Timeline 1956

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1956        Jan 1, Sudan became independent from Britain. Northern Muslim parties took over rule. Southerners demanded autonomy and civil war began.
    (WSJ, 8/25/98, p.A14)(SFC, 11/17/00, p.A20)(WSJ, 10/22/03, p.A4)(Econ, 5/15/04, p.21)

1956        Jan 2, In Montana teenage sweethearts Duane Bogle (18) and Patricia Kalitzke (16) went missing. Bogle's body was found the next day fatally shot. Kalitzke's body was found on Jan. 4. She had been shot in the head and had injuries that were consistent with a struggle or sexual assault. In 2021 the Cascade County Sheriff’s Office announced that it had identified Kenneth Gould, a horse trainer who died in 2007 at age 79, as the “likely suspect".
    (NY Times, 6/11/21)

1956        Jan 3,  Mel Gibson, Academy Award-winning director and actor, was born in Peekskill, New York. His films included Braveheart (1995) actor and director; Maverick, The Man Without a Face, Lethal Weapon series, Forever Young, Hamlet, Bird on a Wire, Tequila Sunrise, Mad Max series, Mrs. Soffel, The Road Warrior, The Year of Living Dangerously, Summer City.

1956        Jan 4, Oun Cheeand Sun was elected by the People’s Socialist Communist Party and installed as premier of Cambodia. He succeeded King Norodom Sihanouk.
    (EWH, 1968, p.1272)

1956        Jan 5, Elvis Presley, truckdriver, began his 1st recording session for RCA. "Heartbreak Hotel," written by Mae Boren Axton, was the first song recorded. It became the first of his 45 records to sell over a million copies. The second was "I Want You, I Need You, I Love You", and "I Was the One" was the third. In 1971 Jerry Hopkins authored Elvis: A Biography.
    (SFC,1/22/97, p.A20)(SFEC, 4/6/97, DB p.65)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)(SFC, 5/10/02, p.A31)

1956        Jan 9, George Christopher was sworn in as mayor of SF. He served to 1964.
    (SFC, 1/6/06, p.F6)
1956        Jan 9, The first Dear Abbey column appeared in the San Francisco Chronicle. It was written by Pauline Phillips under the pen name Abigail Van Buren. She began her career as advice columnist "Dear Abby" under editor George Stanleigh Arnold (d.1997 at 78). In 2002 her daughter took over the column.
    (SFC, 5/30/97, p.A26)(SFC, 1/24/09, p.E1)

1956        Jan 10, The US Navy established its first nuclear power school at Submarine Base, New London, Connecticut.
    (AH, 2/06, p.14)

1956        Jan 13, Lyonel Feininger (b.1871), American-German painter, died. His work included the woodcut "Kreuzende Segelschiffe" (1919) and the pen and ink wash "Three Ghosts" (1953). A catalog of his prints was made by Leona Prasse (1897-1984), late curator of prints at the Cleveland Museum of Art. Feininger published comics for the Chicago Tribune from 1906-1907.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lyonel_Feininger)(HT, 5/97, p.60)(WSJ, 1/10/07, p.D10)
1956        Jan 13, Lebanon and Syria signed a defense pact providing for joint retaliation against Israel if either was attacked.
    (EWH, 1968, p.1241)

1956        Jan 14, Little Richard released "Tutti Frutti."
    (MC, 1/14/02)

1956        Jan 16, Egyptian Pres. Nasser pledged to reconquer Palestine. His government made Islam the state religion.
    (HN, 1/16/99)(MC, 1/16/02)

1956        Jan 19, The UN Security council voted unanimously to censure Israel for its attack on Syria (12/11/55) as a flagrant violation of the Palestine armistice.
    (EWH, 1968, p.1241)
1956        Jan 19, Sudan became the 9th member of the Arab League.
    (EWH, 1968, p.1241)

1956        Jan 20, Buddy Holly recorded "Blue Days Black Night" in Nashville.
    (MC, 1/20/02)

1956        Jan 23, Fremont, Ca., became a city of 22,000 residents following the incorporation of 5 separate townships, Irvington, Mission San Jose, Centerville, Warm springs, and Niles. Developer John Brooks (1923-2015) was instrumental in helping to found the city and took out its first building permit. Firms under his management built one out of every four homes in Fremont.
    (SFC, 1/23/06, p.B5)(SFC, 4/24/15, p.D7)
1956        Jan 23, Alexander Korda (62), English movie producer (Henry VIII), died.
    (MC, 1/23/02)

1956        Jan 25, Khrushchev said that he believed that Eisenhower was sincere in his efforts to abolish war.
    (HN, 1/25/99)

1956        Jan 26, Buddy Holly had his 1st formal recording session. [see Jan 20]
    (MC, 1/26/02)

1956        Jan 27, Elvis Presley's "Heartbreak Hotel" and "I Was the One" was released by RCA. It sold over 300,000 copies in its first three weeks on the market.

1956        Jan 28, Elvis Presley recorded his television debut for “Stage Show" hosted by Tommy and Jimmy Dorsey."
    (SFC, 12/27/04, p.C10)(www.elvisconcerts.com/liv1956.htm)
1956        Jan 28, Pres. Eisenhower rejected a proposal for a friendship pact from Soviet Premier Bulganin.
    (EWH, 1968, p.1210)
1956        Jan 28, Iva Toguri D'Aquino (1916-2006), a Japanese-American suspected of being wartime radio propagandist "Tokyo Rose," was released from prison at Alderson, W. Virginia. In 1949 she had been tried in San Francisco and convicted for having spoken “into a microphone concerning the loss of ships." She was pardoned in 1977 by President Ford.
    (SFC, 9/28/06, p.A18)(AH, 10/02, p.28)
1956        Jan 28-1956 Jan 29, Henry Louis Mencken (b. Sep 11-12, 1880), author, critic and journalist, died in his sleep in Baltimore. H.L. Mencken’s work included "Smart Set," "American Mercury," "In Defense of Women," "Treatise on the Gods," and "A Mencken Chrestomathy." Mencken won fame as a journalist with the Baltimore Morning Herald and Baltimore Sun, as editor of The American Mercury magazine and as a literary critic. In 2002 Terry Teachout authored "The Skeptic: A Life of H.L. Mencken." In 2005 Marion Elizabeth Rodgers authored “Mencken: The American Iconoclast."
    (www.policyreview.org/DEC02/munson.html)(HNQ, 6/20/98)(SSFC, 11/3/02, p.M1)

1956        Jan 31, Brazil’s Pres. Juscelino Kubitschek (1902-1976) took office. He vowed to modernize the country and made economic growth his main goal.
1956        Jan 31, British author A.A. Milne (74), creator of "Winnie-the-Pooh," died. He left the rights to the honey-loving bear to five beneficiaries that included the Garrick Club, Westminster School, The Royal Literary Fund, his own family and illustrator E.H. Shepard.
    (SFEC, 8/16/98, p.A20)(AP, 1/31/06)

1956        Jan 30, Elvis Presley recorded his version of "Blue Suede Shoes."
    (MC, 1/30/02)

1956        Jan 31, [Feb 1] A stick of dynamite exploded on the porch of the Martin Luther King family.
    (SFEM, 1/19/97, BR p.8)(SFEM, 2/2/97, p.12)

1956        Jan, In Japan media mogul Matsutaro Shoriki, as a cabinet member of the first LDP government, was appointed president of Japan’s new Atomic Energy Commission. Shoriki had helped form the Liberal Democratic Party.
    (Econ, 12/22/12, p.62)

1956        Feb 1, Guy Mollet (12905-1975) became prime minister of France and continued to June 13, 1957.

1956        Feb 2, Figure skater Tenley Albright became the first American woman to win a gold medal at the Winter Olympics in Italy. She achieved this despite an ankle injury.
    (NYT, 2/3/1956, p. 26)
1956        Feb 2, Archbishop Makarios, spokesman for the Greek Cypriotes, turned down a proposal for gradual independence and demanded immediate sovereignty.
    (EWH, 1968, p.1250)

1956        Feb 3, Lawyers for the NAACP and the Montgomery Improvement Association (MIA) filed a petition in federal court challenging the city’s bus segregation ordnance.
    (SFEM, 2/2/97, p.12)
1956        Feb 3, Autherine Lucy (b.1929) arrived at the Tuscaloosa branch of the Univ. of Alabama and became the first black person to enroll there. She had been accepted in 1952 and then was denied because of her race.

1956        Feb 6, The Univ. of Alabama board of trustees voted to suspend Autherine Lucy, the 1st black admitted to school, on the grounds that the campus was no longer safe for her.
1956        Feb 6, French PM Guy Mollet was pelted with rotten tomatoes at a demonstration in Algiers. The French refer to this memorable event as "la journée des tomates."

1956        Feb 7, Garth Brooks, country vocalist (No Fences), was born in Tulsa, Okla.
    (MC, 2/7/02)

1956        Feb 8, U.S. banned the launching of weather balloons because of Soviet complaints.
    (HN, 2/8/98)

1956        Feb 14, The B.F. Huntley furniture plant in Winston-Salem, NC, was destroyed by fire. The factory was rebuilt and the Huntley name continued until it was sold to Thomasville Furniture Industries in 1961.
    (SFC, 7/9/08, p.G5)
1956        Feb 14-25, Khrushchev denounced Stalin at the 20th Communist Party Congress at Moscow. [see Feb 23, 25]
    (WUD, 1994, p.1685)(TOH, 1982, p.1956)(EWH, 1968, p.1198)

1956        Feb 16, Britain abolished the death penalty.
    (MC, 2/16/02)

1956        Feb 17, The US announced a suspension of all arms shipments to Israel and the Arab nations.
    (EWH, 1968, p.1241)
1956        Feb 17, ATV Midlands launched a weekday service and ABC began transmission at weekends in the same region the following day. A north of England service, covering Lancashire and Yorkshire, began in May, with ABC broadcasting at weekends and Granada during the week.

1956        Feb 18, The US lifted its arms ban and shipped tanks to Saudi Arabia.
    (EWH, 1968, p.1241)
1956        Feb 18, Gustave Charpentier (95), French opera composer (Louise), died.
    (MC, 2/18/02)

1956        Feb 21, A Grand Jury in Montgomery, Ala., indicted 115 in a Negro bus boycott.
    (HN, 2/21/98)
1956        Feb 21, Edwin Franko Goldman (78), composer, died.
    (MC, 2/21/02)

1956        Feb 22, Elvis Presley's 1st hit in Billboard's top 10: "Heartbreak Hotel."
    (MC, 2/22/02)
1956        Feb 22, The US Montgomery Boycott sparked arrests that included Martin Luther King. He was found guilty on March 22 and ordered to pay a $500 fine.
    (HFA, ‘96, p.22)(SFEM, 1/19/97, BR p.1)(Sm, 3/06, p.44)

1956        Feb 23, Russian party leader Nikita Khrushchev attacked the memory of Stalin. [see Feb 14, 25]
    (MC, 2/23/02)

1956        Feb 25, Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev harshly criticized the late Josef Stalin in a speech before a Communist Party congress in Moscow. Stalin was secretly disavowed by Khrushchev at a party congress for promoting the "cult of the individual." [see Feb 14, 23]
    (AP, 2/25/98)(HN, 2/25/01)

1956        Feb 26, Writers Sylvia Plath and Ted Hughes met at a party in Cambridge.
    (SC, 2/26/02)

1956        Feb 29, President Dwight D. Eisenhower announced he would seek a second term.
    (AP, 2/29/00)(HN, 2/29/00)

1956        Mar 2, Morocco tore up the Treaty of Féz and declared independence from France. A protocol on Moroccan independence was signed in Paris. Spain retained Ceuta and Melilla after Morocco becomes independent.  
    (HN, 3/2/99)(EWH, 1968, p.1244)(BBC, 6/5/21)

1956        Mar 3, Indonesian government of Harahap resigned.
    (SC, 3/3/02)

1956        Mar 5, "King Kong" was 1st televised.
    (MC, 3/5/02)
1956        Mar 5, The U.S. Supreme Court affirmed the ban on segregation in public schools in Brown vs. Board of Education.
    (HN, 3/5/01)

1956        Mar 8, On the 2nd day of a 3-day regional conference of the Southern District Division of Production, American Petroleum Institute, in San Antonio, Texas, M. King Hubbert, a Shell geologist, predicted that US oil production for the 48 states would peak (i.e., reach a maximum annual extraction rate) in 1965 if the nation ultimately produced 150 billion barrels, and in 1969 if the nation ultimately produced 200 billion barrels. 1970 turned out to be the peak year, both for the 48 states and for the 50 states including Alaska.
    (SSFC, 3/21/04, p.J3)(WSJ, 6/28/05, p.D8)

1956        Mar 9, British authorities arrested and deported Archbishop Makarios from Cyprus to the Seychelles. He was accused of supporting terrorists.
    (EWH, 1968, p.1250)(HN, 3/9/98)

1956        Mar 10, A general strike in Cyprus protested the exile of archbishop Makarios.
    (MC, 3/10/02)

1956        Mar 11, Curtis L. Brown Jr., astronaut (STS 47, STS 66, 77, 85, sk:95), was born in NC.
    (MC, 3/12/02)

1956        Mar 13, Elvis Presley released his first album: "Elvis Presley."
    (SFC, 8/11/97, p.A1)

1956        Mar 15, The Lerner and Loewe musical "My Fair Lady" opened starring Julie Andrews and Rex Harrison at the Mark Hellinger Theater in NYC for 2,715 performances.
    (AP, 3/15/97)(HN, 3/15/02)

1956        Mar 17, Fred Allen (b.1894), American comedian (Fred Allen Radio Show), died.
    (TOH, 1982, p.1956)(AP, 3/17/06)

1956        Mar 20, Union workers ended a 156-day strike at Westinghouse Electric Corp.
    (AP, 3/20/97)
1956        Mar 20, Tunisia was granted independence by France. Tunisia became an independent nation under the leadership of Habib Bourguiba, a Francophone lawyer. He launched a campaign advocating birth control. By 2003 the fertility rate plunged from 7.2 in the 1960s to 2.08. Bourguiba created a paternalistic and monopolistic ruling party that continued for 3 decades.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1685)(EWH, 1968, p.1247)(SFEC, 4/12/98, p.T5)(SFC, 4/16/98, p.B4)(WSJ, 8/8/03, p.A1)(Econ, 1/22/11, p.31)
1956        Mar 20, Mount Bezymianny on Kamchatka Peninsula, USSR, exploded.
    (MC, 3/20/02)

1956        Mar 21, 50 years ago, "Marty" won best picture at the Academy Awards; its star, Ernest Borgnine, won best actor. Anna Magnani won best actress for "The Rose Tattoo."
    (AP, 3/21/06)

1956        Mar 22, Musical "Mr. Wonderful" with Sammy Davis Jr. premiered in NYC.
    (MC, 3/22/02)

1956        Mar 23, Pakistan became an independent republic within the British Commonwealth, officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. Pakistan became the first Islamic republic.
    (HFA, '96, p.26)(AHD, p.943)(AP, 3/23/97)(Econ 7/22/17, SR p.6)
1956        Mar 23, Soviet students protested the campaign to desanctify Stalin.
    (HN, 3/23/98)

1956        Mar 26, Medic Alert Foundation formed.
    (SS, 3/26/02)
1956        Mar 26, Red Buttons debuted on TV in Studio One.
    (SS, 3/26/02)

1956        Mar 27, US seized the US communist newspaper "Daily Worker."
    (MC, 3/27/02)
1956        Mar 27, French commandos landed in Algeria.
    (MC, 3/27/02)

1956        Mar, The Federal Hourly Minimum Wage was set at $1.00 an hour.

1956        Apr 1, Libby Riddles, dogsled racer: 1st woman to win Iditarod (1985), was born.
    (MC, 4/1/02)
1956        Apr 1, 10th Tony Awards: Diary of Anne Frank and Damn Yankees won.
    (MC, 4/1/02)
1956        Apr 1, Giovanni Giotta (1920-2016) opened the Cafe Trieste in San Francisco’s North Beach district at the corner of Grant and Vallejo.
    (SFEC, 4/6/97, p.C1)(SFC, 4/1/06, p.A1)(SFC, 6/14/16, p.C1)

1956        Apr 2, The soap operas "As the World Turns" and "The Edge of Night" premiered on CBS television. Actress Helen Wagner (1918-2010) opened "As the World Turns" with the words: "Good morning, dear."
    (AP, 4/2/99)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Edge_of_Night)(AP, 5/3/10)
1956        Apr 2, Peter Ustinov's "Romanoff and Juliet," premiered in Manchester.
    (MC, 4/2/02)

1956        Apr 3, "Silk Stockings" closed at Imperial Theater in NYC after 461 performances.
    (MC, 4/3/02)
1956        Apr 3, German war criminals Hinrichsen, Ruhl, Siebens and Viebahn were freed.
    (MC, 4/3/02)

1956        Apr 4, Enid Bagnold's "Chalk Garden," premiered in London.
    (MC, 4/4/02)
1956        Apr 4, Spain relinquished its protectorate to Morocco.
    (EWH, 1968, p.1240)

1956        Apr 6, Polish communist Gomulka was freed from prison.
    (MC, 4/6/02)

1956        Apr 8, Poet Gary Snyder resolved to write his opus Mountains and Rivers Without End.
    (SFC, 9/1/96, DB p.31)
1956        Apr 8, Six marine recruits drowned during exercise at Paradise Island, SC.
    (MC, 4/8/02)

1956        Apr 10, Philips broadcasted the 1st Dutch color TV programs.
    (MC, 4/10/02)
1956        Apr 10, In Alabama singer Nat Cole was attacked on stage at the Birmingham Municipal Auditorium by a small group of white supremacists. Six local men were arrested for the attack.
    (http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa4113/is_200401/ai_n9350991/)(NYT, 4/11/1956, p.1)

1956        Apr 11, Elvis Presley's "Heartbreak Hotel" went gold.
    (SFC, 8/11/97, p.A1)
1956        Apr 11, French government sent 200,000 reservists to Algeria.
    (MC, 4/11/02)

1956        Apr 12, Henrique da Rocha-Lima (b.1879), Brazilian scientist, died. Working in Germany, he with Stanislaus von Prowazek (1875-1915) discovered Rickettsia prowazekii, the pathogen of endemic typhus, which he named after the German zoologist.

1956        Apr 13, Emil Nolde (b.1867 as Emil Hansen), German Expressionist painter, died. He was a member of the artist group Die Brucke.
    (Econ, 10/11/08, p.116)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emil_Nolde)

1956        Apr 14, "Plain and Fancy" closed at Mark Hellinger Theater in NYC after 476 performances.
    (MC, 4/14/02)
1956        Apr 14, Ampex Corporation demonstrated its first commercial videotape recorder, later renamed the Mark IV, at the National Association of Radio and Television Broadcasters Convention in Chicago.
    (AP, 4/14/00)

1956        Apr 17, "Sugar" Ray Charles Leonard, boxer (Oly-gold-1976) [or 5/17], was born.
    (MC, 4/17/02)
1956        Apr 17, The Soviet Cominform was officially dissolved.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1685)

1956        Apr 18, Eric Roberts, actor (Pope of Greenwich Village, King of Gypsies), was born in Miss.
    (MC, 4/18/02)
1956        Apr 18, Actress Grace Kelly married Prince Rainier III of Monaco in a civil ceremony. A church wedding took place the next day.
    (AP, 4/18/97)
1956        Apr 18, An Israeli-Egyptian cease fire, arranged by UN Gen’l. Sec. Dag Hammarskjöld, went into effect.
    (EWH, 1968, p.1241)

1956        Apr 19, In southern England Cdr. Lionel "Buster" Crabb, a decorated Royal Navy veteran, disappeared while diving near Portsmouth. Secret documents released in 2006 showed that British authorities lied to cover up the fate of a Crabb, who died during a scuba diving spy mission near a warship used by Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev.
    (Econ, 7/23/05, p.78)(AP, 10/27/06)
1956        Apr 19, In Spain 12 people died and about 70 were injured following earthquakes in the southern Granada region.
    (AP, 5/12/11)(www.iberianature.com/material/earthquake.htm)

1956        Apr 21, Elvis Presley's 1st hit record, "Heartbreak Hotel," became #1. [see Apr 25]
    (MC, 4/21/02)
1956        Apr 21, Carl Perkins (d.1998), rockabilly king, had his song "Blue Suede Shoes" hit the top of the charts.
    (SFC, 1/20/98, p.A1,8)
1956        Apr 21, A tripartite military pact was signed in Jidda between Egypt, Saudi Arabia and Yemen.
    (EWH, 1968, p.1257)

1956        Apr 22, Soviet authorities exposed a secret Allied spy tunnel built a year earlier from Rudow in West Berlin to Alt-Glienicke in East Berlin. It had tapped into underground cables and operated for 11 months and 11 days intercepting Red Army communications.
    (SFC, 8/21/12, p.A3)

1956        Apr 23, US Supreme court ended race segregation on buses.
    (MC, 4/23/02)
1956        Apr 23, During a 10-day visit to England Khrushchev announced that the USSR would produce an H-bomb guided missile.
    (EWH, 1968, p.1198)

1956        Apr 25, Elvis Presley's "Heartbreak Hotel" goes number one. [see Apr 21]
    (HN, 4/25/98)(SFC, 1/20/98, p.A9)
1956        Apr 25, John W. Powell (1919-2008), former editor of the China Weekly Review, was indicted by a federal grand jury in San Francisco on charges of sedition. Powell had published articles about alleged military use of germ warfare during the Korean War. A 5-day trial in 1959 ended in a mistrial and the judge said the charge should been treason. A charge of treason was dismissed 6 months later. All government charges were dropped in 1961.
    (SSFC, 12/21/08, p.B6)

1956        Apr 27, Light heavyweight boxer Rocky Marciano announced his retirement. Marciano, with 43 knockouts to his credit, retired having won every fight in his professional career.

1956        Apr 28, Last French troops left Vietnam.
    (MC, 4/28/02)

1956        Apr 30, Richard Farina, folk singer (Reflections in a Crystal Wind), was born.
    (MC, 4/30/02)
1956        Apr 30, Alben W. Barkley (b.1877), the 35th Vice President of the US (1949-53), died in Lexington, Va.

1956        Apr, Ramon Barquin (1914-2008), a former Cuban military attache in Washington, DC, was imprisoned in Cuba after he led hundreds of soldiers in a coup that failed when someone tipped off the government. He gained his freedom three years later when Castro successfully toppled Batista, but he opposed Castro soon after.
    (AP, 3/6/08)

1956        May 2, US Methodist church disallowed race separation.
    (MC, 5/2/02)

1956        May 4, A new series of atomic tests began in the Pacific.
    (EWH, 1968, p.1210)

1956        May 8, John Osborne’s "Look Back in Anger," premiered in London. The English dramatist introduced the "angry young man" in his play "Look Back in Anger." It took English theater on a radical turn. In 1958 it was made into a movie. In 2006 John Heilpern authored “John Osborne: A Patriot for Us."
    (http://arts.guardian.co.uk/critic/review/0,,1770791,00.html)(SFEC, 4/11/99, DB p.39)(Econ, 5/20/06, p.86)

1956        May 9, Sec. of State Dulles announced that the US refused to supply arms to Israel in order to avoid a US-USSR war by proxy.
    (EWH, 1968, p.1210)
1956        May 9, The Philippines and Japan signed a reparations agreement that provided for a Japanese payment of $550 million in goods and services over a 20-year period.
    (EWH, 1968, p.1291)

1956        May 10, French government sent 50,000 reservists to Algeria. [see Apr 11]
    (MC, 5/10/02)
1956        May 10, India recorded its highest temperature ever as the temperature reached 50.6ºC (123ºF) in Alwar, Rajasthan.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alwar)(Econ, 8/1/15, SR p.18)
1956        May 10, A UN sponsored plebiscite in the British trust territory of Togoland revealed that the voters wished to join the soon-to-be-established state of Ghana.
    (EWH, 1968, p.1235)

1956        May 12, France shipped 12 jet planes to Israel with the tacit approval of the US. This complemented an April shipment.
    (EWH, 1968, p.1255)
1956        May 12, East Pakistan was struck by a cyclone and tidal waves.
    (SC, Internet, 5/12/97)

1956        May 17, Sugar Ray [Charles] Leonard, boxer (Olympics-gold-76) was born in Willington, SC.
    (MC, 5/17/02)

1956        May 18, Queen Juliana opened the Rembrandt fairs in Amsterdam.
    (SC, 5/18/02)

1956        May 19, R.C., "(You’ve Got) The Magic Touch" by The Platters peaked at #4 on the pop singles chart.
    (DT, 5/19/97)

1956        May 20, The US dropped a thermonuclear bomb from a plane onto Bikini Atoll. [see May 21]
    (HN, 5/20/98)(MC, 5/20/02)
1956        May 20, Max Beerbohm, caricaturist, writer (Yet Again), died.
    (MC, 5/20/02)

1956        May 21, The first known airborne US hydrogen bomb was tested over Bikini Atoll in the Pacific. [see May 20]
    (WUD, 1994, p.1685)(EWH, 1968, p.1210)(AP, 5/21/97)

1956        May 25, Pope Pius XII published his encyclical Haurietis aquas.
    (SC, 5/25/02)

1956        May 26, Aircraft carrier "Bennington" burned off RI, killing 103.
    (MC, 5/26/02)

1956        May 27, The French staged a raid in Algiers.
    (MC, 5/27/02)

1956        May 28, Germaine Montenesdro, 2nd victim of NYC's Zodiac killer, was born.
    (MC, 5/28/02)
1956        May 28, Pres. Eisenhower signed the Agriculture Act which embodied the "soil bank" plan to reduce surpluses.
    (EWH, 1968, p.1210)
1956        May 28, France in a treaty with India renounced sovereignty over 4 territories held for 140 years.
    (EWH, 1968, p.1262)

1956        May 29, Larry Blackmon, rocker (Cameo-Alligator Woman), was born.
    (SC, 5/29/02)
1956        May 29, LaToya Yvette Jackson, singer (posed in Playboy, Millipede), was born in Gary, IN.
    (SC, 5/29/02)
1956        May 29, Greg R, rocker (Bad), was born.
    (SC, 5/29/02)
1956        May 29, Arnold Schönberg's "Modern Psalm" premiered.
    (SC, 5/29/02)
1956        May 29, Hermann Abendroth (73) German conductor (Gewandhausorkest), died.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1956        May 30, Bus boycott began in Tallahassee, Florida.
    (MC, 5/30/02)

1956        May-Aug, Terrorism raged on Cyprus.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1685)

1956        Jun 1, Doris Day signed a five-year recording contract with Columbia Records worth $1 million.
    (DT, 6/1/97)

1956        Jun 5, A three-judge panel ruled 2-1 in Browder vs. Gayle that segregation on Montgomery’s buses was unconstitutional. Alabama officials appealed.
    (SFEM, 2/2/97, p.12)

1956        Jun 8, The first American of record to die in Vietnam was Air Force Tech Sergeant Richard B. Fitzgibbon Jr. His son, Richard B. Fitzgibbon III, died in Vietnam Sep 7, 1965.
    (SFC, 2/12/99, p.B4)

1956         June 9, In Washington, DC, President Eisenhower underwent surgery for an intestinal blockage. The operation was a success and doctors assured the nation that the president will make a full recovery.
    (NYT, 6/9/1956, p.1)
1956        Jun 9, A magnitude 7.3 earthquake struck Afghanistan. At least 100 people were killed.

1956        Jun 10, In Argentina loyalists smashed a Peronist revolt. 26 rebels were executed.
    (EWH, 1968, p.1220)

1956        Jun 11, Ray Nagin, later mayor of New Orleans, was born in New Orleans.
    (WSJ, 1/10/06, p.A4)

1956        Jun 13, The 74-year British occupation of the Suez Canal ended. The last British troops left the Canal base.
    (EWH, 1968, p.1241)(PC, 1992 ed, p.953)
1956        Jun 13, The Int’l. Criminal Police Commission, modified its constitution and adopted the name Int’l. Criminal Police Organization (Interpol).

1956        Jun 17, Golda Meir began her term as Israel's foreign minister.
    (MC, 6/17/02)

1956        Jun 19, Jerry Lewis and Dean Martin no longer wished to film together after 16 films.
    (DT, 6/19/97)
1956        Jun 19, Marilyn Monroe & Arthur Miller were married.
    (DT, 6/19/97)

1956        Jun 22, The battle for Algiers began as three buildings in Casbah were blown up. France under PM Guy Mollet resolved to put down the Arab uprising and put 400,000 soldiers in Algiers.
    (HN, 6/22/98)(Econ, 7/29/06, p.24)

1956        Jun 23, Egyptians approved a new constitution and elected Gamal Abdel Nasser as president. The new constitution acknowledged the long struggle by women and for the first time provided them with equal political rights.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1685)(http://weekly.ahram.org.eg/2007/875/eg4.htm)(AP, 6/23/97)

1956        Jun 27, Martin Luther King was the featured speaker at the NAACP convention held at the SF Civic Auditorium.
    (SFEM, 2/2/97, p.10)

1956        Jun 28-30, Workers rioted in Poznan, Poland, and some 100 died.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1685)

1956        Jun 29, Pres. Eisenhower signed the US Federal Highway Act. It authorized a 42,500 mile network linking major urban centers. 90% of the cost was to be born by the federal government. Initial estimates put completion by 1968 for $25 billion. The system was completed in 1993 at a cost of $425 billion (in 2006 dollars). The Federal Highway Act included the Highway Revenue Act as Title II and created the Highway Trust Fund (HTF) to finance the construction.
    (SFC, 6/17/06, p.A1)(Econ, 2/16/08, p.32)(Econ, 11/19/11, p.34)
1956        Jun 29, Marilyn Monroe married playwright Arthur Miller in a London ceremony.
    (MC, 6/29/02)
1956        Jun 29, Charles Dumas became the first person to jump over 7 feet.
    (MC, 6/29/02)

1956        Jun 30, A United DC-7 and a TWA Lockheed Constellation collided during a thunderstorm over the Grand Canyon (Arizona) killing all 128 people. The crash led to the creation of a new body, which became the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA).
    (WSJ, 6/20/06, p.D3)(SFC, 6/30/09, p.D8)(Econ 6/10/17, p.66)
1956        Jun 30, The Soviet Union recognized Laos.
    (EWH, 1968, p.1273)

1956        Jul 1, Elvis Presley appeared on the Steve Allen Show wearing a tuxedo.
    (MC, 7/1/02)

1956        Jul 2, Jeffrey Cooper, guitarist (Midnight Star-No Parking), was born.
    (SC, 7/2/02)
1956        Jul 2, Jerry Hall, model, Mrs. Mick Jagger, was born in Mesquite, Tx.
    (SC, 7/2/02)
1956        Jul 2, Julie Montgomery, actress (Samantha-1, Life to Live, Kindred), was born in KC, Mo.
    (SC, 7/2/02)
1956        Jul 2, Former truckdriver Elvis Presley recorded "Hound Dog" by Lieber and Stoller and "Don't Be Cruel." Presley, began Rock-n-Roll with his song "Don’t Be Cruel," written by Otis Blackwell (d.2002 at 70).
    (SC, 7/2/02)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)(SFC, 5/10/02, p.A31)
1956        Jul 2, Turkey rejected a British plan for the eventual self-determination of Cyprus.
    (EWH, 1968, p.1250)

1956        Jul 3, Loew's was removed from the DJIA and International Paper was added as a component of the Dow Jones.
    (WSJ, 5/28/96, p. R46)(WSJ, 4/8/04, p.C4)

1956        Jul 5, France raised the tobacco tax 20% to support war in Algeria.
    (MC, 7/5/02)

1956        Jul 7, The Douglas Moore and John Latouche opera "Ballad of Baby Doe," premiered.
    (MC, 7/7/02)
1956        Jul 7, Seven Army trucks loaded with dynamite exploded in middle of Cali, Columbia, killing 1,100-1,200. 2000 buildings were destroyed.
    (MC, 7/7/02)

1956        Jul 9, Tom Hanks, actor (Bossom Buddies, Forrest Gump, Phila), was born in Concord, Calif.
    (MC, 7/9/02)
1956        Jul 9, Fred (d.1983) and Pat Cody (d.2010 at 87) opened Cody’s bookstore in Berkeley, Ca. In 1977 they sold the operation to Andy Ross. In 2005 Ross planned to open a store in Union Square, SF. In 2006 Ross sold the company to a Japanese firm. Cody’s closed its last store in Berkeley on June 20, 2008.
    (SFC, 1/7/05, p.C1)(SFC, 6/23/08, p.A7)(SFC, 6/23/08, p.A7)(SFC, 10/6/10, p.C5)

1956        Jul 10, 650,000 US steel workers went on strike.
    (MC, 7/10/02)

1956        Jul 19-20, The US and Britain announced the withdrawal of their aid offers to Egypt for the construction of the Aswan high dam.
    (EWH, 1968, p.1249)

1956        Jul 20, Great Britain refused to lend Egypt money to build Aswan Dam.
    (MC, 7/20/02)

1956        Jul 23, The Bell X-2 rocket plane set a world aircraft speed record of 3,050 kph.
    (MC, 7/23/02)

1956        Jul 24, Dean Martin and Jerry Lewis performed for the last time at the Copacabana Club in NYC after a decade together as the country's most popular comedy team.
    (SSFC, 10/23/05, Par p.5)
1956        Jul 24, Brendan Behan's "Quare Fellow," premiered in London.
    (MC, 7/24/02)

1956        Jul 25, In Germany compulsory military service became law.
    (EWH, 1968, p.1182)
1956        Jul 25, Jordanians attacked the UN Palestine truce.
    (SC, 7/25/02)
1956        Jul 25, The Italian luxury liner Andrea Doria sank after colliding with the Swedish ship Stockholm in 200 feet of water 50 miles southeast of Nantucket Island, Mass. 46 people of its 1,706 passengers and crew were killed. The Dorea was headed from Genoa, Italy, to NY, and sank eleven hours after the crash.
    (WSJ, 5/30/97, p.A1)(AP, 7/25/97)(SFC, 1/1/99, p.A16)(SFC, 7/30/99, p.D5)(AP, 1/14/12)

1956        Jul 26, Dorothy Hamill, (Olympic Hall of Famer, Olympic Gold Medalist ice skater [1976]; U.S. Ice Skating Champion [1974-1976]), was born.
    (MC, 7/26/02)
1956        Jul 26, Andy Goldsworthy, British sculptor, photographer and environmentalist, was born. He produced site-specific sculpture and land art situated in natural and urban settings. He lives and works in Scotland.
1956        Jul 26, The Italian liner Andrea Doria sank off New England, some 11 hours after colliding with the Swedish liner Stockholm; at least 51 people died.
    (AP, 7/26/06)
1956        Jul 26, Egypt’s Premier Gamal Abdel Nasser nationalized the Suez Canal to provide revenue for the construction of the high Aswan dam. His speech in Alexandria, which included the codeword “De Lesseps," triggered the army to start the seizure of the canal. 
    (EWH, 1968, p.1241)(EWH, 1968, p.1249)(Econ, 7/29/06, p.23)

1956        Jul 29, Jacques Cousteau's Calypso anchored in at a record 7,500 m under water.
    (MC, 7/29/02)

1956        Jul 30, Anita Hill, professor of law, Clarence Thomas' nemesis, was born.
1956        Jul 30, President Eisenhower signed in to law the US motto "In God We Trust." It became the official motto of the United States of America and of the US state of Florida.

1956        Jul, International Finance Corporation (IFC) was established as an affiliate of the World Bank to provide finance to the private sector.

1956        Aug 1, Pres. Eisenhower signed legislation expanding Social Security benefits to include disability insurance. The Disability Insurance Trust Fund was created as a part of the Social Security Act Amendments.
    (Econ, 3/12/11, p.36)(www.ssa.gov/history/tally56.html)

1956        Aug 2, Albert Woolson (109), last veteran US Union army, died. Walter Williams, officially recognized as the last survivor of the 4 million who fought in the Civil War, died in 1959 at age117 in Houston. He had served as forage master for a Confederate cavalry company.
    (HN, 12/19/98)(www.chipublib.org/008subject/005genref/faqvet.html)

1956        Aug 3, Kirk Brandon, rocker (Theatre of Hate, Spear of Destiny-Outland), was born.
    (SC, 8/3/02)

1956        Aug 4, Elvis Presley released "Hound Dog."
    (MC, 8/4/02)
1956        Aug 4, The government of Indonesia repudiated more than $1 billion owed to the Netherlands.
    (EWH, 1968, p.1277)

1956        Aug 6, The government of China lifted a 7-year ban on visits from US newsmen.
    (EWH, 1968, p.1280)

1956        Aug 7, British government sent 3 aircraft carriers to Egypt.
    (MC, 8/7/02)

1956        Aug 11, Elvis Presley released "Don't Be Cruel."
    (MC, 8/11/02)
1956        Aug 11, Abstract artist Jackson Pollock (b.1912) died at age 44 in an automobile accident in East Hampton, N.Y. He was born in Wyoming and became a leader of the abstract expressionist school of art.
    (AHD, 1971, p.1015)(AP, 8/11/97)

1956        Aug 13, The 9 members of the Arab League declared that an attack on Egypt would be interpreted as an attack on all League members.
    (EWH, 1968, p.1242)

1956        Aug 14, The US established a Middle-East Emergency Committee to assure Western Europe of US oil supplies if the Suez crises interrupted shipments.
    (EWH, 1968, p.1210)
1956        Aug 14, Bertold Brecht (b.1898), German dramatist (Mother Courage), died. His first play was "Baal." He also wrote "The Resistable Rise of Arturo Ui," a satire on Hitler’s rise to power. In 1959 Prof. Martin Esslin (d.2002 at 83) authored "Brecht: A Choice of Evils."
    (WSJ, 10/3/96, p.A12)(SFEC, 8/10/97, DB p.15)(SFC, 2/28/02, p.A20)(MC, 8/14/02)
1956        Aug 14, Freiherr Constantine von Neurath, German foreign minister under Hitler (1932-38), died.
    (MC, 8/14/02)

1956        Aug 16, Adlai E. Stevenson was nominated for president at the Democratic National Convention in Chicago. John F. Kennedy made his convention debut at the Democratic convention in Chicago. Tennessee Senator Estes Kefauver withdrew his name from the balloting and asked his 200 delegates to support Adlai E. Stevenson for the presidential nomination. Stevenson won the nomination on the first ballot with 905 votes to New York Governor Averell Harriman's 200 votes. Kefauver then went on to narrowly defeat Senator John F. Kennedy for the party's vice-presidential nomination.
    (WSJ, 8/26/96, p.A12)(HNQ, 8/10/99)(AP, 8/16/97)
1956        Aug 16, Bela Lugosi (b.1882), actor (Dracula), died of heart attack in Hollywood. He was born in Hungary as Bela Blasko.

1956        Aug 17, The Cypriots offered a cease fire.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1685)

1956        Aug 18, Elvis Presley's "Hound Dog" and "Don't Be Cruel" reached #1.
    (MC, 8/18/02)

1956        Aug 20, The Republican Convention opened at the Cow Palace in Daly City, Ca.
    (SFEC, 5/16/99, Z1 p.4)
1956        Aug 20, The US state department reaffirmed its ban on travel to China.
    (EWH, 1968, p.1280)

1956        Aug 21, Kim Cattrall, actress (Mannequin, Star Trek VI), was born in Liverpool, England.
    (SC, 8/21/02)

1956        Aug 22, President Eisenhower and Vice President Nixon were nominated for second terms in office by the Republican National Convention in San Francisco.
    (AP, 8/22/97)(Ind, 11/3/01, 5A)

1956        Aug 23, US Navy pilot Lt. James B. Deane Jr. was shot out of the sky on a nighttime spy flight off the coast of China. The Martin P4M-1Q Mercator in which Deane and 15 other men were flying was shot down over the East China Sea. China later acknowledged that its jet fighters attacked the Mercator as it scooped up electronic intelligence on military radars and other sensitive Chinese systems. The remains of four crew members were recovered, two by the crew of a U.S. search vessel and two by China, which returned the bodies through British authorities in Shanghai. The other 12 were never found.
    (AP, 5/6/06)

1956        Aug 25, Alfred C. Kinsey (62), US human sexuality researcher (Kinsey Report), died in Bloomington, Ind.
    (TOH, 1982, p.1956)(AP, 8/25/06)
1956        Aug 25, In South Africa the government ordered over 100,000 non-whites to leave their homes in Johannesburg within a year, in order to make room for whites.
    (EWH, 1968, p.1232)

1956        Aug 29, French government sent troops to Cyprus near Suez crisis.
    (MC, 8/29/01)

1956        Aug 30, In Louisiana the 2-lane Lake Pontchartrain causeway opened. A 2nd span was added in 1969.
    (HC, 6/14/05)
1956        Aug 30, A white mob prevented the enrollment of blacks at Mansfield HS, Texas.
    (MC, 8/30/01)

1956        Aug, Yasser Arafat attended an int’l. student congress in Prague and secured membership for Palestine.
    (WSJ, 11/12/04, p.A11)

1956        Sep 1, Indian state of Tripura became a territory.
    (SC, 9/1/02)

1956        Sep 2, Tennessee National Guardsmen halted rioters protesting the admission of 12 African-Americans to schools in Clinton.
    (HN, 9/2/98)

1956        Sep 3, Tanks were deployed against racist demonstrators in Clinton, Tennessee.
    (MC, 9/3/01)

1956        Sep 6, Felix Borowski, composer and music critic, died at 84.
    (MC, 9/6/01)

1956        Sep 8, Harry Belafonte's album "Calypso," went to #1 and stayed #1 for 31 weeks.
    (MC, 9/8/01)

1956        Sep 9, Elvis Presley made the first of three appearances on "The Ed Sullivan Show." By his third and final appearance on the Sullivan show, due to a number of viewers, who were outraged at his suggestive gyrations, Elvis was filmed from only the waist-up.
    (AP, 9/9/97)(MC, 9/9/01)

1956        Sep 10, In Louisville, Ky., the public schools integrated.
    (MC, 9/10/01)

1956        Sep 11, Britain and France announced economic pressure on Egypt to accept international control over the Suez Canal.
    (EWH, 1968, p.1242)

1956        Sep 12, The big money quiz show "Twenty-One" began on TV. It let contestants choose questions on a 1-11 scale of difficulty and created a star player in college professor Charles Van Doren. It was later found that the shows were rigged. A 1994 film "Quiz Show," was based on the resulting scandal.
    (SFEC, 5/24/98, DB p.38)(WSJ, 1/3/03, p.W4)
1956        Sep 12, British Prime Minister Eden announced a British, French, US agreement to establish an association to operate the Suez. Nasser dubbed this as an attempt to provoke war.
    (EWH, 1968, p.1242)
1956        Sep 12, In Haiti under pressure of a general strike Magloire gave up the presidency.
    (EWH, 1968, p.1220)

1956        Sep 12-17, Pres. Sukarno of Indonesia made a state visit to Moscow and announced a Soviet loan of $100 million.
    (EWH, 1968, p.1277)

1956        Sep 13, Stravinsky's "Canticum Sacrum," premiered in Venice.
    (MC, 9/13/01)
1956        Sep 13, IBM introduced the Model 305 computer capable of storing 20 megabytes of data. Reynold B. Johnson (d.1998 at 92), IBM lab leader, developed a way to store computer data on a metal disk instead of on tape or drum. The first commercial disk drive, called RAMAC (random access method of accounting and control), was developed by IBM and sold for $50,000. It used 50 disk platters, each 2-feet in diameter. Together they held 5 megabytes of data. His Random Access Method of Accounting Control began the disk drive industry.
    (http://tinyurl.com/k3rzf)(SFC, 9/21/98, p.A21)(WSJ, 8/22/06, p.B3)

1956        Sep 14, Egypt assumed complete control over the operation of the Suez Canal.
    (EWH, 1968, p.1249)

1956        Sep 17, Black students entered a Clay, Ky., elementary school.
    (MC, 9/17/01)

1956        Sep 21, Anastasio Somoza Garcia (b.1896), Nicaraguan dictator, was shot by poet Rigoberto Lopez Perez. He died on Sep 29 after being sent to a Panama Canal Zone hospital.

1956        Sep 22, Frederick Soddy (b.1877), English radiochemist, died. He and Ernest Rutherford explained that radioactivity is due to the transmutation of elements, now known to involve nuclear reactions. He received the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1921.

1956        Sep 24, The first transatlantic telephone cable system from Newfoundland to Scotland began operation.
    (HN, 9/24/98)(MC, 9/24/01)

1956        Sep 25, The first trans-Atlantic telephone cable went into service.
    (AP, 9/25/06)

1956        Sep 26, Linda Hamilton actress, was born. (Terminator series, Beauty and the Beast, Children of the Corn).
    (MC, 9/26/01)
1956        Sep 26, Lucien Febvre, French historian (Un Destin, Martin Luther), died at 78.
    (MC, 9/26/01)

1956        Sep 27, Mildred E "Babe" Didrikson Zaharias (b.1911), track and field gold medalist  (1932) and Hall of Fame golfer, died in Galveston, Texas. Six years earlier the Associated Press had named her the Greatest Female Athlete of the First Half of the 20th Century.
    (http://sportsillustrated.cnn.com/siforwomen/top_100/2/)(AP, 9/27/06)
1956        Sep 27, Gerald Raphael Finzi, composer, died at 55.
    (MC, 9/27/01)
1956        Sep 27, The U.S. Air Force Bell X-2, the world’s fastest and highest-flying plane, crashed, killing the test pilot.
    (HN, 9/27/98)

1956        Sep 28, RCA Records reported Elvis Presley sold over 10 million records.
    (MC, 9/28/01)

1956        Sep 29, Anastasio Somoza (b.1896), Nicaraguan dictator, died at a Panama Canal Zone hospital after being shot on Sep 21 by poet Rigoberto Lopez Perez. He was succeeded by his son Luis Anastasio Somoza Debayle (1922-1967).
    (EWH, 1968, p.1216)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anastasio_Somoza_Garc%C3%ADa)

1956        Sep 30, In Algiers a blast at the Milk Bar cafe together with another device set off nearby, killed three people and wounded 60, including children. Several people lost limbs sliced off by flying glass. Zohra Drif (20) set one device as a reprisal for a big French bombing that killed dozens in the Casbah weeks earlier. Captured soon afterwards, she was sentenced to death and spent five years in French prisons.
    (Reuters, 9/28/06)
1956        Sep 30, An Israeli delegation presented France with a fabricated reason for war in Egypt. The details were agreed on at a secret meeting in Sevres. Israel proposed to invade Egypt and then let France and Britain come in as peacekeepers and occupy the Suez Canal.
    (Econ, 7/29/06, p.24)

1956        Sep, Sanche de Gramont (23), a graduate of Yale, departed for Algeria. He spent 16 months there as a French lieutenant working for a pro-French newspaper. He later changed his name to Ted Morgan and in 2006 authored “My Battle of Algiers."
    (WSJ, 2/2/06, p.D8)

1956        Oct 6, Dr. Albert Sabin discovered oral polio vaccine. Sabin developed an oral vaccine against polio. It began to be used in 1961 and by 1965 was widely used.
    (TOH, 1982, p.1956)(SFC, 6/18/99, p.A40)(MC, 10/6/01)

1956        Oct 7, Clarence Birdseye (b.1886), founder of the modern frozen food industry, died in NYC.
    (ON, 8/12, p.7)( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clarence_Birdseye)

1956        Oct 8, Don Larsen pitched the only perfect game in a World Series to date as the New York Yankees beat the Brooklyn Dodgers in Game 5, 2-0.
    (AP, 10/8/08)

1956        Oct 10, The New York Yankees won the World Series, defeating the Brooklyn Dodgers, 9-0, in Game 7 at Ebbets Field.
    (AP, 10/10/06)

1956        Oct 13, A USSR veto prevented a UN Security Council compromise resolution over the Suez.
    (EWH, 1968, p.1242)

1956        Oct 14, Charles Ives' overture "Robert Browning," premiered in NYC.
    (MC, 10/14/01)
1956        Oct 14, British and French officials met as Israel was about to attack Egypt. Anthony Nutting (d.1999 at 79), a deputy foreign secretary, learned that Prime Minister Anthony Eden had agreed with the French that once fighting began, they would send in paratroopers under the guise to separate the fighting factions, but would actually support Israel, seize the canal and undermine Nasser. Nutting resigned when British planes took to the air Oct 31.
    (SFC, 2/26/99, p.A25)

1956        Oct 15, Pres. Eisenhower appointed William J. Brennan Jr. to the Supreme Court. He served until 1990. In 1997 a collection of essays on Brennan was edited by Rosenkranz and Schwartz titled: "Reason and Passion: Justice Brennan’s Enduring Influence."
    (TOH, 1982, p.1956)(WSJ, 7/24/97, p.A16)(MC, 10/15/01)
1956        Oct 15, Pan Am Flight 943, enroute to Hawaii from San Francisco crash landed in the ocean. All 31 aboard were rescued by the Coast Guard cutter Pontchartrain.
    (SFC, 1/24/09, p.A1)

1956        Oct 16, The film "Love Me Tender" with Elvis Presley premiered.
    (MC, 10/16/01)

1956        Oct 17, The all-star movie "Around the World in 80 Days," produced by Michael Todd, had its world premiere in New York.
    (AP, 10/17/06)
1956        Oct 17, The nuclear power station Calder Hall was opened in Britain. Calder Hall was the first nuclear station to feed an appreciable amount of power into a civilian network. In 2007 engineers began the planned decommissioning of the plant.
    (HN, 10/17/98)(AP, 9/29/07)

1956        Oct 18, Martina Navratilova, Czechoslovakian-born tennis player, was born.
    (HN, 10/18/98)

1956        Oct 19, A Japanese-Soviet peace declaration ended an 11-year state of war, but left unresolved the disposition of the Kurile Islands. [see Dec 26]
    (EWH, 1968, p.1285)

1956        Oct 20, Polish and Soviet troops exchanged fire.
    (EWH, 1968, p.1201)
1956        Oct 20, Tangier became part of independent Morocco.
    (EWH, 1968, p.1228)

1956        Oct 22, France intercepted a Moroccan plane and arrested Ben Bella, an Algerian statesman.
    (MC, 10/22/01)

1956        Oct 23, The 1st video recording on magnetic tape was televised coast-to-coast.
    (MC, 10/23/01)
1956        Oct 23, Britain’s PM Anthony Eden admitted to the cabinet that secret conversations had been held in Paris with representatives of the Israeli government.
    (Econ, 12/16/06, p.86)
1956        Oct 23, An anti-Stalinist revolt began in Hungary. As the revolution spread, Soviet forces started entering the country, and the uprising was put down within weeks. Bela Kiraly (1912-2009), recently released from prison, was named as the military commander of the Budapest and head of the national guard. In 2001 Bela Liptak authored "A Testament of Revolution." In 2006 three books were published that covered Hungary’s October Revolution: “Failed Illusions" by Charles Gati; “Journey to a Revolution" by Michael Korda; and Viktor Sebestyen’s “Twelve Days: The Story of the 1956 Hungarian Revolution."
    (SFC, 10/23/96, p.A8)(WSJ, 6/19/01, p.A20)(WSJ, 10/20/06, p.W4)(Econ, 10/21/06, p.94)(AP, 10/23/07)(SSFC, 7/5/09, p.C8)

1956        Oct 24, Soviet troops invaded Hungary and Imre Nagy became PM of Hungary.

1956        Oct 26, Walter Gieseking (60), German pianist and composer, died.
    (MC, 10/26/01)

1956        Oct 27, A Franco-German agreement was signed to transfer the Saar Basin to West Germany. France, Germany and Luxembourg agreed to canalize the Moselle River, connecting the steel industry with the Ruhr Valley. The Saar Treaty established that Saarland should be allowed to rejoin Germany. This took place on Jan 1, 1957.
    (EWH, 1968, p.1182)(http://www.wordiq.com/definition/Saarland)

1956        Oct 29, "The Huntley-Brinkley Report" with Chet Huntley and David Brinkley (1920-2003) premiered as NBC's nightly television newscast, replacing "The Camel News Caravan." It ran to 1970. Brinkley remained with NBC for 11 more years.
    (AP, 10/29/97)(SFEC, 5/24/98, DB p.38)(MC, 10/29/01)(SFC, 6/13/03, p.A2)
1956        Oct 29, During the Suez Canal crisis, Israel launched an invasion of Egypt's Sinai Peninsula. Paratroopers under Ariel Sharon dropped into Sinai to open the Straits of Tiran. The Sinai Campaign, also known as Operation Kadesh, lasted eight days to November 5, 1956.
    (AP, 10/29/97)(Econ, 7/29/06, p.24)(www.jafi.org.il/education/100/Concepts/d3.html)
1956        Oct 29, At Kafr Kassem village 49 Palestinians were massacred by Israeli border guards enforcing a curfew.
    (SFC, 3/28/00, p.A10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kafr_Qasim_massacre)
1956        Oct 29, International zone of Tangier was returned to Morocco.
    (MC, 10/29/01)
1956        Oct 29, Polish Cardinal Wyszinski was released from custody.
    (EWH, 1968, p.1201)

1956        Oct 30, Britain and France issued an ultimatum to Cairo and Tel Aviv to end fighting and withdraw from a 10-mile strip along the canal.
    (EWH, 1968, p.1242)

1956        Oct 31, President Dwight D. Eisenhower praised the promise by Moscow made the previous day of major concessions to Hungarians in revolt as "the dawning of a new day" in Eastern Europe. Anti-government demonstrations in Budapest a week earlier had forced a reshuffling of the Hungarian government and demands that the new government denounce the Warsaw Pact and seek liberation from Soviet domination.
    (HNQ, 10/1/99)
1956        Oct 31, Rear Admiral G.J. Dufek became the first person to land an airplane at the South Pole.
    (AP, 10/31/97)
1956        Oct 31, Great Britain and France attempted to take over the Suez Canal. They bombed Egyptian airfields.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1685)(TOH, 1982, p.1956)

1956        Oct, The World Series was won by the New York Yankees over the Brooklyn Dodgers 4-3.
    (TOH, 1982, p.1956)
1956        Oct, The Brooklyn Dodgers completed their last season in NYC. In 2003 Michael Shapiro authored "The Last Good Season." The team moved to LA after Robert Moses, head of the Triborought Bridge and Tunnel District, blocked the efforts of owner Walter O’Malley to build a new Brooklyn ballpark.
    (WSJ, 4/3/03, p.D8)
1956        Oct, With anti-colonialism on the rise throughout the Arab world, leftists took about half the seats in elections considered among Jordan's freest ever.
    (AP, 1/23/13)

1956        Nov 1, Walter Brattain, John Bardeen and William Shockley were awarded the Nobel Prize in physics for the invention of the transistor. The trio invented the transistor in 1948 at the Bell Laboratories. William Schockley, co-developer of the transistor, founded Schockley Semiconductor Laboratory in Palo Alto this year. Two of his hires, Robert Noyce and Gordon Moore, later went on to start Intel Corp. Tim Jackson in 1998 published "Inside Intel."
    (SFEC, 8/17/97, BR p.4)(WSJ, 2/13/98, p.A13)(HNQ, 12/23/99)
1956        Nov 1, The Nagy government of Hungary withdrew from the Warsaw Pact.
    (MC, 11/1/01)
1956       Nov 1, Pietro Badoglio (85), Italian general (1922-43), Premier of Italy (1943-44), died.

1956        Nov 2, Hungary appealed for UN assistance against Soviet invasion. The Soviets chose Janos Kadar to form a counter-government.
1956        Nov 2, Gaza was occupied by the Israeli army and evacuated in March 1957.
1956        Nov 2, The UN passed an American resolution, 64 to 5, for a ceasefire at the Suez Canal in Egypt. The General Assembly took up a Canadian suggestion for an emergency force to monitor the ceasefire. The UN Emergency Force (UNEF) became the first “blue hat" UN peacekeepers.
    (Econ, 7/29/06, p.24)(www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/missions/past/unefi.htm)
1956        Nov 2, Jacob Weinberg (77), composer, died.
    (MC, 11/2/01)

1956        Nov 3, "Wizard of Oz" was 1st televised (CBS-TV).
    (MC, 11/3/01)

1956        Nov 4, Arthur Tatum (Art Tatum, 46), US jazz pianist and composer, died.
    (MC, 11/4/01)
1956        Nov 4, Israel captured the Straits of Tiran and reached the Suez Canal in Egypt.
    (MC, 11/4/01)
1956        Nov 4, Russian troops and tanks attacked Budapest and crushed the Hungarian revolt under Premier Imre Nagy. Soviet troops marched into the country. Martial law was proclaimed and mass arrests followed. The UN censured the USSR. The repression was organized by Yuri Andropov who later became Chief of the KGB in 1967. 25,000 people were killed. Janos Kadar was installed by the Soviet Union as head of Hungary's Communist Party.
    (WSJ, 12/14/95, p.A-12)(SFC, 10/23/96, p.A8)(WSJ, 12/27/96, p.A5)(AP, 5/22/98)

1956        Nov 5, Britain and France started landing troops in Egypt during fighting between Egyptian and Israeli forces around the Suez Canal. A cease-fire was declared two days later.
    (AP, 11/5/97)
1956        Nov 5, Israel liberated Sharm-el-Sheikh, reopening Gulf of Aqaba.
    (MC, 11/5/01)

1956        Nov 6, The Eisenhower-Nixon Republican ticket won the presidential elections beating Democrat Adlai E. Stevenson. The Democrats won a majority in both houses of Congress.
    (SFC, 11/7/56, p.A1)(EWH, 1968, p.1210)(AP, 11/6/97)   
1956        Nov 6, Pressure from the US and USSR effected a cease-fire in the Middle-East. The UN created an emergency force (UNEF) to supervise a cease fire. Britain’s PM Anthony Eden called French PM Guy Mollet to tell him that Britain was aborting operations in Egypt. German chancellor Konrad Adenauer, meeting with Mollet, remarked that Europe must unite to counter the influence of the United States.
    (TOH, 1982, p.1956)(EWH, 1968, p. 1242)(Econ, 7/29/06, p.24)
1956        Nov 6, Holland and Spain withdrew from Olympics, to protest Soviets in Hungary.
    (MC, 11/6/01)

1956        Nov 7, Britain’s PM Anthony Eden surrendered to American demands and stopped British operations in Egypt’s Canal Zone.
    (Econ, 7/29/06, p.29)

1956        Nov 12, Largest observed iceberg, 208 by 60 miles, was 1st sighted.
    (MC, 11/12/01)

1956        Nov 13, The U.S. Supreme Court struck down the Alabama bus segregation law. The Supreme Court struck down laws calling for racial segregation on public buses.
    (AP, 11/13/97)(HN, 11/13/98)

1955        Nov 14, Robert E. Sherwood (59), dramatist (Abe Lincoln in Illinois), died.
    (MC, 11/14/01)
1956        Nov 14, The Hungarian revolt was put down.
    (MC, 11/14/01)

1956        Nov 15, The first units of UNEF arrived to enforce the cease fire in the Suez Canal Zone.
    (EWH, 1968, p.1242)

1956        Nov 16, "Love Me Tender," the first Elvis Presley film, premiered in NYC.
    (SFC, 8/11/97, p.A1)

1956        Nov 17, Soviet Sec. Gen. Nikita Khrushchev told Western diplomats "We will bury you." A later translation of his statement quoted the phrase as “be present at the funeral" of the West.
    (SSFC, 6/9/02, p.F3)(Econ, 8/11/07, p.14)

1956        Nov 18, An agreement in Moscow was signed for equality in Polish-Soviet relations.
    (EWH, 1968, p.1201)

1956        Nov 22, Melbourne, Australia, hosted this summer’s 16th Olympiad. 65 countries and 4,276 athletes competed. Closing ceremonies were held on Dec 8. The Netherlands and Spain withdrew from the Olympics in support of Hungary following Russia’s invasion. 45 athletes from Hungary defected during the games. Egypt, Lebanon and Iraq boycotted the games in protest over British and French actions over the Suez Canal. China boycotted protesting the inclusion of athletes from Taiwan.  
    (SFEC, 9/10/00, p.T8)(WSJ, 9/15/00, p.A1)(WSJ, 4/12/08, p.R2)

1956        Nov 24, "Pajama Game" closed at St James Theater NYC after 1063 performances.
    (MC, 11/24/01)

1956        Nov 25, Fidel Castro and his 81 rebel exiles departed Mexico to liberate Cuba from the corrupt dictatorship of Fulgencio Batista. Che Guevara had recently joined Fidel and his band of Cuban rebel exiles as their doctor.
    (TOH, 1982, p.1956)(SFC, 6/16/97, p.D3)(SFC,10/15/97, p.C2)

1956        Nov 26, Bandleader Tommy Dorsey died in Greenwich, Conn., a week after his 51st birthday.
    (AP, 11/26/06)

1956        Nov 29, The musical "Bells Are Ringing," starring Judy Holliday, opened at Shubert Theater in NYC for 925 performances. It was written by Betty Comden, Adolph Green and Jule Styne.
    (AP, 11/29/01)(WSJ, 4/18/01, p.A20)

1956        Nov 30, U.S. offered emergency oil to Europe to counter the Arab ban.
    (HN, 11/30/98)
1956        Nov 30, Britain and France bowed to UN pressure and agreed to leave the Suez Canal. Russia and the US forced a combined British, French and Israeli operation against Nasser in the Suez to abort.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1685)(TMC, 1994, p.1956)

1956        Nov, Eugene O’Neill’s “Long Day’s Journey into Night" premiered on Broadway. It had first premiered in Sweden in February
1956        Nov, Austria provided humanitarian aid to nearly 200,000 Hungarians fleeing their homeland after Soviet tanks crushed freedom fighters aiming to overthrow repressive communist rule.
    (AP, 10/20/06)
1956        Nov, Hungarian Cardinal Mindszenty (b.1892) took refuge in the US embassy in Budapest.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1685)

1956        Dec 1, Leonard Bernstein's musical "Candide," based on the work by Voltaire, opened at Martin Beck Theater in NYC for 73 performances. The book was by Lillian Hellman with lyrics by Richard Wilbur.
    (AP, 12/1/99)(SFC, 1/11/05, p.E1)

1956        Dec 2, Fidel Castro landed on coast of Cuba. Castro landed with a small armed force to overthrow dictator Fulgencio Batista. Che Guevara was one of the few who survived the disastrous landing of the rebels’ boat, the Granma. Guevara kept a diary for the next 2 years and in 2011 it was published in Cuba as “Diary of a Combatant."
    (TOH, 1982, p.1956)(SFC,10/15/97, p.C2)(SFC, 6/14/11, p.A2)

1956        Dec 3, England & France pulled troops out of Egypt.
    (MC, 12/3/01)

1956        Dec 5, Thornton Wilder's "Matchmaker," premiered in NYC.
    (MC, 12/5/01)
1956        Dec 5, Herb Stempel lost to Charles Van Doren on the NBC quiz show “Twenty One" in a fixed match. Albert Freedman (34), who had taken over as head of the Geritol sponsored show, had coached the charming Van Doren to get rid of the expressionless Stempel.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Herb_Stempel)(Econ 5/6/17, p.82)

1956        Dec 6, B.R. Ambedkar (b.1891), a Dalit and chief architect of India’s 1949 constitution, died. “What is the village but a sink of localism, a den of ignorance, narrow-mindedness and communalism."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/B._R._Ambedkar)(Econ, 12/18/10, p.60)
1956        Dec 6, In Hungary civilians were shot dead during protests in Budapest. A communist party committee directly governed the leading body of a militia, the so called Military Council, responsible for the shooting. Party committee member Bela Biszku was named interior minister in 1957.
    (AP, 3/18/14)
1956        Dec 6, Nelson Mandela and 156 others were arrested for political activities in South Africa. They were charged with treason for supporting the Freedom Charter, which called for a non-racial and socialist-based economy.
    (MC, 12/6/01)(SFC, 12/6/13, p.A18)

1956        Dec 7, Larry Bird, American basketball player for the Boston Celtics, was born. He won the NBA MVP award three years in a row.
    (HN, 12//99)

1956        Dec 8, In Hungary at least 46 civilians were shot dead during protests in the town of Salgotarjan.
    (AP, 3/18/14)

1956        Dec 12, In Hungary a general strike protested the Kadar Regime and the UN General Assembly adopted a resolution that condemned Soviet repression in Hungary, called on the USSR to withdraw its forces, and urged Hungarian independence.
    (EWH, 1968, p.1183)(HN, 12/12/98)

1956        Dec 14, John Diefenbaker was elected leader of the Progressive Conservative party in Canada. he succeeded John Drew.
    (EWH, 1968, p.1213)

1956        Dec 16, Cardinal Francis Spellman, the Archbishop of New York, personally denounced the yet-to-be released movie "Baby Doll," saying Catholics would be committing a sin if they saw it.
    (AP, 12/16/98)

1956        Dec 17, A Soviet-Polish agreement limited the role of Soviet troops in Poland.
    (EWH, 1968, p.1201)

1956        Dec 18, "To Tell the Truth" debuted on CBS-TV.
    (MC, 12/18/01)
1956        Dec 18, The Israeli flag was hoisted on Mount Sinai.
    (MC, 12/18/01)
1956        Dec 18, Japan was admitted to the United Nations.
    (TOH, 1982, p.1956)(EWH, 1968, p.1292)(AP, 12/18/97)

1956        Dec 20, The Supreme Court affirmed the Jun 5 decision against segregation on buses in Montgomery, Alabama. Montgomery removed race-based seat assignments on its buses.
    (SFEM, 1/19/97, BR p.8)(SFEM, 2/2/97, p.12,13)(ON, 4/2011, p.4)

1956        Dec 22, The 1st gorilla was born in captivity at Columbus, Ohio.
    (MC, 12/22/01)
1956        Dec 22, The evacuation of the Suez Canal was completed by Britain and France.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1685)(MC, 12/22/01)

1956        Dec 22, For the first time a gorilla was born in captivity.
    (HFA, ‘96, p.20)

1956        Dec 24, African Americans defied a city law in Tallahassee, Fla., and occupied front bus seats.
    (HN, 12/24/98)

1956        Dec 25, Pres. Eisenhower invited Robert George (d.1998 at 74) to the White House as the official Santa Claus. George served as the official Santa for 6 presidents and maintained a year-round Christmas display at his home in Glendale, CA., until 1987 when it was declared a gaudy eyesore.
    (SFC, 7/4/98, p.C2)

1956        Dec 26, The USSR ended its state of war with Japan.
    (EWH, 1968, p.1198)

1956        Dec 27, Segregation on Tallahassee, Fla. buses was outlawed.
    (HN, 12/27/98)

1956        Dec 29, President Eisenhower asked Congress for the authority to oppose Soviet aggression in the Mideast.
    (HN, 12/29/98)
1956        Dec 29, Salvage crews began to clear the Suez Canal.
    (EWH, 1968, p.1242)

1956        Dec 30, The New York Giants defeated the Chicago Bears, 47-to-7, to win the NFL Championship Game.
    (AP, 12/30/06)
1956        Dec 30, Sgt. Joseph Lacey, SF police officer, was shot and killed while trying to stop a robbery.
    (SFC, 2/17/07, p.B5)

1956        Dec 31, In Dallas 12-year-old Jeannett Mangan was slain on Goat Hill bluff. Ernesto Lopez (19) and Simon Rodriguez (16) were later convicted of the rape and murder. In 1962 both men escaped from prison. Rodriguez was captured but Lopez remained at large until he was captured in 1997.
    (SFC, 6/28/97, p.A8)

1956        Pop art emerged pioneered in Britain by such artists as David Hockney, Richard Hamilton and Peter Blake. In the US the style was led by Andy Warhol, Roy Lichtenstein and Robert Rauchenberg. Hungarian born artist Victor Vasarely (1906-1997) made colorful abstract works in Paris that created the illusion of movement.
    (TL, 1988, p.115)(SFC, 3/16/97, p.C12)

1956        British artist Francis Bacon (1909-1992) painted "Study for Figure V."
    (SFEC, 8/17/97, BR p.6)

1956        Balthus (Balthazar Klossowski aka Count de Rola b.1908) painted a pair of interior scenes with sleeping girls "The Golden Fruit" and "Golden Afternoon." Most of his works are of nude prepubescent girls.
    (WSJ, 2/8/96, p.A-12)(WSJ, 9/30/96, p.A14)(SFC, 12/13/96, p.B1)   

1956        Hans Bellmer’s art depicted female bodies bound up in tight coils of twine.
    (WSJ, 6/15/95, p.A-14)

1956        Jasper Johns painted "Canvas."
    (SFEC, 11/24/96, C15)

1956        Franz Kline painted "Mahoning," in which a welter of hefty, tilting beams bar the way to a central rectangle.
    (WSJ, 12/16/94, A-12)

1956        Willem de Kooning (1904-1997), abstract artist, painted "Saturday Night."
    (SFC, 3/20/97, p.A6)

1956        David Park painted his "Studio Sink."
    (SF    C, 10/22/98, p.E6)

1956        Picasso painted his "Woman in a Rocking Chair." He also painted "Woman Nude Before Garden," which was slashed in 1999 by a mental patient in Amsterdam's Stedelijk Museum.
    (WSJ, 2/16/99, p.A20)(SFC, 5/18/99, p.A10)

1956        Stanley Spencer, English artist, painted "Seated Nude."
    (SFC, 10/14/97, p.B5)

1956        Eugene O'Neill wrote his play "Long Day's Journey Into Night."
    (SFEC, 5/30/99, DB p.37)

1956        Alain Bosquet (d.1998 at 78) edited the first complete French anthology of American poets.
    (SFC, 4/9/98, p.C14)

1956        William Edgar Bowers (d.2000 at 75) published his first book of poetry, "The Form of Loss."
    (SFC, 2/8/00, p.A23)

1956        William Bronk had his first book of poems, "Light and Dark," published by the journal Origin edited by Cid Corman.
    (SFC, 2/26/99, p.A25)

1956        Werner von Braun authored "The Exploration of Mars." It was illustrated by Chesley Bonestell.
    (WSJ, 5/1/01, p.A24)

1956        Anthony Crosland (1918-1977), British Labour Party politician, authored “The Future of Socialism." His ideas helped move Britain’s Labour Party beyond nationalism.
    (Econ, 8/7/10, p.58)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anthony_Crosland)

1956        Lawrence Ferlinghetti published a 1st edition of "Howl" by Allen Ginsberg. The 1st 1000 copies were printed in Europe and passed Customs without incident.

1956        "History of the English Speaking Peoples" by Winston Churchill was published.
    (TOH, 1982, p.1956)

1956        Garret Eckbo (d.2000 at 89), dean of West Coast landscape architects, authored "The Art of Home Landscaping."
    (SFEC, 6/11/00, p.D6)

1956        Samuel Eilenberg (d.1998 at 84), mathematician and art collector, co-authored "Homological Algebra" with Henri Cartan.
    (SFC, 2/3/98, p.A15)

1956        Forrest E. Fickling (d.1998 at 72) began writing his Honey West detective novels under the pseudonym G.G. Fickling. The books were used as the basis for a TV show in the 1960s.
    (SFEC, 4/12/98, p.D8)

1956        Dr. Arthur Guyton (d.2003 at 83) of the Univ. of Mississippi authored his "Textbook of Physiology."
    (SFC, 4/16/03, p.A20)

1956        Emily Hahn (1905-1997) wrote: "Diamond: The Spectacular Story of Earth’s Rarest Treasure and Man’s Greatest Greed."
    (SFC, 2/19/96, p.A20)

1956        John Hersey authored his novel "A Single Pebble," about a trip through the Yangtze River gorges.
    (SSFC, 10/27/02, p.M3)

1956        Sen. John F. Kennedy published "Profiles in Courage," a volume of short biographies describing acts of bravery and integrity by eight United States Senators. The book won the years Pulitzer Prize. In 2008 Kennedy speechwriter Ted Sorensen, who was presumed as early as 1958 to be the book's ghostwriter, acknowledged that he actually wrote most of the book.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Profiles_in_Courage)(SFEC, 9/26/99, p.A6)(Econ, 6/2/07, p.93)

1956        John Kerry King (d.2003 at 86), CIA official and consultant (1956-1979), authored "Southeast Asia in Perspective."
    (SFC, 4/12/03, p.A18)

1956        "Essays on the Sociology of Culture" by Karl Mannheim was published.
    (TOH, 1982, p.1956)

1956        Grace Metalious authored her risque novel “Peyton Place."
    (SSFC, 1/1/06, p.B6)

1956        C. Wright Mills published "The Power Elite," which became a bible of the New Left. It asserted that a small cadre of powerful decision makers drove national events. In 2000 John B. Judis published "The Paradox of American Democracy" in which the same theme was seen in a positive light.
    (WSJ, 2/16/00, p.A24)

1956        Jan Morris, Welsh essayist and travel writer, authored her book "Coast to Coast" based on traveling around America in the early 1950s.
    (SSFC, 4/28/02, p.C3)

1956        John Rewald published his "Post-Impressionism: From Van Gogh to Gauguin."
    (WSJ, 2/10/96, p.A16)

1956        Khushwant Singh (1915-2014), Indian lawyer and journalist, authored "Train to Pakistan," a short, powerful novel about the horrors of partition, when colonial India was carved into modern India and Pakistan and about 1 million people died amid the chaos. It became a classic.
    (AP, 1/1/10)(Econ, 4/5/14, p.82)

1956        Dr. J.L.B. Smith (1897-1968), South African ichthyologist, authored “Old Fourlegs: The Story of the Coelacanth."
    (Econ, 12/14/13, IL p.12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/J.L.B._Smith)

1956        Robert Solow (b.1924) published “"A Contribution to the Theory of Economic Growth" in Quarterly Journal of Economics. This led to his Nobel Prize (1987).
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Solow)(Econ, 9/13/14, p.30)

1956        Kenneth Stampp (1913-2009), US Berkeley historian, authored “The Peculiar Institution: Slavery in the Antebellum South."
    (SFC, 7/22/09, p.D5)

1956        "A Historian’s Approach to Religion" by Arnold Toynbee was published.
    (TOH, 1982, p.1956)

1956        Michael Ventris (d.1956) and John Chadwick (d.1998 at 78) published "Documents in Mycenaean Greek." This was a translation of Greek writings known as Linear B discovered by Sir Arthur Evans at the Minoan palace of Cnossos [Knossos] in 1900 and dated to 1400 BC.
    (SFC, 12/8/98, p.B6)

1956        Elie Wiesel (27), Holocaust surviver, authored his memoir “Night."
    (SSFC, 12/16/12, p.E5)

1956        "The Organization Man" by William Hollingsworth Whyte (d.1999) was published. The book defined a generation of big-company executives and look-alike managers seeking to climb the corporate ladder.
    (TOH, 1982, p.1956)(WSJ, 1/19/98, p.A22)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R25)

1956        "The Outsider," a novel by Colin Wilson, was published.
    (TOH, 1982, p.1956)

1956        Sir Angus Wilson wrote his novel "Anglo-Saxon Attitudes."
    (WSJ, 5/14/96, p.A-20)

1956        The Eugene O’Neill play "Long Day’s Journey Into Night" premiered at the Royal Dramatic Theater in Stockholm with Jarl Kulle as Edmond.
    (SFC, 10/4/97, p.A20)

1956        The musical play "Li’l Abner" was produced based on the Al Capp comic strip. The music was by Gene de Paul and the lyrics by Johnny Mercer.
    (WSJ, 4/2/98, p.A20)

1956        Charles Jackson Jr. (d.2002 at 88) won $20,000 on the "64,000 Question" and the "$64,000 Challenge" and then revealed that answers had been given to him. Ralph Story (1920-2006) hosted “The $64,000 Challenge" from 1956-1958. The show was cancelled in 1958 under allegations that answers were supplied in advance.
    (SFC, 4/27/02, p.A21)(SFC, 9/28/06, p.B5)

1956        Dick Clark (27) joined the TV show "American Bandstand" in Philadelphia after one of the 2 original hosts was arrested fro drunk driving. He was replaced by David Hirsch for the last season in 1989.
    (SFC, 11/10/99, p.E3)(SFC, 5/2/02, p.D1)

1956        The Captain Video TV show, created by Lawrence Menkin (d.2000) in 1949, ended.
    (SFC, 7/22/00, p.A21)

1956        The first all-color TV station was NBC-TV in Chicago. It was dedicated by Robert Sarnoff (1918-1997), president of NBC from 1955-1965.
    (SFEC, 2/23/96, p.C12)

1956        "The Ernie Kovac Show" ran for a season under NBC.
    (SFEC, 5/24/98, DB p.37)

1956        "The Huntley-Brinkley Report" began on NBC and ran to 1970.
    (SFEC, 5/24/98, DB p.38)

1956        The game show “Treasure Hunt" began on ABC. The show was done from the Century Theatre in NYC and was hosted by comedian Jan Murray (1916-2006). It later switched to NBC and ran until 1959.
    (SFC, 7/3/06, p.A2)

1956        Orson Welles made the pilot TV show "Fountain of Youth."
    (SFC, 6/7/99, p.B2)

1956        Steve Allen starred in NBC’s "The Steve Allen Show." It ran until 1960.
    (SFC, 11/1/00, p.A19)

1956        Jack Palance (1919-2006) starred in Playhouse 90’s “Requiem for a Heavyweight" written by Rod Serling. Palance won an Emmy for his role in the TV presentation.
    (SFC, 11/11/06, p.B6)

1956        Mike Wallace hosted the CBS quiz show "The Big Surprise."
    (SFC, 10/3/02, p.D9)

1956        "The Mike Wallace Interview" began a 4 year run on CBS.
    (SFC, 10/3/02, p.D9)

1956        The American opera "The Balled of Baby Doe" was written by Douglas Moore with the libretto by John Latouche. It was based on the 19th century real-life story of Colorado silver magnate Horace Tabor and his illicit affair with Elizabeth "Baby" Doe.
    (SFEC, 9/17/00, DB p.38)

1956        Maria Callas, US born Greek operative soprano, made her debut at the Metropolitan Opera House.
    (TL, 1988, p.115)

1956        Lev Vlasenko (1929-1996) won the prestigious Liszt Piano Competition in Budapest.
    (SFC, 8/27/96, p.A17)

1956        Louis Armstrong recorded with Ella Fitzgerald "Ella and Louis" on Verve.
    (SFC, 7/4/97, p.D9)

1956        The Calypso album by Harry Belafonte was the first to sell over a million copies.
    (SFEC, 9/8/96, DB p.64)

1956        Jazz great Clifford Brown was featured on Soupy’s On in Detroit and played "Memories of You" by Eubie Blake and Gershwin’s "Lady Be Good." A few months later he was killed in an auto accident on the Pennsylvania Turnpike at the age of 25.
    (DFP, 7/28/96, p.F1)

1956        James Brown recorded "Please Please Please" on the Federal label of Cincinnati's King Records.
    (SFEC, 7/25/99, BR p.5)

1956        Liam Clancy (1935-2009) emigrated to the US from Ireland to join elder brothers Tom and Patrick in NYC, who were singing on the side as they pursued careers as Broadway actors. They recorded an album of Irish rebel songs and grew a NYC following, together with Tommy Makem, as the Clancy Brothers. Their appearance on the Ed Sullivan show in 1961 turned them into an Irish-American folk phenomenon.
    (SFC, 12/7/09, p.C4)

1956        Johnny Cash (1932-2003) recorded his hit tunes: "Folsom Prison Blues" and "I Walk the Line."
    (SFC, 9/13/03, p.A12)

1956        Chris Connor (1927-2009), jazz singer, made a hit with “I Miss You." Her song “Trust in Me" reached the hit charts in 1957.
    (SFC, 9/1/09, p.C5)

1956        Bill Doggett (1916-1996), pianist and organist, made his blues hit "Honky Tonk." Matt Honk sold pianos to saloons in the West in the late 1900s.
    (SFC, 11/21/96, p.C7)(SFEC, 6/28/98, Z1 p.8)

1956        Singer Gogi Grant (1924-2016) recorded “The Wayward Wind." The song topped Elvis Presley’s “Heartbreak Hotel" to top the Billboard singles chart.
    (SFC, 3/17/16, p.D5)

1956        Screamin' Jay Hawkins (d.2000 at 70) recorded "I Put a Spell On You."
    (SFEC, 2/13/00, p.D3)

1956        John Lennon formed a British band called the Quarrymen.
    (SFC, 12/1/01, p.D1)

1956        Julie London recorded her hit: "Cry me a River."
    (SFC, 10/19/00, p.A29)

1956        The song "Party Doll" was recorded along with "I'm Stickin' With You" on the Triple-D label by the Rhythm Orchids: Buddy Wayne Knox, Jimmy Bowen and Don Lanier. Party Doll was written in 1948 by Knox (d.1999 AT 65)
    (SFC, 2/17/99, p.C3)

1956        The Louvin brothers recorded their album "Tragic Songs of Life."
    (SFEM,10/19/97, DB p.45)

1956        Frankie Lymon (1942-1968) and the Teenagers made a hit with their first single: "Why Do Fools Fall in Love." The 1998 film "Why Do Fools Fall in Love" was a musical comedy-drama with Halle Berry, Vivica A. Fox, Lela Rochon and Little Richard. It was directed by Gregory Nava and set in the 1950s based on the life of Frankie Lymon.
    (SFC, 8/28/98, p.C1)(SFC, 9/2/98, p.E1)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frankie_Lymon)

1956        Guy Mitchell (d.1999 at 72) had a hit with the Marty Robbins tune "Singing the Blues." Mitchell, the son of Yugoslavia immigrants, was born as Al Cernick in Detroit.
    (SFC, 7/6/99, p.B2)

1956        Patti Page sang the song "Mama From The Train." It was written by Irving Gordon (1915-1996). He wrote the classic comedy routine used by Abbott and Costello known as "Who’s on First." He also composed "Unforgettable."
    (SFC, 12/4/96, p.A17)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mama_From_The_Train)

1956        Ray Price made a country hit with "Crazy Arms."
    (WSJ, 7/13/01, p.W10)

1956        The Maddox Brothers and Rose band broke up. They had been billed as the "Most Colorful Hillbilly Band in America." Rose Maddox (d.1998) continued singing on her own.
    (SFC, 4/17/98, p.A28)

1956        The Loewe & Lerner song "On the Street Where You Live" was a hit songs from a Broadway musical.
    (WSJ, 5/18/99, p.A24)

1956        The Styme, Comden, Green song "The Party's Over" was a hit song from a Broadway musical.
    (WSJ, 5/18/99, p.A24)

1956        Popular songs of the year included Blue Suede Shoes; Around the World in 80 Days; I Could Have Danced All Night; On the Street Where You live; Que Sera, Sera; Don’t Be Cruel; Poor People of Paris.
    (TOH, 1982, p.1956)

1956        A new shopping mall in Edina, Minn., the 1st enclosed shopping mall, was designed as a center of community by Victor Gruen (1903-1980). In 2004 Paco Underhill authored "Call of the Mall," an account of the decline of the shopping mall.
    (WSJ, 12/24/03, p.D7)(WSJ, 1/30/04, p.W9)(Econ, 12/22/07, p.102)

1956        Frank Lloyd Wright designed the New York Guggenheim Museum.
    (SFEM, 4/19/98, p.23)

1956        The Danish architect Joern Utzon designed the Sidney Opera House.
    (TL, 1988, p.115)

1956        Eero Saarinen designed the US Embassy in London.
    (TOH, 1982, p.1956)

1956        The New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) expanded to include 20 Broad St.
    (SFC, 4/23/98, p.D2)

1956        The 210-acre Henry Ford Estate, Fair Lane, was donated to the Univ. of Michigan. The Ford Motor Company also gave U of M $6.5 million to establish a campus on the grounds and thus was born U of M Dearborn.
    (MT, Win. ‘96, p.9)

1955        Phyllis Diller, housewife turned comic, began her career at the SF Purple Onion.
    (SFC, 5/24/97, p.E1)

1956        Floyd Patterson at age 21 became the youngest boxer to win the heavyweight crown when he knocked out Archie Moore.
    (TOH, 1982, p.1956)

1956        Edwina Froehlich (1915-2008) co-founded the La Leche League in Franklin Park, a suburb of Chicago, to promote the breast-feeding of babies.
    (WSJ, 6/14/08, p.A7)

1956        Clairol introduced the 1st at-home hair color kit with the slogan “Does She Or Doesn’t She?". Shirley Polykoff (d.1998 at 90) authored the "Does she... or doesn’t she" slogan for Clairol hair dyes She wrote the 1975 book "Does She... or Doesn’t She? And How She Die It."
    (SFC, 6/9/98, p.A24)(WSJ, 11/11/06, p.A8)

1956        The New York Coliseum with nine acres of exhibit space opened.
    (TOH, 1982, p.1956)

1956        A Vogue magazine article made famous the Irish wool sweaters of the Aran Islands.
    (SFEC, 1/23/00, p.T10)

1956        Bruno Scatena opened Joe’s of Westlake in Daly City, Ca. In 2013 the restaurant was sold to the Duggan family. Tony Rodin, the grandfather of John Duggan, had opened the first Original Joe’s on Taylor St. in SF in 1937. In 1939 Rodin partnered with Scatena to open Original Joe’s No. 2 at Chestnut and Fillmore.  
    (SFC, 11/28/13, p.E1)
1956        In California Chuck Williams opened the first Williams-Sonoma store in Sonoma.
    (SFEM, 8/10/97, p.21)
1956        The Mill Valley, California, annual Harvest Moon Festival was founded. It was later renamed the Fall Arts Festival.
    (SFEC, 9/8/96, DB p.15)
1956        In San Francisco the Civic Center Beaux-Arts plaza was bulldozed for the building of an underground garage.
    (SSFC, 2/12/17, p.A16)
1956        San Francisco’s cable car system was reduced from 6 to 3 lines. The last car on the 70-year-old Washington-Jackson line rolled into the barn.
    (SFC, 12/2/97, p.A16)(SFC, 2/8/14, p.C2)
1956        San Francisco’s Alcohol Beverage Control Board convened a hearing at which agents testified that that patrons of the Black Cat café had solicitid them after which the board revoked its liquor license.
    (SFC, 11/15/14, p.C2)

1956        Phyllis, the 92-year-old great-granddaughter of Brigham Young, and Paul Lyman Wattis (d.1971), of Utah Construction and Mining, established a philanthropic foundation to spread their wealth.
    (SFEC, 1/18/98, p.D7)

1956        Grace Kelly married Prince Rainier of Monaco.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1956)

1956        Michigan State defeated UCLA at the Rose Bowl 17-14.
    (TOH, 1982, p.1956)
1956        Jerry Sacharski (1016-2009), summer baseball instructor, created a T-Ball league for kids in Albion, Mich.
    (WSJ, 3/7/09, p.A12)
1956        In Michigan Wayne Univ. became a full-fledged state university (WSU).
    (WSUAN, V.52, p.6)

1956        The Boston Celtics drafted Holy Cross alum Tommy Heinsohn (1934-2020). In his first season, Heinsohn played in an NBA All-Star Game, was named the NBA Rookie of the Year over teammate Bill Russell, and won his first championship ring.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tom_Heinsohn)(SFC, 11/11/20, p.D6)

1956        The World Calendar Association presented its proposed changes to the United Nations but never got past committee for approval.

1956        Eisenhower beat Adlai Stevenson for the US presidency. Stevenson won only 7 southern states but the Democrats retained control of the House and Senate.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1956)(TL, 1988, p.115)

1956        Democrat Estes Kefauver won the New Hampshire primary over Adlai Stevenson 84.6 to 14.8%.
    (SSFC, 1/25/04, p.A19)

1956        Dr. Leroy Burney was appointed the 8th surgeon general of the US Public Health Service. He replaced Dr. Leonard Scheele, who resigned after a number of children developed polio from a defective Salk vaccine. Burney later helped establish the national Library of Medicine, the National Center for Health Statistics, and a national influenza surveillance system at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
    (SFC, 8/5/98, p.A17)

1956        The Bank Holding Company Act was enacted by Congress. It kept financial-services conglomerates from amassing too much power. The law created a barrier between banking and insurance in response to the rapid growth of TransAmerica Corp.
    (WSJ, 4/10/98, p.6)

1956        The US Air Force KC-135 came into service under Pres. Eisenhower. The newest of the roughly 400 Stratotankers in service in 2012 started flying in 1964.
    (AP, 11/5/12)

1956        The FBI created its “Reserve Index," a list of people who did not meet standards for another detention list approved by the Justice Department. By 1959 the reserve index totaled 12,784 names.
    (SFCM, 10/10/04, p.20)

1956        Winston Scott (1909-1971) was appointed as the American CIA station chief in Mexico.

1956        Riots prevented the enrollment of the first black student at the Univ. of Alabama.
    (TL, 1988, p.115)

1956        Stanford began developing a shopping mall in Palo Alto, Ca. Major interest was sold to Simon Property in 2003 for $333 million.
    (SFC, 7/2/03, p.B1)

1956        The Indiana Toll Road opened with eight pairs of travel plazas along the 156-mile stretch linking Chicago to Ohio and points eastward. In 2015 IFM, an Australian infrastructure fund, acquired a 66-year lease on the road in a $5.8 billion deal.
    (Econ, 4/22/17, p.67)

1956        Artist George Beattie painted a collection of 8 works depicting an idealized version of Georgia farming. The murals included depictions of slaves harvesting sugarcane and were hung in the lobby of the Georgia Dept. of Agriculture. In 2011 a new agriculture commissioner ordered the murals depicting slavery to be removed.
    (SFC, 1/4/11, p.E2)
1956        The Georgia state flag with its Confederate emblem was adopted under Gov. Marvin Griffin. The emblem was added in part to protest federal attacks on segregation. The flag was redesigned in 2003.
    (http://tinyurl.com/9b6pd)(Econ, 6/27/15, p.22)
1956        Lake Lanier (officially Lake Sidney Lanier), a reservoir in the northern portion of the US state of Georgia, was created by the completion of Buford Dam on the Chattahoochee River. It is also fed by the waters of the Chestatee River. US Congress had authorized the construction of Buford Dam in the mid-1940s.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lake_Lanier)(Econ, 9/18/10, p.44)

1956        The state of Mississippi set up a secret agency to combat racial desegregation. It spied and collected dossiers on 87,000 people considered to be potential subversives.
    (SFC, 4/5/96, p.A-3)

1956        Cecil Underwood (1922-2008), was elected governor of West Virginia becoming at age 34 the state’s youngest governor.
    (SFC, 11/25/08, p.B4)
1956        West Virginia began allowing women to serve on jury duty. The state had claimed that courthouses lacked female toilets.
    (Econ, 7/10/10, p.60)

1956        Louis Kelso (1913-1991), American lawyer, invented the Employee Stock Ownership Plan (ESOP).
    (Econ, 4/14/07, p.76)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_O._Kelso)

1956        Warren Buffet started an investment partnership in Omaha with money from family and friends. He went on to become a billionaire.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)

1956        AT&T Submarine Systems laid its first undersea phone line. Transatlantic cable telephone service was inaugurated.
    (WSJ, 10/17/96, p.A6)(TOH, 1982, p.1956)
1956        AT&T settled an antitrust suit and agreed to confine itself to common-carrier communications service in return for recognition of the national Bell system.
    (WSJ, 10/26/00, p.A12)

1956        Canadian Les Dawes (d.2002) produced his first La Dawri car, a fiberglass body on a Ford chassis. He moved to Southern California where his La Dawri Coachcraft produced some 800 car kits before it folded in the late 1960s.
    (SSFC, 9/30/07, p.B1)

1956        The US Fair Isaac Corp. was founded. FICO scores became a standard measure to determine the creditworthiness of American consumers.
    (SFC, 1/23/12, p.D1)

1956        The Jack Daniel's Whiskey company was sold to Kentucky-based Brown-Forman.
    (SFC, 2/04/04, p.D2)

1956        Payless, a self-service shoe chain, began US operations.
    (WSJ, 1/21/07, p.A4)

1956        Proctor & Gambol introduced Crest toothpaste with the slogan "Look Mom, no cavities!"
    (WSJ, 8/29/96, p.B1)

1956        Lockheed Corp. began moving engineers to Sunnyvale, Ca., lured by offers of land and talent from Stanford Univ.
    (SFC, 9/15/06, p.D3)

1956        Dr. Forrest Shaklee (1894-1985), an Oakland, Ca., chiropractor, along with his son founded Shaklee Products, a nutritional supplement company. It was later sold to Yamanouchi Pharmaceutical Co. of Japan. In 2004 Roger Barnett bought Shaklee for $310 million.
    (SSFC, 8/13/06, p.F1)(www.shaklee.com/main/aboutPhiloStory)

1956        Brice and Shirley Phillips opened a crab shack in ocean City, Md. By 2006 Phillips Foods took in $160 million in revenue from food sales.
    (WSJ, 1/21/07, p.A4)

1956        Industry experts in 1996 picked the 1956 Hudson as the number 1 worst American-made car. An average car this year sold for about $2,500.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)(SFC, 9/11/06, p.C2)

1956        Malcom McLean (d.2001 at 87), an entrepreneur from North Carolina, used a converted WW II tanker called the Ideal X to sail 58 cargo filled containers from New Jersey to Houston. He named his company Sea-Land Service and is considered as the founder of container shipping. In 2006 Marc Levinson authored “The Box: How the Shipping Container Made the World Smaller and the World Economy Bigger."
    (SFC, 5/28/01, p.A17)(SSFC, 2/5/06, p.J1)(Econ, 3/18/06, p.81)

1956        John McCarthy (1927-2011), computer science pioneer, led the first conference on “artificial intelligence" at Dartmouth College, New Hampshire. He coined the term to attract funding for the conference.  
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_McCarthy_%28computer_scientist%29)(Econ, 11/5/11, p.114)

1956        The aurora borealis, or AB rhinestone, was first made by the Swarovski company for Christian Dior. It was rhinestone made of leaded glass that was coated with bits of metal and steamed in a vacuum.
    (SFC, 4/23/08, p.G6)

1956        The neutrino, an atomic particle with no charge, was produced at the Los Alamos laboratory in the US. An abandoned gold mine in South Dakota was filled with 100,000 gallons of dry-cleaning fluid was used to capture neutrinos from the sun. Experimenters Frederick Reines and Clyde L. Cowan Jr. made the catch.
    (TOH, 1982, p.1956)(WSJ, 6/12/98, p.W13)(NYT, 4/28/02, 16wk)

1956        The anti-neutrino was discovered by Cork, Lambertson, Piccioni and Wenzel.
    (TOH, 1982, p.1956)

1956        The cosmic-ray neutron intensity monitor, developed by physicist John Simpson, was used to collect the 1st evidence indicating the existence of the heliosphere, the region beyond the planets that is influenced by the sun’s magnetic field.
    (SFC, 9/2/00, p.A23)

1956        The Fortran computer language was developed.
    (TL, 1988, p.115)

1956        The computer mouse was invented at SRI Int’l. by Doug Engelbart and Bill English. It was patented on Nov 17, 1970. The point-and-click graphical interface was introduced by an MIT group working on the Whirlwind computer. Engelbart was working at the Stanford Research Institute, a think tank sponsored by Stanford University, and originally referred to the mouse as a "X-Y Position Indicator for a Display System."
    (Economist, 9/15/12, p.16)(http://www.computerhope.com/issues/ch001083.htm)

1956        Jerome Lemelson (d. 1997 at 74) applied for a patent for his "machine vision device." It was approved in 1989 and better known as bar code scanner technology. Revenue from the invention allowed him to endow the annual $500,000 Lemelson-MIT Prize for outstanding inventors, to establish the Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention and Innovation, to make a $10 million cash gift to the Smithsonian Inst., and provide funds to MIT and other universities to encourage budding inventors.
    (SFC, 10/4/97, p.A20)

1956        George Devol and Joseph Engelberger met and formed a partnership to develop robots.
    (Hem., 2/96, p.91)

1956        Bell Telephone began to develop the visual telephone.
    (TOH, 1982, p.1956)

1956        The first video recording was demonstrated in the US.
    (TL, 1988, p.115)

1956        The Zenith Space Command remote control, co-invented by Robert Adler (1913-2007) and Eugene Polley, was introduced.
    (SFC, 2/17/07, p.A2)

1956        Robert Hofstadter conceived the Stanford Linear Accelerator.
    (SFC, 12/27/99, p.A8)

1956        Dr. John Jay Osborn (d.2014) and cardiac surgeon Frank Gerbode used their heart-lung machine to keep a man alive during surgery to repair a ventricular septal defect.
    (SFC, 5/1/14, p.D6)

1956        A new ion microscope by F.W. Muller made atoms visible.
    (TL, 1988, p.115)(TOH, 1982, p.1956)

1956        Dr. Evelyn Hooker (1907-1996) delivered the landmark paper "The Adjustment of the Male Overt Homosexual," to the American Psychological Assoc.
    (SFC, 11/22/96, p.A28)

1956        A Univ. of Nebraska researcher proposed that “free radicals" caused aging, indicating that antioxidants may slow the process.
    (WSJ, 10/30/06, p.A11)

1956        The first urine dipstick test was developed to look for glucose, which indicates diabetes.
    (Econ, 3/11/17, p.77)

1956        Four new antibiotics were tested in the US.
    (TOH, 1982, p.1956)

1956        The bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans was discovered in canned meat. Scientists later used the organism to produce a superbug to attack heavy metals and radioactive waste.
    (SFC, 12/29/99, p.A4)

1956        Otto Wichterle (d.1998 at 84), Czech scientist, invented soft contact lenses.
    (SFC, 8/20/98, p.B4)

1956        Chien-Shiung Wu (1913-1997) conducted an experiment that disproved left and right symmetry in nature. Her book Beta Decay became a standard reference on low-energy emission of electrons by decaying atoms.
    (SFC, 2/17/96, p.C2)

1956        Black Mountain College in western North Carolina, founded in 1933 by Theodore Dreir (d.1997), closed.

1956        MD Ross and ML Lewis reached 22.8 km in a balloon.
    (TOH, 1982, p.1956)

1956        Dr. Edward Purdy Ney (1921-1996) and colleague, John Winckler, built a pyramid-shaped balloon that set a world altitude record of 27 miles. It was lofted with instrumentation for meteorological and cosmic-ray research. Photographic plates later recorded the track of a helium atom traveling at nearly the speed of light. His early work was in separating isotopes of uranium and his findings proved useful to the Manhattan project.
    (SFC, 7/13/96, p. A19)

1956        Louisiana built its 1st man-made river diversion to flush out salt water destroying oyster reefs in the eastern estuaries. The Bayou Lamoque river diversion was a success.
    (SFC, 11/28/03, p.C7)

1956        The palace of Emperor Diocletian was excavated in Split, Yugoslavia.
    (TOH, 1982, p.1956)

1956        Victor Riesel, US Labor columnist, was blinded by acid thrown by a gangster. Four months later labor racketeer Johnny Dio was indicted for conspiracy with six others.
    (TOH, 1982, p.1956)

1956        Alben William Barkley (b.1877) served one term as vice president of the U.S. under Harry Truman (1949-53), and was reelected to the Senate from Kentucky in 1954 and died suddenly in 1956 while still a senator. Barkley served in the senate from 1927 to 1949 (majority leader from 1937-47) before becoming vice president.
    (HNQ, 11/3/99)

1956        Walter de la Mare (b.1873), poet and novelist, died. His work included 4 novels and over 100 short stories. In 2000 his short story collection: "Short Stories: 1895-1926" was published.
    (WSJ, 2/3/00, p.A24)

1956        Cornelius McGillicuddy (b.1862 aka Connie Mack) died.
    (TOH, 1982, p.1956)

1956        H.L. Mencken (b.1880), American author, editor and critic, died. He founded the magazines "Smart Set" and "American Mercury."
    (WUD, 1994 , p.895)(SFEC, 5/31/98, BR p.4)

1956        Kenzi Mizoguchi, Japanese film director, died. His films included "Ugetsu," "The Life of Oharu," "Crucified Lovers," "Sansho the Bailiff," "A Geisha," "Street of Shame" and "Red Light District" just before he died.
    (SFEC, 9/29/96, DB p.60,64)

1956        Thomas J. Watson Sr. (b.1874), founder of IBM, died. In 2003 Kevin Maney authored "The Maverick and His Machine," a biography of Watson.
    (TOH, 1982, p.1956)(WSJ, 5/15/03, p.D8)

1956        Argentine novelist Antonio De Benedetto (1922-1986) authored "Zama." In 2016 it was translated to English. In 2017 it was turned into a film by Argentine director Lucrecia Martel.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antonio_di_Benedetto)(Econ., 5/9/20, p.24)
1956        In Argentina Col. Hector Eduardo Cabanillas (d.1998 at 84), head of military intelligence, was ordered by junta leader, Gen’l. Pedro Eugenio Aramburu, to transport the embalmed body of Eva Peron to Italy for burial in a secret grave in Milan.
    (SFC, 2/3/98, p.A15)
1956         In Australia Joaquin Capilla (27) of Mexico won a bronze medal for springboard diving and a gold for platform diving.
    (AP, 5/9/10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joaqu%C3%ADn_Capilla)
1956        In Australia Murray Rose (1939-2012) became an Olympic champion winning the first of his three gold medals at the Melbourne Games in the 4 x 200m freestyle relay.
    (AFP, 4/16/12)

1956        Bhutan abolished serfdom.
    (Econ, 12/18/04, p.55)

1956        In Bolivia Hernan Siles Zuazo (1913-1996) became president.
    (SFC, 8/8/96, p.A22)

1956        African honeybees were imported to Brazil by a scientist who let them escape. By 1990 they had worked their way north to southern Texas and began to spread across the southwest.
    (WSJ, 8/16/06, p.A12)

1956        The Sadler’s Wells Ballet of Dame Ninette de Valois was renamed the Royal Ballet.
    (SFC, 3/9/01, p.D5)
1956        Joan Littlewood directed the play "The Quare Fella" by Irish writer Brendan Behan. Her work became labeled "kitchen-sink" drama. This was seen as part of the working-class revolution in British theater.
    (SFC, 9/24/02, p.A25)
1956        The British comedy  film “Up in the World" starred comedian Norman Wisdom and was directed by John Paddy Carstairs.
    (Econ, 10/16/10, p.105)(www.imdb.com/title/tt0049906/)
1956        Britain pass a Clean Air Act. The Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom passed in response to London's Great Smog of 1952. It was in effect until 1964.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clean_Air_Act_1956)(Econ, 12/5/15, p.54)
1956        The British administrator of the Gilbert Islands put a levy on the export of phosphates (bird manure) used in fertilizer. By 2007 the money set aside had developed into the Kiribati Revenue Equalization Reserve Fund, a $250 million investment portfolio that had grown to 9 times the atoll’s GDP. State-owned investments later developed around the world and became recognized as sovereign wealth funds.
    (Econ, 5/26/07, p.79)

1956        In Edmonton, Canada, John Etter Clark, a provincial politician who served as a member of the Legislative Assembly of Alberta for four years, killed his wife, son, three daughters and an employee of their family farm before taking his own life.
    (AP, 12/31/14)
1956        Route 199 knitted together the 7 main Iles-de-la-Madeleine off Quebec.
    (SSFC, 6/2/02, p.C6)
1956        Canadian Les Dawes (d.2002) produced his first La Dawri car, a fiberglass body on a Ford chassis. He moved to Southern California where his La Dawri Coachcraft produced some 800 car kits before it folded in the late 1960s.
    (SSFC, 9/30/07, p.B1)

1956        China extended an olive branch to Washington, inviting American reporters to visit the People's Republic for the first time. But the offer, coming just three years after US and Chinese forces fought each other in the Korean War, was flatly rebuffed.
    (AP, 4/7/06)
1956        The Communist Party of China (CPC) encouraged its citizens to openly express their opinions of the communist regime the Hundred Flowers Campaign. Differing views and solutions to national policy were encouraged based on the famous expression by Communist Party Chairman Mao Zedong. After a brief period of liberalization, Mao abruptly changed course.
1956        In Guangzou, China, the Canton Trade Fair was begun with markets held in April and October of every year.
    (WSJ, 5/7/96, p.A-14)
1956        China introduced the Panda cigarette brand and it became the exclusive property of the political and military elite.
    (WSJ, 5/26/04, p.A1)
1956        A Sino-Soviet split developed along ideological lines.
    (TL, 1988, p.115)
1956        China extended an olive branch to Washington, inviting American reporters to visit the People's Republic for the first time. But the offer, coming just three years after US and Chinese forces fought each other in the Korean War, was flatly rebuffed.
    (AP, 4/7/06)

1956        In Colombia the Conservative and Liberal politicians agreed to share power.
    (Econ, 10/31/15, SR p.4)

1956        Aristides Pereira (1924-2011) co-founded of the African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde, or PAIGC, which operated in secret in Guinea-Bissau and in Cape Verde.
    (AP, 9/22/11)

1956        The Eurovision Song Contest, the brainchild of French music producer Marcel Baison, began with 7 contestants.
    (Econ, 5/14/05, p.57)

1956        Finland’s conservative party rule ended.
    (AP, 2/6/12)

1956        French PM Guy Mollet discussed the possibility of a union with Britain’s PM Sir Anthony Eden. Eden rejected the idea of a union but was more favorable toward a French proposal to join the Commonwealth.
    (SFC, 1/16/07, p.A2)
1956        Agnes Varda, a Belgium-born filmmaker, directed "La Pointe Courte." It was later credited as the first film of the New Wave in France. Her real-time 1962 masterpiece, "Cleo from 5 to 7," is considered one of the era's high points.
    (AP, 11/9/17)
1956        French engineer Marc Gregoire devised a way to coat aluminum with teflon. [See 1954]
    (SFC, 3/24/00, p.B3)

1956        In Ecuador members of the Auca tribe killed 5 missionary men of the Plymouth Brethren. The Auca are also known as Tagaeri or Jivaro.
    (WSJ, 1/17/03, p.W13)(SFC, 9/3/04, p.W2)

1956        In France the populist Poujadistes, led by bookseller Pierre Poujade, won 52 seats. His party stood for the rights of the “little man" but soon fizzled out under “{bickering and ideological incoherence."
    (Econ, 10/18/14, p.55)
1956        The Paris Club of 19 industrialized countries began work to alleviate the financial obligations of over-indebted countries.
    (SFC, 12/17/03, p.A18)
1956        Gen. Jacques Massu (d.2002 at 94) took command of the French 10th Parachute Division, the elite force tasked with maintaining order in Algeria.
    (SFC, 10/28/02, p.A17)

1956        A new German army, the Bundeswehr, was created.
    (SFC, 6/11/96, p.A15)

1956        In Hungary the Festival microcar, designed by Kalman Szabadi (d.2010), was introduced in Vac. The car was three meters long, had a conventional door for the passengers and a gull-wing for the driver, and weighed 380 kilos. It was powered by the same 298cc engine that BMW built for its Isetta. Only one car was completed.
    (Econ, 12/18/10, p.103)(http://tinyurl.com/23p2gt2)
1956        George Soros (b.1930), a Hungarian-born financier, emigrated to the United States.
    (AP, 10/6/11)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Soros)

1956        The blockbuster Indian film “Thaikuppin Tharam" starred M.G. Ramachandran. It was directed by MA Thirumugam.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thaikkupin_Tharam)(Econ, 1/28/17, p.36)
1956        In India the princely dominion of Hyderabad was absorbed into the state of Andhra Pradesh.
    (Econ, 12/19/09, p.74)
1956        The State of Kerala was established in Southwest India from the Malabar district of Madras state and the principalities of Cochin and Travancore, to unite the peoples speaking Malayalam.
    (NG, 5.1988, pp. 605)
1956        India’s Hero bicycle company was founded. In 1984 it teamed up with Japan’s Honda to produce small motorcycles. The two firms went their separate ways in 2011.
    (Econ, 12/6/14, p.77)
1956        The US and Canada agreed to help India build a nuclear research reactor for power generation. India rejected oversight by the new Int’l. Atomic Energy Agency.
    (SFC, 5/28/98, p.A9)

1956        In Iraq Saddam Hussein joined the Arab Baath Socialist Party.
    (WSJ, 1/20/02, p.A13)

1956        Japan began building a national highway system with money borrowed from the World Bank. Fees were originally impose to pay for the 4,350-mile project. When the loans were retired the tolls were continued to pay off some $358 billion from public works projects.
    (WSJ, 9/15/03, p.A1)
1956        In Japan the term Minamata Disease was coined to identify villagers suffering dizzy spells with troubles walking and speaking. Growing numbers fell into convulsions, wasted away and died. Chisso Corp. had polluted Minamata Bay and the Shiranui Sea with deadly methylmercury. By 2007 at least 2,000 people had died from eating tainted fish.
    (AP, 9/30/07)

1956        In Morocco following independence the northern region of the Rif mountains retained a dispensation to grow cannabis, which was turned into hashish, but not to sell it on a large scale.
    (Econ, 7/15/06, p.46)

1956        The New Zealand Maori rugby team was ordered by Maori Affairs Minister Ernest Corbett (d.1968) to throw a game against the South African Springboks to ensure the All Blacks weren't stopped from touring South Africa. News of this was only made public by a former player in 2010. The indigenous Maori side went on to lose 37-0. Maori players were excluded from All Black tours to white-controlled South Africa in 1928, 1949 and 1960.
    (AFP, 4/13/10)

1956        In Nigeria Shell became the first company to strike oil at Oloibiri (later Bayelsa state).
    (AP, 6/1/06)

1956        South Korea opened its first stock exchange.
    (Econ, 7/16/11, p.76)

1956        Sinhalese, which few Tamils spoke, was made the sole official language of Sri Lanka. Those who did not learn Sinhalese were denied raises and promotions.
    (SFC, 6/1/00, p.C2)(Econ, 1/30/10, p.28)(Econ, 3/4/17, p.31)

1956        Swiss designer Max Miedinger devised the Helvetica typeface. It was later adjusted to work on Linotype machines by British-born American typographer Mike Parker (1929-2014). Parker and Matthew Carter left Linotype in 1981 to found Bitstream, the first company dedicated to producing digital fonts.
    (Econ, 3/8/14, p.94)
1956        E.G. Buehrle (b.1890), German-born Swiss industrialist, died. Emil Buhrle provided arms to the Third Reich during World War II and amassed one of Europe's greatest private collections in the aftermath of the war.

1956        Tunisia a Personal Status Code extending several rights to women and abolishing polygamy.
    (AFP, 8/17/17)

1956        In the USSR the Balkars, independent Muslim warriors who live in the Caucasus Mountains between the Black and Caspian seas were allowed to return home. During WW II Stalin had shipped most of them to Siberia.
    (SFEC, 4/27/97, p.T2)

1956-1957    "I Love Lucy" was again the top ranking network show on television with a ranking of 43.7%.
    (WSJ, 4/24/95, p.R-5)   
1956-1957    The "My Friend Flicka" TV series featured Gene Evans (d.1998 at 75).
    (SFC, 4/2/98, p.A23)

1956-1958    Enrique Oltuski, Shell Oil executive and member of the July 26 Movement, helped orchestrate the overthrow of the government. In 2002 he authored "Vida Clandestina: My Life in the Cuban Revolution."
    (SFC, 9/15/02, p.M2)
1956-1958    The Soviet Union provided intermediate-range ballistic missile to China for study.
    (AP, 10/15/03)

1956-1959    France laid minefields on the Challe and Morice Lines on the eastern and western borders of Algeria. In 2007 France gave Algeria maps of these minefields. Some 11 million mines were laid along the borders to prevent infiltration into Algeria from Morocco and Tunisia by fighters of Algeria's National Liberation Army (ALN). From 1962-2009 over 8 million Algeria destroyed over 8 million of the mines.
    (AFP, 10/8/09)
1956-1959    Some 1,300 Japanese made a 30-day, 8,000 mile voyage across the oceans to settle on free land offered by Dominican Republic dictator Gen. Rafael Trujillo. In 2000 more than 170 immigrants sued the Japanese government, claiming they were deceived into leaving Japan and taking bad land. In 2006 Japan settled the lawsuit, promising to pay up to $17,000 to each plaintiff as well as $10,000 to emigrants who did not take part in the suit.
    (AP, 7/25/06)

1956-1960    Lawrence Durrell (b.1912) wrote his "Alexandria Quartet." The 4 linked novels were set in Egypt before and during WW II.
    (SFEC, 7/12/98, BR p.7)

1956-1961    The CIA engaged in a secret program called MK-ULTRA that included dosing hundreds of unsuspecting subjects with LSD and other hallucinogens.
    (SFC, 2/21/98, p.A15)(SSFC, 10/28/01, p.A5)
1956-1961    Douglas MacArthur II (d.1997 at 88) served as US ambassador to Japan.
    (SFC,11/17/97, p.A23)

1956-1962    General Lauris Norstad served as the Supreme Allied Commander. He succeeded Gen’l. Gruenther.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1685)

1956-1963    The US installed and financially supported the political regime of South Viet Nam. This was supported by the Pentagon Papers in a statement that South Vietnam was essentially a creation of the US.
    (WSJ, 11/30/95, p.A-23)
1956-1963    In Romania 6 political prisoners died at the Ramnicu Sarat prison, under the command of Alexandru Visinescu. In 2014 Visinescu (87) denied genocide charges as he faced prosecutors in a closed session.
    (AP, 1/14/14)

1956-1966    In 1999 declassified documents revealed that the US stored coreless nuclear weapons in Okinawa, and on the islands of Chichi-Jima and Iwo Jima and other places in Japan.
    (SFEC, 12/12/99, p.A24)

1956-1969    The "Silver Age" of comics featured such works characters as Atom, the Green Lantern, the Hulk, Captain Marvel, and Spider-Man, who were all drawn by Gil Kane (d.2000 at 73), born as Eli Katz in Latvia.
    (SFC, 2/2/00, p.A25)

1956-1970    David Brinkley co-anchored the NBC nightly news program Huntley and Brinkley with Chet Huntley.
    (SFC, 10/18/96, C6)

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