Timeline 1945

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In 2013 Ian Buruma authored “Year Zero: A History of 1945."
    (Econ, 9/28/13, p.80)

1945        Jan-Dec, The worst year in human history measured in terms of people killed, houses burned, buildings destroyed, and high explosives set off.
    (WSJ, 5/22/98, p.W11)

1945        Jan 1, On Operation Bodenplatte, German planes attacked American forward air bases in Europe. This was the last major offensive of the Luftwaffe.
    (HN, 1/1/99)
1945        Jan 1, France was admitted to the United Nations.
    (AP, 1/1/98)

1945        Jan 2, Allies made an air raid on Nuremberg. About 90% of the city center was destroyed in only one hour.
1945        Jan 2, The California Supreme Court ruled that demands by the Boilermakers' union of Marinship for blacks to join auxiliaries without full union privileges was "discriminatory and unequal." The case of James vs. Marinship was led by Joseph James, a welder and leader of the San Francisco Committee Against Segregation and Discrimination.
    (SFC, 4/4/20, p.B4)

1945        Jan 3, Stephen Stills singer, songwriter, guitarist: group, was born: Buffalo Springfield: For What It’s Worth; group: Crosby, Stills, Nash and Young.
    (440 Int'l. 1/3/99)
1945        Jan 3, US aircraft carriers attacked Okinawa.
    (MC, 1/3/02)
1945        Jan 3, Edgar Cayce (b.1877), American self-proclaimed psychic from Kentucky, died. Jess Stearn (d.2002) authored "The Sleeping Prophet: The Life and work of Edgar Cayce" (1968), and "A Prophet in His Own Country: The Story of the Young Edgar Cayce" (1974). In 2000 Sidney D. Kirkpatrick authored Edgar Cayce, An American Prophet.
    (SFEC, 7/26/98, BR p.3)(SSFC, 1/14/01, BR p.12)(SFC, 4/2/02, p.A15)(SFC, 8/7/08, p.E6)

1945        Jan 4, The last German offensive in Bastogne, Belgium, failed.
    (HN, 1/4/99)
1945        Jan 4, Ricardo Jimenez Oreamuno (b.1859), 3-term president of Costa Rica, died.

1945        Jan 5, Uighur rebels in China’s southwest Xinjiang declared the Eastern Turkestan Republic. The republic ended in 1949 when Chinese Communists came to power. In 1949 the Russians told the Uighurs to cooperate with Mao.
    (SFC, 2/20/01, p.A10)(Econ, 12/3/05, p.39)(www.unpo.org/member.php?arg=21)

1945        Jan 6, Pepe Le Pew, the cartoon skunk created by Chuck Jones and voiced by Mel Blanc, debuted in Odor-Able Kitty.
    (AH, 2/05, p.16)(http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0037956/)
1945        Jan 6, George Herbert Walker Bush married Barbara Pierce in Rye, N.Y.
    (AP, 1/6/98)
1945        Jan 6, B-29’s in the Pacific struck new blows on Tokyo and Nanking.
    (HN, 1/6/99)
1945        Jan 6, Vladimir Vernadsky (b.1863), Russia-born mineralogist and geochemist, died in Moscow. He is considered one of the founders of geochemistry, biogeochemistry, and radiogeology. He is also known as the founder of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences (later National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine). His 1926 book "The Biosphere" popularized Eduard Suess' 1885 term biosphere, by hypothesizing that life is the geological force that shapes the earth. In 1943 he was awarded the Stalin Prize.

1945        Jan 7, U.S. air ace Major Thomas B. McGuire Jr. was killed in the Pacific.
    (HN, 1/7/99)

1945        Jan 8, US Tech. Sgt. Russell Dunham (1920-2009) assaulted 3 German machine gun placements, killed 9 German soldiers and took 2 as prisoners near Kaysersberg, France. His bravery earned him the US Medal of Honor.
    (SFC, 4/10/09, p.B5)

1945        Jan 9, American forces began landing at Lingayen Gulf in the Philippines, 107 miles from Manila. MacArthur finally mounted his invasion of Luzon.
    (HN, 1/9/99)(AP, 1/9/99)
1945        Jan 9, Maj. Raymond Cromley, head of the top secret "Dixie Mission," sent a cable to US military headquarters in Chunking that said Mao Tse-tung would like send a group to Pres. Roosevelt to explain the situation in China. Ambassador Patrick J. Hurley, who opposed the meeting, intercepted the message and failed to pass it to Pres. Roosevelt.
    (WSJ, 5/30/02, p.A2)
1945        Jan 9, US carrier planes bombed the Japanese ship Enoura Maru and 316 US POWs were killed.
    (SSFC, 8/7/05, p.B2)

1945        Jan 10, Gunther von Hagens, German anatomist, was born in Poznan. In 1977 invented the process of plastination in which natural body fluids are replaced by plastic.
    (WSJ, 8/5/04, p.D8)
1945        Jan 10, Rod Stewart, rock singer, was born in North London, England.
    (SSFC, 10/10/04, Par p.20)

1945        Jan 12, US Task Force 38 destroyed 41 Japanese ships in Battle of South China Sea.
    (MC, 1/12/02)
1945        Jan 12, The submarine USS Swordfish (SS-193) was lost with all 5 officers and 54 men in the Ryukyu Islands. She was the first American submarine to sink a Japanese ship during World War II.
1945        Jan 12, German forces in Belgium retreated in Battle of Bulge.
    (MC, 1/12/02)
1945        Jan 12, Soviet forces began a huge offensive against the Germans in Eastern Europe.
    (AP, 1/12/98)

1945        Jan 13, The Red Army opened an offensive in South Poland, crashing 25 miles through the German lines.
    (HN, 1/13/99)

1945        Jan 16, The U.S. First and Third armies linked up at Houffalize, effectively ending the Battle of the Bulge.
    (HN, 1/16/99)

1945        Jan 17, Soviet troops liberated the Budapest ghetto, where over 70,000 Jews were confined near the end of World War II. Jews were forced to move into the ghetto, set up over more than 20 city blocks in Budapest's traditional Jewish quarter, from the end of November 1944. Some 50,000 Soviet soldiers lost their lives in the liberation of Budapest.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Budapest_Ghetto)(AFP, 1/18/15)(AP, 1/19/20)
1945        Jan 17, Soviet and Polish forces liberated Warsaw during World War II.
    (AP, 1/17/98)(HN, 1/17/99)
1945        Jan 17, Swedish diplomat Raoul Wallenberg, credited with saving tens of thousands of Jews, disappeared in Hungary while in Soviet custody. Raoul Wallenberg was jailed by the Soviets who believed that he was an American spy. He had saved more than 20,000 Hungarian Jews from Nazi death camps. Wallenberg was a graduate of the Univ. of Michigan and studied there from 1931-1935. In 2000 a Kremlin commission believed that he was shot in a KGB prison.
    (SFC, 5/5/96, p.A-7)(AP, 1/17/98)(MT, Spg. ‘99, p.18)(SFC, 11/28/00, p.A18)

1945        Jan 18, The German Army launched its second attempt to relieve the besieged city of Budapest from the advancing Red Army.
    (HN, 1/18/99)
1945        Jan 18, The Red Army freed Krakow from Nazi occupation. [see Jan 19]
    (SSFC, 4/3/05, p.A12)

1945        Jan 19, In Poland a B-25 Mitchell flown by the Soviet Red Army, was shot down by the German air force. A 23-year-old commander parachuted out and was taken into German captivity. In 2020 archaeologists discovered the wreck of a US-made bomber along with the remains of four crewmen.
    (Reuters, 1/24/20)
1945        Jan 19, The Red Army captured Lodz, Krakow, and Tarnow.
    (HN, 1/19/99)

1945        Jan 20, Franklin D. Roosevelt was inaugurated for his fourth term.
    (HN, 1/20/99)
1945        Jan 20, The Allies signed a truce with the Hungarians.
    (HN, 1/20/99)

1945        Jan 21, Andrew Stein, pres of NYC council (D), was born.
    (MC, 1/21/02)
1945        Jan 21, The Nazi Edelweiss unit participated in a bloody operation against two villages in central Slovakia as punishment for local support of Soviet-backed rebels.
    (AP, 12/19/05)

1945        Jan 22, There was a heavy US air raid on Okinawa.
    (MC, 1/22/02)
1945        Jan 22, The Burma highway reopened.
    (MC, 1/22/02)

1945        Jan 23, Helmuth J. Moltke (37), German general, politician (July 20th Plot), was executed.
    (MC, 1/23/02)

1945        Jan 24, A German attempt to relieve the besieged city of Budapest was finally halted by the Soviets.
    (HN, 1/24/99)

1945        Jan 25, The US Justice Department's Antitrust Division filed suit in the U.S. District Court in New York against De Beers, four other British or South African companies, three Belgian companies and one Portuguese Company which together produced and sold 95 percent of the world's diamonds, 'charging them with conspiring to restrain and monopolize the foreign trade of the United States in gem and industrial diamonds in violation of the Sherman Antitrust Act and the Wilson Tariff Acts.

1945        Jan 27, US Master Sgt. Roddie Edmonds (d.1985), one of around 1,000 soldiers taken to the Stalag IXA camp Ziegenhain, Germany, after the Battle of the Bulge, ordered his men to refuse Nazi instruction to separate out Jewish soldiers: “We are all Jews here."
    (http://tinyurl.com/z5vyyrz)(SFC, 12/3/15, p.A7)
1945        Jan 27, The Soviet army arrived at Auschwitz and Birkenau in Poland, and found the Nazi concentration camp and crematorium. It is now believed that 1 million Jews were murdered here, up to 75,000 Polish Christians, 21,000 Gypsies, and 15,000 Soviet POWs.

1945        Jan 28, During World War II, Allied supplies began reaching China over the newly reopened Burma Road.
    (AP, 1/28/98)
1945        Jan 28, Chiang Kai-shek renamed the Ledo-Burma Road the Stillwell Road, in honor of General Joseph Stillwell.
    (HN, 1/28/99)
1945        Jan 28, The US Army 10th Mountain Division first entered combat in the Apennine Mountains of northern Italy.
    (ON, 4/2011, p.7)
1945        Jan 28, The Red Army captured Klaipeda, the last German-held Lithuanian city.
    (LHC, 1/28/03)

1945        Jan 30, US Army Rangers and Filipino guerrillas executed a flawless rescue of 486 POWs from Camp Cabanatuan north of Manila. In 2001 Hampton Sides authored “Ghost Soldiers," an account of the rescue.
    (WSJ, 5/24/01, p.A20)(SSFC, 6/17/01, DB p.70)(AH, 2/05, p.16)
1945        Jan 30, The Allies launched a drive on the Siegfried line in Germany.
    (HN, 1/30/99)
1945        Jan 30, Nazi SS guards shot down an estimated 4,000 Jewish prisoners on the Baltic coast at Palmnicken, Kaliningrad. The town was later renamed by the Russians to Yantarny. Some 7,000 prisoners had been marched 25 miles from Koenigsberg to a vacant lock factory at Palmnicken where they were mowed down with machine guns. The prisoners had been vacated from a network of 30 camps that made up Poland's Stutthoff concentration camp. 90% of the Jews were women from Lithuania and Hungary.
    (SFC, 1/31/00, p.C1)
1945          Jan 30, The German liner "Wilhelm Gustloff" sank in the Baltic Sea between the Bay of Danzig and the Danish island of Bornholm. An estimated 7000-8000 people, civilian refugees from East Prussia and wounded German soldiers, drowned in the icy waters. Three torpedoes fired from a Russian submarine had scored direct hits on the ship. The result was the largest and most horrible naval disaster of all time.
     (NW, 3/18/02, p.11)(www.cybercreek.com/cybercity/WWIIps/gu)

1945      Jan 31, Private Eddie Slovik (b.1920) became the only US soldier since the Civil War to be executed for desertion, as he was shot by an American firing squad near the village of Ste-Marie aux Mines, France. In 1954 William Bradford authored “The Execution of Private Slovik." In 1987 Slovik’s body was exhumed and returned to Detroit, Mi., his hometown.
     (AP, 1/31/04)(SSFC, 7/8/12, DB p.42)

1945        Jan, US Staff Sgt. Beyrle (1923-2004) escaped from the German the Stalag III-C POW camp in Alt Drewitz and joined Soviet troops. He was wounded as his unit approached Berlin, was treated in a field hospital and then sent back to the US Embassy in Moscow. In 2010 a Russian Museum exhibit, titled "Joseph R. Beyrle — A Hero of Two Nations," presented 260 artifacts from Beyrle's life and military career, including a collection of his medals, uniform and photographs.
    (AP, 2/18/10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Beyrle)
1945         Jan, The Albanian Communist provisional government of Enver Hoxha agreed to restore Kosova to Yugoslavia under Tito as an autonomous region; Yugoslav leaders brought Kosova under marshal law. Tribunals began in Albania to condemn thousands of "war criminals" and "enemies of the people" to death or prison. The Communist regime began to nationalize industry, transportation, forests, pastures.
    (www, Albania, 1998)(WSJ, 4/2/99, p.A9)(SFC, 3/3/98, p.A8)
1945        Jan, Allied forces repulsed the German counter-offensive in the Battle of the Bulge.
    (WUD, 1994, p.195)(SFC, 9/1/96, T3)
1945        Jan, In Poland a Soviet fighter bomber crashed into the frozen Bzura River. On August 23, 2015, parts of Soviet uniforms, a parachute, a sheepskin coat collar, parts of boots, a pilot's TT pistol and radio equipment were found, along with a lot of heavy ammunition, as river levels dropped to record lows.
    (AP, 8/25/15)
1945        Jan, The Red Army drove the Wehrmacht out of Poland and demolished Danzig (Gdansk) by bomb and gunfire.
    (SFEC, 5/24/98, p.T4)

1945        Feb 2, President Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill departed Malta for the Yalta summit with Soviet leader Josef Stalin.
    (AP, 2/2/97)
1945        Feb 2, Some 1,200 Royal Air Force planes blasted Wiesbaden and Karlsruhe.
    (HN, 2/2/99)
1945        Feb 2, Karl F. Goerdeler (60), mayor of Leipzig, "July 20th plot", was hanged.
    (MC, 2/2/02)

1945        Feb 3, The Allies dropped 3,000 tons of bombs on Berlin. Robert Rosenthal (1917-2007) led 1,000 B-17s in the raid on Berlin. Rosenthal later served as an assistant to the US prosecutor at the Nuremberg trials.
    (HN, 2/3/99)(SFC, 4/30/07, p.B8)
1945        Feb 3, In the Philippines the month-long Battle of Manila began.
    (AP, 2/28/15)

1945        Feb 4-1945 Feb 12, President Roosevelt, British PM Winston Churchill and Soviet leader Josef Stalin held a wartime conference in the Livadia Palace at Yalta, in the southern Ukraine. Roosevelt joked to Stalin that the only concession he might give to Ibn Saud in Saudi Arabia was "the 6 million Jews in the US." In 2012 Michael Dobbs authored “Six Months in 1945: FDR, Stalin, Churchill, and Truman – From World War to Cold War."
    (AP, 2/4/97)(WSJ, 3/8/99, p.A16)(SSFC, 11/25/12, p.F4)(Econ, 10/5/13, p.58)

1945        Feb 5, American and French troops destroyed German forces in the Colmar Pocket in France.
    (HN, 2/5/99)
1945        Feb 5, US troops under General Douglas MacArthur entered Manila ("I have returned!").
    (MC, 2/5/02)

1945        Feb 6, Bob Marley (d.1981), reggae superstar, was born in Jamaica. He is best remembered for his songs "Buffalo Soldier" and "Fire on the Mountain."
    (HN, 2/6/99)(SFC, 12/14/04, p.E10)
1945        Feb 6, MacArthur reported the fall of Manila, and the liberation of 5,000 prisoners.
    (HN, 2/6/99)
1945        Feb 6, The French government executed Robert Brasillach, writer and Nazi propagandist. He had been arrested in January, was tried for treason and convicted. In 2000 Alice Kaplan authored "The Collaborator: The Trial and Execution of Robert Brasillach."
    (SFEC, 8/13/00, BR p.9)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Brasillach)
1945        Feb 6, In northern Italy a B-25 Mitchell dubbed "Maybe" was damaged during a bombing run near Trento during World War II. Pilot Earl Remmel of Hooker, Oklahoma, and co-pilot Leslie Speer of Jeffersontown, Kentucky, kept the plane steady long enough for the other five crew members to bail out.
    (AP, 9/19/14)
1945        Feb 6, Russian Red Army crossed the river Oder.
    (MC, 2/6/02)

1945        Feb 7, US 76th and 5th Infantry divisions began crossing Sauer.
    (MC, 2/7/02)
1945        Feb 7, German troops and allied Slovak irregulars massacred 18 Jewish civilians discovered hiding in underground bunkers at Ksina, Slovakia.
    (AP, 12/19/05)

1945        Feb 8, Allied air attack on Goch, Kleef, Kalkar, Reichswald.
    (MC, 2/8/02)

1945        Feb 9, [Maria] Mia Farrow, actress (Rosemary's Baby, Purple Rose of Cairo, was born in LA.
    (MC, 2/9/02)
1945        Feb 9, The German submarine U-864 with a crew of 73 sank about 2 1/2 miles off Fedje, Norway. It was on a desperate mission to supply Japan with advanced weapons technology and carried a poisonous cargo of 70 tons of mercury. Leakage of the mercury posed a severe threat in 2006 and plans were made to encase the wreck. In 2007 Norway’s government said it would be buried in special sand to protect the coastline.
    (AP, 12/20/06)(AP, 2/13/07)

1945        Feb 10, "Rum & Coca Cola" by the Andrews Sisters hit #1.
    (MC, 2/10/02)
1945        Feb 10, B-29s hit the Tokyo area. It was a B-29 that dropped the bomb that ended World War II.
    (HN, 2/10/97)

1945        Feb 11, President Roosevelt, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and Soviet leader Josef Stalin signed the Yalta Agreement during World War II and adjourned. Alger Hiss was one of the advisors who accompanied Roosevelt.
    (WSJ, 5/5/95, p.A-12)(SFC, 11/16/96, p.A3)(HN, 2/11/97)(AP, 2/11/97)
1945        Feb 11, The 1st gas turbine propeller-driven airplane was flight tested, at Downey, Ca.
    (MC, 2/11/02)

1945        Feb 12, Mayor Roger Lapham of SF was informed by Washington that San Francisco was chosen as the site of the Founding Conference of the UN.
    (SFEC, 3/8/98, p.W39)

1945        Feb 13, Allied planes began bombing the German city of Dresden. British bombers in Operation Thunderclap firebombed the city of Dresden, Germany, and 135,000 people were killed. The Royal Air Force Bomber Command attacked the city of Dresden at night with raids by 873 heavy bombers. 796 Lancaster heavy bombers were led by 9 target marking Mosquito light bombers. A look at aerial maps of the city before and after the terror attacks clearly shows the large white oil tanks owned by British-controlled Shell Oil. These tanks remained entirely untouched by the bombardment. In 2003 Frederick Taylor authored “Dresden: Tuesday, February 13, 1945."
    (http://www.hartford-hwp.com/archives/61/001.html)(WSJ, 10/22/96, p.A20)(SFC, 1/6/97, p.A10)(SFEC, 7/27/97, p.T6)(SFEC, 1/30/00, p.T13)
1945        Feb 13, During World War II the Soviets captured Budapest, Hungary, from the Germans ending a 50-day siege.
    (HN, 2/13/98)(AP, 2/13/98)

1945        Feb 14, Gregory Hines, actor, dancer (White Nights, Taps), was born in NYC.
    (MC, 2/14/02)
1945        Feb 14, Saudi King Abd al-Aziz and Franklin D. Roosevelt met on a ship in the Suez Canal and reached an understanding whereby the US would protect the Saudi royal family in return for preferred access to Saudi oil. William Eddy, US minister to Saudi Arabia, arranged the meeting.
    (WSJ, 10/4/01, p.A1)(Econ, 11/8/08, p.102)(http://tinyurl.com/5a3c49)
1945        Feb 14, 521 American heavy bombers flew daylight raids over Dresden, Germany following the British assault. The firestorm killed an estimated 135,000 people. At least 35,000 died and some people place the toll closer to 70,000. The novel "Slaughterhouse Five" by Kurt Vonnegut was set in Dresden during the firebombing where he was being held as a prisoner of war. US B-17 bombers dropped 771 more tons on Dresden while P-51 Mustang fighters strafed roads packed with soldiers and civilians fleeing the burning city. In 2006 Marshall De Bruhl authored “Firestorm: Allied Airpower and the Destruction of Dresden."
    (WSJ, 10/22/96, p.A20)(SFC, 1/6/97, p.A10)(SFEC, 7/27/97, p.T6)(HN, 2/13/99)(SFEC, 1/30/00, p.T13)(SSFC, 12/17/06, p.M3)
1945        Feb 14, The siege of Budapest ended as the Soviets took the city. Only 785 German and Hungarian soldiers managed to escape.
    (HN, 2/14/99)
1945        Feb 14, Peru, Paraguay, Chile and Ecuador joined the United Nations.
    (AP, 2/14/98)

1945        Feb 16, American paratroopers landed on Corregidor during World War II, in a campaign to liberate the Philippines.
    (AP, 2/16/98)(HN, 2/16/98)

1945        Feb 17, Gen. MacArthur’s troops landed on Corregidor in the Philippines. General Tomoyuki Yamashita was the Japanese general opposing MacArthur.
    (HN, 2/17/98)

1945        Feb 18, U.S. Marines stormed ashore at Iwo Jima. Navajo code talkers used their native language to communicate by radio on Japanese troop movements.
    (HN, 2/18/98)(SFC, 6/4/98, p.A6)
1945        Feb 18, Soviet Gen. Ivan Chernyakhovsky (b.1906) died from wounds received outside Konigsberg. Chernyakhovsky was buried in Vilnius, Lithuania, near a square named in his honor. After Lithuania declared its independence from the Soviet Union in 1990 and following the dissolution of the Soviet Union itself in 1991, Chernyaknovsky's remains were reburied at the Novodevichy Cemetery in Moscow in 1992.

1945        Feb 19, During World War II, some 30,000 US Marines landed on Iwo Jima, an 8-sq. mile island of rock, volcanic ash and black sand, where they began a month-long battle to seize control of the island from Japanese forces. The 36-day battle took the lives of 7,000 Americans and about 20,000 of 22,000 Japanese defenders.
    (SFC, 6/19/96, p.A20)(SFC, 9/21/00, p.C6)(AP, 2/19/08)
1945        Feb 19, On Ramree Island off the coast of old Burma, some 900 Japanese soldiers retreated from British soldiers into an alligator filled swamp. Only about 20 men survived.
    (SFEC, 2/23/96, Z1 p.2)(MC, 2/19/02)
1945        Feb 19, Ivan Kozhedub of the Ukraine became the only Soviet pilot to shoot down a Messerschmitt Me-262 jet fighter and, on April 19, 1945, he downed two Focke-Wulf Fw-190s to bring his final tally to 62--the top Allied ace of the war. He was the Allies’ top ace and one of only two Soviet fighter pilots to be awarded the Gold Star of a Hero of the Soviet Union three times during World War II. Ironically prevented from fighting because his skill as a pilot made him more useful as an instructor, Kozhedub did not fly his first combat mission until March 26, 1943.
    (HNQ, 4//01)

1945        Feb 21, The Bismarck Sea was the last U.S. Navy aircraft carrier to be sunk in combat during World War II. The escort carrier Bismarck Sea  was supporting the invasion of Iwo Jima, when about 50 kamikazes attacked the U.S. Navy Task Groups 58.2 and 58.3. Fleet carrier Saratoga was struck by three suicide planes and so badly damaged that the war ended before she returned to service. At 6:45 p.m., two Mitsubishi A6M5 Zeros approached Bismarck Sea, which opened fire with her anti-aircraft guns. One Zero was set on fire, but its suicidal pilot pressed home his attack and crashed into the carrier abreast of the aft elevator, which fell into the hangar deck below. Two minutes later, an internal explosion devastated the ship, and at 7:05 p.m., Captain J.L. Pratt ordered Abandon Ship. Ravaged by further explosions over the next three hours, Bismarck Sea sank at 10 p.m., the last U.S. Navy carrier to go down as a result of enemy action during World War II. Of her crew of 943, 218 officers and men lost their lives.
    (HNQ, 10/5/01)

1945        Feb 23, Eisenhower opened a large offensive in the Rhineland.
    (HN, 2/23/98)
1945        Feb 23, During World War II, U.S. Marines on Iwo Jima captured Mount Suribachi, where they raised the American flag. Actually, there were two flag-raisings that day, the second was the one captured in the famous Associated Press photograph taken by Joe Rosenthal. John Bradley (d.1994), was one of the soldiers who raised the US flag at Iwo Jima. The carnage on the 8-sq.-mile island continued for another 31 days. One flag raising was captured by AP photographer Joseph Rosenthal (1911-2006) and inspired the 1954 sculpture by Felix de Weldon (d.2003) erected in Washington DC. Sgt. Bill Genaust filmed the event with a 16mm camera and died in combat 9 days later.
    (SFC, 9/21/00, p.C6)(SFC, 6/14/03, p.A21)(SFC, 8/21/06, p.A1)(AP, 2/23/07)
1945        Feb 23, Turkey declared war on Germany and Japan.
    (HN, 2/23/98)

1945        Feb 24, U.S. forces liberated prisoners of war in the Los Baños Prison in the Philippines.
    (HN, 2/24/99)
1945        Feb 24, American soldiers liberated the Philippine capital of Manila from Japanese control during World War II.
    (AP, 2/24/98)
1945        Feb 24, Egyptian Premier Ahmed Maher Pasha was killed in Parliament after reading a decree.
    (HN, 2/24/98)

1945        Feb 26, Mitch Ryder, rocker (Mitch Ryder and the Detroit Wheels-Devil With the Blue Dress), was born.
    (SC, 2/26/02)
1945        Feb 26, A midnight curfew on nightclubs, bars and other places of entertainment was set to go into effect across the US.
    (AP, 2/26/98)
1945        Feb 26, Very heavy bombing on Berlin by 8th US Air Force.
    (SC, 2/26/02)
1945        Feb 26, Syria declared war on Germany and Japan. [see Mar 26]
    (HN, 2/26/98)

1945        Feb 28, U.S. tanks broke the natural defense line west of the Rhine and crossed the Erft River.
    (HN, 2/28/98)

1945        Mar 1, Burning Spear [Winston Rodney], Jamaican reggae singer, was born.
    (SC, 3/1/02)
1945        Mar 1, President Roosevelt, back from the Yalta Conference, proclaimed the meeting a success when he addressed a joint session of Congress.
    (AP, 3/1/98)
1945        Mar 1, US infantry regiment captured Mönchengladbach.
    (SC, 3/1/02)
1945        Mar 1, British 43rd Division under General Essame occupied Xanten.
    (SC, 3/1/02)
1945        Mar 1, Chinese 30th division occupied Hsenwi.
    (SC, 3/1/02)
1945        Mar 1, Field marshal Kesselring succeeded von Rundstedt as commander.
    (SC, 3/1/02)

1945        Mar 2, The American flag is raised again over Corregidor, with General Douglas MacArthur and members of his staff present. MacArthur, commander of U.S. Army Forces in the Far East, reluctantly fled his headquarters on the rocky Philippine island of Corregidor in March 1942 as the Japanese closed in. MacArthur praised the gallant but futile defense of Corregidor as "an inspiration to carry on the struggle until the Allies should fight their way back" and vowed to return one day. On February 16, 1945, elements of the U.S. Sixth Army began the assault on Corregidor, and after furious fighting, MacArthur made good on his promise.
    (HN, 3/2/99)
1945        Mar 2, 8th Air Force bombed Dresden.
    (SC, 3/2/02)
1945        Mar 2, King Michael of Romania gave in to Communist government.
    (SC, 3/2/02)

1945        Mar 3, Mystery fans remember this day as they gathered around the radio set, listening to the Mutual Broadcasting System as Superman encountered Batman and Robin for the first time. The cartoon character was created by Joe Schuster and Jerry Siegel at DC Comics.
    (HC, Internet, 3/3/98)(SFC, 7/8/04, p.B9)
1945        Mar 3, US 7th Army occupied last part of Westwall (Germany).
    (SC, 3/3/02)
1945        Mar 3, Churchill visited Montgomery's headquarters.
    (SC, 3/3/02)
1945        Mar 3, Finland declared war on the Axis.
    (HN, 3/3/99)
1945        Mar 3, Roermond-Venlo, Netherlands, was freed.
    (SC, 3/3/02)
1945        Mar 3, RAF bombing error hit The Hague and killed 511.
    (SC, 3/3/02)
1945        Mar 3, The Allies fully secured the Philippine capital of Manila from Japanese forces during World War II. Manila was destroyed and more than 100,000 civilians killed. About 16,000 Japanese soldiers and 1,000 US troops also died in the fighting from Feb 3 to March 3.
    (AP, 3/3/07)(AP, 2/28/15)

1945        Mar 5, US 7th Army Corps captured Cologne.
    (MC, 3/5/02)
1945        Mar 5, Georgia denied clemency and executed Lena Baker (b.1900), a black maid. She had been sentenced to die following a one-day trial before an all-male jury for the murder of E.B. Knight. He had held her against her will in a grist mill and threatened to shoot her if she tried to leave. In 2005 the Georgia Board of Pardons decided to pardon her. The movie The Lena Baker Story (2008) is about her life.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lena_Baker)(SFC, 8/16/05, p.A4)
1945        Mar 5, Allies bombed The Hague, Netherlands.
    (MC, 3/5/02)

1945        Mar 6, Rob Reiner, actor, director (All in the Family, Stand By Me), was born in Bronx, NY.
    (MC, 3/6/02)
1945        Mar 6, Federico Garcia Lorca's "La Casa," premiered in Buenos Aires.
    (MC, 3/6/02)
1945        Mar 6, Cologne, Germany, fell to General Hodges' First Army.
    (HN, 3/6/98)
1945        Mar 6, Erich Honnecker and Erich Hanke fled Nazis.
    (MC, 3/6/02)
1945        Mar 6, In Holland SS General Hans Albin Rauter, was ambushed, and his driver and orderly were killed. Rauter was seriously wounded. SS Brigadefuhrer Dr. Eberhardt Schongarth immediately ordered reprisals and a total of 263 people were shot. A Special Court of Justice in the Hague sentenced Rauter to death and he was executed March 25, 1949. Schongarth was tried by a British Military Court, found guilty on another war crime charge, sentenced to death and was hanged in 1946.
    (WW2D, p.610)

1945        Mar 7, The US 9th Armored Division crossed the Rhine River at Remagen, Germany, using the damaged but still usable Ludendorff Bridge. This marked the 1st incursion of Allied forces into Germany.  The bridge was the last of 22 road and railroad bridges over the Rhine still standing after German defenders failed to demolish it. US forces were able to capture the bridge.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Remagen)(AP, 3/7/98)(SFC, 4/9/03, p.A16)
1945        Mar 7, Cologne was taken by allied armies.
    (MC, 3/7/02)
1945        Mar 7, In Yugoslavia the Communist government of Tito formed.
    (MC, 3/7/02)(AP, 10/20/02)

1945        Mar 8, "Kiss Me Kate" opened in Britain.
    (MC, 3/8/02)
1945        Mar 8, Phyllis Mae Daley received a commission in the U.S. Navy Nurse Corps. She was the first African-American nurse to serve duty in World War II.
    (HN, 3/8/99)
1945        Mar 8, The U.S. First Army crossed the Rhine between Cologne and Coblenz.
    (HN, 3/8/98)
1945        Mar 8, 53 Amsterdammers were executed by Nazi occupiers.
    (MC, 3/8/02)

1945        Mar 9, During World War II, 334 U.S. B29 bombers launched incendiary bomb attacks against Tokyo, Japan, causing widespread devastation.
    (HFA, '96, p.26)(AP, 3/9/98)(Econ, 10/7/06, p.52)

1945        Mar 10, Patton's 3rd Army made contact with Hodge's 1st Army.
    (MC, 3/10/02)
1945        Mar 10, Germany blew up the Wessel Bridge on the Rhine.
    (MC, 3/10/02)
1945        Mar 10, Some 300 American B-29s bombed Tokyo overnight with almost 2,000 tons of incendiaries killing some 100,000 people.
    (HN, 3/10/98)(Econ., 3/7/15, p.42)
1945        Mar 10, US troops landed on Mindanao.
    (MC, 3/10/02)
1945        Mar 10, In the Philippines Pfc. Thomas Eugene Atkins (d. 1999 at 78) repulsed a Japanese attack while wounded and killed 14 enemy soldiers in northern Luzon.
    (SFC, 9/24/99, p.D6)

1945        Mar 11, 1,000 allied bombers harassed Essen with 4,662 tons of bombs.
    (MC, 3/12/02)
1945        Mar 11, Flemish Nazi collaborator Maria Huygens was sentenced to death.
    (MC, 3/12/02)

1945        Mar 12, NY became the 1st state to prohibit discrimination by race and creed in employment.
    (MC, 3/12/02)
1945        Mar 12, Italy's Communist Party (CPI) called for armed uprising in Italy.
    (MC, 3/12/02)
1945        Mar 12, In Amsterdam 30 people were executed by Nazi occupiers.
    (MC, 3/12/02)
1945        Mar 12, USSR returned Transylvania to Romania.
    (MC, 3/12/02)
1945        Mar 12, Anne Frank, author of "The Diary of Anne Frank," died at Bergen-Belsen concentration camp a month before it was liberated. When the British arrived in April, they found more than 10,000 unburied corpses. Some 14,000 of the prisoners found at the camp died within a few days.
    (SFEC, 1/5/97, p.B8)(HNQ, 4/13/00)(HN, 3/12/01)   

1945        Mar 13, Queen Wilhelmina returned to Netherlands.
    (MC, 3/13/02)
1945        Mar 13, Peru declared war on Germany.
    (HN, 3/13/98)

1945        Mar 14, Sgt. 1st Class Marvin Steinford, a native of Iowa, was part of a 10-man crew of a B-17 bomber which was hit, while returning to its base in Italy from a mission over Hungary. In 2004 his remains were found in a grave in the town on Zirc in western Hungary, where he had been buried with 26 Soviet soldiers. In 2009 his remains were returned to the US.
    (AP, 8/4/09)
1945        Mar 14, Chile declared war on Germany.
    (HN, 3/14/98)
1945          Mar 14, A supreme Lithuanian independence committee was re-formed in Germany. The committee was 1st formed Nov 25, 1943, in Lithuania.
    (LHC, 3/14/03)

1945        Mar 15, Bing Cosby and Ingrid Bergman were winners in the 17th Academy Awards along with the film "Going my Way."
    (MC, 3/15/02)   
1945        Mar 15, Pierre Drieu La Rochelle (b.1893), a well-known French collaborationist and fascist writer, committed suicide.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pierre_Drieu_La_Rochelle)(Econ, 4/26/14, p.84)

1945        Mar 16, During World War II, the island of Iwo Jima in the Pacific Ocean was declared secured by the Allies. The U.S. defeated Japan at Iwo Jima. Small pockets of Japanese resistance still exist.
    (AP, 3/16/97)(HN, 3/16/99)

1945        Mar 17, In Germany the bridge at Remagen, weakened by shelling and the passage of some 50,000 Allied troops, fell taking 28 US soldiers to their deaths.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Remagen)(AP, 5/7/18)
1945        Mar 17, Allied ships bombed North Sumatra.
    (MC, 3/17/02)

1945        Mar 18, 1,250 US bombers attacked Berlin.
    (MC, 3/18/02)
1945        Mar 18, US Task Force 58 attacked targets on Kyushu.
    (MC, 3/18/02)
1945        Mar 18, Suicide bombs were introduced.
    (HFA, ‘96, p.26)

1945        Mar 19, US Task Force 58 attacked ships near Kobe and Kure.
    (MC, 3/19/02)
1945        Mar 19, Kamikaze planes attacked the US carrier Franklin off Japan killing 724 people; the ship, however, was saved.
    (AP, 3/19/97)
1945        Mar 19, Adolf Hitler issued his so-called "Nero Decree," ordering the destruction of German facilities that could fall into Allied hands. Hitler ordered a scorched-earth policy. Hitler had decreed that Paris should be left a smoking ruin, but Dietrich von Choltitz thought better of his Fuhrer's order.
    (AP, 3/19/97)(HN, 3/19/98)

1945        Mar 21, During World War II, Allied bombers began four days of raids over Germany.
    (AP, 3/21/97)
1945        Mar 21, A British bombing raid was made on Gestapo Headquarters in Denmark to thwart a planned German arrest of the leadership of the banned Freedom Council. A 2nd wave of bombers hit a school by mistake killing 86 students and 13 adults.
    (SFC, 9/23/02, p.B5)

1945        Mar 22, The Arab League was formed with the adoption of a charter in Cairo, Egypt. Saudi Arabia became a founding member of the UN and the Arab League.
    (AP, 3/22/97)(WSJ, 11/13/01, p.A14)
1945        Mar 22, The US 3rd Army crossed the Rhine at Nierstein.
    (MC, 3/22/02)

1945        Mar 23, Premier Winston Churchill visited Montgomery's headquarter in Straelen.
    (SS, 3/23/02)
1945        Mar 23, British 7th Black Watch crossed the Rhine.
    (SS, 3/23/02)
1945        Mar 23, Largest operation in Pacific war: 1,500 US Navy ships bombed Okinawa.
    (SS, 3/23/02)

1945        Mar 24, Gens. Eisenhower, Montgomery and Bradley discussed advance in Germany.
    (MC, 3/24/02)
1945        Mar 24, Largest one-day airborne drop: 600 transports and 1300 gliders.
    (MC, 3/24/02)
1945        Mar 24, Operation Varsity: British, US and Canadian airborne landings east of Rhine.
    (MC, 3/24/02)
1945        Mar 24, Egypt declared war on Germany.
    (HN, 3/24/98)

1945        Mar 25, US 1st army broke out bridgehead near Remagen.
    (MC, 3/25/02)

1945        Mar 26, Generals Eisenhower, Bradley, and Patton attack at Remagen on the Rhine.
    (SS, 3/26/02)
1945        Mar 26, US 7th Army crossed Rhine at Worms.
    (SS, 3/26/02)
1945        Mar 26, Japanese resistance ended on Iwo Jima.
    (SS, 3/26/02)
1945        Mar 26, Kamikazes attacked US battle fleet near Kerama Retto.
    (SS, 3/26/02)
1945        Mar 26, Syria declared war on Germany. [see Feb 26]
    (HN, 3/25/98)
1945        Mar 26, David Lloyd George (b.1863), former prime minister (1916-1922), died. In 1973 John Grigg (d.2001 at 77) authored "The Young Lloyd George." 2 more volumes of the biography were published in 1978 and 1985.
    (WUD, 1994 p.839)(SFC, 1/3/02, p.A16)(SS, 3/26/02)

1945        Mar 27, Ella Fitzgerald and the Delta Rhythm Boys recorded "It's Only a Paper Moon."
    (MC, 3/27/02)
1945        Mar 27, General Dwight D. Eisenhower told reporters in Paris that German defenses on the Western Front had been broken.
    (AP, 3/27/97)(HN, 3/27/98)
1945        Mar 27, Iwo Jima was occupied, after 22,000 Japanese & 6,000 US killed.
    (MC, 3/27/02)
1945        Mar 27, US 20th Army corps captured Wiesbaden.
    (MC, 3/27/02)

1945        Mar 28, Germany launched the last of the V-2 rockets (buzz bomb) against England.
    (HN, 3/28/99)

1945        Mar 29, German SS as well as Hitler Youth members shot at least 57 laborers in woods near the small town of Deutsch Schuetzen, later part of Austria. In 2009 German prosecutors charged a 90-year-old alleged former member of Hitler's SS with 58 counts of murder.
    (AFP, 11/17/09)

1945        Mar 30, A Soviet cable was intercepted that referred to an agent named Ales, later suspected of being Alger Hiss. The intercepted cables were classified as part of the "Venona Project" released in 1996. The US began releasing the coded Venona cables in 1995. They implicated 349 US citizens and residents as Soviet helpers. In 1999 John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr published "Venona," the story of the Soviet infiltration of Washington.
    (SFC, 11/21/96, p.A27)(WSJ, 6/24/99, p.A20)
1945        Mar 30, 289 anti-fascists were murdered by Nazis in Rombergpark,  Dortmund.
    (MC, 3/30/02)
1945        Mar 30, The Soviet Union invaded Austria during World War II.
    (AP, 3/30/97)(HN, 3/30/98)

1945        Mar 31, The Tennessee Williams play "The Glass Menagerie" premiered on Broadway.
    (AP, 3/30/97)
1945        Mar 31, The U.S. and Britain barred a Soviet supported provisional regime in Warsaw from entering the U.N. meeting in San Francisco.
    (HN, 3/31/98)
1945        Mar 31, US artillery landed on Keise Shima and began firing on Okinawa.
    (MC, 3/31/02)
1945        Mar 31, Sicherheitsdienst murdered 10 political prisoners in Zutphen.
    (MC, 3/31/02)

1945        Mar, Marcel Carne (1906-1990), French film director, premiered "The Children of Paradise" (Les Enfants du Paradis). The 3 ½ hr. film starred Jean-Louis Barrault and Arletty and centered on the life of 19th century mime Jean-Baptiste Debureau. The epic film classic was a singular evocation of show biz in the time of Balzac. Maria Casares (1922-1996) achieved stardom for her 1943 role in "Les Enfants du Paradis."
    (SFC, 11/1/96, p.A28)(WSJ, 10/20/95, p. A-12)(SFC, 11/25/96, p.B2)
1945        Mar, The German submarine U-96, commissioned in September 1940, was sunk during a US bombing raid on the port city of Wilhelmshaven. It had gone on 11 patrols in the Atlantic Ocean before it was sunk. In 1981 Lothar-Guenther Buchheim (1918-2007), authored his autobiographical novel, "Das Boot," based on his service aboard the sub. In 1981, the book was turned into an acclaimed German film starring Juergen Prochnow that detailed the hopelessness of war and its effect on sailors living in the cramped confines of their submarine.
    (AP, 2/23/07)
1945        Mar, American B-29 attacks on Tokyo caused some 83,703 deaths.
    (SSFC, 8/7/05, p.B1)
1945        Mar, In the Philippines Gen'l. Tomoyuki Yamashita retreated with 140,000 soldiers to the Central Cordillera and Caraballo mountain ranges of northern Luzon island.
    (SFC, 9/24/99, p.D6)

1945        Apr 1, Easter Sunday, the American assault on Okinawa began with 150,000 army and marine soldiers. It was the last campaign of World War II. The island was defended by 100,000 Japanese troops and auxiliaries. It took three months of heavy fighting to secure the island. US casualties numbered 68,000 with 8,000 dead. Japanese civilian casualties are estimated at 100-200 thousand killed. A book was published in 1995 by Col. Hiromishi Yahara, chief Japanese strategist of Okinawa titled "The Battle for Okinawa." A counterpoint to the colonel’s account is a collection of first hand accounts from US soldiers in Gerold Astor’s "Operation Iceberg."
    (WSJ, 8/29/95, p.A-12)(AP, 4/1/98)(HN, 4/1/98)
1945        Apr 1, Canadian troop freed Doetinchem, Enschede, Borculo & Eibergen.
    (MC, 4/1/02)

1945        Apr 2, Linda Hunt, actress (Bostonians, Eleni, Silverado), was born in Morristown, NJ.
    (MC, 4/2/02)
1945        Apr 2, 1st US units reached the east coast of Okinawa.
    (MC, 4/2/02)

1945        Apr 3, Nazis began evacuation of camp Buchenwald. [see Apr 20]
    (MC, 4/3/02)

1945        Apr 4,    U.S. forces liberated the Nazi death camp Ohrdruf in Germany.
    (AP, 4/4/97)
1945        Apr 4, US tanks and infantry conquered Bielefeld.
    (MC, 4/4/02)
1945        Apr 4,    US troops on Okinawa encountered the first significant resistance from Japanese forces at the Machinato Line.
    (AP, 4/4/07)
1945        Apr 4, Hungary was liberated from Nazi occupation (National Day).
    (MC, 4/4/02)

1945        Apr 6, During World War II, the Japanese warship Yamato and nine other vessels sailed on a suicide mission to attack the U.S. fleet off Okinawa; the fleet was intercepted the next day.
    (AP, 4/6/99)

1945        Apr 7,    During World War II, American planes intercepted a Japanese fleet that was headed for Okinawa on a suicide mission. The Japanese battleship Yamato, the world's largest battleship, was sunk during the battle for Okinawa along with 4 Japanese destroyers.
    (AP, 4/7/97)(HN, 4/7/99)(MC, 4/7/02)

1945        Apr 8, Nazi occupiers were executed. Nazi general Christiansen fled the Netherlands.
    (MC, 4/8/02)

1945        Apr 9, The Red Army was repulsed at the Seelow Heights on the outskirts of Berlin.
    (HN, 4/9/00)
1945        Apr 9, Dietrich Bonhoeffer (b.1906), a German Lutheran theologian and antifascist, was hanged by the Nazis at Flossenburg prison. He had participated in the failed July 20, 1944, plot to assassinate Hitler. A TV documentary on Bonhoeffer was aired in 2006.
    (SFC, 2/15/03, p.A14)(WSJ, 2/3/06, p.W10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dietrich_Bonhoeffer)
1945        Apr 9, Hans Oster, German major-general, spy and participant in the "July 20th plot", was hanged by Nazis.
    (MC, 4/9/02)
1945        Apr 9, Hans von Dohnanyi, "July 20th plotter", hanged by Nazis.
    (MC, 4/9/02)
1945        Apr 9, Wilhelm Canaris, Admiral, headed Germany Abwehr, was hanged by Nazis.
    (MC, 4/9/02)

1945        Apr 10, US troops landed on Tsugen Shima, Okinawa.
    (MC, 4/10/02)
1945        Apr 10, German Me 262 jet fighters shot down ten U.S. bombers near Berlin.
    (HN, 4/10/99)
1945        Apr 10, In their second attempt to take the Seelow Heights, near Berlin, the Red Army launched numerous attacks against the defending Germans. The Soviets gain one mile at the cost of 3,000 men killed and 368 tanks destroyed.
    (HN, 4/10/00)

1945        Apr 11, The Americans liberated the Buchenwald concentration camp in Germany. Some 250,000 prisoners passed through the camp and 50,000 are known to have died there. From 1945 to 1950, occupying Soviet forces used the camp to hold political prisoners.
    (AP, 4/11/97)(WSJ, 3/26/99, p.B1)(SFC, 8/3/99, p.A10)(AP, 6/5/09)
1945        Apr 11, U.S. troops reached the Elbe River in Germany.
    (HN, 4/11/98)
1945        Apr 11, The US battleship Missouri was struck by a kamikaze pilot while it was operating off the coast of Okinawa.
1945        Apr 11, After two frustrating days of being repulsed and absorbing tremendous casualties, the Red Army finally takes the Seelow Heights north of Berlin.
    (HN, 4/11/00)
1945        Apr 11, The Nazi SS burned and shot 1,100 at Gardelegen.
    (MC, 4/11/02)

1945        Apr 12, Richard Strauss completed his "Metamorphosis."
    (MC, 4/12/02)
1945        Apr 12, Pres. Franklin Delano Roosevelt the 32nd president of the United States, died of a cerebral hemorrhage in Warm Springs, Ga., at age 63. Roosevelt, a polio victim confined to a wheelchair, spent a great deal of time in the soothing waters of the resort. He succumbed to a cerebral hemorrhage while posing for a portrait by Elizabeth Shoumatoff at what came to be known as the Little White House in Warm Springs, where the unfinished portrait remains on display. Lucy Rutherford Mercer, his secret companion, was at his bedside. He was succeeded by his Vice-President, Harry S. Truman. The 63-year-old president had been at Warm Springs, Georgia, since March 28, resting from the rigors of leading a nation at war. Roosevelt, left paralyzed by polio in 1921, was elected to the nation's highest office four times and is judged by historians to be among the greatest American presidents. He was buried at the Roosevelt family home in Hyde Park, New York. The period is covered in "Mr. Truman’s War" (1996) by Robert Moskin. In 2001 "The  New Dealer’s War," the 5th and last volume of the Roosevelt biography by Thomas Fleming (d.1999) was published. In 2001 Kenneth S. Davis authored "FDR: The War President." In 2003 Conrad Black, aka Lord Black of Crossharbour, authored "Franklin Delano Roosevelt." In 2008 H. W. Brands authored “"Traitor to His Class: The Privileged Life and Radical Presidency of Franklin Delano Roosevelt."
    (A & IP., ESM, p.167)(WSJ, 8/9/96, p.A8)(SFC, 9/6.96, p.A10)(AP, 4/12/97)(HN, 4/11/99)(HNQ, 6/16/00)(WSJ, 4/26/01, p.A18)(WSJ, 12/3/03, p.D12)(Econ, 11/1/08, p.95)
1945        Apr 12, Robert Daniell (1901-1996), British tank commander, entered with his tank crew into Bergen-Belsen concentration camp. He found some 10,000 corpses killed by the guards as the allies approached. Of the remaining 38,500 prisoners, barely a third survived.
    (SFEC, 1/5/97, p.B8)
1945        Apr 12, Canadian troops liberated the Nazi concentration camp at Westerbork, Neth.
    (MC, 4/12/02)

1945        Apr 13, US marines conquered Minna Shima off Okinawa.
    (MC, 4/13/02)
1945        Apr 13, Vienna fell to Soviet troops. In the three weeks after Soviet troops took Vienna some 87,000 women were reported to have been raped.
    (HN, 4/13/99)(Econ, 6/18/16, p.46)
1945        Apr 13, The German steamer Karlsruhe was bombed by Soviet planes and sunk in the Baltic Sea with the loss of hundreds of civilian and military lives. In 2020 Polish divers found the wreckage north of the coastal resort of Ustka.
    (AP, 10/1/20)
1945        Apr 13, Ernst Cassirer, German philosopher, died in NYC. His work included the 3-volume "Philosophy of Symbolic Forms" (1923-1929).

1945        Apr 14, Robert Dole, later US senator and 1996 presidential candidate, was severely crippled by an artillery shell. During World War II, Robert Dole served in the 85th Regiment of the 10th Mountain Division. While stationed in Italy he participated in Operation Craftsman where he was wounded during a firefight with German troops. Dole spent nearly 40 months in army hospitals and lost most of the use of his right arm as a result.
    (SFC, 4/14/96, p.A-4)(HNQ, 2/7/02)
1945        Apr 14, US 7th Army and allies forces captured Nuremberg and Stuttgart, Germany.
    (MC, 4/14/02)
1945        Apr 14, US forces conquered Motobu peninsula on Okinawa.
    (MC, 4/14/02)
1945        Apr 14, B-29's damaged the Imperial Palace during firebombing raid over Tokyo.
    (HN, 4/14/98)
1945        Apr 14, Arnhem and Zwolle were freed from Nazis.
    (MC, 4/14/02)

1945        Apr 15, President Franklin D. Roosevelt was buried on the grounds of his Hyde Park home.
    (HN, 4/15/98)
1945        Apr 15, Commenting on the death of American President Franklin Roosevelt in his Order of the Day, Adolf Hitler proclaimed: "Now that fate has removed from the earth the greatest war criminal of all time, the turning point of this war will be decided."
    (HNQ, 10/8/99)
1945        Apr 15, British and Canadian troops liberated the Nazi concentration camp at Bergen-Belsen. It is a village in west Germany about 30 miles north of Hanover. About 40,000 people were liberated from the camp, although about 13,000 later died of illness. Overall, about 70,000 people died in Belsen.
    (AHD, p.122)(AP, 4/17/05)
1945        Apr 15, The deadly battle for Berlin began. The Seelow Heights posed the last natural barrier to Berlin in April 1945 from an advancing Red Army. The rolling plains and plateaus of the Seelow Heights were only 35 miles from the German capital and were well defended. The battle, which raged for a week, was extremely costly to both sides, leaving some 30,000 Red Army soldiers and at least 80,000 Germans killed.
    (HNQ, 4/16/99)
1945        Apr 15, The USS Laffey, built at Maine's Bath Iron Works in 1943, got its nickname as "The Ship That Would Not Die" when it was on picket duty off Okinawa. About 50 Japanese planes attacked and about half got through to the Laffey. The ship suffered 103 casualties when it was hit by four bombs and five kamikaze planes. In 2012 it returned to its home at a maritime museum on Charleston Harbor on the South Carolina coast.
    (AP, 1/25/12)(http://www.navsource.org/archives/05/724.htm)                   

1945        Apr 16, In his first speech to Congress, President Truman pledged to carry out the war and peace policies of his predecessor, President Roosevelt.
    (AP, 4/16/97)
1945            Apr 16, After a 2-day fight US troops liberated the German POW camp at Colditz Castle.
1945        Apr 16, U.S. troops reached Nuremberg, Germany, during World War II.
    (AP, 4/16/98)(HN, 4/16/98)
1945        Apr 16, US troops landed on He Shima, Okinawa.
    (MC, 4/16/02)

1945        Apr 17, The US Army raided factory in Stassfurt, Germany, and found some 1,100 tons of ore, some in the form of uranium oxide, a basic material of atomic bombs. It was part of mission Alsos, intended to track down Germany's atomic bomb project and nuclear scientists. In 1986 Richard Rhodes authored "The Making of the Atomic Bomb."
    (SFC, 9/1/03, p.B4)
1945        Apr 17, 8th Air Force bombed Dresden.
    (MC, 4/17/02)
1945        Apr 17, Mussolini fled from to Milan.
    (MC, 4/17/02)
1945        Apr 17, Canadian lead tanks roll into Apeldoorn, Netherlands, loudly cheered by relieved residents.
1945        Apr 17, Hannie Schaft (24), Dutch resistance fighter who lived in Haarlem, known as the "Girl with red hair," was executed by the Germans just one month before the war ended. She was a student who joined the resistance early in the war. On her bicycle she delivered ration coupons, newspapers, secret information and weapons. She was shot and buried in a shallow grave in the Dunes around Bloemendaal.
    (MC, 4/17/02)(Internet)
1945        Apr 17, Walter Model (54), German field marshal, committed suicide. [see Apr 21]
    (MC, 4/17/02)

1945        Apr 18, Ernie Pyle (b.1900), famed American war correspondent, was killed at age 44 by Japanese gunfire on the Pacific island of Ie Shima, off Okinawa. He did a syndicated aviation column from 1928-1932, and served as a roving reporter from 1935-1939. In 1997 James Tobin published "Ernie Pyle’s War: America’s Eyewitness to World War II."
    (AP, 4/18/97)(MT, Sum. ‘98, p.22)

1945        Apr 19, The Rodgers and Hammerstein adopted Ferenc Molnar’s "Lilliom" and produced the musical "Carousel" on Broadway.
    (SFEC, 8/25/96, DB p.40)(AP, 4/19/97)
1945        Apr 19, US aircraft carrier Franklin was heavily damaged in Japanese air raid.
    (MC, 4/19/02)

1945        Apr 20, During World War II, Allied forces, the U.S. 7th army, took control of the German cities of Nuremberg and Stuttgart.
    (AP, 4/20/97)(HN, 4/20/98)
1945        Apr 20, American forces liberated Buchenwald. 350 Americans were imprisoned at Berga, a sub-camp of Buchenwald, following their Dec, 1944, capture at the Battle of the Bulge. Charles Guggenheim's (d.2002) last documentary film was title "Berga." [see Apr 10-11]
    (WSJ, 5/28/03, p.D8)
1945        Apr 20, US forces conquered Motobu peninsula on Okinawa.
    (MC, 4/20/02)
1945        Apr 20, Soviet troops began their attack on Berlin.
    (HFA, ‘96, p.28)(HN, 4/20/98)

1945        Apr 21, Allied troops occupied a German nuclear laboratory.
    (MC, 4/21/02)
1945        Apr 21, German Field Marshal Walther Model, known as the "Fuhrer‘s Fireman," shot himself near Dusseldorf. Hitler, who called Model "the Savior of the Eastern Front," sent him to shore up the perceived failings of others and to faithfully carry out his most ignorant and impossible orders. A sycophant to the end, Model sent Hitler a note commending his survival of the July bomb plot. Model‘s army was eventually enveloped in the Ruhr in 1945 and, although offered terms for surrender, Model chose to commit suicide.
    (HNQ, 2/25/00)
1945        Apr 21, He Shima, Okinawa, was conquered in 5 days with 5,000 dead.
    (MC, 4/21/02)
1945        Apr 21, Russian army arrived at outskirts of Berlin.
    (MC, 4/21/02)

1945        Apr 22, In Croatia hundreds of prisoners were killed when 1,073 prisoners attempted to escape from the Jasenovac death camp. The Ustashe were killing fast before closing down the Jasenovac camp. 87 inmates escaped. 1000 others were recaptured or shot and killed while fleeing. Brother Satan, who took part in a World War II massacre of 2,000 Serbs by Ustashe troops and whose real name was Tomislav Filipovic Majstorovic, was defrocked in 1943 but stayed on in the camp, known as "Auschwitz of the Balkans," where he was said to have killed freely. Independent historians put the number of victims executed there at between 80,000 and 100,000.
    (SFC, 3/23/99, p.A10)(AP, 4/24/05)(AP, 4/12/19)
1945        Apr 22, Hitler acknowledged that the war was lost. A stenographic record of Hitler’s conferences with his generals from Apr, 1942, until Apr, 1945, was published in 2003 as: "Hitler and His Generals." It was edited by Helmut Heiber and David M. Glantz."
    (WSJ, 2/5/03, p.A1)
1945        Apr 22, Soviet troops liberated the concentration Camp at Sachsenhausen. Soviet secret police then used the camp just north of Berlin to imprison many Nazis as well as critics of the Soviet occupation of eastern Germany after the defeat of Adolf Hitler's regime. In all, an estimated 60,000 people were sent to "Special Camp No. 1" in 1945-50. In 2008 researchers finished compiling a list of 11,890 Germans who died there.
    (AP, 4/17/05)(AP, 3/6/08)

1945        Apr 23, US troops in Italy crossed the river Po.
    (MC, 4/23/02)
1945        Apr 23, The concentration camp at Flossenburg was liberated.
    (MC, 4/23/02)
1945        Apr 23, The Soviet Army fought its way into Berlin.
    (HN, 4/23/99)

1945        Apr 25, Stu Cook, rock bassist (Creedence Clearwater Revival-Proud Mary), was born.
    (SS, 4/25/02)
1945        Apr 25, Bjorn Ulvaeus, rock vocalist, guitarist (ABBA-Waterloo, Dancing Queen), was born.
    (SS, 4/25/02)
1945           Apr 25, Delegates from some 50 countries met in San Francisco to organize the United Nations. Charles Easton Rothwell (d.1987) headed the 500-member group that helped establish the UN Charter.
    (AP, 4/25/97)(SFC, 8/14/04, p.B6)
1945        Apr 25, During World War II, U.S. and Soviet forces linked up at Torgau, on the Elbe River, in central Europe, a meeting that dramatized the collapse of Nazi Germany.
    (AP, 4/25/97)(HN, 4/25/98)
1945        Apr 25, Some 318 British Lancaster bombers dropped 1,232 tons of bombs on Hitler’s alpine redoubt at Obersalzberg near Berchtesgaden.
    (SSFC, 8/6/06, p.G5)
1945        Apr 25, Last B-17 attack against Nazi Germany.
    (HN, 4/25/98)
1945        Apr 25, Clandestine Radio 1212, used to hoax Nazi Germany, made its final transmission.
    (SS, 4/25/02)

1945        Apr 26, Marshal Henri Philippe Petain, the head of France's Vichy government during World War II, was arrested. In 2001 Adam Nossiter authored "The Algeria Hotel: France, Memory and the Second World War." The Algeria Hotel had been headquarters for the Vichy government’s anti-Jewish agency. Nossiter included accounts of the hangings at Tulle and the massacre of 642 people in Oradour. In 204 Robert O. Paxton authored “Vichy France: Old Guard and New Order."
    (AP, 4/26/98)(SSFC, 8/26/01, DB p.80)(Econ, 3/13/04, p.85)

1945        Apr 27, August Wilson, US playwright (Fences, Pulitzer 1987), was born.
    (MC, 4/27/02)
1945        Apr 27, US 5th army entered Genoa.
    (MC, 4/27/02)
1945        Apr 27, Italian partisans captured Mussolini.
    (MC, 4/27/02)

1945        Apr 28, John F. Kennedy, correspondent for the Hearst Newspapers, filed his 1st dispatch on the founding of the UN in San Francisco.
    (SSFC, 6/26/05, p.F1)
1945        Apr 28, US 5th army reached the Swiss border.
    (MC, 4/28/02)
1945        Apr 28, British commands attacked Elbe and occupied Lauenburg.
    (MC, 4/28/02)
1945        Apr 28, Italian dictator Benito Mussolini and his mistress, Clara Petacci, were executed by Italian partisans as they attempted to flee the country. In 1961 Charles F. Delzell, a historian at Vanderbilt Univ., wrote "Mussolini's Enemies: The Italian Anti-Fascist Resistance." In 2005 R.J.B. Bosworth authored "Mussolini’s Italy." In 2007 Philip Morgan authored “The Fall of Mussolini. In 2009 the diaries of Clara Petacci were published as a book.
    (AP, 4/28/97)(SFC, 9/21/99, p.E4)(Econ, 10/8/05, p.92)(Econ, 7/14/07, p.89)(Econ, 11/21/09, p.55)

1945        Apr 29, American soldiers liberated 31,601 in the Dachau, Germany, concentration camp; that same day, Adolf Hitler married Eva Braun (b.1912) and designated Adm. Karl Doenitz his successor. Hitler and Braun committed suicide the next day. In 2011 Heike B. Gortemaker authored “Eva Braun: Life With Hitler."
    (AP, 4/29/98)(HN, 4/29/98)(SSFC, 10/30/11, p.F5)
1945        Apr 29, The German Army in Italy surrendered unconditionally to the Allies. Venice and Mestre were captured by the Allies. In 1956 Norman Kogan, historian at the Univ. of Connecticut, wrote "Italy and the Allies."
    (HN, 4/29/99)(SFC, 9/21/99, p.E4)(MC, 4/29/02)
1945        Apr 29, Japanese army evacuated Rangoon.
    (MC, 4/29/02)

1945        Apr 30, Annie Dillard, writer (Pilgrim at Tinker Creek), was born.
    (HN, 4/30/01)
1945        Apr 30, "Arthur Godfrey Time" made its debut on the CBS radio network.
    (AP, 4/30/05)
1945        Apr 30, The show “Queen For Today" began on the Mutual Broadcasting Company radio program. In 1956 it moved to television as Queen For a Day until 1964 with a 2nd run from 1969-1970.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Queen_for_a_Day)(WSJ, 2/4/08, p.B1)
1945        Apr 30, US troops attacked at the Elbe.
    (MC, 4/30/02)
1945        Apr 30, Lord Haw-Haw called for a crusade against the Bolsheviks.
    (MC, 4/30/02)
1945        Apr 30, Red Army opened an attack on German Reichstag building in Berlin.
    (MC, 4/30/02)
1945        Apr 30, The Russian Army freed the Ravensbrueck concentration camp. They found 3,000 sickly prisoners who had been unable to make the march north under the SS.
    (AP, 4/17/05)
1945        Apr 30, Adolf Hitler (56) committed suicide along with his wife of one day, Eva Braun (33), in his Fuhrerbunker as Russian troops approached Berlin. Karl Donitz became his successor. Their bodies were cremated and their remains hastily buried in a shell hole in the Reich Chancellery garden just hours before Berlin's fall. A few days later a Soviet officer showed British troops Hitler's probable gravesite. In 1970 Russia’s KGB ordered Hitler’s remained to be dug up, turned to powder and thrown into the nearest river. In 1947 Hugh Trevor-Roper authored “The Last Days of Hitler." In 1973 Robert Payne authored a definitive biography. In 1998 Ron Rosenbaum authored "Explaining Hitler: The Search for the Origin of His Evil." In 1977 Robert G.L. Waite (d.1999) authored The Psychopathic God: Adolf Hitler." In 2002 Ingo Helm made a film for TV titled "Hitler’s Money." In 2004 the German film “The Downfall" portrayed the last days of Hitler.
    (AP, 4/30/97)(HN, 4/30/98)(HNPD, 4/30/99)(WSJ, 8/31/99, p.A22)(SFC, 10/11/99, p.A24)(WSJ, 7/24/02, p.A1)(SFC, 8/8/02, p.A14)(Econ, 9/11/04, p.48)(WSJ, 12/29/05, p.D8)
1945        Apr 30, Hanna Reitsch evaded Soviet searchlights and fighters to reach temporary freedom in German-held territory. During the final days of World War II, German female test pilot Reitsch was ordered to fly General Ritter von Greim 60 miles to Berlin to personally accept Adolf Hitler’s appointment as Supreme Commander of the German Luftwaffe. Flying her light plane through heavy Soviet anti-aircraft fire, Reitsch and her passenger reached Hitler’s underground bunker safely, where they were among the last to see the German dictator alive. Although both expected to die in the bunker, Hitler ordered Reitsch and Greim to escape from Berlin to continue the fight.
    (HNPD, 4/27/00)
1945        Apr 30, In Italy a vehicle known as a DUKW (pronounced duck) sank while crossing Lake Garda during the last days of fighting in Europe The dead included 24 soldiers from the 10th Mountain Division and a 25th soldier from another unit.
    (AP, 4/29/16)

1945        Apr, US troops arrived at Erfurt, Thuringia, Germ.
    (Hem., Nov.’95, p.114)
1945        Apr, Adolf Hitler fired Heinrich Himmler (44), the head of the Nazi Gestapo, a following a secret attempt by Himmler to negotiate Germany's surrender. Hitler ordered the arrest of Himmler, who fled and assumed an alias.
    (SSFC, 7/8/18, p.C8)
1945        Apr, In the Battle for Okinawa 35 American ships were sunk and over 300 damaged. 5,000 American sailors were killed. Much of the damage was due to Japanese kamikaze operations. [see Apr 1]
    (WSJ, 9/10/02, p.D8)

1945        Apr, Black officers of the 477th Bombardment Group of the Army Air Forces were arrested for entering the Freeman Field officer’s club near Seymour, Ind. 101 black officers refused to sign a document that established segregation of the club and were put up for court-martial. Criminal charges were dropped but reprimands were placed in the officers’ files. The reprimands were only removed in 1995.
    (SFC, 4/11/98, p.A15)

1945        Apr, Dietrich Bonhoeffer, a German Evangelical Protestant theologian, was executed a few weeks before the end of the war. In 1998 Denise Giardina published her novel "Saints and Villains," that reconstructed his story.
    (SFEC, 8/28/98, Par p.20)

1945        May 1, A day after Adolf Hitler committed suicide, Admiral Karl Doenitz effectively became sole leader of the Third Reich with the suicide of Hitler's propaganda minister, Josef Goebbels. Goebbels committed suicide with his wife and 8 children.
    (AP, 5/1/07)(MC, 5/1/02)
1945        May 1, Martin Bormann, private secretary to Adolf Hitler, escaped the Fuhrerbunker as the Red Army advanced on Berlin. Specialists later determined that he probably died in May 1945. The mystery behind his fate was settled in 1972 when construction workers in Berlin dug up a skeleton. Experts concluded the remains were Bormann's after a five-month examination that included making X-rays of the bones, studying the teeth, and using the skull as a model to reconstruct what its face would've looked like. West German authorities officially declared him dead in 1973.  Some skeptics believed the remains had been brought from elsewhere to be reburied in Berlin. In 2011 Paul van Aerschodt, a former Belgian collaborator, said Bormann had escaped to Latin America and lived there disguised as a priest.
    (WSJ, 8/30/99, p.A1)(AP, 9/1/09)(AFP, 2/5/11)
1945        May 1, Arthur Seys-Inquart, Nazi overlord of Netherlands, fled to Flensburg.
    (MC, 5/1/02)

1945        May 2, German Army in Italy surrendered.
    (MC, 5/2/02)
1945        May 2, The Soviet Union announced the fall of Berlin and the Allies announced the surrender of Nazi troops in Italy and parts of Austria. The Russians took Berlin after 12 days of fierce house-to-house fighting and General Weidling surrendered. Yevgeny Khaldei (d.1997 at 80), soldier-photographer, made pictures of Soviet soldiers hoisting the red flag over the Reichstag in Berlin.
    (HFA, '96, p.30)(AP, 5/2/97)(SFC, 10/11/97, p.A19)(HN, 5/2/98)(MC, 5/2/02)
1945        May 2, Yugoslav troops occupied Trieste.
    (MC, 5/2/02)

1945        May 3, The US Submarine Lagarto (SS-371) sank in the Gulf of Thailand following depth charges from the Japanese mine-layer Hatsutaka. 85 sailors died. In 2005 the wreck of the Lagarto was found. The USS Hawksbill sank the Hatsutaka on May 15.
    (SSFC, 6/18/06, p.A5)(www.thaiwreckdiver.com/lagarto.htm)
1945        May 3, Allies arrested German nuclear physicist Werner Heisenberg.
    (MC, 5/3/02)
1945        May 3, A British air force squadron bombed two ships, the Cap Arcona and the Thielbeck and sank them. The pilots knew nothing about the ships' human cargo. SS guards had marched prisoners from Neuengamme to Lubeck on the Baltic coast, as British troops approached, and put some 8,000 inmates onto two ships, the Cap Arcona and the Thielbeck.
    (AP, 10/2/10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SS_Cap_Arcona_%281927%29)
1945        May 3,    Allied forces captured Rangoon, Burma, from the Japanese.
    (AP, 5/3/07)
1945        May 3, Ireland’s PM Eamon de Valera conveyed official condolences to diplomat Eduard Hempel. Pres. Douglas Hyde also visited German diplomat Eduard Hempel, a day after Ireland received reports of Hitler's death. Documents confirming Hyde’s visit were made public in 2005.
    (AP, 12/30/05)
1945        May 3, Japanese forces on Okinawa launched their only major counter-offensive, but failed to break the American lines.
    (AP, 5/3/05)

1945        May 4, John F. Kennedy, correspondent for the Hearst Newspapers, filed a dispatch on the founding of the UN in San Francisco in which he said: Any organization drawn up here will be merely a skeleton. Its powers will be limited… The hope is however, that this skeleton will put on flesh as time goes by.
    (SSFC, 6/26/05, p.F6)
1945        May 4, German forces in the Netherlands, Denmark and northwest Germany agreed to surrender.
    (AP, 5/4/00)

1945        May 5, Ezra Pound (60), poet and author, was arrested by American Army soldiers in Italy for treason. He had served during the war as a profascist and anti-Semitic spokesman for the Mussolini government. He was soon transferred to Pisa where he wrote his "Pisan Cantos." In 1999 Omar Pound and Robert Spoo published "Ezra and Dorothy Pound: Letters in Captivity, 1945-1946." After Pisa Pound spent the next 12 years in St. Elizabeth's Hospital for the criminally Insane.
    (NPR, 5/5/95 interview with the sergeant who arrested Mr. Pound.)(WSJ, 2/5/99, p.W10)
1945        May 5, A Japanese balloon bomb exploded on Gearhart Mountain in Oregon, killing Mrs. Elsie Mitchell, the pregnant wife of a minister, and five children after they attempted to drag it out the woods in Lakeview, Oregon. The balloon was armed, and exploded soon after they began tampering with it. They became the 1st and only known American civilians to be killed in the continental US during World War II.
    (AP, 5/5/97)(MC, 5/5/02)
1945        May 5, The 761st Tank Battalion, an all black unit under Gen. Patton, linked with Russian allies near Steyr, Austria.
    (SSFC, 5/30/04, p.B4)
1945        May 5, The Mauthausen Concentration camp in Austria was liberated by American troops. Its inmates were the last of all concentration camp prisoners to be freed by the Allies.
    (SFC, 5/11/15, p.A2)
1945        May 5, There was an uprising against SS-occupation troops in Prague.
    (MC, 5/5/02)
1945        May 5, Netherlands and Denmark were liberated from Nazi control. The Liberation of the Netherlands was completed by the First Canadian Army.
    (HN, 5/5/98)(www.bouwman.com/netherlands/Liberation.html)

1945        May 6, Bob Seger, folk singer (Silver Bullet Band-Shake Down), was born in Dearborn, Mich.
    (MC, 5/6/02)
1945        May 6, Axis Sally made her final propaganda broadcast to Allied troops.
    (HN, 5/6/99)

1945        May 7, A Pulitzer prize was awarded to John Hersey (Bell for Adano).
    (MC, 5/7/02)
1945        May 7, Germany signed an unconditional surrender at Allied headquarters in Rheims, France, to take effect the following day, ending the European conflict of World War II. After five years, World War II in Europe ended when Colonel General Alfred Jodl, the last chief of staff of the German Army, signed the unconditional surrender at General Dwight D. Eisenhower's headquarters at Rheims, France. Journalist Edward Kennedy (1905-1963) made the news public and was suspended for defying political and military censors.
    (AP, 5/7/97)(HN, 5/7/98)(SFC, 8/21/12, p.A6)
1945        May 7, SS opened fire on a crowd in Amsterdam and killed 22.
    (MC, 5/7/02)

1945        May 8, Keith Jarrett, jazz musician, film composer (Nachtfahrer), was born in Allentown, Pa. http://www.ecmrecords.com/ecm/bio/47.html
    (MC, 5/8/02)
1945        May 8, Life photographer Alfred Eisenstaedt reportedly got signalman Jim Reynolds to pose for a kiss with a nurse in a famous photo that later appeared in life Magazine’s issue of Aug 27. This was denied by Life and not verified by Reynolds.
    (WSJ, 8/14/96, p.A14)(WSJ, 8/20/96, p.A11)
1945        May 8, Algerian demonstrators in the town of Setif unfurled an Algerian flag, banned by the French occupiers. As police began confiscating the flags, the crowds turned on the French, killing about two dozen of them. This led to an uprising in which Algerians say some 45,000 people may have died. Figures in France put the number at about 15,000 to 20,000. No one is quite sure.
    (AP, 5/9/05)
1945        May 8, Germany surrendered and Victory in Europe was achieved by the allies. Marshal Wilhelm Keitel surrenders to Marshal Zhukov. The day is commemorated as V-E Day. President Truman announced in a radio address that World War II had ended in Europe. In 2004 Max Hastings authored “Armageddon," an account of the last days of WW II.
    (WSJ, 5/5/95, p.A-12)(AP, 5/8/97)(WSJ, 11/16/04, p.D10)
1945        May 8, Oskar Schindler gave a speech and urged the Jews who worked for him not to pursue revenge attacks. An original list of 1,200 of his workers at the Plaszow concentration camp was found in 1999.
    (SFC, 10/16/99, p.A13)

1945        May 9, U.S. officials announced that the midnight entertainment curfew was being lifted immediately.
    (AP, 5/9/97)
1945        May 9, Czechoslovakia was liberated from Nazi occupation (Nat’l Day). Soviet commander Ivan Stepanovic Konev (1897-1973) led the Red Army forces that liberated large parts of Czechoslovakia.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prague_uprising)(SFC, 8/22/18, p.A3)
1945        May 9, Jersey was liberated from Nazis.
    (MC, 5/9/02)
1945        May 9, Norwegian Nazi collaborator Vidkun Quisling was arrested.
    (MC, 5/9/02)
1945        May 9, Soviet citizens celebrated their WW II victory in Europe at Red Square. This became an annual holiday to commemorate the 27 million Soviet citizens who died in the war.
    (Econ, 5/7/05, p.45)

1945        May 10, US POW Lt. John F. Kinney (d.2006 at 91) and 4 other Marines jumped off a Japanese prisoner train in China and journeyed for 47 days with the help of Chinese communists before reuniting with US troops.
    (SFC, 7/11/06, p.B5)

1945        May 11, Kiyoshi Ogawa, Japanese pilot, crashed his plane into the US carrier Bunker Hill near Okinawa. 496 Americans died with him and the ship was knocked out of the war.
    (SFC, 3/29/01, p.A15)

1945        May 12, The Churchill Barriers were formally opened by the first Lord of the Admiralty. They were built to protect Scapa Flow from enemy submarines. The 5 causeways linked Orkney’s Mainland to South Ronaldsay and marked a dividing line between the North Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. Thousands of Italian prisoners of war carried out the project and left behind their decorated Italian Chapel.
    (SSFC, 11/13/05, p.F10)(www.undiscoveredscotland.co.uk/eastmainland/churchill/)

1945        May 13, US troops conquered Dakeshi, Okinawa.
    (MC, 5/13/02)
1945        May 13, The Baya, US submarine SS-318 under the command of Capt. Benjamin C. Jarvis (d.2008 at age 91), sank a Japanese tanker and left 2 other ships severely disable off of French Indochina. Capt. Jarvis received a Navy Cross for his action.
    (SFC, 3/22/08, p.B5)(www.ussbaya.com/history.html)

1945        May 14, A Kamikaze Zero struck the US aircraft carrier Enterprise.
    (MC, 5/14/02)
1945        May 14, US offensive on Okinawa. Sugar Loaf was conquered.
    (MC, 5/14/02)

1945        May 16, The Nazi submarine U-234 surrendered to US forces at Portsmouth, NH. It had been bound for Tokyo with 10 containers of uranium oxide. The atomic material ended up in the bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
    (SFC, 9/1/03, p.B4)(www.uboat.net/)

1945        May 19, Peter Townshend, England, rock guitarist, vocalist, composer (Who-Tommy), was born.
    (MC, 5/19/02)
1945        May 19, The UN Charter committee met in Muir Woods. The meeting was planned by Roosevelt on a suggestion by Sec. of the Interior Ickes: one of the sessions "might be held among the giant redwoods in Muir Woods. Not only would this focus attention upon the nation’s interest in preserving these mighty trees for posterity, but in such a "temple of peace" the delegates would gain a perspective and sense of time that could be obtained nowhere better than in such a forest."
    (Park, Spring/95, p.2)

1945        May 20, Heinrich Himmler (44), the head of the Nazi Gestapo, was captured in Bremervorde, Germany.
    (SSFC, 7/8/18, p.C8)

1945        May 21, Actors Lauren Bacall and Humphrey Bogart were married.
    (SFEC, 5/18/97, Par p.6)(MC, 5/21/02)
1945        May 21, German Reichsfuhrer, SS Heinrich Himmler, was captured.
    (MC, 5/21/02)

1945        May 23, Winston Churchill, the head Britain’s coalition government, resigned pending the upcoming general election. He continued to serve as the head of the caretaker government which lasted till he lost the election on July 26 and officially resigned as PM.
1945        May 23, British military police arrested Grand Admiral Karl Doenitz, Hitler's designated successor ("Fuhrer for a Weekend").
    (MC, 5/23/02)
1945        May 23, Heinrich Himmler (44), the head of the Nazi Gestapo, committed suicide while imprisoned in Luneburg, Germany.
    (AP, 5/23/97)(HN, 5/23/01)

1945        May 25, Arthur C. Clark proposed relay satellites in geosynchronous orbit.
    (SC, 5/25/02)
1945        May 25, A B-29 mission against Tokyo cost 26 Superfortresses, 5.6 percent of the 464 dispatched from the Marianas.

1945        May 26, US dropped fire bombs on Tokyo.
    (MC, 5/26/02)

1945        May 28, In California the engine of Helldiver aircraft from an aircraft carrier failed and the pilot ditched the plane in a San Diego reservoir. The pilot and gunner swam to shore. In 2009 fisherman spotted the plane and set in process plans to retrieve the plane.
    (SFC, 5/28/10, p.C3)
1945        May 28, Lord Haw Haw (aka William Joyce), a virulent anti-Semite who broadcast pro-Nazi propaganda from Germany during the war, was shot in the leg in an encounter with two British officers near Flensburg on the Danish border with Germany. He was sentenced to death for treason on 19 September 1945 and hanged on 3 January 1946.

1945        May 29, US 1st Marine division conquered Shuri-castle in Okinawa.
    (SC, 5/29/02)
1945        May 29, Dutch police arrested and imprisoned Hans van Meegeren (1889-1947) for collaborating with the enemy. His name had been traced to a sale made during the second world war of what was then believed to be an authentic Vermeer to Nazi Field-Marshal Hermann Goering. On July 12, in order to prove his innocence, Meegeren revealed that he had forged the painting.
    (WSJ, 10/14/06, p.P10)(ON, 12/07, p.12)

1945        May, The Wayne Victory, a merchant marine ship, was commissioned with the Detroit Wayne Univ. name.
    (WSUAN, Winter 1997, p.10)
1945        May, In Austria US Army officers and troops plundered a “gold train" on its way to Germany from Hungary that carried gold, jewels, paintings and other valuables seized by the Nazis from Jewish families. A 2001 suit filed in Miami said the army falsely classified it as unidentifiable and enemy property, which avoided having to return the goods to their rightful owners. The suit alleged that the US made no effort to return the goods and lied to Hungarian Jews who sought information about their property after the war. In 2004 the property was estimated to be worth ten times its original $200 million valuation. In 2005 the US government reached a $25.5 million settlement with families of the Hungarian Holocaust victims for distribution to needy Holocaust survivors.
    (AP, 12/20/04)(SFC, 3/12/05, p.A5)
1945        May, Tens of thousands of Croatians, mostly pro-fascist soldiers, fled to southern Austria amid a Yugoslav army offensive, only to be turned back by the British military and into the hands of revengeful anti-fascists. Thousands of the so-called Ustashas were killed in and around Bleiburg. The massacre was seen by historians as revenge by the victorious communist partisan fighters.
    (AP, 5/12/18)(AP, 5/18/19)

1945        May-1945 Jun, The graves of some 1,000 Croatian soldiers killed at this time were found in 1999 near Maribor in eastern Slovenia. Another 6-7,000 bodies were believed to be buried in the area. Slovenia, which during the war was occupied by Italy and Germany, became a killing field, as thousands in the newly formed Yugoslavia, including Germans, Italians, Hungarians, Croatians, and Serbs, tried to escape to Austria. The Slovene government began listing "concealed graves" in 2003. By 2010 officials had a list of about 600 suspected graves, at least one in each community, amounting to perhaps 100,000 bodies.
    (SFC, 6/17/99, p.C3)(AP, 11/15/10)
1945        May-Jun, Some 40,000 anti-Soviet Cossacks, who had surrendered to the British in Austria, were turned over to the Red Army. Some 30,000 Yugoslavs were handed over to Tito under the pretense that they were being sent to Italy. The Yugoslavs (mostly Croatian soldiers) were locked into trains and taken to Slovenia, where they were shot and buried in mass graves.
    (WSJ, 3/17/98, p.A16)(SFC, 6/17/99, p.C3)

1945        Jun 3-1945 Jun 14, Koki Hirota, Japanese envoy, met with Russian ambassador in Tokyo to propose a new relationship between the two countries and divide up Asia.
    (WSJ, 5/5/95, p.A-12)

1945        Jun 4, Anthony Braxton, jazz composer and saxophonist, was born.
    (HN, 6/4/01)
1945        Jun 4, US, Russia, England & France agreed to split occupied Germany.
    (MC, 6/4/02)

1945        Jun 5, US air raids on Kobe, Japan, destroyed over 50% of the city. Some 3,614 Japanese were killed and 51,399 buildings were demolished in 3 air raids.
    (SSFC, 8/7/05, p.B2)

1945        Jun 6, Meinoud M. Rost van Tonningen, anti Semite, NSB (1937-41), committed suicide.
    (MC, 6/6/02)

1945        Jun 7, The opera "Peter Grimes" by Benjamin Britten," premiered in London.

1945        Jun 9, Japanese Premier Kantaro Suzuki declared that Japan will fight to the last rather than accept unconditional surrender.
    (HN 6/9/98)

1945        Jun 11, Adrienne Barbeau, wife of John Carpenter, actress (Maude, Swamp Thing), was born.
    (SC, 6/11/02)

1945        Jun 14, Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower was honored as a Companion of the Liberation by Gen. Charles de Gaulle.
    (WSJ, 8/2/00, p.A12)
1945        Jun 14, Burma was liberated by the British.
    (HN, 6/14/98)

1945        Jun 18, Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower received a tumultuous welcome in Washington, where he addressed a joint session of Congress. Eisenhower went on to meet Pres. Harry Truman and the 2 men established a warm relationship that later soured. In 2001 Steve Neal authored "Harry and Ike: The Relationship That Remade the Postwar World."
    (AP, 6/18/97)(WSJ, 11/5/01, p.A19)
1945        Jun 18, US Sgt. Charles H. Coolidge (1921-2001) received the Congressional Medal of Honor for actions he took in France in October 1944 during WWII.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_H._Coolidge)(AP, 4/8/21)
1945        Jun 18, William Joyce, known as "Lord Haw-Haw," was charged in London with high treason for his English-language wartime broadcasts on German radio. He was hanged the following January.
    (AP, 6/18/00)
1945        Jun 18, Organized Japanese resistance ended on the island of Mindanao, Philippines.
    (HN, 6/18/98)

1945        Jun 19, Aung San Suu Kyi, Myanmar poet, Nobel peace laureate (1991), was born.
    (DT, 6/19/97)(HN, 6/19/01)
1945        Jun 19, Tobias Wolff, American writer (This Boy's Life: A Memoir, The Night in Question), was born.
    (HN, 6/19/01)
1945        Jun 19, Millions of New Yorkers turned out to cheer Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower, who was honored with a parade.
    (DT, 6/19/97)

1945        Jun 21, Japanese forces on Okinawa surrendered to the Americans. American soldiers on Okinawa found the body of the Japanese commander, Lt. Gen. Mitsuru Ushijima, who had committed suicide. The embattled destroyer USS Laffey survived horrific damage from attacks by 22 Japanese aircraft off Okinawa.  [see Jun 22]
    (HN, 6/21/98)(AP, 6/21/99)

1945        Jun 22, The World War II battle for Okinawa officially ended; 12,520 Americans and 90,000 Japanese soldiers, plus 130,000 civilians were killed in the 81-day campaign. The battle for Okinawa proved to be the bloodiest in the Pacific Theater. A huge assemblage of American forces from both Admiral Chester W. Nimitz's Central Pacific drive and General Douglas MacArthur’s Southwest Pacific thrust converged on Okinawa--over 180,000 troops. For three months they faced more than 100,000 Japanese troops of Lt. Gen. Mitsuru Ushijima's Thirty-Second Army. Tokyo needed time to prepare for the expected American invasion of the home islands, so Ushijima wanted to make his adversary wrench each hill and ridge from his well-armed men.
    (HN, 6/27/01)(AP, 6/22/07)

1945        Jun 23, Lt Gen Ushijima, Japanese commander, committed suicide at Okinawa.
    (MC, 6/23/02)

1945        Jun 25, Imperial General Headquarters in Tokyo announced the fall of Okinawa.
    (MC, 6/25/02)

1945        Jun 26, The United Nations Conference on International Organization (UNCIO) was held in San Francisco. Officials gathered to draft a UN Charter, and 50 countries signed the Charter on this date at what is now the Herbst Theater. This signifies the birth of the UN. The Charter was drafted in the Garden Room of the Fairmont Hotel.
    (Park, Spring/95, p.2)(AP, 6/26/97)(SSFC, 2/4/07, p.F1)

1945        Jun 27, Norma Kamali, dress designer (Costumes for the Wiz), was born in NYC.
    (SC, 6/27/02)

1945        Jun 28, General Douglas MacArthur announced the end of Japanese resistance in the Philippines.
    (HN, 6/28/98)

1945        Jun 29, Ruthenia, formerly in Czechoslovakia, became part of Ukrainian SSR.
    (MC, 6/29/02)

1945        Jun, During this time, General Curtis LeMay had been firebombing Japanese cities daily, dropping napalm-filled bombs. In one three-day period, Tokyo, Nagoya, Kobe and Osaka had been destroyed.
    (WSJ, 7/19/95, p.A-12)
1945        Jun, The Japanese army, faced with an impending US invasion, handed out grenades to residents in Okinawa and ordered them to kill themselves rather than surrender to the Americans. About 500 people committed suicide.
    (AP, 9/29/07)
1945        Jun, James Franck, head of a group of scientists in the study of the social and political implications of nuclear weapons, delivered the report to Washington directed to Sec. of War Henry L. Stimson.
    (SFEM, 7/30/00, p.16)

1945        Jul 1, New York established the New York State Commission Against Discrimination to prevent discrimination in employment because of race, creed or natural origin; it was the first such agency in the United States.
    (HN, 7/1/98)

1945        Jul 3, U.S. troops landed at Balikpapan and took Sepinggan airfield on Borneo in the Pacific.
    (HN, 7/3/98)

1945        Jul 5, US General Douglas MacArthur announced that the liberation of the Philippines from its Japanese occupiers was complete.
    (MC, 7/5/02)
1945        Jul 5, Clement Atlee’s Labour Party won the British parliamentary election.
    (http://tinyurl.com/yk38nh)(Econ, 4/13/13, p.26)

1945        Jul 6, President Truman signed an executive order establishing the Medal of Freedom.
    (AP, 7/6/97)
1945        Jul 6, B-29 Superfortress bombers attacked Honshu, Japan, using new fire-bombing techniques.
    (HN, 7/6/98)
1945        Jul 6, Operation Overcast began in Europe--moving Austrian and German scientists and their equipment to the United States.
    (HN, 7/6/01)
1945        Jul 6, Nicaragua became the first nation to formally accept the United Nations Charter.
    (AP, 7/6/05)

1945        Jul 7, Matti Salminen, operatic basso (King Philip-Don Carlos), was born in Turku, Finland.
    (MC, 7/7/02)

1945        Jul 9, Dean R[ay] Koontz, US author (Star Quest, Beastchild), was born.
    (MC, 7/9/02)
1945        Jul 9, A 3rd big Tillamook fire occurred near the Salmonberry River, and was joined two days later by a second blaze on the Wilson River, started by a discarded cigarette. This fire burned 180,000 acres before it was put out. The cause of the blaze on the Salmonberry River was mysterious, and many believed it had been set by an incendiary balloon launched by the Japanese, and brought to Oregon by the jet stream.

1945        Jul 11, Napalm was first used.
    (HFA, ‘96, p.34)

1945        Jul 14, American battleships and cruisers bombarded the Japanese home islands for the first time. The battleship USS South Dakota was 1st US ship to bombard Japan.
    (HN, 7/14/98)(MC, 7/14/02)

1945        Jul 16, The first US test explosion of the atomic bomb was made at Alamogordo Air Base, south of Albuquerque, New Mexico, equal to some twenty thousand tons of TNT. The bomb was called the Gadget and the experiment was called Trinity from a poem by John Donne (Batter my heart, three-person’d God), and it was conducted in a part of the desert called Jornada del Muerto, (Dead Man’s Trail), and measured the equivalent of 18,600 (21,000) tons of TNT. It was the culmination of 28 months of intense scientific research conducted under the leadership of physicist Dr. J. Robert Oppenheimer under the code name Manhattan Project. The successful atomic test was witnessed by only one journalist, William L. Laurence of the New York Times, who described seeing the blinding explosion: "One felt as though he had been privileged to...be present at the moment of the Creation when the Lord said: Let There be Light." Oppenheimer’s own thoughts from the Hindu Bhagavad-Gita were very different: "I am become death, the shatterer of worlds." The event is described in Richard Thode’s "The Making of the Atomic Bomb."  In 2005 Diane Preston authored “Before the Fallout: From Marie Curie to Hiroshima."
    (NOHY, 3/1990, p.212-213)(HNPD, 7/16/98)(SFC, 12/31/98, p.D4)(SFEC, 12/19/99, Par p.15)(SSFC, 7/10/05, p.E3)
1945        Jul 16, The US cruiser Indianapolis left SF with atomic bomb components to be assembled at Tinian Island in the western Pacific.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/USS_Indianapolis_(CA-35))(SSFC, 7/31/05, p.B1)

1945        Jul 17-1945 Aug 2, President Truman, Soviet leader Josef Stalin and British Prime Minister Winston S. Churchill (and his successor Clement Atlee) began meeting at the Schloss Cecilienhof in Potsdam in the final Allied summit of World War II. It re-established the European borders that were in effect as of Dec 31, 1937.
    (WSJ, 5/5/95, p.A-12)(Voruta #27-28, Jul 1996, p.2)(AP, 7/17/97)(SFEC, 7/27/97, p.T6)

1945        Jul 20, Paul Valery (b.1871), French poet (Le cimetiere Marin, Mon Faust), died at age 73. He was buried in his home town of Sete.
    (SSFC, 6/17/01, p.T10)(MC, 7/20/02)

1945        Jul 23, French Marshal Henri Petain, who had headed the Vichy government during World War Two, went on trial, charged with treason. He was condemned to death, but his sentence was commuted; Petain died in prison on this date in 1951.
    (AP, 7/23/08)

1945        Jul 24, U.S. Navy bombers sank the Japanese battleship-carrier Hyuga in shallow waters off Kure, Japan.
    (HN, 7/24/00)

1945        Jul 25, Donna Theodore, Broadway singer (Hollywood Talent Scouts), was born.
    (SC, 7/25/02)

1945        Jul 26, US cruiser Indianapolis reached Tinian carrying the enriched uranium and other parts required for the assembly of the atomic bomb codenamed "Little Boy", which would be dropped on Hiroshima a few weeks later.
1945        Jul 26, The US, Britain and China issued the Potsdam Declaration to Japan that she surrender unconditionally. Two days later Japanese Premier Kantaro Suzuki announced to the Japanese press that the Potsdam declaration is to be ignored. In 1961 Herbert Feis authored “Japan Subdued."
    (WSJ, 5/5/95, p.A-12)(WSJ, 1/14/07, p.P8)
1945        Jul 26, Winston Churchill resigned as Britain’s prime minister after his Conservatives were soundly defeated by the Labor Party. Clement Attlee became the new prime minister. Clement Richard Attlee (1883-1967), 1st Earl Attlee, began serving as PM of the United Kingdom and continued to 1951. He led the Labour Party from 1935 to 1955 and was thrice Leader of the Opposition (1935–1940, 1945, 1951–1955).
    (AP, 7/26/97)(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clement_Attlee)

1945        Jul 27, US Communist Party formed.
    (MC, 7/27/02)

1945        Jul 28, Jim Davis, cartoonist (Garfield), was born.
    (SC, 7/28/02)
1945        Jul 28, Richard Wright, rocker (Pink Floyd-The Wall), was born.
    (SC, 7/28/02)
1945        Jul 28, The US Senate ratified UN charter 89-2.
    (AP, 7/28/07)
1945        Jul 28, A twin-engine U.S. Army B-25 bomber crashed into the Empire State Building between the 78th and 79th floors and killed 14 people. The plane’s propellers severed elevator cables and sent one on a 38-story fall in which the operator survived.
    (SFC, 2/24/96, p.A1)(WSJ, 3/11/97, p.A1)(HT, 5/97, p.26)(AP, 7/28/97)

1945        Jul 30, The USS Indianapolis, which had just delivered key components of the Hiroshima atomic bomb to the Pacific island of Tinian, was torpedoed by the I-58 Japanese submarine. Some 879 survivors jumped into the sea and were adrift for 4 days. Nearly 600 died before help arrived.  Only 316 out of 1,196 men survived the sinking and shark-infested waters. In 1958 Richard F. Newcomb authored "Abandon Ship," the story of the Indianapolis and the subsequent court-martial of Capt. Charles Butler McVey III. In 2001 Doug Stanton authored "In Harm’s Way," an account of the sinking and trial of Capt. McVey. In 2001 the Navy exonerated the Indianapolis’ captain, Charles Butler McVay III, who had been court-martialed and convicted for failing to evade the submarine.
    (AP, 7/30/97)(SFEC, 8/20/00, Par p.4)(WSJ, 4/6/01, p.W9)(SFC, 7/14/01, p.A9)(AP, 7/29/01)(AFP, 8/20/17)(SFC, 8/1/20, p.A5)

1945        Jul 31, Pierre Laval, premier of the pro-Nazi Vichy government, surrendered to U.S. authorities in Austria; he was turned over to France, which later tried and executed him.
    (AP, 7/31/05)

1945        Jul, Vannevar Bush published his report to Pres. Roosevelt: "Science—The Endless Frontier," a vision for government-funded science and engineering. His essay in the Atlantic Monthly described how adding structured code words to microfilm pages in his imaginary “Memex" information retrieval system would help researchers.
    (WSJ, 10/20/97, p.A20)(Econ, 3/3/07, p.74)(www.nsf.gov/od/lpa/nsf50/vbush1945.htm)
1945        Jul, Soviet troops took over the city of Erfurt, Thuringia, Germ.
    (Hem., Nov.’95, p.114)

1455        Aug 2, Johan Cicero, elector of Brandenburg (1486-99), was born.
    (MC, 8/2/02)
1945        Aug 2, President Truman, Soviet leader Josef Stalin and British Prime Minister Clement Attlee concluded the Potsdam conference.
    (AP, 8/2/97)
1945        Aug 2, Pietro Mascagni (81), Italian composer (Cavalleria Rusticana), died.
    (MC, 8/2/02)
1945        Aug 2, Emil Nikolaus von Reznicek (b.1860), Austrian composer, died in Berlin. The overture to his opera Donna Diana (1894) was later used as the theme for the radio and TV series “Sergeant Preston of the Yukon."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emil_von_Reznicek)(SFC, 2/19/07, p.B4)

1945        Aug 3, Ron Hendren, TV host (Entertainment Tonight), was born in Pinehurst, NC.
    (SC, 8/3/02)
1945        Aug 3, Chinese troops under American General Joseph Stilwell took the town of Myitkyina from the Japanese.
    (HN, 8/3/98)

1945        Aug 6, Hiroshima, Japan, was struck with the uranium bomb, Little Boy, from the B-29 airplane, Enola Gay, piloted by Col. Paul Tibbets (1915-2007) of the US Air Force along with 11 other men. The 9,600 pound bomb had a 2-part core of enriched uranium-235. It killed an estimated 140,000 people in the first use of a nuclear weapon in warfare. Major Thomas Wilson Ferebee (d.2000 at 81) was the bombardier. Richard Nelson (d.2003) was the radio operator. In 1946 John Hersey authored “Hiroshima," an account of the bombing based on interviews with 6 survivors.
    (AP, 8/6/97)(SSFC, 7/31/05, p.B2)(WSJ, 8/12/06, p.P8)(SFC, 11/2/07, p.A23)

1945        Aug 8, President Truman signed the United Nations Charter.
    (AP, 8/8/97)
1945        Aug 8, The Soviet Union declared war against Japan. 1.5 million Soviet troops launched a massive surprise attack (August Storm) against Japanese occupation forces in northern China and Korea. Within days, Tokyo's million-man army in the region had collapsed in one of the greatest military defeats in history.
    (SFC, 9/9/96, p.A19)(AP, 8/8/97)(AP, 8/6/05)

1945        Aug 9, The 10,000 lb. plutonium bomb, Fat Man, was dropped over Nagasaki after the primary objective of Kokura was passed due to visibility problems. It killed an estimated 74,000 people. The B-29 bomber plane Bock's Car so named for its assigned pilot, Fred Bock, was piloted by Captain Charles W. Sweeney (d.2004). Kermit Beahan (d.1989) was the bombardier.
    (WSJ, 7/19/95, p.A-12)(AP, 8/9/97)(HN, 8/9/98)(SFC, 3/17/00, p.D6)(HNQ, 3/31/00)

1945            Aug 10, Robert Goddard (b.1882), American rocket scientist, died. He received 214 patents for rocket systems and components. In 2003 David Clary authored "Rocket Man," a biography of Goddard.
        (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Goddard_(scientist))(WSJ, 8/7/03, p.W8)
1945        Aug 10, Japan announced its willingness to surrender to Allies provided that the status of Emperor Hirohito remains unchanged. Yosuke Yamahata photographed the aftermath of the bombing of Nagasaki. He was dispatched by the Japanese military, but did not turn over the pictures to the military authorities.
    (HFA, ‘96, p.36)(WSJ, 8/1/95, p.A-8)(MC, 8/10/02)

1945        Aug 13, 35 Jews sacrificed their lives to blow up a Nazi rubber plant in Silesia.
    (MC, 8/13/02)

1945        Aug 14, Steve Martin, American comedian, actor and screenwriter, was born.
    (HN, 8/14/98)
1945        Aug 14, Alfred Eisenstaedt shot a picture of a sailor kissing a nurse in NYC’s Times Square. In 2007 Houston Police Department forensic artist Lois Gibson completed a detailed investigation and concluded that Glenn McDuffie (80) is the man in the image, which was published on the cover of Life Magazine on Aug 27. The 2012 book "The Kissing Sailor: The Mystery Behind the Photo That Ended World War II" published by the Naval Institute Press identified the pair as Greta Zimmer Friedman (d.2016) and George Mendonsa (d.2019.
    (AP, 8/4/07)(AFP, 9/10/16)(SFC, 2/19/19, p.C3)
1945        Aug 14, President Truman announced that Japan had surrendered unconditionally, ending World War II. Shaken by the atomic destruction wreaked on Hiroshima and Nagasaki and faced with the daunting prospect of Allied invasion, the Japanese Emperor Hirohito met with his ministers on the morning of August 14 and announced, "We cannot continue the war any longer." Japan accepted the Allies "Potsdam Declaration," a cease-fire. In 1999 Prof. John W. Dower published "Embracing Defeat: Japan in the Wake of World War II." Dower earlier published "War Without Mercy," a study of the war in the Pacific.
    (WSJ, 8/14/95, p. A-11)(AP, 8/14/97)(HN, 8/14/98)(WSJ, 3/31/99, p.A20)(AP, 8/14/08)
1945        Aug 14, Japanese occupation of Hong Kong ended.
    (SFEC, 6/22/97, p.A14)

1945        Aug 15, Gasoline and fuel oil rationing ended in the United States.
    (HN, 8/15/98)
1945        Aug 15, A riot ensued in San Francisco while the city was celebrating the end of WW II. Three days of rioting left 13 dead, at least six women raped and over 1,000 people injured. 90 percent of the revelers were said to be young Navy enlistees who had not served overseas.
    (SFC, 8/15/05, p.B1)(SFC, 8/15/15, p.C1)
1945        Aug 15, Emperor Hirohito announced to his subjects in a pre-recorded radio address that Japan had accepted terms of surrender for ending World War II. This day was proclaimed "V-J Day" by the Allies, a day after Japan agreed to surrender unconditionally. At 7 p.m. reporters gathered in the Oval Office to hear President Harry S. Truman announce the unconditional surrender of Japan.
    (HNPD, 8/13/98)(AP, 8/15/07)
1945        Aug 15, Korea was liberated  after nearly 40 years of Japanese colonial rule, but it soon faced the tragic division of the North and South along the 38th parallel.
    (www.koreanconsulate.on.ca/en/?mnu=a06b03)(SFC, 6/17/00, p.A9)

1945        Aug 16, Suzanne Farrel, ballerina, was born.
    (HN, 8/16/00)
1945        Aug 16, Lieutenant General Jonathan Wainwright, who was taken prisoner by the Japanese on Corregidor on May 6, 1942, was released from a POW camp in Manchuria by U.S. troops.
    (HN, 8/16/98)
1945        Aug 16, Takijiro Ohnishi, leader of Japanese kamikaze pilots, died.
    (MC, 8/16/02)
1945        Aug 16, The communist dominated Polish government signed a treaty with the USSR to formally cede eastern territories, including Galicia.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polish_areas_annexed_by_the_Soviet_Union)(Econ, 7/7/07, p.51)   

1945        Aug 17, Indonesian nationalists declared independence from the Netherlands. Upon hearing confirmation that Japan has surrendered, Sukarno proclaims Indonesia’s independence. Sukarno helped lead Indonesia to independence from the Dutch. President Sukarno, an ardent nationalist, became president at the time of Indonesian independence and helped the Communists become the leading party in the country. The Dutch resisted and 4 years of fighting followed.
    (SFC, 10/12/96, p.A13)(SFC, 6/22/96, p.A12)(SFEC, 4/27/97, p.T7)(HNQ, 5/21/98)(AP, 8/17/99)(SFC, 9/8/99, p.A17)(HN, 8/17/00)

1945        Aug 18, Subhas Chandra Bose (b.1897), a leader of the Indian Independence Movement, died after his overloaded Japanese plane crashed in Japanese-occupied Formosa. He had led some 40,000 soldiers against the British during WWII as an ally of Hitler and imperial Japan.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Subhas_Chandra_Bose)(Econ, 5/23/09, p.92)(Econ, 12/20/14, p.57)
1945        Aug 18, Indonesia adopted a new Constitution. It was later described as a “dictator’s dream." This Constitution (usually referred to by the Indonesian acronym UUD'45) remained in force until it was replaced by the Federal Constitution on December 27, 1949.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constitution_of_Indonesia)(Econ, 6/21/14, p.40)

1945        Aug 21, Patty McCormack, actress (Mama, Peck's Bad Girl, Ropers), was born in Brooklyn NY.
    (SC, 8/21/02)
1945        Aug 21, President Harry S. Truman ended the Lend-Lease program that had shipped some $50 billion in aid to America’s Allies during World War II.
    (AP, 8/21/97)(HN, 8/21/98)

1945        Aug 22, Soviet troops landed at Port Arthur and Dairen on the Kwangtung Peninsula in China.
    (HN, 8/22/98)
1945        Aug 22, Conflict in Vietnam began when a group of Free French parachuted into southern Indochina, in response to a successful coup by communist guerilla Ho Chi Minh.
    (HFA, '96, p.36)(HN, 8/22/00)

1945        Aug 24, The women at the Japanese internment camp in Sumatra were liberated.
    (SFEC, 4/20/97, p.C3)
1945        Aug 24, A blast aboard a Japanese Navy transport carrying 4,000 Koreans home killed at least 524 Koreans and 25 Japanese crew members in Mizuru port in Kyoto. In 2001 a Japanese court awarded $375,000 to 15 Korean survivors of the explosion.
    (SFC, 8/24/01, p.A16)

1945        Aug 25, At Leavenworth Prison in Kansas the last US mass execution was held. 7 German U-boat seamen were hanged for the murder of a fellow seaman, a traitor in their eyes who spied on them on behalf of the US military.
    (HC, 1/29/98)
1945        Aug 25, John Birch, Baptist missionary and US army intelligence specialist, was killed by Chinese Communists. His death is considered the first US death in the struggle against communism.
    (MC, 8/25/02)
1945        Aug 25,  Jewish immigrants were permitted to leave Mauritius for Palestine.
    (chblue.com, 8/25/01)

1945        Aug 26, Japanese diplomats boarded the Missouri to receive instructions on Japan's surrender at the end of WW II.
    (MC, 8/26/02)
1945        Aug 26, Franz Werfel (54), Czech-German-US poet, writer (Mirror Man), died.
    (MC, 8/26/02)

1945        Aug 27, B-29 Superfortress bombers began to drop supplies into Allied prisoner of war camps in China.
    (HN, 8/27/98)
1945        Aug 27, American troops began landing in Japan following the surrender of the Japanese government in World War II.
    (AP, 8/27/97)
1945        Aug 27, Life Magazine’s issue for VJ-Day featured a photo that Life photographer Alfred Eisenstaedt made on May 8, VE-Day when he got signalman Jim Reynolds to pose for a kiss with a nurse on Times Square. That the photo was posed was denied by Life and Reynold’s role was not verified. Edith Shain (d.2010 at 91) in a letter claimed to be the nurse with documented letters from Eisenstaedt. In 2007 Houston Police Department forensic artist Lois Gibson completed a detailed investigation and concluded that Glenn McDuffie (80) is the man in Alfred Eisenstaedt's Aug. 14, 1945 image of a sailor kissing a nurse in Times Square. The 2012 book "The Kissing Sailor: The Mystery Behind the Photo That Ended World War II" published by the Naval Institute Press identified the pair as Greta Zimmer Friedman (d.2016) and George Mendonsa (d.2019 [see May 8 and Aug 27].
    (WSJ, 8/14/96, p.A14)(WSJ, 8/20/96, p.A11)(AP, 8/4/07)(SFC, 6/24/10, p.A9)(AFP, 9/11/16)(SFC, 2/19/19, p.C3)

1945        Aug 28, US forces under General George Marshall landed in Japan. 
    (HTNet, 8/28/99)
1945        Aug 28, Chinese communist leader Mao Tse-Tung arrived in Chunking to confer with Nationalist leader Chiang Kai-Shek in a futile effort to avert civil war.
    (HN, 8/28/98)

1945        Aug 29, Gen MacArthur was named the Supreme Commander of Allied Powers in Japan.
    (MC, 8/29/01)
1945        Aug 29, U.S. airborne troops landed in transport planes at Atsugi airfield, southwest of Tokyo, beginning the occupation of Japan.
    (HN, 8/29/98)
1945        Aug 29, British liberated Hong Kong from Japan.
    (MC, 8/29/01)

1945        Aug 30, Gen. Douglas MacArthur arrived in Japan and set up Allied occupation headquarters.
    (AP, 8/30/97)
1945        Aug 30, Dmitri Shostakovitch completed his 9th Symphony.
    (MC, 8/30/01)

1945        Aug 31, Itzhak Perlman, violinist, was born.
    (HN, 8/31/00)
1945        Aug 31, Van Morrison, singer (Here Comes the Night), was born in Belfast, Ireland.
    (YN, 8/31/99)

1945        Aug, George Orwell published "Animal Farm" in England.
    (SFEC, 10/1/00, BR p.5)
1945        Aug, Harry Truman signed a death order for the execution of 7 German prisoners of war. The German submariners had killed an 8th POW for giving information to the US captors. They were hanged.
    (SFC, 4/19/97, p.E4)
1945        Aug, A British Royal Air Force B24 Liberator bomber crashed in Malaysia. Later research showed that it was carrying supplies for Force 136, a British Special Operations unit.
    (AP, 2/6/12)
1945        Aug, In Manchuria some 1 million Japanese civilians were stranded as the war ended. An estimated 179,000 are thought to have died trying to get back to Japan.
    (Econ, 8/15/15, p.37)
1945        Aug, Some 1,300 Allied survivors of Japan’s Mukden POW camp in Manchuria were rescued by Red Army troops.
    (SFC, 11/24/17, p.E3)

1945        Summer’s end, The Ukrainian Trophy Brigade occupied the castle of Count von Althmann in Silesia, Poland. It was packed with Nazi archival records.
    (WSJ, 3/5/97, p.A18)

1945        Sep 1, Americans received word of Japan’s formal surrender that ended World War II. Because of the time difference, it was Sept. 2 in Tokyo Bay, where the ceremony took place.
    (AP, 9/1/97)

1945        Sep 2, The Japanese surrender delegation boarded the USS Missouri anchored in Tokyo Bay to formally sign documents of surrender, ending World War II.
    (WSJ, 8/31/95, p.A-10)(AP, 9/2/97)(HN, 9/2/98)
1945         Sep 2, Ho Chi Minh (55) promulgated the Vietnamese Declaration of Independence and unity from the north to the south. He was known to have written letters to President Truman asking for humanitarian assistance and advocated political rather than military action. His letters went unanswered.
    (WSJ, 11/30/95, p.A-23)(SFEM, 6/9/96, p.9)(AP, 9/2/97)

1945        Sep 2-1991 Dec 26, This period marked the beginning and end of America's longest war, the Cold War.

1945        Sep 3, George Biondo (musician-Steppenwolf: Born to Be Wild), was born.
    (MC, 9/3/01)
1945        Sep 3, General Tomoyuki Yamashita, the Japanese commander of the Philippines, surrendered to Lieutenant General Jonathan Wainwright at Baguio.
    (HN, 9/3/98)

1945        Sep 4, US regained possession of Wake Island from Japan. The American flag was raised on Wake Island after surrender ceremonies there.
    (HN, 9/4/98)(MC, 9/4/01)

1945        Sep 5, Iva Toguri D'Aquino (1916-2006), a Japanese-American suspected of being wartime radio propagandist "Tokyo Rose," was arrested in Yokohama. In 1949 she was tried in San Francisco and convicted for having spoken “into a microphone concerning the loss of ships." Toguri was sentenced to 10 years in prison but was released after six years for good behavior; she was pardoned in 1977 by President Ford.
    (AP, 9/5/99)(SFC, 9/28/06, p.A18)(SFC, 9/28/06, p.A18)

1945        Sep 6, George Weller (d.2002), a Chicago Daily News journalist, wrote his 1st story on the bombing of Nagasaki. Posing as a US Army colonel Weller had slipped into Nagasaki in early September. His stories infuriated MacArthur so much he personally ordered that they be quashed, and the originals were never returned. Carbon copies of his stories, running to about 25,000 words on 75 typed pages, along with more than two dozen photos, were discovered by his son, Anthony, in 2004 at Weller's apartment in Rome, Italy. In 2005 the national Mainichi newspaper began serializing the stories and photographs for the first time since they were rejected by US military censors. In 2007 Weller’s son Anthony edited “First Into Nagasaki: The Censored Eyewitness Dispatches on Post-Atomic Japan and Its Prisoners of War."
    (AP, 6/19/05)(WSJ, 3/1/07, p.D5)

1945        Sep 8, Jose Feliciano, blind singer, was born in Lares, Puerto Rico.
1945        Sep 8, Bess Myerson of New York was crowned Miss America, the first Jewish contestant to win the title.
    (AP, 9/8/99)
1945        Sep 8, Hideki Tojo, Japanese PM during most of WW II, failed in his attempted suicide rather than face war crimes tribunal attempt. He was later hanged.
    (MC, 9/8/01)
1945        Sep 8, Korea was partitioned by the Soviet Union and the United States. The US invaded Japanese-held Korea.
    (HN, 9/8/98)(MC, 9/8/01)

1945        Sep 9, The Japanese in S. Korea, Taiwan, China and Indochina surrendered to Allies.
    (MC, 9/9/01)
1945        Sep 9, The 1st "bug" in a computer program was discovered by Grace Hopper. A moth was removed with teasers from a relay and taped into the log.
    (MC, 9/9/01)

1945        Sep 10, Vidkun Quisling was sentenced to death in Norway for collaborating with the Nazis. He was executed by firing squad in October 1945.
    (AP, 9/10/07)

1945        Sep 11, Leo Kottke, guitarist (Ice Water, Greenhouse), was born in Athens, Ga.
    (MC, 9/11/01)

1945        Sep 12, French troops landed in Indochina.
    (HN, 9/12/98)

1945        Sep 13, Iran demanded the withdrawal of Allied forces.
    (HN, 9/13/98)

1945        Sep 15, Jesse Norman, soprano, was born.
    (HN, 9/15/00)

1945        Sep 16, Japan surrendered Hong Kong to Britain.
    (HN, 9/16/98)

1945        Sep 18, 1000 white children walked out of Gary, Indiana, schools to protest integration.
    (MC, 9/18/01)

1945        Sep 19, Nazi propagandist William Joyce, known as "Lord Haw-Haw," was sentenced to death by a British court.
    (AP, 9/19/97)

1945        Sep 20, German rocket engineers began work in US.
    (MC, 9/20/01)

1945        Sep 22, President Truman accepted U.S. Secretary of War Stimson’s recommendation to designate the war World War II.
    (HN, 9/22/98)

1945        Sep 23, The first American died in Vietnam during the fall of Saigon to French forces.
    (HN, 9/23/98)

1945        Sep 26, Bryan Ferry, singer in group Roxy Music and solo, was born.
    (MC, 9/26/01)
1945        Sep 26, Bela  Bartok (b.1881), Hungarian pianist and composer, died at age 64.

1945        Sep 27, Misha Dichter, pianist (Tchaikovsky 2nd prize-1966), was born in Shanghai, China.
    (MC, 9/27/01)
1945        Sep 27, Stephanie Pogue, artist and art professor, was born.
    (HN, 9/27/98)

1945        Sep 30, US daylight saving time (also called war time), begun Feb 9, 1942, ended.

1945        Oct 1, The US Army Air Corps founded the RAND Corporation less than 2 months after bombs were dropped on Japan. Gen. Arnold and others met at Hamilton Field, California, to set up Project RAND under special contract to the Douglas Aircraft Company. In 2008 Alex Abella authored “Soldiers of Reason: The RAND corporation and the rise of the American empire."
    (SSFC, 6/8/08, Books p.4)(www.rand.org/about/history/)

1945        Oct 6, Gen Eisenhower was welcomed in Hague on Hitler's train.
    (MC, 10/6/01)

1945        Oct 8, President Truman announced that the secret of the atomic bomb would be shared only with Britain and Canada.
    (AP, 10/8/97)
1945        Oct 8, Felix Salten (b.1869), Austrian writer and the creator of Disney’s Bambi (1923), died in Switzerland. In 1906 he authored the novel Josephine Mutzenbacher, the fictional autobiography of a Vienna prostitute, a notorious pornographic novel.
    (Econ, 11/8/08, p.102)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Felix_Salten)

1945        Oct 10, The Workers' Party of Korea (North Korea) was officially founded.
    (AP, 9/28/10)

1945        Oct 11, Negotiations between Nationalist leader Chiang Kai-shek and Communist leader Mao Tse-tung broke down. Nationalist and Communist troops we soon engaged in a civil war.
    (HN, 10/11/98)

1945        Oct 13, Milton Hershey (b.1857), Philadelphia chocolate tycoon, died. In 2005 Michael D. Antonio authored “Hershey: Milton S. Hershey’s Extraordinary Life of Wealth, Empire and Utopian Dreams."
    (WSJ, 8/12/99, p.A1)(www.hersheyhistory.com/milton.html)

1945        Oct 14, British Chief Justice Geoffrey Lawrence was elected president of the Int’l. Military Tribunal for the trial of war criminals at Nuremberg. Drexel A. Sprecher (d.2006), a prosecutor during the trial, later edited the official 15-volume work on the 4-year trial.
    (http://tinyurl.com/pnk7h)(SFC, 4/11/06, p.B5)

1945        Oct 15, The former Vichy French Premier Pierre Laval was executed by a firing squad for his wartime collaboration with the Germans.
    (AP, 10/15/97)(HN, 10/15/98)

1945        Oct 17, Col. Juan Peron, the future president of Argentina, was released from prison after protests by trade unionists, ending a crisis that began with his forced resignation from his government posts and his arrest.
    (AP, 10/17/06)

1945        Oct 18, The first German War Crimes Trial began in 1945. The International Military Tribunal met at Nuremberg and lasted through to 1946. Ranking Nazi officials were tried and convicted of war crimes, crimes against peace and crimes against humanity. The proceedings were endorsed by the UN. William D. Denson (d.1998 at 85) was the chief prosecutor for the US.
    (HFA, ‘96, p.40)(MT, Dec. ‘95, p.16)(SFC, 12/14/98, p.C4)
        Telford Taylor in 1992 published "Anatomy of the Nuremberg Trials." He helped write the rules for the prosecution of the war criminals and became the trial’s chief prosecutor.
    (SFC, 5/26/98, p.B2)

1945        Oct 19, Divine, [Harris Glenn Milstead], cross-dressing actor-actress (Pink Flamingo), was born in Baltimore, Md.
    (MC, 10/19/01)
1945         Oct 19, Romulo Betancourt began serving his first term as president of Venezuela and continued to 1948. founded Accion Democratica.

1945        Oct 20, Egypt, Syria, Iraq and Lebanon formed the Arab League to present a unified front against the establishment of a Jewish state in Palestine.
    (HN, 10/20/98)
1945        Oct 20, In Germany Richard Sonnenfeldt (1923-2009), British chief interpreter at the Nuremberg war trials, served out the indictments to the Nazis facing trial.
    (Econ, 10/31/09, p.100)

1945        Oct 21, Women in France were allowed to vote for the first time.
    (AP, 10/21/99)

1945        Oct 23, Jackie Robinson signed a Montreal Royal contract.
    (MC, 10/23/01)

1945        Oct 24,  The United Nations was born with the ratification of its charter by the first 29 nations at a San Francisco Conference chaired by the State Department’s Alger Hiss.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1945)(AP, 10/24/97)(HN, 10/24/98)(WSJ, 12/19/03, p.A1)
1945        Oct 24, Vidkun Quisling, Norway's wartime minister president, was executed by firing squad for collaboration with the Nazis.
    (HN, 10/24/00)
1945        Oct 24, Robert Ley, Nazi, committed suicide.
    (MC, 10/24/01)

1945        Oct 25, Japanese surrendered Taiwan to Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek. Taiwan was returned to Chinese control following the Japanese occupation during WW II.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Taiwan)(SFC, 6/9/97, p.A8)

1945        Oct 26, Pat Conroy, American writer (Great Santini, Prince of Tides), was born in Atlanta, Georgia. His work included "Conrack" (1973; film, 1974; stage musical, 1987); "The Great Santini" (1976; film, 1979); "The Lords of Discipline" (1980; film, 1983); "The Prince of Tides" (1986; film, 1991); and "Beach Music" (1995; film, 1997).

1945        Oct 29, A.B. ("Happy") Chandler, resigned as a US Senator. He remained as baseball commissar.
    (MC, 10/29/01)
1945        Oct 29, The first ball-point pen was sold by Gimbell's department store in New York for a price of $12.
    (HN, 10/29/00)

1945        Oct 30, The US government announced the end of shoe rationing, effective at midnight.
    (AP, 10/30/07)

1945        Oct, The Federal Hourly Minimum Wage was set at $0.40 an hour.

1945        Nov 1, John H. Johnson (1919-2005) published the 1st issue of Ebony magazine. His weekly Jet magazine was founded in 1951 and Ebony Man began in 1985.
    {Black History}
    (HN, 11/1/98)(SFC, 8/8/05, p.B4)

1945        Nov 6, HUAC began an investigation of 7 radio commentators.
    (MC, 11/6/01)
1945        Nov 6, The first landing of a jet on a carrier took place on the USS Wake Island when an FR-1 Fireball touched down.
    (HN, 11//99)

1945        Nov 8, A riverboat sank off Hong Kong and 1,550 were killed.
    (MC, 11/8/01)

1945        Nov 9, FBI agents staked out a house in Berkeley, Ca., to watch George Eltenton, a suspected Soviet spy. In 1946 Eltenton admitted that he had tried to obtain secret data on Berkeley’s radiation lab. Eltenton moved to Britain in 1947.
    (SSFC, 6/9/02, p.F2)

1945        Nov 11, Jerome Kern (60), US composer (Sally, Leave it to Jane), died.
    (MC, 11/11/01)

1945        Nov 12, Tracy Kidder, writer, was born. (Among Schoolchildren, Old Friends).
    (HN, 11/12/00)
1945        Nov 12, Neil Percival Young, musician, singer and songwriter, was born in Toronto. His rock groups later included "Buffalo Springfield," "Crosby, Stills, Nash and Young" and "Crazy Horse." In 2002 Jimmy McDonough authored: "Shakey: Neil Young’s Biography."
    (SSFC, 5/12/02, p.M1)(MC, 11/12/01)
1945        Nov 12, Cordell Hull (d.1955) was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his role in founding the United Nations. Hull served as secretary of state in the Franklin Roosevelt Administration (1933-1944) longer than any other individual. Hull, born in Tennessee in 1871, had been a U.S. senator prior to his appointment by Roosevelt.
    (HNQ, 7/6/98)(MC, 11/12/01)

1945        Nov 13, Charles de Gaulle was elected president of France.
    (HN, 11/13/98)

1945        Nov 14, H. Lindsay & R. Crouse "State of the Union," premiered in NYC.
    (MC, 11/14/01)

1945        Nov 15, A report issued by General Headquarters, Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers, offered a detailed account of Japanese military brothels run as "comfort stations."
    (SSFC, 12/7/03, p.A19)

1945        Nov 16, Eighty-eight German scientists, holding Nazi secrets, arrived in the U.S.
    (HN, 11/16/98)

1945        Nov 20, Dmitri Shostakovitch's 9th Symphony  premiered.
    (MC, 11/20/01)
1945        Nov 20, In Nuremberg, Germany 22 out of 24 indicted Nazi officials went on trial (one in absentia) before an international war crimes tribunal.
    (AP, 11/20/08)

1945        Nov 21, Goldie Hawn, Takoma Park, Md., actress (Laugh-in, Private Benjamin), was born.
    (MC, 11/21/01)
1945        Nov 21, General Motors workers went on strike.
    (MC, 11/21/01)
1945        Nov 21, The last residents of the US Japanese-American internment left their camps.
    (SFEC, 4/13/97, Z1 p.6)
1945        Nov 21, Robert Benchley (56), US humorist (My 10 Years in a Quandary), died.
    (MC, 11/21/01)
1945        Nov 21, Bummy Davis (b.1920 as Albert Davidoff), former middleweight boxer turned thug, died after taking on 2 hoodlums in Brooklyn, NY. In 1951 W.C. Heinz wrote "Brownsville Bum," an account of the Bummy Davis tragedy for True Magazine. In 2003 Ron Ross authored Bummy Davis vs. Murder, Inc."
    (WSJ, 3/5/08, p.D9)(www.ronross.us/reviews.html)

1945        Nov 23, Most US wartime rationing of foods, including meat and butter, was set to expire by day's end.
    (HN, 11/23/98)(AP, 11/23/07)

1945        Nov 27, Gen. George C. Marshall was named special U.S. envoy to China to try to end hostilities between the Nationalists and the Communists.
    (AP, 11/27/99)
1945        Nov 27, Argentina declared war on Axis.
    (HN, 11/27/98)

1945        Nov 28, Dina Merrill (1923-2017) made her Broadway debut with “The Mermaids Singing."
    (SFC, 5/24/17, p.D6)
1945        Nov 28, Deborah Kerr wed Anthony Bartley.
    (DT, 11/28/97)
1945        Nov 28, Dwight Filley Davis (b.Jul 5, 1879) died at age 66. He was a Hall of Famer, Tennis Player, Presidential Aide, Sec of War under Coolidge and donated tennis's Davis Cup: 1945.
1945        Nov 28, A tsunami struck India’s coast at Karachi washing away 4,000 people.
    (https://www.dawn.com/news/1131310)(Econ 7/22/17, SR p.10)

1945        Nov 29, In India Bajaj Auto came into existence as M/s Bachraj Trading Corporation Private Limited.
    (www.bajajauto.com/aboutbajaj/milestones.asp)(Econ, 6/3/06, Survey p.10)

1945        Nov 30, Radu Lupu, pianist (Enesco 1st prize-1967), was born in Galati, Romania.
    (MC, 11/30/01)
1945        Nov 30, Russian forces took Danzig, and invaded Austria.
    (HN, 11/30/98)

1945        Nov, Glenn Miller’s Army Band was dissolved.
    (WSJ, 10/24/96, p.A16)
1945        Nov, The Azerbaijan People's Government was established in northern Iran and continued to December 1946. The short-lived unrecognized secessionist state was established in Iranian Azerbaijan, with its capital in the city of Tabriz. Its establishment and demise were a part of the Iran crisis, which was a precursor to the Cold War.
1945        Nov, Hungary held national elections. The communists took 17% of the vote.
    (Econ, 10/20/12, p.75)

1945        Dec 1, Bette Midler, singer, actress (Do You Want to Dance?), was born in Patterson, NJ.
    (MC, 12/1/01)

1945        Dec 4, The Senate approved U.S. participation in the United Nations.
    (AP, 12/4/97)

1945        Dec 5, Four TBM Avenger bombers disappear approximately 100 miles off the coast of Florida, in what is considered the Bermuda Triangle.
    (HN, 12/5/99)

1945        Dec 6, U.S. extended a $3 billion loan to Britain to help compensate for the termination of Lend-Lease.
    (HN, 12/6/98)

1945        Dec 7, The microwave oven was patented. Percy LeBaron Spencer accidentally discovered that microwaves would also heat food. Spencer, an eighth-grade dropout and electronic wizard, worked for the Raytheon Manufacturing Corporation of Massachusetts developing a radar machine using microwave radiation.
    (HN, 9/5/01)(Econ, 10/29/11, p.100)

1945        Dec 11, B-29 Superfortress shattered all records by crossing the U.S. in five hours and 27 minutes.
    (HN, 12/11/98)

1945        Dec 13, France and Britain agreed to quit Syria and Lebanon.
    (HN, 12/13/98)

1945        Dec 14, Josef Kramer, known as "the beast of Belsen," and 10 others were hanged in Hameln for crimes committed at the Belsen and Auschwitz Nazi concentration camps.
    (AP, 12/14/05)

1946        Dec 15, Vietnam leader Ho Chi Minh sent a note to the new French Premier, Leon Blum, asking for peace talks.
    (HN, 12/15/98)

1945        Dec 19, Congress confirmed Eleanor Roosevelt as the U.S. delegate to the UN.
    (HN, 12/19/98)
1945        Dec 19, Jean Giraudoux' "La Folle de Chaillot," premiered in Paris.
    (MC, 12/19/01)

1945        Dec 20, The US Office of Price Administration announced the end of tire rationing, effective Jan. 1, 1946.
    (AP, 12/20/97)

1945        Dec 21, Gen. George S. Patton died at the age of 60 in Heidelberg, Germany, of injuries from a car accident. He was buried at Hamm, Luxembourg. A biography of Patton was written in 1995 by Carlo D’Este titled: "Patton: A Genius for War." In 1998 Brian Sobel published "The Fighting Pattons." It was a history of the Patton family.
    (AP, 12/21/97)(WSJ, 8/14/98, p.W7)(HN, 12/21/98)

1945        Dec 22, Diane Sawyer, newscaster (60 Minutes, ABC Prime Time), was born in Glasgow, Ky.
    (MC, 12/22/01)
1945        Dec 22, The U.S. recognized Tito's government in Yugoslavia.
    (HN, 12/22/98)
1945        Dec 22, Otto Neurath (b.1882), Austrian philosopher of science, sociologist, and political economist, died. He was a leading figure of the Vienna Circle and in the late 1920s helped create the Isotype, a symbolic way of representing quantitative information via easily interpretable icons.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Otto_Neurath)(Econ, 12/24/16, p.29)

1945        Dec 23, Frederick Ashton's "Cinderella" premiered in London.
    (MC, 12/23/01)

1945        Dec 26, The Big Three, the US, Soviet Union and Great Britain, ended a 10-day meeting, seeking an atomic rule by the UN Council.
    (HN, 12/26/98)
1945        Dec 26, The CFA franc was created along with the CFP franc, the currency used in the French overseas collectivities. The reason for their creation was the weakness of the French franc immediately after World War II. When France ratified the Bretton Woods Agreement in December 1945, the French franc was devalued in order to set a fixed exchange rate with the US dollar. New currencies were created in the French colonies to spare them the strong devaluation, thereby facilitating exports to France.

1945        Dec 27, Arthur Laurent's "Home of the Brave," premiered in NYC.
    (MC, 12/27/01)
1945        Dec 27, Foreign ministers from the former Allied nations of the United States, the Soviet Union, and Great Britain agreed to divide Korea into two separate occupation zones and to govern the nation for five years.
    (MC, 12/27/01)
1945        Dec 27, The International Monetary Fund and the Int’l. Bank for Reconstruction and Development (World Bank) were created. 28 nations signed an agreement creating the World Bank. The IMF was created to promote healthy international trade and began transactions in 1947. The World Bank was designed by Englishman John Maynard Keynes and American Harry Dexter White. The IMF and WB were originally intended to part of the UN, but this link was abandoned under American pressure. WB chronology @ (http://tinyurl.com/2f6tgw).
    (AP, 12/27/97)(HN, 12/27/98)(HNQ, 12/27/00)(Econ, 7/24/04, p.63)(Econ, 6/22/13, p.18)
1945        Dec 27, The Dutch formally relinquished sovereignty to Indonesia.
    (WSJ, 7/24/01, p.B4)

1945        Dec 28, Congress officially recognized the "Pledge of Allegiance."
    (AP, 12/28/97)
1945        Dec 28, Max Hastings, British editor-in-chief (Daily Telegraph), historian, was born.
    (MC, 12/28/01)

1945        Dec 31, The ratification of the UN Charter was completed.
    (MC, 12/31/01)
1945        Dec 31, Czechoslovakia began forcing the German population of the Sudetenland back to Germany.
    (WSJ, 11/25/96, p.A15)

1945        Dec, In Albania elections were held for the People's Assembly. Only members of the Democratic Front were permitted to participate.
    (www, Albania, 1998)
1945        Dec, Eric Brown (1919-2016), British test pilot, made the first-ever jet aircraft landing on the carrier Ocean.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eric_Brown_%28pilot%29)(Econ, 3/5/15, p.86)
1945        Dec, The Soviets installed Kim Il Sung (1912-1994) as chairman of the North Korean branch of the Korean Communist Party.

1945        The German Quedlinburg Manuscript of 1516 and other church treasures were stolen from a cave where they were being stored and guarded. Lt. Joe Tom Meador of Whitewright, Texas, shipped 13 items home. They were then sold by his brother and sister. In 1996 a criminal trial focused on the issue.
    (WSJ, 12/11/96, p.A20)

1945        The Schliemann treasure from Troy, bequeathed to the German people, was shipped by the Soviets to Moscow.
    (WSJ, 4/17/96, p.A-18)

1945        Willem de Kooning painted "Study for Pink Angels" and "Still Life."
    (SFC, 6/28/02, p.D1)

1945        Pierre Bonnard painted his "Large Landscape, South of France (Le Cannet)."
    (WSJ, 6/24/98, p.A16)

1945        Polish born painter Irving Norman won the prestigious Albert Bender Prize. His work included The Bridge (1953), War and Peace (1965-67), and Rebellions and Revolutions (1970). He was much influenced by his experiences in Spain while serving with the Abraham Lincoln battalion against Gen’l. Franco.
    (SFEM, 9/22/96, p.33,34)

1945        Georgia O’Keeffe painted "Pelvis Series, Red With Yellow."
    (SFC, 7/16/97, p.E3)

1945        Jackson Pollock (d.1956) and Lee Krasner (d.1984) purchased a property in East Hampton, NY, with a loan from Peggy Guggenheim. It was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1994. (www.pkhouse.org)
    (Brochure, 2002)

1945        The photograph used for a "Rosie the Riveter" poster was taken at the Kaiser Shipyards in Richmond, Ca. Charles Etta Turner, 21, posed for the photo at which time she also met her future husband.
    (SFC, 10/4/96, p.A1)

1945        Alan Cranston, later US Senator, authored "The Killing of the Peace," about America’s decision to stay out of the League of Nations.
    (SFC, 1/1/01, p.A5)

1945        John Hersey won a Pulitzer Prize for his novel "Bell for Adano." It was later made into a Broadway play and a movie. The story was modeled on Major Frank E. Toscani (d.2001 at 89), military governor of Licata, Italy.
    (SFC, 1/30/01, p.A22)

1945        Varian Fry published "Surrender on Demand," the story of his experiences helping some 4,000 Jewish refugees escape from France between 1940-1941.
    (SFC, 3/11/98, p.E3)

1945        Chester Himes authored "If He Hollers Let Him Go," an exploration of work-place racism.
    (SFC, 5/9/03, p.E7)

1945        Christopher Isherwood wrote his novella "Prater Violet." It was about a young English screenwriter and an old Austrian director and the romance of filmmaking.
    (WSJ, 11/25/98, p.A16)

1945        Carlo Levi (1902-1975), Italian journalist, artist and doctor, authored “Christ Stopped at Eboli," his first documentary novel.

1945        Astrid Lindgren (1907-2002) of Sweden authored her novel "Pippi Longstocking."
    (SFC, 1/29/02, p.A17)

1945        Writer Richard Patrick Russ changed his name to Patrick O’Brian. He went on to author 20 sea novels that featured Capt. Jack Aubrey and surgeon Stephen Maturin. In 2000 Dean King published "Patrick O’Brian: A Life Revealed."
    (SFEC, 4/30/00, BR p.3)

1945        Karl Popper (1902-1994) authored “The Open Society and Its Enemies." “Unlimited tolerance must led to the disappearance of tolerance."
    (WSJ, 9/9/06, p.P8)

1945        Nevil Shute authored “Most Secret," a novel about a French-crewed trawler that uses a flame thrower against a German gunboat during WW II.
    (SFC, 10/28/06, p.P12)

1945        John Steinbeck wrote his novel "Cannery Row."
    (SFEC, 6/21/98, DB p.35)

1945        Meridel Le Sueur (1900-1996) wrote "North Star Country." It told the story of how Minnesota and Wisconsin were settled.
    (SFEC, 11/24/96, C12)

1945        E.B. White published his children’s book "Stuart Little," about a tiny mouse that is adopted by a family. It was planned as a movie in 1998.
(NG, 5/93, p.6)(SFC, 7/17/98, p.D5)

1945        The nonfiction book by Ira Wolfert "American Guerilla in the Philippines" was made into a 1950 film of the same title.
    (SFC,11/28/97, p.B8)

1945        Richard Wright (1908-1960) authored "Black Boy."
    (SSFC, 8/12/01, DB p.61)

c1945        The US Army published "112 Gripes about the French," as a prejudice-busting primer for American troops occupying France following WWII. It was re-published in 2003.
    (SFC, 9/1/03, p.A2)

1945        JB Priestly, British playwright, staged his thriller "An Inspector Calls." The play is set in 1912.
    (SFC, 4/12/96, p.D-1)

1945        Mary Hunter Wolf (d.2000 at 95) made her Broadway debut as director of "Only the Heart."
    (SFC, 11/13/00, p.A24)

1945        Paramount Studios released a theatrical short cartoon titled "The Friendly Ghost." It featured Casper, a character invented by Seymour V. Reit (d.2001 at 81) and 1st drawn by Joe Oriolo.
    (SFC, 12/19/01, p.A25)

1945        The film "Mildred Pierce" starred Ann Blyth and Joan Crawford and was directed by Michael Curtiz. The screenplay was by Catherine Turney (d.1998 at 92) and was based on a novel by James M. Cain. Crawford won an Academy Award for her role.
    (www.imdb.com/title/tt0037913/)(SFC, 9/12/98, p.C3)(SFEC, 11/7/99, DB p.49)

1945        Rogers and Hammerstein converted the 1933 film "State Fair" into a musical film with original songs.
    (WSJ, 3/29/96, p.A-9)(SFC, 6/19/97, p.A22)

1945        Samuel Barber composed his "Sonata for Piano and Cello, Op.6."
    (SFC, 1/30/97, p.B3)
1945        Pierre Boulez, composer, wrote his "Opus 1, a Sonatina for Flute and Piano."
    (WSJ, 6/20/96, p.A16)
1945        Hadda Brooks (d. 2002 at 86) sang the hit "Swingin’ With the Boogie," her 1st record.
    (SFC, 11/23/02, p.A19)
1945        Benjamin Britten composed his opera "Peter Grimes."
    (SFC, 12/29/99, p.E1)
1945        Johnny Otis (1921-2012), band leader and song writer, made his first hit with “Harlem Nocturne."
    (SFC, 1/20/12, p.A16)
1945        Richard Thomas Goldhahn (d.2003 at 88), aka Dick Thomas, wrote "Sioux City Sue." Bing Crosby recorded it in 1946 and made the Lucky Strike Hit Parade for 14 weeks.
    (SFC, 11/29/03, p.A20)
1945        Wesley Tuttle (d.2003 at 85), country singer, made a hit with the song "With Tears in My Eyes."
    (SFC, 10/3/03, p.A20)

1945        Oscar Peterson, Canadian Jazz pianist, in a trio made his first record for Victor.
    (WSJ, 1/11/95, A-12)

1945        In Germany Hans Pfitzner composed his last work: "the Sextet for Piano, Clarinet and Strings."
    (WSJ, 7/29/97, p.A12)

1945        George Kleinsinger composed "Tubby the Tuba," a children’s piece about a fat, brass tuba. It was re-issued in 1997 on a CD.
    (SFEM, 8/31/97, p.13)

1945        Todd Duncan (d.1998 at 95), baritone, became the first black artist to perform with the NY City Opera as Tonio in "Pagliacci."
    (SFC, 3/3/98, p.D8)

1945        The NYC house at 7 Middagh St. in Brooklyn Heights was among those destroyed to make way for the Brooklyn-Queens Expressway. A group of American and English artists had lived there from the early 1940s. They included Carson McCullers, Wystan Auden, Benjamin Britten, Gypsy Rose Lee, Jane and Paul Bowles and guests such as Salvador Dali. In 2005 Sherrill Tippins authored “February House," an account of their interactions.
    (SSFC, 3/6/05, p.B1)

1945        The Arrowmont School of Arts and Crafts was founded in Gatlinburg, Ten.
    (WSJ, 12/24/03, p.D7)

1945        The Kentucky Derby was won by Hoop Jr., owned by Fred Hooper (d.2000 at 102).
    (SFC, 8/5/00, p.A21)

1945        The Pulitzer Prize for drama went to Mary Chase for her play "Harvey."
    (SFEC, 4/13/97, DB p.54)

1945        Sir Alexander Fleming was awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine for his codiscovery of penicillin along with Ernst B. Chain (b.1908), German chemist, bacteriologist, and Dr. Howard Florey, who found Fleming's paper in 1938 and began clinical trials.
    (WUD, 1994, p.542)(SFC, 1/19/04, p.B4)
1945        Wolfgang Pauli (b.1900), Austrian-born physicist, received the Nobel prize.
    (SS, 4/25/02)

1945        Byron Nelson (1912-2006), American golfer, won a record 11 tournaments in a row. He retired at the end of the 1946 season at age 34 with 52 PGA wins.
    (WSJ, 9/27/06, p.A1)(WSJ, 9/30/06, p.A6)

1945        Gundeer Haag (1919-2004), Swedish runner, set the world record for the mile and held it until 1954.
    (SFC, 12/3/04, p.B7)

1945        William O’Dwyer was elected mayor of NYC. He left the post after 5 years to become the ambassador to Mexico.

1945        Saipan and some nearby islands began to be administered by the US on behalf of the United Nations after WW II.
    (WSJ, 2/20/97, p.A20)

1945        US submarine losses for WW II totaled 52.
    (SFC, 5/27/97, p.A17)

c1945        LCVPs (landing craft vehicle, personnel). LCVPs (landing craft vehicle, personnel), an innovation by Andrew Jackson Higgins prompted General Dwight D. Eisenhower to refer to Higgins as "the man who won the war for us." For the Allied war effort Andrew Jackson Higgins designed and built approximately 20,094 boats and landing craft, including the LCVPs, LCPLs (landing craft personnel, large) and LCMs (landing craft, mechanized) that made beach landings of large numbers of equipment and troops, such as D-Day, possible.
    (HNQ, 6/11/01)

1945        It was made illegal to chew tobacco in any US federal building.
    (SFC, 1/30/99, p.D3)

1945        From this year on Congress left the regulation of the insurance industry to the individual states.
    (WSJ, 1/14/98, p.A1)

1945        The US Navy was officially desegregated.
    (SFC, 5/17/04, p.B4)

1945        The 120 members of the Werner von Braun German rocket team came to the US to help start the US space program.
    (SFC, 4/4/98, p.A24)

1945        John S. Service (d.1999 at 89), one of the US "China hands" experts, participated in the "Dixie Mission" as a US Foreign Service officer, and visited Mao Zedong at Yanan. He reported that Chiang Kai-shek was vulnerable due to corruption and that the Communists would win the war. The US ambassador to China, Army Gen'l. Patrick Hurley, ordered him back to the US and later accused him of handing secret US documents to the Chinese. In the US Service was arrested by the FBI in the Amerasia affair and became a target of Joseph McCarthy. He was dismissed from the State Dept. in 1951 but later vindicated.
    (SFC, 2/5/99, p.D4)

1945        With the war over 16 million GIs began reentry to civilian life. Some 406,000 Americans died in WW II. In 1987 a national war memorial was proposed and in 1993 Congress approved funding to build it on the Mall in Washington DC. www.wwiimemorial.com
    (TMC, 1994, p.1945)(SFEC, 5/30/99, Par p.16)

1945        The US War Production Board lifted the motor vehicle production ban.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)

1945        The Soviets presented American ambassador Averell Harriman a plaque that contained a listening device designed by Leon Theremin. Harriman hung the seal over his desk and the implanted device was not discovered until 1952.
    (ON, 11/01, p.8)

1945        Filipino New Scouts were inducted into the US Army toward the end of WW II. On Dec 6, 2003, Pres. Bush signed a measure that made Filipino American veterans eligible for full Veterans Affair health care. Previous benefits were at half the rate of US veterans.
    (SFC, 12/17/03, p.A2)

1945        The offices of Amerasia, a twice-monthly journal of Asian affairs, were raided by the US government. Hundreds of classified documents of US-China policy and other matters were found.
    (SFC, 7/19/96, p.B1)

1945        The US Forest Service named "Smokey the Bear" as its spokesman to fight forest fires: "Remember, only you can prevent forest fires." Smokey the Bear was named after NYC assistant chief Smokey Joe Martin (d.1945). Rudolph A. Wendelin (d.2000 at 90) served as the "caretaker" of the Smokey Bear icon. [see Aug 9, 1944]
    (SFEC, 9/3/00, p.C8)(ON, 4/03, p.9)
1945        African-American paratroopers, as part of the 555th battalion (the Triple Nickle), were assigned to Operation Firefly as smoke jumpers to disarm explosives and extinguish fires in the Pacific Northwest.
    (SSFC, 2/23/14, Par, p.18)

1945        The 1,000-foot aircraft carrier USS Midway began service. It was decommissioned in 1992 and set up as a museum in San Diego in 2004
    (SFC, 12/29/03, p.A9)

1945        Florence Wysinger "Flo" Allen (d.1997 at 84), legendary SF artist’s model, founded the Models Guild. She was sketched, painted and sculpted by such artists as: Diego Rivera, Mark Rothko, Elmer Bischoff, Hassel Smith, Roy De Forest, Ralph Du Casse, Wayne Thiebaud, Eleanor Dickenson, Beth Van Heusen, Mark Adams, Richard Shaw, Nathan Oliveira, Karl Kasten, Glenn Wessels, Helen Salz, Art Grant, Joan Brown, Frank Lobdell and Bill Wiley.
    (SFC, 6/18/97, p.A20)
1945        In California the Zamorano Club published “The Zamorano 80: A Selection of Distinguished California Books Made by Members of the Zamorano Club." The criterion for inclusion was that a selection above all should be distinguished, and that rarity and importance would be secondary. The Club printed 500 copies and gave a copy to each member at its June 6, 1945 meeting. On June 8, Dawson’s Book Shop bought 300 of the remaining copies. In all, the Club had spent $1,699.93 to present this book to the world.
1945        Cabot Yerxa opened "Cabot's Old Indian Pueblo Museum" in California's Coachella Valley. He operated it with his wife, Portia, until his death in 1965. Upon his death Portia returned to her native Texas and the structure was abandoned. Yerxa's friend Cole Eyraud protected the settlement after his death and after it had been abandoned and vandalized. Eyraud and his family purchased the complex, restoring it and later donating it to the City of Desert Hot Springs.

1945        Grand Rapids, Mi., became the world’s first city to add fluoride to its water supply to reduce tooth decay. A study six years later found a dramatic decline in tooth decay among the children there.
    (WSJ, 7/22/05, p.B1)(SFC, 4/28/15, p.A5)

1945        The 1st plastic mannequin was introduced.
    (SSFC, 2/24/02, p.M6)

1945        Joseph P. Kennedy bought Chicago’s Merchandise Mart for $13 million, less than half of what it cost to build.
    (WSJ, 1/26/98, p.A1)

1945        Henry Ford II (1917-1987) was named president of the Ford Motor company.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)

1945        Bill Miller (d.2002 at 98) bought the Las Vegas hotel Riviera. It closed in 1953 to make way for the Palisades Parkway.
    (SFC, 12/17/02, p.A23)

1945        Sam Walton opened his first variety store in Newport, Arkansas, with a $20,000 loan from his wife’s father. [see 1950]
    (SFEC, 9/3/00, Par p.4)

1945        British author Arthur C. Clarke was the first to put forward the idea of a communications satellite in a magazine article in 1945. The American satellite Telestar, launched in 1962, ushered in the age of satellite communications.
    (HNQ, 4/21/99)

1945        Kaiser established a health maintenance organization for its workers.
    (Econ, 7/17/04, Survey p.13)

1945        At the Mayo Clinic streptomycin was first used to treat TB. Also the first lab principles to evaluate chemotherapy were established.
    (SFC, 7/5/96, PM, p.5)

1945        Jacob A. Marinsky (1918-2005) and L. E. Glendenin, while working on the Manhattan Project, identified the element promethium (147-Pm) in the by-products of uranium fission. The American Chemical Society acknowledged the result in 1949, recognizing the finding as element 61 for the periodic table.

1945        Radiocarbon dating 1st became available for archeological use.
    (Arch, 7/02, p.51)

1945        Charles L. Schepens (1912-2006), Belgian-born eye researcher, developed in London a binocular indirect opthalmoscope to allow a more thorough examination of the retina.
    (SFC, 4/11/06, p.B5)(http://historywired.si.edu/object.cfm?ID=10)

1945        Mary Caroline Richards (d.1999 at 83) joined the faculty at Black Mountain College near Ashville N.C. Her later books included "The Crossing Point" (1973), "Opening Our Moral Eye" (1996), "Imagine Inventing Yellow" (1991) and "Toward Wholeness: Rudolf Steiner Education in America."
    (SFC, 9/21/99, p.E4)

1945        A new medium priced home in the US was priced at $7,500.
    (WSJ, 6/14/96, p.B10)

1945        The industrial force exceeded the number of people engaged in agriculture in France.

1945        Ralph Ellis Jr. was released from commitment. He had collected some 65,000 books, plates, manuscripts and illustrations with such a mania that his mother feared bankruptcy and had him committed.
    (SFC, 9/6.96, p.C5)

1945        The US merchant marine ship Bushnell sank in the Arctic Ocean after being hit by a German torpedo. It was headed for the Russian port of Murmansk.
    (SFC,12/9/97, p.A15)

1945        W.T. Anderson, editor and publisher of the Macon Telegraph, died. He willed much of his wealth to help indigent blacks receive medical care but by 1996 his will had still not been executed. The original bequest of $600,000 had only grown to $2 million and the executor’s were under scrutiny for negligence.
    (WSJ, 9/27/96, p.B1)

1945        Bela Bartok, Hungarian composer, died of leukemia in New York. He composed the 6 volume Mikrokosmos for piano students amongst other extensive works.
    (WSJ, 8/18/95, p.A-1)

1945        Robert Benchley, New Yorker theater critic and actor, died. He was a founding member of the Algonquin Round Table. Members included George S. Kaufman, Dorothy Parker, Alexander Woolcott, Robert Sherwood, Heywood Broun, Franklin P. Adams, Edna Ferber and Marc Connelly. In 1997 Billy Altman wrote: "Laughter’s Gentle Soul: The Life of Robert Benchley." His films included "Foreign Correspondent" by Alfred Hitchcock and "I Married a Witch" by Rene Clair.
    (WSJ, 4/14/97, p.A13)

1945        David Lloyd George (b.1863), former British prime minister (1916-1922), died.
    (WUD, 1994 p.839)

1945        Rene Jules Lalique, French jewelry designer, died.
    (SFC, 5/8/03, p.A26)

1945        Anton Webern (b.1883), Austrian composer, died. He was accidentally shot by an American soldier policing his town.
    (WSJ, 2/14/00, p.A20)

1945        N.C. Wyeth, illustrator of children’s adventure books, died. He was the father of artist Andrew Wyeth and grandfather of artist Jamie Wyeth.
    (SFEC, 4/30/00, p.T3)

1945        Australian soldier Edward Kenna (d.2009 at 90) single-handedly stormed a Japanese machine-gun nest at Wewak, New Guinea, firing a Bren gun from his hip with enemy bullets passing under his arms as he advanced. Kenna was awarded a Victoria Cross for his valor.
    (AFP, 7/9/09)

1945        Austria retrieved some 18,000 looted artworks from a US Army depot in Munich. The bulk of them were restituted to former owners over the next 3 years.
    (WSJ, 12/9/98, p.A20)

1945        Evelyn Waugh authored "Brideshead Revisited," his 7th novel. It was a wistful dream of vanished faith and grace. An 11-hour television adaptation began to air in Britain in October, 1981.
    (Econ., 6/13/20, p.69)
1945        Former members of Britain’s Special Operations Executive founded the Special Forces Club in London.
    (Econ, 2/16/13, p.69)
1945        In Britain Clement Atlee was the prime minister after WW II. The Labor party toppled Winston Churchill with a 146-seat majority win.
    (WSJ, 2/21/97, p.A12)(WSJ, 5/2/97, p.A1)
1945        Britain’s M15 opened a dossier on Harold Wilson (29) and kept it through Wilson's two terms as prime minister in the '60s and '70s. It was opened out of concern for Wilson's contacts with Eastern European businessmen and a belief amongst British civil servants that Wilson may have been sympathetic to Communist ideologies. The file was kept not to undermine Wilson but to keep tabs on contacts deemed suspicious, according to "The Defense of the Realm," the first authorized account of MI5's history serialized in The Times on Oct 3, 2009.
    (AP, 10/3/09)
1945        Maria Dickin decorated Rip, a dog, for finding more than 100 people trapped by German bomb damage in World War II. Dickin was the creator of the Dickin Medal program, Britain's highest honor for animals. Rip died in 1948 and is buried in a pet charity cemetery in east London. In 2009 the medal sold at auction in London on Friday for 24,250 pounds ($35,700).
    (AP, 4/24/09)
1945        Some 732 teenage concentration camp survivors were settled in Britain. They formed the Primrose Club of London in 1947 to maintain contact. Their story was told in the 1997 book "The Boys: The Story 0f 732 Young Concentration Camp Survivors" by Martin Gilbert.
    (SFC, 7/8/97, p.B4)
1945        Barbara Hutton (1912-1979), heir to the Woolworth fortune, gifted Winfield House, her London mansion, to the United States government and moved to California. In 2008 Maria Tuttle and Marcus Binney authored “Winfield House."
    (Econ, 11/1/08, p.96)(www.spiritus-temporis.com/barbara-hutton/)
1945        By the end of World War II Britain owed India £1.3 billion, an eight of British GDP.
    (Econ, 5/7/15, p.78)

1945        Canada’s Molson Brewery went public.
    (WSJ, 6/29/04, p.A11)

1945        After WW II the Caroline Islands became trust territories of the United States, eventually gaining independence as Micronesia in 1986 and Palau in 1994.

1945        In China Aisingyoro Henry Puyi, the last emperor, Xuantong, and the figurehead ruler of the Manchurian state, was captured by Soviet troops and later turned over the Chinese Communists. He was sent to a re-education camp.
    (SFC, 6/11/97, p.C16)

1945        Some 13,000 pro-Nazi soldiers and civilians were executed as the WWIII ended. In 2009 Croatia asked that charges be brought against Simo Dubajic (86), a former major in the Yugoslav army, on suspicion of ordering the executions.
    (SFC, 4/1/09, p.A2)

1945        Fidel Castro (1926-2016), the son of a Spanish immigrant farmer, entered the School of Law at the University of Havana. Before becoming the revolutionary communist leader of Cuba, Castro earned a doctorate in law. He was intensely interested in politics throughout his studies and joined the Cuban People’s Party upon graduating in 1950. Dr. Castro’s potential career as an elected representative came to an end when General Batista overthrew the Socarras government and established a dictatorship. Castro began organizing armed resistance to the regime and eventually succeeded in the revolution of 1959. As the political leader of Cuba for the past four decades, he has received various honorary doctorates.
    (HNQ, 5/3/01)(Econ, 12/3/16, p.18)

1945        Eduard Benes returned from exile in London to Prague, and set up a government. Under the "Benes decrees" millions of Germans, Austrian and Hungarians were dispossessed and expelled.
    (Econ, 12/6/03, p.45)

1945        Hamas began life as a branch of Egypt’s Muslim Brotherhood, which advocated the creation of states based ion Muslim law across the Middle East. [see Palestine 1987]
    (Econ, 11/12/05, p.48)(www.upi.com/inc/view.php?StoryID=18062002-051845-8272r)

1945        In France the magazine Point de Vue was founded as a general-interest publication. By the 1960s its coverage was directed to royalty.
    (WSJ, 1/30/97, p.A16)
1945        The Salon de Mai was held in France and organized to continue the French tradition of salon art exhibits, but by this time artists no longer needed salon approval and presented their work through public galleries. private exhibitions, and individual art dealers.
    (Calg. Glen., 1996)
1945        France set up the Ecole Nationale d’Administration, a post-graduate civil service college, to turn out a meritocratic elite equipped to run an administered economy battered by war.
    (Econ, 4/3/04, p.86)

1945        In Germany an American air raid destroyed most of the buildings of Hitler’s "Eagle’s Nest" above the town of Berchtesgaden in the Alps. The area was used by the Americans for recreational purposes until it was returned to Bavaria in 1996
    (LVRJ, 11/1/97, p.16A)
c1945    In Germany Josef Ritter von Gadolla saved the people, the old town and the square of Gotha by surrendering to the advancing Americans. He was shot for surrendering without a fight. His conviction was overturned in 1998.
    (SFC, 1/21/98, p.C12)
1945        In Germany a US transport train collided with a trainload of German war prisoners and 102 people were killed.
    (SFC, 6/4/98, p.A15)
1945        In Germany Albert A. Hutler (d.1998 at 89) served as chief of the Displaced Persons Section of the US 7th Army Military Government. He authored "Agony of Survival" in 1988, a recounting of his efforts to aid the concentration camp survivors.
    (SFC, 10/24/98, p.A22)
1945        Dr. Klaus Maertens, a 25-year-old soldier, was convalescing from a broken foot. Looking for an alternative to the traditional hard leather sole, he came up with an air-cushioned alternative that he showed to an old university friend and mechanical engineer, Dr. Herbert Funk. The pair began producing their novel shoes two years later and within a decade they had a booming business. In 1960, British firm Griggs bought an exclusive license to the shoes and made adjustments. Shares in Dr. Martens footwear went public in 2021.
    (AP, 1/29/21)

c1945        In Hong Kong Nadya Jacobova Moiseeva (daughter of Jacob Moiseef) and John Henry McCann, a former officer with Gen’l. Claire Chennault and the Flying Tigers, managed CAT Airlines, formed by formed by former Flying Tiger pilots. The couple had met and married in Shanghai in 1944.
    (SFC, 12/2/97, p.A22)

1945        The AVO, Hungary’s State Security Agency, was formed under Soviet masters. Its first leader was a Hungarian called Gabor Peter. The role of the AVO was to hunt out anyone who was even vaguely against the rule of Moscow over Hungary.

c1945        The India Gate in New Delhi was built to memorialize the 85,000 Indians who died in WW II.
    (Hem., 2/97, p.58)

1945        Indonesia, formed from the former Dutch East Indies, claimed West Timor. East Timor remained under Portuguese control.
    (SFC, 3/3/98, p.A6)(SFEC, 8/29/99, p.A19)
1945        Indonesia’s original constitution of 1945 had 71 clauses. By 2004 amendments had expanded it to 199 clauses.
    (Econ, 12/11/04, Survey p.13)
1945        Indonesia’s future President Sukarno, facing the need to pull together the diverse archipelago, promulgated Pancasila as the philosophical foundation of the Indonesian state. Its five principals included: Belief in the one and only God; Just and civilized humanity; the unity of Indonesia; Democracy guided by the inner wisdom in the unanimity arising out of deliberations amongst representatives; and Social justice for all of the people of Indonesia. The doctrine protected Indonesia’s six officially recognized religions.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pancasila_%28politics%29)(Econ, 1/28/17, p.35)

1945        From Iraq foreign minister Fadhel al-Jamali (1903-1997) signed the UN Charter for Iraq. He later became prime minister under colonial rule and tried to get more freedom from Britain.
    (SFC, 5/27/97, p.A22)

1945        The Italian film “Rome Open City" was directed by Roberto Rossellini (1906-1977). It was about the German occupation of Rome and was the first film of his war trilogy.
    (SFC, 1/22/10, p.E2)

1945        In Japan Nobosuke Kishi (1896-1987) was arrested and served three years as a war criminal. He had orchestrated forced labor in Manchuria in the 1930s and served in Japan's wartime cabinet. With US support, he went on to consolidate the Japanese conservative camp against perceived threats from the Japan Socialist Party in the 1950s, and is credited with being a key player in the initiation of the "1955 System", the extended period during which the Liberal Democratic Party was the overwhelmingly dominant political party in Japan.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nobusuke_Kishi)(Econ., 9/5/20, p.73)
1945        American occupiers broke up Japan’s national power company into 9 privately-owned utilities. After the Americans left the government set up a 10th, publicly owned utility, J-Power.
    (Econ, 9/4/04, p.60)
1945        Some 760,000 Japanese were imprisoned in Soviet labor camps after WWII. Records of their internment were discovered in 2009 at a national archive in Moscow.
    (SSFC, 7/26/09, p.A4)   

1945        An uprising in Kosovo was put down by Tito’s Communists.
    (SFC, 3/14/98, p.A8)

1945        The Kurdistan Democratic Party (KDP) was founded by Mullah Mustafa Barzani (1903-1979). He played a major role in establishing the short-lived Kurdish Republic of Mehabad (Mahabad), “Red" Kurdistan, in Iran. It lasted for just ten months. In the 30s and 40s he had organized “Pesh merga" guerrillas from clans in the Zagros region.
    (SFC, 9/4/96, p.A7)(WSJ, 12/20/02, p.A14)(Econ., 2/21/15, p.14)

1945        On the island of Saipan thousands of (Japanese) civilians killed their wives and children and then committed suicide (hara-kiri). This was in response to imminent US takeover and is quoted from an eye-witness account along with other incidents.
    (WSJ, 6/13/95, p.A-19)

1945        In Lithuania the 2nd Communist invasion occurred.
    (DrEE, 11/23/96, p.3)

1945        Kiro Gligorov was one of the organizers of the Anti-Fascist Assembly for the People's Liberation of Macedonia, or ASNOM. The organization worked to establish Macedonia's identity and territory within the Yugoslav federation and is considered the cornerstone of the Macedonian state.
    (AP, 1/2/12)

1945        In the Philippines the US recaptured the island of Corregidor and nearly 6,000 Japanese soldiers leapt to their death off a ridge rather than face capture and dishonor.
    (SFEC, 12/15/96, p.T6)

1945        Wladyslaw Szpilman published his Warsaw ghetto memoir "The Pianist," right after the war. An English edition was released in 1999.
    (WSJ, 9/2/99, p.A12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wladyslaw_Szpilman)
1945        The allies settled on the Oder-Neisse line as the new Western border of Poland. It cut through the German city of Guben, called Gubin on the Polish side.
    (Econ, 4/24/04, p.50)
1945        In Poland a monument, designed by Red Army artists, was put up by Warsaw authorities to commemorate the joint struggle of Soviet and Polish troops against Nazi Germany. It also honored some 600,000 Soviet troops who fell in the struggle in Poland. It was put into storage in 2011 to make room for a subway. In 2015 Warsaw city councilors voted to keep it in storage.
    (AP, 2/27/15)

1945        The Portuguese returned after WW II to run Roman Catholic East Timor.
    (SFC, 10/12/96, p.A13)

1945        The Red Army took Koenigsberg, dynamited the city and killed or expelled the German population. They renamed it Kaliningrad after Mikhail Kalinin, the Soviet figurehead president.
    (Econ, 11/22/03, p.7S)
1945        Russian code clerk Igor Gouzenko defected to Canada and Elizabeth Bentley changed her role from Soviet courier to FBI informant. They helped the West gain an understanding of Soviet spy rings in North America. In 2003 Lauren Kessler authored "Clever Girl: Elizabeth Bentley, the Spy Who Ushered in the McCarthy Era." Bentley provided the FBI with the names of 150 spies.
    (WSJ, 9/22/99, p.A22)(SSFC, 8/17/03, p.M2)(SSFC, 1/11/04, p.M6)
1945        Russia’s Operation Tarantella, designed to reach emigres who fled after the Communist takeover, turned Viktor Bogomolets back to Moscow. He became a double agent passing British secrets to top-tier Soviet operatives. This was made public in 2007.
    (Reuters, 4/2/07)
1945        The Soviet Army adopted the SKS-45, a semi-automatic rifle adopted. It fired the same 7.62x39mm round as the AK-47, which was a shortened, lighter round that was the standard Soviet cartridge of World War II. This meant the rifle firing the round could be lighter, and the soldier could carry more ammunition. Although Viet Cong (VC) and North Vietnamese Army (NVA) soldiers in Vietnam preferred the fully-automatic AK-47, the SKS was an effective weapon that many of them carried during the Vietnam war.
    (HNQ, 6/3/02)

1945        Carmen Laforet (23), Spanish writer, authored her first novel “Nada" (Nothing). It was set in Spain during the 1930s and conveyed the crushing weight of war through its characters. An English translation became available in 2007.
    (SFC, 3/2/07, p.E7)

c1945        After the war Sweden returned about 14 tons of presumably looted gold to Belgium and the Netherlands that it had received from the Nazis in payment for exports.
    (SFC,1/22/97, p.A9)

1945        Switzerland agreed with the US to freeze financial transactions with Germany in early 1945. The agreement was violated.
    (SFC, 12/1/97, p.A10)

1945        The Union Bank of Switzerland took over the Eidgenoessische Bank which had built up an extensive business with Germany during the Third Reich.
    (SFC, 1/17/97, p.A1)

1945        At the end of World War II Thailand was compelled to return territory it had seized from Laos, Cambodia and Malaya. The exiled King Ananda returned.

1945        A secret internal US Treasury Dept. document, hidden for 50 years, revealed in 1997 that the Vatican held some 200 million Swiss francs plundered from Serbs and Jews by the Nazi puppet government of Croatia after WW II.
    (SFC, 7/22/97, p.A8)

1945        In Vietnam Bao Dai abdicated his throne in the city of Hue with the approach of the Viet Minh guerrillas. He moved to China and then became an advisor to Ho Chi Minh in Hanoi until 1949 when the French set him up as chief of state of Vietnam.
    (SFC, 8/2/97, p.A21)
1945        In Vietnam Ho Chi Minh united the north and south. He was known to have written letters to President Truman asking for humanitarian assistance and advocated political rather than military action. His letters went unanswered.
    (WSJ, 11/30/95, p.A-23)
1945        The Viet Minh in Vietnam formed a provisional government in a bid for independence and Pham Van Dong served as finance minister.
    (SFC, 5/3/00, p.A24)

1945-1946    Picasso painted his purposely unfinished "Charnel House."
    (SFC, 10/10/98, p.E8)(www.abcgallery.com/P/picasso/picasso45.html)
1945-1946    France underwent another round of nationalization. Similar rounds of nationalization again took place in 1936 and 1981.
    (Econ, 10/25/08, p.18)

c1945-1946    After the war the US and its allies made a deal with the Swiss to accept repayment of $60 million and waived further claims. The claims were for gold acquired from the Nazis during the war. Much of the gold was from occupied countries and Jews.
    (FB, 9/12/96, p.A9)

1945-1946    In India the British government organized elections for a constituent assembly.
    (SFEC, 8/3/97, p.A15)

1945-1947    The US West Coast sardine industry plummeted from abundance to empty nets.
    (PacDis, Summer ’97, p.2)

1945-1947    A nutrition study at Vanderbilt Univ. gave a radioactive iron tracer to 829 women. Four of their children later died of childhood cancers. In 1998 a $10.3 million settlement was awarded to the women.
    (SFC, 7/28/98, p.A2)

1945-1949    A series of wars for independence during this period spread from India to Burma, Thailand, Malaysia and Singapore. In 2007 Christopher Bayly and Tim Harper authored “Forgotten Wars: Freedom and Revolution in Southeast Asia."
    (WSJ, 8/9/07, p.D7)

1945-1950    In 2002 Ruth Gay authored "Safe Among the Germans," an account of Eastern European Jews in the post-war refugee camps.
    (SFC, 9/19/02, p.D12)

1945-1952    Lithuanian Freedom Fighters (partizanai) continued resistance against Soviet occupation.
    (DrEE, 11/23/96, p.6)

1945-1953    Harry S. Truman became the 33rd President of the US. He was elected Vice-President under FD Roosevelt in 1945, and assumed the presidency upon Roosevelt’s death. "Make no little plans," advised Harry. "Make the biggest one you can think of and spend the rest of your life carrying it out."
    (A&IP, ESM, p.96b, photo,171)(SFEC, 11/17/96, Z1 p.2)

1945-1956    Matyas Rakosi  served as General Secretary of the Hungarian Communist Party.
    (Econ, 12/18/10, p.102)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/M%C3%A1ty%C3%A1s_R%C3%A1kosi)

1945-1970    Norris Bradbury directed the Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico. The Bradbury Science Museum in Los Alamos was later named after him.
    (SSFC, 8/1/04, p.D6)
1945-1970    Some 47,000 55-gallon drums of radioactive waste, from US government research programs, was dumped near the northern California Farallon Islands.
    (SFC, 7/8/05, p.F2)

1945-1971    William Tubman, president of Liberia, began to address the inequalities between the Americo-Liberians and the native tribes.
    (SFC, 4/16/96, p.A-9)

1945-1973    The modern American middle class was created thanks to favorable economic trends and government policies that encouraged investments in education and home ownership.
    (LSA, Spg/97, p.21)

1945-1974    This period in US history is covered in a book by James T. Patterson. It is the 3rd volume of the Oxford History of the US and is titled: "Grand Expectations: The United States, 1945-1974."
    (WSJ, 6/7/96, p.A12)

1945-1980    Moose hunting during this period was banned in Maine due to their scarce numbers.
    (Econ, 9/30/06, p.41)

1945-1988    The Swiss maintained contingency plans for building 400 nuclear warheads. A supply of uranium was maintained in Wimmis, 21 miles southeast of Berne.
    (SFC, 6/7/96, p.A12)

1945-2002    Some 100,000 nuclear bombs were manufactured over this period.
    (SSFC, 12/15/02, p.E6)

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