Timeline 1948

Return to home

1948        Jan 3, King Michael left Romania. His Peles Castle in Sinaia was confiscated by the Communists. In 2006 it was returned to the former king.
    (SFC, 10/20/00, p.A16)(SFC, 5/24/06, p.A2)

1948        Jan 4, Britain granted independence to Burma (later renamed to Myanmar). Aung San had arranged for national independence on this day but was assassinated before the event by political rivals. The new rulers tried to limit citizenship to those whose roots predated 1823 and British rule.
    (SFEC, 1/19/97, Par p.4)(AP, 1/4/98)(Econ, 11/3/12, p.44)

1948        Jan 7, Kenny Loggins, singer (& Messina-This is it, Footloose), was born in Everett, WA.
    (MC, 1/7/02)
1948        Jan 7, US president Truman raised taxes for the Marshall plan.
    (MC, 1/7/02)

1948        Jan 8, Richard Tauber (55), Austria-British tenor, composer (Lehar), died.
    (MC, 1/8/02)

1948        Jan 11, President Harry S Truman proposed free, two-year community colleges for all who wanted an education.
    (HN, 1/11/99)

1948        Jan 12, The Supreme Court ruled that states could not discriminate against law-school applicants because of race. The case involved a black woman, Ada Lois Sipuel (1924-1995), and she earned the right to attend law school in previously segregated Oklahoma. Her lawyer was Thurgood Marshall.
    (AP, 1/12/98)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sipuel_v._Board_of_Regents_of_Univ._of_Okla)

1948        Jan 13, T Bone Burnett, rocker, was born.
    (MC, 1/13/02)

1948        Jan 16, Anatoli Yakovlevich Solovyov, cosmonaut (TM-5,9,15,26, STS 71), was born in Riga, Latvia.
    (MC, 1/16/02)

1948        Jan 18, Ghandi broke a 121-hour fast after halting Moslem-Hindu riots.
    (HN, 1/18/99)

1948        Jan 23, Director John Huston's "Treasure of Sierra Madre" starring Humphrey Bogart opened.
    (MC, 1/23/02)
1948        Jan 23, The Soviets refused UN entry into North Korea to administer elections.
    (HN, 1/23/99)

1948        Jan 24, Elliott Abrams, asst. secretary of state, supplied arms to the Contras, was born.
    (MC, 1/24/02)

1948        Jan 27, Mikhail Baryshnikov, ballet dancer, was born in Riga,  Latvia.
    (MC, 1/27/02)
1948        Jan 27, The 1st tape recorder sold.
    (MC, 1/27/02)

1948        Jan 28, A plane chartered by US Immigration Services left Oakland, Ca., carrying 32 people, including 28 Mexicans. Many were part of the bracero program and had finished their government-sponsored work contracts. 20 miles west of Coalinga an engine exploded, a wing broke off and more than 100 witnesses watched bodies and luggage thrown from the fireball. There were no survivors.
1948        Jan 28, Charles Taylor, later president of Liberia (1997-2003), was born in Arthington, near Monrovia. His family descended from freed American slaves He was the third of 15 children of an Americo-Liberian father, Nelson Taylor. His mother, Zoe, was a Gola-woman.
    (www.liberiapastandpresent.org/charles_taylor.htm)(AP, 7/14/09)

1948        Jan 30, Orville Wright (b.1871), US aviation pioneer, died. In 1953 McGraw Hill published 2 volumes edited by Marvin W. McFarland: "The Papers of Wilbur and Orville Wright."
    (WUD, 1994, p.1647)(ON, SC, p.4)(MC, 1/30/02)
1948        Jan 30, Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (78) was assassinated by Nathuram Godse, a fellow Hindu while walking to a prayer meeting in New Delhi a few minutes after five o'clock in the evening. Godse felt that in trying to achieve reconciliation between Hindus and Muslims, Gandhi had betrayed the Hindu cause. Born into a family of merchants, Gandhi studied law in England, where he was inspired by Henry David Thoreau's "Civil Disobedience" and developed his own philosophy of peaceful resistance. After residing and practicing law in South Africa for 20 years, Gandhi returned to India to campaign for home rule and reconciliation of all classes and religious groups. Convinced that India would never be free as part of the British Empire, he demanded independence as payment for helping Britain win World War II. Indian independence was achieved in 1947, but riots broke out between Hindus and Muslims seeking the partition of the country into India and Pakistan. Mahatma ("Great Soul") Gandhi was on a hunger strike demanding an end to the violence when he was murdered. The book "Gandhi the Man" by Eknath Easwaran was published in 1972.
    (AHD, 1971, p.542)(HFA, '96, p.40)(SFC, 1/31/97, p.A13)(SFC,12/24/97, p.C6) (HNPD, 1/309)
1948        The seven sins according to Mahatma Gandhi were: 1) wealth without work. 2) Pleasure without conscience. 3) Knowledge without character. 4) Commerce without morality. 5) Science without humanity. 6) Worship without sacrifice. 7) Politics without principal.
    (SFEC, 1/23/00, Z1 p.2)

1948        Feb 1, The Palestine Post building in Jerusalem was bombed.
    (MC, 2/1/02)

1948        Feb 2, President Harry Truman sent to Congress a 10-point civil rights program calling for measures against lynching, poll taxes and job discrimination.
    (AP, 2/2/08)
1948        Feb 2, The United States and Italy signed a pact of friendship, commerce and navigation.
    (HN, 2/2/99)

1948        Feb 4, The island nation of Ceylon—now Sri Lanka—became an independent dominion within the British Commonwealth.
    (AP, 2/4/97)

1948        Feb 7, Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower resigned as Army chief of staff and was succeeded by Gen. Omar Bradley.
    (AP, 2/7/97)

1948        Feb 8, The National Republicans, who had held the majority of Costa Rica's political power for decades, were finally voted out of the presidency. The National Republicans used their strong influence in the Legislative Assembly to annul the presidential election of rival candidate Otilio Ulate of the Social Democratic Party.

1948        Feb 11, Sergei Eisenstein (b.1898 in Latvia), Russian film director, died. He pioneered the dialectic montage where 2 films shots were arranged to clash in order to produce an emotional or intellectual response in the viewer. In 1999 Ronald Bergan published the biography: "Sergei Eisenstein: A Life In Conflict."
    (SFEC, 5/2/99, BR p.1,10)(MC, 2/11/02)

1948        Feb 12, 1st Lt. Nancy Leftenant became the 1st black in the army nursing corps.
    (MC, 2/12/02)

1948        Feb 14, Winthrop Rockefeller (1912-1973), later governor of Arkansas (1967-1971), married Barbara Sears (1916-2008), the Pennsylvania-born daughter of Lithuanian immigrants. They had one child, Winthrop Paul Rockefeller, but the marriage dissolved in a high-profile divorce in 1954. Barbara Bobo Rockefeller, born as Jievute Paulekiute in Noblestown, Pa., was featured as Miss Lithuania at the 1933 Chicago World's Fair. She later was known as Eva Paul.

1948        Feb 15, Mao Zedong's army occupied Yenan.
    (MC, 2/15/02)

1948        Feb 16, NBC-TV began airing its first nightly newscast, "The Camel Newsreel Theatre," which consisted of "20th Century Fox- Movietone News" newsreels.
    (AP, 2/16/98)(MC, 2/16/02)

1948        Feb 20, Czechoslovakia's non-communist minister resigned.
    (MC, 2/20/02)

1948        Feb 21, Bill France, Daytona Beach stock car mechanic and driver, founded the National Association for Stock Car Racing (NASCAR).

1948        Feb 22, An Arab bomb attack in Jerusalem killed 50 people.
    (MC, 2/22/02)

1948        Feb 25, Communists seized power in Czechoslovakia in a coup d’etat.
    (AP, 2/25/98)(SFC, 3/13/98, p.A6)

1948        Feb 28, Mercedes Ruehl, actress (Lost in Yonkers, Crazy People), was born in Queens NY.
    (MC, 2/28/02)
1948         Feb 28, The last British troops left India. The First Battalion of the Somerset Light Infantry passed through the Gateway of India monument in a ceremony.
    (AP, 8/26/03)

1948        Feb, The U.S. Air Force initiated Project Blue Book to investigate the numerous civilian and military reports of mysterious unidentified flying objects (UFOs). It was originally known as Project Sign. A year later the unit was reorganized and renamed Project Grudge. Finally, in 1952, Project Grudge was upgraded and given the code name Project Blue Book. It was terminated in 1969.
    (AP, 12/17/97)(HNQ, 5/30/00)

1948        Mar 4, Antonin Artaud (51), French poet, actor (Napoleon), died.
    (SC, 3/4/02)

1948        Mar 5, Leslie Marmon Silko, writer (Ceremony), was born.
    (HN, 3/5/01)

1948        Mar 6, During talks in Berlin, the Western powers agreed to internationalize the Ruhr region.
    (HN, 3/6/98)

1948        Mar 8, The US Supreme Court, in the case of McCollum vs. the Board of Education, struck down voluntary religious education classes in Champaign, Ill., public schools, saying the program violated separation of church and state. Judge Robert Jackson warned: "One can hardly respect a system of education that would leave the student wholly ignorant of the currents of religious thought that move the world."
    (HN, 3/8/98)(WSJ, 8/13/99, p.W11)(AP, 3/8/08)

1948        Mar 10, Author Zelda Fitzgerald died in a fire at Highland Hospital, NC. She was locked in on the 3rd floor while undergoing insulin-induced coma therapy. In 2001 Kendall Taylor authored "Sometimes Madness Is Wisdom: Zelda and Scott Fitzgerald, a Marriage."
    (HN, 3/10/01)(SSFC, 9/23/01, DB p.61)
1948        Mar 10, Jan Masaryk (b.1886), son of the first president of Czechoslovakia and anti-Communist foreign minister, was found dead in the courtyard of Czernin Palace in Prague. He had dropped 45 feet from a window and the case remained unsolved.
1948        Mar 10, Political and military men gathered at the Tel Aviv headquarters of the Haganah and put the final touches to Plan Dalet. In 2006 Prof. Ilan Pappe of the Univ. of Haifa authored “The Ethnic Cleansing of Palestine." He held that Plan Dalet was a plan for the ethnic cleansing of some 800,000 Palestinians in order to allow the formation of the Jewish state.
    (Econ, 11/4/06, p.92)

1948        Mar 11, Reginald Weit became the 1st black to play in the US Tennis Open.
    (MC, 3/12/02)
1948        Mar 11, Jewish Agency of Jerusalem was bombed.
    (MC, 3/12/02)

1948        Mar 12, In Alaska 24 merchant marines and six crewmen were flying from China to New York City, when their DC-4 slammed into Mount Sanford killing all 30. Pilots Kevin McGregor and Marc Millican discovered some mummified remains in 1999 while recovering artifacts to identify the wreckage they had found two years earlier.
    (AP, 8/17/08)

1948        Mar 17, The  International Maritime Organization (IMO) was established following agreement at a UN conference held in Geneva and came into existence ten years later, meeting for the first time in 1959. Preventing pollution was one of its original aims. The original name was the Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization, or IMCO, but the name was changed in 1982 to IMO.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Maritime_Organization)(Econ, 3/30/13, p.69)(http://www.imo.org/About/Pages/Default.aspx)

1948        Mar 18, France, Great Britain and Benelux signed the Treaty of Brussels.
    (MC, 3/18/02)
1948        Mar 18, Philips began experimental TV broadcasting.
    (MC, 3/18/02)

1948        Mar 20, "Gentleman’s Agreement" won the Academy Award for best picture of 1947, as well as best director (Elia Kazan); Ronald Colman won best actor for "A Double Life," and Loretta Young won best actress for "The Farmer’s Daughter." The 20th event was held at the Shrine auditorium in LA.
    (AP, 3/20/98)(SFC, 3/13/02, p.D1)
1948        Mar 20, The 1st live televised musical Eugene Ormandy on CBS.
    (MC, 3/20/02)
1948        Mar 20, A televised concert by NBC Symphony was conducted by  Arturo Toscanini.
    (MC, 3/20/02)
1948        Mar 20 A severe tornado moved through Tinker Air Force Base in Oklahoma City destroying 52 aircraft.
    (SFC, 3/20/09, p.D8)
1948        Mar 20, The Communist administration of Lithuania decided on a plan for the organization of collective farms.
    (LHC, 3/20/03)

1948        Mar 22, Andrew Lloyd Webber, Broadway composer, was born. His works include "Phantom of the Opera" and "Cats."
    (AP, 3/22/99)(HN, 3/22/97)
1948        Mar 22, The U.S. announced a land reform plan for Korea.
    (HN, 3/22/97)

1948        Mar 23, John Cunningham set a world altitude record at 54,492' (18,133 meters).
    (SS, 3/23/02)

1948        Mar 24, Israel Galili, chief of the Haganah, sent orders reminding commanders of the policy to protect the “full rights, needs, and freedoms of the Arabs in the Hebrew state without discrimination."
    (Econ, 11/4/06, p.93)

1948        Mar 25, The Italians banned a compromise with Yugoslavia and demanded the return of Trieste.
    (HN, 3/24/98)

1948        Mar 31, David Eisenhower, Eisenhower's grandson (married Julie Nixon), was born.
    (MC, 3/31/02)
1948        Mar 31, Al Gore, Vice President to President William J. Clinton (1993-2001), was born.
    (HN, 3/31/99)
1948        Mar 31, Rhea Perlman, actress (Zena-Taxi, Carla-Cheers), was born in Brooklyn.
    (MC, 3/31/02)
1948        Mar 31, Congress passed a $6.2 billion foreign aid bill, the Marshall Aid Act, to rehabilitate war-torn Europe.
    (HN, 3/31/98)(MC, 3/31/02)
1948        Mar 31, The Soviet Union in Germany began controlling the Western trains headed toward Berlin.
    (HN, 3/31/98)

1948        Mar, R.W. Chaney, UC scientist, and Milton Silverman (1911-1997), science writer, traveled to China to fetch dawn redwoods (Metasequoia glyptostroboides), thought to be extinct for 20 million years, from the only known grove in existence. They brought seedlings back to California and the trees now thrive.
    (SFC, 12/18/96, p.A25)

1948        Apr 2, Emmylou Harris, American singer, was born.
    (HN, 4/2/01)

1948        Apr 3, Garrick Ohlsson, pianist (Intl Busoni winner 1969), was born in Bronxville, NY.
    (MC, 4/3/02)
1948        Apr 3, The 1st US figure skating championships were held.
    (MC, 4/3/02)
1948        Apr 3, Congress adopted and President Truman signed the Marshall Plan, which allocated more than $5 billion in aid for 16 European countries. The Marshall Plan was begun to aid the European nations in their economic recovery following WW II. It provided $13.15 billion over 4 years to 17 European nations.
    (SFC, 2/5/97, p.A20)(AP, 4/3/97)(SFEC, 5/25/97, p.A10)(HN, 4/3/98)

1948        Apr 4, 84-year-old Connie Mack challenged 78-year-old Clark Griffith to a race from home to 1st base; it ended in a tie.
    (MC, 4/4/02)

1948        Apr 5, WGN TV channel 9 in Chicago, IL., began broadcasting.
    (MC, 4/5/02)

1948        Apr 7, The World Health Organization (WHO) was founded by the UN. In 1948, the First World Health Assembly called for the creation of a "World Health Day" to mark the founding of the World Health Organization. Since 1950, World Health Day has been celebrated on the 7th of April annually.
    (AP, 4/7/97)(www.who.int/world-health-day/previous/en/index.html)

1948        Apr 9, Chaim Weizmann, head of the World Zionist Organization, wrote to Pres. Truman saying: “The choice for our people, Mr. President, is between statehood and extermination."
    (Econ, 1/13/07, p.53)
1948        Apr 9, In Colombia politician Jorge Eliecer Gaitan Ayala (b.1903) was assassinated during his 2nd presidential campaign.
1948        Apr 9, In Deir Yassin about one-third of 750 Palestinians were killed by Jewish fighters of the National Military Organization, an underground group better known as the Irgun, and a splinter group called Lehi. The event is called Al-Nakbah (catastrophe) by the Palestinians. 30 similar massacres happened on other Palestinian villages. The death toll was said to be inflated by Jewish forces to invoke fear and cause maximum flight.
    (SFC, 3/18/98, p.A10)(SFC, 4/25/98, p.A1,11)

1948        Apr 10, Jewish Hagana repelled an Arab attack on Mishmar HaEmek.
    (MC, 4/10/02)

1948        Apr 12, Cartago, Costa Rica, fell into the hands of Jose Figueres Ferrer, a vociferous adversary of the National Republicans.

1948        Apr 14, Walter P. Reuther, Pres (United Auto Workers), was shot at his home. [see Apr 20]
    (MC, 4/14/02)

1948        Apr 15, Arabs were defeated in the first Jewish-Arab battle.
    (HN, 4/15/98)

1948        Apr 18, Catherine Malfitano, soprano (Metropolitan Opera), was born in NYC.
    (MC, 4/18/02)
1948        Apr 18, International Court of Justice opened at Hague, Netherlands.
    (MC, 4/18/02)

1948        Apr 19, Teodoro Picado and Father Benjamin Nunez, an eminent labor leader within Costa Rica, signed The Pact of the Mexican Embassy, ending an armed uprising.

1948        Apr 20, United Auto Workers president Walter P. Reuther was shot and wounded at his home in Detroit. [see Apr 14]
    (AP, 4/20/98)

1948        Apr 21, The 1st Polaroid camera was sold in US.
    (MC, 4/21/02)

1948         Apr 24, The forces  of Jose Figueres Ferrer entered San Jose, almost six weeks after beginning their revolt in southern Costa Rica.

1948        Apr 30, The charter of the Organization of American States (OAS) was signed in Bogota, Colombia.
    (AP, 4/30/08)

1948        May 1, Glenn Taylor, Idaho Senator, was arrested in Birmingham Alabama for trying to enter a meeting through a door marked "for Negroes."
    (MC, 5/1/02)
1948        May 1, Christos Ladas, Greek minister of Justice, was murdered.
    (MC, 5/1/02)
1948        May 1, The People's Democratic Republic of Korea (North Korea) was proclaimed. The border between North and South Korea was sealed when Kim Il Sung established his communist regime.
    (SFC, 3/12/97, p.A14)(AP, 5/1/97)

1948        May 3, The US Supreme Court in Shelly v. Kraemer ruled that covenants prohibiting the sale of real estate to blacks and other minorities were legally unenforceable. The Supreme Court had allowed the practice in 1926.
    (AP, 5/3/97)(Econ, 7/7/12, p.74)(SFC, 1/14/15, p.A11)

1948        May 4, The Hague Court of Justice convicted Hans Rauter (SS) of war crimes.
    (MC, 5/4/02)

1948        May 5, 1st air squadron of jets aboard a carrier
    (MC, 5/5/02)
1948        May 5, Japan's Children's Day became a National Holiday.

1948        May 6, 43 communist rebels were executed in Athens.
    (MC, 5/6/02)

1948        May 9, The first television guide, called TV Forecast, was published by Les Vihon and 3 partners in Chicago. It became the basis for TV Guide which was consolidated under Walter Annenberg.
    (WSJ, 5/8/98, p.W10)(WSJ, 6/18/99, p.W6)

1948        May 11, Haganah took control of Safed and port of Haifa.
    (MC, 5/11/02)
1948        May 11, Edward Ricketts (Doc Ricketts, 51), marine biologist and friend of John Steinbeck, died in Monterey, Ca., after his car stalled on railroad tracks and was struck by a Del Monte Express. He authored "Between Pacific Tides."
    (SFC, 2/22/02, p.A21)

1948        May 12, Queen Wilhelmina resigned. [see Sep 4]
    (MC, 5/12/02)

1948        May 14, US granted Israel de facto recognition.
    (MC, 5/14/02)
1948        May 14, In San Francisco the longshoremen’s union joined local artists and Anton Refrigier in a protest outside the Rincon Annex against a government decision to cloak murals painted by Refrigier in the 1940s as part of the Public Works of Art Project.
    (SFC, 6/1/19, p.C3)
1948        May 14, The British evacuated Israel. The independent state of Israel was proclaimed in Tel Aviv under Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion as British rule in Palestine came to an end. Ben-Gurion and 36 fellow members of the Provisional Council of State signed the Declaration of the Establishment of the State of Israel. 10 of the member’s signatures were delayed for 10 days because they were cut off by fighting in Jerusalem.
    (SFC, 10/18/96, C8)(AP, 5/14/97) (SFC, 4/24/98, p.A17)(HN, 5/14/98)(WSJ, 6/1/00, p.A20)(SFC, 10/12/02, p.A21)

1948        May 15, A 28 year old British Mandate over Palestine ended.
    (MC, 5/15/02)
1948        May 15, Hours after declaring its independence, the new state of Israel was attacked by Transjordan, Egypt, Syria, Iraq and Lebanon.
    (AP, 5/15/97)

1948        May 16, The body of CBS News correspondent George Polk was found in Salonika Harbor in Greece, several days after he'd left his hotel for an interview with the leader of a Communist militia.
    (AP, 5/16/99)
1948        May 16, Chaim Weizmann was elected Chairman of the Provisional State Council of Israel. Weizmann, born in Russia in 1874, taught chemistry in England and as a leading Zionist influenced Britain’s Balfour Declaration of 1917 favoring a Jewish homeland in Palestine.  Weizmann settled in Palestine in 1934 and served as president of Israel from 1948 until his death in 1952.
1948        May 16, PM David Ben-Gurion appointed Israel Amir (d.2002) to head the fledgling air force of 8 secondhand light aircraft. Amir held the post for 10 weeks and raised the force to 3,000 personnel.
    (SFC, 11/2/02, p.A22)

1948        May 17 The Soviet Union recognized the new state of Israel.
    (AP, 5/17/97)

1948        May 18, "Ballet Ballads" opened at Music Box Theater in NYC for 62 performances.
    (SC, 5/18/02)
1948        May 18, Arab Legion captured the fort on Mount Scopus.
    (SC, 5/18/02)
1948        May 18, Saudi Arabia joined the invasion of Israel.
    (SC, 5/18/02)

1948        May 20, Israel made the 1st use of its Air Force and claimed its 1st war victory with the defeat of the Syrian army.
    (MC, 5/20/02)

1948        May 23, China’s People's Liberation Army began to encircle the Nationalist defenders in Changchun, while cutting off air transportation. The siege lasted for 150 days and ended when the People's Liberation Army under Gen. Lin Biao entered Changchun after the Nationalist 60th Army and New 7th Army surrendered. Some 160,000 civilians died, mainly of hunger, trapped in a killing zone outside the city walls.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siege_of_Changchun)(Econ, 9/7/13, p.80)

1948        May 25, Klaus Meine, rocker (Scorpions-No One Like You), was born in  Hanover, Germany.
    (SC, 5/25/02)
1948        May 25, KPIX went on the air as the first TV station in Northern Ca.
    (SFEC, 5/16/99, Z1 p.4)
1948        May 25, Jacques Feyder (59), actor, director (kermesse héroique), died.
    (SC, 5/25/02)
1948        May 25, Witold Pilecki (b.1901), founder of the Secret Polish Army (1939), was executed in Warsaw by Communist secret police. In 1940 he had volunteered to be infiltrated into Auschwitz and spent 2½ years there before escaping in 1943. He chronicled the extermination of Jews at Auschwitz and his reports were smuggled to the Polish government-in-exile, from which they reached the British and American leadership. In 2019 Jack Fairweather authored “The Volunteer".
    (Econ, 1/30/10, p.61)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Witold_Pilecki)(Econ, 7/27/19, p.72)

1948        May 26, Entire Hagana arm forces were sworn-in as Israeli soldiers.
    (MC, 5/26/02)
1948        May 26, South Africa elected a nationalist government with apartheid policy. The National Party of the Dutch Afrikaners came to power and imposed apartheid. P.W. Botha (1916-2006) was among those elected to parliament.
    (WSJ, 7/28/98, p.A16)(http://tinyurl.com/yxx4zh)(Econ, 11/4/06, p.56)

1948        May 27, Arabs blew up the Jewish synagogue Hurvat Rabbi Yehudah he-Hasid.
    (MC, 5/27/02)

1948        May 29, Michael Berkley, composer, broadcaster, was born.
    (SC, 5/29/02)
1948        May 29, Anthony Geary, actor (Luke/Bill-General Hospital), was born in Coalville, UT.
    (SC, 5/29/02)
1948        May 29, Linda Esther Gray, opera singer, was born.
    (SC, 5/29/02)
1948        May 29, May Whitty (82), actress (Gaslight, Mrs. Miniver, Suspicion), died.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1948        May 30, Vanport, Oregon, was dramatically destroyed when a 200-foot (61 m) section of the dike holding back the Columbia River collapsed during a flood, killing 15. The city was underwater by nightfall leaving its inhabitants homeless.

1948        May, Howard Lilly, test pilot, flew the D-559-1, aka Skystreak, rocket powered aircraft at Muroc Army Air Field (later Edwards Air Base) in Calif., and was killed when the rocket engine blew up.
     (SFC, 8/5/96, p.A3)

1948        May, India and Pakistan went to war over the Himalayan region of Kashmir, which was divided between the two nations at partition. The Pakistani third was known as Jammu and Kashmir, while India controlled the eastern two-thirds where 8 million people lived. The region was mostly Muslim.
    (SFEC, 8/3/97, p.A15)(WSJ, 5/22/98, p.A15)(WSJ, 10/12/01, p.A1)

1948        Jun 1, "We The People", TV Talk Show, radio from ‘36; debuted on CBS.
    (DT, 6/1/97)
1948         Jun 1, Israel & the Arabs agreed to a cease fire.
    (DT, 6/1/97)

1948        Jun 2, Albert Innaurato, playwright, director (Age in Soho), was born in Phila.
    (SC, 6/2/02)
1948        Jun 2, Jerry Mathers, actor (Beaver-Leave It To Beaver), was born in Sioux City, Iowa.
    (SC, 6/2/02)
1948        Jun 2, Jamaican-born track star Herb McKenley set a new world record for the 400 yard dash.
    (HN, 6/2/00)

1948        Jun 3, Korczak Ziolkowski (1908-1982), a self-taught sculptor, began blasting a figure of Crazy Horse into rock in the Black Hills of South Dakota under an invitation by the Lakota Sioux. Ziolkowski had worked under Gutzon Borglum at the Mount Rushmore site. The face of Crazy Horse, at the site known as Thunder Mountain, was completed and dedicated in 1998.
    (SSFC, 7/28/02, Par p.11)(SSFC, 9/9/07, p.C4)
1948        Jun 3, The 200-inch reflecting telescope at the Palomar Mountain Observatory in California was dedicated. The nearly 5.1 meter Hale telescope was operated by Caltech.
    (AP, 6/3/97)(SFEC, 4/23/00, p.C14)
1948        Jun 3, Newfoundland and Labrador voted by a slim margin to relinquish status as a British colony and to become the 10th province of Canada.
    (Econ, 10/13/07, p.42)(www.heritage.nf.ca/law/referendums.html)

1948        Jun 4, Hugh Kenner (d.2003 at 80) met for the 1st time with Ezra Pound in a Washington-area mental facility. Pound became his mentor and directed him in a number of literary efforts. In 1951 Kenner turned his thesis into the book: "The Poetry of Ezra Pound." In 1971 Kenner authored "The Pound Era."
    (SSFC, 11/30/03, p.A31)

1948        Jun 7, The Communists completed their takeover of Czechoslovakia with the resignation of President Eduard Benes.
    (AP, 6/7/97)

1948        Jun 8, The "Texaco Star Theater" made its debut on NBC-TV with Milton Berle hosting the first program. Although Berle was initially chosen to be only a guest host, he was named the show’s permanent host the following September. Sponsors changed and it became "The Buick-Berle Show" and then just "The Milton Berle Show." The show lasted to 1956.
    (SFEC, 5/24/98, DB p.37)(AP, 6/8/98)

1948        Jun 9, Nathaniel Rosen, cellist (Tchaikovsky-gold-1978), was born in Altadena, Ca.
    (MC, 6/9/02)
1948        cJun 9, John Phillips (1915-1996), photographer for Life Magazine, took pictures of the ill-fated defense of the Jewish quarter of the Old City of Jerusalem against Arab troops.
    (SFC, 8/27/96, p.A17)

1948        Jun 10, The news that the sound barrier has been broken is finally released to the public by the U.S. Air Force. Chuck Yeager, piloting the rocket airplane X-1, exceeded the speed of sound on October 14, 1947.
    (HN, 6/10/01)

1948        Jun 14, Lee Wagner, a New York publisher, launched his TeleVision Guide. It became known as TV Guide. The Barowski brothers in Philadelphia soon followed with their TV Digest.
    (WSJ, 5/8/98, p.W10)

1948        Jun 18, The United Nations Commission on Human Rights adopted its Universal Declaration of Human Rights. It stated in part that: "Everyone has the right to leave any country including his own and to return to that country." In 2001 Mary Ann Glendon authored "A World Made New," a history of the drafting of the declaration.
    (AP, 6/18/97)(SFC, 5/30/98, p.E4)(WSJ, 3/1/00, p.A20)
1948        Jun 18, Columbia Records publicly unveiled its new long-playing phonograph record in New York.
    (AP, 6/18/99)

1948        Jun 19, The first successfully produced microgroove 33 1/3 rpm, long-playing, records were unveiled by Dr. Peter Goldmark of Columbia Records. Plans to phase out 78's followed. Unlike the average record which held 8 minutes of music, this new record could hold 45 minutes.
    (Hartford Courant, 6/21/48, p.7)
1948        Jun 19, Panama & Costa Rica recognized Israel.
    (DT, 6/19/97)
1948        Jun 19, USSR blocked access road to West Berlin.
    (SFEC, 5/25/97, p.A10)(DT, 6/19/97)

1948        Jun 21, The Republican national convention opened in Philadelphia. The delegates ended up choosing Thomas E. Dewey to be their presidential nominee.
    (AP, 6/21/07)
1948        Jun 21, Lord Mountbatten resigned as Viceroy of India.
    (MC, 6/21/02)

1948        Jun 24, The Republican National Convention, meeting in Philadelphia, nominated New York Governor Thomas E. Dewey for president.
    (AP, 6/24/98)
1948        Jun 24, Communist forces with 30 military divisions cut off all land and water routes between West Germany and West Berlin, prompting the United States to organize the massive Berlin airlift. Gen’l. Lucius Clay, the local American commander, ordered an air supply effort. Clay made his decision based on a recommendation by British military governor Gen'l. Sir Brian Robertson. The Royal Air Force had already begun a limited airlift. The airlift story was later told by Alvi Shlaim in: "The United States and the Berlin Blockade, 1948-1949."
    (AP, 6/24/97)(SFC, 5/12/98, p.A12)(WSJ, 6/9/99, p.A27)

1948        Jun 25, Pres. Harry Truman signed the Displaced Persons Act of 1948. It was primarily inspired by anti-Communism and led to a relaxation of US immigration policy. Following WWII the US took in more than 650,000 displaced Europeans.
    (www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwtwo/refugees_01.shtml)(Econ, 10/17/15, p.29)
1948        Jun 25, The Republican national convention in Philadelphia chose California Gov. Earl Warren to be Thomas E. Dewey’s running mate.
    (AP, 6/25/98)
1948        Jun 25, The Soviet Union tightened its blockade of Berlin by intercepting river barges heading for the city.
    (HN, 6/25/98)

1948         Jun 26, The Berlin Airlift began in earnest as the United States, Britain and France started ferrying supplies to the isolated western sector of Berlin, after the Soviet Union cut off land and water routes. The Soviets had been harassing the French, British and American authorities in Berlin for weeks, trying to force them from the city. Finally, when all surface routes to the city were blockaded, it became clear that an airlift through the Allied sectors was the only way to re-supply the 2 million West Berliners. In spite of the enormous human and financial cost, “Operation Vittles" supplied food, fuel and hope to beleaguered citizens until the Soviet barricades were finally lifted on May 12, 1949.
    (AP, 6/26/98)(HN, 6/26/99)(http://tinyurl.com/gqhi)

1948        Jun 28, Kathy Bates (Academy Award-winning actress: Misery [1990];  Fried Green Tomatoes, Home of Our Own, Prelude to a Kiss), was born.
    (MC, 6/28/02)

1948        Jun 30, Bell Labs introduced the point-contact transistor in the New York Times on p.46 as a replacement for the vacuum tube. Bell Labs had kept it secret for six months. John Bardeen, Walter Brattain, and William Shockley demonstrated their invention, the transistor, for the first time. John Pierce (d.2002) proposed the name. Transistors, much smaller than vacuum tubes, allowed the creation of smaller electronic devices and became a key component of the integrated circuit, which are found in everything from radios to computers to any of a number of automated systems. They were awarded the Nobel Prize in physics for the invention in 1956. William Schockley, co-developer of the transistor, founded Schockley Semiconductor Laboratory in Palo Alto. Two of his hires, Robert Noyce and Gordon Moore, later went on to start Intel Corp. Tim Jackson in 1998 published "Inside Intel." [see Dec 23, 1947]
    (SFE, 10/1/95, p.D-5)(SFEC, 8/17/97, BR p.4)(SFEC,12/14/97, p.A1)(WSJ, 2/13/98, p.A13)(HNQ, 12/23/99)(HN, 6/30/01)(SFC, 4/9/02, p.A18)

1948        Jun, In SF Blanco’s Cotton Club under Barney Deasy opened at what is now The Great American Music Hall. It was intended to be a fancy nightspot with only black artists and black workers, but open to the public. It opened with a big splash but only lasted a few months due to price increases for large orchestras.
    (SFEC, 2/8/98, DB p.34)

1948        Jun, Cominform expelled Yugoslavia; Albanian leaders launched an anti-Yugoslav propaganda campaign, cut economic ties, and forced Yugoslav advisors to leave. Later on the treaty of friendship with Yugoslavia was abrogated; Hoxha began purging high-ranking party members accused of "Titoism"; Soviet Union began economic aid to Albania.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1948        Jul 1, Brooklyn's Roy Campanella debuted as catcher.
    (MC, 7/1/02)
1948        Jul 1, New York International Airport at Idlewild, later renamed John F. Kennedy International Airport, was officially opened.
    (AP, 7/1/98)
1948        Jul 1, The fare on New York City subways doubled from a nickel to ten cents.
    (AP, 7/1/98)
1948        Jul 1, Charles D. Harrold, radio pioneer, died in Oakland, Ca. He broadcast the 1st radio entertainment program in 1912.
1948        Jul 1, Zahava Rozman, artist, was born in Tel Aviv, Israel. In 1958 she moved to NYC and in 1976 graduated from Pratt Inst. with a BFA in Fine Arts.

1948        July 2, At a meeting in Paris among the foreign ministers of Great Britain, France and the Soviet Union, Soviet Foreign Minister Molotov walked out of the meeting and called the Marshall Plan—an American proposal for economic aid—an "imperialist" plot for the enslavement of Europe. Put forward by Secretary of State George E. Marshall, the Marshall Plan was a comprehensive European recovery program supported by the U.S. The Soviets and their satellites did not attend the Marshall Plan Conference that convened July 12 in Paris.
    (HNQ, 9/28/99)

1948        Jul 3, Kidnapper Caryl Chessman was sentenced to death.
    (MC, 7/3/02)

1948        Jul 5, The pilot episode of “My Favorite Husband," with Lucille Ball, aired. It was entitled “The Cugat's Tenth Wedding Anniversary" It became the gifted redhead’s first regular radio program on CBS. Regular broadcasting began on July 23, 1948 and aired on various nights through March 31, 1951. Through most of its life it was sponsored by Jello.
1948        Jul 5, Britain's National Health Service Act went into effect, providing government-financed medical and dental care. Aneurin Bevan, Welsh Labour minister of health, was its political founder. The first NHS patient was treated at Trafford hospital near Manchester.
    (AP, 7/5/98)(Econ, 5/7/11, p.62)

1948        Jul 7, Six female reservists became the first women to be sworn into the regular U.S. Navy.
    (AP, 7/7/98)

1948        Jul 8, The 500th anniversary of the Russian orthodox church was celebrated in Moscow.
    (MC, 7/8/02)

1948        Jul 9, Satchel Paige (42) debuted in majors pitching 2 scoreless inning for Cleveland.
    (MC, 7/9/02)

1948        Jul 12, The Democratic national convention opened in Philadelphia.
    (AP, 7/12/98)
1948        July 12, The Marshall Plan Conference convened in Paris. It was attended by 16 European nations and established the Committee for European Economic Cooperation.
    (HNQ, 9/28/99)

1948        Jul 14, Israel bombed Cairo.
    (MC, 7/14/02)

1948        Jul 15, President Truman was nominated for another term of office by the Democratic National Convention in Philadelphia.
    (AP, 7/15/97)
1948        Jul 15, John J. Pershing (87), [Black Jack], US general (Mexico, WW I), died.
    (MC, 7/15/02)

1948        Jul 16, Ruben Blades, songwriter and actor, was born.
    (HN, 7/16/01)
1948        Jul 16, Pinchas Zukerman, violinist and conductor, was born in Tel Aviv Israel.
    (HN, 7/16/01)(MC, 7/16/02)

1948        Jul 17, Southern Democrats opposed to the nomination of President Truman met in Birmingham, Ala., to endorse South Carolina Gov. Strom Thurmond.
    (AP, 7/17/97)

1948        Jul 20, William Forster, US Communist Party chairman, was arrested.
    (MC, 7/20/02)
1948        Jul 20, Syngman Rhee (b.1875) was elected president of South Korea. He served to 1960.
    (HN, 4/26/98)(MC, 4/26/02)(MC, 7/20/02)

1948        Jul 21, Garry Trudeau, political cartoonist (Doonesbury), was born.
1948        Jul 21, Arshile Gorky (b.1904/5), artist, (born as Vostanig Adoian of Armenian parents in Eastern Turkey) died of suicide. He came to the US in 1920 and assumed a new name in admiration of Russian writer Maxim Gorky. His works included "Gray Drawing for Pastoral" (1946). His last paintings were described as "imaginary erotic cosmologies." In 1999 Matthew Spender published the biography "From a High Place: A Life of Arshile Gorky."
    (WSJ, 1/28/04, p.D6)(www.legacy-project.org/artists/display.html?ID=5)

1948        July 23, American pioneer filmmaker, D.W. Griffith, died in Los Angeles at age 73. He was the director of such films as "The Birth of a Nation," "Intolerance," "Way Down East" and "Orphans of the Storm." The 1915 movie The Birth of a Nation cost $100,000 to make and, by 1948 it had earned $48 million. The controversial film, which premiered on March 3, 1915, was based on "The Clansman," a novel by Thomas Dixon, Jr. Griffith, born on January 22, 1875. Griffith  was among the foremost pioneers and early innovators of motion pictures, producing or directing some 500 films.
    (AP, 7/23/98)(HNQ, 3/2/99)

1948        Jul 24, Henry A. Wallace accepted the presidential nomination of the Progressive Party in Philadelphia.
    (AP, 7/24/08)

1948        Jul 25, Steve Goodman, singer, songwriter (Somebody Else’s Trouble), was born in Chicago.
    (SC, 7/25/02)

1948        Jul 26, President Harry Truman In Executive Order No. 9981 called for "equality of treatment and opportunity for all persons in the armed forces without regard to race, color, religion or national origin."
    (USAT, 7/23/98, p.8A)(HN, 7/26/98)(MC, 7/26/02)

1948        Jul 27, Otto Skorzeny escaped an anti-Nazi camp at Darmstadt.
    (MC, 7/27/02)

1948        Jul 28, Georgia Engel, actress (Georgette-Mary Tyler Moore Show), was born in Wash DC.
    (SC, 7/28/02)
1948        Jul 28, In Ludwigshafen, Germany, the I.G. Farben chemical plant exploded due to a vapor explosion from dimethyl ether and 182/209 died.
    (HSAB, 1994, p.46)(SC, 7/28/02)

1948        Jul 29, Britain's King George VI opened the first Olympics since 1936 in London. Germany and Japan were not invited and the Soviet Union chose not to attend. Alice Coachman of the US was the first black woman to win a gold medal when she triumphed in the high jump. Audrey "Mickey" Patterson-Tyler (1927-1996) was the first black woman to win an Olympic medal. She won a bronze medal in the 200-meter dash.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1948)(WSJ, 6/7/96, p.A1)(SFEC, 8/25/96, p.B5)(AP, 7/29/97)(WSJ, 4/12/08, p.R2)

1948        Jul 31, "Brigadoon" closed at Ziegfeld Theater in NYC after 581 performances.
    (MC, 7/31/02)
1948        Jul 31, President Truman helped dedicate New York International Airport (later John F. Kennedy International Airport) at Idlewild Field.
    (HFA, ‘96, p.34)(AP, 7/31/97)

1948        Aug 3, Whittaker Chambers, an editor for Time Magazine and a former Communist, told a hearing of the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) that he was a courier of stolen government documents in a Communist espionage operation during the 1930s, some of which were supplied by Alger Hiss. He publicly accused former State Department official Alger Hiss of having been part of a Communist underground, a charge Hiss denied.
    (SFC, 11/16/96, p.A3)(AP, 8/3/97)

1948        Aug 4, A 5 day US southern filibuster succeeded in maintaining the poll tax.
    (MC, 8/4/02)

1948        Aug 5, Alger Hiss testified that he had never been a Communist, never participated in espionage and never knew anyone named Whittaker Chambers.
    (SFC, 11/16/96, p.A3)

1948        Aug 6, Victoria Manalo Draves (1924-2010) became the 1st woman to win 2 diving gold medals, and the 1st Asian American woman to win an Olympic medal.
    (http://tinyurl.com/3ytlucx)(SFC, 6/3/05, p.F1)(SFC, 4/28/10, p.C4)
1948        Aug 6, Bob Mathias, later a US state representative, won the decathlon at the London Olympics. His unofficial title became "the world's greatest athlete." He won gold again in 1952.
    (AP, 8/6/98)(SFC, 11/10/99, p.E7)(WSJ, 7/23/96, p.A6)

1948        Aug 10, Allen Funt’s "Candid Microphone," later titled "Candid Camera," made its television debut on ABC-TV.
    (AP, 8/10/98)

1948        Aug 13, During the Berlin Airlift, the weather over Berlin became so stormy that American planes had their most difficult day landing supplies. They deemed it ‘Black Friday.’
    (HN, 8/13/98)

1948        Aug 14, The summer Olympic games in London ended.
    (AP, 8/14/08)

1948        Aug 15, The Republic of Korea (South Korea) declared independence.
    (AP, 8/15/97)(Econ, 9/27/08, SR p.16)

1948        Aug 16, Famed home-run slugger George Herman "Babe" Ruth died at age 53 in New York City. He is credited with turning baseball from a game of speed and skill to one of power. During a flamboyant major league career that began as a pitcher with the Boston Red Sox in 1914 and ended with his retirement from the Boston Braves in 1935, the Babe hit an astonishing total of 714 homers, a feat that was not surpassed until Henry Aaron of the Atlanta Braves broke Ruth’s record in 1974. The fans loved the warm-hearted Babe Ruth, who had a reputation as a hard drinker, carouser and womanizer. In 1931, at the height of his career with the Yankees, Ruth earned $80,000, which made him the highest-paid ballplayer in history. At a special "Babe Ruth Day" just two months before his death, the cancer-stricken Babe donned his uniform for the last time and appeared before a cheering crowd at Yankee Stadium. In 2006 Leigh Montville authored “The Big Bam," a biography of Babe Ruth.
    (SFC, 10/15/96, p.A19)(AP, 8/16/97)(HNPD, 8/16/98)(WSJ, 5/9/06, p.D6)
1948        Aug 16, Harry Dexter White, former assistant US Treasury Secretary, died of a heart attack.  White had helped write the UN Charter. A few days earlier he had testified before the House-Un-American Activities Committee and denied leaking secrets to Soviet intelligence. Later evidence confirmed that he had worked for Soviet intelligence. In 2004 R. Bruce Craig authored "Treasonable Doubt," a study of White.
    (WSJ, 4/16/04, p.W8)

1948        Aug 17, Former State Department official Alger Hiss faced his chief accuser, Whittaker Chambers, during a closed-door meeting in New York of the House Un-American Activities Committee, and repeated his denial that he'd ever been a Communist agent.
    (AP, 8/17/08)

1948        Aug 19, Tipper Gore, wife of vice president Al Gore (1993-01), was born.
    (MC, 8/19/02)

1948        Aug 20, Robert Plant (Honeydrippers: Rockin' at Midnight; Led Zeppelin: Stairway to Heaven, etc.), was born.
    (MC, 8/20/02)
1948        Aug 20, The United States ordered the expulsion of the Soviet Consul General in New York, Jacob Lomakin, accusing him of attempting to return two consular employees to the Soviet Union against their will.
    (AP, 8/20/08)

1948        Aug 23, Count Bernadotte asked for aid for fugitives to Palestine. [see Sep 17]
    (MC, 8/23/02)
1948        Aug 23, The World Council of Churches (WCC) was formed in Amsterdam to help reconcile differences among Christians. Delegates of 147 churches assembled to merge the Faith and Order Movement and Life and Work Movement. Church leaders had agreed in 1937 to establish a World Council of Churches, based on a merger of the Faith and Order Movement and Life and Work Movement organizations. Headquarters were later established in Geneva.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_Council_of_Churches)(Econ, 2/23/08, p.79)

1948        Aug 24, Edith Mae Irby became the University of Arkansas’ first African-American student.
    (HN, 8/24/98)

1948        Aug 27,  Former US Chief Justice Charles Evans (86) Hughes died in Osterville, Mass.
    (AP, 8/27/08)

1948        Aug, Earl V. Shaffer (d.2002) became the 1st person to walk the Appalachian Trail, created in 1937, in one continuous hike over 123 days. He repeated the effort in 1965 and in 1998 at age 79. He later authored the memoir "Walking With Spring."
    (WSJ, 8/21/01, p.A17)(SFC, 5/28/02, p.A18)

1948        Sep 1, Chinese Communists formed the North China People's Republic.

1948        Sep 2, Christa McAuliffe, the first civilian passenger on a space mission, was born in Boston, Mass. During that 1986 mission, she and the six other crew members on the space shuttle Challenger perished in an explosion shortly after launch.
    (HN, 9/2/98)

1948        Sep 3, Donald Brewer, musician-drums, songwriter-Silver Bullet Band, Flint, Grand Funk Railroad, was born. We're an American Band, Walk like a Man, Shinin' On, Some Kind of Wonderful, Bad Time.
    (MC, 9/3/01)

1948        Sep 4, Queen Wilhelmina abdicated the Dutch throne for health reasons.
    (AP, 9/4/97)

1948        Sep 6, Queen Juliana (1909-2004) of the Netherlands was crowned, two days after the abdication of her mother, Queen Wilhelmina. Juliana abdicated in 1980.
    (AP, 9/6/98)(SSFC, 3/21/04, p.B7)

1948        Sep 9, The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (North Korea) emerged out of Soviet occupation. Kim Il Sung established the Democratic People's Republic of Korea in the northern half of the Korean peninsula. Kim Du Bong stood as Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme People’s Assembly. The North's first military parade had occurred seven months earlier.
    (www.worldstatesmen.org/Korea_North.htm)(AP, 12/28/11)(AP, 9/8/18)

1948        Sep 10, Mildred Gillars, accused of being Nazi wartime radio broadcaster "Axis Sally," was indicted in Washington, D.C., on treason charges. She was later convicted, and served 12 years in prison.
    (AP, 9/10/04)

1948        Sep 11, Mohammed Ali Jinnah (b.1876, 1st governor of Pakistan (1947-48), died.

1948        Sep 13, Republican Margaret Chase Smith of Maine was elected to the U.S. Senate, becoming the first woman to serve in both houses of Congress.
    (AP, 9/13/97)

1948        Sep 14, A groundbreaking ceremony took place in New York at the site of the United Nations' world headquarters.
    (AP, 9/14/99)

1948        Sep 15, Gerald Ford upset Rep. Bartel J. Jonkman in the Michigan 5th Dist Rep. primary.
1948        Sep 15, Ansel Adams in California shot his famous photograph “Autumn Moon: The High Sierra from Glacier Point."
    (SFC, 9/19/05, p.A1)

1948        Sep 17, Count Folke Bernadotte (b.1895) of Sweden, the UN mediator for Palestine, was assassinated in Jerusalem by members of the extreme Zionist Stern Group. Yehoshua Zettler (d.2009 at 91), one of the founding members of the group, masterminded the assassination.
    (AP, 9/17/98)(www.us-israel.org/jsource/biography/Bernadotte.html)(AP, 5/25/09)

1948        Sep 18, Margaret Chase Smith became the first woman elected to the Senate without completing another senator’s term when she defeated Democratic opponent Adrian Scolten. Smith was also the only woman to be elected to and serve in both houses of Congress.
    (HN, 9/18/98)
1948        Sep 18, Ralph J. Bunche was confirmed as acting UN mediator in Palestine.
    (MC, 9/18/01)

1948        Sep 19, Jeremy Irons, England, actor (French Lieutenant's Woman), was born.
    (MC, 9/19/01)
1948        Sep 19, Moscow announced it would withdraw all soldiers from Korea by the end of the year.
    (HN, 9/19/98)

1948        Sep 21, Milton Berle made his debut as permanent host of the TV vaudeville show "The Texaco Star Theater" on NBC on Tuesday nights. [see Jun 8, 1948]
    (AP, 9/21/98)(SFC, 5/29/00, p.E4)

1948        Sep 24, Mildred Gillars, accused of being Nazi wartime radio propagandist "Axis Sally," pleaded innocent in Washington, D.C., to charges of treason. Gillars ended up serving 12 years in prison.
    (AP, 9/24/97)

1948        Sep 25, Iva Toguri D'Aquino (b.1916), a Japanese-American suspected of being wartime radio propagandist "Tokyo Rose," arrived in SF aboard the General Hodges and was taken away by FBI agents. On Sep 9, 1949, she was found guilty of speaking into a microphone concerning the loss of US ships. She was sentenced to 10 years in prison and a $10,000 fine. She was released in 1956 and pardoned by Pres. Ford in 1977.
    (AP, 9/5/99)(AH, 10/02, p.28)

1948        Sep 26, Olivia Newton-John singer and actress, was born. (You're the One that I Want, If Not for You, Let Me Be There, I Honestly Love You, Have You Never Been Mellow, Please Mr. Please, Physical, Magic; actress: Grease, Xanadu, Two of a Kind).
    (MC, 9/26/01)

1948        Sep 29, Bryant Gumbel, broadcast journalist, best known for the "Today Show," was born.
    (HN, 9/29/98)

1948         Sep, In India Vallabhbhai Patel, as Acting Prime Minister while Nehru was touring Europe, ordered the Indian Army to integrate Hyderabad. The action was termed Operation Polo. Thousands of Razakar forces were killed, but Hyderabad was comfortably secured into the Indian Union.

1948        Oct 1, The California Supreme Court in Perez v. Sharp voided a state statue banning interracial marriages.

1948        Oct 2, Donna Karan, fashion designer (Coty Award-1977), was born in Forest Hills, NY.
    (MC, 10/2/01)
1948        Oct 2, "Finian's Rainbow" closed at 46th St Theater NYC after 725 performances.
    (MC, 10/2/01)
1948        Oct 2, In New York the 1st Grand Prix at Watkins Glen was held. Cameron Argetsinger (1921-2008) was the main driving force behind the race which was won by Frank Griswold. Formula racing continued there until bankruptcy in 1981. Two year later Corning Glass Works revived the Watkins Glen race course in partnership with Int’l. Speedway Corp.
    (WSJ, 4/26/08, p.A6)(www.nascar.com/races/tracks/wgi/index.html)

1948        Oct 4, Thomas Merton (1915-1968), Trappist monk in Kentucky, published his first book: "The Seven Storey Mountain."
    (SFEC, 9/27/98, BR p.3)(WSJ, 10/2/98, p.W15)

1948        Oct 5, The International Union for Conservation of Nature's Species Survival Commission (IUCN) was founded in France. It is composed of biologists who maintain a list of threatened species and is considered the world's largest and most significant environmental conservation organization.

1948        Oct 6, "Polonaise" opened at Alvin Theater NYC for 113 performances.
    (MC, 10/6/01)
1948        Oct 6, The play “Summer and Smoke" by Tennessee Williams received its first Broadway performance at the Music Box Theatre in New York City, in a production staged by Margo Jones and designed by Jo Mielziner with Tod Andrews, Margaret Phillips, Monica Boyar and Anne Jackson (1925-2016). The play ran for 102 performances and, at the time.
1948        Oct 6, An American B-29 crashed near Waycross, Ga., during a test flight from Robins AFB. Details of the flight were kept as military secrets and formed the basis for the 1953 U.S. vs. Reynolds case. Details were later declassified and no military secrets were revealed.
    (LAT, 4/18/04)
1948        Oct 6, A 7.3 earthquake hit Ashgebat, Turkmenistan, and killed an estimated 110,000 people. Stalinist media at the time claimed only 35,000 deaths.

1948        Oct 10, Carlos Prio became Cuba’s last democratically elected president. He was ousted by Batista in 1952.
    (WSJ, 3/26/96, p.A-10)(http://library.thinkquest.org/18355/carlos_prio.html)

1948        Oct 11, The musical comedy "Where's Charley?," starring Ray Bolger and featuring songs by Frank Loesser, opened at St James Theater NYC for 792 performances.
    (AP, 10/11/98)(MC, 10/11/01)

1948        Oct 14, Large scale fighting took place between Israel and Egypt.
    (MC, 10/14/01)

1948        Oct 15, China's Red army occupied Chinchov.
    (MC, 10/15/01)
1948        Oct 15, Shigeru Yoshida (1878-1967), Japanese diplomat and politician, began serving his first term as Prime Minister of Japan. He served a 2nd term from 1948-1954. The Yoshida Doctrine was a strategy adopted by Japan after World War II under PM Shigeru Yoshida, the country's first post-war prime minister, in which economics was to be concentrated upon reconstructing Japan's domestic economy while the security alliance with the United States would be the guarantor of Japanese security.

1948        Oct 16, Moscow Jews held a demonstration honoring Israeli ambassador Golda Meir.
    (MC, 10/16/01)

1948        Oct 18, [Heinrich A.H.] Walther von Brauchitsch, German field marshal, died.
    (MC, 10/18/01)

1948        Oct 21, The Israeli offensive, Operation 10 Plagues, liberated Beersheba (Be’er Sheva) from Egyptian control.

1948        Oct 23, Israel established its first diplomatic mission as a new nation at the Bristol Hotel in central Warsaw, Poland.
    (AP, 10/23/18)

1948        Oct 24, Franz Lehar, Austrian-Hungarian composer (Wiener Frauen), died at 78.
    (MC, 10/24/01)

1948        Oct 28, Flag of Israel was adopted.
    (MC, 10/28/01)

1948        Oct 29, The Russians, having found out about the US-UK Venona system for breaking Soviet codes, changed their codes and cipher machines, making this Black Friday for code-breakers.
    (Econ, 7/10/10, p.80)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Venona_project)

1948          Oct 31, By this date some 20 people died and 6,000 were made ill by smog from steel and zinc plants in Donora, Pennsylvania. Between October 26 and October 31, 1948, an air inversion trapped fluoride effluent from the Zinc Works. In three days, 18 people died. After the inversion lifted, another 50 died. Hundreds more finished the rest of their lives with damaged lungs and hearts. Both plants closed in 1966. In 2002, “When Smoke Ran Like Water" was published by Devra Davis.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Donora,_Pennsylvania)(SSFC, 11/2/08, p.A6)
1948        Oct 31, Halloween in the Castro District of SF began as a children’s costume contest at Cliff’s Variety store.
    (SFC, 11/3/06, p.B7)

1948        Oct, Samuel Beckett began writing "En Attendant Godot." He finished it in Jan, 1949 and translated it into English as "Waiting for Godot" in 1953.
    (WSJ, 8/5/96, p.A10)
1948        Oct, The Int’l. Union for the Protection of Nature was formed. In 1956 it changed its name to the Int’l. Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUPN).

1948          Nov 1, During the Chinese Civil War (1945-1949) Mao's Red army conquered Mukden, Manchuria.
    (DoW, 1999, p.113)

1948        Nov 2, President Truman was elected 33rd president in an upset. He won re-election by a narrow margin over Republican challenger Thomas E. Dewey. The Chicago Daily Tribune had been so sure of Dewey's victory that they had printed front-page "Dewey Defeats Truman" articles before the final results were in. Truman defeated Dewey by 2.2 million popular votes and 114 electoral votes. During the presidential election campaign, almost everyone expected New York Governor Thomas E. Dewey to win and few had faith in a victory for incumbent Harry S. Truman. While Truman went on a "whistle stop" tour across the United States, giving more than 350 speeches, Dewey's confident campaign was more reserved. Prof. Frank Kofsky later wrote "Harry Truman and the War Scare of 1948." Henry Wallace was the candidate for the Progressive Party. In 2000 Zachary Karabell authored "The Last Campaign: How Harry Truman Won the 1948 Election."
    (AP, 11/2/97)(SFC,11/26/97, p.C6)(SFC, 10/12/98, p.A17)(HN, 11/2/98)(HNPD, 11/2/98)(SFEC, 5/14/00, BR p.5)

1948        Nov 3, The Chicago Tribune printed the headline "Dewey defeats Truman." Later votes threw the election in the opposite direction. And later editions of other papers ran pictures showing Truman holding up the Tribune and grinning ear to ear.
    (MC, 11/3/01)

1948        Nov 4, T.S. Eliot won the Nobel Prize for literature.
    (MC, 11/4/01)
1948        Nov 4, The International Military Tribunal for the Far East was concluded.
    (WSJ, 4/30/98, p.A15)

1948        Nov 12, Hideki Tojo, former Japanese premier and military dictator through World War II, and several other World War II Japanese leaders were sentenced to death by an international war crimes tribunal. In 1998 a film about Gen’l. Tojo was produced titled: "Pride, the Fateful Moment."
    (HFA, '96, p.20)(AHD, p.1351)(AP, 11/12/97)(WSJ, 4/30/98, p.A15)(HN, 11/12/98)
1948        Nov 12, Umberto Giordano (81), composer (Andrea Chenier), died.
    (MC, 11/12/01)

1948        Nov 14, Charles, Prince of Wales and heir to the throne of England, was born.
    (HN, 11/14/98)

1948        Nov 15, William Lyon Mackenzie King retired as prime minister of Canada after 21 years; he was succeeded by Louis St. Laurent.
    (AP, 11/15/98)

1948        Nov 16, Steve Railsback, actor (Blue Monkey, Helter Skelter, Green Monkey, Escape 2000), was born.
    (MC, 11/16/01)
1948        Nov 16, President Harry S. Truman rejected four-power talks on Berlin until the blockade was removed. Truman relied heavily on Dean Acheson for his most significant foreign policy achievements.
    (HN, 11/16/98)

1948        Nov 17, Howard Dean, governor of Vermont (1991-2002), was born.
    (SFC, 6/24/03, p.A4)
1948        Nov 17, Britain's House of Commons voted to nationalize steel industry.
    (MC, 11/17/01)

1948        Nov 23, Dr. Frank G. Back in NYC patented a lens to provide zoom effects.
    (MC, 11/23/01)

1948        Nov 24, In Venezuela Gen. Pérez Jiménez and Lt. Colonel Carlos Delgado Chalbaud staged a coup.  A military junta headed by Delgado Chalbaud, Luis Felipe Llovera Páez and Pérez Jiménez overthrew the elected president Rómulo Gallegos and ruled for the next four years.

1948        Nov 28, "Hopalong Cassidy" TV western premiered on NBC television [see Jun 24, 1949].
1948        Nov 28, The Polaroid Land Camera, created by Dr. Edwin Land, went on sale in Boston.
    (HN, 11/28/01)

1948        Nov 29, The popular children's television show, Kukla, Fran and Ollie, moved to the NBC Midwest network.
1948        Nov 29, The NYC Metropolitan Opera was televised for the first time as the season opened with "Othello." It featured Ramon Vinay, Licia Albenese, and Leonard Warren and was conducted by Fritz Busch
    (HN, 11/29/98)(MC, 11/29/01)

1948        Nov 30, Communists completed the division of Berlin, installing the government in the Soviet sector.
    (HN, 11/30/98)

1948        Nov, Communist Party of Albania renamed itself the Party of Labor of Albania.
    (www, Albania, 1998)
1948        Nov, In Israel hundreds of residents left Kufr Birim, a Maronite village just south of the Lebanese border. Israeli troops told Kufr Birim residents they must leave for security reasons, but would be allowed to return after two weeks. Their return never materialized.
    (AP, 5/28/14)

1948        Dec 1, Costa Rica’s President José Figueres Ferrer abolished the military after victory in a civil war.
    (SFC, 3/16/02, p.A19)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Military_of_Costa_Rica)

1948        Dec 2, T. Corgaghessan Boyle, novelist and short story writer, was born. His work included "Water Music."
    (HN, 12/2/00)

1948        Dec 3, The "Pumpkin Papers" came to light. The House Un-American Activities Committee announced that former Communist spy Whittaker Chambers had produced microfilm of secret documents hidden inside a pumpkin on his Maryland farm.
    (AP, 12/3/97)
1948        Dec 3, Sam Shockley (b.1909) and Miran Edgar Thompson (b.1917), 2 Alcatraz inmates, were executed at the San Quentin gas chamber for a 1946 escape attempt in which 2 guards and 3 prisoners were killed.
    (SFC, 6/27/09, p.B4)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alcatraz_escape_attempts)
1948        Dec 3, Chinese refugee ship "Kiangya" exploded in East China Sea killing 1,100. [see Dec 4]
    (MC, 12/3/01)

1948        Dec 4, SS Kiangya hit a mine in Whangpoo River, China. It sank and 2,750 were killed. [see Dec 3]
    (MC, 12/4/01)

1948        Dec 6, The "Pumpkin spy papers" were found on the Maryland farm of Whittaker Chambers. They became evidence that State Department employee Alger Hiss was spying for the Soviet Union.
    (HN, 12/6/01)

1948        Dec 7, Yoko Morishita, prima ballerina (Baterina No Habataki), was born.
    (MC, 12/7/01)

1948        Dec 8, Jordan annexed Arabic Palestine. The old city of East Jerusalem came under Jordanian control until 1968. Transjordan was given to a client Arab family, the Hashemites (led by King Hussein’s grandfather), and was run out of Mecca by the Saudis. The country now has an ethnic Palestinian majority. Elections chose a body evenly divided between Jordan and the Palestinian territories.
    (SFC, 6/24/96, p.A19)(WSJ, 4/9/97, p.A14)(AP, 1/23/13)
1948        Dec 8, UN approved the recognition of South Korea.
    (HN, 12/8/98)

1948        Dec 9, U.S. abandoned a plan to de-concentrate industry in Japan.
    (HN, 12/9/98)
1948        Dec 9, The Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide was approved by the UN General Assembly. It entered into force on Jan 12, 1951.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genocide_Convention)(SFC, 9/3/98, p.A14)(Econ., 4/18/15, p.54)

1948        Dec 10, The U.N. General Assembly adopted its Universal Declaration on Human Rights.
    (AP, 12/10/97)

1948        Dec 11, United Nations General Assembly Resolution 194 was passed near the end of the 1948 Arab-Israeli War. The resolution expresses appreciation for the efforts of UN Envoy Folke Bernadotte after his assassination by members of the Stern Gang. It was later often quoted in support of the Palestinian right of return.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_Nations_General_Assembly_Resolution_194)(Econ, 9/6/08, p.68)

1948        Dec 12, Charles Templeton Crocker (b.1884), multi-millionaire grandson of the Central Pacific (and Southern Pacific) railroad magnate and banker, Charles Crocker (1822-1888), died. He authored "The Cruise of the Zaca" in 1933.
1948        Dec 12, British soldiers surrounded the Sungai Rimoh rubber estate in Batang Kali, shot 24 Malaysian rubber plantation workers and set the village on fire. In 1970 Britain’s incoming Conservative administration dropped a police investigation, claiming a lack of evidence. In 2012 relatives of killed workers lost their High Court battle for a full inquiry by the British government.
    (AFP, 9/4/12)

1948        Dec 15, Former State Department official Alger Hiss was indicted by a federal grand jury in New York on charges of perjury. They charged that he lied in denying that he gave Chambers confidential documents and that he had spoken with Chambers in Feb and Mar of 1938. A first trial ended in a hung jury. (Hiss, accused of lying about dealings with confessed Communist spy Whittaker Chambers, was convicted in 1950 and served nearly four years in prison.) The grand jury testimony was ordered unsealed in 1999.
    (SFC, 11/16/96, p.A3)(AP, 12/15/98)(SFC, 5/14/99, p.A5)
1948        cDec 15, Richard Nixon, a California Congressman and member of HUAC, made an influential appearance before the Alger Hiss grand jury.
    (SFC, 10/13/99, p.A3)
1948        Dec 15, The French brought the first nuclear reactor into service.
    (HN, 12/15/98)

1948        Dec 17, The Smithsonian Institution accepted the Wright brothers' plane, the Kitty Hawk.
    (HN, 12/17/98)

1948        Dec 18, Janet Fay was hammered to death by Honeymoon Killers.
    (MC, 12/18/01)

1948        Dec 20, U.S. Supreme Court announced that it had no jurisdiction to hear the appeals of Japanese war criminals sentenced by the International Military Tribunal.
    (HN, 12/20/98)

1948        Dec 21, The state of Eire (formerly the Irish Free State) declared its independence.
    (AP, 12/21/97)
1948        Dec 21, Seishiro Itagaki, Japanese General and minister of War, was hanged.
    (MC, 12/21/01)

1948        Dec 23, Hideki Tojo, Japanese Prime Minister and military dictator through World War II, and six other Japanese war leaders were executed by Hanging in Tokyo. In 1998 a film about Gen’l. Tojo was produced titled: "Pride, the Fateful Moment."
    (HFA, ‘96, p.20)(AHD, p.1351)(WSJ, 4/30/98, p.A15)(AP, 12/23/98)

1948        Dec 25, In Oregon Marie Harris (1920-2003) published the first of 54 editions of the "Harris Herald," a Christmas newsletter of curated news, to a wide network of friends and family.
    (Econ., 12/19/20, p.27)

1948        Dec 26, Hungarian Cardinal Mindszenty was arrested.
    (MC, 12/26/01)

1948        Dec 27, Gerard Depardieu, actor (Get Out Your Handkerchiefs, Danton, Green Card), was born in France.
    (MC, 12/27/01)

1948        Dec 28, Premier Nokrashy Pasha of Egypt was assassinated by a member of the outlawed Moslem Brotherhood because of his failure to achieve victory in the war against Israel.
    (HN, 12/28/98)

1948        Dec 29, Tito declared Yugoslavia would follow its own Communist line.
    (HN, 12/29/98)

1948        Dec 30, The Cole Porter musical "Kiss Me, Kate" opened on Broadway at the New Century Theater and ran for 1,077 performances. It was based on Shakespeare’s "The Taming of the Shrew" and was written by Bella Spewack (d.1990 at age 91), who helped originate the Girl Scout cookie. The songs "Too Darn Hot" and "I Hate Men" were featured.
    (WSJ, 5/8/97, p.A20)(WSJ, 6/3/98, p.CA1,4) (AP, 12/30/98)(MC, 12/30/01)

1948        The Perry Como Show made its debut on TV. It ran for 15 years to1963. Como died in 2001 at age 88.
    (SSFC, 5/13/01, p.A27)

1948        Alexander Calder (1898-1976) made his mobile "Roxbury Flurry."
    (SFC,11/15/97, p.C1)

1948        Willem de Kooning (1904-1997), abstract artist, had his first one man show at the Egan Gallery in New York.
    (SFC, 3/20/97, p.A6)

1948        Walt Kelly began drawing his "Pogo" comic strip for newspapers. He was an animator for Disney in the late 30s when he started drawing the Pogo characters that appeared in comic books in the 1940s.
    (SFC, 3/10/99, Z1 p.6)

1948        Mark Rothko’s paintings have by now developed to the style by which he is universally known (abstract expressionist). His canvasses, often as large as a wall, consist of bands of color that float mysteriously in an indeterminate space.

1948        Ben Shahn painted his lion-monster "Allegory."
    (WSJ, 12/1/98, p.A20)

1948        Rufino Tamayo, Mexican artist, painted "Retrato De Cantinflas."
    (SFC, 4/14/96, EM, p.18)

1948        Andrew Wyeth painted "Christina’s World" in Maine.
    (WSJ, 6/16/00, p.W12)

1948        The Kinsey Report "Sexual Behavior in the Human Male" was published.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1948)(SFEM, 2/9/97, p.27)

1948        Herb Caen, SF newspaper columnist, wrote his 1st book "The San Francisco Book."
    (SFEC, 2/2/97, p.A13)

1948        The first publication of a story in English by Jorge Luis Borges was published in Ellery Queen’s Mystery Magazine: "The Garden of Forking Paths."
    (WSJ, 9/21/98, p.A26)

1948        Elizabeth Bowen (1899-1973), Irish-British writer, authored “The Heat of the Day." It was set amidst the London Blitz of WWII.
    (Econ, 7/13/13, p.74)

1948        Dale Carnegie (1888-1955) authored “How to Stop Worrying and Start Living."
    (Econ, 11/2/13, p.90)

1948        The book “Cheaper by the Dozen," co-written by Ernstine Gilbreth Carey (1908-2006) and her brother Frank, became a best-seller. It documented the adventures of their family, which included 6 boys and 6 girls and management expert parents. Film versions were made in 1959 and 2003.
    (SFC, 11/7/06, p.B5)

1948        Govindas Vishnoodas Desani (1909-2000), Kenya-born Pakistani writer in England, authored “All About Hatterr," his novel of an absurdist and mystical odyssey in India. In 1968 he was invited to teach at the Univ. of Texas and spent 11 years there.
    (SSFC, 12/2/07, p.M1)

1948        Prof. Earl Wendell Count (1897-1996) wrote "4,000 years of Christmas," a 95-page book that collected strands of myth and folklore into a narrative that linked the modern celebration to the ancient festival.
    (SFEC, 12/22/96, p.C12)

1948        William Faulkner authored “Intruder in the Dust." It was here he said... no man can cause more grief than one clinging blindly to the vices of his ancestors."
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intruder_in_the_Dust)(Econ, 9/2/17, p.14)

1948        Norman Mailer (b.1923) published his novel "The Naked and the Dead."
    (USAT, 5/6/98, p.1D)(SFEC, 12/26/99, BR p.7)

1948        H.L. Mencken published "Stare Decisis."
    (WSJ, 12/24/98, p.A8)

1948        Allan Nevins and John Kraut put together a volume of essays titled "the Greater City: New York, 1898-1948," to commemorate the 50th anniversary of consolidation.
    (WSJ, 12/31/97, p.A10)

1948        Robert O’Brien authored “This Is San Francisco."
    (SFC, 4/5/14, p.C2)

1948        Alan Paton authored the South African novel "Cry the Beloved Country."
    (WSJ, 10/4/99, p.A40)

1948        Dawn Powell wrote her novel "The Locusts Have No King."
    (WSJ, 10/19/98, p.A24)

1948        Lewis Fry Richardson, British physicist, authored a paper on the mathematics of war. He showed that the probability of wars having a particular number of casualties followed a mathematical relationship known as a power law. This was probably the first rigorous analysis of the statistics of war.
    (Econ, 7/23/05, p.74)(Econ, 4/2/11, p.76)

1948        Babe Ruth published his autobiography.
    (WSJ, 8/21/98, p.W13)

1948        Paul A. Samuelson (b.1915) published "Economics: An Introductory Analysis."
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R20)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paul_Samuelson)

1948        Carl Sandburg authored novel "Remembrance Rock."
    (NW, 8/20/01, p.56)

1948        Arthur M. Schlesinger Jr. authored "The Vital Center."
    (WSJ, 11/16/00, p.A24)

1948        Stanford Prof. Frederic Spiegelberg authored “The Religion of No Religion." Spiegelberg and his book had a major influence on Richard Price (1930-1985) and Michael Murphy (b.1930), co-founders of the Esalen Institute (1962) at Big Sur, Ca.
    (Econ, 12/22/07, p.75)

1948        MIT Prof. Dirk J. Struik (d.2000 at 106) authored the 2-volume work: "A Concise History of Mathematics."
    (SFC, 10/26/00, p.D2)

1948        P.G. Taylor wrote "Forgotten Island," an account of Clipperton Island.
    (NH, 12/96, p.70)

1948        John R. Tunis authored “Highpockets," a novel centered around baseball.
    (WSJ, 3/31/07, p.P10)

1948        A.E. van Vogt (1912-2000) authored the sci-fi story "The World of Null-A."
    (SFC, 2/5/00, p.A19)

1948        Prof. Richard Watson Jr. (d.2000 at 85) and Prof. Arthur Ferguson of Duke Univ. published the 1st volume of a 7-volume history of the US Air Force.
    (SFC, 9/25/00, p.B2)

1948        Richard M. Weaver authored “Ideas Have Consequences."
    (Econ, 9/18/04, p.43)

1948        Dorothy West (d.1998 at 91), a member of the Harlem Renaissance, published her first novel: "The Living Is Easy."
    (SFC, 8/19/98, p.C4)

1948        Norbert Wiener, mathematician, wrote "Cybernetics or Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine."
    (Wired, 2/98, p.176)

1948        Bertram Wolfe authored "Three Who Made a Revolution," a critique of Communism.
    (SFC, 1/17/00, p.C2)

1948        The play "Summer And Smoke" by Tennessee Williams was produced. It was made into a film in 1961 with Geraldine Page.
    (WSJ, 9/66/96, p.A12)

1948        Red Buttons appeared on Broadway in the musical “Hold It."
    (SFC, 7/14/06, p.B9)

1948        The Broadway show “Love Life" featured Nanette Fabray with songs by Alan Jay Lerner and Kurt Weill.
    (SSFC, 2/25/18, p.C9)

1948        Kitty Carlisle sang in the US premier of Benjamin Britten’s opera “The Rape of Lucretia."
    (SFC, 4/19/07, p.A2)

1948        In the Tony Awards the play "Mr. Roberts" won over "A Streetcar Named Desire."
    (WSJ, 5/13/96, p. A-16)

1948        The musical "Magdalena" was written by George Forrest and Robert Wright.
    (SFC, 10/13/99, p.C2)

1948        The radio show "My Favorite Husband" featured Lucille Ball and Desi Arnaz.
    (SFEC, 10/20/96, T8)

1948        In Chicago Clint Youle (d.1999 at 83) became television's first weatherman.
    (SFC, 7/27/99, p.A17)
1948        A Greek Orthodox church was built on Chicago’s south side. In 1972 it was purchased by the Nation of Islam and renovated under the name Mosque Maryam. In 2008 Minister Louis Farrakhan opened the mosque to the public in a rededication ceremony.
    (SSFC, 10/19/08, p.A2)

1948        The TV show "Stop Me If You’ve Heard This One" featured Morey Amsterdam.
    (SFC, 10/29/96, p.B2)

1948        The TV show “Studio One" began broadcasting on TV and featured a new play every week. The show continued to 1958.
    (WSJ, 11/22/08, p.W9)

1948        In Boston, Mass., Bess. L. Hawes (1921-2009) and Jacqueline Steiner co-wrote the political hit “Charlie on the MTA.’’ The song became a big hit for the Kingston Trio in 1959.

1948        In NYC a group of young jazz players gathered at the apartment of Gil Evans on West 55th and crafted a music that was later tagged as “the birth of the cool." Miles Davis led the group that also included Gerry Mulligan, John Lewis and John Carisi. This followed the recent disbanding of band led by Claude Thornhill (d.1965), in which Gill Evans was an arranger.
    (WSJ, 7/5/08, p.W12)

1948        The Les Paul (1915-2009) song “Lover" topped the record charts. He used a new self-developed recording technique that combined 2 of his own versions of the song. It was the first song to be recorded on 8 tracks.
    (Econ, 8/22/09, p.78)(http://oldies.about.com/od/jazz/p/lespaul.htm)

1948        Richard Strauss composed his "Four Last Songs," and Shostokovich composed a suite of songs based on Jewish folk poetry.
    (WSJ, 4/30/96, p.A-12)

1948        Darius Milhaud, composer, recorded "L’Homme et son desir" for vocal quartet, 12 instrumental soloists and 15 percussionists.
    (SFEM, 6/9/96, p.32)

1948        The Mills Brothers made a minor hit with the song “You never miss the water till the well runs dry." Written by Paul Secon.
    (WSJ, 3/10/07, p.A4)

1948        Igor Stravinsky composed his "Mass."
    (SFC,12/13/97, p.C16)

1948        Muddy Waters recorded a new version of “Country Blues." It was released under the ttitle “I Feel Like Going Home." It reached #11 on the “Most Played Rqace Records" chart.
    (ON, 8/20/11, p.6)

1948        Kurt Weill and Arnold Sundgaard (1910-2006) premiered their folk opera "Down in the Valley" at Indiana Univ.
    (SFC,12/25/97, p.A25)(SFC, 11/10/06, p.B8)

1948        Ella Fitzgerald recorded "How High the Moon."
    (SFC, 6/15/96, p.D2)

1948        Redd Stewart (d.2003) co-wrote "Tennessee Waltz" with Pee Wee King to the melody of King's "No Name Waltz," while on a road trip from Nashville to Texarkana. A 1950 recording by Patti Page sold a reported 3 million copies.
    (SFC, 8/6/03, p.A18)

1948        Don Tosti (1923-2004), jazz musician born as Edmundo Martinez Tostado, made the 1st million-selling Latin song “Pachuco Boogie."
    (SFC, 8/4/04, p.B7)

1948        Paul Williams (d.2002 at 87) recorded "The Huckelbuck." It was released in 1949 and was later considered an important precursor of rock ‘n’ roll. It was written by Andy Gibson and adopted without credit from Charlie Parker’s "Now’s the Time."
    (SFC, 10/7/02, p.A19)

1948        The Frankie Yankovic recording of "Just Because" sold over a million.
    (SFC, 10/15/98, p.C6)

1948        In Hollywood a building on Vine opened as the home of the Don Lee Mutual Broadcasting Co. In 2000 it was purchased by the Academy of Motion Pictures for $20 million and was renamed the Pickford Center. It then became the home of the Academy archives.
    (SFC, 3/26/03, p.D8)

1948        Buckminster Fuller and his students erected the first geodesic dome near Ashville, N.C.
    (SFC, 7/14/99, p.8)

1948        Virginia Cherill, former actress, married decorated war ace Florian Martini.
    (SFEC, 11/17/96, p.C12)

1948        Loretta Lynn, later famed country singer, married miner and moonshine runner O.V. "Mooney" Lynn (1927-1996) at age 13.
    (SFC, 8/24/96, p.A21)

1948        Moses Asch (d.1986) founded Folkway Recordings to capture America’s native music for posterity. After his death the label was taken over by the Smithsonian.
    (WSJ, 4/21/98, p.A21)

1948        Hot Rod magazine was founded.
    (SFC, 2/11/02, p.B5)

1948        The New York City Ballet was founded.
    (WSJ, 11/2/98, p.A32)

1948        Marilyn Monroe was proclaimed Artichoke Queen in Salinas, Ca., when she visited for a diamond promotion.
    (SFC, 3/13/98, p.A23)

1948        Anthony E. Pratt’s game of "Clue" was first published by the British Waddington’s company.
    (SFEC, 12/1/96, p.C14)

1948        The Wechsler intelligence test was developed.
    (WSJ, 6/5/97, p.A1)

1948        The American Research Council in Egypt was founded.
    (WSJ, 12/27/95, p. A-8)

1948        The Hells Angels motorcycle club was founded.
    (WSJ, 5/28/99, p.W6)

1948        The Morris and Gwendolyn Cafritz Foundation was founded in Washington D.C. by the Cafritz real estate company to support arts, education and social programs in the DC area.
    (SFC, 4/1/97, p.A17)

1948        Arthur E. Raymond (d.1999 at 99), airplane designer, helped found the Rand Corp. He was the lead designer of the DC-1 in 1932.
    (SFC, 3/27/99, p.C2)

1948        The heirs of Sun Oil’s Joseph Newton Pew began to create a foundation in his name. They envisioned an institution to advance conservative views in the Philadelphia area.
    (WSJ, 10/17/96, p.A6)

1948        Julia Child enrolled in the Cordon Bleu Cooking School in Paris.
    (SFC, 10/20/99, Z1p.4)

1948        Richard (d.1998 at 89) and Maurice McDonald (d.1971) started the McDonald’s chain of fast food restaurants in San Bernadino, California. Ray Kroc purchased the chain in 1955.
    (SFC, 7/15/98, p.A20)

1948        Ann Curtis (1926-2012) of San Francisco won two gold medals and one silver in swimming at the London Olympics.
    (SFC, 9/25/96, p.E10)(SFC, 1/31/15, p.C2)
1948        Owen Guinn Smith (d.2004), WW II pilot, won a gold medal in the pole vault. He used a bamboo pole on a windy and rainy London day and won at 14 feet, 1 ¼ inches.
    (SFC, 1/23/04, p.A18)
1948        In London, England, Joaquin Capilla (19) of Mexico won a bronze medal for platform diving.
    (AP, 5/9/10)

1948        The Cleveland Indians won the World Series.
    (SFC, 10/28/04, p.A7)

1948        Bill Garrett became the first African American to play a varsity sport in the Big Ten. He was recruited by basketball coach Branch McCracken under the urging of Indiana Univ. Pres. Herman B. Wells.
    (SFC, 3/20/00, p.A21)

1948        The Winter Olympic were held at St. Moritz, Switz., for a 2nd time.
    (SSFC, 1/23/05, p.E14)

1948        Paul Hermann Muller (d.1965), a Geigy pesticide researcher in Switzerland, won the Noble Prize in medicine for his 1939 synthesis of DDT.
    (ON, 11/01, p.6)

1948        The UN promulgated the International Bill of Rights, a universal declaration of human rights.
    (MT, Dec. ‘95, p.16)

1948        The Paris Convention Against Genocide was enacted.
    (SFC, 4/28/96, A-13)

1948        Pres. Truman beat Thomas E. Dewey in the elections.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1948)

1948        IRS chief Joseph Nunan was convicted of tax evasion for not reporting the $1800 bet he won on the re-election of Harry Truman. In 1998 the IRS compiled a Who’s Who of white-collar crime since 1919, but only for "official use."
    (SFC, 6/2/98, p.A7)

1948        Echelon began with a secret international agreement between the US, Britain, and Canada to collate electronic intelligence. Australia and New Zealand signing up later. By 2005 it consisted of a global network of computers that automatically searched through millions of intercepted for pre-programmed keywords or fax, telex and e-mail addresses.

1948        Maurice Papon was the top French official in Corsica and authorized American planes loaded with weapons bound for Israel to land on the island.
    (SFC,10/22/97, p.A10)

1948        Senator J. Strom Thurmond received 38 votes as the Dixiecrat candidate for president. His platform was mostly based on unyielding support for racial segregation.
    (SFC, 12/26/96, p.C16)

1948        Lyndon Johnson‘s nickname "Landslide Lyndon" was coined because of his slim victory in the 1948 primary election for the senate. While Johnson finished second in the first round of the Texas Democratic primary of 1948, a runoff election was required. In the runoff election, Johnson won the majority of the more than 1 million ballots cast by a mere 87 votes, thus earning him the ironical nickname "Landslide Lyndon." Although the vote was contested, Johnson was awarded the victory and went on to win election to the U.S. Senate. Johnson was reelected to the senate twice and became Vice President under John Kennedy in 1961. Upon the assassination of Kennedy in 1963, Johnson became President. In the 1964 presidential election, Johnson defeated Barry Goldwater in a true landslide, garnering 43 million popular votes to Goldwater‘s 27 million. Johnson did not seek reelection in 1968.
    (HNQ, 4/27/00)

1948        Richard Nixon pursued Alger Hiss for perjury in Congressional hearings.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1948)

1948         The US Supreme Court said Hollywood's biggest studios had illegally monopolized the movie distribution and theater industries.
    (Reuters, 8/7/20)

1948        The US half-dollar began to feature an image of Ben Franklin, which replaced the Walking Liberty.
    (WSJ, 12/12/03, p.W15)

1948        Abraham Ribicoff (1910-1998) of Connecticut was elected to the US House of Representatives.
    (SFC, 2/23/98, p.A5)(www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/JFKribicoff.htm)
1948        Chester Bowles (1901-1986) was elected governor of Connecticut and served one term, during which time he signed into law an end to segregation in the state national guard.

1948        US Marine Capt. Cranford Dalby (1922-2008) was assigned to a navy missile test center at Point Mugu, Ventura County, Ca. There he organized an informal “Marine Guided Missile Unit," which proceeded to devise a radar-guided remote bombing device called AN/MPQ14. The device was widely used during the Korean War.
    (SFC, 11/5/08, p.B15)

1948        Idaho put “World Famous Potatoes" on its car license plates. Its potato business was mostly due to the efforts of J.R. Simplot (1909-2008), later known as the spud king of America.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/J._R._Simplot)(Econ, 6/14/08, p.105)

1948        Michigan passed a law that prohibited women from serving alcoholic drinks in bars. In was overturned by a 1971 Supreme Court decision on an Idaho case that showed discrimination against one gender.
    (SFC, 10/12/02, p.A21)

1948        The John Murtha Airport opened in Jonestown, Pennsylvania. From 1989-2009 Congressman John Murtha steered some $150,000,000 to the airport. In 2009 there were a total of 18 commercial flights per week, all of which went to Dulles Airport in Washington, DC.
    (http://tinyurl.com/nsdv8k)(Econ, 1/23/10, p.26)

1948        Robert Mitchum, Hollywood actor, was busted for marijuana possession.
    (SFC, 7/2/97, p.E2)

1948        Composer Hans Eisler was deported from the US by the House Un-American Activities Committee for non-cooperation. He went to East Germany and composed the East German national anthem.
    (SFEC, 5/18/97, DB p.64)

1948        Russel Long won the senate seat that had been occupied by both his mother and father.
    (SFC, 9/21/96, p.E4)

1948        Sec. of the Interior J.A. Krug signed a contract relinquishing Indian reservation land for the Garrison Dam.
    (SFEC, 4/12/98, BR p.7)

1948        Puerto Rico gained the right to choose its own governor and elected Munoz Marin. He held office until 1965. Luis Munoz Marin, ended the practice of teaching all high school subjects in English. From 1900 to 1948 all high school subjects had been taught in English.
    (SFC, 3/26/97, p.C3)(AFP, 5/9/12)

1948        Burt Baskin (1913-1967) and Irvine Robbins (1917-2008) combined their ice cream parlors in Glendale and Pomona, Ca., to form the Baskins-Robbins ice cream chain.
    (WSJ, 5/10/08, p.A8)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Burt_Baskin)

1948        In Seattle Clara Fraser (d.1998 at 74), led a strike against Boeing and pressured the union to represent women and minorities. After the strike she was blacklisted and hounded from job to job by the FBI.
    (SFC, 4/15/98, p.C3)

1948        TV advertising by liquor makers was halted. The agreement held until 1996 when Seagram Co. began running both radio and TV ads.
    (SFC, 10/19/96, D1)

1948        Dinky Toys made the first garbage truck toy, a Bedford refuse wagon.
    (SFC, 2/4/98, Z1 p.6)

1948        The Hearst Corp. acquired WBAL-TV, Baltimore, one of the country's first television stations.
    (SFC, 8/7/99, p.A9)

1948        The Tilden Merry-Go-Round began operating in the Berkeley Hills of the SF Bay Area. The carousel was built in 1911 in Tonawanda, NY, and operated in Urbita Springs, Ca., from 1912-1920. It then moved to San Diego for 10 years, then to Long Beach for 2 years and Los Angeles for 3 years. It then went into storage until it was moved to Tilden.
    (SSFC, 8/14/11, p.C2)
1948        The San Francisco Folk Music Club (SFFMC) was founded by Dave Rothkop as the legitimate child of Hiroshima and the Cold War. Believing that music is the one language capable of transcending national egotism, a small group of high schoolers began meeting in each others’ homes. In 1959 the Club was reorganized by Herb Jager on a somewhat more formal level. In mid-l962 Faith Petric took responsibility for keeping the Club functioning and in 1964 started publication of the Folknik newsletter.
    (http://www.sffmc.org/)(SFC, 9/30/02, p.A14)
1948        In San Francisco the new I. Magnin store at Geary and Stockton opened. It was designed by Timothy Flueger.
    (SSFC, 12/31/06, p.E5)
1948        In San Francisco the Pacific Coast’s first cancer ward opened at Laguna Honda Home. Patients were made available for experimental research.
    (SFC, 8/26/08, p.B5)
1948        In San Francisco fares on the city’s Municipal Railway doubled to 10 cents.
    (SFC, 2/24/18, p.C2)

1948        Hills Pet Nutrition was founded by Kansas veterinarian Mark Morris. After 20 years the company introduced its Science Diet brand. In 1976 it was acquired by Colgate.
    (WSJ, 11/3/97, p.A6)

1948        Henry (d.1976) and Esther (1920-2006) Snyder opened In-N-Out Burgers in Baldwin Park, LA County. They numbered 152 stores in 2001 as their 1st SF outlet opened. By 2006 the chain numbered 202 restaurants. In 2009 Stacy Perman authored “In-N-Out Burger: A Behind-The Counter Look at the Fast-Food Chain That Breaks All the Rules.
    (SFC, 3/3/01, p.D1)(SFC, 8/15/01, p.B1)(SFEC, 3/23/97, p.A1)(WSJ, 8/12/06, p.A6)(WSJ, 4/15/09, p.A13)

1948        Robert Peterson (1926-2007) founded Hot Rod magazine while trying to promote the custom-designed car show at the Los Angeles Armory. In 1949 he launched Motor Trend magazine. The Peterson Automotive Museum opened in LA in 1994.
    (SFC, 3/26/07, p.B5)

1948        General Motors agreed to annual cost-of-living pay increases.
    (Econ, 6/6/09, p.61)
1948        General Motors began regaining control over Opel operations in Germany. GM collected some $33 million in war reparations for Allied bombing of its German facilities.
    (SSFC, 1/7/07, p.E6)

1948        Paul’s Auto Wash, the first car wash in the US, opened in Detroit.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)

1948        Goodyear introduced tubeless tires. [see 1954]
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)(F, 10/7/96, p.70)

1948        Harley Jefferson Earl (1893-1969) introduced automobile tail fins in 1948. He was a Hollywood builder of custom cars and became GM’s VP of styling from 1940-1959. His design philosophy was "You can design a car so that every time you get in it, it’s a relief—you have a little vacation for a while."
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)

1948        The Eckert-Mauchly Computer Corp. was established and began creating UNIVAC, Universal Automatic Computer, the first general-purpose computer. They hired Jean Bartik and Betty Holberton to do the programming. It would be used to compile the 1950 census.
    (WSJ, 11/22/96, p.B1)

1948        Spud Melin (d.2002) and Richard Knerr (1925-2008) started a mail-order toy company in southern California named Wham-O to market sling-shots. In 1982 they sold the company to Kransco Manufacturing for $12 million.
    (SFC, 7/1/02, p.B5)(WSJ, 1/19/08, p.A10)

1948        William Rosenberg (d.2002 at 86) opened a doughnut shop called Open Kettle in Quincy. Mass. 2 years later the name was changed to Dunkin’ Donuts. In 1955 he began selling franchises and helped create the Int’l. Franchise Assoc.
    (SFC, 9/23/02, p.B5)

1948        The Ogilvy & Mather advertising firm was established. In 1989 it was swallowed by WPP, a British advertising giant. Founder David Ogilvy (d.1999 at 88) later published a series of books titled "Ogilvy on Advertising."
    (SFC, 7/22/99, p.C4)(Econ, 2/24/07, p.80)

1948        Two Milwaukee lawyers founded Manpower after they failed to find extra administrative help for an urgent legal brief. By 2009 the company had over 4,000 offices in 82 countries.
    (Econ, 1/6/07, p.57)(Econ, 12/12/09, p.74)

1948        Aaron and Florence Zacks (1911-2007) formed R.G. Barry Corp. in Pickerington, Ohio, to manufacture foam rubber shoulder pads for women’s clothing. They soon expanded to produce foam rubber slippers.
    (WSJ, 2/17/07, p.A4)

1948        Richard Bolt and Leo Beranek, professors at MIT, established a small acoustics consulting firm and soon added a former student of Bolt’s, Robert Newman. In 1949 BBN won its first major consulting contract, designing the acoustics for the UN General Assembly Hall. In 2008 Leo Beranek authored “Riding the Waves: A Life in Sound, Science and Industry."
    (www.bbn.com/about/timeline/)(WSJ, 5/22/08, p.A13)

1948        H.B.G. Casimir, Dutch physicist, deduced the necessity of a quantum-mechanical effect arising from the zero-point energy of the harmonic oscillators that are the normal modes of the electromagnetic field. The Casimir force was first measured in 1997 and can be seen in a gecko's ability to stick to a surface with just one toe.
    (AFP, 8/6/07)(www.du.edu/~jcalvert/phys/casimir.htm)

1948        Theoretical physicists, taking into account the rate of expansion of the universe, predicted that 15 billion years after the Big Bang the universe should have cooled off to a temperature just 3 degrees above absolute zero. George Gamow and Ralph Alpher predicted that radiation from the very hot early stages of the universe should still be around today. It was this radiation that Penzias and Wilson found in 1965. George Gamow first described the Big Bang.
    (BHT, Hawking, p.118)(NH, 12/96, p.76)(WSJ, 10/4/06, p.A14)

1948        The steady-state theory of the universe was first proposed by Hermann Bondi, Thomas Gold (d.2004) and Fred Hoyle. The theory holds that the universe is expanding and that matter is continuously being created to keep the mean density of matter in space constant. Sir Fred Hoyle, English astronomer-author: "There is a coherent plan in the universe, though I don't know what it's a plan for."
    (Wired, 2/98, p.174)(AP, 2/3/99)(Econ, 7/3/04, p.73)   

1948        Robert Herman (1915-1997) predicted the existence of residual, cosmic, blackbody radiation left over from the Big Bang.
    (SFC, 2/24/96, p.A17)

1948        Albert Baez (1912-2007), Mexican-American physicist, and Paul Kirkpatrick co-invented the X-ray reflection microscope for the study of living cells.
    (SSFC, 3/25/07, p.B3)

1948        Claude Shannon, the father of coding theory, published a paper which showed the maximum theoretical rate at which information can be transmitted without error. By 2004 real codes began approaching Shannon’s theoretical limit.
    (Econ, 7/3/04, p.65)

1948        The Pap test for cervical cancer was invented by George Papanicolaou.
    (WSJ, 8/13/98, p.A1)

1948        The US government launched a heart study in Framingham, Mass., amid an epidemic of heart disease, to compile reams of health data on a group of people in their 30s, 40s and 50s, and hope that over time links would emerge between their lifestyles and heart health. Discoveries by the long term study included: Cigarette smoking, high blood pressure and high cholesterol and diabetes raise the risk of heart disease, and physical exercise lowers the risk. In 2009 researchers reported that the data showed that loneliness spreads very much like a communicable disease.
    (AP, 11/30/07)(Econ, 12/12/09, p.90)

1948        The U of M Survey Research Center, later the Institute for Social Research (ISR), began its National Election Studies, a biennial survey and analysis of voter behavior.
    (MT, Fall. ‘97, p.4)

1948        The 1st Law School Admissions Test (LSAT) was administered in the US.
    (WSJ, 3/29/01, p.B1)
1948        Dwight D. Eisenhower, WW II general, became president of Columbia Univ.
    (SSFC, 8/15/04, p.D11)
1948        Oral history was founded as an academic field at Columbia Univ.
    (SFC, 10/28/08, p.B5)

1948        Archeologists found ears of popcorn 5,600 years old in the Bat Cave in New Mexico.
    (HFA, ‘96, p.66)

1948        James Houston, Canadian author, flew into the Arctic Circle and spent 14 years with Inuit people. In 1996 he published "Confessions of an Igloo Dweller, Memories of the Old Arctic."
    (SFC, 9/1/96, BR p.4)

1948        A blues guitarist was murdered in Pittsburgh. This incident formed the setting for the play "Seven Guitars" by August Wilson, which won the 1995-96 best play award by the New York Drama Critics’ Circle.
    (SFC, 5/14/96, E-4)

1948        Al Gard (b.1900), American caricature artist, died. 24 of his caricatures of Broadway stars were kept at Sardi’s restaurant in NYC.
    (WSJ, 8/21/01, p.A17)

1948        Aldo Leopold, American naturalist, died. "Land then is not merely soil; it is a fountain of energy flowing through a circuit of soils, plants, and animals."
    (SFC, 9/4/96, p.A3)(Ind, 6/27/00,12A)

1948        The Int’l. Whaling Commission (IWC) was founded by 7 countries with large whaling fleets. It included America, Australia, Britain, France, Norway, South Africa and the USSR.
    (Econ, 6/17/06, p.15)

1948         Albanian Communist Party leaders voted to merge Albanian and Yugoslav economies and militaries.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1948        In the months preceding the war between Israel and the Arab states some 10,000 Arab homes in West Jerusalem were looted and seized.
    (SSFC, 5/18/03, p.D6)

1948        Australia’s produced its first locally made car, a Holden FX. In late 2013 Holden, a part of General Motors, said it would quit in 2017.
    (Econ, 2/15/14, p.58)

1948        Composer Benjamin Britten (1913-1976) co-founded the Aldeburgh Festival with Sir Peter Pears and writer Eric Crozier. In 1967 Britten and Pears created a permanent home at Snape, 5 miles from Aldeburgh, by converting a Victorian maltings into an 832-seat venue. By 1972 the Britten-Pears young artist program welcomed young players from around the world.
    (www.aldeburgh.co.uk/about_us/history)(WSJ, 7/26/99, p.A21)(Econ, 6/6/09, p.84)
1948        The Commonwealth Development Corporation was founded by the British government with an aim to demonstrate "the power of enterprise and private capital to reduce poverty in the poorest places of the world."
    (Reuters, 2/1/12)
1948        Britain nationalized the London Underground.
    (Econ, 1/22/05, p.81)
1948        Britain brought in hundreds of Caribbean immigrants on the ship Empire Windrush as it sought workers to help rebuild the country following the devastation of WWII.
    (SFC, 3/20/20, p.A2)
1948        British carmaker Rover developed the Jeep-like Land Rover.
    (WSJ, 9/16/05, p.W12)
1948        Trevor Wilkinson incorporated TVR Engineering, a small British carmaker. He left the company in 1962 and in 1965 it was sold to Martin Lilly.
    (SFC, 6/16/08, p.B3)
1948        The British Jaguar XK120 was introduced as the world’s fastest standard production car. It was the brainchild of Jaguar founder Sir William Lyons.
    (SSFC, 8/21/11, p.H1)
1948        The London-based Mondo company began producing rubber balls for a local fistball game. It grew to become a major maker of prefabricated running track.
    (SFC, 3/17/11, p.72)

1948        In Burma a conflict for power began that involved the Karen, a group of people from eastern and southern Burma.
    (WSJ, 7/11/96, p.A10)(WUD, 1994, p.779)

1948        In Canada the Giant Mine in Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, opened for the production of gold. Canada took over the mine in 1999 after it went bankrupt.
    (Econ, 9/27/14, p.38)

1948        Ceylon became a member of the British Commonwealth.
    (SFC, 6/20/96, p.A8)

1948        Czech runner Emil Zatopek (1922-2000) won a gold and a silver medal at the Olympic games in London.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emil_Z%C3%A1topek)(Econ, 6/11/16, p.84)

1948        Congolese musician Antoine Kolosoy (1925-2008), aka Papa Wendo, wrote his hit song "Marie-Louise," a eulogy to the sister of his guitarist. He is considered the "Father" of Congolese rumba.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wendo_Kolosoy)(Econ, 12/20/03, p.66)

1948        Jaroslav Skala (1916-2007), a psychiatrist, established the first Czech center for treatment of people addicted to alcohol as part of a clinic in Prague. He headed the institution until his retirement in 1982.
    (AP, 11/26/07)
1948        Marie Provaznikova, Czech athlete, became the first to defect from a Communist country during the Olympics in London.
    (WSJ, 4/12/08, p.R2)(www.sokolnewyork.org/history002.htm)
1948        Ctirad Masin (1930-2011), his brother Josef and Milan Paumer became part of a resistance cell after the communists took power in Czechoslovakia. They killed two policemen while trying to capture arms in a police station, and also killed a cashier during a robbery to raise funds for their sabotage operations. In 1953, they fled to the West, killing 3 police officers in East Germany during their escape as tens of thousands of police searched for them. 2 other members of the cell were captured, sentenced to death and executed.
    (AP, 8/14/11)

1948        Axel Axgil (1915-2011), born Axel Lundahl-Madsen, was among the founding members of gay rights group LGBT Danmark.
    (AP, 10/30/11)

1948        The 10-nation Western European Union defense alliance was formed. It was set to close in July 2011.
    (SFC, 6/4/99, p.A14)(Econ, 6/26/10, p.63)

1948        The Faroe Islands won  home rule, but Denmark still controlled the currency, foreign affairs and some of the courts.
    (Econ, 8/12/17, p.41)

1948        Neste Corporation, an oil refining and marketing company, was founded in Espoo, Finland, as the state petrol company. By 2017 it had operations in 14 countries.

1948        Longchamp, a French leather-goods company, began operations.
    (Econ, 2/10/07, SR p.12)

1948        Wernher von Braun, German rocket physicist, authored “Das Marsproject" (The Mars Project), a technical specification for a manned mission to Mars.
    (Econ, 6/1/13, p.77)
1948        A documentary film on the Nuremberg war trials was written and directed by Stuart Schulberg. It was never released theatrically in the US. In 2011 Schulberg’s daughter Sandra Schulberg and Josh Waltezky restored it under the title "Nuremberg: Its Lesson Today."
    (SFC, 1/20/11, p.E8)
1948        In Germany at the Nuremberg War Trials deputy chief prosecutor Robert Kempner wrote in a letter that 15 tons of Nazi gold were rushed out of Berlin before the fall of the capital in 1945. He said 6 ½ tons were sent to von Ribbentrop’s castle in Fuschl, Austria, where it was allegedly turned over to American troops. Two tons were sent to Schleswig-Holstein and allegedly handed over to British troops. No record of either shipment was found by researchers of the World Jewish Congress (WJC). Three tons were sent to the German side of Lake Constantine and then to Switzerland. The rest was sent to other countries.
    (SFC, 8/22/96, p.E4)
1948        In Germany Henri Nannen (1914-1996) founded the weekly illustrated Zickzack Magazine that later was renamed Stern.
    (SFC, 10/15/96, p.A19)
1948        The Federal Republic of Germany defaulted on its sovereign debt. The Colm-Dodge-Goldsmith-Plan was implemented in the summer to put the currency reform into force.
    (http://tinyurl.com/49qqg7o)(Econ, 1/15/11, p.78)

1948        In Hungary the Manfred Weiss Steelworks was nationalized and renamed after Matyas Rakosi (1892-1971), Hungary’s Stalinist leader.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/M%C3%A1ty%C3%A1s_R%C3%A1kosi)(Econ, 12/18/10, p.102)

1948        In northern India the Dera Sacha Sauda religious sect was founded.
    (Econ, 3/12/15, p.39)
1948        India passed electricity laws that limited private involvement.
    (WSJ, 8/27/96, p.A10)
1948        India established an Atomic Energy Commission.
    (SFC, 5/28/98, p.A9)
1948        In India Jawaharlal Nehru poured the first concrete for the Hirakud dam across the Mahanadi River. Some 180,999 people were displaced for the dam.
    (Econ, 9/7/13, p.44)
1948        Kolkata-based Hindustan Motors began making the Ambassador car, modeling it after the British Morris Oxford III. In 2013 only 2,214 of the vehicles were sold. Production was halted in 2014 pending restructuring and clearing of its debts.
    (AP, 5/26/14)
1948        The Nizam of Hyderabad, India’s biggest and richest princely state, sent envoys to London with a purse or £1 million to give to Pakistan, which had been shipping him arms. By the time the money was deposited an Indian invasion forced him to switch sides and the money has languished in London ever since.
    (Econ, 8/19/17, p.33)

1948        Arshad al-Umari served as prime minister of Iraq.
    (WSJ, 12/12/03, p.A1)

1948        In Israel Chaim Herzog (1918-1997) founded Israel’s military intelligence service.
    (SFC, 4/18/97, p.E2)
1948        Soon after independence Israel began to evacuate Jews from Yemen and other middle Eastern countries to Israel.
    (SFC, 8/28/97, p.C2)
1948        The UN Truce Supervision Organization (UNTSO) was established to observe the cease-fire following the war that followed Israel's creation.
    (AP, 7/28/06)
1948        Charles Winters, a Miami businessman, broke US law to supply B-17 bombers to Jews fighting in Israel’s war of independence. In 1949 he was convicted for violating the Neutrality Act, for which he was fined $5,000 and sentenced to 18 months in prison. In 2008 Pres. Bush granted Winters a posthumous pardon.
    (SFC, 12/24/08, p.A3)
1948        After Israel’s establishment, many Mizrahi, or Middle Eastern, immigrants were sent to shantytown transit camps and largely sidelined by the European, or Ashkenazi, leaders of the founding Labor party. Among the immigrants were more than 50,000 Yemenite Jews, often poor and with large families. In the chaos that accompanied their influx, some children died while others were separated from their parents. This painful experience contributed to widespread Mizrahi support for the Likud party.
    (AP, 2/22/21)

1948        The Italian film “Germany Year Zero" was directed by Roberto Rossellini (1906-1977). It was the 3rd of his war trilogy and was about the privations of German survivors in postwar Berlin.
    (SFC, 1/22/10, p.E2)
1948        In Italian general elections the Communist Party won 31% of the vote.
    (Econ, 6/11/11, SR p.9)
1948        Italy’s new constitution outlawed the Fascist Party. It spread power equally between the lower Chamber of Deputies and the Senate. It also gave significant autonomy to four distinct regions: Sicily, Sardinia, Valle d’Aosta and Trentino-Alto Adige/Sudtirol.
    (WSJ, 6/17/04, p.A15)(Econ, 11/26/16, p.20)

1948        Japan enacted a Eugenics Protection Law to "avoid the birth of defective offspring." The law was rescinded in 1996 after some 844,939 people were sterilized.  At least 16,500 people were sterilized without consent under the law. In 2018 three plaintiffs filed lawsuits demanding an apology and compensation of about 80 million yen ($730,000) in total.
    (SFC,12/27/97, p.A12)(AP, 5/17/18)
1948        Occupation authorities gave Japan's financial markets a Glass-Steagall act, in the form of Article 65 of the Securities and Exchange Act of 1948. Article 65 prohibited banks from participating in the domestic securities industry, from holding more than five percent of a securities company, and from selling equity or underwriting securities.
1948        Momofuku Ando (1910-2007) founded Nissin Food Products. In 1958 the company introduced Chicken Ramen, the first instant noodle.
    (SSFC, 1/7/07, p.B6)

1948        Constantine Jurgela (b.1904), Lithuania-born historian, authored “History of the Lithuanian Nation."

1948        Nepal established diplomatic relations with the US.

1948        Pakistan established its Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) to protect the country against foreign and domestic security threats.
    (WSJ, 12/31/08, p.A6)
1948        Pakistan’s first budget devoted 75% to military spending.
    (Econ 7/22/17, SR p.5)

1948        Alfredo Stroessner was exiled by Paraguay dictator Higinio Morinigo, who was soon toppled by other military officers. Stroessner returned.
    (SFC, 8/17/06, p.A10)

1948        Peruvian politician Victor Raul de la Torre, following the rise of a dictator, found refuge in a Colombian embassy in Lima for 6 years as army tanks surrounded the building.
    (Econ, 8/25/12, p.26)

1948        The Soviet Union under Stalin cancelled Victory Day celebrations that had marked the May 9, 1945, end of WW II.
    (Econ., 5/2/15, p.43)
1948        In Russia Stalin began anti-Jewish purges. Jewish activities were put on par with criminal activities.
    (WSJ, 7/18/96, p.E6)
1948        In Russia the Mayak plant in the southern Urals began processing weapons grade plutonium. By 1997 it had released more than 5 times the radioactivity of all above-ground atomic tests put together. Substances such as strontium-90 and cesium-137 had seeped into waterways and ground water and traces were detected in the Arctic Ocean over 600 miles away.
    (SFC,12/27/97, p.A15)
1948        The Soviet Union imposed a “Friendship Treaty" that limited Finnish sovereignty. It was abandoned in 1992.
    (Econ, 7/9/16, p.43)

1948        South Korea adopted legislation to punish anyone praising North Korea with up to seven years in prison.
    (Econ, 1/17/15, p.39)
1948        In South Korea some 14,000 people were killed during a government crackdown on a leftist uprising. Fighting between leftist guerrillas and government forces took place on the southern island of Jeju and estimates of those killed ranged from several to 50 thousand.
    (SFC, 8/29/01, p.A9)
1948        South Korean Shin Kyuk-Ho founded Lotte Co. Ltd. in Tokyo. He expanded Lotte to his home country with the establishment of Lotte Confectionery in Seoul on April 3, 1967 and built the company into a sprawling giant that by 2017 had dozens of units focused on food, retail and hotels in South Korea and Japan.
    (AFP, 12/22/17)

1948        Robert Ford (1923-2013), British radio operator, was hired by the Tibetans to create a modern communications network. In 1950 he was imprisoned by Chinese authorities and spent five years in jail.
    (Econ, 10/5/13, p.98)

1948        The Western European Union (WEU) was founded as a defensive arm for postwar Europe. It led to the formation of NATO. In 1992 its tasks were re-defined to cover humanitarian and rescue missions, peacekeeping and crisis management.
    (SFC, 2/17/99, p.A8)

1948         Yugoslavia set up the Goli Otok (Barren Island) prison camp off the coast of Croatia for political prisoners. In 1956 the island, known as the Adriatic Alcatraz, ended its days as a political prison and was turned into a high-security facility for the hardest criminals. Nearly 600 prisoners of all ex-Yugoslav nations, Serbs, Croats, Bosnians, Slovenes, Macedonians and Montenegrins, were later estimated to have died on the island from torture and disease.
    (AP, 7/25/12)

1948-1949    In Costa Rica Jose Figueres Ferrer fought for democracy. The war arose in a dispute between dictator Rafael Angel Calderon, who had stolen an election, and the social democratic partisans of Figueres
    (WSJ, 12/12/97, p.A19)

1948-1949    Jordan seized the West Bank and Egypt occupied the Gaza Strip.
    (SFC, 6/24/96, p.A19)(SFC, 1/22/98, p.B12)
1948-1949    Iraqi troops participated in the Arab League invasion of the new state of Israel. Iraq joined Transjordan and other Arab states to fight Israel. Most of Iraq’s 120,000 Jews fled to Israel or the West.
    (SFC, 2/24/98, p.A9)(SFC, 9/24/02, p.A10)

1948-1951    The Communist Party was banned in India during this period.
    (Econ, 1/23/10, p.82)

1948-1957    Louis St. Laurent of the Liberal Party became the 12th Prime Minister of Canada.
    (CFA, ‘96, p.81)

1948-1968    The old city of East Jerusalem was under Jordanian control. Transjordan was given to a client Arab family, the Hashenites (led by King Hussein’s grandfather), and was run out of Mecca by the Saudis.
    (WSJ, 4/9/97, p.A14)

1948-1980    Jean Huston (1914-1998) served as a curator and later chief of the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture. Ms. Huston was the 2nd woman to graduate from Barnard College (1935) after writer Zora Neale Hurston.
    (SFC, 2/7/98, p.21)

Go to 1949

privacy policy