Timeline 1951

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1951        Jan 1, A British radio soap opera called “The Archers" began airing following pilot shows in 1950. The show was about a British farming community and was still popular as it continued in 2011.
    (SFC, 1/5/11, p.E2)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Archers)

1951        Jan 4, During the Korean conflict, North Korean and Communist Chinese forces captured the city of Seoul.
    (AP, 1/4/98)

1951        Jan 5, Inchon, South Korea, the sight of General Douglas MacArthur's amphibious flanking maneuver, was abandoned by United Nations force to the advancing Chinese Army.
    (HN, 1/5/01)

1951        Jan 8, A cahow, thought extinct since 1615, was rediscovered in Bermuda.
    (MC, 1/8/02)

1951         Jan 10, [Harry] Sinclair Lewis (65), American author of 23 novels and 3 plays (Nobel 1930), died in Rome of a nervous disorder. In 2002 Richard Lingeman authored "Sinclair Lewis: Rebel from Main Street."
    (HNQ, 5/18/98)(WSJ, 1/18/02, p.W8)(MC, 1/10/02)

1951        Jan 14, The US Army’s X Corps under Major Gen. Edward Almond ordered the methodical destruction of dwellings and other buildings forward of front lines in South Korea and recommended the use of air power.
    (SSFC, 8/3/08, p.A16)

1951        Jan 15, Supreme Court ruled that the "clear and present danger" of incitement to riot is not protected speech and can be a cause for arrest.
    (MC, 1/15/02)
1951        Jan 15, In South Korea American bombing and strafing killed Korean refugees at Yong-in.
    (SFC, 12/29/99, p.A13)

1951        Jan 16, World's largest gas pipeline opened from Brownsville Tx, to 134th St, NYC.
    (MC, 1/16/02)
1951        Jan 16, French forces repulsed a Viet Minh offensive near Hanoi.

1951        Jan 17, China refused a cease-fire in Korea.
    (MC, 1/17/02)

1951        Jan 19, In South Korea American pilots summarized their air strikes at Sansong as “excellent results." An investigative commission later found that the attack, which killed at least 51 villagers and no enemy troops, was indiscriminate and unjustified.
    (SSFC, 8/3/08, p.A16)(AP, 8/3/08)

1951        Jan 20, American bombing and strafing killed about 300 Korean refugees at Youngchoon. Korean witnesses later said 300 people were trapped and suffocated in Gokgyegul. On May 20, 2008, a South Korean Truth and Reconciliation Commission identified 3 US attacks of indiscriminant use of napalm that killed at least 228 civilians. The 1st at Wolmi on Sep 10, 1950, a 2nd at Sansong on Jan 19, 1951 and a 3rd at Tanyang on Jan 20, 1951, where at least 167 villagers were killed.
    (SFC, 12/29/99, p.A13)(SFC, 1/13/01, p.A12)(http://tinyurl.com/5crkh9)(SSFC, 8/3/08, p.A16)

1951        Jan 21, Communist troops forced the UN army out of Inchon, Korea after a 12-hour attack.
    (HN, 1/21/99)

1951        Jan 22, Fidel Castro, as a baseball pitcher, was ejected from a Winter League game after beaning a batter.
    (MC, 1/22/02)

1951        Jan 23, President Truman created the Commission on Internal Security and Individual Rights, to monitor the anti-Communist campaign.
    (HN, 1/23/99)

1951        Jan 24, Indian leader Nehru assailed the U.S. and demanded the UN to name Peking as an aggressor in Korea.
    (HN, 1/24/99)

1951        Jan 25, The U.S. Eighth Army in Korea launched Operation Thunderbolt, a counter attack to push the Chinese Army north of the Han River.
    (HN, 1/25/99)

1951        Jan 27, "Peter Pan" closed at Imperial Theater NYC after 320 performances.
    (MC, 1/27/02)
1951        Jan 27, Atomic testing began in the Nevada desert as an Air Force B-50D from a base in New Mexico dropped a one-kiloton nuclear bomb on Frenchman Flats, Clark County, 65 miles NW of Las Vegas. Over the next 40 years 928 nuclear devices were exploded at the site.
    (AP, 1/27/98)(WSJ, 4/12/05, p.D8)(www.ntshf.org)

1951        Jan 29, Liz Taylor's 1st divorce was from Conrad Hilton Jr.
    (MC, 1/29/02)

1951        Jan 30, Ferdinand Porsche (b.1875), German car inventor (Porsche), died.

1951        Feb 1, The third A-bomb test was completed in the desert of Nevada.
    (HN, 2/1/99)
1951        Feb 1, The 1st X-ray moving picture process demonstrated.
    (MC, 2/1/02)
1951        Feb 1, Alfred Krupp & 28 other German war criminals were freed.
    (MC, 2/1/02)
1951        Feb 1, The UN condemned the People's Republic of China as aggressor in Korea.
    (MC, 2/1/02)

1951        Feb 3, "Victor Borge Show," debuted on NBC TV.
    (MC, 2/3/02)

1951        Feb 9, St. Louis Browns signed baseball pitcher Satchel Paige (45).
    (MC, 2/9/02)
1951        Feb 9, Actress Greta Garbo got U.S. citizenship.
    (HN, 2/9/97)

1951        Feb 10, "John & Marsha" by Stan Freberg peaked at #21.
    (MC, 2/10/02)

1951        Feb 11, Kwame Nkrumah won the 1st parliamentary election on Gold coast (Ghana).
    (MC, 2/11/02)
1951        Feb 11, U.N. forces pushed north across the 38th parallel once again. Forty-five years after shipping out to fight in Korea, Col. Harry Summers, Jr., got new insight into what the war had been all about.
    (HN, 2/11/97)

1951        Feb 12, In Iran Shah Pahlavi married Princess Soraya Esfandiari Bakhtiari (d.2001 at 69). They divorced in 1958. In 1991 Soraya authored her autobiography "Le Palais des Solitudes" (The Palace of Solitudes).
    (SFC, 10/26/01, p.D7)

1951        Feb 13, At the Battle of Chipyong-ni, in Korea, U.N. troops contained the Chinese forces' offensive in a two-day battle.
    (HN, 2/13/99)

1951        Feb 16, NYC passed a bill prohibiting racism in city-assisted housing.
    (MC, 2/16/02)
1951        Feb 16, Stalin contended that the U.N. was becoming the weapon of aggressive war.
    (HN, 2/16/98)

1951        Feb 17, FBI director J. Edgar Hoover initiated a secret nationwide program intended to remove politically suspect employees from their jobs. Congress never authorized the "Responsibilities Program" and over 4 years it provided governors of nearly every state verbal reports on the political backgrounds of 908 employees.
    (SSFC, 6/9/02, p.F2)
1951        Feb 17, Packard introduced its "250" Chassis Convertible.
    (HN, 2/17/02)

1951        Feb 19, Andre Paul-Guillaume Gide (b.1869), French novelist and critic, died. Andre Gide’s novels included "The Immoralist," "Straight Is the Gate," "Lafcadio's Adventures," "Corydon," "The Counterfeiters" and his explicit memoir "If It Die…" (1926). In 1999 Alan Sheridan published the biography "André Gide: A Life in the Present." Gide won the Nobel Prize in 1947. "There are very few monsters who warrant the fear we have of them." "Believe those who are seeking the truth; doubt those who find it." "The color of truth is gray."
    (AP, 10/31/97)(AP, 3/24/98)(SFEC, 6/28/98, Z1 p.8)(WSJ, 4/6/99, p.A24)(SFEC, 6/13/99, BR p.4)(MC, 11/22/01)

1951        Feb 21, SC House urged that "Shoeless Joe" Jackson be reinstated.
    (MC, 2/21/02)
1951        Feb 21, The U. S. Eighth Army launched Operation Killer, a counterattack to push Chinese forces north of the Han River in Korea.
    (HN, 2/21/99)

1951        Feb 22, The Atomic Energy Commission disclosed information about the first atom-powered airplane.
    (HN, 2/22/98)

1951        Feb 26, In the US the 22nd Amendment to the Constitution, limiting a president to two terms of office, was ratified. It was a reaction to the 4 terms of Franklin Roosevelt.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1951)(WSJ, 12/31/97, p.A11)(AP, 2/26/98)(HN, 2/26/98)(WSJ, 9/3/98, p.A1)
1951        Feb 26, Bread rationing began in Czechoslovakia.
    (SC, 2/26/02)

1951        Feb 27, Lee Atwater, Republican National Committee Chairman (1989-91), was born.
    (MC, 2/27/02)
1951        Feb 27, The 22nd Amendment to the US Constitution, limiting a president to two terms of office, was ratified.
    (AP, 2/27/07)

1951        Feb 28, The Senate committee headed by Estes Kefauver, D-Tenn., Issued a preliminary report saying at least two major crime syndicates were operating in the United States.
    (AP, 2/28/98)

1951        Feb, King Tribhuvan (1906-1955) returned to Kathmandu to usher in a new era of democracy in Nepal after oligarchy finally succumbed to popular demands.

1951        Mar 2, In the 1st NBA All-Star Game: East beat West 111-94 at Boston.
    (SC, 3/2/02)
1951        Mar 2, The U.S. Navy launched the K-1, the first modern submarine designed to hunt enemy submarines.
    (HN, 3/2/99)

1951        Mar 4, The US Treasury and Federal Reserve announced an accord. The agreement restored independence to the Federal Reserve. In 2001 Martin Mayer authored "The Fed: The Inside Story of How the World’s Most Powerful Financial Institution Drives the Markets."
    (WS, 6/27/01, p.A14)(http://tinyurl.com/2exjk8f)

1951        Mar 7, Lillian Hellman's "Autumn Garden," premiered in NYC.
    (MC, 3/7/02)
1951        Mar 7, U.N. forces in Korea under General Matthew Ridgeway launched Operation Ripper, an offensive to straighten out the U.N. front lines against the Chinese.
    (HN, 3/7/99)
1951        Mar 7, Shah Ali Razmara of Iran was assassinated.
    (MC, 3/7/02)

1951        Mar 8, The Int’l. Table Tennis Federation banned Egypt for refusing to play Israel.
    (MC, 3/8/02)

1951        Mar 10, FBI director J. Edgar Hoover declined the post of baseball commissioner.
    (MC, 3/10/02)

1951        Mar 12, Dennis the Menace, the first naughty kid in British comics, sneaked onto a half page of The Beano, as the “world’s naughtiest boy". America's Dennis the Menace, an entirely different character, also debuted.
    (The Telegraph, 3/17/21)
1951        Mar 12, "Dennis the Menace," created by cartoonist Hank Ketcham, made its syndicated debut in 16 newspapers.
    (AP, 3/12/01)
1951        Mar 12, Communist troops were driven out of Seoul.
    (MC, 3/12/02)

1951        Mar 13, Israel demanded DM 6.2 billion ($1.5 billion) in German reparations for the cost of caring for war refugees.
    (HN, 3/13/98)(MC, 3/13/02)
1951        Mar 13, Alfred Hugenberg, German RC pres-dir of Krupp, media magnate, died.
    (MC, 3/13/02)

1951        Mar 14, During the Korean War, United Nations forces recaptured Seoul.
    (AP, 3/14/97)

1951        Mar 15, General de Lattre demanded that Paris send him more troops for the fight in Vietnam.
    (HN, 3/15/98)
1951        Mar 15, The Iranian parliament (the Majlis) voted to nationalize the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company (AIOC) and its holdings, and shortly thereafter elected a widely respected statesman and champion of nationalization, Mohammed Mossadegh as Prime Minister.

1951        Mar 16, Mary Louise Bochnak, the patron saint of embattled nonprofit committee chairmen, was born.
    (MC, 3/16/02)
1951        Mar 16, Hastened by short winter, all spring flowers opened in Minneapolis.
    (MC, 3/16/02)

1951        Mar 19, The war novel "The Caine Mutiny," Herman Wouk (1915-2019), was first published. It won the 1952 Pulitzer Prize.
    (AP, 3/19/01)(SFC, 5/20/19, p.A6)

1951        Mar 21, Chief of Staff General George C. Marshall reports that the U.S. military has doubled to 2.9 million since the start of the Korean War.
    (HN, 3/21/00)

1951        Mar 23, U.S. paratroopers descended from flying boxcars in a surprise attack in Korea.
    (HN, 3/23/98)
1951        Mar 23, Wages in France increased 11%.
    (SS, 3/23/02)

1951        Mar 24, MacArthur threatened the Chinese with an extension of the Korean War if the proposed truce was not accepted.
    (HN, 3/24/98)

1951        Mar 26, The United States Air Force flag design was approved.
    (HN, 3/25/98)

1951        Mar 29, Rodgers and Hammerstein's musical "The King and I" starring Gertrude Lawrence and Yul Brynner opened at the St James Theater on Broadway and ran for 1246 performances.
    (HN, 3/29/01)(MC, 3/29/02)
1951        Mar 29, In the 23rd Academy Awards "All About Eve" won for best picture; its director, Joseph L. Mankiewicz, received his second set of consecutive Oscars for direction and screenplay. He’d won the previous year for "A Letter to Three Wives." Judy Holliday won best actress for "Born Yesterday" while Jose Ferrer was honored as best actor for "Cyrano de Bergerac."
    (AP, 3/29/01)(MC, 3/29/02)
1951        Mar 29, Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were convicted of conspiracy to commit espionage. They were executed in June 1953. Morton Sobell (1917-2018) was convicted of conspiracy in the case and served 18 ½ years in prison. Ronald Radosh and Joyce Milton later wrote "The Rosenberg File." Sobell later authored his memoir "On Doing Time" (1974).
    (AP, 3/28/97)(SFEC, 8/16/98, p.D10)(SFC, 1/31/19, p.C2)
1951        Mar 29, The Chinese rejected MacArthur’s offer for a truce in Korea.
    (HN, 3/29/98)

1951        Mar, In San Francisco construction firm Barret & Hilp put its bulky bomb shelter on display in the middle of Union Square, offering free tours. Mayor Elmer Robinson had made Union Square the city’s first official public shelter in case of an enemy attack.
    (SFC, 8/12/17, p.C2)

1951        Apr 1, U.N. forces again crossed the 38th Parallel in Korea.
    (HN, 4/1/98)

1951        Apr 2, William McChesney Martin (1906-1998) began to serve as chairman of the US Federal Reserve and continued to 1970. Pres. Harry Truman pressed him to keep interest rates low despite the inflationary consequences of the Korean War. Martin refused.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_McChesney_Martin)(Econ, 4/29/17, p.58)

1951        Apr 3, Christopher Fry's "Sleep of Prisoners," premiered in Oxford.
    (MC, 4/3/02)

1951        Apr 5, Husband and wife Julius and Ethel Rosenberg of New York City were sentenced to death by Judge Irving R. Kaufman on charges of selling US atomic secrets to the Soviet Union, enabling the Soviets to detonate their first nuclear weapon in 1949. Although the couple consistently claimed to be innocent, a jury of 11 men and one woman found them guilty on March 30 on the evidence provided by key government witness David Greenglass, Ethel Rosenberg's brother. Co-defendant Morton Sobell was sentenced to 30 years in prison. He was released in 1969. The Rosenbergs were electrocuted on June 19, 1953, leaving behind two young sons.
    (CL, 4/5/96)(AP, 5/5/97)(HN, 5/5/97)(HNPD, 4/5/99)(AP, 4/5/04)
1951        Apr 5, In San Francisco the first fully separate food section made its Chronicle debut.
    (SSFC, 6/7/09, p.W3)

1951        Apr 7, Janis Ian, [Janis Eddy Fink], lesbian, folk rocker, was born in NYC.
    (MC, 4/7/02)

1951        Apr 9, Vilhelm Friman Koren Bjerknes (b.1862), Norwegian physicist and meteorologist, died in Oslo. He did much to found the modern practice of weather forecasting climate modeling. He developed the so-called Bergen School of Meteorology, which was successful in advancing weather prediction and meteorology in the early 20th century.

1951        Apr 11, President Truman relieved Gen. Douglas MacArthur of his commands in the Far East. President Truman fired General Douglas MacArthur.
    (AP, 4/11/97)(HN, 4/11/98)

1951        Apr 12, The Israeli Knesset officially designated the 27th of Nissan, a few days after the end of Passover, as Holocaust Memorial Day.

1951        Apr 17, Olivia Hussey, actress (Romeo and Juliet, Death on Nile), was born in Buenos Aires.
    (MC, 4/17/02)
1951        Apr 17, Mickey Mantle played his 1st game as a NY Yankee and went 1 for 4.
    (MC, 4/17/02)

1951        Apr 18, Jean Monnet, French civil servant, and Robert Schuman, French foreign minister, helped found the European Union with agreements between 6 countries on the pooling of coal and steel resources. Ministers from Belgium, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, West Germany, Italy and France put their names on the Treaty of Paris, the founding document of what in four decades would become the European Union.
    (Econ, 9/25/04, Survey p.3)(Econ, 6/18/16, p.45)

1951        Apr 19, Gen. Douglas MacArthur, relieved of his command by President Truman, bid farewell to Congress, quoting a line from a ballad: "Old soldiers never die; they just fade away."
    (AP, 4/19/97)

1951        Apr 20, Gen. MacArthur addressed a joint session of Congress after being relieved by President Truman.
    (HN, 4/20/98)

1951        Apr 22, There was a ticker-tape parade for General MacArthur in NYC.
    (MC, 4/22/02)
1951        Apr 22-25, The Battle of Imjin River in the Korean War. The 1st Battalion of the "Glorious" Gloucestershire Regiment made a remarkable last ditch stand to allow the British 29th Brigade to withdraw in the face of the oncoming Chinese army.

1951        Apr 23, In Czechoslovakia American reporter William N. Oatis (d.1977) was arrested in Prague. Secret police put him in isolation and deprived him of sleep and food. Historians agree that this psychological torture coerced his confession.
    (AP, 8/20/12)

1951        Apr 25, After a three day fight in the Battle of Imjim River against Chinese Communist Forces, the Gloucestershire Regiment was annihilated on "Gloucester Hill," in Korea.
    (HN, 4/25/99)(http://britishhistory.about.com)

1951        Apr 26, Arnold Sommerfeld (b.1868), German theoretical physicist, died. He pioneered developments in atomic and quantum physics. His atomic model permitted the explanation of fine-structure spectral lines.

1951        Apr 29, Ludwig Wittgenstein (b.1889), Austrian-born philosopher, died in Cambridge, England. His “Tractatus Logico-Philosophicos" (1921) purported to address all of philosophy’s major problems. His posthumous work was edited by Elizabeth Uncombed (d.2001), and included his "Philosophical Investigations" (1953).
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ludwig_Wittgenstein)(SFC, 1/16/01, p.C4)(WSJ, 2/28/09, p.W10)

1951        Apr, In China Monsignor Eugene Fahy (1912-1996), missionary, was named prefect apostolic for Yangzhou.
    (SFC, 8/28/96, p.C2)

1951        May 1, Mickey Mantle hit his 1st HR.
    (MC, 5/1/02)
1951        May 1, Some 600,000 marched for peace and freedom in Germany.
    (MC, 5/1/02)

1951        May 3, The Festival of Britain, a national exhibition, officially opened.
    (SFEC, 4/23/00, p.T4)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Festival_of_Britain)

1951        May 7, A Pulitzer prize was awarded to Conrad Richter (The Town).
    (MC, 5/7/02)

1951        May 8, Dacron men's suits were introduced.
    (MC, 5/8/02)

1951        May 9, The U.S. Far East Air Force launched a strike on Sinuiju, North Korea, on the Yalu River.
    (HN, 5/9/99)

1951        May 11, Jay Forrester patented computer core memory.
    (MC, 5/11/02)

1951        May 12, The 1st H Bomb test was on Eniwetok Atoll. [see Oct 31, 1952]
    (MC, 5/12/02)

1951        May 14, The Ernie Kovacs Show, TV Variety "Ernie in Kovacsland," debuted on NBC.
    (MC, 5/14/02)(SFEC, 5/24/98, DB p.37)

1951        May 16, Chinese Communist Forces launched a second step, fifth-phase offensive [in Korea] and gained up to 20 miles of territory.
    (HN, 5/16/99)

1951        May 18, US General Collins predicted the use of atom bomb in Korea.
    (SC, 5/18/02)
1951        May 18, The United Nations moved out of its temporary headquarters in Lake Success, N.Y., for its permanent home in Manhattan.
    (AP, 5/18/97)(HN, 5/18/98)

1951        May 19, UN began a counter offensive in Korea.
    (MC, 5/19/02)

1951        May 20, During the Korean War, U.S. Air Force Captain James Jabara, flying an F-28 Saberjet, became the first jet air ace in history.
    (HN, 5/20/99)

1951        May 21, The U.S. Eighth Army counterattacked to drive the Communist Chinese and North Koreans out of South Korea.
    (HN, 5/21/99)
1951        May 21, Leaders of China and Tibet signed an agreement promising a high degree of autonomy for Tibet under Chinese rule. Tibetans later said the agreement was signed under duress.
    (WSJ, 8/30/08, p.A8)

1951        May 23, Anatoli Karpov, world chess champion (1975-85), was born in the USSR.
    (MC, 5/23/02)
1951        May 23, Peter Ustinov's "Love of Four Colonels," premiered in London.
    (MC, 5/23/02)
1951        May 23, The Dalai Lama signed the “17-point agreement" in which he agreed to accept Chinese sovereignty over Tibet.
    (www.friends-of-tibet.org.nz/17-point-agreement.html)(Econ, 5/21/11, p.42)

1951        May 24, Willie Mays at 20 began playing for the New York Giants.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1951)(HN, 5/24/98)
1951        May 24, Racial segregation in Washington D.C. restaurants was ruled illegal.
    (HN, 5/24/98)

1951        May 25, Clifford Archer, bassist (Atlantic Starr-Touch a 4 Leaf Clover), was born.
    (SC, 5/25/02)
1951        May 25, New York Giant Willie Mays went 0 for 5 in his 1st major league game.
    (SC, 5/25/02)

1951        May 26, Sally Ride, the first American woman in space, was born in LA, Calif. She flew on the Space Shuttle Challenger.
    (HN, 5/26/99)(MC, 5/26/02)

1951        May 27, Chinese Communists forced the Dalai Lama to surrender his army to Beijing.
    (MC, 5/27/02)

1951        May 29, C. F. Blair became the 1st man to fly over the North Pole flight in single engine plane.
    (HN, 5/29/98)
1951        May 29, Fanny Brice (59), Ziegfeld Girl (Baby Snooks Show), died.
    (SC, 5/29/02)
1951        May 29, Josef Bohuslav Foerster (91), composer, died.
    (SC, 5/29/02)
1951        May 29, Robert Kahn (85), composer, died.
    (SC, 5/29/02)
1951        May 29, Dimitrios Levidis (66), composer, died.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1951        May 30, Fernando Lugo, elected president of Paraguay in 2008, was born in a village of the San Pedro del parana district.
    (SSFC, 5/24/09, p.A9)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fernando_Lugo)

1951        May, "Crazy People" premiered on the BBC Home Service. It starred Peter Sellers, Spike Mulligan, Harry Secombe and Michael Bentine (1924-1996). In 1952 it became "The Goon Show."
    (SFC, 11/28/96, p.B6)

1951        May, Richard L. Garwin (23) arrived at Los Alamos, N.M., to work on the hydrogen bomb. By July he had developed a preliminary H-bomb design for Edward Teller.
    (SFC, 4/24/01, p.A2)
1951        May, Kid Gavilan (d.2003), born as Gerardo Gonzalez in Cuba (1926), won the US boxing welter-weight title in a 15-round decision over Johnny Bratton.
    (SFC, 2/15/03, p.A24)

1951         Jun 1, The first self-contained titanium plant opened in Henderson Nevada.
    (DT, 6/1/97)

1951        Jun 4, Serge Koussevitsky (76), conductor, composer, died.
    (MC, 6/4/02)

1951        Jun 7, The fact-finding Burns committee led by California state Sen. Hugh M. Burns released a 291-page report that claimed UC had aided and abetted the int’l. communist conspiracy. UC Pres. Robert Gordon Sproul denied the charges.
    (SSFC, 6/9/02, p.F2)

1951        Jun 8, Paul Bobel, Werner Braune, Erich Naumann, Otto Ohlendorf, Oswald Pohl, W. Schallenmair & Otto Schmidt, last Nazi war criminals, were hanged by Americans at Landsberg Fortress.
    (MC, 6/8/02)

1951        Jun 9, After several unsuccessful attacks on French colonial troops, North Vietnam’s General Giap ordered Viet Minh to withdraw from the Red River Delta.
    (HN 6/9/98)

1951        Jun 11, Mozambique became an oversea province of Portugal.
    (SC, 6/11/02)

1951        Jun 13, U.N. troops seized Pyongyang, North Korea.
    (HN, 6/13/98)

1951        Jun 14, UNIVAC, the first computer built for commercial purposes, was demonstrated in Philadelphia by Dr. John W. Mauchly and J. Prosper Eckert, Jr. Magnetic tape for data storage was first used on the UNIVAC.
    (HN, 6/14/98)(SFC, 6/15/01, p.B3)(Econ, 11/30/13, TQ p.3)

1951        Jun 15, 1st commercial electronic computer was dedicated in Philadelphia. [see Jun 14]
    (MC, 6/15/02)

1951        Jun 16, CIO maritime workers called a national strike. Only essential military cargoes were exempt from the work stoppage.
    (SFC, 6/15/01, WBb p.3)

1951        Jun 17, Joe Piscopo (comedian, actor: Saturday Night Live, Sidekicks, Wise Guys, Johnny Dangerously), was born.
    (MC, 6/17/02)

1951        Jun 19, President Harry S. Truman signed the Universal Military Training and Service Act, which extended Selective Service until July 1, 1955 and lowered the draft age to 18.
    (HN, 6/19/98)

1951        Jun 23, British diplomats and Soviet spies Guy Burgess and Donald Maclean fled to the USSR.
    (MC, 6/23/02)
1951        Jun 23, Soviet U.N. delegate Jacob Malik proposed cease-fire discussions in the Korean War.
    (HN, 6/23/98)

1951        Jun 24, Persian army took over nationalized oil installations.
    (MC, 6/24/02)

1951        Jun 25, The first commercial color telecast took place as CBS transmitted a one-hour special from New York to four other cities. CBS tried a version of color TV with a design that featured a mechanical rotating color wheel.
    (AP, 6/25/97)(SFC, 3/18/04, p.E1)

1951        Jun 26, The Soviet Union proposed a cease-fire in the Korean War.
    (HN, 6/26/98)

1951        Jun 27, Ulf Andersson, International Chess Grandmaster (1972), was born in Sweden.
    (SC, 6/27/02)
1951        Jun 27, Sidney M. Gutierrez, Major USAF, astronaut (STS 40), was born in Albuquerque, NM.
    (SC, 6/27/02)
1951        Jun 27, M. Itzigsohn discovered asteroid #1588, Descamisada.
    (SC, 6/27/02)

1951        Jun 28, A TV version of the radio program "Amos ‘N’ Andy" premiered on CBS. Although criticized for racial stereotyping, it was the first network TV series to feature an all-black cast.
    (AP, 6/28/97)

1951        Jun 29, The United States invited the Soviet Union to the Korean peace talks on a ship in Wonson Harbor.
    (HN, 6/29/98)

1951        Jun 30, On orders from Washington, General Matthew Ridgeway broadcast that the United Nations was willing to discuss an armistice with North Korea. In 1950, as U.S. Marines tried to fight their way out of a Chinese trap, Korea suffered its worst winter of the century.
    (HN, 6/30/98)

1951        Jul 3, Jean-Claude Duvalier, [Papa Doc], deposed Haitian president-for-life, was born.
    (MC, 7/3/02)

1951        Jul 4, The "Capital Times" in Madison, Wisconsin, reported that one of its reporters was turned down by 99 out of 100 people he asked to sign a petition made up of quotations from the Declaration of Independence and the Bill of Rights. Many said the petition was subversive.
    (IB, Internet, 12/7/98)
1951        Jul 4, In Czechoslovakia American reporter William N. Oatis was convicted and sentenced to 10 years in a communist prison on trumped-up espionage charges. three Czech AP colleagues who were sentenced with him. Oatis was pardoned in May 1953. During the 1960s, Czechoslovak judicial reviewers exonerated Oatis, but this finding was overturned in 1968 after the Soviet Union-led invasion of Warsaw Pact troops ousted Alexander Dubcek's reformist government. In 1990, as the Soviet empire tottered, he was quietly cleared again. Audio tapes of the 3-day trial emerged in 2012.
    (AP, 8/20/12)

1951        Jul 5, Dr. William Shockley invented junction transistor at Murray Hill, NJ.
    (MC, 7/5/02)

1951        Jul 9, President Truman asked Congress to formally end the state of war between the United States and Germany.
    (AP, 7/9/97)

1951        Jul 10, In San Francisco Dashiell Hammett, mystery writer, was sentenced to 6 months in prison for refusing to tell where the Communist party got its bail money.  Hammett, who was born in Maryland in 1894, was a Pinkerton detective for eight years and served in the Ambulance Corps in World War I before he began his writing career. Author of The Maltese Falcon (1930) and The Thin Man (1932), Hammett became heavily involved in left-wing political activity in 1934. He was later a trustee of the Civil Rights Congress. Hammett died in 1961.
    (SFC, 7/6/01, WBb p.8)(HNPD, 9/24/98)
1951        Jul 10, In London, England, Randolph Turpin (1928-1966), a black British boxer, defeated world champion Sugar Ray Robinson. Turpin lost a rematch 64 days later in NY.
    (SSFC, 10/28/07, p.M3)(http://tinyurl.com/2sxhce)
1951        Jul 10, Armistice talks aimed at ending the Korean conflict began at Kaesong.
    (AP, 7/10/97)(HN, 7/10/98)

1951        Jul 11, Bonnie Pointer, singer, was born.
    (PGA, 12/9/98)

1951        Jul 12, A mob tried to keep a black family from moving into all-white Cicero, Ill.
    (MC, 7/12/02)

1951        Jul 13,    Arnold Schoenberg (b.1874), composer, died. He wrote the book "Style and Idea" and composed such works as the 21 songs of "Pierrot Lunaire" based on a poem by Albert Giraud translated into German by Otto Erich Hartleben, "Moses und Aron" and "Erwartung." In 2002 Allen Shawn authored "Arnold Schoenberg’s Journey."
    (LGC-HCS, 1970, p. 562-575)(WSJ, 8/20/96, p.A8)(WSJ, 1/31/02, p.A16)

1951        Jul 14, The George Washington Carver National Monument in Joplin, Missouri became the first national park honoring an African American.
    (HN, 7/14/98)

1951        Jul 16, "The Catcher in the Rye," a coming-of-age novel by J.D. Salinger (1919-2010), was first published. Holden Caulfield, the main character, became recognized as the quintessential American teenager.
    (SFC, 1/17/97, p.D7)(AP, 7/16/98)(WSJ, 12/15/07, p.W10)(SFC, 1/29/10, p.A1)

1951        Jul 17, Lucie Arnaz (actress and Lucille Ball and Desi Arnaz' daughter), was born.
    (MC, 7/17/02)

1951        Jul 18, Pope Pius XII established the Archdiocese of Seattle and named Rev. Thomas A. Connolly as its 1st archbishop.
    (SFC, 7/13/01, WBb p.6)

1951        Jul 19, In Omaha, Neb., a trenching machine sliced through the main transcontinental telephone cable and disrupted coast-to-coast communication.
    (SFC, 7/13/01, WBb p.6)

1951        Jul 20, Jordan's King Abdullah Ibn Hussein was assassinated in Jerusalem by a Palestinian extremist. Prince Hussein (15) witnessed the murder. Talal became king with the assassination of his father, Abdullah ibn-Hussein, who ruled when Jordan was a British mandate.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abdullah_I_of_Jordan)(AP, 7/20/97)(HN, 7/20/98)(SFC, 2/6/99, p.A13)

1951        Jul 21, Dalai Lama returned to Tibet.
    (MC, 7/21/02)

1951        Jul 23, French Marshal Henri Petain (b.1856), who had headed the Vichy government during World War Two, was shot by firing squad. In 2005 Charles Williams authored “Petain."
    (AP, 7/23/00)(Econ, 5/21/05, p.84)

1951        Jul 24, Dr. Albert C. Barnes, eccentric collector of impressionist art, died in an automobile crash. [see 1925 Barnes] His will specified that his art collection be kept forever in Lower Merion Township, Pa. In 2004 a judge allowed trustees to move the collection to Philadelphia.
    (WSJ, 11/28/95, p.A-12)(SFC, 12/15/04, p.E5)(www.barnesfoundation.org/h_bio.html)

1951        Jul 25, L. Boyer discovered asteroid #1714 Sy.
    (SC, 7/25/02)

1951        Jul 26, Alice in Wonderland, an American animated film produced by Walt Disney, was released in New York City and London by RKO Radio Pictures. It was based primarily on Lewis Carroll's “Alice's Adventures in Wonderland" with a few additional elements from “Through the Looking-Glass."

1951        Jul 28, The UN members adopted the Convention on Refugees. It was not signed by Indonesia. This was the founding charter for the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). It spelled out the entitlements of those who flee their country for fear of being killed or persecuted. A 1967 Protocol removed limitations to persons fleeing events occurring before 1 January 1951 and within Europe and thus gave the Convention universal coverage.
    (www.unhchr.ch/html/menu3/b/o_c_ref.htm)(Econ, 4/22/06, p.43)(Econ, 9/6/08, p.67)

1951        Jul 31, Evonne Goolagong, Australian tennis player and first aborigine in an international sport, was born.
    (HN, 7/31/98)

1951        Jul, The US Congress authorized the construction of a nuclear-powered submarine for the US Navy. On Dec. 12, the Navy announced that the submarine would be named the USS Nautilus.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/USS_Nautilus_(SSN-571))(Econ, 3/14/20, p.65)
1951        Jul, Monsignor Eugene Fahy (1912-1996), missionary, was seized by the Chinese Communists and jailed.
    (SFC, 8/28/96, p.C2)

1951        Aug 1, Jim Carroll, musician and writer of "The Basketball Diaries," was born
    (HN, 8/1/00)

1951        Aug 3, Frank Pace, Jr., Secretary of the Army, announced that 90 cadets of the United States Military Academy at West Point, NY, were to be expelled for cheating during examinations. Many of them were on the football team. In 1996 James Blackwell authored “On Brave Old Army Team: Cheating Scandal That Rocked the Country - West Point, 1951."

1951        Aug 5, The United Nations Command suspended armistice talks with the North Koreans when armed troops are spotted in neutral areas.
    (HN, 8/5/98)

1951        Aug 6, Typhoon floods killed 4,800 in Manchuria.
    (MC, 8/6/02)

1951        Aug 11, The Mississippi River flooded some 100,000 acres in Ks, Okla, Mo and Ill.
    (MC, 8/11/02)

1951        Aug 12, Charles E. Brady Jr., USN Commander, astronaut, was born in, Pinehurst, NC.
    (SC, 8/12/02)

1951        Aug 14, Newspaper publisher William Randolph Hearst (b.1863) died in Beverly Hills, Calif. In 2000 David Nasaw authored "The Chief: The Life of William Randolph Hearst." W.A. Swanberg was the author of the biography "Citizen Hearst." In 2002 Louis Pizzitola authored "Hearst Over Hollywood: Power, Passion and Propaganda in the Movies." In 2009 Kenneth Wyle authored “The Uncrowned King: The Sensational Rise of William Randolph Hearst."
    (SFEC, 8/11/96, p.A19)(AP, 8/14/98)(SFC, 8/7/99, p.A9)(WSJ, 6/16/00, p.W8)(SFEC, 7/2/00, BR p.1)(SFC, 3/27/02, p.D5)(SSFC, 1/11/09, Books p.1)

1951        Aug 15, Artur Schnabel (69), Austria-US pianist (Reflections on Music), died.
    (MC, 8/15/02)

1951        Aug 17, Hurricane winds drove 6 ships ashore at Kingston, Jamaica.
    (SC, 8/17/02)

1951        Aug 18, The 1st transcontinental wireless phone call was made from SF to NYC by Mark Sullivan, president of PT&T, and H.T. Killingworth of AT&T.
    (SFC, 8/17/01, p.WB6)

1951        Aug 21, Harry Smith, TV host (CBS Morning Show), was born in Indiana.
    (SC, 8/21/02)

1951        Aug 22, Harlem Globetrotters played in Olympic Stadium at Berlin before 75,052.
    (MC, 8/22/02)

1951        Aug 24, Oscar Hijeulos, novelist, was born. His work included "The Mambo Kings play Songs of Love."
    (HN, 8/24/00)

1951        Aug 31, The former enemies of the world war reconvened in San Francisco to finalize negotiations on the peace treaty to formally end WW II. Japan agreed to pay the Int’l. Red Cross about $15 per POW while the allies agreed not to bring charges against it.
    (Park, Spring/95, p.2)(SFEC, 12/1/96, p.C4)
1951        Aug 31, The 1st Marine Division began its attack on Bloody Ridge in Korea. The four-day battle resulted in 2,700 Marine casualties.
    (HN, 8/31/98)
1951        Aug 31, The 1st 33 1/3 (LP) album was introduced in Dusseldorf.
    (MC, 8/31/01)

1951        Sep 1, At the Presidio in San Francisco, the US, Australia, and New Zealand signed the Anzus Pact, a joint security alliance to govern their relations.
    (Park, Spring/95, p.2)(AP, 9/1/97)
1951        Sep 1, PM Ben-Gurion ordered the establishment of Mossad, the Israeli secret service.
    (MC, 9/1/02)

1951        Sep 2, Mark Harmon (actor Wyatt Earp, Till There Was You, Reasonable Doubts, People magazine’s Sexiest Man Alive [1986]), was born.
    (MC, 9/2/01)

1951        Sep 3, The television soap opera "Search for Tomorrow" made its debut on CBS. From 1953 to 1955 it featured Don Knotts as the neurotic Wilbur Peterson. The show ended in 1986 after 4 years on NBC. Larry Haines (1918-2008) played the neighbor Stu Bergman for most of the show’s run.
    (AP, 9/3/98)(SSFC, 2/26/06, p.B7)(SFC, 7/31/08, p.B5)
1951        Sep 3, On the eve of the San Francisco conference, Premier Stalin and Mao Tse-tung, in an exchange of personal messages, reaffirmed the unity and "unbreakable friendship" of the Soviet Union and Communist China in the "just cause of the struggle against Japanese imperialism and in defense of peace in the Far East."

1951        Sep 4, President Truman addressed the nation from the Japanese peace treaty conference in San Francisco in the first live, coast-to-coast television broadcast. The broadcast was carried by 94 stations.
    (AP, 9/4/97)(HN, 9/4/98)
1951        Sep 4, Juozas Luksa (b.1921), aka “Skirmantas" or “Daumantas," Lithuanian partisan, was killed by Soviet counterintelligence. In 2003, director Jonas Vaitkus released a movie based on his life, “Utterly Alone."
    (VilNews, 5/10/10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Juozas_Luk%C5%A1a)

1951        Sep 6, William Burroughs (1914-1997), writer, shot and killed his wife Joan Vollmer (27) in Mexico City. He claimed to be trying to shoot a glass off her head, a la William Tell, during a day of drinking and drugs but shot her in the head.
    (SFEC, 8/3/97, p.B6)(Internet)

1951        Sep 8, A formal Treaty of Peace was signed by 48 nations of the United Nations and Japan at the War Memorial Opera House in San Francisco. On the same day the US and Japan signed a Joint Security Pact at the Presidio. The Soviet delegation refused to sign and said the deal provided for the exclusive existence of American military bases in Japan.
    (Park, Spring/95, p.2)(AP, 9/8/97)(Ind, 9/8/01, 5A)
1951        Sep 8, Sri Lanka’s finance minister Junius Jayewardene (1906-1996) made an impassioned plea on behalf of Japan at the Peace Treaty signing in San Francisco. He declined compensation from Japan, which had carried out several aerial bombing raids in Colombo and the eastern port city of Trincomalee.
    (AFP, 9/8/14)
1951        Sep 8, Jurgen Stroop, Nazi exterminator of Warsaw Ghetto, was hanged on site of the ghetto.
    (MC, 9/8/01)

1951        Sep 11, Stravinsky's opera "Rake's Progress," premiered in Venice.
    (MC, 9/11/01)
1951        Sep 11, Florence Chadwick (1918-1995), American endurance swimmer, swam English Channel from England to France in 16 hours & 22 minutes [see Aug 6, 1926]. This made her the first woman to swim the English Channel in both directions, and set a record for the England-France journey. All told, she swam the English Channel four times and the Catalina Channel three times.

1951        Sep 13, In Korea, U.S. Army troops began their assault in Heartbreak Ridge. The month-long struggle would cost 3,700 casualties.
    (HN, 9/13/98)
1951        Sep 13, Lt. Daniel J. Marini led 40 marines to capture Hill 712 in Korea near Imjin River. He received a Silver Star in 1997.
    (SFC, 1/9/97, p.A18)
1951        Sep 13, American Lt. Alvin Earl Crane was shot down while on a reconnaissance flight over North Korea. His remains were returned by North Korea in 1990, but positive identification by DNA only took place in 2005.
    (SSFC, 5/14/06, p.B6)
1951        Sep 13, Arthur Szyk (b.1894), Poland-born American-Jewish artist, died of a heart attack in Connecticut after being Investigated by the House Un-American Activities Committee for being an assumed member of a Communist front organization. In 2017 a collection of his work was acquired by the Magnes Collection Jewish Art and Life at UC Berkeley. The acquisition was made possible by a donation from the Taube Philanthropies.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arthur_Szyk)(SFC, 4/3/17, p.C2)

1951        Sep 15, "Gentlemen Prefer Blondes" closed at Ziegfeld NYC after 740 performances.

1951        Sep 17, Romanian bishop A. Pacha of Timisoara was sentenced to 18 years.
    (MC, 9/17/01)

1951        Sep 18, Dr. Benjamin Solomon Carson, Sr., African-American neurosurgeon, was born.
    (HN, 9/18/98)

1951        Sep 19, Italian civil servants struck for a pay increase.
    (MC, 9/19/01)

1951        Sep 20, Swiss males voted against female suffrage.
    (MC, 9/20/01)

1951        Sep 24, The Soviet Union conducted its 2nd nuclear test.

1951        Sep 26, Prof. Youngblood demonstrated an artificial heart in Paris.
    (MC, 9/26/01)

1951        Sep 27, Persian troops occupied oil refinery at Abadan.
    (MC, 9/27/01)

1951        Sep, Some 90 US Marines were killed taking a North Korea ridge called Hill 749. [see Sep 13]
    (SSFC, 5/25/03, Par p.5)

1951        Oct 1, 1st treaty signed by woman ambassador, Eugenie Anderson.
    (MC, 10/1/01)
1951        Oct 1, The US 24th Infantry Regiment, last all-black military unit, was deactivated.
    (MC, 10/1/01)

1951        Oct 3, Bobby Thompson won the pennant for the New York Giants by hitting a home run off of Ralph Branca of the Brooklyn Dodgers at the NY Polo Grounds before 20,000 empty seats. Outfielder Bobby Thomson hit a home run in the bottom of the ninth inning, beating the Brooklyn Dodgers 5-4 to win the National League pennant. On Jan 31, 2001, the WSJ confirmed roomers that the Giants had concealed an electric buzzer and a telescope to steal the signals of the opposing catchers. In 2006 Joshua Prager authored “The Echoing Green: The Untold Story of Bobby Thomson, Ralph Branca and the Shot Heard Round the World."
    (HN, 10/3/00)(WSJ, 6/21/05, p.B1)(WSJ, 9/19/06, p.B1)

1951        Oct 4, Henrietta Lacks, a black woman, died of cancer in Baltimore. Cells from her body,  later known as HeLa cells, were cultivated for research. In 1974 Dr. Nelson-Rees (d.2009 at 80), a UC Berkeley geneticist, reported that the HeLa cells had contaminated other cell cultures in laboratories around the world. In 1986 Michael Gold authored “A Conspiracy of Cells," a chronicle of the Nelson-Rees study. In 2010 Rebecca Skloot authored “The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henrietta_Lacks)(SFC, 1/28/09, p.B10)(SSFC, 2/14/10, p.F3)

1951        Oct 6, Stalin proclaimed Russia has an atom bomb.
    (MC, 10/6/01)

1951        Oct 7, David Ben-Gurion formed Israeli government.
    (MC, 10/7/01)
1951        Oct 7, Will Kellogg (91), founder of Kellogg’s Corn Flakes, died in Battle Creek, Mich.
    (ON, 2/05, p.11)

1951        Oct 14, The Organization of Central American States formed.
    (MC, 10/14/01)

1951        Oct 15, The situation comedy "I Love Lucy" premiered on CBS. It ran through to 1961. Lucille Ball and Desi Arnaz bought their television studio, Desilu, from Howard Hughes.
    (SFEC, 10/20/96, T8)(AP, 10/15/97)(SFEC, 5/24/98, DB p.37)(WSJ, 5/29/98, p.W9)
1951        Oct 15, Dr. Carl Djerassi (27), Prof. of chemistry at Stanford Univ., developed the birth control pill in Mexico City while working for Palo Alto based Syntex Corp. He synthesized norethindrone, a steroid oral contraceptive. In 2001 Carl Djerassi authored "This Man’s Pill: Reflections on the 50th Birthday of the Pill." Djerassi synthesized a key hormone in the pill in Mexico City in 1951. Serle won FDA ok to market the pill May 11, 1960.
    (SJSVB, 4/8/96, p.8)(SSFC, 10/14/01, Par p.13)(SSFC, 10/21/01, p.R6)

1951        Oct 16, Pakistan’s PM Liaquat Ali Khan (b.1896), son of a Punjabi prince, was assassinated in Rawalpindi, ushering in a period of political instability.
    (WSJ, 1/28/08, p.A12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liaquat_Ali_Khan)

1951        Oct 17, The Egyptian army fired on British troops.
    (MC, 10/17/01)

1951        Oct 18, Terry McMillan, novelist, was born. His work included "Waiting to Exhale."
    (HN, 10/18/00)

1951        Oct 19, President Truman signed an act formally ending the state of war with Germany.
    (AP, 10/19/97)

1951        Oct 20, Saudi Arabia’s modern railway was inaugurated. It was initially run by Saudi oil company, Aramco, but subsequently transferred to the state and since 1968 has been operated as a public corporation and was extended to the capital, Riyadh.
    (AP, 6/27/12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saudi_Railways_Organization)

1951        Oct 22, An earthquake hit Formosa and 100 people were killed.
    (MC, 10/22/01)

1951        Oct 24, Jan de Hartog's "4 Poster," premiered in NYC.
    (MC, 10/24/01)
1951        Oct 24, Dr. Albert W. Bellamy, chief of Radiological Services for the California State Civil Defense, held a press conference to assure state residents that there would be no ill effects from the atomic test explosions near Las Vegas.
    (SFC, 10/19/01, WB p.6)

1951        Oct 25, Ransom Wilson, flutist and conductor, was born in Tuscaloosa, Alabama.
1951        Oct 25, In a general election, England's Labour Party under Clement Atlee lost to Conservatives. Winston Churchill became prime minister, and Anthony Eden became foreign secretary. The Conservatives and Labour together scooped 97% of the vote.
    (Econ., 2/21/15, p.12)(Econ, 5/9/15, p.52)
1951        Oct 25, Peace talks aimed at ending the Korean Conflict resumed in Panmunjom after 63 days.
    (AP, 10/25/97)

1951        Oct 26, Rocky Marciano defeated Joe Louis at Madison Square Garden.
    (MC, 10/26/01)
1951        Oct 26, Winston Churchill was re-elected British PM. [see Oct 25]
    (MC, 10/26/01)

1951        Nov 1, Johnny Mercer's "Top Banana," premiered in NYC.
    (MC, 11/1/01)
1951        Nov 1, A new US federal law took effect that required bookies, lottery operators and punchboard dealers to purchase a $50 gambling stamp.
    (SFC, 1/25/02, p.G6)
1951        Nov 1, The 1st atomic explosion, witnessed by troops, was at Yucca Flat, Nevada. Members of the 1st Battalion, 188th Airborne Infantry Regiment from Ft. Campbell, Kentucky, were the first unwitting test participants to be sent to that facility by the Atomic Energy Commission and The Department of Defense in a series of nuclear tests, code named "Buster-Jangle."
1951        Nov 1, The Algerian National Liberation Front began guerrilla warfare against the French.
    (HN, 11/1/98)

1951        Nov 9, Sigmund Romberg (64), Hungarian-US composer (Blossom Time), died.
    (MC, 11/9/01)

1951        Nov 10, Direct-dial, coast-to-coast telephone service began as Mayor M. Leslie Denning of Englewood, N.J., called his counterpart in Alameda, Calif.
    (AP, 11/10/97)

1951        Nov 12, "Paint Your Wagon" opened at Shubert Theater NYC for 289 performances.
    (MC, 11/12/01)
1951        Nov 12, The U.S. Eighth Army in Korea was ordered to cease offensive operations and begin an active defense.
    (HN, 11/12/98)

1951        Nov 14, United States and Yugoslavia signed a military aid pact.
    (HN, 11/14/98)
1951        Nov 14, French paratroopers captured Hoa Binh, Vietnam.
    (HN, 11/14/98)

1951        Nov 16, Glenn T. Seaborg (1912-1999) and Edwin McMillan (1907-1991) of UC shared the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for their discoveries in the chemistry of transuranium elements beginning with plutonium, the first element ever known to be heavier than uranium. In 1974 Seaborg co-discovered element 106, named seaborgium.
    (SFC, 10/6/98, p.A22)(SFC, 2/27/99, p.A17)(SFC, 11/16/01, WB p.G4)

1951        Nov 17, The UC Board of Regents voted to drop the special loyalty oath required of all employees since April 1950.
    (SFC, 11/16/01, WB p.G4)
1951        Nov 17, Britain reported the development of world’s first nuclear-powered heating system.
    (HN, 11/17/98)

1951        Nov 18, "See it Now" premiered on TV.
    (MC, 11/18/01)
1951        Nov 18, Chuck Connors, former Cubs 1st baseman and future TV star of Rifleman, became the 1st player to oppose the major league draft.
    (MC, 11/18/01)
1951        Nov 18, Two 4-engine Korean airlift planes collided above Oakland Municipal Airport. One plane crashed and the crew of 3 were killed. The other made an emergency landing at SFO.
    (SFC, 11/16/01, WB p.G4)
1951        Nov 18, British troops occupied Ismailiya, Egypt. [see Jan 20, 1952]
    (MC, 11/18/01)

1951        Nov 25, Truce line mapped at talks in Panmunjom, Korea.
    (HN, 11/25/98)

1951        Nov 26, Illona Staller, Italian member of Parliament (La Cicciolina), was born in Budapest, Hungary.
    (MC, 11/26/01)(AP, 11/26/02)

1951        Nov 27, 1st rocket to intercept an airplane was fired at White Sands, NM.
    (MC, 11/27/01)
1951        Nov 27, Cease-fire and demarcation zone accord was signed in Panmunjom, Korea.
    (MC, 11/27/01)

1951        Nov 28, John Van Druten's "I am a Camera," premiered in NYC.
    (MC, 11/28/01)

1951        Dec 1, Benjamin Britten's opera "Billy Budd," premiered in London.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Billy_Budd_%28opera%29)(Econ, 8/10/13, p.73)

1951        Dec 4, Copland-Robbins' "Pied Piper," premiered in NYC.
    (MC, 12/4/01)
1951        Dec 4, Superheated gases rolled down Mount Catarman (Philippines), killing 500.
    (MC, 12/4/01)

1951        Dec 5, "Dragnet" premiered on TV.
    (MC, 12/5/01)
1951        Dec 5, "Shoeless" Joe Jackson, of baseball's "Black Sox" scandal, died.
    (MC, 12/5/01)

1951        Dec 8, "Tree Grows in Brooklyn" closed at Alvin Theater, NYC, after 267 performances.
    (MC, 12/8/01)

1951        Dec 11, Joe DiMaggio announced his retirement from baseball.

1951        Dec 13, After meeting with FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover, President Harry S. Truman vowed to purge all disloyal government workers.
    (HN, 12/13/98)

1951        Dec 17, Raul and Carlos Salinas, aged 5 and 3, played with their friend Gustavo Zapata at their home in Mexico City. While playing they snatched a rifle from a closet and shot a servant just below the eye, killed her and continued playing. Newspaper reports of the time indicated that Carlos pulled the trigger.
    (WSJ, 2/8/96, p.A-6)

1951        Dec 18, North Koreans gave the Allies a list of 3,100 POWs.
    (HN, 12/18/98)

1951        Dec 20, Bechtel scientists at a military facility in Idaho powered up a small nuclear reactor and lit 4 light bulbs. It was the 1st fission reactor to generate a usable amount of electricity.
    (SFC, 5/12/05, p.C1)

1951        Dec 23, Benito Lynch (66), Irish-Argentine writer (Palo Verde), died.
    (MC, 12/23/01)

1951        Dec 24, Gian Carlo Menotti’s "Amahl and the Night Visitors," the first opera written specifically for television, was first broadcast by NBC.
    (AP, 12/24/97)

1951        Dec 28, The U.S. paid $120,000 to free four fliers convicted of espionage in Hungary.
    (HN, 12/28/98)

1951        Dec 30, The half-hour Roy Rogers Show premiered on NBC. Production ended in 1957 after some 100 episodes. Roy and Dale Evans ended every show with the song "Happy Trails To You."
    (SFC, 7/7/98, p.D5)

1951        Dec 31, The 1st battery to convert radioactive energy to electrical was announced.
    (MC, 12/31/01)

1951        Ellsworth Kelly painted "Cite," long strokes on paper cut into 20 squares and arranged randomly.
    (SFC, 10/29/96, p.F3)

1951        Franz Kline painted "Painting No. 11," an elegantly understated work in which a burst of white light pours from a smudgy black lattice.
    (WSJ, 12/16/94, A-12)

1951        Salvador Dali, Surrealist painter, completed his "Christ of St. John of the Cross." It is at the Glasgow Art Gallery and Museum in Scotland. He also did "Portrait of Mrs. Jack Warner." The Dali Museum in St. Petersburg, Fla., houses the largest collection of Dali’s artwork.
    (T&L, 10/80, p. 59)(WSJ, 11/8/96, p.C1)(Hem., 3/97, p.59)

1951        John Langley Howard (d.1999), SF artist, painted the triptych "The Rape of the Earth."
    (SFC, 11/26/99, p.B9)

1951        Barnett Newman (d.1970), abstract expressionist, painted the 18x8 work "Cathedra." It was later placed in the Stedelijk Museum in Amsterdam and in 1997 was slashed across with a carpet knife. In 1986 his painting "Who’s Afraid of Red, Yellow and Blue III" was slashed at the same museum.
    (SFC,11/22/97, p.D5)

1951        Mark Rothko painted his work "Untitled." It sold for $3.3 million in 1998.
    (WSJ, 5/15/98, p.W12)

1951        Ben Shahn painted his "Composition for Clarinets and Tin Horn."
    (WSJ, 12/1/98, p.A20)

1951        Theodor Adorno (1903-1969), German philosopher, authored “Minima Moralia," Reflections From a Damaged Life," in which he called all traditional experience of the world into question.
    (WSJ, 4/18/08, p.W5)

1951        Isaac Asimov authored his sci-fi novel “Foundation" (1951), the first of trilogy that began as a series of short stories published from 1942-1950. It imagined a science called psycho-history which enabled practitioners to precisely predict the behavior of large groups of people.
    (Econ, 2/23/13, p.76)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Foundation_series)

1951        J.D. Bold wrote "Phrase Book, Grammar and Dictionary of Finagle," a pidgin language used by miners in South Africa.
    (WSJ, 4/15/98, p.A9)

1951        Albert Camus (1913-1960), Algeria-born French novelist, wrote "The Rebel." The book asserted a revolt against absurd nonsense and against commitments indifferent to the suffering that revolutionary steamrollers caused.
    (WSJ, 12/12/97, p.A16)(Econ, 1/9/10, p.83)

1951        Nirad C. Chaudhuri (d.1999 at 101) published "The Autobiography of an Unknown Indian."
    (SFC, 8/3/99, p.A20)

1951        William Faulkner authored “Requiem for a Nun." The past is never dead, it’s not even past."
    (Econ, 7/17/10, p.87)

1951        Louis Feldstein published "Face of a Hero." In England it was titled "The Sky Is a Lonely Place." The book had many similarities to Joseph Heller’s 1953 book "Catch-22."
    (SFC, 4/28/98, p.A2)

1951        Erich Hoffer (1898-1983), a self-educated longshoreman and moral and social philosopher, authored “The True Believer: Thoughts on the Nature of Mass Movements."
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_True_Believer)(WSJ, 12/29/07, p.W8)

1951        Leon Howard wrote a biography on Herman Melville.
    (WSJ, 11/22/96, p.A14)

1951        Jack Kerouac produced his "On the Road" manuscript during a 3-week Benzedrine and coffee binge. It was written on a 120-foot-long scroll that sold for $2.43 million in 2001.
    (SFC, 5/23/01, p.A1)

1951        Darcy Ribeiro, anthropologist (1923-1997), wrote "Art of the Kadiweu Indians."
    (SFC, 2/20/96, p.A20)

1951        "Amphibians of Western North America" by Robert Stebbins was published.
    (Pac. Disc., summer, ‘96, p.23)

1951        John Steinbeck authored "The Log from the Sea of Cortez" based on a 1940 trip he made there with marine biologist Doc Ricketts (d.1948). He also wrote most of "East of Eden" in his Manhattan townhouse and Long Island beach retreat.
    (SFC, 2/22/02, p.A21)(SFC, 10/15/03, p.D1)

1951        "God and Man at Yale" by William F. Buckley was published by Henry Regency (1912-1996). Regency has been considered the godfather of modern conservatism.
    (SFC, 6/24/96, p.A15)(WSJ, 3/6/97, p.B1)

1951        Eric Hoofer (d.1983), San Francisco longshoreman-philosopher, wrote "The True Believer,"  a critical view of mass movements. It was later considered a classic of social philosophy.
    (SFC, 1/22/00, p.A15)

1951        L. Ron Hubbard published his first book on Scientology.
    (WSJ, 5/12/97, p.A15)

1951        "From Here to Eternity" by James Jones was published. It was made into a film in 1953. The 1998 film "A Soldier’s Daughter Never Cries" was based on an autobiography by his daughter.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1951)(SFC, 3/15/97, p.A19)(SFEC, 9/20/98, DB p.49)

1951        James Michener (d.1997 at 90) wrote his novel "Return to Paradise."
    (SFC,10/17/97, p.A17)

1951        Beckett’s "Waiting for Godot" was first produced in Paris.

1951        William F. Buckley Jr. (b.1925), Yale graduate, authored “God and Man at Yale." It exposed the extraordinarily irresponsible educational attitude that prevailed at his alma mater.

1951        Graham Greene, English novelist, authored “The End of the Affair."
    (Econ, 7/13/13, p.74)

1951        Eugene Ionesco, a Paris dwelling Romanian, wrote his dark comedy "The Lesson."
    (SFC, 5/4/96, p.E-1)

1951        "A World Apart" by Polish author Gustaw Herling-Grudzinski was first published in English. It told of his years in a soviet gulag. He later founded the literary magazine Kultura that was banned in Poland until 1989 and in 1990 wrote Journal Written at Night.
    (WSJ, 6/17/96, p.A12)

1951        Vladimir Nabokov (1899-1977) published his memoir under the title “Conclusive Evidence." In 1996 it was republished as “Vladimir Nabokov: Novels and Memoirs 1941-1951: The Real Life of Sebastian Knight, Bend Sinister, Speak, Memory," in a 3-volume set. The individual chapters had been published from 1936-1951.
    (Econ, 9/5/09, p.62)(www.loa.org/volume.jsp?RequestID=8&section=notes)

1951        C. Van Woodward authored "Origins of the New South."
    (SFEC, 12/19/99, p.C14)

1951        Edwin Way Tale traveled with spring which rolls north 15 miles per day in his book: "North with the Spring."
    (Civil., Jul-Aug., ‘95, p.77)

1951        Louise de Gilmore authored "Madame de," a tale of love and betrayal in the haute monde (high society).
    (WSJ, 10/7/98, p.A20)

1951        A.E. van Vogt (1912-2000) authored the sci-fi story "The Weapon Shops of Icier."
    (SFC, 2/5/00, p.A19)

1951        T.H. White (1906-1964), English writer, authored “The Goshawk," and account of his self struggles and the bird he called Gos.

1951        The Readers’ Subscription club was founded. It sent out books recommended by W.H. Auden, Jacques Barzun and Lionel Trilling. In 2001 Arthur Krystal edited "A Company of Readers," a collection of essays from the club’s monthly magazine.
    (WSJ, 8/6/01, p.A11)

1951        "The Rose Tattoo," originally titled "The Eclipse of May 29, 1919." by Tennessee Williams premiered.
    (SFC, 11/1/96, p.C1)

1951        The film "Journal d'un Cure de Campagne" (Diary of a Country Priest) was directed by Robert Bresson. It was based on a 1937 book by Georges Bernanos.
    (SFC, 12/22/99, p.A27)

1951        Paul Harvey (d.2009 at 90), news commentator and talk-radio pioneer, began his "News and Comment" for ABC Radio Networks.
    (AP, 3/1/09)
1951        "The Honeymooners" first appeared as a TV sketch featuring Jackie Gleason on the DuMont Network's Cavalcade of Stars. It was written by Harry Crane (d.1999 at 85).
    (SFC, 9/15/99, p.C4)
1951        Jack LaLanne (b.1914) began hosting a daily exercise show on San Francisco’s KGO TV (channel 7).
    (SFC, 10/8/09, p.A16)
1951        The TV show "See It Now" was co-produced by Edward R. Murrow and Fred W. Friendly (d.1998 at 82). Murrow was on camera and Friendly was behind-the-scenes. The show was cancelled in 1958.
    (SFC, 3/5/98, p.A24)
1951        "Superman and the Mole Men," starred George Reeves in the first Superman TV episode.
    (SFC, 12/14/00, p.C9)
1951        Don Herbert (1917-2007), as television's "Mr. Wizard," introduced generations of young viewers to the joys of science. “Watch Mr. Wizard" ran for 14 years.
    (AP, 6/12/07)(SFC, 6/14/07, p.B5)

1951        The Broadway show "Top Banana" played with burlesque star Joey Faye (d.1997).
    (SFC, 4/28/97, p.A18)

1951        The Broadway show "A Tree Grows in Brooklyn" was based on a novel by Betty Smith. It starred Shirley Booth with a score written by Arthur Schwartz and Dorothy Fields. It was Robert Fryer’s (d.2000 at 79) 1st production.
    (SFC, 6/2/00, p.D4)

1951        The ballet "The Cage" by Jerome Robbins was a tale of women on the verge of the ultimate revenge.
    (SFC, 2/7/98, p.E1)

1951        Arnold Sundgaard collaborated with Douglas Moore on the opera "Giants in the Earth," based on a novel by Norwegian writer O.E. Rolvaag about immigrants in the Dakota territory.
    (SFC, 11/10/06, p.B8)

1951        Les Paul and his wife Mary Ford (1924-1977), born as Iris Colleen Summers, made a hit with their recording of the 1940 song “How High the Moon."
    (SFC, 8/14/09, p.D6)

1951        Ike Turner (1931-2007), R&B pioneer, presided over the recording of “Rocket 88" by Jackie Brenston and his Delta Cats, frequently cited as the first rock ’n’ roll record.
    (SFC, 12/13/07, p.B5)(Econ, 3/25/17, p.76)

1951        Ludwig Miles van deer Roche designed the modernist Farnsworth House in Plano, Ill. The one-story space was walled on all sides by glass and is considered one of the greatest private houses of the 20th century. In 2003 it was purchased by preservationists at auction for $7.5 million.
    (WSJ, 5/23/01, p.A24)(SSFC, 12/14/03, p.A2)

1951        The American Names Society was founded to find out what really is in a name.
    (SSFC, 1/23/05, p.M5)

1951        Frank Sinatra married Ava Gardner.
    (SFC, 5/16/98, p.E7)

1951        Edward Dmytryk (d.1999 at 90), film director, identified 26 people as Communists to the HUAC committee. He had joined the CP in 1945 for a few months and initially refused to answer HUAC questions.
    (SFC, 7/3/99, p.A21)

1951        The 1892 contagious Disease hospitals on Ellis Island, designed by the Boring & Tilton firm of New York in the French Renaissance Style, closed.
    (WSJ, 12/9/99, p.A24)

1951        The 8-inch Ginny dolls were introduced by Vogue Dolls Inc. of Bedford, Mass.
    (SFC,11/12/97, Z1 p.7)

1951        John "Brick" Jackson (1910-1996) founded the magazine "Landscape." He established the vernacular landscape, the geography of everyday places and plain-folks architecture. He also wrote "American Space" (1972), "Landscapes" (1970), "The Necessity for Ruins" (1980), and "Discovering the Vernacular Landscape" (1984).
    (SFC, 8/31/96, p.A23)

1951        The American Israel Public Affairs Committee (Apia) was founded. It was the only US registered Jewish lobby and was dedicated to nurturing and preserving the American-Israeli relationship regardless of the government in Washington or Israel.
    (SFEC, 4/26/98, p.A23)

1951        The Conference on Jewish Material Claims against Germany was founded.
    (Econ, 8/23/03, p.44)

1951        Wallis Simpson (1896-1986), the Duchess of Windsor, for whom King Edward VIII gave up the British throne, engaged in an affair with playboy Jimmy Donahue. In 2000 Christopher Wilson authored "Dancing with the Devil: The Windsor’s and Jimmy Donahue."
    (AP, 4/24/97)(SFC, 2/28/98, p.A5)(SFC, 1/4/01, p.D10)

1951        Martin Saver (d.1997 at 80) was awarded the Silver Beaver, Shooting’s highest honor, for his work in Japan. He had assisted Viscount Mishear Mishima, head of the Japanese boy scouts, to reorganize from a militaristic youth group back to a peaceful civilian organization.
    (SFC, 4/22/97, p.A15)

1951        Maggie Higgins was the first woman to win the Pulitzer Prize for international reporting for her work in Korean war zones.
    (HN, 9/4/98)

1951        Melvin Calvin of UC Berkeley won the Nobel Prize for his work on how light and carbon dioxide are converted to energy.
    (SFC, 12/27/99, p.A8)(SFC, 10/8/01, p.A17)

1951        Jersey Joe Walcott won the heavyweight boxing title.
    (SFC, 7/6/96, p.E4)
1951        The USF football team, the Dons, went unbeaten and untied under the leadership of coach Brad Lynn (1916-2006), but were not invited to any bowl games because of 2 black men in the lineup. 8 of the starters went directly to the NFL. USF Pres. Rev. William J. Dunne dropped football at the end of the season. In 2000 Kristine Clark, while working on a book about the team, convinced Sen. Barbara Boxer to request a presidential apology from Pres. Clinton.
    (SFC, 7/8/00, p.A15,18)(SSFC, 10/22/06, p.B6)
1951        The US Negro Leagues went out of business as the major baseball leagues integrated.
    (SFC, 2/21/06, p.B5)
1951        The world’s first skydiving championships were held in Yugoslavia.
    (SFC, 7/6/96, p.E4)

1951        The US Senate Kefauver Committee held hearings on organized crime.
    (WSJ, 7/21/97, p.A20)

1951        The US Mutual Defense Assistance Control Act, also called the Battle Act, was passed. It blocked the US from giving aid to countries that shipped goods of strategic importance to the Soviet Union or Eastern Europe. It also gave the president the authority to waive the ban.
    (SFC, 5/15/00, p.A24)

1951        The Philippines and the US signed a Mutual Defense Treaty.
    (AP, 6/21/16)

1951        A CIA assessment of Japanese agents said: "Frequently they resorted to padding or outright fabrication of information for the purposes of prestige or profit." Among the agents was Col. Masanobu Tsuji, a fanatical Japanese militarist and brutal warrior, hunted after World War II for massacres of Chinese civilians and complicity in the Bataan Death March. Other agents in US-funded operations included mob boss and war profiteer Yoshio Kodama, and Takushiro Hattori, former private secretary to Hideki Tojo. Documents with this information were declassified in 2005 and 2006.
    (AP, 2/24/07)

1951        The US Navy too over control of American Samoa.
    (AP, 9/30/09)

1951        Pennsylvania passed a law requiring a loyalty oath from candidates for public office. In 2006 the oath was deemed unconstitutional.
    (SFC, 8/28/06, p.A3)

1951        Back-yard shelters against the A-bomb began to proliferate.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1951)

1951        The US Uniform Code of Military Justice was enacted by Congress. It included a provision against sodomy.
    (SFEC, 8/11/96, p.A2)(SFC, 11/26/98, p.A3)

1951        Switzerland and the US signed an accord on income tax that dealt with issues of bank secrecy and exchange of sensitive information. The accord was renegotiated in 1996.
    (WSJ, 2/28/96, p.A-1)

1951        The Bracero Program was formalized. It allowed about 350,000 Mexican workers to enter the US each year until 1964. It also allowed harvest workers to enter on a temporary basis.
    (SFEC, 9/20/98, Z1 p.6)

1951        Artists Gordon Onslow Ford, Wolfgang Paalen and Lee Mullican staged a landmark show of abstraction called "Dynaton" at the SF Museum of Art.
    (SFC, 10/28/00, p.D1)
1951        In San Francisco Richard Stephens (1925-2017) took over the shrinking operations of the Academie of Advertising Art established by his father. It was rebranded first as the Academy of Art College and later the Academy of Art University and grew from 35 students studying advertising to a peak enrollment of 18,000 students studying a variety of arts. By 2017 organization held 40 properties making it among the largest landowners in San Francisco.
    (SFC, 6/15/17, p.D2)
1951        Lew Christensen, brother of Willam, quit the New York City Ballet to become the director of the SF Ballet. Lew and Willam Christensen were named co-directors of the SF Ballet. Lew Christensen’s "Filling Station" was produced to music by Virgil Thomson.
    (SFEC, 8/10/97, p.B9)(SFEC, 8/17/97, DB p.37)
1951        In San Francisco the Terrace Drive-In theater opened on Alemany Blvd. adjacent ot the famer's market and lasted just three years. I-280 was later built on the land.
    (SFC, 7/14/18, p.C3)
1951        In San Francisco the North Beach Place, a public housing project designed by Ernest Born (d.1992) and his wife Esther Born (d.1987), opened on both sides of the cable car turnaround at Taylor St. It was torn down in 2001.
    (SFC, 12/18/15, p.D9)
1951        In San Francisco Commerce High School was closed. Its large auditiorium was still used for special events. It reopened in 2013 as the temporary home to City Arts and Lectures.
    (SFC, 4/30/13, p.E4)
1951        San Francisco’s Youth Guidance Center (YGC) opened on Woodland Ave.
    (SFC, 6/27/96, p.A8)
1951        In San Francisco the Greyhound maintenance and administration center at 8th and Irwin was designed by Skidmore, Owings and Merril.
    (SFC, 8/29/96, p.C3)
1951        In SF the 1939 bathhouse at Aquatic Park was converted into the SF Maritime Museum.
    (SFC, 6/21/06, p.B3)
1951        The Morrison Planetarium was constructed at the Academy of Sciences in Goldengate Park. It opened in 1952.
    (SFC, 7/29/97, p.A7)(CW, Fall, 02, p.45)
1951        Richard A. Stephens became president of the San Francisco Academy of Art College. The college was founded by his father.
    (SFC, 11/13/99, p.B7)
1951        Gladys Cox Hansen became the archivist for the SF library.
    (SFEC, 11/15/98, p.A1)
1951        Richard and Rhoda Goldman Fund began their SF-based charitable organization.
    (SSFC, 8/10/03, p.I1)
1951        Incumbent SF Mayor Elmer Robinson was re-elected by fewer than 3,000 votes over George Christopher.
    (SFC, 9/15/00, p.A19)
1951        SF voters approved fluoridation.
    (SFC, 3/14/03, p.E8)
1951        The SF the hungry i nightclub opened in North Beach under Enrico Banducci. Folk singer Stan Wilson (1922-1983) was the 1st entertainer to play there. It was there that such stars as Barbra Streisand, Woody Allen, Mort Sahl and Bill Cosby got their start. It first opened in a cellar space of the Sentinel Building, which Banducci bought from Eric Nord with $800 in borrowed money. In 1954 the club moved to 599 Jackson St.
    (SFEC, 8/1/99, DB p.28)(SFC, 6/11/05, p.B5)(SFC, 4/4/07, p.E1)
1951        Albert Pollack and his cousin Tommy Harris, an entertainer, transformed the Almond Blossom coffee shop on Van Ness into Tommy's Joint hofbrau.
    (SFC, 3/10/99, p.A24)
1951        The Highway 101 freeway opened. In San Francisco it replaced Bayshore Boulevard as the main north south link to the city.
    (SSFC, 2/19/12, p.A2)
1951        In Walnut Creek, Ca., the Broadway Plaza opened.
    (SFC, 4/17/12, p.A1)
1951        William R. Bright (d.2003 at 81) founded Campus Crusade to spread Christianity to students at UCLA. By 2003 the organization had a staff of 26,000 with revenues of $374 million.
    (SFC, 7/22/03, p.A19)
1951        The California state Legislature authorized what became the State Water Project and appropriated funds for detailed studies.
    (CSWP, brochure)
1951        California lawmakers passed Public Utilities Code Section 583, which says the public can’t see documents obtained from regulated utilities unless the commission approves.
    (SSFC, 11/27/11, p.A21)
1951        The USS Independence, used in 1946 atomic bomb tests, was sunk near the Farallon Islands off the coast of San Francisco, Ca. It was weighed down with 55-gallon drums of possibly radioactive material after being used as a nuclear waste dump and test lab for decontamination studies.
    (SSFC, 1/20/02, p.A27)(SFC, 6/9/15, p.A8)
1951        Three US Coast Guardsmen were killed when their boat capsized after they left the St. George Reef Lighthouse near Crescent City, Ca.
    (SSFC, 4/21/02, p.A27)

1951        In Delaware Louis Redding worked on a suit filed on behalf of black schoolchildren in Delaware who had not been allowed to enroll in white public schools. A court ruled in favor of the suit in 1952 but the state appealed and the suit became part of Brown vs. Board of Education Supreme Court suit of 1954.
    (SFC, 10/3/98, p.A21)

1951        In New Mexico Winkler Mills Craftsmen, Inc., located near the Nambé Pueblo, made traditional bronze and copper cookware and gifts. The owner retired and offered the business to his secretary, Pauline Platt Cable. She took over the day-to-day operations of the business. In 1953 Nambe began making metal dishes using an alloy of aluminum and 7 other metals.
    (SFC, 5/21/08, p.G7)(www.nambe.com/StoreCatalog/ctl10101/sitecontent/History/History)

1951        South Carolina passed an anti-lynching law in response to the mob murder of Willie Earle, who was dragged from jail and gunned down in retaliation for the death of a cabbie.
    (SSFC, 5/18/03, p.A6)

1951        Willam Christensen (d.2001 at 99), master of the SF Opera Ballet, returned to Utah and founded the 1st ballet department in an American Univ. at the Univ. of Utah.
    (SFC, 10/16/01, p.B2)
1951        In Utah an interview with madam Rossette Duccinni Davie, who ran the Rose Rooms brothel in Ogden with her husband in the 1940s and 1950s, was transcribed in shorthand style. The interview with former Standard-Examiner reporter Bert Strand was hidden inside a box of 1970s photos from the newspaper and only became public in 2020.
    (AP, 2/1/20)

1951        Oliver W. Hill (1907-2007), a black lawyer, argued on behalf of students protesting deplorable conditions at a high school for African Americans in Farmville, Va. The case became one of 5 that were decided in the 1954 Supreme Court Brown vs. Board of Education decision.
    (SFC, 8/6/07, p.A2)

1951        Alfred Bader founded the Aldrich Chemical Co. It was later succeeded by the Sigma Aldrich Corp. He later became a collector of art and spent millions for works by artists such as Rembrandt and Rubens.
    (SFC, 2/3/98, p.E3)

1951        Benny Bunion, a former bootlegger and numbers runner from Dallas, went to Las Vegas and bought the El Dorado casino and hotel. He renamed it The Horseshoe and promised to take any bet, no matter how high. In 1953 he was put into prison for income tax evasion and served 3 years and 3 months.
    (WSJ, 8/24/98, p.A5)

1951        Chrysler introduced Hydraguide power steering. Thompson Products helped to pioneer the innovation. Chrysler also debuted hemispherical combustion heads above the cylinders of its V-8 engines.
    (F, 10/7/96, p.69)(WSJ, 6/1/00, p.A20)(WSJ, 4/30/04, p.B1)

1951        Topps introduced its baseball cards with bubble gum.
    (WSJ, 7/8/06, p.A5)

1951        United Artists film productions was going under and offered a 5-partner team 50% of the company if profitability were restored in 3 years. Max Young stein (d.1997 at 84), one of the team, was head of production and marketing.
    (SFC, 7/11/97, p.E2)

1951        Lois Wyse (1926-2007) and her husband Marc Wyse founded Wyse Advertising in Cleveland. Lois Wyse later wrote the jingle for jam maker Smucker's: “With a name like Smucker’s, it has to be good." Her 1967 “Love Poems for the Very Married" sold over 200,000 copies. She later authored novels and books of advice for working women such as “Mrs. Success" (1971).
    (WSJ, 1/7/07, p.A4)

1951        Physicist Richard Feynman at 33 published his final paper on quantum electrodynamics (QED).
    (SFEC, 8/3/97, BR p.3)

1951        Dr. Charles Townes, head of Columbia Univ. Radiation laboratory, came up with a process for focusing packets of light energy, an idea 1st postulated by Einstein in 1917. This led to the 1953 development of the maser, microwave amplification by stimulated emission of radiation, a forerunner to the laser. 2 Soviet scientists managed a maser with continuous output.
    (Econ, 6/11/05, TQ p.25)

1951        Munchausen’s syndrome was first recognized. Named for Baron Karl Fresher von Munchausen, an 18th century German cavalry officer famed for fabricating colorful tales about his exploits. The medical syndrome describes people who travel from doctor to doctor claiming symptoms of a feigned ailment to get attention for themselves.
    (WSJ, 4/22/96, p.B-1)

1951        Dr. Esther Lederberg (1922-2006) of the Univ. of Wisconsin discovered the lambda phage, a virus that infects other bacteria with the ability to transfer genes among them.
    (SFC, 11/28/06, p.B7)

1951        Michigan State College (later Univ.) began to offer a professorship in driver-training.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)

1951        Natalie Knowlton Blair (b.1887), eminent collector of Americana, died. She created a life-size dollhouse at her Blairhame mansion in Tuxedo Park, NY, beginning in 1916.
    (SFC, 1/11/06, p.G2)

1951        Karel Taiga (b.1900), Avant-Garde Czech graphic designer, architectural theorist, playwright, actor, painter and printmaker, died.
    (WSJ, 6/20/01, p.A16)

1951        The International Organization for Migration (IOM) was initially established as the Intergovernmental Committee for European Migration (ICEM) to help resettle people displaced by World War II. As of June 2016, the Geneva-based IOM had 166 member states and 8 observer states.

1951        The Antigua Labor Party (ALP) gained power. Vere Bird began dominating local politics and continued to do so, except for one 5-year year, until 1994, when his son took over the family firm.
    (Econ, 12/4/04, p.38)(Econ, 2/28/09, p.42)

1951        Getulio Vargas, former autocrat, was elected president of Brazil and ruled to 1954.
    (WSJ, 4/6/06, p.D8)(Econ, 4/15/06, p.39)

1951        The video game NIM was created for the Festival of Britain. It was played on Nimrod, a computer developed by the Ferranti electronics firm.
    (Econ, 12/10/11, SR p.12)
1951        In Britain J. Lyons & Co. used the world's first business computer to calculate payrolls and optimum mixes for tea blending.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)
1951        The Harwell Dekatron, also known as the Wolverhampton Instrument for Teaching Computation (WITCH), was built at Harwell, the UK's atomic energy research establishment. In 2012 the supercomputer was restored after a period of three years by experts at England's National Museum of Computing in Bletchley Park.

1951        Mayor Chen Yi of Shanghai, China, began the Shanghai Museum.
    (WSJ, 5/9/96, p.A-16)
1951        In China Peng Zhen began his 15-year mayorship of Beijing.
    (SFEC, 4/27/97, p.B8)
1951        China and the Vatican broke formal relations after missionaries were kicked out and Catholics were forced to sever ties with Rome.
    (SFC, 1/7/00, p.A14)
1951        The average life expectancy in China was 46. By 2011 it was 73.
    (Econ, 6/25/11, SR p.16)

1951        In Croatia Cardinal Alojzije Stepinac was released under house arrest.
    (SFEC, 10/4/98, p.A22)

1951        Leopoldo Romanach (b.1862), Cuban painter, died.

1951        NATO member Denmark allowed the US to build 33 bases and radar stations in Greenland, but the deal did not specify who would be responsible for any cleanup. In 2016 Greenland's local leaders urged Denmark to remove the junk that the Americans left behind. In 2018 Denmark and Greenland signed an agreement for a 6-year cleanup program.
    (AP, 11/26/16)(AP, 1/11/18)
1951        Denmark consigned the Inuit hunting village of Pituffik to US authorities for the Thule Air Base.
    (SFC, 8/4/00, p.A16)

1951        Armi Ratia, Finnish designer, expanded her husband's printing business into a fashionable "total work of art" business (Gesamtkunstwerk) that became "Marimekko."
    (WSJ, 1/6/04, p.D10)

1951        Germany's Federal Constitutional Court was established by the constitution or Basic Law (Grundgesetz).
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Federal_Constitutional_Court)    (Econ., 5/9/20, p.39)
1951        German corporations began operating under a principle of co-determination between workers and management. It applied to companies with more than 2000 workers.
    (Econ, 1/29/05, p.63)(Econ, 7/16/05, p.16)

1951        India won its first int’l. soccer gold medal at the Asian games under the captaincy of Sailen Manna (1924-2012).
    (Econ, 3/17/12, p.106)
1951        Indian troops occupied Tawang, some 2000 square km. of valley and high mountains just south of the McMahon Line in northeast Arunachal Pradesh. This took place shortly after China dispatched troops to Tibet.
    (Econ, 8/21/10, p.18)

1951        In Iran there was a struggle to nationalize Iranian oil. The story told by Manucher and Roxanne (daughter) Farmanfarmaian in their 1997 book "Blood and Oil."
    (SFEC, 4/13/97, BR p.3,4)

1951        In Israel the Work and Rest Hours Act was passed. The law prohibited companies from employing workers on their religious days of rest.
    (WSJ, 6/24/97, p.A1)

1951        Jordan banned homosexual acts.
    (AP, 6/12/15)   

1951        In Lebanon Kefraya opened its first vineyard
    (SFC, 1/11/08, p.F4)

1951        Libya enacted a constitution that formally protected the minority rights of Jews, Italians, Maltese and Greeks.
    (WSJ, 1/10/07, p.A19)

1951        New Zealand did away with its Legislative Council.
    (Econ, 2/10/07, p.57)

1951        North Korea's leader Kim Il Sung began sending thousands of orphans to countries including the Soviet Union, Hungary and Poland, pleading with his communist allies to take care of them.
    (AFP, 10/6/18)

1951        In Papua New Guinea the Lamington volcano erupted and 2,942 people were killed.
    (SFC, 1/19/02, p.A14)

1951        In Russia the nuclear weapons research facility near Nizhzny Novgorod was established by Yuli Khariton (1904-1996).
    (SFC, 12/20/96, p.B6)

1951        Saudi Arabia put the Ghawar oil field into production. It measured 20 miles wide and 175 miles long and was the largest oil field ever found.
    (WSJ, 5/6/08, p.A15)

1951        In South Africa Drum magazine was founded in Johannesburg. Drum journalists living in Sophiatown, a racially-mixed suburb of Johannesburg, soon began producing the best investigative journalism, short fiction, satirical humour, social and political commentary, and musical criticism South Africa had ever seen.
    (AFP, 12/26/11)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sophiatown)

1951        Sri Lanka set up courts “for the Islamic people to conduct their judicial activities according to their customs."
    (Econ 6/17/17, p.37)

1951        Sweden’s Kiki Hakansson became the first Miss World.
    (AFP, 12/12/09)
1951        Ruben Rausing (1895-1983) of Sweden founded Tetra Pak as a subsidiary to Akerlund & Rausing to produce milk cartons. In 1963 the company gave the world a flat-topped carton that can be packed and shipped like bricks. The development revolutionized the packaging and distribution of milk and fruit juices worldwide.
    (AP, 7/11/12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ruben_Rausing)

1951        Gendun Choephel (b.1903), a rebellious Tibetan monk, died. His work included a political history of Tibet. In 2002 Luc Schaedler created the documentary “Angry Monk: Reflections on Tibet."
    (SFC, 1/2/09, p.E8)(www.angrymonk.ch/current_project/screenplay.shtml)

1951-1952    Godfrey’s Talent Scouts was the top ranking network show on television with a ranking of 53.8%.
    (WSJ, 4/24/95, p.R-5)

1951-1952    Francis Gabreski (d.2002 at 83), US fighter pilot, shot down 6½ MiGs during the Korean War. During WW II he was credited with 37½ kills. He later authored the autobiography: "Gabby: A Fighter Pilot’s Life."
    (SFC, 2/2/02, p.A18)

1951-1954    Jacobo Guzman Arbenz (1913-1971) served as president of Guatemala. Arbenz became president with the support of army and leftists, including the Communist Party. Jacobo Arbenz Guzman, aroused rightist opposition by allowing Communists in positions of power among peasants, labor unions, even the government itself. His radical policies-especially regarding expropriation of portions of the United Fruit Company holdings-led to a U.S. backed coup in 1954 and his fleeing to Mexico.
    (NG, 6/1988, p.783)(NG, 10/1988, member’s forum)(HNQ, 1/30/99)(WSJ, 3/3/99, p.A18)
1951-1954    Eamon De Valera (b.1882) served his 2nd of 3 terms as Taoiseach (prime minister) of Ireland.
    (http://www.clarelibrary.ie/)(ON, 9/04, p.7)

1951-1955    In Britain Winston Churchill served as Prime Minister a 2nd time.
    (WSJ, 9/3/98, p.A6)

1951-1956    There were 9 US reconnaissance aircraft lost and believed shot down by Soviet forces in and near the Russian Far East during this period with 77 crew members lost.
    (AP, 9/10/07)

1951-1969 In Austria 230 people, including some children at a state run orphanage, were subjects of an experiment in which they were injected with the parasite which causes malaria as part of research for a cure against syphilis, long after penicillin was available.
    (AP, 5/2/14)

1951-1963    Libya was a federal union during this period under King Idris I, which divided the country into three administrative states: Cyrenaica, Tripolitania and Fezzan.
    (AFP, 4/17/12)

1951-1967    Harlan H. Hatcher served as the 8th president of the Univ. of Mich. Under his tenure enrollment grew from 17,000 to 37,000 students. He had previously served as the vice-president of Ohio State Univ.
    (MT, Sum. ‘98, p.6)

1951-1970    William McChesney Martin (d.1998 at 91) served as the chairman of the US Federal Reserve.
    (WSJ, 7/29/98, p.A1)

1951-1992    US nuclear tests on Western Shoshone land, guaranteed by the 1863 Treaty of Ruby Valley, numbered 934 over this period.
    (SFC, 7/12/97, p.E4)

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