81)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Old_Times)
1971        Jun 1, Reinhold Niebuhr (b.1892), US theologist, died. His Serenity Prayer became widely used by Alcoholics Anonymous: "God, give us grace to accept with serenity the things that cannot be changed, courage to change the things which should be changed, and the wisdom to distinguish the one from the other." His books included “Moral Man and Immoral Society" (1932) and “Nature & Destiny of Man" (1942).  (SSFC, 5/4/03, p.F2)(WSJ, 12/29/07, p.W8)

1971        Jun 6, "Ed Sullivan Show" made its last broadcasts on CBS-TV.
    (SFC, 1/7/98, p.E1)(www.tv.com/the-ed-sullivan-show/show/1156/summary.html)

1971        Jun 7, Soviet Soyuz 11 crew completed the 1st transfer to orbiting Salyut.

1971        Jun 10, Federal marshals, FBI agents and special forces swarmed Alcatraz Island and removed the Native American occupiers: 5 women, 4 children and 6 unarmed men.
1971        Jun 10, In Mexico City a paramilitary group descended on student demonstrators and at least 11 people were killed. In 2002 criminal complaints were filed against 14 former federal and Mexico City officials for their involvement in the massacre. Mayor Alfonso Martinez (d.2002 at 81) denied any involvement in the massacre that left over 30 protestors dead. In 2004 charges were filed against former Pres. Echeverria, but a judge blocked his arrest.
    (SFC, 6/13/02, p.A14)(SFC, 11/9/02, p.A19)(SFC, 7/24/04, p.A3)(WSJ, 7/26/04, p.A1)

1971        Jun 12, Tricia Nixon and Edward F. Cox were married in the White House Rose Garden. The event was covered by all three major TV networks.
    (AP, 6/12/97)(SFC, 12/1/97, p.A7)

1971        Jun 13, The Broderick nonuplets were born in Sydney, Australia. None of the five boys (two stillborn) and four girls live for more than six days.
1971        Jun 13, The New York Times began to publish the Pentagon Papers leaked to it by Daniel Ellsberg. The papers were a secret official history of the Vietnam War in 47 volumes that were highly classified. The Nixon administration went to court to stop publication. A legal battle ensued for 16 days and the Supreme Court ruled 6-3 that the government failed to make its case for prior restraint and publication was resumed. In 1996 the book, "The Day the Presses Stopped" by David Rudenstine, was published and tells the whole story.
    (SFC, 6/10/96, p.A21)(SFEC, 12/8/96, p.A14)

1971        Jun 14, The first hard Rock Café opened in Piccadilly, London, under the ownership of young Americans Peter Morton and Isaac Tigrett.

1971        Jul 15, President Nixon announced he would visit the People's Republic of China to seek a "normalization of relations."
    (AP, 7/15/97)
1971        Jul 15, Seventeen UN members requested that a question of the "Restoration of the lawful rights of the People's Republic of China in the United Nations" be placed on the provisional agenda of the twenty-sixth session of the UN General Assembly.

1971        Jun 16, An El Greco sketch, "The Immaculate Conception," stolen in Spain 35 years earlier, was recovered in New York City by the FBI.
1971         Jun 16, Francois Mitterrand (1916-1996) became the new leader of the French Socialist Party at the Socialist Party Congress in Epinay. Over the next few years he embarked on a strategy of electoral union with the Communist Party. Jean Poperen (1925-1997) was present at the inception of the modern-day Socialist Party. He served twice as a minister of parliamentary relations and as a deputy for more than 15 years.
    (SFC, 8/25/97, p.A8)(http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1282/is_v39/ai_5024046/pg_2)

1971        Jun 17, The United States and Japan signed the Okinawa Reversion Treaty under which the United States would return control of the island of Okinawa and the Ryukyu Island chain, which includes the Senkaku Islands, in 1972.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Senkaku_Islands_dispute)(AP, 6/17/97)
1971        Jun 17, US Pres. Richard Nixon declared a war on drugs.
    (AP, 7/20/21)

1971        Jun 18, Fred Smith (b.1944) founded Federal Express Corporation, an overnight air freight delivery service, in Little Rock, Arkansas. It was based on a hub and spoke business plan he cooked up at Yale. In 1973 he moved the operation to Memphis, Tennessee.
    (http://tinyurl.com/6mvfvy)(Econ, 11/18/06, p.70)
1971        Jun 18, Southwest Airlines, co-founded by Herbert Kelleher, made its 1st flight.
    (WSJ, 1/13/03, p.A1)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Southwest_Airlines)

1971        Jun 19, The song "Rainy Days And Mondays" by the Carpenters peaked at #2 on the pop singles chart.
1971        Jun 19, R.C., "It's Too Late" by Carole King peaked at #1 on the pop singles chart and stayed there for five weeks.

1971        Jun 20, A 5-day Glastonbury Fair opened at Worthy Farm near Glastonbury, England. Arabella Spencer-Churchill (1949-2007), granddaughter of former PM Winston Churchill, helped found the fair. It featured Hawkwind, Traffic, Melanie, David Bowie, Joan Baez and Fairport Convention, and attracted some 12,000 people. Revived as a three-day festival in 1979, it had grown by 2007 to draw 153,000 people to hear acts including Coldplay, Brian Wilson, Kaiser Chiefs and Elvis Costello.
    (AP, 12/21/07)(www.efestivals.co.uk/festivals/glastonbury/1971/)

1971        Jun 23, Pres. Nixon recorded on tape that "anybody that wants to be an ambassador wants to pay at least $250,000." The recordings were transcribed and published in the 1997 book "Abuse of Power."
    (SFC,11/1/97, p.A3)

1971        Jun 26, "Man of La Mancha" closed at ANTA Wash Square Theater in NYC after 2329 performances.
1971        Jun 26, The U.S. Justice Department issued a warrant for Daniel Ellsberg, accusing him of giving away the Pentagon Papers. The infamous Pentagon Papers gave insights into the Johnson administration's thinking on the Vietnam War.

1971        Jun 27, T. Smirnova, Russian born astronomer, discovered asteroid #2121, Sevastopol.

1971        Jun 28, The Supreme Court overturned the draft evasion conviction of Muhammad Ali.
    (HN, 6/28/98)
1971        Jun 28, The US Supreme Court ruled in Lemon vs. Kurtzman that public aid to parochial schools in unconstitutional.
    (SFC, 8/6/99, p.D4)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lemon_v._Kurtzman)
1971        Jun 28, Daniel Ellsburg was arrested for leaking the Pentagon Papers to the Press. In 2002 he authored "Secrets: A Memoir of Vietnam and The Pentagon Papers." Anthony Russo, a researcher at the Rand think tank, had assisted Ellsberg in publishing the extracts of a 47-volume Defense Dept. study of the US role in Indochina over 3 decades.
    (www.topsecretplay.org/index.php/content/timeline)(SSFC, 10/20/02, p.M1)
1971        Jun 28, In NYC mobster Joseph Colombo (1924-1978) was gunned down at a Unity Day rally in Columbus Circle in Manhattan. He never regained consciousness and died seven years later.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Colombo)(SFC, 1/27/17, p.D2)

1971        Jun 30, The Supreme Court ruled in favor of the Pentagon Papers. On the same day Pres. Nixon told Chief of Staff H.R. Haldeman to break into the Brookings Institute and bring out files collected on the Vietnam War.
    (SFC, 6/10/96, p.A21)(SFC, 11/22/96, p.A4)(HN, 6/30/98)
1971        Jun 30, The 26th Amendment to the Constitution was ratified as Ohio became the 38th state to approve it. The amendment lowered the minimum voting age from 21 to 18. The amendment was authored by Senator Jennings Randolph (d.1998 at 96) of West Virginia.
    (AP, 6/30/97)(SFC, 5/9/98, p.A21)
1971        Jun 30, A Soviet space mission ended in tragedy when three cosmonauts (Georgi Dobrovolsky, Vladislav Volkov, and Viktor Patsayev) aboard Soyuz 11 were found dead inside their spacecraft after it returned to Earth.
    (AP, 6/30/97)(SFC, 10/2/07, p.A6)

1971        Jun, Vietnam War records were given to the US National Archives for safe keeping by three former defense analysts.
    (SFEC, 12/8/96, p.A14)
1971        Jun, T. Vincent Learson (1912-1996) became CEO of IBM. He had helped develop the IBM System/360, one of the first commercially available business computers.
    (SFC, 11/5/96, p.A22)
1971        Jun, Manuel Elizalde (d.1971), a Filipino official, allegedly found the Tasaday, a lost Stone Age tribe, on Mindanao Island. Enthusiastic reports led to a book, ''The Gentle Tasaday: A Stone Age People in the Philippine Rain Forest'' (1975) by John Nance. Skeptics were dismayed in 1974 when Mr. Elizalde, citing a need to protect the Tasadays from exploitation and the harmful effects of too much contact with civilization, blocked any further visits by social scientists.
    (SSFC, 6/22/03, p.M1)(http://tinyurl.com/6e97rz)

1971        Jul 1, President Nixon ordered chief of staff H. R. Haldeman to have the Brookings Institute burglarized. Nixon met with Haldeman and Kissinger and told them: "We’re up against an enemy, a conspiracy, that (sic) are using any means."
    (www.historycommons.org/context.jsp?item=a063071nixonburglaries)(SFC, 11/23/96, p.A6)
1971        Jul 1, The US Post Office Department was transformed into the US Postal Service as an independent establishment of the executive branch of the Government of the United States. The US government changed the Post Office to a quasi-government body with a mandate to be financially self-sustaining.
    (SFEC, 9/29/96, C13)(http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/blmailus5.htm)(AP, 7/1/01)
1971        Jul 1, The state of Washington became the 1st US state to ban sex discrimination.
1971        Jul 1, Great Britain and Argentina signed an accord on sea and air links to the Falkland Islands, which later caused a war (1982).

1971        Jul 3, James Douglas Morrison (b.1943), singer for the Doors rock group, died of an apparent heart attack in Paris, France. Jim Morrison (27) was buried at Pere Lachaise cemetery.
    (SFC, 7/4/96, p.D2)(AP, 7/3/97)

1971        Jul 4, Koko, a female lowland gorilla who learned American sign language, was born.
    (AP, 8/9/04)(www.koko.org)
1971        Jul 4, A July 4th concert on the West Lawn of the White House was held and began an annual tradition.
    (SSFC, 6/30/02, Par p.30)
1971        Jul 4, Michael S. Hart (1947-2011) began typing the Declaration of Independence into the memory of a mainframe computer at the Univ. of Illinois. This led him to begin Project Gutenberg, an effort to put US historical documents on line. It was later expanded to include books out of copyright.
    (WSJ, 11/21/96, p.B12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michael_S._Hart)
1971        Jul 4, In Bulgaria Marin Naidenov Minkov (1914-2012) was named Patriarch of the country’s Orthodox Christians.
    (AP, 11/6/12)
1971        Jul 4, France performed a nuclear test at Muruora Island.

1971        Jul 6, Louis Armstrong (b.1900), jazz and blues musician widely known as "Satchmo," died. His innovations of early day blues and Dixieland music inspired the swing eras of the 1920s and 1930s. He invented skat, a technique of singing jazz improvisations. Louis spoke out against the US government during the 1957 Little Rock, Ark. school troubles. "The way they are treating my people in the South, the government can go to hell." A 32 cent memorial stamp was issued by the Post Office in 1995. Armstrong smoked marijuana every day of his adult life, was unfaithful to each of his four wives, was arrested 4 times and consorted freely with prostitutes, pimps and mobsters. His biographies include: "Louis Armstrong: An American Genius" by James Lincoln Collier (1983); "Satchmo" by Gary Giddins (1988); and "Louis Armstrong: An Extravagant Life" by Laurence Bergreen (1997). In 1999 Joshua Berrett published "The Louis Armstrong Companion." In 2009 Terry Teachout authored “Pops: A Life of Louis Armstrong."
    (WSJ, 9/27/95, p.A-16)(WSJ, 6/26/97, p.A16)(WSJ, 3/10/99, p.A20)(SSFC, 12/13/09, p.E1)
1971        Jul 6, US Army Maj. Donald Carr, a Green Beret from San Antonio, Texas, crashed during a reconnaissance flight in Vietnam's Kon Tum province. In 2018 his remains were recovered and identified through DNA.
    (SFC, 5/9/18, p.A4)
1971        Jul 6, In Brazil rubber tapper Raimundo Irineu Serra (b.1892) died. He founded the Santo Daime (Saint Gimme) religion. It was based on a shamanic brew of ayahuasca, a hallucinogenic tea made from the Banisteriopsis caapi vine and Psychotria viridis leaf.
    (Econ, 5/12/12, IL p.24)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mestre_Irineu)

1971        Jul 8, In Northern Ireland the British army used lead bullets for the first time. Seamus Cusack (28) and Desmond Beattie (19) were killed.
    (http://tinyurl.com/ya9evj75)(Econ, 3/25/17, p.82)

1971        Jul 9, The United States turned over complete responsibility of the Demilitarized Zone to South Vietnamese units. In 1998 Jerry Lembcke authored "The Spitting Image: Myth, Memory and Legacy of Vietnam.
    (HN, 7/9/98)(SFEC, 10/11/98, BR p.7)
1971        Jul 9, Henry Kissinger secretly visited China and met with Premier Zhou Enlai. The Forbidden City in Beijing reopened for the Kissinger visit. Kissinger secretly traveled to Beijing to negotiate the re-establishment of diplomatic ties between the US and China, he came bearing multiple requests — about the Vietnam War, nuclear arms, the Soviet Union and more. Kissinger’s Chinese counterpart, Zhou Enlai, had only one focus: Taiwan.
    (www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB66/)(Econ, 1/21/17, p.36)(NY Times, 4/9/21)

1971        Jul 10, In Morocco a coup against King Hassan at the Skhirat palace failed. Nearly 100 guests were killed. The coup leaders were executed three days later. The army officers were angered by Hassan's abandonment of thousands of square miles in an Algerian border war.
    (WUD, 1994, p. 1688)(SFC, 7/24/99, p.A9)(SFEC, 7/25/99, p.A19)

1971        Jul 11, Chile’s Congress passed an amendment, submitted by President Allende, to nationalize all mines. On July 16 Chile by law nationalized the US-owned copper mines based on a calculation of the companies' "excess profits" from 1955 to 1970. It was determined that Chile owed American companies Anaconda and Kennecott Copper nothing for the mines.

1971        Jul 12, Kristi Tsuya Yamaguchi, figure skater, was born in Hayward, Cal. In 1992 she won an Olympic gold medal.

1971        Jul 13, William Tolbert (1913-1980), vice-president of Lebanon 1951, succeeded William Tubman as president and continued Tubman’s policies until his own death in 1980.
    (SFC, 4/16/96, p.A-9)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_R._Tolbert,_Jr.)
1971        Jul 13, The Army of Morocco executed ten leaders accused of leading a revolt.
    (HN, 7/13/99)
1971        Jul 13-1971 Jul 19, Jordanian troops proceeded to wipe out Palestinian guerrillas; some 1,500 prisoners were brought to Amman; Iraq and Syria soon broke off relations with Jordan.
    (WUD, 1994, p. 1688)(www.onwar.com/aced/data/bravo/blacksept1970.htm)

1971        Jul 15, President Nixon announced he would visit the People's Republic of China to seek a "normalization of relations."
    (AP, 7/15/97)

1971        Jul 18, New Zealand and Australia announced they would pull their troops out of Vietnam.
    (HN, 7/18/98)

1971        Jul 19, In Sudan a coup was aborted and Pres. Nimeiri was restored to power by loyal troops. He denounced the Communist Party and executed the rebel leaders 4 days later.
    (WUD, 1994, p. 1688)

1971        Jul 21, In Nederland, Colo., Marshal Renner Forbes pulled Guy Goughnor ("Deputy Dawg," aged 19) from the Pioneer Inn tavern, drove to a remote area in Clear Creek County and shot him in the head. Goughnor’s body was found a month later but their was insufficient evidence to link the marshal to the killing. In 1997 Forbes at age 68 confessed to the murder.
    (SFC,10/24/97, p.A5)

1971        Jul 22, Salvador Allende and Alejandro Lanusse, Presidents of Chile and Argentina, signed an Arbitration Agreement formally submitting the dispute concerning the territorial and maritime boundaries between them and the title to the islands Picton, Nueva and Lennox near the extreme end of the American continent to binding arbitration under auspices of Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beagle_Channel_Arbitration)(SFC, 8/27/96, p.A17)

1971        Jul 23, Walid Ahmad Nimer al-Naser (b.1934), aka, Abu Ali Iyad, a senior Palestinian field commander based in Syria and Jordan, was reported killed by the Jordanian army. The PLO claimed he was captured and tortured to death by Jordanian forces days earlier. A splinter group seeking revenge soon developed within Fatah and came to be known as the Black September Organization.

1971        Jul 24, The White House Plumbers unit formed to stop the leaking (hence "plumbers") of classified information to the news media during the Nixon administration.
1971        Jul 24, The Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works was promulgated in Paris. It was first accepted in Berne in 1886 at the instigation of Victor Hugo.
    (www.ifla.org.sg/documents/infopol/copyright/ucc.txt)(PNI, 2/5/97, p.4)

1971        Jul 26, Apollo 15 was launched from Cape Kennedy.
    (AP, 7/26/97)
1971        Jul 26, Diane Arbus [Nemerov] (b.1923), photographer, committed suicide in NYC. In 1984 Patricia Bosworth authored: "Diane Arbus: A Biography." In 2011 William Todd Schultz authored “An Emergency in Slow Motion: The Inner Life of Diane Arbus."
    (http://photography.about.com/library/weekly/aa110600c.htm)(Econ, 9/3/11, p.86)

1971        Jul 30, US Apollo 15 with astronauts Scott and Irwin landed at Mare Imbrium on the Moon.
1971        Jul 30, In SF Officer Arthur O’Guinn was fatally shot while making a traffic stop. 2 people were caught and convicted of 2nd-degree murder. They were paroled in the late 1970s.
    (SFC, 1/27/07, p.A8)
1971        Jul 30, A Japanese 727 collided with a jet fighter. 162 people were killed.
    (WUD, 1994, p. 1688)(www.airdisaster.com/features/top100/top100.shtml)

1971        Jul 31, Apollo 15 astronauts (Dave Scott) took a drive on the moon in their land rover.
    (HN, 7/31/98)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lunar_rover)

1971        Aug 1, The Concert For Bangladesh, two benefit concerts organized by George Harrison and Ravi Shankar, played to a total of 40,000 people at Madison Square Garden.
1971        Aug 1, CBS presented Masterpiece Theatre's 6 Wives of Henry VIII. The BBC produced program series first aired in 1970.
    (www.tvguide.com/tvshows/six-wives-henry/204436)(WSJ, 7/15/96, p.A9)

1971        Aug 3, Paul McCartney announced the formation of his group Wings.

1971        Aug 9, British begin internment without trial in Northern Ireland when almost 300 men were arrested and interned under the Special Powers Act in dawn swoops that ended around  August 14th. Not one unionist extremist was interned. Word soon got out of the internment camps that the men were being routinely mistreated and tortured. Sectarian attacks continued, supported by the British army. These actions and other repressive actions by the British administration of the time lead to the peaceful march which turned bloody on  30 January 1972, now known as Bloody Sunday.
    (SFC, 1/30/97, p.A18)(www.bloodysundaytrust.org/eduintern.htm)

1971        Aug 11, Construction began on the Louisiana Superdome. It opened on August 3, 1975.

1971        Aug 12, Syrian Pres Assad dropped diplomatic relations with Jordan.

1971        Aug 13, Britain requested to exchange US dollars for gold. This prompted Pres. Nixon on August 15  to suspend such conversions.
    (Econ, 3/27/10, p.86)

1971        Aug 14, Philip Zimbardo, a Stanford Univ. psychologist, began his Stanford Prison Experiment. He had recruited 24 students and randomly divided them into guards and prisoners in a simulated prison environment on campus. The experiment ended after six days. A film dramatizing the experiment opened in 2015.
    (SSFC, 7/19/15, p.A6)
1971        Aug 14, Georg von Opel (b.1912), German auto manufacturer, died.

1971        Aug 15, Pres. Nixon suspended conversion of dollars to gold and imposed a 90-day price, wage and rents freeze and 10% import charge. He also cut various taxes and expenditures. This became known as the “Nixon Shock" and marked the end of the gold standard and fixed exchange rates. The Bretton Woods agreement, that defined the post World War II economic environment, collapsed under the weight of US deficit spending. In the wake of this exchange rates were allowed to float under the watchful eye of central bankers.
    (WSJ, 5/28/96, p. R-44)(WSJ, 8/15/96, p.A12)(AP, 8/15/97)(WSJ, 10/1/98, p.A16)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)(Econ, 3/27/10, p.86)
1971        Aug 15, Bahrain proclaimed independence after 110 years of British rule. December 16, 1971, is the date of independence from British protection.

1971        Aug 17, Horace McMahon (b.1906), film, theater and TV actor, died.

1971        Aug 18, Joel David Kaplan (44), a NY businessman and Carlos Antonio Contreras Castro, a Venezuelan counterfeiter, escaped by helicopter from Mexico’s Santa Maria Acatitla Federal Prison. Vasilios Basil Choulos (d.2003), SF lawyer, plotted out the helicopter jailbreak. Kaplan was allegedly framed and serving 28 years for murder in the Mexican prison. The successful break led to the 1973 book "Ten-Second Jailbreak" and the 1975 film "Breakout."
    (SFC, 1/21/02, p.A21)(www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,909935,00.html)
1971        Aug 18, In Germany a twin-engine Boeing CH-47A Chinook exploded in mid-air before plunging about (180 meters) 600 feet to the ground. The helicopter's crew of four and 33 members of the 56th Artillery Brigade died in the crash in Pegnitz, Bavaria. This was the worst training accident involving American troops in West Germany since the end of World War II.
    (AP, 8/18/21)

1971        Aug 20, FBI began a covert investigation of CBS journalist Daniel Schorr.
1971        Aug 20, The Cambodian military launched a series of operations against the Khmer Rouge.
    (HN, 8/20/98)
1971        Aug 20, Pakistani pilot Rashid Minhas (b.1951) foiled attempts by his instructor to defect with an air force plane to archrival India. To stop the escape, Minhas disabled the controls of the plane the two were flying, and died in the resulting crash.
    (AFP, 8/16/12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rashid_Minhas)

1971        Aug 20-1971 Aug 21, In Vietnam heavy rains flooded the Red River delta and some 100,000 people were killed.

1971        Aug 21, Three prisoners, George Jackson (29), Ronald Kane (28), John Lynn (29), and 3 guards, Jere Graham (39), Frank DeLeon (44) and Paul Krasenes (52), were killed during an attempted prison escape at San Quentin, California. Jackson after meeting with his lawyer, Stephen Bingham, pulled a hidden automatic pistol from his hair and began to release other prisoners. Jackson’s prison letters were published as "Soledad Brother." Hugo Pinell, one of the San Quentin 6, was killed in 2015 by two fellow inmates.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1688)(SFC, 8/25/96, Z1 p.5)(SSFCM, 8/19/01, p.7)(SFC, 12/10/15, p.D8)
1971        Aug 21, In the Philippines there was a grenade attack on a political rally of the opposition Liberal party. It nearly wiped out the party's senatorial slate running against Marcos' Nacionalista Party. Marcos blamed the communists, but others believed that Marcos planned the attack.
    (SFC, 3/21/00, p.A23)

1971        Aug 22, A coup led by Col. Hugo Banzer Suarez deposed leftist army Gen’l. Juan Jose Torres, who had created a Soviet-style legislature. Torres fled to Argentina.
    (WUD, 1994, p. 1688)(SFC, 3/15/97, p.A11)(SFC, 11/23/99, p.A16)

1971        Aug 23, Shamu the Whale, the 1st of a number of Shamus, died at Sea World in San Diego, Ca., after 6 years in captivity.
1971         Aug 23, South Korea's Silmido Unit, organized in 1968 to kill North Korea's Kim Il Sung, rebelled and murdered 18 of its 24 trainers. A film titled "Silmido" was released Dec 24, 2003.
    (AP, 12/25/03)

1971        Aug 26, New Jersey Gov. William T. Cahill announced that the New York Giants football team had agreed to leave Yankee Stadium for a new sports complex to be built in East Rutherford.
    (AP, 8/24/01)

1971        Aug 27, Bennett Cerf (b.1898), publisher and co-founder of Random House, died. Cerf began appearing weekly on What's My Line? in 1951 and continued until the show's CBS network end in 1967.
1971        Aug 27, Margaret Bourke-White (b.1904), US photographer, died.

1971        Aug 28, Marie Paule Giguere (b.1921), a Catholic nun in Quebec, founded the Army of Mary as a prayer group, saying she was receiving visions from God. In 2007 the Vatican declared her teachings were heretical and in Arkansas six nuns were excommunicated after refusing to give up membership in the sect.
    (SFC, 9/27/07, p.A20)(www.religioustolerance.org/army_mary.htm)

1971        Aug 29, Nathan Leopold (b.1904), US kidnapper and murderer of Bobby Franks (1924), died in Puerto Rico.
1971        Aug 29, In SF 2 men burst into the Ingleside Police Station and fired through a hole in a bullet-proof glass window killing Sgt. John Young (45). A civilian clerk was wounded. Black Panthers were suspected. 3 men were charged in 1975 but charges were dismissed in 1976. In 2005 a SF judge jailed 4 men for contempt after refusing to answer questions from a grand jury. In 2007 police charged 9 former members of the Black Liberation Army with waging a campaign of “chaos and terror" that left at least 3 officers dead from 1968-1973. 8 of the men were charged with murder in the Ingleside slaying. On June 29, 2009, Herman Bell pleaded guilty to involuntary manslaughter, as he continued to serve a life sentence in New York for the murder of 2 police officers. On July 6 Anthony Bottom pleaded no contest to conspiracy to commit voluntary manslaughter. Bottom was already serving a sentence in NY for the murder of a 2 NYC police officers in May 1971. Prosecutors dismissed charges against 4 other men. This left just Francisco Torres to stand trial for Young’s murder.
    (SFC, 9/1/05, p.B1)(SFC, 10/8/05, p.B2)(SFC, 1/26/07, p.A1)(SFC, 6/30/09, p.B1)(SFC, 7/7/09, p.C1)

1971        Aug 31, John Lennon left UK for NYC, never to return.

1971        Aug, In Northern Ireland 10 people were killed during a military operation in the Ballymurphy area of Belfast. In 2021 a coroner ruled that the victims were “entirely innocent’’ and soldiers were responsible for nine of their deaths.
    (AP, 5/11/21)
1971        Aug, Turkey passed a poppy licensing law. In return Turkey later accepted a US offer of $35 million, over 3 years, for farmers who agreed to stop growing opium poppies.
    (HN, 11/20/98)(http://tinyurl.com/6ov8tk)

1971        Sep 3, The Watergate team broke into Daniel Ellsberg's psychiatrist's office.
1971        Sep 3, The Quadripartite Agreement on Berlin, between the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom and France. ended a long time source of tension.
    (WUD, 1994, p. 1688)(http://usa.usembassy.de/etexts/ga5-710903.htm)
1971        Sep 3, Qatar declared independence from Britain.

1971        Sep 4, "The Lawrence Welk Show" was seen for the last time on ABC-TV. A week later it opened on the Lawrence Welk Network.
1971        Sep 4, An Alaska Airlines jet crashed near Juneau, killing 111 people.
    (AP, 9/4/97)

1971        Sep 6, In Montevideo, Uruguay, a hundred Tupamaro guerrillas escaped from prison.
    (WUD, 1994, p. 1688)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ra%C3%BAl_Sendic)

1971        Sep 8, The Kennedy Center, begun in 1964, officially opened in Washington, DC. A performance of Leonard Bernstein’s Mass was held there three days earlier. The $71 million structure was designed by Edward Durell. The cultural center was promoted at Kennedy’s request by Roger L. Stevens (1910-1998). Congress had designated it a national monument to Pres. Kennedy following his assassination.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kennedy_Center_for_the_Performing_Arts)(SFC, 8/27/01, p.E4)
1971        Sep 8, Pres. Nixon told John Ehrlichman to investigate the tax returns of rich Jews contributing to the democratic campaigns of Humphrey and Muskie.
    (SFEC, 12/8/96, p.A14)

1971        Sep 9, John Lennon released his mega hit "Imagine" album in the US. It was released in Britain on October 8. A film was made of his recording work and in April 2000 a version titled "Gimme Some Truth" was released on DVD.
1971        Sep 9, Hockey legend Gordie Howe of the Detroit Red Wings retired from the National Hockey League (NHL).
1971        Sep 9, A list of Pres. Richard Nixon’s major political opponents, compiled by Charles Colson, written by George T. Bell (assistant to Colson, special counsel to the White House), was sent in memorandum form to John Dean. It did not become public until 1973. 
1971        Sep 9-1971 Sep 13, Some 1,000 prisoners seized control of the maximum-security Attica Correctional Facility near Buffalo, NY, in a siege that claimed 43 lives. In 2000 a federal judge ordered an $8 million settlement to some 400 inmates to settle a prisoner class action suit. $4 million was for lawyers.
    (SFC, 1/5/00, p.A3)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Attica_Prison_riots)(AP, 9/9/08)

1971        Sep 10, Pres. Nixon was informed and approved of John Ehrlichman’s plan to steal Vietnam War records from the National Archives building.
    (SFEC, 12/8/96, p.A1,14)

1971        Sep 11, The body of a woman was found in the Delta-Mendota Canal near Westley, Ca. she had been stabbed 65 times. In 2008 DNA evidence identified her as Mary Alice Willey (23) of San Francisco. It was suspected that she had played a role in the Aug 29 black Panther attack at the Ingleside police station that left one officer dead.
    (SFC, 10/7/08, p.B2)(SSFC, 5/24/09, p.A1)
1971        Sep 11, Egypt adopted a new constitution by public referendum. It called for the president to be chosen by at least two-thirds of MPs, and then confirmed by referendum. In 2007 a questionable referendum approved 34 constitutional  amendments.
    (Econ, 9/25/04, p.61)(Econ, 3/31/07, p.57)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constitution_of_Egypt)
1971        Sep 11, Former Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev died at age 77. In 2003 William Taubman authored "Khrushchev: The Man and His Era." In 2006 Aleksandr Fursenko and Timothy Naftali authored “Khrushchev’s Cold War: The Inside Story of an American Adversary."
    (WUD, 1994, p. 1688)(AP, 9/11/97)(SSFC, 4/27/03, M3)(Econ, 11/18/06, p.88)

1971        Sep 13, State troopers and prison guards stormed Attica Correctional Facility in New York. The four-day inmates' rebellion over poor living conditions claimed 43 lives, 11 guards and 32 prisoners. Inmate Frank Smith (d.2004) was beaten tortured and abused by guards. In 1997 a federal jury awarded him $4 million. Another 1,280 inmates sought $2.8 billion in damages against the state. In 2000 a federal court described the guards' reaction as an "orgy of brutality" and ordered the state to pay $8 million to inmates who were tortured after the uprising.
    (SFC, 6/6/97, p.A3)(AP, 9/13/97)(SFC, 2/16/00, p.A5)(SFC, 8/3/04, p.B6)
1971        Sep 13, Lin Biao (b.1907) died in a plane crash in Mongolia as he was trying to flee to the Soviet Union after the unsuccessful plot to assassinate Mao. He was once designated as Mao's "closest comrade in arms" and hand-picked to be the chairman's successor.
    (AP, 7/16/07)(www.odu.edu/ao/instadv/quest/LinBiao.html)

1971        Sep 14, "Cannon" with William Conrad premiered on CBS-TV.

1971        Sep 15, The 1st broadcast of "Columbo" on NBC-TV.
1971        Sep 15, A group of activists set sail on the Phyllis Cormack for Alaska from Vancouver, Canada, to stop a US nuclear weapons test in the Aleutian Islands. Panels reading Green and Peace dangled from the bridge. Bob Hunter (d.2005), one of the activists, became the 1st president of Greenpeace (1973-1977).
    (GQ, summer ‘96, p.18)(SFC, 4/30/97, p.A9)(Econ, 5/14/05, p.89)

1971        Sep 17, The San Francisco-based TV police series “McMillan and Wife" began and continued to 1977. It starred Rock Hudson and Susan St. James.
     (SSFC, 9/6/15, p.F3)
1971        Sep 17, Hugo Black (1886-1971), US Supreme Court Justice, retired after serving 34 years.
    (AP, 10/21/97)(www.oyez.org/oyez/resource/legal_entity/76/)

1971        Sep 20, The American League Ok'd the Washington Senator move to Arlington, where they became the Texas Rangers.
    (WSJ, 4/7/99, p.B1)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1971_Washington_Senators_season)
1971        Sep 20, George Seferis (b.1900), Nobel Prize-winning (1963) Greek poet, died. In 2003 Roderick Beaton authored "George Seferis - Waiting for the Angel: A Biography."
    (HN, 3/13/01)(Econ, 11/22/03, p.83)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Giorgos_Seferis)

1971        Sep 25, Hugo Black (b.1886), US Supreme Court Justice (1937-1971), died.
    (AP, 10/21/97)(www.oyez.org/oyez/resource/legal_entity/76/)
1971        Sep 25, Over 100 Russian officials were expelled from Britain for spying. Information from Oleg Lyalin, supposedly a member of the USSR's trade delegation in the UK, led to the expulsion of 105 Soviet officials from Britain.

1971        Sep 27, Pamela Churchill Harriman (1920-1997), English-born socialite, married her former lover and former New York Governor Averell Harriman (79). She was the former wife (1939-1946) of Randolph Churchill, the son of Winston Churchill. From 1993-1997 she served as the US ambassador to France.
    (SFC, 10/23/96, p.E6)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pamela_Harriman)

1971        Sep 28, Cardinal Josef Mindszenty (1892-1975) of Hungary, who had spent 15 years in refuge in the US Embassy in Budapest, ended his exile and flew to Rome.

1971        Sep 30, The Washington Senators baseball team played their last game before leaving DC for Texas.
    (WSJ, 4/7/99, p.B1)(www.sportsecyclopedia.com/al/wastex/senators61.html)

1971        Oct 1, Walt Disney Productions opened its Magic Kingdom in Orlando, Florida.
    (AP, 10/1/97)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magic_Kingdom)
1971        Oct 1, As of this day divorce in the Netherlands could only be granted on the ground of the irretrievable breakdown of the marriage (Article 1:151 of the Dutch Civil Code).

1971        Oct 2, “Soul Train," an American musical variety TV program premiered and continued to 2006. It was created by  Don Cornelius, who also served as its first host and executive producer.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soul_Train)(SSFC, 5/18/14, Par p.2)

1971        Oct 3, Pres. Nguyen Van Thieu of South Vietnam was re-elected in an election in which he was the only candidate. Vice-President Nguyen Cao Ky refused to participate.
    (WUD, 1994, p. 1688)

1971        Oct 6, The LA Times reported that federal agents had caught 36 illegal immigrants in a raid on a food processing plant owned by Romana Banuelos who had 3 weeks earlier been named by Pres. Nixon to be treasurer of the US. Nixon was infuriated and he said on tape "I want Otis Chandler’s income tax." Chandler was the publisher of the LA Times.
    (SFC, 3/22/97, p.A7)

1971        Oct 8, Canada’s PM Pierre Trudeau declared Canada to be bilingual and multicultural.
    (Econ, 11/18/06, p.39)(www.cic.gc.ca/english/resources/publications/legacy/chap-6b.asp)

1971        Oct 9, In Argentina an armed uprising challenged Gen’l’. Lanusse but he secured the backing of the Navy and Air Force and broke the challenge.
    (SFC, 8/27/96, p.A17)(http://tinyurl.com/5ubr76)

1971        Oct 10, The London Bridge, sold to American entrepreneur Robert Paxton McCulloch in 1968, was dedicated in Lake Havasu, Arizona. City founder Robert McCulloch bought the stone bridge and had it transported by ship and truck from London in pieces across the Atlantic Ocean and via the Panama Canal and Los Angeles. That process and reconstruction took three years, leading to the dedication.

1971        Oct 11, Switzerland established diplomatic relations with North Vietnam.

1971        Oct 12, The rock opera "Jesus Christ Superstar" opened at the Mark Hellinger Theatre on Broadway. It closed July 1, 1973 after 711 performances.
    (AP, 10/12/97)(www.ronaldbrucemeyer.com/rants/1012b-almanac.htm)
1971        Oct 12, The US House of Representatives passed the Equal Rights Amendment with a vote of 354 yeas, 24 nays and 51 not voting. It failed to gain ratification before the end of the deadline
1971        Oct 12, Dean G. Acheson (b.1893), US secretary of state (1949-53), died in Maryland. In 2006 Robert L. Beisner authored “Dean Acheson: A Life in the Cold War."
    (www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAacheson.htm)(Econ, 8/26/06, p.58)

1971        Oct 16, H. Rap Brown (b.1943) was captured following a shootout with police in NYC. He was charged with inciting a riot and carrying a gun across state lines. Brown converted to Islam in jail and became Jamil Abdullah Al-Amin.
    (SSFC, 1/6/02, p.A13)(http://americanascherrypie.tripod.com/id3.html)

1971        Oct 19, The last issue of "Look" magazine was published.
1971        Oct 19, Pakistani soldiers attack a village in Netrokona district of Bangladesh. At least 7 people were killed.
    (AP, 2/2/16)

1971        Oct 20, Willy Brandt, West German Chancellor, was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for beginning the German reunification.
    (WUD, 1994, p. 1688)(http://nobelprize.org/peace/laureates/1971/brandt-cv.html)

1971        Oct 21, The Nobel Prize for literature was awarded to Chilean poet Pablo Neruda (1904-1973).
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pablo_Neruda)(SSFC, 8/31/03, p.M3)
1971        Oct 21, President Nixon nominated Lewis F. Powell and William H. Rehnquist to the US Supreme Court following resignations of Justices Hugo Black and John Harlan.
    (AP, 10/21/97)
1971        Oct 21, Half Moon Bay, Ca., held its 1st Art and Pumpkin Festival. The 1-day event was thought up by Dolores Mullin to raise money for the Main Street Beautification Committee to buy trees. John Minaidis of Half Moon Bay won with a 132-pound pumpkin.  Terry Pimsleur (d.2008 at 77), public relations executive, helped develop the fair.
    (Ind, 9/29/01, 5A)(SFC, 10/10/06, p.B3)(SFC, 9/26/08, p.B9)

1971        Oct 25, The TV show “The Electric Company" premiered providing an advance for children raised on Sesame Street.
    (NW, 11/11/02, p.56)(www.imdb.com/title/tt0066651/)
1971        Oct 25, Midori Goto, Japanese violinist, was born in Osaka.
    (HN, 10/25/00)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Midori_Goto)
1971        Oct 25, The UN General Assembly voted to admit the People’s Republic of China and expel Nationalist China (Taiwan).
    (AP, 10/25/97)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/China_and_the_United_Nations)

1971        Oct 26, California Gov. Ronald Reagan called Mr Nixon at the White House to complain about UN members who voted against the US position a day after the UN voted to admit The People’s Republic of China into the global organization. Mr Reagan said: “To see those, those monkeys from those African countries — damn them, they’re still uncomfortable wearing shoes!" The explosive recordings were originally released by the National Archives in 2000, though they were later withdrawn due to a court-ordered review.
    (The Independent, 7/31/19)

1971        Oct 27, The Democratic Republic of Congo was renamed Zaire.

1971        Oct 28, Britain voted to join the EEC, European Economic Community. The yes vote passed with a majority of 112.
    (Econ., 1/2/21, p.42)

1971        Oct 29, On the east coast of India a tidal wave and cyclone struck Cuttack in Orissa state and killed some 10,000 people.

1971        Oct 30, Mack Ray Edwards, California serial killer, hanged himself while on death row. He admitted to 6 sexually motivated murders in the 1950s and 1960s and later told a jailer that the number was closer to 20.
    (SSFC, 10/12/08, p.B7)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mack_Ray_Edwards)

1971        Oct 31, Saigon began the release of 1,938 Hanoi POW’s.
    (HN, 10/31/98)

1971        Oct, Earl W. Sutherland Jr. (1915-1974), US pharmacologist, won the Nobel Prize in Medicine for his discoveries concerning the mechanisms of the action of hormones.
1971        Oct, Spiro Agnew (1918-1996), US Vice-President, visited Greece and called the ruling junta the country's best leaders since Pericles.
    (www.ahistoryofgreece.com/junta.htm)(SFEC, 11/21/99, p.A20)
1971        Oct, In San Francisco Werner Erhard (b.1935 as born John Paul Rosenberg) hosted his first est courses at the Jack Tar Hotel. The purpose of est was to allow participants to achieve, in a very brief time, a sense of personal transformation and enhanced power.
    (SFC, 10/31/09, p.C4)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erhard_Seminars_Training)
1971        Oct, Bolivia restored the death penalty for terrorism, kidnapping, and crimes against government and security personnel. In 1997 the death penalty was abolished for ordinary crimes.
1971        Oct, Francois Bizot, French ethnologist, was kidnapped and imprisoned by the Khmer Rouge in Cambodia. He was released after 3 months by camp commander Kaing Guek Eav (aka Duch). In 2003 Bizot authored "The Gate," an account of his captivity and the Khmer Rouge takeover. In 2012 Bizot authored “Facing the Torturer," an account of his appearance as a witness at Duch’s 2009 trial.
    (WSJ, 3/12/03, p.D10)(SSFC, 11/25/12, p.F6)
1971        Oct, In South Africa antiapartheid activist Ahmed Timol (29) died five days after his arrest and transfer to John Vorster Square, a notorious police station in Johannesburg. Officials called his death a suicide. Joao Rodrigues, a former member of the feared security police, was allegedly the last officer to have been with Timol before he plunged to his death from the 10th-floor of Johannesburg police headquarters. In 2017 a court reopened an inquiry into Timol’s death. In 2018 Joao Rodrigues (80) appeared in court charged with the murder of Timol.
    (SFC, 6/28/17, p.A2)(AFP, 8/2/17)(AP, 7/30/18)

1971        Nov 1, The Eisenhower dollar was put into circulation.
1971        Nov 1, The Five Power Defense Arrangements were concluded by the defense ministers of Australia, Britain, Malaysia, New Zealand and Singapore. In 2017 it was upgraded to deal with terrorism threats and new security concerns.
    (Econ, 11/5/11, p.54)(AP, 6/2/17)

1971        Nov 3, The Clint Eastwood film "Play Misty For Me" premiered in NYC.

1971        Nov 5, Nixon and Kissinger met in the Oval Office, to discuss Nixon's conversation with Gandhi the day before. "We really slobbered over the old witch," Nixon told Kissinger, according to a transcript of their conversation released in 2005 as part of a State Department compilation of significant documents involving American foreign policy.
    (AP, 6/28/05)

1971        Nov 6, The musical "Purlie" closed at ANTA Playhouse in NYC after a total of 688 performances.
1971        Nov 6, The US Atomic Energy Commission exploded a 5-megaton bomb beneath Amchitka Island, Alaska, just 87 miles from the Petropavlovsk Russian naval base. It registered as a magnitude-7 earthquake.
    (SFC, 12/17/01, p.A4)

1971        Nov 8, Gen’l. John D. Lavelle, Seventh Air Force Commander in Vietnam, markedly increased the number of bombing raids against North Vietnam. The raids lasted until Mar 8, 1972, when he became the target of a congressional investigation.
    (SFEC, 10/18/98, BR p.8)

1971        Nov 10, Two women were tarred and feathered in Belfast for dating British soldiers. In Londonderry, Northern Ireland, a Catholic girl was tarred and feathered for her intention of marrying a British soldier.
    (HN, 11/10/98)

1971        Nov 11, Neil Simon's "Prisoner of Second Avenue," premiered in NYC.

1971        Nov 12, Pres. Nixon announced that he would withdraw 45,000 more troops from Vietnam by Feb, 1972.
    (WUD, 1994, p. 1688)(HN, 11/12/98)

1971        Nov 13, The US space probe Mariner 9 went into orbit around Mars. NASA's Mariner 9 circled Mars and revealed dried beds of rivers that flowed billions of years ago.
    (SFC, 8/7/96, p.A9)(TMC, 1994, p.1971)(AP, 11/13/01)

1971        Nov 14, In Egypt Shenouda III (b.1923) became the Coptic Orthodox Pope and the 116th successor to Saint Mark the Evangelist.
    (Econ, 6/5/10, p.56)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Shenouda_III_of_Alexandria)

1971        Nov 15, Intel first advertised its 4004 microprocessor in Electronic News. It contained 2,300 transistors, each the size of a red blood cell.
    (www.intel.com/museum/archives/4004.htm)(Econ, 3/12/15, p.11)

1971        Nov 16, Edie Sedgwick, actress and model for Andy Warhol, died in California from a barbiturate overdose.

1971        Nov 18, The US federal Airborne-Hunting Act prohibited shooting animals from planes without license.
    (WSJ, 12/9/03, p.A1)(www.fws.gov/laws/lawsdigest/AIRBORN.HTML)

1971        Nov 22, The US Supreme Court struck down dozens of state laws that discriminated against women when it ruled that an Idaho law violated the 14th Amendment guarantee of equal protection.
    (SFC, 10/12/02, p.A21)
1971        Nov 22, Zez Confrey (b.1895), American composer and pianist, died. His compositions included "Kitten on the Keys" (1921) and "Dizzy Fingers" (1923).
    (WSJ, 6/3/03, p.D5)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zez_Confrey)
1971        Nov 22, Guerrilla fighting escalated on the border of East Pakistan. India massed 12 divisions near the border.
    (WUD, 1994, p. 1688)

1971        Nov 23, The People's Republic of China was seated in the UN Security Council. The UN vote to admit was Oct 25.
    (WUD, 1994, p. 1688)(AP, 11/23/97)

1971        Nov 24, On Thanksgiving eve DB Cooper boarded Flight 305 in Portland, Or., and demanded $200,000 with the threat of a bomb. He parachuted from a Northwest Airlines 727 with the money over the Cascade Mountains near Ariel, Wash., and was never seen again. FBI agent  Ralph Himmelsbach wrote the book NORJAK that described the case. A packet containing $5,880 of the ransom money was found in 1980 on the north shore of the Columbia River, just west of the Washington city of Vancouver. In 2011 evidence was presented that Lynn Doyle Cooper (d.1999) of Oregon, a Korean war veteran, was the hijacker. On July 13, 2016, the FBI said it is no longer investigating the case.
    (SFEC, 11/17/96, Z1 p.5)(AP, 11/24/97)(SFC, 8/4/11, p.A8)(SFC, 7/13/16, p.A6)
1971        Nov 24, A prison rebellion took place at Rahway State Prison, NJ.

1971        Nov 26, Giacomo Alberione (b.1884), Italian priest who also believed in using modern means to bring God to the faithful, died. He had founded the Paoline Family, which includes a publishing operation printing many religious books as well as Famiglia Cristiana, a top-selling weekly that covers issues of daily life, from homemaking to education, and religious life.
    (AP, 4/27/03)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Giacomo_Alberione)

1971        Nov 27, Eric Menendez, accused with his brother of killing their parents (1989), was born in New Jersey.

1971        Nov 28, The Anglican Bishop of Hong Kong ordained the first two women as priests.
    (HN, 11/28/98)(http://trushare.com/Mascall%20Women%20Priests.htm)
1971         Nov 28, In Uruguay the Colorado candidate, Juan Maria Bordaberry, and the Blanco candidate were virtually tied. In February 1972 the Electoral Court proclaimed Bordaberry president, and he began a five-year term on March 1.

1971        Nov 30, TV movie "Brian's Song," aired for the 1st time on ABC-TV.

1971        Dec 1, In Santiago, Chile, students began a 2-day against the Allende government. The government banned public demonstrations and declared a state of emergency.
    (WUD, 1994, p. 1688)

1971        Dec 2, The British pulled out of the Trucial States (7 coastal Arab sheikhdoms that included Sharjah) in the Persian Gulf and these states formed the United Arab Emirates (UAR). Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Sharjah, Ras al Khaimah, Umm al Qaiwain, Ajman and Fujairah merged to form the new federation.
    (NG, 5/88, p.662)(HFA, '96, p.20)(SFC,12/16/97, p.B1)(WSJ, 5/7/98, p.B16)
1971        Dec 2, The Mars 3 landed on Mars and failed after 20 seconds of video data. The orbiter returned date until August 1972.
    (SFC, 11/19/96, p.B1)

1971        Dec 3, The 3rd Indo-Pakistani war began when India under Indira Gandhi intervened in the Pakistani civil war. Pakistan attacked Indian airfields and India mobilized its army after nearly 10 million refugees poured into India. The India-Pakistani civil war ended with independence for East Pakistan, which became known as Bangladesh.
    (SFEC, 8/3/97, p.A15)(SFC, 6/12/99, p.A12)(SSFC, 12/30/01, p.A22)

1971        Dec 6, The US Senate confirmed Lewis Franklin Powell as a Supreme Court justice.
1971        Dec 6, India recognized the Democratic Republic of Bangladesh and Pakistan broke off diplomatic relations. Bangladesh later accused Pakistan of war atrocities that led to the death of some 3 million people during the 9-month war.
    (WUD, 1994, p. 1688)(SFC, 12/31/00, p.B3)
1971        Dec 6, Bangladesh became independent from Pakistan following a 9-month war in a struggle led by Sheik Mujibar Rahman. Sheik Rahman was nominated as president on Dec 20 and released from prison on Dec 22; he returned to Bangladesh Jan 10.
    (SFC, 5/21/96, p.A-10)

1971        Dec 9, Ralph J. Bunche (b.1903), Detroit-born 1st black US diplomat and UN delegate, died In NYC. He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1950.

1971        Dec 10, Pres. Nixon signed the US Revenue Act into law launching the income tax check off system for campaign contributions and paving the way for public funding.
    (SFEC, 10/5/97, p.D9)(www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=3255)
1971        Dec 10, John Lennon made a public appearance at a benefit concert for poet John Sinclair who was in jail for possession of marijuana. Three days later Sinclair was released.
    (SFEC, 7/21/96, DB p.35)
1971        Dec 10, William H. Rehnquist (b.1924) was confirmed as US Supreme Court justice.

1971        Dec 12, David Sarnoff (b.1891), US TV pioneer (RCA), died. He was a Russian immigrant who transformed NBC from a radio to a TV network.
    (SFC, 8/2/99, p.B3)(www.davidsarnoff.org/ds07.html)

1971        Dec 15, Pres. Nixon signed the Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burro Act. The $18 million Wild Horse and Burro Program, headed by the Bureau of Land Management, was designed to find homes for wild horses. "Excess" animals were annually culled. The 10-17,000 wild horses grew to some 43,000 in 1998. In 2004 Conrad Burns, Republican Senator for Montana, introduced an amendment that removed protection for wild horses over age 10.
    (www.fs.fed.us/rangelands/ecology/wildhorseburro/whb_faqs.shtml)(WSJ, 8/25/98, p.A1)(Econ, 6/28/08, p.90)

1971        Dec 16, Bahrain, which had declared independence on Aug 15, won independence from British protection.
    (SFEC, 3/7/99, p.D8)(AP, 12/17/02)(http://ixpats.com/bahrain.html)
1971        Dec 16, Pakistani forces in East Pakistan surrendered to the allied forces of India and Bangladesh, jointly known as the Mitro Bahini. Bangladesh gained independence. Bangladesh later accused Pakistan of war atrocities that led to the death of some 3 million people during the 9-month war.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indo-Pakistani_War_of_1971)(SFC, 12/31/00, p.B3)

1971        Dec 17, A cease fire began between India and Pakistan in East Pakistan.

1971        Dec 18, Pres. Nixon devalued the dollar, and even though the devaluation was effective immediately, only Congress could officially change the gold value of the dollar. The US dollar went off the gold standard and was devalued by 7.9%. The 10% import surcharge was lifted.
    (WUD, 1994, p. 1688)(www.richmondfed.org/faqs/index.cfm?faq=Gold%20and%20Silver)
1971        Dec 18, Pres. Nixon signed into law the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (ANCSA). It gave large portions of prime bear habitat to the Alutiiq people, who had hunted and fished on the island for 7,000 years. 10% of the state, 44 million acres of land, was ceded to native tribes.
    (http://tinyurl.com/3xjb8w)(SFC, 2/2/00, p.A7)(AH, 10/04, p.42)
1971        Dec 18, Reverend Jesse Jackson announced in Chicago the founding of Operation PUSH (People United to Save Humanity).
    (AP, 12/18/99)
1971        Dec 18, North Vietnamese troops captured the Plain of Jars in Laos. Throughout the Vietnam War, the Plain of Jars was a contested area between Lao tribesmen and Vietnam's communist allies, the Pathet Lao. The area was long controlled by the Pathet Lao and a continual effort had been made by the secret CIA-directed force of some 30,000 indigenous tribesmen to strengthen anti-communist strongholds there. The US committed hundreds of millions of dollars to the war effort in Laos. Details of this secret operation were not released until August 1971.
    (WUD, 1994, p. 1688)(www.arlingtoncemetery.net/aircrew-04191971.htm)

1971        Dec 19, Stanley Kubrick's X-rated "A Clockwork Orange" premiered.

1971        Dec 20, Sheik Mujibar Rahman was nominated as president of Bangladesh. He was released from prison in Pakistan on Dec 22 and returned to Bangladesh Jan 10.
    (SFC, 5/21/96, p.A-10)
1971        Dec 20, Ten French physicians created a team that later became known as "Doctors Without Borders" (Medecins Sans Frontieres) to help the people in the Nigerian region of Biafra. They formed in frustration with the neutrality of the Int'l. Committee of the Red Cross. Bernard Kouchner (1939), later French foreign minister, was among the co-founders.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bernard_Kouchner)(SFC, 10/16/99, p.A17)(SFEC, 12/19/99, p.A14)
1971        Dec 20, In Pakistan Ali Zulfikar Bhutto (1928-1979), a Sindhi landlord, took over as President and Chief Martial Law Administrator. He implemented a policy of quotas that promoted the Sindhi language and favored rural Sindhis over Urdu-speaking Muhajirs in university admissions and public sector jobs. This led to a student movement, led by Altaf Hussein and Farooq Sattar, that later became the Muttahida Qaumi Movement (MQM).
    (www.storyofpakistan.com/person.asp?perid=P019&Pg=2)(Econ, 5/25/13, p.44)

1971        Dec 22, The UN General Assembly voted to ratify the election of Kurt Waldheim (1918-2007) of Austria to succeed U Thant as the 4th Secretary-General.
    (AP, 12/22/99)
1971        Dec 22, Aid group Doctors Without Borders, known by its French acronym MSF, was founded in Paris.

1971        Dec 23, Pres. Nixon signed the National Cancer Act, an initiative that came to be known as the “war on cancer." Dr. David A. Wood (1905-1996) helped draft the National Cancer Act. The act added $100 million to the National Cancer Institute directed by Dr. Carl Baker (1920-2009).
    (http://dtp.nci.nih.gov/timeline/noflash/milestones/M4_Nixon.htm)(WSJ, 5/6/98, p.A1)(Econ, 10/16/04, p.13)(SFC, 11/13/96, p.C3)(SFC, 3/13/09, p.B7)

1971        Dec 24, Jimmy Hoffa (1913-1975), Teamster union leader, was released from prison after President Nixon commuted his jail term.
1971        Dec 24, LANSA Flight 508, a LANSA Lockheed Electra OB-R-941 commercial airliner, crashed in the Peruvian rainforest. Juliane Diller Kopcke (17) of Lima, Peru, was the sole survivor of 92 passengers. She and her mother, famed ornithologist Maria Kopcke, were traveling to meet with her father, biologist Hans-Wilhelm Kopcke. Juliane traveled for 9 days in the jungle before she found help. Her experience became the subject of two films: the 1974 Giuseppe Maria Scotese film Miracoli accadono ancora, I (Miracles Still Happen), and the 2000 film “Wings of Hope" by Werner Herzog film.

1971        Dec 28, Maximilian Raoul Walter Steiner (b.1888), Austrian-born American composer, died. He is known best for the score he composed for the classic film “Gone with the Wind" and for the score and hugely popular theme song for the film “A Summer Place."

1971        Dec 29, In Italy Giovanni Leone (1908-2001) became president. He resigned 6 months before the end of his 7-year term amid allegations of links to a payoff scandal involving Lockheed Corp.
    (SFC, 11/12/01, p.A19)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Giovanni_Leone)

1971        Dec, The Ms. magazine first appeared as an insert in New York magazine. It was co-founded by American feminist and activist Gloria Steinem and founding editor Letty Cottin Pogrebin together with founding editors Patricia Carbine, Joanne Edgar, Nina Finkelstein, and Mary Peacock. The first stand-alone issue appeared in January 1972 with funding from New York editor Clay Felker.

1971        Saul Alinsky (1909-1972), American community activist and political theorist, authored "Rules for Radicals: A Pragmatic Primer for Realistic Radicals." Here he defended the arts both of confrontation and of compromise involved in community organizing as keys to the struggle for social justice.

1971        William E. Brandon (d.2002) published "The Magic World," an anthology of American Indian poetry.
    (SFC, 5/31/02, p.A27)

1971        Claudio Bravo (b.1936), Chilean-born Moroccan based artist, created a surrealist still life of an assemblage of light bulbs.
    (WSJ, 3/17/00, p.W12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Claudio_Bravo_(artist))

1971        Fritz Koenig (b.1924), German Sculptor, created a 27-foot-tall brass ball and called it "The Sphere." It was installed at the NYC World Trade Center and was the only piece of art to survive.
    (WSJ, 3/7/02, p.A22)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fritz_Koenig)

1971        Samuel Beckett (1906-1989), Irish-born playwright, authored his play "Not I." Beckett spent most of his life in Paris and in 1969 he won the Nobel Prize in Literature.
    (SFEC, 1/17/99, BR p.7)(www.imagi-nation.com/moonstruck/clsc7.htm)

 1971        Al Alvarez (b.1929), British writer, authored the best seller "The Savage God: A Study of Suicide."
    (WSJ, 12/27/00, p.A10)(www.oundlesociety.org/AlAlvarez.asp)

1971        Jacques Barzun (b.1907) and Wendell Hertig Taylor (1905-1985) authored “A Catalog of Crime." It became recognized as the best compendium of mystery and espionage literature ever assembled.
    (WSJ, 2/3/07, p.P12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A_Catalogue_of_Crime)

1971        Prof. Carl Cohen of U of M published "Civil Disobedience."

1971        Ram Dass (b.1931) published his best-seller "Be Here Now." It was about his trek through India. He was accompanied in part by Bhagavan Das, Michael Riggs. Riggs had set off for India in 1963 at age 18. Bhagavan Das wrote his own memoir in 1997 titled "It’s Here Now (Are You?): A Spiritual Memoir.
    (SFC, 12/1/97, p.E5)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ram_Dass)

1971        John Evans (b.1925), English archeologist, published the comprehensive survey: "The Prehistoric Antiquities of the Maltese Islands."
    (AM, 7/97, p.48)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Davies_Evans)

1971        Frederick Forsyth (b.1938) published his thriller novel "The Day of the Jackal," about an attempt to assassinate Charles de Gaulle. It was made into a film in 1973. It was remade into a 1997 film called "The Jackal" and another film about Carlos the Jackal, unrelated to the book, called "The Assignment."
    (SFC, 11/6/96, p.B8)(SFC, 3/15/97, p.A19)(WSJ, 4/18/97, p.A16)(SFEC, 8/24/97, DB p.65)

1971         Eduardo Galeano, Uruguayan journalist, authored "Open Veins of Latin America: Five Centuries of the Pillage of a Continent."  In 2014 he said that he would find the book today unreadable.
    (AP, 4/19/09)(Econ, 6/14/14, p.32)

1971        John Gardner (1933-1982), American novelist, authored his novel "Grendel" based on the Beowulf poem. It retold the story from the monster’s point of view.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R53)

1971        M. Goffart wrote the standard book on sloths: "Function and Form in the Sloth."
    (Nat. Hist., 4/96, p.21)

1971        Philip Jones Griffiths (1936-2008, Welsh photographer, published "Vietnam Inc," a collection of black-and-white photos from his 3 years there as a freelancer.
    (SSFM, 4/20/03, p.A15)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philip_Jones_Griffiths)

1971        Walter Hickel (1919-2010), former governor of Alaska (1966-1969) and former US secretary of the interior (1969-1970) under Pres. Nixon, authored “Who Owns America."
    (AH, 10/04, p.42)(SSFC, 5/9/10, p.C8)

1971        Ivan Illich (1926-2002), Austrian philosopher, anarchist social critic and former Catholic priest, authored "De-Schooling Society."
    (SFC, 12/4/02, p.A28)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ivan_Illich)

1971        Edward James and his wife, Janet Wilson James, co-edited "Notable American Women, 1607-1950."
    (SFC, 4/20/01, p.D5)

1971        Muriel James (1917-2018), self-help therapist, and Dorothy Jongeward authored the best-seller “Born to Win: Transactional Analysis With Gestalt Experiments."
    (SSFC, 2/11/18, p.C3)

1971        Elizabeth Janeway (1913-2005) authored “Man’s World, Woman’s Place: A Study of Social Mythology."
    (SFC, 1/17/05, p.B4)

1971        Alvin Karpis (1908-1979), Barker Gang gangster, completed his autobiography (The Alvin Karpis Story) based on tape-recorded memories.
    (WSJ, 7/15/04, p.D8)

1971        Ursula LeGuin (b.1929), American author, published "The Lathe of Heaven," a science fiction novel where all the dreams of the main character come true.
    (WSJ, 1/1/00, p.R8)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ursula_K._Le_Guin)

1971        Robert Ludlum (1927-2001) authored "The Scarlatti Inheritance," his 1st suspense novel.
    (SFC, 3/13/01, p.A25)(www.kirjasto.sci.fi/ludlum.htm)

1971        Bill Mauldin (1921-2003), American soldier cartoonist, authored “The Brass Ring," his story of the Stars and Stripes newspaper during WWII. Mauldin had created the cartoon soldiers Willie and Joe.
    (WSJ, 9/29/07, p.W8)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bill_Mauldin)

1971        John McPhee (b.1931), American pioneer of narrative non-fiction, authored "Encounters with the Archdruid."
    (SFC, 5/25/96, p.A13)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_McPhee)

1971        James Michener (1907-1997), American writer, authored "Kent State: What Happened and Why" as well as his novel "The Drifters."
    (SFC,10/17/97, p.A17)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Michener)

1971        Wayne Oates (1917-1999), American psychologist and religious educator, authored "Confessions of a Workaholic: The Facts About Work Addiction." Prof. Oates coined the term workaholic.
    (SFC, 10/27/99, p.C4)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wayne_Oates)

1971        Walker Percy (1916-1990), American Southern writer, authored his novel "Love in the Ruins."
    (SSFC, 4/20/03, p.M3)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Walker_Percy)

1971        John Rawls (1921-2002),  American moral and political philosopher, authored "Theory of Justice," a work of political philosophy and ethics in which he addresses the problem of distributive justice (the socially just distribution of goods in a society). The theory utilizes an updated form of Kantian philosophy and a variant form of conventional social contract theory.

1971        Donald Richie (b.1924) authored his novel "The Inland Sea," about a lonely American island-hopping across Japan’s Inland Sea.
    (SSFC, 11/10/02, p.C8)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Donald_Richie)

1971        Mike Royko, Chicago newspaper columnist, wrote "Boss," a book on Mayor Richard M. Daley.
    (SFC, 4/30/97, p.A6)

1971        Anne Sexton (1928-1974), American poet and writer, authored "Transformations." It retold classic fairy stories with a Freudian twist and personal references and formed the basis for Conrad Susa’s 1973 opera of the same name.
    (WSJ, 7/2/97, p.A12)(SFC, 6/23/98, p.D1)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anne_Sexton)

1971        Conrad (1906-1999) and Irene Taeuber (1906-1974) wrote "People of the United States in the 20th Century." Mr. Taeuber had directed the federal census in 1960 and 1970. Their scholarly work helped found the science of demography and made them authorities on population movements in the United States.
    (http://tinyurl.com/58fg3v)(SFC, 9/25/99, p.A21)

1971        Hunter S. Thompson (1937-2005), "gonzo journalist," wrote "Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas." It was made into a film in 1998. The term gonzo was 1st applied to Thompson by his journalist friend Bill Cardoso (d.1006 at 68). The term had kicked around Boston for some time and was used by youth in the 1950s to describe something as over the top.
    (SFC, 5/22/98, p.C1)(SSFC, 3/5/06, p.B7)

1971        Jim and Artie Mitchell of SF produced their porn film “Behind the Green Door" starring Marilyn Chambers for $60,000. This was one of the first porn films with a plot line and went big after it was learned that Chambers had worked as a model for ivory soap. It grossed more than $25 million.
    (SFC, 10/3/97, p.A15)(SFC, 7/14/07, p.A7)
1971        The film "Dirty Harry" with Clint Eastwood and Harry Guardino was released. It was directed by Don Siegel and had been shot in the SF Bay Area.
    (SFEC, 8/11/96, DB, p.39)
1971        The film "Harold and Maude" with Ruth Gordon was produced. The opening scene was filmed at in the music room of Rosecourt, a Burlingame, Ca., home built by SF Chronicle publisher George Cameron for his wife Helen, a daughter of Michael de Young.
    (SFEC, 10/11/97, DB p.36)(PI, 3/21/98, p.5)

1971        Vera Brodsky Lawrence (1909-1996), pianist, editor and historian of American music, published "The Collected Works of Scott Joplin." Joplin had composed the opera "Treemonisha."
    (SFC, 9/22/96, C12)(SFC, 1/27/97, p.A20)

1971        Gottfried von Einem (1918-1996), Austrian composer, composed the opera "The Visit of the Old Lady," based on the 1956 play by Friedrich Durenmatt.
    (WSJ, 4/16/97, p.A16)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gottfried_von_Einem)

1971        Former Beatle John Lennon wrote his song "Imagine," and released his "Imagine" album. A film was made of his recording work and in 1999 a 56 version titled "Gimme Some Truth" was reported to be released on DVD in 2000.
    (SFC, 8/10/96, p.E1)(SFC, 10/7/99, p.E3)

1971        Leonard Bernstein composed his "Mass." It combined Latin liturgy with a new English libretto with strains of pop, rock, jazz and classical sound.
    (SFC, 8/10/99, p.B1)

1971        Aaron Copland (12900-1990) composed "Threnody I for Flute and Strings" in honor of Stravinsky.

1971        Glenn Frey (1948-2016) and Don Henley co-founded the Eagles rock group in Los Angeles. The group broke up in 1980 and reformed in 1994. The group was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1998.
    (SFC, 1/19/16, p.A5)

1971        The Electric Light Orchestra, commonly abbreviated ELO, a symphonic rock group from Birmingham, England, released their first of studio album. By 1986 they released 10 more and another album in 2001. The ELO was one of the most innovative bands of the era.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_Light_Orchestra)(SFC, 7/7/96, DB p.50)

1971        John Denver (1943-1997) released his album "Poems, Prayers and Promises," that contained the song "Take me Home, Country Roads."
    (SFC, 10/14/97, p.A10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Denver)

1971        John Duffey (1934-1996) formed his Seldom Scene bluegrass group. He had played with Charlie Waller and the Country Gentlemen.
    (SFC, 12/12/96, p.C8)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Seldom_Scene)

1971        Marvin Gay (1939-1984) released his classic R&B album “What’s Going On."
    (WSJ, 11/25/06, p.P16)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marvin_Gaye)

1971        Carole King (b.1942) won 4 Grammys for her album "Tapestry."
    (SFC, 2/25/99, p.D1)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carole_King)

1971        Don McLean (b.1945) recorded his hit "American Pie."
    (WSJ, 3/2019/98, p.W13)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Don_McLean)

1971        Paul Revere and the Raiders scored a hit with “Indian Reservation.“
    (SFC, 10/6/14, p.C3)

1971        Faron Young (1932-1996), American country music singer, made a country hit with "It’s 4 in the Morning," written by Jerry Chessnut (b.1931).
    (SFC, 12/12/96, p.C8)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jerry_Chesnut)

1971        The Walker Art Center in Minneapolis, designed by Edward Larrabee Barnes (1915-2004), was completed.
    (SFC, 9/24/04, p.B7)

1971        The Rothko Chapel, an interfaith chapel in Houston, Texas, was built around the paintings of Mark Rothko (1903-1970). Composer Morton Feldman wrote his work “Rothko Chapel" for the occasion. In 1964 Rothko was commissioned by John and Dominique de Menil (also founders of the nearby Menil Collection) to create a meditative space filled with his paintings.
    (SFC, 2/25/11, p.F1)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rothko_Chapel)

1971        William Porter Gale, anti-Semite, founded his infamous Jew-hating group called the Posse Comitatus. It was founded on the belief that, constitutionally, no governmental body higher than the county level is legitimate.
    (MT, summer 2003, p.18)(www.hsaj.org/?fullarticle=2.2.3)

1971        Bikram yoga, developed by master yogi Bikram Choudhury (b.1946) in India, was brought to the US. The practice included exercises in sweat lodge conditions.
    (SSFC, 4/29/01, p.C6)

1971        The Consultative Group on Int’l. Agricultural Research (CGIAR) was founded.
    (Hem., 12/96, p.82)(www.cgiar.org/)

1971        Dena Dietrich (1928-2020) filmed the first of her TV commercials for Chiffon margarine. She played Mother Nature and spoke the line: "It's not nice to fool Mother Nature."
    (SSFC, 11/29/20, p.C4)

1971        The American Tinnitus Association, a mutual support group, was founded.
    (SFC, 2/5/98, p.E10)

1971        Roger Chapin founded Help Hospitalized Veterans (HHV), a non-profit organization to provide craft kits for hospitalized vets. On September 3, 2007, a Forbes magazine article by William P. Barrett titled "Shell Game" reported that Chapin and his wife Elizabeth were accused of spending the money raised by their non-profit organizations to fund their own lifestyles, vehicles, and real estate investments, rather than to benefit troops or wounded veterans at the 97% efficiency rate that the charity claims.
    (www.hhv.org/about/history.asp)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roger_Chapin)(SFEC, 8/25/96, Par p.8)

1971        The conservative John Birch Society, founded in 958, began to sponsor summer camps for youth across the US to rebuild the society.
    (SFC, 8/5/96, p.A5)(www.rickross.com/reference/jbs/jbs1.html)

1971        The American Libertarian Party was founded.
    (Econ, 6/5/04, p.27)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Libertarianism)

1971        Simon Kuznets (1901-1985), Belarus-born American economist, won the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences “for his empirically founded interpretation of economic growth which has led to new and deepened insight into the economic and social structure and process of development."

1971        The US under Pres. Nixon sent military planes and other material to Pakistan as East Pakistan fought for independence. Nixon, at the behest of national security advisor Henry Kisinger, also deployed a naval task force to the Bay of Bengal to intimidate India.
    (Econ, 9/21/13, p.90)

1971        The US Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF) branded ammonium perchlorate composite propellant (APCP) as a low explosive. The substance, used as a rocket propellant by NASA, was also used by rocket hobbyists.
    (WSJ, 5/7/04, p.A1)(http://seattlepi.nwsource.com/local/113159_rockets19.shtml)

1971        US CIA funding for Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty was disclosed. In 2000 Arch Puddington, deputy director of RFE/RL’s new York bureau from 1985 to 1993, authored "Broadcasting Freedom." The Munich headquarters were closed in 1994 and the organization moved to an afterlife in Prague.
    (WSJ, 6/5/00, p.A30)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radio_Free_Europe)

1971        The US government set strict federal safety standards for the auto industry that included passive restraints, i.e. air bags. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) delayed a passive-restraint mandate until 1976 after Henry Ford II and Ford President Lee Iacocca lobbied President Nixon.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)(www.motorvista.com/airhist.htm)

1971        Bela Abzug submitted a resolution to the US Congress designating August 26 of each year as Women's Equality Day. Pres. Nixon issued the first proclamation in 1973.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Women%27s_Equality_Day)(SFC, 8/26/13, p.C3)

1971        Freddie Mac, a US government mortgage agency, began tracking mortgage rates.
    (WSJ, 7/2/10, p.A1)

1971        The US approved a combined vaccine for measles, mumps and rubella.
    (SSFC, 9/26/21, p.A16)

1971        American author Clifford Irving (1930-2017) conned McGraw-Hill publishers into paying him a $765,000 advance for a book on Howard Hughes. Irving and collaborator Richard Suskind were indicted on fraud charges and found guilty in 1972. The bogus autobiography wasn’t published until 1999.
    (SFC, 12/21/17, p.A8)

1971        Robert Lee Vesco (1935-2007) fled the US to avoid charges of bilking mutual fund investors of $224 million. In 1972 the SEC charged him and others in a civil lawsuit, but Vesco had fled to the Bahamas and then to Costa Rica where he established a close friendship with Pres. Jose Figueres, plowing some 11 million into the country.
    (SFC, 8/21/96, p.A8)(SFC, 5/3/08, p.A6)(Econ, 5/31/08, p.91)

1971        Arizona indicted Weather Underground members John Allen Fuerst (25) and Roberta Brent Smith (25).
    (SFC, 1/21/02, p.E3)
1971        An Arizona law under Gov. Jack Williams (1909-1998) outlawed secondary boycotts and harvest-time strikes, tools used by the growing UFW.
    (SFEM, 4/13/97, p.12)(http://rulers.org/indexw2.html)

1971        In San Francisco Chuck Holmes (1945-2000) founded Falcon Studios. His pioneering movies later enshrined him in the history of adult entertainment as the “godfather of gay porn."
    (SSFC, 6/21/15, p.C10)
1971        John-Roger (1934-2014), born as Roger Delano Hinkins, founded the Movement of Spiritual Inner Awareness in southern California. Within a few years he had followers across the country reading his monthly “Soul Awareness Discourses" and doing his daily spiritual exercises.
    (SFC, 10/24/14, p.D2)
1971        In SF a 30-foot-tall sculpture by Peter Voulkos was installed outside the “Hall of Justice." In 2011 it underwent a $35,000 refurbishment.
    (SFC, 7/16/11, p.A1)
1971        Justin Herman, executive director of the San Francisco Redevelopment Agency since 1959, died of a heart attack. He was responsible for razing much of the Fillmore district and disappearing thousands of its black residents, in the name of urban renewal.
    (SFC, 5/2/17, p.C1)
1971        In SF the Vaillancourt Fountain, sculpted by French-Canadian artist Armand Vaillancourt, debuted on Justin Herman Plaza.
    (SFC, 3/17/04, p.B4)
1971        The SF Opera made the US premiere of Donizetti’s "Maria Stuarda" with Joan Sutherland.
    (SFEC, 8/17/97, DB p.46)
1971        The SF Opera in the Park program was begun. It was the inspiration of the Opera General Director Kurt Herbert Adler.
    (SFEM, 9/6/98, p.17)
1971        The 14-story Great Western Building went up in Berkeley, Ca.
    (SFC, 4/28/98, p.A12)
1971        The Berkeley Evans Hall was constructed at UC Berkeley, Ca. It was named after Griffith C. Evans, chairman of mathematics from 1934 to 1949 who combined the fields of mathematics and economics.
    (SFC,10/24/97, p.A15)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Evans_Hall_%28UC_Berkeley%29)
1971         In SF construction began on the 977-foot Sutro Tower. It was designed by A.C. Martin Partners to transmit television signals. Harry Jacobs (d.1999 at 84) headed the construction of the tower, which was completed in 1973.
    (SFC, 4/20/98, p.A14)(SFC, 5/27/99, p.C6)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sutro_Tower)
1971        In SF the Cathedral of St. Mary of the Assumption, designed by McSweeney, Ryan & Lee with Pietro Belluschi and Pier Luigi Nervi, opened at Gough and Geary.
    (SFEC, 10/7/96, A13)(WSJ, 2/18/09, p.D7)(SSFC, 5/1/11, p.D2)
1971        In SF the 46-story Hilton San Francisco, designed by John Carl Warnecke, opened at 333 O’Farrell St.
    (SSFC, 4/4/10, p.D2)
1971        In San Francisco a pedestrian bridge over Kearny St. was completed. It connected the Chinese Culture Center to Portsmouth Square.
    (SFC, 9/28/21, p.C2)
1971        The Int’l. Bird Rescue Research Center was founded by Alice Berkner in Berkeley, Ca.
    (SFC, 8/17/96, p.A17-18)
1971        Barry Adams and Garrick Beck helped found the Rainbow Family. In 2004 some 20,000 gathered in northern California. One of the goals of the Rainbow Nation has been and is to have P.E.AC.E. Villages throughout the United States of America. P.E.A.C.E. stands for Positive Energy Alternative Cooperative Environments.
    (SFC, 7/4/97, p.A10)(www.sonoran-sunsets.com/rainbow.html)
1971        Jack Leary, a rebel Jesuit priest, found New College in San Francisco with the philosophy of creating a just, sacred and sustainable world.
    (SFC, 12/26/05, p.D3)
1971        Saybrook University was originally founded in 1971 as the Humanistic Psychology Institute. It was later renamed 'Saybrook Institute' and 'Saybrook Graduate School and Research Center' and developed programs supporting the use of mind-body medicine.
1971        Phil Wood (d.2010 at 72) founded Ten Speed Press in Berkeley, Ca. The publishing house was named for its first book, a bicycle repair manual called “Anybody’s Bike Book."
    (SFC, 12/20/10, p.C3)
1971        KPOO radio was founded in SF by Lorenzo Milan. In 1973 Joe Rudolph (d.2001 at 63) took over operations in the 1st black-owned, non-commercial radio station west of the Mississippi.
    (SFC, 3/14/01, p.A20)
1971        In SF David Allen (1919-1984), actor, opened the Boarding House nightclub at 960 Bush. He had formerly performed with a repertory theater at the same site.
    (SSFC, 5/24/09, DB p.39)
1971        The D.Q. University, California’s only Indian tribal college, was founded on 643 acres of federal surplus property 7 miles west of Davis.
    (SFC, 4/5/00, p.A15,22)
1971        Journalist Don Hoefler, editor of the Electronic News, coined the term Silicon Valley to describe the technology base in the southern San Francisco Bay Area.
    (SSFC, 10/30/05, p.J4)(Econ, 12/16/06, p.67)
1971        Alice Waters (b.1939) opened Chez Panisse restaurant in Berkeley, Ca.
    (SFEC, 3/8/98, p.W35)
1971        James Weinstein (1926-2005) founded Modern Times Bookstore in SF.
    (SFEC, 12/13/98, Z1 p.5)
1971        Kimochi Inc. was founded in SF as a nonprofit service to Japanese seniors.
    (SFEC, 3/21/99, p.D3)
1971        Franzo King founded the John Coltrane African Orthodox Church at 351 Divisadero St. in San Francisco. King named himself Bishop King and played tenor sax every Sunday at noon for services. A new owner forced the Church to relocate in 2000.
    (WSJ, 1/26/99, p.A16)(SFC, 3/11/00, p.A13)
1971        San Francisco’s first Gay Pride parade was held.
    (SFC, 6/28/97, p.A15)
1971        In SF Steve Strauss founded the Blue Bear School of American Music to teach rock instead of Bach. The school offered courses in rock, blues, folk and jazz. In 1996 they celebrated a 25 year anniversary.
    (SFC, 9/12/96, p.E1)
1971        Bebe, the SF-based women’s fashion retailer, was founded as a boutique.
    (SFEM,11/23/97, p.27)
1971        Charles Schwab started his brokerage firm in San Francisco. In 1975 he took advantage of new SEC regulations and turned the company into a discount brokerage. In 2019 the company announced a merger with TD Ameritrade and a move to new headquarters in Texas.
    (SSFC, 5/1/05, p.E1)(SFC, 11/26/19, p.A1)
1971        Criminologist Mimi Silbert (b.1942) along with John Maher (1940-1988), a reformed heroin addict, and 2 others founded Delancey Street in San Francisco, a foundation to help ex-cons re-integrate into society.
    (SFEM, 10/20/96, p.11,17)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Delancey_Street_Foundation)
1971        In SF Amy Meyer spearheaded a coalition of community support for the Golden Gate National Recreation Area.
    (SFC, 1/29/98, p.B2)
1971        In SF Richard Sorro (1935-1996) founded the Mission Hiring Hall through the Model Cities Program.
    (SFC, 12/19/96, p.C10)
1971        The SF 49ers played at Kezar Stadium in Goldengate Park up to this year, when they moved to  Candlestick Park.
    (SFC, 7/29/97, p.A5)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Candlestick_Park)
1971        The SF Warriors moved to the Oakland Coliseum Arena and changed their name to the Golden Gate Warriors.
    (SFEC, 3/1/98, p.W29)(SFC, 4/26/10, p.A8)
1971        SF was ordered to begin bussing to achieve school desegregation. Judge Stanley Weigel (d.1999 at 93) ordered the desegregation of the SF schools.
    (SFEC, 9/20/98, Z1 p.6)(SFC, 9/4/99, p.A25)
1971        San Francisco’s Jackson Square at Jackson and Montgomery was declared an official historic district by the Board of Supervisors. 83 of the buildings dated to the mid-19th century.
    (SFC, 6/25/99, p.A18)(SFC, 12/18/01, p.A19)
1971        In SF Joseph Caporale (1910-1996), part-owner of Capp’s Corner restaurant was identified by police as the "biggest bookie in North Beach."
    (SFC, 12/24/96, p.A16)
1971        The last passenger train from SF to Monterey was put into retirement. A project to bring it back was initiated by Monterey in 1997.
    (SFC, 5/5/97, p.A20)
1971        San Francisco’s Fleischhacker Pool closed down.
    (SFEC, 3/1/98, p.W38)
1971        Swami Vishnu-devananda (1927-1993), a student of Swami Sivananda (1887-1963), set up the Sivananda Ashram Yoga Farm in Grass Valley, Ca.
    (SSFC, 10/3/04, p.D5)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swami_Vishnu-devananda)
1971        The Berkeley-Oakland Support Services program began. It was renamed in 1996 to Building Opportunities for Self-Sufficiency (BOSS).
    (SFEC, 12/22/96, Z1 p.2)
1971        George Lucas moved his film operations to Skywalker Ranch in Marin County, Ca.
    (WSJ, 1/22/00, p.B1)
1971        Sue Rugge (d.1999 at 58) co-founded Information Unlimited, an independent research firm based in Berkeley, Ca.
    (SFC, 6/16/99, p.B4)
1971        The American Indian Council of Mariposa County, Ca., was formed.
    (SFEC, 5/18/97, Z1 p.4)
1971        John Belton Dewitt (1937-1996) became the executive director of the Save-the-Redwoods League, a California organization established in 1918. Under his 24-years as secretary and director $65 million was raised and 30,000 acres of virgin forest was acquired for public parks and preserves.
    (SFC, 8/29/96, p.C4)(www.savetheredwoods.org/league/timeline.shtml)
1971        Stanley "Tookie" Williams and Raymond Washington formed the Crips gang as an alliance to combat rivals in East Los Angeles, Ca.
    (SFEC, 11/19/00, p.C2)
1971        California’s Gov. Reagan approved a major increase in aid to welfare recipients.
    (SFC, 12/27/99, p.A10)
1971        California state income taxes began to be withheld from worker's paychecks. California was the last state to do so.
    (SFC, 12/27/99, p.A10)
1971        The California Supreme Court in the Serrano-Priest decision ruled that the state system of primarily using property tax revenue to finance schools was unconstitutional. The decision was written by Justice Raymond Sullivan.
    (SFC, 10/22/99, p.B7)
1971        In California Francis Dale Calhoon (73) was convicted in the murder of his wife, Marian. He served 3 years in prison and during that time began writing books on the California Gold Rush. Calhoon died in 1999 and his 5 Gold Country sagas were still in print along with a story of his prison experience.
    (SFC, 1/1/00, p.A25)
1971        John Linley Frazier, hippie revolutionary, was convicted of killing 5 people in Santa Cruz, Ca., and was sentenced to death.
    (SSFC, 2/8/04, p.A28)
1971        Foster City, Ca., was incorporated.
    (Ind, 8/4/01, 5A)
1971        The San Francisco Bay to Breakers race sponsors were pressured to add a women’s division. Dr. Frances Conley won with a time of 54:45.
    (SFC, 5/15/09, p.B4)
1971        Dr. Boyd Stephens (1940-1965) took over the SF coroner’s office as medical examiner.
    (SFC, 4/5/05, p.B5)
1971        Two San Francisco brothers, aged 7 & 10, confessed to the crucifixion murder of 20-month-old Noah Alba. They were never charged but were placed in foster care and given intense therapy.
    (SFC, 5/6/96, p.A-1)
1971        The first Ralph Lauren Polo store opened on Beverly Hills’ Rodeo Drive.
    (SFC, 4/14/96, EM, p.10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polo_Ralph_Lauren)
1971        Mervyns, a California-based department store chain, went public with a stock sale of 300,000 shares.
    (WSJ, 9/4/08, p.B6)
1971        Toyota Corp. established the Calty Design facility in Newport Beach, Ca., an automotive design center.
    (IBCC, 10/97, #9)
1971        Dominican College in San Rafael, Ca., began to admit male students.
    (SFC, 6/26/00, p.A17)
1971        In northern California students at San Rafael High School, who smoked pot and called themselves the Waldos, coined the term 420 (four-twenty) as a shorthand code for meeting at the campus statue of Louis Pasteur at 4:20 pm to smoke pot.
    (SFC, 4/20/00, p.A20)
1971        Stanford Univ. opened up about 700 acres for development and Hewlett-Packard was among the earliest tenants.
    (SFEC, 3/1/98, p.W6)
1971        Stanford Prof. Philip Zimbardo conducted a psychology experiment that randomly assigned college-age men to roles as prisoners and guards. The experiment turned into a nightmare and was soon called off. In 2007 Zimbardo authored “The Lucifer Effect: Understanding How Good People Turn Evil."
    (SSFC, 4/29/07, p.M1)
1971        The "Sickle Slayer" hacked 2 campers to death near Nevada City, Ca.
    (SFC, 1/12/01, p.A3)
1971        Mary Bowerman (1908-2005) and Art Bonwell co-founded the Save Mount Diablo group and were instrumental in expanding the boundaries of the northern California Mount Diablo state park from 6,788 acres to over 20,000 acres in 2006. In 1944 Bowerman published her doctoral thesis: “Flowering Plants and Ferns of Mount Diablo."
    (SFC, 8/25/05, p.B7)(SFC, 12/29/06, p.B1)
1971        Albert H. Bowker (1919-2008), 8-year chancellor of City Univ. of New York, was named chancellor of California’s UC Berkeley.
    (SFC, 1/25/08, p.B9)(www.nndb.com/people/673/000167172/)
1971        San Francisco Bay Area  cemetery workers went on a 4-month strike. Some 1800 coffins went unburied until union and cemetery workers reached agreement.
    (SSFC, 3/28/10, DB p.42)
1971        California had 12 state prisons. By 2001 the number rose to 33.
    (SSFCM, 8/19/01, p.7)
1971        Ralph K. Davies, an oil millionaire for whom a SF medical center is named, died. He was an executive for Standard Oil who went off on his own and bought oil concessions around the world. He also ran American President Lines and the Natomas Co.
    (SFC, 6/23/98, p.A1,11)
1971        In SF Shunryu Suzuki (Suzuki-roshi), Japanese Zen missionary and abbot of the SF Zen Center, died of cancer. Richard Baker (36) was installed as the abbot. Scandals hit the center in 1983. In 2001 Michael Downing authored "shoes Outside the Door: Desire, Devotion and Excess at the SF Zen Center."
    (SSFC, 11/11/01, p.M3)
1971        A SF police helicopter, a UH-1 Huey, crashed into Lake Merced and co-pilot Charles D. Lagosa (30) was killed.
    (SFC, 1/13/00, p.A15)
1971        Sonoma, Ca., became the first California city to place a cap on residential permits. The restriction was unsuccessfully challenged all the way to the Supreme Court.
    (SFC, 2/15/11, p.E8)
1971        In California the Hosgri fault was discovered and forced PG&E to upgrade the design of the Diablo Canyon nuclear power plant. Unit 1 came online on May 7, 1985. Unit 2 became operational on March 13, 1986. In 2011 another seismic fault was detected on the ocean floor a half mile from the plant.
    (SFC, 3/16/11, p.A11)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diablo_Canyon_Power_Plant)

1971        The US military began conducting maritime exercises in Hawaii. The Rim of the Pacific (RIMPAC) drills continued on a biennial schedule.
    (SFC, 4/6/20, p.A4)

1971        The fabled stockyards of Chicago closed.
    (Hem., 12/96, p.89)
1971        AT&T Bell Labs conducted its first cellular phone test in Chicago.
    (WSJ, 12/6/99, p.A3)

1971        William E. Colson (1941-2007) founded Holiday Management in Salem, Ore., to develop senior housing. By 2007 Holiday Retirement Corp. owned over 35,000 apartments in the US and Canada and was sold to Fortress Investment Group for over $6.5 billion.
    (WSJ, 5/26/07, p.A6)

1971        A 29-year litigation began over a federal and state suit to desegregate Mississippi's public universities. In 2004 a federal appeals court upheld a settlement to allocate $503 million over 17 years  toward balanced integration. Continued litigation was denied.
    (SFC, 1/28/04, p.A3)

1971        In Missouri construction of the New Madrid County smelter was completed, after the state's governor convinced Associated Electric Cooperative to build the coal-fired plant next door to provide power. The smelter’s parent company landed in bankruptcy in 2016, under heavy debt and facing a flood of cheaper metals from China. Former Glencore Plc trader Matt Lucke bought the plant out of bankruptcy in 2016 for about $14 million. And Donald Trump’s trade war later helped revive US steel and aluminum producers. EPA data in 2019 showed the Magnitude 7 Metals facility and the power plant next door that supplies its electricity together emitted about 30,000 tons of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide pollution. In 2020 it was reported that death rates in the county from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are 87% higher than in the rest of the state.
    (Reuters, 6/2/20)

1971        Aviator Sid Cutter revived ballooning in Albuquerque, NM, to commemorate his mother’s birthday. The experience led him to invite balloonists from around the world for the 1st int’l. balloon festival.
    (SSFC, 9/25/05, E9)

1971        Leonard Riggio bought the single New York store Barnes & Noble company (1873). He then expanded by buying mall chains such as B. Dalton and Doubleday. The superstore concept came with the purchase of Bookstop in 1989.
    (WSJ, 9/3/96, p.A6)

1971        William E. Colson (1941-2007) founded Holiday Management in Salem, Ore., to develop senior housing. By 2007 Holiday Retirement Corp. owned over 35,000 apartments in the US and Canada and was sold to Fortress Investment Group for over $6.5 billion.
    (WSJ, 5/26/07, p.A6)

1971        In South Carolina James French (1926-2021) founded the Charleston Chronicle to serve the area's Black communities.
    (SSFC, 8/8/21, p.F10)

1971        Stephen Gaskin (b.1935) and some 300 hundred San Francisco hippies started the Tennessee rural commune called The Farm. It was located on a 1,750 acre property in Lewis County and based not on rules but on agreements.
    (Wired, 5/97, p.110)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stephen_Gaskin)
1971        Ina May Gaskin founded the Farm Midwifery Center in Summertown, Tennessee.
    (AP, 9/29/11)

1971        Sister Jogues Egan (d.1998 at 79) was charged as a unindicted co-conspirator with the Harrisburg Six, in the so-called Kissinger plot that included Phillip Berrigan and other Catholic peace protestors. They were charged by the government to have conspired to blow up federal property and to kidnap Henry Kissinger.
    (SFC, 4/18/98, p.A20)

1971        Disney Corp. filed suit against the Air Pirates, underground cartoonists led, more or less, by Dan O'Neill. 2 issues of Air Pirates Funnies had appeared under the imprint of Hell Comics, a front for Last Gasp. In 2004 Bob Levin authored "The Pirates and the Mouse: Disney's War Against the Underground."
    (SSFC, 1/11/04, p.M2)

1971        The first monocline insurance company, Ambac Financial Group Inc, was formed as an insurer of municipal bonds. MBIA Inc was formed in 1973. They are so named because they provide services to only one industry.

1971        Ray Tomlinson (d.2016), an engineer at Bolt Beranek and Newman (BBN), invented an e-mail program that allowed users to exchange messages across a distributed network. He devised the @ symbol to designate a digital address. In 1972 Tomlinson modified the program to run on ARPANET where it became a quick hit.
    (http://tinyurl.com/6s97pv)(SFC, 10/23/96, p.B1)(TIME, 10/20/14, p.65)(Econ, 3/12/16, p.80)

1971        John W. Nichols (1914-2008) and his son founded Devon Energy Corp. Devon went public in 1988.
    (WSJ, 8/9/08, p.A12)

1971        Bill Gross, Bill Podlich and Jim Muzzy co-founded Pacific Investment Management Co. (PIMCO). It originated as a separate accounts manager for Pacific Life Insurance Co. In 2000 it became a unit of Allianz, a German insurer. 
    (Econ, 7/31/10, p.60)(www.pimco.com/Pages/PIMCOTimeline.aspx)

1971        Charles Schwab started his brokerage firm in San Francisco. In 1975 he took advantage of new SEC regulations and turned the company into a discount brokerage.
    (SSFC, 5/1/05, p.E1)

1971        Rev. Leon Sullivan (1922-2001), a noted Philadelphia minister, became GM’s 1st black board member. In 1998 Sullivan authored “Moving Mountains."
    (SFC, 6/8/04, B7)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leon_Sullivan)

1971        Tesoro Corp. was listed on the NYSE. Robert V. West Jr. (1921-2006), founder of the oil company (1964), retired in San Antonio, Tx., in 1992.
    (WSJ, 11/25/06, p.A6)

1971        General Mills introduced Hamburger Helper. It helped families stretch a pound of meat into a family meal as beef prices soared under weak economic growth. In 2001 it was heralded as part of a family of "convenient-involvement products."
    (WSJ, 3/7/00, p.A1)

1971        W.R. Grace & Co. formed Chemed (chemicals, medicine, education) and sold off a chunk in an IPO with executive Edward L. Hutton (1919-2009) as the CEO. In the 1980s Omnicare was formed out of the health business at Grace and Chemed and Mr. Hutton became chairman of the new concern.
    (WSJ, 3/7/09, p.A12)

1971        The first Ralph Lauren Polo store opened on Beverly Hills’ Rodeo Drive.
    (SFC, 4/14/96, EM, p.10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polo_Ralph_Lauren)
1971        Mervyns, a California-based department store chain, went public with a stock sale of 300,000 shares.
    (WSJ, 9/4/08, p.B6)

1971        McDonald’s opened its first restaurant in Japan.
    (SFC, 7/6/96, p.D1)

1971        National Lead changed its name to NL Industries. It is now a world-wide producer and marketer of pigments, dyes, and specialty chemicals. It was incorporated  in 1891.
    (WSJ, 5/28/96, R45)

1971        Southwest Airlines began operations. The stewardesses wore white boots and orange hot pants.
    (SFC, 5/12/96, Mag. p.4)

1971        Starbucks began in Seattle as a single coffee shop. Gordon Bowker, Zev Siegl and Jerry Baldwin, former students of the Univ. of SF, opened Starbuck's Coffee, Tea and Spice with coffee supplied from Peet's Coffee in Berkeley. Howard Schultz, a marketing director hired in 1982, later published "Pour Your Heart Into It: How Starbucks Built a Company One Cup at a Time." Schultz bought Starbucks in 1987. The company went public in 1992. By 1996 there were 1,115 stores. By 2006 there were 10,500 locations around the world.
    (SFC, 5/4/99, p.C6)(SFEM, 8/1/99, p.8)(Econ, 2/25/06, p.72)

1971        Ray Tomlinson, computer engineer, put the @ sign into the first e-mail message sent from one machine to another at BBN, a computer consulting firm.
    (SFC, 10/23/96, p.B1)

1971        The 1st laser printer was made at Xerox PARC in Palo Alto, Ca.
    (SFC, 7/26/04, p.F4)

1971        The US ended routine vaccination against smallpox.
    (SSFC, 9/2/07, p.A5)

1971        Dr. Judah Folkman (1933-2008) proposed that tumor growth might be prevented if a way could be found to keep blood vessels from forming around them to supply nutrients and oxygen. Proteins were later discovered that spurred angiogenesis and antibodies were found to block them.
    (SFC, 6/2/03, p.A11)(WSJ, 1/19/08, p.A10)

1971        Harold S. Johnston was the first scientist to warn that trace amounts of nitrogen emitted to the upper atmosphere could profoundly damage the ozone layer. He earned a national Medal of Science in 1997. His discovery led Congress to initiate the CIAP.
    (SFC,12/16/97, p.A20)

1971        The US government initiated a $21 million study called the Climactic Impact Assessment Program (CIAP). Its purpose was to study the impact of high-flying airplanes on the upper atmosphere, i.e. the stratosphere.    
    (NOHY, 3/90, p.138)

1971        The Lake Tahoe State Park in Nevada was officially dedicated.
    (SFC, 6/6/06, p.B5)

1971        Ted Fujita, a Univ. of Chicago wind expert, developed the F0 to F5 scale for measuring the strength of tornadoes.
    (SFC, 2/3/06, p.A18)

1971        Non-renewable sources of energy accounted for 90% of energy use. Hydro-electric and wood sources produced less than 6%. Solar and wind energy produced 0.2% of energy use in the USA.
    (Smith., 4/95, p.30)

1971        The US census counted 208 million Americans.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1971)

1971        The largest pterosaur known, Quetzalcoatlus, was discovered in Texas. Its wingspan was about 12 meters, and it lived on open flat-land probably as a scavenger. Its body was covered with hair, but its head and neck were probably naked.
    (T.E.-J.B. p.20)

1971        Giacomo Alberione, a priest who also believed in using modern means to bring God to the faithful, died. He had founded the Paoline Family, which includes a publishing operation printing many religious books as well as Famiglia Cristiana, a top-selling weekly that covers issues of daily life, from homemaking to education, and religious life.
    (AP, 4/27/03)

1971        Bonaire, Netherland Antilles, outlawed spearfishing off the island.
    (SFEC, 10/6/96, T8)(www.geographia.com/bonaire/bondiv01.htm)

1971        Hoof-and-mouth disease hit Argentine cattle.
    (SFC, 6/15/00, p.A16)

1971        Sidney Nolan (1917-1992), Australia’s best known modernist, created a piece called “Snake." It was composed of 1,620 individual panels.
    (www.brittenpears.org/gallery/album07/rumours19Snake)(Econ, 1/29/11, p.84)
1971        Australia joined with New Zealand and 14 independent of self-governing island nations to form the South Pacific Forum. The name was changed in 2000 to Pacific Islands Forum. Member states include: Australia, the Cook Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia, Fiji, Kiribati, the Marshall Islands, Nauru, New Zealand, Niue, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, the Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, and Vanuatu. Since 2006, associate members territories are New Caledonia and French Polynesia. In 2011 Guam, the Northern Marianas and American Samoa became associate members.
    (Econ, 10/20/07, p.61)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pacific_Islands_Forum)(Econ., 2/13/21, p.41)
1971        Hunting crocodiles, aka "salties," was banned in the Northern Territory.
    (WSJ, 1/24/00, p.A1)
1971        In Australia Harold Thomas (b.1947), an Aboriginal artist, designed a flag as a banner for a campaign to allow Aboriginals to reclaim their traditional lands. In 1995 the flag was made an official "Flag of Australia". In 2018 Thomas sold exclusive rights to the flag to WAM Clothing. Until 2018 the flag had been reproduced freely.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harold_Thomas_(activist))(Econ., 10/17/20, p.32)

1971        Belgium banned the practice of selling products at a loss in order to attract customers. Also banned was the practice of selling below cost or selling at “extremely reduced" profit margins. This led to numerous court cases and limited special seasonal sales.
    (Econ, 1/5/08, p.46)

1971        Bhutan joined the United Nations.
    (WSJ, 1/25/00, p.A1)

1971        Brazil passed legislation limiting the amount of rural land foreigners could buy. In the 1990s it was deemed incompatible with the new democratic constitution. The law was revived in 2010 as state-owned firms began buying up vast tracts of land.
    (Econ, 9/24/11, p.48)
1971        Brazil’s army discovered rebel bases in Araguaia, a remote region in the northern jungle state of Para. They sent more than 10,000 troops to crush the uprising in the proceeding years. Some 60 rebels were killed, as well as local civilians, and others were jailed or disappeared.
    (AP, 6/19/09)

1971        Britain’s Open University started teaching via radio and television.
    (Econ, 12/22/12, p.101)
1971        Peter Brook (b.1925), British stage and film director, founded his Int’l. Center for Theater Research in Paris. In 1998 Brook published his memoir "Threads of Time: Recollections."
    (SFEC, 6/14/98, BR p.5)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peter_Brook)
1971        Keith Wylie (1945-1999), British croquet star, in the Open Championship completed "the sextuple peel," which involved knocking a ball through 6 hoops using another ball. He authored "Expert Croquet Tactics" in 1985.
    (SFC, 12/7/99, p.B4)(www.mauicroquetclub.org/people/KeithWylie.htm)

1971        Hydro-Quebec began flooding Cree land as part of the initial phase of its plan, known as the La Grande Project. The James Bay Dam Project would inundate vast tracts of pristine land, flooding spawning grounds, drying up river beds, and destroying wetlands vital to migratory birds.
    (CNT, Nov., 1994, pp.120,124)

1971        In the Canary Islands the Cumbre Vieja volcano erupted on island of La Palma.

1971        Chilean folk singer Victor Jara released an album titled "El dereche de vivir en paz" (The right to live in peace).  The title song was originally dedicated to the Vietnamese communist leader Ho Chi Minh, as the United States waged war in Vietnam.
1971        The Chilean government confiscated the Chuquicamata mine from the US Anaconda Copper Co. Anaconda lost two-thirds of its copper production. A unit of Atlantic Richfield purchased the company for $700 mil. ARCO later sold most of its interests in Anaconda except for ARCO aluminum.
    (WSJ, 5/28/96, p. R46)

1971        Opportunity International, a non-profit organization with Christian roots, began lending to the poor in Colombia.
    (Econ, 11/5/05, Survey p.4)

1971        The Roskilde rock festival, inspired by Woodstock, was first held in Denmark.
    (SFC, 7/1/00, p.A12)
1971        Denmark became the first European country to create a Cabinet-level ministry dealing exclusively with the environment.
    (SFC, 12/15/99, p.AA6)
1971        In Denmark the Christiana enclave took root in Copenhagen when dozens of hippies moved into the derelict 18th-century navy fort on 600 acres of state-owned land.
    (AP, 3/16/04)(SSFC, 10/31/04, p.A3)
1971        In Denmark the Jyllands-Posten newspaper declared itself politically independent.
    (AP, 2/8/06)

1971        A number of members of the Egyptian National Assembly were expelled for plotting to overthrow Pres. Sadat.
    (SFC, 6/22/99, p.A24)

1971        Franklin Louffrani, French journalist, registered the mark for the yellow "smiley face," which he began using in 1968 to show good news after the student riots. The very earliest known examples of the graphic are attributed to Harvey Ball, a commercial artist in Worcester, Massachusetts. He devised the face in 1963 for an insurance firm that wanted an internal campaign to improve employee morale. In 2006 the Web site http://www.mysmiley.net/ came online to provide a broad range of free smileys.
    (WSJ, 7/1/98, p.B1)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Smiley)
1971        French politicians challenged IRIA, a state funded computer science institute, to begin research into a national computer network. Louis Pouzin was chosen to head the project, which became known as CYCLADES. The project’s first connection debuted in 1973.
    (Econ, 11/30/13, TQ p.20)

1971        Periklis Panagopoulos, Greek ferry operator, founded Royal Cruise Line.
    (AP, 1/20/09)

1971        Milli Gorus, an Islamic Turkish community organization, was founded in Germany as Turkische Union Deutschland.

1971        In Honduras Pres. Lopez Arellano backed elections won by Ramon Ernesto Cruz of the National Party.
    (AP, 5/17/10)

1971        Hong Kong film "Fists of Fury" was released in the United States, making the actor a martial arts legend overnight. The film broke box office records both in Hong Kong and overseas. Raymond Chow co-produced two of Lee's best known films: "Way of the Dragon" in 1972, followed a year later by "Enter the Dragon", the first cinema collaboration between a Hong Kong studio and Hollywood.
    (AFP, 11/3/18)w
1971        Vincent Lo (b.1948) founded the Shui On Group in Honk Kong with a family loan of $16,700. In 2005 Lo and his partners sold land in Manhattan and proceeded to purchase the Bank of America Center in SF.
    (SSFC, 1/1/06, p.J6)

1971        India numbered 16 states at this time. By 2009 the number rose 28.
    (Econ, 12/19/09, p.74)

1971        In Indonesia in south central Kalimantan, Borneo, Birute Galdikas (b.1946), established a research center and rehabilitation station for ex-captive orangutans. The animals are only found in Sumatra and Borneo.
    (SFC, 1/6/98, p.A19)

1971        The Shah of Iran seized the tiny island of Abu Musa as Britain abandoned its former possession in the Persian Gulf and the United Arab Emirates was being set up. The UAE later contested Iran’s claims to the island and two barely inhabited chunks of rock nearby.
    (Econ, 5/5/12, p.46)

1971        Italy’s Ferrari Daytona was the world’s fastest car, capable of 174 mph.
    (Econ, 3/12/15, p.11)

1971        Jamaica began protecting crocodiles by law. By 2013 a growing taste for crocodile meat and even eggs had conservationists worried that the reptiles might be wiped from the wild altogether.
    (AP, 10/6/13)

1971        The Kodo drummers from Sado Island, Japan, formed into a performance company. Kodo means "heartbeat" and "children of the drum."
    (SFEC,1/19/97, DB p.9)
1971        Japan’s gentan policy began whereby the government began paying rice farmers to reduce rice crops. It was designed to shield farmers from short term price fluctuations. In 2013 the agricultural ministry said the policy would be phased out by 2018.
    (Econ, 11/30/13, p.71)

1971        Fatah, the armed faction of the Palestine Liberation Organization, arrived in Lebanon following its ouster from Jordan after losing the battles of "Black September".
    (SFC, 9/28/98, p.A10)(Econ, 1/24/15, p.42)

1971        Ngugi wa Thiongo, Kenyan writer, published his novel “Petals of Blood." He was soon imprisoned by the government of Pres. Daniel arap Moi for his  satire. Upon his release he went into exile and established himself as an American academic.
    (Econ, 8/19/06, p.70)
1971        In Kenya the Norwegian government designed a fish processing plant at Lake Turkana to provide jobs to the nomadic Turkana people. The plant was completed and soon shut down due to high operating costs for the freezers in the desert.
    (SFC, 12/21/07, p.A31)

1971        In Latvia the top secret Russian Skrunda radar station was opened.
    (BN, 10/98, p.1)

1971        In Malawi Hastings Kamuzu Banda (c1896-1997) named himself president for life. He served as president from 1961 to 1994.
    (SFC,11/27/97, p.B8)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hastings_Banda)
1971        The kwacha became the currency of Malawi, replacing the Malawian pound. It is divided into 100 tambala.

1971        Malaysia’s UMNO party introduced a New Economic Policy (NEP). It was meant to reduce absolute poverty provide affirmative action for people of indigenous decent. The temporary bill expired in 1990, when it was renamed and hardly changed.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malaysian_New_Economic_Policy)(Econ, 3/15/08, p.51)

1971        Cornelis van Houten (1920-2002), Dutch astronomer, discovered an asteroid and named it Asteroid 1877 Marsden after British astronomer Brian Marsden.
    (Econ, 12/4/10, p.111)

1971        In Northern Ireland Ian Paisley founded the uncompromising Democratic Unionist Party. He was virulently anti-Catholic and sought the military defeat of the IRA.
    (SFC, 4/11/98, p.A8)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Democratic_Unionist_Party)

1971        Norway began extracting oil from its continental shelf.
    (Econ, 10/10/15, p.69)

1971        The world’s biggest known gas field was discovered in Qatar. Faisal Al Suwaidi (b.1954), head of Qatargas, later began construction of Ras Lafan gas plant to liquefy the gas for export. The plant, the largest man-made structure in centuries, was to be finished in 2010.
    (Econ, 7/18/09, p.64)

1971        Pakistan’s Gen. Tikka Khan (1915-2002) led the crackdown against Bengali separatists. His tactics won him the name “Butcher of Bengal." From 1972-1976 he served as Chief of the Army Staff under PM Zulfikar Ali Bhutto.
    (SFC, 3/29/02, p.A24)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tikka_Khan)
1971        Archer Blood, the senior US consul-general in Dhaka, sent regular, detailed and accurate reports of the bloodshed that was taking place in East Pakistan. In 2013 Gary Bass authored “The Blood Telegram: Nixon, MKissinger and the Forgotten Genocide."
    (Econ, 9/21/13, p.90)
1971        Following Pakistan’s defeat by India and Bangladesh in the Bangladesh war, Pakistan decided to develop a nuclear weapons program.
    (SFC, 5/28/98, p.A9)

1971        In Peru Luis Fernando Figari founded the SCV, or Sodalitium of Christian Life, as a lay community to recruit "soldiers for God." It was one of several Catholic societies born as a conservative reaction to the left-leaning liberation theology movement that swept through Latin America starting in the 1960s.  It was later reported that Figari sodomized his recruits and forced them to fondle him and one another.
    (AP, 2/25/17)(AP, 1/10/18)

1971        In South Africa "Umabatha"  by Welcome Msomi, playwright and director, premiered at the Amphitheater of the Univ. of Natal and then in the US. It was a recast of Shakespeare’s Macbeth in the context of 19th century Zulu history.
    (WSJ, 7/25/97, p.A12)(SFEC, 9/21/97, DB p.35)
1971        In the Orange Free State, South Africa, 19 citizens were arrested for contravening the Immorality Act by having sex across the color line.
    (Econ, 2/28/04, p.81)
1971        In South Africa shaft No. 14 in Gold Reef City near Johannesburg closed. In the 1980s developer Norman Jarrett helped create the "Gold Reef City" theme park.
    (SFEC, 8/10/97, Z1 p.4)(http://tinyurl.com/2oam78)

1971        The Korea Advanced Institute for Science and Technology was founded in Daejeon, South Korea.
    (WSJ, 5/1/07, p.A1)
1971        The Unification Church of Rev. Sun Myung Moon (51) of South Korea counted some 500 members in the US. Missionaries from South Korea and Japan had begun arriving in the late 1950s and early 1960s.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unification_Church_of_the_United_States)(SFEC,11/30/97, p.A12)
1971        South Korea’s President Park Chung-hee gave nearly every village 335 bags of cement. After a year those thought successful were given more cement plus steel rods in return for pooling savings into local banks. This was later said to have been the beginning of the saemaul (new village) movement that modernized the countryside.
    (Econ, 12/6/14, p.44)

1971         Rhodesia’s Bishop Abel Muzorewa formed the African National Council (ANC) opening negotiations with the regime of Ian Smith.
    (AFP, 4/9/10)

1971        A Soviet field test of weaponized smallpox caused an outbreak that killed 2 young children and a woman at the port of Aralsk in the Kazak Republic. This was not made public until 2002.
    (SFC, 6/15/02, p.A8)

1971        Mohammed Wardi, Nubian-Sudanese singer known as the Golden Throat, began a 2 year prison term under the authoritarian regime of Gen. Jaafar Nimeiri, who ruled Sudan from 1969-1985.
    (SFC, 9/21/07, p.A12)(http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/350170.stm)

1971        Sweden moved to keep out foreign shoes on the grounds of national security.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R50)
1971        Sweden’s Saab become the first car to have heated seating.
    (AP, 12/19/11)

1971        Ernest Beyeler (1921-2010), Swiss art dealer, helped found the Art Basel art fair. In 1982 he and his wife created the Beyeler foundation and commissioned Renzo Piano to design a museum in Riehen to house their private collection.
    (SSFC, 2/28/10, p.C10)
1971        In Switzerland business professor Klaus Schwab (32) organized a meeting of European executives that grew to become the World Economic Forum (WEF) at Davos. By 2000 the forum was a powerful player in global economic affairs.
    (WSJ, 1/27/00, p.A18)(Econ, 1/17/15, p.66)

1971        Syria allowed Russia to establish its only naval facility in the Mediterranean.
    (Econ., 4/18/15, p.42)

1971        Michael Oliver, a Las Vegas-based libertarian activist, created the Republic of Minerva by dumping sand on the Minerva Reefs 310 miles southwest of Tonga. He proclaimed independence in 1972, but Tonga annexed the place and it soon sank.
    (Econ, 12/24/05, p.84)

1971        In Thailand The Nation newspaper was founded largely as a progressive conservative as pro-democracy activists were struggling against a military dictatorship. In 2019 The Nation announced it will stop its print edition, but continue with an online version.
    (AP, 5/16/19)

1971        Turkey closed down the Halki Theological School on Heybeliada Island, near Istanbul, to new students under a law that put religious and military training under state control. The school closed its doors in 1985, when the last five students graduated.
    (Econ, 6/25/05, p.50)(AP, 8/28/11)

1971        In Turkmenistan Soviet geologists started drilling a borehole to prospect for gas in the Karakum desert. The boring equipment drilled through into an underground cavern, and a deep sinkhole formed. The equipment tumbled through though no one was killed. Fearing that the crater would emit poisonous gases, the scientists took the decision to set it alight, thinking that the gas would burn out quickly and this would cause the flames to go out. As of 2014 the pit, dubbed the Door to Hell," continued to burn.
    (AFP, 6/20/14)

1971        In Zaire (later Congo DRC) Joseph-Desire Mobutu changed his name to Mobutu Sese Seko Kuku Ngbendu wa za Banga, which meant "the all-powerful warrior who, because of his inflexible will to win, will go from conquest to conquest leaving fire in his wake.
    (SFC, 9/8/97, p.A8)

1971-1972    The US FBI reported more than 2,500 bombings over an eighteen month period.
    (SSFC, 4/12/15, p.N1)
1971-1972    In Australia William McMahon (1908-1988) served as the country’s 20th prime minister. He retained his seat in parliament until his retirement in 1982. He was later remembered as one of the country's least popular leaders.
    (AP, 4/3/10)(www.spiritus-temporis.com/william-mcmahon/)

1972-73    Edmund Kemper III (b.1948) murdered 6 female college students and chopped up their bodies in the Santa Cruz, Ca., area. In 1964, at age 15, he had shot and killed his grandparents. He killed his mother and a friend of hers in Santa Cruz on Easter weekend, 1973, and soon surrendered. He was sentenced to life in prison at Vacaville, Ca.

1971-1975    In South Korea Kim Jong-pil, the founder of South Korea's spy agency, served as prime minister under dictator boss Park Chung-hee.
    (AP, 6/23/18)

1971-1976    "All in the Family" was the top ranking network show on television for five seasons with rankings of 34, 33.3, 32.2, 30.2, and 30.1%.
    (WSJ, 4/24/95, p.R-5)

1971-1977    Bella Savitzky Abzug (1920-1998), radical feminist and anti-war activist, served as a Democratic Congress representative from Manhattan.
    (SFC, 4/1/98, p.A5)

1971-1978    In Bolivia Colonel Hugo Banzer Suarez ruled the country through repression and torture.
    (SFC, 3/15/97, p.A10)

1971-1983    Stagflation, a period of rising inflation, high oil prices and weak labor markets, marked the global economy.
    (Econ, 5/7/05, p.13)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stagflation)

1971-1985    In 2005 Peter Hug, history professor at the Univ. of Bern, reported that a Swiss nuclear research center aided South Africa between 1971 and 1985 in the sectors of acceleration technology and uranium enrichment.
    (AP, 10/28/05)

1971-1986    The Hexagon KH-9 space spy satellite program, dubbed "Big Bird," was centered in Danbury, Connecticut. During this period total of 19 of 20 satellites were successfully launched, each containing 60 miles of film and cameras that orbited the earth snapping photographs of the Soviet Union, China and other potential foes. The film was shot back through the earth's atmosphere in buckets that parachuted over the Pacific Ocean, where C-130 Air Force planes snagged them with grappling hooks. The program was declassified in Sep 2011. Perkin-Elmer was awarded the top secret contract in 1966.
    (AP, 12/25/11)

1971-1988    Peter Bronfman (1929-1996) and his brother Edward Bronfman co-owned the Montreal Canadiens hockey team. Their uncle, Samuel, was the founder of the liquor company, Seagram Co. Ltd. The brothers acquired holdings in Brascan Ltd., a property mgmt. company, Noranda Inc., a natural resource company, and John Labatt Ltd., one of Canada’s 2 biggest brewers.
    (SFC, 12/3/96, p.D2)

1971-1991    Derek Bok ran Harvard Univ. In 2006 he returned as interim president following the resignation of Larry Summers.
    (Econ, 2/25/06, p.37)

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