Timeline 1944

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In 2015 Jay Winik authored “1944: FDR and the Year that Changed History."
    (Econ, 9/19/15, p.81)

1944        Jan 2, The US under Pres. Franklin Delano Roosevelt established the War Refugee Board to protect the endangered populations of Europe. In June Raoul Wallenberg of Sweden was hired to head the agency’s office in Budapest, where he arrived on July 9.
    (WSJ, 2/28/09, p.A7)(Econ, 9/19/15, p.81)
1944        Jan 2, The first Atlantic convoy that used the new antisubmarine helicopter patrol capability sailed from New York to Liverpool, UK, with three HNS-1 helicopters.

1944        Jan 3, Jurgis Baltrušaitis (b.1873), Lithuanian Symbolist poet and translator, died in Paris. He wrote his works in Lithuanian and Russian. In addition to his important contributions to Lithuanian literature, he was noted as a political activist and diplomat. Baltrušaitis was appointed Lithuania's ambassador to Russia in 1920 and held this position until 1939.

1944        Jan 4, The British Fifth Army attacked Monte Cassino, Italy.
    (HN, 1/4/99)
1944        Jan 4, Soviet troops crossed the former Polish border.
    (HN, 1/4/99)

1944        Jan 6, Ida M. Tarbell (b.1857), teacher, author and muckraking journalist, died in Connecticut. She is best-known for her 1904 book “The History of the Standard Oil Company."
1944        Jan 6, In Italy lava began flowing from the conelet of Mount Vesuvius. Lava flows continued into March with several explosions thru the end of the month.

1944        Jan 7, The U.S. Air Force announced the production of the first jet-fighter, Bell P-59 Airacomet.
    (HN, 1/7/99)

1944        Jan 8, Sir Edmund Backhouse (b.1873), English Sinologist, died in Beijing. In 1977 Hugh Trevor-Roper authored “Hermit of Peking" an investigation into the life of Backhouse.
    (WSJ, 8/18/07, p.P9)

1944        Jan 9, Antanas Smetona (b.1874), former 1st and 6th Lithuanian president, died in Cleveland, Ohio.

1944        Jan 10, The GI Bill of Rights, first proposed by the American Legion, was passed by Congress. The Bill, more formally known as the Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944, was intended to smooth demobilization for America's almost 16 million servicemen and women. Postwar college and vocational school attendance soared as more than 50 percent of honorably discharged veterans took advantage of education benefits of up to $500 a year for tuition, plus a living allowance. When they returned home to marry and start families in record numbers, veterans faced a severe housing shortage. The home loan provisions of the GI Bill provided more than 2 million home loans and created a new American landscape in the suburbs. In 1990, President George Bush summed up the impact of the GI Bill: "The GI Bill changed the lives of millions by replacing old roadblocks with paths of opportunity."
    (HNPD, 2/28/99)

1944        Jan 11, Jerome Morse (d.2001 at 80), B-17 navigator, was shot down over Germany and became a POW for 1 ½ years. In 1959 Pres. Eisenhower demonstrated Morse’s invention of the 1st miniaturized, portable nuclear power generator, used for space vehicles.
    (SFC, 12/15/01, p.A25)
1944        Jan 11, Cracow-Plaszow Concentration Camp was established.
    (MC, 1/11/02)

1944        Jan 13, Three Reich plane plants were wrecked; 64 U.S. aircraft were lost in an air attack in Germany.
    (HN, 1/13/99)

1944        Jan 15, General Eisenhower arrived in England.
    (MC, 1/15/02)
1944        Jan 15, The U.S. Fifth Army successfully broke the German Winter Line in Italy with the capture of Mount Trocchio.
    (HN, 1/15/99)

1944        Jan 16, Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower assumed supreme command of the Allied Expeditionary Force in London.
    (AP, 1/16/98)(HN, 1/16/99)
1944         Jan 16, In Leon Province, Spain, train wrecks in the Torro Tunnel killed more than 500 people.
    (AP, 2/18/04)(SFC, 6/4/98, p.A15)

1944        Jan 17, Russia rejected a Polish proposal to negotiate a boundary dispute.
    (HN, 1/17/99)

1944        Jan 18, Paul Keating was born in Sydney, Australia. He later became the 24th Prime Minister of Australia, serving from 1991 to 1996.

1944        Jan 19, Richard [Erskine Frere] Leakey, anthropologist, was born in Nairobi, Kenya.
    (MC, 1/19/02)
1944        Jan 19, The federal government relinquished control of the nation’s railroads after settling a wage dispute.
    (AP, 1/19/98)
1944        Jan 19, In England Helen Duncan (1896-1956), a Scottish spiritualist in Portsmouth, was arrested for informing an audience of the sinking of two British warships long before the news was officially made public. She was found guilty of witchcraft and jailed for nine months. When re-elected in 1951, Churchill repealed the 1735 witchcraft act but Duncan's conviction was never quashed. In 2007 her granddaughter launched a fresh campaign to gain a posthumous pardon for Britain's last convicted witch.
    (AP, 1/15/07)

1944        Jan 20, Allied forces began unsuccessful operations to cross the Rapido River and seize Cassino, Italy.
    (HN, 1/20/99)
1944        Jan 20, RAF dropped 2300 1-ton bombs on Berlin.
    (MC, 1/20/02)

1944        Jan 21, A US B-24 bomber that crashed shortly after taking off from an airfield on the Tarawa atoll in the Gilbert Islands. Seven of the 10-member crew were killed including Staff Sgt. Jack Busch, of Kenmore, near Buffalo, NY. In 2019 the remains of Army Air Forces Staff Sgt. Vincent J. Rogers Jr. were accounted for.
    (AP, 4/2/19)
1944        Jan 21, Some 649 British bombers attacked Magdeburg.
    (MC, 1/21/02)
1944        Jan 21, Some 447 German bombers attacked London.
    (MC, 1/21/02)

1944        Jan 22, US troops under Major General John P. Lucas made an amphibious landing behind German lines at Anzio, Italy, just south of Rome. Major General Lucas commanded Operation Shingle, a surprise landing behind German lines in Italy. General Lucas harbored grave doubts about the chances for success in this, the most daring operation of the Italian campaign. The seaborne operation was planned as a way of outflanking German strength on Italy’s Gustav Line and swiftly capturing Rome, but almost nothing went according to plan.
    (HNQ, 4/4/01)(AP, 1/22/08)

1944        Jan 23, Edvard Munch (b.1863), Norwegian painter and hopeless alcoholic, died. His work included “Kiss by the Window" (1892), “The Scream" (1893) and “Self Portrait With Cigarette" (1895). He had a breakdown in 1908 and retreated to Ekely, where he painted for his remaining years. He left behind a collection 1,008 paintings at his estate outside Oslo. In 2005 Sue Prideaux authored “Edvard Munch: Behind the Scream."
    (WSJ, 4/16/02, p.D7)(SSFC, 12/18/05, p.M2)(Sm, 3/06, p.60)(WSJ, 2/25/09, p.D7)

1944        Jan 26, Angela Davis, American revolutionary and black militant, was born.
    (HN, 1/26/99)

1944        Jan 27, The Soviet Union announced the end of the deadly German siege of Leningrad, which had lasted 880 days with 600,000 killed.
    (AP, 1/27/98)(MC, 1/27/02)

1944        Jan 28, Leonard Bernstein's "Jeremiah," premiered in Pittsburgh.
    (MC, 1/28/02)
1944        Jan 28, Matthew Henson received a joint medal from Congress as co-discoverer of the North Pole.
    (HN, 1/28/99)
1944        Jan 28, 683 British bombers attacked Berlin.
    (MC, 1/28/02)
1944        Jan 28, U-271 & U-571 sank off Ireland.
    (MC, 1/28/02)

1944        Jan 29, The world's greatest warship, the Missouri, was launched.
    (HN, 1/29/99)

1944        Jan 30-1944 Feb 2, At Cisterna, Italy, some 250-300 US Rangers died as part of the battle of Anzio. 8 rangers escaped and hundreds were captured.
    (AP, 3/20/10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Cisterna)

1944        Jan 31, Operation Overlord (D-Day) was postponed until June.
    (MC, 1/31/02)
1944        Jan 31, During World War II, U.S. forces under Vice Adm. Spruance began invading Kwajalein Atoll and other parts of the Japanese-held Marshall Islands.
    (AP, 1/31/98)(HN, 1/31/99)
1944        Jan 31, U-592 sank off Ireland.
    (MC, 1/31/02)

1944         Jan, Communist Partisans, supplied with British weapons, gained control of southern Albania.
    (www, Albania, 1998)
1944        Jan, In Hungary Sandor Kepiro (1914-2011) was sentenced to 10 years in prison for his part in the Jan, 1942, atrocities at Novi Sad, Serbia, in which 1,200 Serb and Jewish civilians were killed by Hungarian forces, who raided Serbia in the wake of the Nazi occupation of Yugoslavia. He was freed by Hungary's fascist regime shortly after his trial and fled to Argentina after the war. In 1946, the Communist government of Hungary tried him again and sentenced him to 14 years in absentia. He returned to Budapest in 1996.
    (www.nytimes.com/2006/09/28/world/europe/28iht-hungary.2970014.html?_r=1)(AP, 9/15/09)

1944        Jan, A number of interned Japanese-Americans refused to be drafted unless their civil liberties were restored. They were pardoned in 1947. In 2001 Eric L. Muller authored "Free to Die for Their Country: the  Story of the Japanese American Draft Resisters in World War II."
    (SFC, 10/26/01, p.A21)

1944        Feb 1, U.S. Army troops invaded two Kwajalein Islands in the Pacific. [see Jan 31]
    (HN, 2/1/99)
1944        Feb 1, Piet Mondrian (b.1872), Dutch artist, died in NYC of pneumonia. To create an art of harmony and order he used straight lines exclusively. "His trademark paintings of black lines forming a grid and primary colors are a calculated, mathematical blueprint for an organized life." A leading abstract artist in the early half of the 20th century, Dutch painter Piet Mondrian was also a leading proponent of De Stijl ("The Style"). Born to an educator and amateur artist in 1872, Mondrian pursued a career as a painter from an early age. He was influenced by the Post-Impressionists, but gravitated towards Cubism after seeing an exhibition of works by Picasso and others.
    (Hem, Dec. 94, p.131)(WSJ, 5/25/01, p.W10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piet_Mondrian)

1944        Feb 2, Andrew Davis, conductor, was born in Ashbridge, England.
    (MC, 2/2/02)
1944        Feb 2, The Germans stopped an Allied attack at Anzio, Italy.
    (HN, 2/2/99)

1944        Feb 3, The United States shelled the Japanese homeland for the first time at Kurile Islands.
    (HN, 2/3/99)

1944        Feb 4, Jean Anouilh's "Antigone," premiered in Paris.
    (MC, 2/4/02)
1944        Feb 4, The Japanese attacked the Indian Seventh Army in Burma.
    (HN, 2/4/99)

1944        Feb 6, Kwajalein Island in the Central Pacific fell to U.S. Army troops.
    (HN, 2/6/99)

1944        Feb 7, Bing Crosby and the John Scott Trotter Orchestra recorded "Swinging on a Star" for Decca Records in Los Angeles.
    (AP, 2/7/97)
1944        Feb 7, The Germans launched a [counteroffensive] second attack against the Allied beachhead at Anzio, Italy. They hoped to push the Allies back into the sea.
    (AP, 2/7/97)(HN, 2/7/99)

1944        Feb 9, Alice Walker, Pulitzer prize winning author, was born. Her books include "The Autobiography of Malcolm X" and "The Color Purple."
    (HN, 2/9/99)
1944        Feb 9, U-734 and U-238 sank off Ireland.
    (MC, 2/9/02)

1944        Feb 11, U-424 sank off Ireland.
    (MC, 2/11/02)

1944        Feb 12, Wendell Wilkie entered the American presidential race against Franklin D. Roosevelt.
    (HN, 2/12/99)

1944        Feb 13, A Lithuanian Home Army was formed under P. Plechavicius. It was disbanded May 15-21.
    (LHC, 2/13/03)

1944        Feb 14, Carl Bernstein, Washington Post investigative reporter (Watergate), was born.
    (MC, 2/14/02)
1944        Feb 14, An anti-Japanese revolt took place on Java.
    (MC, 2/14/02)

1944        Feb 15, American bombers attacked the Abbey of Monte Cassino in central Italy in an effort to neutralize it as a German observation post. In 2003 Matthew Parker authored "Monte Cassino: The Hardest Fought Battle of World War II."
    (HN, 2/15/99)(Econ, 9/20/03, p.80)
1944        Feb 15, Nathan Gordon (1916-2008), US Navy pilot from Arkansas, and his crew made 4 separate flying boat landings to rescue a number of aviators from B-52 bombers, which had been shot down while attacking Japanese positions near Kavieng harbor on New Ireland Island, Papua New Guinea. Gordon later became the longest-serving lieutenant governor of Arkansas.
    (SFC, 9/15/08, p.B8)
1944        Feb 15, 891 British bombers attacked Berlin.
    (MC, 2/15/02)

1944        Feb 16, Richard Ford, Pulitzer Prize-winning novelist, was born. His work included "The Sportswriter" and "Independence Day."
    (HN, 2/16/01)
1944        Feb 16, The submarine USS Scorpion (SS-278) and Steelhead were warned that they were close together in the Yellow Sea, and that an enemy submarine was in the vicinity. On 6 March 1944 Scorpion was reported as presumed lost with all sixty officers and men.

1944        Feb 17, U.S forces landed on Eniwetok atoll in the South Pacific Marshall Islands. Battle of Eniwetok Atoll began. US victory on Feb 22.
    (HN, 2/17/99)(MC, 2/17/02)
1944        Feb 17, US began night bombing of Truk in the Marianas Islands.
    (MC, 2/17/02)
1944        Feb 17, Oil was discovered in commercial quantities in Alabama.
    (HN, 2/17/98)

1944        Feb 18, The Army, Navy and Marines invaded Eniwetok Atoll in the Pacific.
    (HN, 2/18/98)

1944        Feb 19, The U.S. Eighth Air Force and Royal Air Force began "Big Week," a series of heavy bomber attacks against German aircraft production facilities.
    (HN, 2/19/99)
1944        Feb 19, U-264 sank off Ireland.
    (MC, 2/19/02)

1944        Feb 20, The Batman & Robin comic strip premiered in newspapers.
    (MC, 2/20/02)
1944        Feb 20, US took Eniwetok Island.
    (MC, 2/20/02)
1944        Feb 20, During World War II, U.S. bombers began raiding German aircraft manufacturing centers in a series of attacks that became known as "Big Week."
    (AP, 2/20/98)
1944        Feb 20, A time-bomb planted by Norwegian commando Knut Haukelid sank the Lake Tinn ferry Hydro, which carried heavy water canisters from the Vemork plant destined for Germany. 12 German soldiers and 14 civilian passengers drowned. Rescuers saved 23 Norwegians and 4 Germans.
    (ON, 4/07, p.5)

1944        Feb 21, Hideki Tojo became chief of staff of the Japanese army. When the bellicose war minister and most powerful man in Japan, Army General Hideki Tojo, became prime minister in October 1941, there no longer was a chance of avoiding war with Britain and the United States.
    (HN, 2/21/98)

1944        Feb 22, Jonathan Demme, film director (The Silence of the Lambs, Philadelphia), was born in Baldwin, NY.
    (HN, 2/22/01)(MC, 2/22/02)
1944        Feb 22, In England 10 American airmen killed when their crippled B-17G Flying Fortress crashed in Sheffield. The pilot avoided a schoolyard brawl in Endcliffe Park and crashed in nearby woods.
    (AP, 2/19/19)

1944        Feb 23, American bombers struck the Marianas Islands bases, only 1,300 miles from Tokyo.
    (HN, 2/23/98)
1944        Feb 23, Stalin ordered the mass deportation Caucasian Muslim nations. Chechens and Ingush to Kazakhstan were deported for resisting Soviet rule and abetting the Germans. "478,479 persons were evicted and loaded onto special railway cars, including 91,250 Ingush." More than a third of the population died before the rest were allowed to go home. Also deported were the Karachays, Balkars, and Meskhetian Turks.
    (WSJ, 9/12/02, p.A8)(WSJ, 2/23/04, p.A16)(Econ, 2/12/05, p.22)
1944        Feb 23, Leo Hendrik Baekeland (b.1863), Belgium-born inventor of Bakelite (1907), died in Beacon, NY.
    (SSFC, 10/24/04, Par p.5)(ON, 9/05, p.12)(www.yonkershistory.org/bake.html)

1944        Feb 24, Barry Bostwick, actor (Rocky Horror Show, Megaforce), was born in San Mateo, Ca.
    (MC, 2/24/02)
1944        Feb 24, Merrill's Marauders, a specially trained group of American soldiers, began their ground campaign against Japan into Burma. The were led by Brigadier General Frank Merrill (b.1903-1955), the first US infantry combat force to fight the Japanese on the mainland of Asia.
1944        Feb 24, Col. Juan Peron, Argentine minister of war, staged a coup.
    (MC, 2/24/02)

1944        Feb 25, U.S. forces destroyed 135 Japanese planes in Marianas and Guam.
    (HN, 2/25/02)

1944        Feb 26, Sue Dauser was appointed the 1st female US navy captain of nurse corps.
    (SC, 2/26/02)

1944        Feb 29, Dorothy Vredenburgh accepted an appointment by the Democratic National Committee becoming the first woman secretary of a national political party in the U.S.
    (HN, 2/29/00)
1944        Feb 29, US forces caught Japanese troops off-guard and easily took control of the Admiralty Islands in Papua New Guinea.
    (HN, 2/29/00)
1944        Feb 29, The submarine USS Trout was lost northwest of the Philippines with all 81 men following an encounter with a Japanese convoy.

1944        Feb, Denison Dam was completed and formed Lake Texoma, one of the largest reservoirs in the United States. Woodville, Okla., was flooded when the Red River was dammed to form Lake Texoma.
    (AP, 11/21/11)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lake_Texoma)
1944        Feb, A US B-25G aircraft with seven crew members onboard crashed in the northwestern Sagain region of Burma (later Myanmar). In 2019 the United States retrieved the possible remains of the missing service members.
    (Reuters, 3/12/19)

1944        Mar 1, Roger Daltrey Hammersmith, rocker, actor, producer (The Who-Tommy), was born in London England.
    (SC, 3/1/02)
1944        Mar 1, Massive strikes took place in Northern Italian towns.
    (SC, 3/1/02)
1944        Mar 1, U-358 sank in Atlantic.
    (SC, 3/1/02)

1944        Mar 2, Lou Reed (Firbank) was born. (singer, songwriter, guitarist: group: Velvet Underground; solo: Walk on the Wild Side, Charley's Girl; I Love You Suzanne; appeared in Paul Simon film: One Trick Pony)
    (HC, Internet, 2/3/98)
1944        Mar 2, In the 16th Academy Awards presentation moved from a banquet hall to Graumann's Chinese Theatre in Los Angeles this night. Jennifer Jones (24) won an Oscar for Best Actress in the film, "The Song of Bernadette". Jack Benny was the host that year. Best film was "Casablanca," Paul Lukas won for best actor.
    (HC, Internet, 2/3/98)(SC, 3/2/02)
1944        Mar 2, In Salerno, Italy, fumes from a locomotive stalled in a tunnel suffocated 521 people.
    (SFC, 6/4/98, p.A15)(AP, 2/18/04)   

1944        Mar 3, 1st performance of corporal Samuel Barber's 2nd Symphony.
    (SC, 3/3/02)

1944        Mar 4, The U.S. declared the non-recognition of Argentina because of their collaboration with the Axis.
    (HN, 3/4/98)
1944        Mar 4, Louis Buchalter, aka Lepke, was executed at Sing Sing along with Mendy Weiss. Lepke and fellow gangsters had dispatched Weiss in 1935 to kill Dutch Schultz, who had planned to kill NYC prosecutor Thomas E. Dewey.
    (AH, 12/02, p.4)
1944        Mar 4, A squadron of American B-17 bombers hit Berlin for the first time during daylight hours. Col. H. Griffin Mumford (d.2007) led a group 4-engine Flying Fortresses over Berlin.
    (SFC, 7/20/07, p.B12)(www.100thbg.com/mainmenus/history/historysummary_home.htm)
1944        Mar 4, Anti-German strikes took place in North Italy.
    (SC, 3/4/02)

1944        Mar 6, Dame Kiri Te Kanawa, operatic soprano (Don Giovanni), was born in Gisborne, NZ.
    (HN, 3/6/01)(MC, 3/6/02)
1944        Mar 6, US heavy bombers hit Berlin during World War II.
    (AP, 3/6/98)

1944        Mar 7, Japan began an offensive in Burma.
    (MC, 3/7/02)
1944        Mar 7, Emanuel Ringelblum (b.1900), Jewish historian, died in the Warsaw ghetto. He is known for his “Notes from the Warsaw Ghetto," “Notes on the Refugees in Zbąszyn" chronicling the deportation of Jews from the town of Zbąszyń, and the so-called Ringelblum's Archives of the Warsaw Ghetto. In 2009 Samuel D. Kassow authored “Who Will Write our History? Rediscovering a Hidden Archive from the Warsaw Ghetto.
    (Econ, 3/14/09, p.84)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emanuel_Ringelblum)

1944        Mar 8, U.S. bombers resumed bombing Berlin.
    (AP, 3/8/98)

1944        Mar 10, The Irish refused to oust all Axis envoys and denied the accusation of spying on Allied troops.
    (HN, 3/10/98)

1944        Mar 11, The US B-24 bomber Heaven Can't Wait was shot down over a bay near Papua New Guinea killing all eleven crew members. Wreckage of the plane was found in 2018.
    (SFC, 5/23/18, p.A1)

1944        Mar 12, Great Britain barred all travel to neutral Ireland, which was suspected of collaborating with Nazi Germany.
    (HN, 3/12/99)

1944        March 15, In Algiers, the provisional government merged the Office Français d'Information and France-Afrique, thus forming Agence Française de Presse (AFP).
1944        Mar 15, Allied bombers again raided German-held Monte Cassino, Italy.
    (AP, 3/15/07)
1944        Mar 15, Otto von Below (86), German commandant (WW I), died.
    (MC, 3/15/02)

1944        Mar 16, A US plane named “God Bless Our Ship" was hit by anti-aircraft fire over Berlin and crash-landed outside the city. Lt. George Lymburn (1924-2005) was captured and sent to Stalag Luft 1, where he was liberated by Russian soldiers in April, 1945.
    (SFC, 4/13/05, p.B7)

1944        Mar 17, Danny DeVito, actor (Louie-Taxi, Twins), was born in Neptune, NJ. [see Nov 17]
    (MC, 3/17/02)
1944        Mar 17, The United States Eighth Air Force bombs Vienna.
    (HN, 3/17/00)

1944        Mar 18, Nazi Germany occupied Hungary.
    (MC, 3/18/02)
1944        Mar 18, The Russians reached the Rumanian border in the Balkans.
    (HN, 3/18/98)

1944        Mar 19, The German 352nd Infantry Division deployed along the coast of France.
    (HN, 3/19/01)
1944        Mar 19, At Cisterna, Italy, Germans, increasingly worried about resistance, rounded up the entire town and marched them north. Many ended in labor camps and farms as far north as Tuscany.
    (AP, 3/20/10)

1944        Mar 20, A bus fell off bridge into Passaic River, NJ, killing 16.
    (MC, 3/20/02)
1944        Mar 20, Pierre Pucheu (b.1899), French industrialist, fascist and member of the Vichy government, was executed following his arrest a year earlier in Casablanca. He was the first of the leading collaborationist figures to be executed directly under de Gaulle's jurisdiction.

1944        Mar 21, Finland rejected a Soviet armistice.
    (HN, 3/21/98)

1944        Mar 22, Over 600 8th Air Force bombers attacked Berlin.
    (MC, 3/22/02)

1944        Mar 23, Nicholas Alkemade fell 5,500 meter without a parachute and lived. [see Mar 25]
    (SS, 3/23/02)
1944        Mar 23, A bomb assassination against Southern Tirol congregation in Rome killed 33.
    (SS, 3/23/02)

1944        Mar 24, 76 British and Allied officers escaped Stalag Luft 3. In 1949 Paul Brickall authored "The Great Escape." 47 of the escapees were later killed while resisting arrest. The story of Jackson Barrett Mahon (d.1999 at 78), an American fighter pilot, and the Allied POW escape from Stalag Luft III in Germany during WW II. The 1963 film "The Great Escape" starred Steve McQueen, was directed by John Sturges and was based on the true story. In 1999 Arthur A. Durand published Stalag Luft III: The Secret Story." When the Russian Army closed in tens of thousands of POWs were marched 240 miles south to a new camp and thousands died in the "Black March."
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stalag_Luft_III)(SFC, 12/23/99, p.A27)(SFEC, 1/2/00, BR p.1)(SFC, 1/22/03, p.A19)(SSFC, 5/19/19, DB p.39)
1944        Mar 24, 811 British bombers attacked Berlin.
    (MC, 3/24/02)
1944        Mar 24, In occupied Rome, the Nazis executed more than 300 civilians in reprisal for an attack by Italian partisans, who the day before killed 32 [33] German soldiers [policemen]. The Ardeatine Cave massacre near Rome, Italy, took place. In retaliation to the systematic murder of Nazi officers by the Italian underground, an SS officer ordered that 10 Italian civilian men be shot for every Nazi officer killed. The age of the civilians did not matter and so many teenagers and boys were among the dead found in the caves. Argentina extradited former Nazi officer, Erich Priebke, to Rome in 1995 to face trial for his role in the Ardeatine Caves massacre.
    (AP, 3/23/97)(WSJ, 10/3/95, p.A-21) (WSJ, 11/21/95, p.A-1)(HN, 3/24/98)
1944        Mar 24, British Major Orde Wingate (b.1903) died along with nine others in an air crash in northeast India. He was flying in the USAAF B-25H-1-NA Mitchell bomber, 43-4242, of the 1st Air Commando Group. He is known for creating special military units in Palestine in the 1930s, and in Abyssinia, Sudan and Burma during World War II.

1944        Mar 25, RAF Sgt. Nickolas Alkemade survived a jump from his Lancaster bomber from 18,000 feet without a parachute. [see Mar 23]
    (MC, 3/25/02)

1944        Mar 26, Diana Ross [Earle], (Supremes, Lady Sings the Blues, Mahogany), was born Detroit, MI.
    (SS, 3/26/02)
1944        Mar 26, 705 British bombers attacked Essen.
    (SS, 3/26/02)

1944        Mar 27, In San Francisco a fire at the New Amsterdam Hotel on Fourth St. killed 22 people.
    (SSFC, 3/24/19, p.39)
1944        Mar 27, One-thousand Jews left Drancy, France for the Auschwitz concentration camp.
    (HN, 3/27/98)
1944        Mar 27, Forty Jewish policemen were shot in the Riga Latvia ghetto by the Gestapo.
    (HN, 3/27/98)
1944        Mar 27, Thousands of Jews were murdered in Kaunas, Lithuania.
    (HN, 3/27/98)

1944        Mar 30, The U.S. fleet attacked Palau, near the Philippines.
    (HN, 3/30/98)
1944        Mar 30, Gobbledygook was coined by US Rep. Maury Maverick, a Texas Democrat, in a memo banning "gobbledygook language" at the Smaller War Plants Corporation. It was a reaction to his frustration with the "convoluted language of bureaucrats." However, the first time the new word was seen by the average person was on May 21, 1944. That day, he wrote a long article for the New York Times magazine, explaining how he invented the word, and giving readers many examples of how the new word could be used.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gobbledygook)(NYT, 5/21/1944, p.SM11)

1944        Mar 30, 781 British bombers attacked Nuremberg.
    (MC, 3/30/02)

1944        Mar 31, Hungary ordered all Jews to wear yellow stars.
    (MC, 3/31/02)

1944        Mar, In the French Alps town of Voiron 17 Jewish children were seized, sent to Drancy and then to Auschwitz.
    (SFC, 10/2/97, p.A9)

1944        Apr 1, Japanese troops conquered Jessami, East-India.
    (MC, 4/1/02)

1944        Apr 2, Soviet forces entered Romania, one of Germany's allied countries.
    (HN, 4/2/01)

1944        Apr 3, Tony Orlando, singer (& Dawn-Tie a Yellow Ribbon), was born in NYC.
    (MC, 4/3/02)
1944        Apr 3, The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that black citizens are eligible to vote in all elections, including primaries. The Smith vs. Allwright decision ruled "white primaries" unconstitutional.
    (HN, 4/3/01)(MC, 4/3/02)
1944        Apr 3, British dive bombers attacked the battle cruiser Tirpitz.
    (MC, 4/3/02)
1944        Apr 3, On Orthodox Easter the Allied bombing of Nazi occupied Serbia resulted in the deaths of some 4,000 Serbian civilians. An account of the raids, requested by US Gen'l. Carl Spaatz, found that most of the bombs struck at least 600 yards from their targets.
    (SFC, 4/1/99, p.A12)

1944        Apr 4, British troops captured Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    (MC, 4/4/02)
1944        Apr 4, De Gaulle formed a new regime in exile with communists.
    (MC, 4/4/02)

1944        Apr 5, 140 Lancasters bombed airplane manufacturer in Toulouse.
    (MC, 4/5/02)
1944        Apr 5, In Lithuania 40 prisoners filed off their chains and fled through a narrow tunnel at Paneriai. Jewish and Soviet prisoners had been brought to the Ponar forest from Stutthof concentration camp. They were forced to dig up mass graves, collect bodies and burn them. Guards quickly discovered the prisoners and many were shot, but 11 prisoners managed to escape to the forest, reach partisan forces and survive the war. In 2016 an international research team pinpointed the location of the tunnel.
    (AP, 6/29/16)

1944        Apr 6,    German trucks rolled up to the safehouse of Sabina Zlatin in Izieu-Ain, France, and 44 children and 7 teachers including Mr. Zlatin were arrested. The raid was ordered by Klaus Barbie, head of the German police in Lyons.    
    (SFC, 9/24/96, p.B2)(MC, 4/6/02)

1944        Apr 8, Anthony Farrar Hockley, military historian, was born.
    (MC, 4/8/02)

1944        Apr 10, A US B-24 Liberator was shot down over Madang while on a bombing mission to knockout Japanese anti-aircraft positions in Papua New Guinea. 4 members of the crew exited the plane, were captured and executed. 8 others went down with the plane. In 2014 the remains of two missing airmen were identified using DNA and other evidence.
    (SFC, 8/8/14, p.A7)
1944        Apr 10, Soviet forces liberated Odessa from Nazis.
    (MC, 4/10/02)

1944        Apr 12, Lillian Hellman's "Searching Wind," premiered in NYC.
    (MC, 4/12/02)
1944        Apr 12, The U.S. Twentieth Air Force was activated to begin the strategic bombing of Japan.
    (HN, 4/12/99)

1944        Apr 13, South Carolina rejected black suffrage.
    (MC, 4/13/02)
1944        Apr 13, Transport No. 71 departed with French Jews to Nazi Germany.
    (MC, 4/13/02)

1944        Apr 14, Gen. Eisenhower became head commander of allied air fleet.
    (MC, 4/14/02)
1944        Apr 14, 1st Jews transported from Athens arrived at Auschwitz.
    (MC, 4/14/02)

1944        Apr 16, Dennis Russell Davies, composer, was born.
    (MC, 4/16/02)
1944        Apr 16, The destroyer USS Laffey survived horrific damage from attacks by 22 Japanese aircraft off Okinawa.
    (HN, 4/16/99)
1944        Apr 16, Germany’s U-550 torpedoed the gasoline tanker SS Pan Pennsylvania, which had lagged behind its protective convoy as it set out with 140,000 barrels of gasoline for Great Britain. One of the tanker's three escorts, the USS Joyce, saw it on sonar and severely damaged it by dropping depth charges. The crew abandoned the submarine, but not before setting off explosions to scuttle it in waters off Nantucket. On July 23, 2012, divers discovered the submarine.
    (AFP, 7/27/12)
1944        Apr 16, The Belgrade Zemun airdrome was bombed by Allied forces for the 3rd day in a row. The bombing was carried out by the 414th Bomb Squadron stationed at Amendola, Italy.
    (SFC, 4/1/99, p.A12)

1944        Apr 18, The ballet "Fancy Free," with music by Leonard Bernstein premiered in NYC.
    (AP, 4/18/04)

1944        Apr 22, During World War II, U.S. forces and Allies began invading Japanese-held New Guinea with amphibious landings near Hollandia, New Guinea.
    (AP, 4/22/97)(HN, 4/22/98)
1944        Apr 22, Hitler and Mussolini met at Obersalzburg.
    (MC, 4/22/02)

1944        Apr 24, The first B-29 arrived in China, over the Hump of the Himalayas. The phrase "flying the hump" originated during World War II when Allied transport planes flew dangerous missions over the Himalayan Mountains in order to provide China with supplies needed to fight the Japanese.
    (HN, 4/24/98)(HNQ, 8/1/98)
1944        Apr 24, British air force bombers hammered a former Jesuit college housing the Bavarian Academy of Science. Anton Spitaler (1910-2003), an Arabic scholar at the academy, later lamented the loss of a unique photo archive of ancient manuscripts of the Quran. His story however was a lie, and the collection survived hidden in his hands.
    (WSJ, 1/12/08, p.A1)

1944        Apr 26, First B-29 attacked by Japanese fighters [in China?], one fighter shot down.
    (HN, 4/26/98)

1944        Apr 27, Dr. H. Corwin Hinshaw (d.2000) first treated 4 tuberculosis-infected guinea pigs with the newly developed streptomycin antibiotic. The animals were cured. Hinshaw was nominated for the Nobel Prize in 1952 but the prize went to Dr. Selman a. Waksman of Rutgers, who discovered streptomycin.
    (SFC, 1/11/01, p.C16)

1944        April 28, Exercise "Tiger" ended with 749 U.S. soldiers and sailors killed, when their D-Day landing practice was attacked by German torpedo boats off the south coast of England. The casualties were not announced until nearly two months after the Normandy invasion. Full details were not known until 1974.
    (MC, 4/28/02)(AP, 4/27/04)

1944        Apr 30, Jill Clayburgh, actress (Unmarried Woman, Semi-Tough), was born in NYC.
    (MC, 4/30/02)
1944        Apr 30, The 8th and 9th US Army Air Forces and Royal Air Force Bomber Command began to fly sorties into France and the Low Countries in preparation for the Allied Expeditionary Force landing on Jun 6.
    (SDUT, 6/6/97, p.B9)

1944        Apr, Nancy Wake (1912-2011), a New Zealand-born Australian, parachuted back into France before D-Day, tasked with helping distribute weapons to Resistance fighters. She became known as the "The White Mouse" for her ability to evade the Germans. She and her husband had helped Allied servicemen and Jewish refugees escape into Spain before she took her partner's advice and fled to England in 1943.
    (AFP, 8/8/11)

1944        Apr-Jul, Hungarian authorities facilitated the deportation of some 437,000 Hungarian Jews to Auschwitz.
    (SFC, 6/7/99, p.A9)(Econ, 4/24/04, p.48)

1944        Apr-Nov, In Croatia Dinko Sakic (22) ran the Jasenovac concentration camp. In 1998 he was indicted for crimes against humanity in the deaths of over 2,000 people 6 months after being extradited from Argentina.
    (SFC, 12/15/98, p.A17)

1944        May 1, The Messerschmitt Me 262 Sturmvogel, the 1st jet bomber, made its first flight.
    (HN, 5/1/98)(MC, 5/1/02)

1944        May 3, "Meet Me in St Louis" opened on Broadway.
    (MC, 5/3/02)
1944        May 3, Wartime rationing of most grades of meats ended in the United States.
    (AP, 5/3/97)

1944        May 5, John Rhys-Davies, actor (Sir Edward-Quest, Sliders), was born in Salisbury England.
    (MC, 5/5/02)
1944        May 5, Gandhi was freed from prison.
    (MC, 5/5/02)
1944        May 5, A Russian offensive took place against Sebastopol Krim.
    (MC, 5/5/02)

1944        May 6, The USS Buckley, a destroyer escort, engaged and sank the German U-66. Hand to hand fighting broke out after the Buckley, under Lt. Cmdr. Brent Maxwell Abel (1916-2006), rammed the submarine. When the U-boat sank 36 German sailors were rescued and taken captive.
    (SFC, 1/6/06, p.B7)
1944        May 6, The Red Army besieged and captured Sevastopol in the Crimea.
    (HN, 5/6/99)

1944        May 7, There was a German assault on Tito's hideout in Drvar, Bosnia.
    (MC, 5/7/02)

1944        May 8, The first "eye bank" was established, in New York City.
    (AP, 5/8/97)

1944        May 9, Russians recaptured Crimea by taking Sevastopol. [see May 6]
    (MC, 5/9/02)

1944        May 10, Judith Jamison, American ballerina, was born.
    (HN, 5/10/02)

1944        May 11, Allied forces launched a major offensive against German lines in Italy.
    (AP, 5/11/07)

1944        May 13, Allied forces in Italy broke through the German Gustav Line into the Liri Valley.
    (HN, 5/13/99)

1944        May 14, George Lucas, writer and director, was born in Modesto, Ca. He is best remembered for his Star Wars trilogy.
    (HN, 5/14/99)(MC, 5/14/02)
1944        May 14, The Latin trio Los Panchos made its debut at El Teatro Hispano in NYC with Alfredo Gil (d.1999 at 84), Jesus Navarro (Chucho), and Hernando Aviles.
    (SFC, 9/17/99, p.D8)(SFC, 9/30/04, p.E14)
1944        May 14, 91 German bombers harassed Bristol.
    (MC, 5/14/02)
1944        May 14, Gens Rommel, Speidel and von Stulpnagel plotted to assassinate Hitler.
    (MC, 5/14/02)

1944        May 15, Eisenhower, Montgomery, Churchill and George VI discussed the D-Day plan.
    (MC, 5/15/02)
1944        May 15, A partisan attack on a movie theater killed 5 German soldiers in Genoa. 4 days later SS Officer Friedrich Engel ordered the killing of 59 Italian prisoners in reprisal. In 2002 Engel (93) was sentenced to 7 years in prison for the order.
    (SFC, 7/6/02, p.A14)(AP, 2/14/06)

1944        May 16, The 1st of over 180,000 Hungarian Jews reached Auschwitz.
    (MC, 5/16/02)
1944        May 16, Max Brand, [Frederick Schiller Faust], western author, died.
    (MC, 5/16/02)

1944        May 17, General Eisenhower set D-Day for June 5th.
    (MC, 5/17/02)
1944        May 17, Polish poet Felix Konarski (1907-1991) wrote the song “Red Poppies on Monte Cassino" on the night before the Allied attack that crushed the German defense at Monte Cassino. Alfred Schutz (d.1999) composed the music.
    (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=trv_4epO6vw)(SFC, 9/23/15, p.A2)
1944        May 17, D. du Toit (Harvard College Observatory, Boyden station, Bloemfontein, South Africa) discovered the comet, 66P/du Toit, on a photograph.

1944        May 18, The Allies in Italy finally captured Monte Cassino, Europe's oldest Monastic house, after a four-month struggle that claimed some 20,000 lives. The Polish 2nd Army corps, at a staggering loss of life, captured the convent of Monte Cassino.
    (HN, 5/18/99)(AP, 5/18/02)(SC, 5/18/02)
1944        May 18, The Soviet Union began the expulsion of more than 200,000 Tartars from Crimea. They were accused of collaborating with the Germans. Stalin deported some 250,000 Tatars from Crimea to Uzbekistan. They did not being to return home until the fall of the USSR.
    (SC, 5/18/02)(SFC, 1/4/99, p.A8,9)

1944        May 19, The Gustav line, the German defense line in Italy, collapsed under heavy assault by Allied troops.
    (DT, 5/19/97)
1944        May 19, 240 gypsies were transported to Auschwitz from Westerbork Neth.
    (MC, 5/19/02)
1944        May 19, Friedrich Engel (1909-2006), a Nazi SS officer, oversaw the massacre of 59 Italian prisoners near Genoa. An Italian military court convicted Engel in absentia in 1999 and sentenced him to life for war crimes connected to a total of 246 deaths. In 2002 a German court convicted Engel of 59 counts of murder and handed him a suspended seven-year term.
    (AP, 2/14/06)

1944        May 20, US Communist Party dissolved.
    (MC, 5/20/02)

1944        May 21, In Hawaii the tank landing ship LST-353 exploded at West Loch while handling ammunition. In a short space of time, six LSTs were so damaged that they sank. Two others were severely damaged. The total casualties from the tragedy were 163 dead and 396 injured.
1944        May 21, Mary Bourke Robinson, first woman president of Ireland (1990-1997), was born.
    (HN, 5/21/01)

1944        May 23, During World War II, Allied forces bogged down in Anzio began a major breakout offensive.
    (AP, 5/23/99)

1944        May 24, Icelandic voters severed all ties with Denmark.
    (MC, 5/24/02)

1944        May 25, Frank Oz, puppeteer (Sesame St, Muppet Show), was born in Heresford, England.
    (SC, 5/25/02)
1944        May 25, Robert Michael Payton, pizza magnate, was born.
    (SC, 5/25/02)
1944        May 25, Partisan leader Tito escaped the Germans surrounding Bosnia.
    (SC, 5/25/02)

1944        May 27, Gen. MacArthur landed on Biak Island in New Guinea.
    (HN, 5/27/98)
1944        May 27, Japanese advanced in Hangkhou, China.
    (MC, 5/27/02)

1944        May 28, Sondra Locke (d.2018), actress (Heart Is a Lonely Hunter), was born in Shelbyville, Tenn. She achieved worldwide recognition for her relationship with Clint Eastwood and the six hit films they made together.
1944        May 28, Katri Vala (42), Finnish poet, died.
    (MC, 5/28/02)

1944        May 29, Helmut Berger, actor (Ash Wednesday, Damned, Picture of Dorian Gray), was born.
    (SC, 5/29/02)
1944        May 29, British troops occupied Aprilia, Italy.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1944        May 30, In southern California four US Navy fliers were killed when a fighter plane collided with a bomber during training exercises over Palomar Mountain in San Diego.
    (SFC, 5/28/18, p.C3)
1944        May 30, In Rome the ancient remains of Caligula’s ships, extracted from Lake Nemi, were set ablaze and destroyed. Blame was cast on German soldiers and American artillery.
    (AM, 5/01, p.31)

1944        May, Communists met to organize an Albanian government; Hoxha became chairman of the executive committee and supreme commander of the Army of National Liberation. Enver Hoxha was the leader of the Balkan nation of Albania from 1944 until 1983. Hoxha, leader of a national liberation movement during Italy’s occupation of Albania in World War II, came to power when the Communist insurgency seized control of the country in 1944, beginning nearly 40 years of harsh Stalinist rule. Albania, which borders on Greece and Yugoslavia, eventually broke with the Soviet Union and later China over ideological issues and by the time of the death of Hoxha in 1983 it had become one of the most politically and socially isolated countries in the world.
    (www, Albania, 1998)(HNQ, 1/11/00)
1944        May, Britain’s government decided to bulldoze the village of Heath Row to accommodate an expansion of a nearby aerodrome. Residents at Heathrow were evicted to make way for a new airport. It opened with two runways in 1946.
    (Econ, 7/20/13, p.51)(Econ, 10/15/16, p.51)
1944        May, In Paris the play "No Exit" by Jean-Paul Sartre was first produced. It depicts the dawning realization by 3 people that they are in hell and are each other’s punishment.
    (WSJ, 8/12/98, p.A13)
1944        May, During the Allied invasion of Anzio the Germans broke secret codes and "murdered" the allied forces. Military security began to use an electromechanical machine known as Sigaba, whose codes were never broken.
    (Wired, 10/96, p.200)
1944        May, A Budapest census identified houses to serve as holding locations for Jews before moving them to a planned walled ghetto in the city's seventh district, a precursor to the intended liquidation of the capital's 200,000 Jews in Nazi death camps. In 2016 some 6,300 documents from census were found in an apartment wall cavity.
    (AFP, 11/21/15)
1944        May, Elie Wiesel (1928-2016) and his family were among an estimated 14,000 Jews who were deported to the Auschwitz death camp from a town in northwest Romania. His mother and younger sister died there.
    (AP, 10/9/18)
1944        May, Laszlo Csatary was named chief of an internment camp at a brick factory in Kosice, a Slovakian city under Hungarian rule, from where 12,000 Jews were deported to Auschwitz and other Nazi death camps. In 1948 he was convicted in absentia for war crimes in Czechoslovakia and sentenced to death. He arrived in the Canadian province of Nova Scotia the following year, became a Canadian citizen in 1955 and worked as an art dealer in Montreal. He left Canada in 1997 and was arrested in Hungary in 2012. In 2013 Csatary was indicted in Hungary for war crimes.
    (AP, 7/18/12)(AP, 6/18/13)

1944        May-1944 Jun, At the US Military Interrogation Center at Byron Hot Springs Hotel in Stockton, Ca., German seaman Otto Stengel, suffering under acute appendicitis, revealed the names of 6 fellow seaman (ages 22-26) who participated in the murder of Vernard Drechsler, a fellow seaman turned spy.
    (HC, 1/29/98)
1944        May-1944 Jun, Some 425,000 Jews from Hungary were brought to the Nazi-run Auschwitz concentration camp in Poland. At least 300,000 were almost immediately gassed to death. In 2014 German prosecutors charged Oskar Groening (93) with 300,000 counts of accessory to murder for serving as as SS guard at the Auschwitz death camp during this period.
    (SFC, 9/16/14, p.A2)
1944        May-1944 Oct, About 158 trainloads of victims were brought to the Nazi-run Auschwitz concentration camp in Poland. In 2013 a German arest warrant accused Johann Breyer (d.2014 at 89), a resident of Pennsylvania, of 158 counts of accessory to murder, one for each trainload of victims brought to Auschwitz while he served as a guard there. 
    (SFC, 7/24/14, p.A8)

1944        Jun-May, 1945, This period of WW II was covered by historian Stephen E. Ambrose in his book Citizen Soldiers. An audio cassette version was released in 1998.
    (SFEC, 5/10/98, BR p.7)

1944        Jun 1, The British Broadcasting Corp. broadcasted a line of poetry by the 19th century French poet Paul Verlaine. It was a coded message intended to warn the French resistance that the D-Day invasion was imminent, "The long sobs of the violins of autumn."
    (DT, 6/1/97)
1944         Jun 1, Gen’ls. Montgomery, Patton, Bradley, Dempsey and Crerar met in Portsmouth.
    (DT, 6/1/97)

1944        Jun 2, Marvin Hamlisch, US composer, pianist (The Sting, Chorus Line), was born.
    (SC, 6/2/02)
1944        Jun 2, Allied "shuttle bombing" of Germany began, with bombers departing from Italy and landing in the Soviet Union.
    (HN, 6/2/98)

1944        Jun 3, Nazis pulled out of Rome.
    (MC, 6/3/02)

1944        Jun 4, The U-505 became the first enemy submarine captured by the U.S. Navy under Admiral Dan Gallery. The keel for the U-505 was laid on June 12, 1940. It launched from Hamburg the following year. During its career, the U-505  gained the unwelcome but lucky distinction of being the most heavily damaged U-boat to manage to return to port. Under the command of Harald Lange, the boat was attacked by an American task group led by the USS Guadalcanal. Crewmen from the destroyer escort USS Pillsbury managed to capture the U-505 before the submariners could in scuttle her. This represented the first time since 1815 that the US Navy captured an enemy warship on the high seas (the capture remained a secret). After the war, Navy plans to scuttle the U-boat in a gunnery exercise were themselves scrapped when the president of Chicago’s Museum of Science & Industry voiced interest and a plan to use the entire submarine as part of an exhibit. The U-505 was dedicated as a permanent exhibit and war memorial at the museum on September 25, 1954. In 2005 a $35 million project restored the ship and moved it to a specially constructed underground hall.
    (HN, 6/4/98)(HNQ, 3/29/01)(WSJ, 8/5/05, p.W2)
1944        Jun 4, The US Fifth Army under Gen. Mark Clark, entered Rome, beginning the liberation of the Italian capital during World War II.
    (AP, 6/4/97)(Econ, 4/12/08, p.94)

1944        Jun 5, Dwight D. Eisenhower wrote a note to be issued in case the D-Day invasion turned out to be a failure: "Our landings in the Cherbourg-Havre area have failed to gain a satisfactory foothold, and I have withdrawn the troops." The note was [apparently misdated] dated July 5.
    (SFC, 12/31/96, p.A7)
1944        Jun 5, Allied forces faked an invasion at Pas de Calais on the French coast with 500 dummies and explosives mimicking paratroopers setting their parachutes ablaze. The deception, 186 miles from Normandy, was named "Bodyguard" with Gen. George Patton in charge of the First United State Army Group, a made-up unit.
    (Econ., 12/19/20, p.113)
1944        Jun 5, The first B-29 bombing raid struck the Japanese rail line in Bangkok, Thailand.
    (HN, 6/5/98)
1944        Jun 5, Riccardo Zandonai (b.1883), Italian composer, died in Trebbiantico, Pesaro.

1944        Jun 6, Theodore Roosevelt Jr. received a congressional medal of honor.
    (MC, 6/6/02)
1944        Jun 6, On D-Day Brig. General Norman "Dutch" Cota was the first American General to step foot on Omaha Beach. Cota, assistant commander of the 29th Infantry Division, heroically spurred his men to cross the beach under withering German fire. He went on to lead his infantrymen across France to the Siegfried Line and in the battle of Hurtgen Forest and the Battle of the Bulge.
    (HNQ, 4/15/99)
1944        Jun 6, Cherokee tribal members communicated via radios in their native language on the Normandy beaches. Some 6,603 Americans were killed along the coast of France during the D-day invasion. A total of 9,758 Allied soldiers died during the invasion. "D-Day" by Stephen Ambrose was published in 1994.
    (SFC, 6/4/98, p.A6)(SFEC, 6/6/99, p.A22)(SFC, 5/30/00, p.A2)(WSJ, 8/20/01, p.A1)
1944        Jun 6, Danny Brotheridge, British lieutenant, became the 1st to die during D-Day. Over the next 10 weeks of fighting 300,000 men, women and children died in Normandy. In 2009 Antony Beevor authored “D-Day: The Battle for Normandy."
    (SSFC, 6/6/04, D7)(http://tinyurl.com/lvhqs7)(Econ, 5/30/09, p.84)
1944        Jun 6, The code name for the beach used by the Canadians for the D-day invasion of Normandy was Juno.
    (HNQ, 8/13/98)
1944        Jun 6, By the end of D-Day 156,000 Allied soldiers had come ashore on the Normandy beaches with losses of 2,500 men. By the end of the day, the Allies had established a tenuous beachhead that would lead to an offensive that pinned Adolf Hitler's Third Reich between two pincers--the Western Allies and the already advancing Soviets--accelerating the end of World War II. A million Allied troops, under the overall command of General Dwight D. Eisenhower, moved onto five Normandy beachheads in three weeks. Operations “Neptune" and “Overlord" put forces on the beaches and supplies aimed at the liberation of Europe and the conquest of Germany. Operation Overlord landed 400,000 Allied American, British, and Canadian troops on the beaches of Normandy, France. In addition, US and British airborne forces landed behind the German lines and US Army Rangers scaled the cliffs at Pointe de Hoc. More than 6,000 trucks of the Red Ball Express kept gasoline and other vital supplies rolling in as American troops and tanks pushed the Germans back toward their homeland.
    (SDUT, 6/6/97, p.B9)(HN, 6/6/98)(HNPD, 6/6/99)(ON, 2/08, p.12)
1944        Jun 6, Rose Cecil O’Neill (b.1874), illustrator, writer and creator of the Kewpie doll (1909), died.
    (www.lambiek.net/oneill_rose.htm)(AH, 2/05, p.71)
1944        Jun 6, Gerrit John van de Peat (41), artist, resistance fighter, was executed.
    (MC, 6/6/02)
1944        Jun 6, Nazi troops executed 96 prisoners by firing squad.
    (MC, 6/6/02)

1944        Jun 7, Clarence White, guitarist (The Byrds-Turn! Turn! turn!), was born.
    (SC, 6/7/02)
1944        Jun 7, Italian partisans shot at least one German soldier in a radio transmitter unit that included Matthias Defregger. Eventually, 17 men, ranging from 17 to 65, were shot in retaliation, and much of the village of Filetto di Camarda was burned. Defregger later became a Bishop and faced charges in 1969 for the murders. The charges were dropped in 1970.

1944        Jun 8, Boz (William) Scaggs (musician, singer: Lowdown, Lido Shuffle, Look What You've Done To Me), was born.
    (MC, 6/8/02)
1944        Jun 8, The 1st SS-Panzer Korps counter attack was at Normandy.
    (MC, 6/8/02)

1944        Jun 9, 99 inhabitants of Tulle were hanged by the SS.
    (MC, 6/9/02)

1944        Jun 10, The U.S. VII and V corps, advancing from Normandy’s Utah and Omaha beaches, respectively, linked-up and began moving inland.
    (HN, 6/10/98)
1944        Jun 10, German troops of the armored SS Division "Das Reich", as they headed toward Normandy to combat D-Day invasion forces, slaughtered 642 men, women and children in the village of Oradour-sur-Glane, France, and then set the town on fire. In 1983 a court in East Berlin convicted Heinz Barth (1921-2007), a former SS officer, and sentenced him to life in prison. In addition to involvement in the massacre, East German judges also found that Barth volunteered to participate in an execution of 92 Czech civilians in 1942. In 1997 his sentence was commuted to probation.
    (AP, 8/14/07)(SSFC, 8/23/20, p.A5)
1944        Jun 10, In Greece Waffen-SS troops of the 4th SS Polizei Panzergrenadier Division under the command of SS-Hauptsturmführer Fritz Lautenbach went door to door and massacred Greek civilians as part of a 'retaliation measure' for a partisan attack upon the unit. A total of 214 men, women and children were killed in Distomo, a small village near Delphi.

1944        Jun 11, James "Ox" D A Van Hoften, astronaut (STS 41C, STS 51I), was born in Fresno, Calif.
    (SC, 6/11/02)
1944        Jun 11, The 1st Serbian Orthodox cathedral in US, Cathedral of St Sava, was established in NYC.
    (SC, 6/11/02)
1944        Jun 11, Germans launched an assault on the village of Graignes, France, where some 170 paratroopers had been involved in one of the worst misdrops of any airborne unit on D-Day. The American soldiers were forced to retreat. Maimed paratroopers left behind were split into two groups, some were marched down the road and executed, others were thrown into the marshes and bayoneted. Graignes was liberated from the Germans on July 12, 1944.
    (Reuters, 5/23/19)
1944        Jun 11, US carrier-based planes attacked Japanese airfields on Guam, Rota, Saipan and Tinian islands, preparing for the invasion of Saipan. US naval and air bombardments lasted from 11–13 June 1944, involving 216 carrier aircraft and land-based B-24 bombers from the Marshall Islands.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Guam_(1944))(HN, 6/11/99)

1944         Jun 13, Only one week after the Normandy invasion, the first German V-1 buzz bomb, also called the doodlebug (Fieseler Fi-103), was fired at London. The first guided missile to be used in force, the V-1 was powered by a pulse-jet engine and resembled a small aircraft. Only one of the four missiles London saw that day caused any casualties, but a steady stream of V-1s causing severe damage and casualties fell on London in coming months. At times, nearly 100 bombs fell each day. Many German buzz bombs never reached their targets because of primitive guidance systems or because they were destroyed in flight by anti-aircraft fire or intercepting Allied fighters.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/V-1_flying_bomb)(AP, 6/13/97)(HNQ, 6/13/98)

1944        Jun 14, B-29 bombers conducted their first raid against mainland Japan.
    (HN, 6/14/98)

1944        Jun 15, American forces began their successful invasion of Saipan during World War II. Meanwhile, B-29 Superfortresses made their first raids on Japan.
    (AP, 6/15/97)(HN, 6/15/98)

1944        Jun 16, In San Francisco the first six women to qualify successfully for jobs as regular uniformed policewomen were sworn into the Police Dept. After 30 days of training they will be qualified to ride 3-wheeled motorcycles tagging cars in the downtown area for $200 a month.
    (SSFC, 6/16/19, DB p.38)

1944        Jun 17, Bill Rafferty, comedian (Laugh-In, Real People), was born in  Queens, NY.
1944        Jun 17, French troops landed on the island of Elba in the Mediterranean.
    (HN, 6/17/98)
1944        Jun 17, Iceland declared full independence from Denmark and became a republic.
    (DrEE, 1/4/97, p.4)(AP, 6/17/97)

1944        Jun 18, The U.S. First Army broker through the German lines on the Cotentin Peninsula and cut off the German held port of Cherbourg.
    (HN, 6/18/98)

1944        Jun 19, The Battle of the Philippine Sea (Battle of the Marianas), called the "Marianas Turkey Shoot," began when Japanese naval forces attacked the stronger U.S. naval forces. 280 Japanese planes were shot down by U.S. carrier- based planes and anti-aircraft fire from U.S. ships. Americans shoot down 220 Japanese planes while only losing 20.
    (BEP, 1994)(DT, 6/19/97)(HN, 6/19/98)
1944        Jun 19, "Ace of Aces" David McCampbell (1910-1996) and the Fabled 15 challenged 80 Japanese carrier based aircraft bearing down on an American fleet. He shot down 7 Zeroes and the group routed the enemy fliers.
    (SFC, 7/3/96, p.C4)

1944        Jun 20, The US Congress chartered the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).
    (MC, 6/20/02)
1944        Jun 20, Vice Admiral Marc Mitchner, commander of the U.S. Task Force 58, ordered all lights on his ships turned on to help guide his carrier-based pilots back from the Battle of the Philippine Sea.
    (HN, 6/20/99)
1944        Jun 20, The Japanese aircraft carrier Hijo was sunk by a gasoline-vapor explosion caused by an American torpedo hit during the Battle of the Philippine Sea on 20 June 1944 with the loss of 247 officers and ratings, about a fifth of her complement.
1944        Jun 20, Nazis began mass extermination of Jews at Auschwitz.
    (MC, 6/20/02)

1944        Jun 21, Very heavy bombing took place on Berlin.
    (MC, 6/21/02)

1944        Jun 22, President Roosevelt signed the Readjustment Act of 1944, more commonly known as the GI Bill of Rights. It authorized a broad package of benefits for WW II veterans.
    (HN, 6/22/98)(AP, 6/22/06)
1944        Jun 22, US Pilot William Kalan and his 9-man crew bailed out of their B-24 Liberator during a mission over Nazi-occupied France. Kalan avoided capture and went on to work with the French underground to harass German troops. In 2009 Kalan (91) was awarded the French Legion of Honor for his covert service.
    (SFC, 12/30/09, p.C3)

1944        Jun 23, In one of the largest air strikes of the war, the U.S. Fifteenth Air Force sent 761 bombers against the oil refineries at Ploesti, Romania.
    (HN, 6/23/98)
1944        Jun 23, Britain's Foreign Sec. Anthony Eden told the House of Commons of evidence proving that Germans wantonly murdered 50 British and Allied prisoners who had tunneled out of the Stalag Luft III near Breslau, Germany, on March 24.
    (SSFC, 6/23/19, p.39)

1944        Jun 25, British assault at Caen, Normandy.
    (MC, 6/25/02)
1944        Jun 25, George Herriman (b.1880), creator of the "Krazy Kat" cartoon strip (1913-1944), died. In 2002 Fantagraphics published "Krazy and Ignatz: The Komplete Kat Comics 1925-1926."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Herriman)(SFC, 1/18/97, p.D1)(SSFC, 3/24/02, p.M6)

1944        Jun 26, The Republican national convention opened in Chicago with a keynote speech by California Governor Earl Warren.
    (AP, 6/26/04)
1944        Jun 26, German troops near the Italian village of Falzano di Cortona herded 11 civilians into a barn and blew it up. Gino Massetti (15) survived and in 2008 testified in the trial of former Wehrmacht Lt. Josef Scheungraber, the company commander accused of ordering the reprisal killings and four others after two German soldiers were killed. In 2009 Scheungraber (90) was convicted of 10 murders and jailed for life.
    (AP, 10/7/08)(AFP, 8/11/09)

1944        Jun 27, During World War II, American forces completed their capture of the French port of Cherbourg from the Germans.
    (AP, 6/27/97)(HN, 6/27/98)

1944        Jun 28, The Republican national convention in Chicago nominated New York Gov. Thomas E. Dewey for president and Ohio Gov. John W. Bricker for vice president.
    (AP, 6/28/04)
1944        Jun 28, Army Air Forces 1st Lt. John Crouchley Jr. (26) piloted a B-24H Liberator that was shot down and crashed in Bulgaria. Before the crash Crouchley continued to pilot the aircraft, allowing nine other crewmembers to bail out and survive. His remains were discovered in 2017, positively identified in September, 2018, and returned to Rhode Island in 2019.
    (http://tinyurl.com/y6dxxhcy)(AP, 5/3/19)

1944        Jun 29, Rommel and von Rundstedt traveled to Berchtesgaden to confer with Hitler.
    (MC, 6/29/02)
1944        Jun 29, A Russian assault battalion opened fire on German forces on the outskirts of Bobruisk, Belarus. As many as half of the 10,000 German soldiers were killed. In 1962 Nikolai Litvin, a Russian soldier present that day, completed his memoir. It was finally published in 2007 under the title "800 Days on the Eastern Front."
    (WSJ, 6/30/07, p.P6)

1944        Jun 30, A US B-24H bomber nicknamed "Miss Fortune," which was returning from a mission in Germany to its base in Italy, flew into bad weather with 3 others and were shot down by German gunners over western Hungary. The remains of Staff Sgt. Martin F. Troy, the tail gunner on the “Miss Fortune," were recovered in 2007.
    (AP, 8/11/07)

1944        Jun, Members of the Special Operations Division from Maryland’s Fort Detrick biological weapons program conducted tests at Granite Peak, a 250-square-mile area near the Dugway Proving Ground in Utah.
    (AH, 6/03, p.49)
1944        Jun, The "Kasztner Train," with 1,684 Jews on board, departed Budapest for the safety of neutral Switzerland. Rudolf Kasztner's negotiations also saved 20,000 Hungarian Jews by diverting them to an Austrian labor camp instead of a planned transfer to extermination camps. Kasztner, a Zionist leader in Hungary, headed the Relief and Rescue Committee, a small Jewish group that negotiated with Nazi officials to rescue Hungarian Jews in exchange for money, goods and military equipment.
    (AP, 7/23/07)
1944        Jun, German soldiers in the Hermann Goering division, named after the head of Adolf Hitler's air force, shot and killed more than 200 civilians and destroyed most of the homes in the Tuscan town of Civitella to avenge a deadly attack by partisans. In 2008 Italy's Court of Cassation ordered Berlin to pay a total of euro1 million (US$1.3 million) to nine family members of victims of the massacre. Germany rejected the ruling.
    (AP, 10/22/08)

1944        Jul 1, Delegates from 44 countries began meeting at Bretton Woods, N.H., where they agreed to establish the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank. The US hosted an international conference at Bretton Woods, N.H., to deal with international monetary and financial problems. The talks resulted in the creation of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank in 1945. The Bretton Woods institutions also include the United Nations and the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, later renamed the World Trade Organization (WTO). The agreement was a gold exchange standard and only the US was required to convert its currency into gold at a fixed rate, and only foreign central banks were allowed the privilege of redemption. In 1983 Michael Moffitt authored “The World’s Money: Int’l. Banking from Bretton Woods to the Brink of Insolvency." In 1997 Catherine Caufield wrote "Masters of Illusion: The World Bank and the Poverty of Nations."
    (SFC, 1/13/98, p.A4)(WSJ, 10/15/98, p.A22)(AP, 7/1/04)(WM, 1983, p.13)
1944        Jul 1, Over 2500 were killed in London and SE England by German flying bombs.
    (MC, 7/1/02)
1944        Jul 1, Count Claus von Stauffenberg was promoted to colonel.
    (MC, 7/1/02)

1944        Jul 3, Lisa Alther, author, was born in Kingsport, Ten. "The degree of a person's intelligence is directly reflected by the number of conflicting attitudes she can bring to bear on the same topic." 
1944        Jul 3, The U.S. First Army opened a general offensive to break out of the hedgerow area of Normandy, France.
    (HN, 7/3/98)
1944        Jul 3, During World War II, Soviet forces recaptured Minsk.
    (AP, 7/3/97)

1944        Jul 4, Stanley Hiller Jr. (1925-2006) flew his XH-44 helicopter free from its tether for the 1st time in the stadium of UC Berkeley. A public demonstration took place in SF on Aug. 30, 1944.
    (SSFC, 4/23/06, p.B7)(www.helis.com/timeline/hiller.php)
1944        Jul 4, 1,100 US guns fired 4th of July salute at German lines in Normandy.
1944        Jul 4, Allied assault on Carpiquet airport at Caen.
1944        Jul 4, Gestapo arrested German Social Democrat Julius Leber.
1944        Jul 4, The Japanese made their first kamikaze (god wind) attack on a US fleet near Iwo Jima. There is little evidence that these hits were more than accidental collisions or last-minute decisions by pilots in doomed aircraft, of the kind likely to happen in intense sea-air battles [see Oct 21].
    (Maggio)(WSJ, 9/10/02, p.D8)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kamikaze)

1944        Jul 5, The Japanese garrison on Numfoor, New Guinea, tried to counterattack but was soon beaten back by U.S. forces.
    (HN, 7/5/98)

1944        Jul 6, Lieutenant Jackie Robinson of the U.S. Army, while riding a civilian bus from Camp Hood, Texas, refused to give up his seat to a white man. Lt. Jackie Robinson was court marshaled for refusing the order of a civilian bus driver to move to the back of the bus. He was acquitted.
    (SFEC,10/19/97, BR p.14)(HN, 7/6/98)
1944        Jul 6, In Hartford, Conn., 168 people died when fire broke out in the main tent of the Ringling Bros. and Barnum & Bailey Circus. In 2000 Stewart O’Nan authored "The Circus Fire: A True Story."
    (AP, 7/6/04)(SFEC, 8/20/00, BR p.3)

1944        Jul 7, Brendan Bracken, the British Minister of Information, charged that the Germans are setting up "public slaughterhouses" into which thousands of Jews are being herded to their deaths.
    (SSFC, 7/7/19, DB p.43)
1944        Jul 7, Bomber Command dropped 2,572 tons of bombs on Caen, France.
    (MC, 7/7/02)
1944        Jul 7, Hungary’s regent Miklos Horthy issued an order suspending Nazi deportations of Hungarian Jews.
    (ON, 10/20/11, p.1)
1944        Jul 7, There was a heavy Japanese counter offensive on Saipan.
    (MC, 7/7/02)

1944        Jul 8, Japanese kamikaze attacked US lines at Saipan.
    (MC, 7/8/02)

1944        Jul 9, American forces secured Saipan as the last Japanese defenses fell during WW II.
    (AP, 7/9/00)
1944        Jul 9, Raoul Wallenberg, a Swedish National Guardsman, arrived in Budapest to head the local office of the US-sponsored War Refugee Board. He had been recruited in June by a US Embassy official in Stockholm and sent to Nazi-controlled Budapest under Swedish diplomatic cover. He used US funds to bribe Nazi officials and saved over 20,000 Hungarian Jews from Nazi death camps.
    (SFC, 5/5/96, p.A-7)(MT, Spg. ‘99, p.18)(WSJ, 2/28/09, p.A7)

1944        Jul 10, French railway workers called a strike in Paris.
    (Econ, 9/21/13, IL p.22)

1944        Jul 12, US government recognized the authority of General De Gaulle.
    (MC, 7/12/02)
1944        Jul 12, The Theresienstadt Family camp disbanded and some 4,000 people were executed.
    (MC, 7/12/02)

1944        Jul 13, Erno Rubik, inventor (Rubik's cube), was born in Budapest.
    (MC, 7/13/02)

1944        Jul 14, In France some 100,000 people took to the streets in a mass demonstration.
    (Econ, 9/21/13, IL p.22)
1944        Jul 14, SS men Heinrich Boere and Jacobus Petrus Besteman shot and killed Dutch pharmacist Fritz Hubert Ernst Bicknese at his home in Breda for suspected activity in Nazi resistance. Boere was sentenced to death in absentia by a Dutch court in 1949. This was later commuted to life imprisonment. In 2009 Boere (88) was slated to stand trial for murder in Germany for the execution-style killings of three Dutch civilians during World War II. In 2010 a German court convicted Boere (88) of murdering the three Dutch civilians. He was given the maximum sentence of life in prison for the killings.
    (www.wsws.org/articles/2009/nov2009/germ-n02.shtml)(AP, 7/7/09)(AP, 3/23/10)

1944        Jul 15, In Amsterdam Anne Frank (1929-1945) entered this in her diary: "In spite of everything I still believe that people are really good at heart." In 1998 5 additional pages to her diary were reported. She died of typhoid in the spring of 1945 at the Bergen-Belson concentration camp.
    (AP, 8/4/98)(SFC, 8/19/98, p.A16)
1944        Jul 15, Greenwich Observatory was damaged by German V1 rocket.
    (MC, 7/15/02)

1944        Jul 16, Soviet troops occupied Vilna, Lithuania, in their drive towards Germany.
    (HN, 7/16/98)

1944        Jul 17, An explosion at Port Chicago, now the Concord Naval Weapons Station in Ca., killed 320 seamen when a pair of ammunition ships exploded. 10,000 tons of ammunition exploded. 202 of the victims were black enlisted men. The Navy court-martialed 50 black sailors for refusing to go back to work after the catastrophe. They were released from prison in 1946 with dishonorable discharges and reductions in rank. The story was later described by Robert Allen in his 1989 "The Port Chicago Mutiny." In 1999 Pres. Clinton issued a pardon to Freddie Meeks, one of the last living convicted African American sailors.
    (SFEC, 3/2/97, z1 p.3)(SFC, 2/24/98, p.A15)(SFC, 12/24/99, p.A1)(SSFC, 2/6/05, Par p.6)
1944        Jul 17, Field Marshall Erwin Rommel was wounded when an Allied fighter strafes his staff car in France.
    (HN, 7/17/98)

1944        Jul 18, U.S. troops capture Saint-Lo, France, ending the battle of the hedgerows.
    (HN, 7/18/98)
1944        Jul 18, British Mosquitos attacked Cologne and Berlin.
    (MC, 7/18/02)
1944        Jul 18, Hideki Tojo was removed as Japanese premier and war minister because of setbacks suffered by his country in World War II.
    (AP, 7/18/97)

1944        Jul 19, The Democratic National Convention convened in Chicago with the renomination of President Franklin D. Roosevelt considered a foregone certainty.
    (AP, 7/19/08)
1944        Jul 19, Some 1,200 8th Air Force bombers bombed targets in SW Germany. Some 500 15th Air Force Liberators (Flying Fortresses) bombed the Munich vicinity.
    (MC, 7/19/02)
1944        Jul 19, Count Claus von Stauffenberg visited a RC church in Berlin-Dahlem.
    (MC, 7/19/02)
1944        Jul 19, Carl Bock, Danish Gestapo agent, was liquidated.
    (MC, 7/19/02)
1944        Jul 19, Swedish diplomat Raoul Wallenberg 1st met SS ober Sturmbannfuhrer Adolf Eichmann.
    (MC, 7/19/02)

1944        Jul 20, President Roosevelt was nominated for an unprecedented fourth term of office at the Democratic National Convention in Chicago.
    (AP, 7/20/97)
1944        Jul 20, US 15th Air Force attacked Friedrichshafen and Memmingen. Flying Fortresses of US 8th Air Force attacked Leipzig and Dessau.
    (MC, 7/20/02)
1944        Jul 20, A heavy storm hampered a British offensive at Caen.
    (MC, 7/20/02)
1944        Jul 20, A branch of the German resistance led by Count Claus Schenk von Stauffenberg planted a bomb underneath the table where Hitler was standing at Hitler's Rastenburg headquarters in East Prussia that wounded but did not kill Hitler. This incited the Fuhrer to wipe out the Prussian aristocracy. This is covered in Otto Friedrich's book on the Moltke family: "Blood and Iron." [see 1800, Helmuth and/or 1840, James von Moltke]
    (WSJ, 11/7/95, p.A-21)(AP, 7/20/97)(HN, 7/20/98)
        "In fact, although many of the conspirators were tortured, beheaded and strangled by piano wire hung from meat hooks... Col. Stauffenburg and three of his fellow officers were executed by firing squad in the courtyard of the Benderblock around midnight of that fateful day." Gen. Friedrich Olbricht was executed along with Gen. Ludwig Beck, chief Germany general staff. The 20th of July Special Commission of the Third Reich was created after the July 20, 1944, assassination attempt on Adolf Hitler to find and expose conspirators and other enemies of the regime. Some 400 investigators employed all of the Gestapo-designed methods of torture against enemies of the Nazis until the end of the war. Some 5,000 Germans were executed in the months following the assassination attempt for their part in the conspiracy or alleged sympathy with the conspirators.
    (WSJ, 11/29/95, p.A-15)(HNQ, 12/3/98)(MC, 7/20/02)
        Ludwig and Kunrat Hammerstein-Equord participated in the plot to kill Hitler and went into hiding when the plot failed. 4 members of the family were taken to concentration camps, but were later freed by the allies.
    (SFC, 2/5/00, p.A19)
1944        Jul 20, The death march of 1,200 Jews from Lipcani, Moldavia, began.
    (MC, 7/20/02)

1944        Jul 21, Paul Wellstone, (Sen-D-Minnesota), was born.
    (MC, 7/21/02)
1944        Jul 21, The Democratic National Convention in Chicago nominated Sen. Harry S. Truman to be vice president. He replaced Henry Wallace. In Room 708 of the Blackstone Hotel in Chicago Roosevelt told Truman at the convention that he wanted him on the ticket Alben William Barkley served one term as vice president of the U.S. under Harry Truman (1949-53).
    (WSJ, 8/26/96, p.A12)(AP, 7/20/97)(WSJ, 4/27/98, p.A20)(HNQ, 11/3/99)
1944        Jul 21, US Army and Marine forces landed on Guam in the Marianas during WW II.
    (AP, 7/21/97)(HN, 7/21/98)
1944        Jul 21, Von Kluge warned Hitler of the impending collapse of front in Normandy.
    (MC, 7/21/02)
1944        Jul 21, Henning von Tresckow, Gen-Maj, "July 20th plotter", committed suicide.
    (MC, 7/21/02)
1944        Jul 21, Jerzy Bielecki (23), a German-speaking Catholic Pole arrested as a resistance fighter, walked in broad daylight down a pathway at Auschwitz, wearing a stolen SS uniform with his Jewish sweetheart Cyla Cybulska (1922-2002) by his side. Both managed to escape. They became separated in 1945 and did not meet again until 1983.
    (AP, 7/20/10)

1944        Jul 22, German SS officer Siegfried Assmuss, commander of a unit of the Ukrainian Self-Defense Legion, was killed by partisans near Chlaniow, Poland.
    (AP, 6/14/13)(http://tinyurl.com/kk5e6s3)

1944        Jul 23, Lisa Alther, novelist (Kinflicks), was born.
    (HN, 7/23/02)
1944        Jul 23, US forces invaded Japanese-held Tinian.
    (MC, 7/23/02)
1944        Jul 23, Bernard M. Cohen, attorney, was killed at Belsen concentration camp.
    (MC, 7/23/02)
1944        Jul 23, Helmuth J. von Moltke, German earl (July 20th plotter), was executed.
    (MC, 7/23/02)
1944        Jul 23, Soviet troops took Lublin, Poland, as the German army retreated.
    (HN, 7/23/02)
1944        Jul 23, A Ukrainian Self-Defense unit, directed to "liquidate all the residents" of Chlaniow, Poland, in a reprisal attack for the killing of German SS officer Siegfried Assmuss, killed 44 people including women and children. In 2013 Michael Karkoc (94), a retired Minnesota carpenter, was named as commander of the Nazi SS-led unit in the Chlaniov attack.
    (AP, 6/14/13)(http://tinyurl.com/kk5e6s3)(AP, 11/18/13)

1944        Jul 24, Soviet forces liberated the Majdanek concentration camp.
    (MC, 7/24/02)

1944        Jul 25, Bing Crosby and the Andrews Sisters recorded Cole Porter's "Don't Fence Me In" in Los Angeles for Decca Records.
    (AP, 7/25/99)
1944        Jul 25, US Ensign George H.W. Bush, later US president (1989-1993) was one of two pilots who helped sink a Japanese trawler off Palau, along with two smaller cargo ships. A Navy report at the time recorded that Bush and other pilots shot at life rafts.
    (SSFC, 8/5/18, DB p.50)
1944        Jul 25, Allied forces begin the breakthrough of German lines in Normandy.
    (HN, 7/25/02)
1944        Jul 25, The Messerschmitt 262 became the 1st jet fighter used in combat.
    (SC, 7/25/02)

1944        Jul 26, The first desegregation in the US Army.
    (HFA, ‘96, p.34)
1944        Jul 26, There was a Japanese suicide attack on US lines in Guam.
    (MC, 7/26/02)

1944        Jul 27, U.S. troops completed the liberation of Guam.
    (HN, 7/27/98)

1944        Jul 29, Larry L. Hutsell, "fact-finder extraordinaire" was born in Balboa Naval Hospital in San Diego, Ca. Long-time retired from the auto glass replacement industry and the Boy Scouts of America, Larry spends his days surfing the Internet, gleaning little-known and miniscule facts from history; the Web site “Timelines of History" has been the beneficiary of these efforts. In his spare time Larry and his wife Phyllis own Hutsell's Gift & Lapidary Shop in Blue Springs, Missouri.
    (LH, 7/29/08)
1944        Jul 29, Allied air force bombed Germany for 6 hours.
    (MC, 7/29/02)

1944        Jul 30, US 30th division reached the suburbs of St. Lo, Normandy.
    (MC, 7/30/02)

1944        Jul 31, A large number of children were deported to Auschwitz from France by Alois Brunner, deputy to Adolf Eichmann.
    (SFC, 3/3/01, p.A10)
1944        Jul 31, Antoine de Saint-Exupery (44), author of "The Little Prince," died in a plane crash during reconnaissance off Marseilles. In 1949 Nelly de Vogue, his longtime mistress, authored the 1st Exupery biography. In 2001 a memoir by his widow, Consuelo de Saint-Exupery (d.1979) titled "The Tale of the Rose: The Passion That Inspired the Little Prince," was published. Saint-Exupery's plane was found in 2004.
    (SFEC, 2/27/00, BR p.12)(SFEC, 5/28/00, p.A15)(SSFC, 8/5/01, DB p.63)(SFC, 4/8/04, p.A2)
1944        Jul 31, The Soviet army took Kovno [Kaunas], the capital of Lithuania.
    (HN, 7/31/98)

1944        Jul, A small team of US Army and intelligence personnel under Maj. Raymond Cromley embarked for China on the top secret "Dixie Mission" to investigate Mao Tse-tung and his insurgent Communist Party.
    (WSJ, 5/30/02, p.A2)
1944        Jul, Guy Gabaldon (1926-2006), US Marine private, talked some 800 Japanese soldiers into surrendering and following him back to his US camp. In 1990 Gabaldon authored the memoir “Saipan: Suicide Island." The story became part of the 1960 film “Hell to Eternity."
    (SFC, 9/8/06, p.B9)
1944        Jul, In Virginia Irene Morgan was jailed for refusing to give up her bus seat. A suit followed that led to the Jun 3, 1946 Supreme Court decision that struck down Virginia’s segregation statute on interstate buses.
    (SFC, 8/4/00, p.D2)
1944        Jul, Communist forces entered central and northern Albania.
    (www, Albania, 1998)
1944        Jul, In the wake of fighting at Vercors, France, 300 Nazi troops moved into the Catholic village of Prelenfrey and demanded the names of Jews hiding in the area. The soldiers at gunpoint interrogated 32 local men, but no information was revealed.
    (SFC, 6/23/96, p.T8)
1944        Jul, Operation Goodwood in Normandy under Gen’l. Montgomery attempted to break through German defenses. This part of the war is covered by Stephen E. Ambrose in his 1997 book: "Citizen Soldiers," a sequel to his earlier "D-Day."
    (WSJ, 12/22/97, p.A16)

1944        Aug 1, Anne Frank's last diary entry; 3 days later she was arrested.
    (MC, 8/1/02)

1944        Aug 1-1944 Oct 2, The Warsaw Uprising was fought. The Polish underground began an uprising against the occupying German army, as the Red Army approaches Warsaw. The revolt lasted two months before collapsing. US Air Force Groups dropped medicine and food to the Polish freedom fighters under heavy fire from German fighter planes. The supply planes were also shot at by Soviet gunners. American dead were buried in the military cemetery at Poltava, Ukraine. The uprising ended with the Nazis killing 250,000 people. During the 63-day uprising the insurgents, largely ill-armed teenagers, organized a postal service to help city residents get information to relatives. Marek Edelman (1909-2009) was among the commanders of the uprising and managed to survive the war.
    (Civilization, July-Aug, 1995, p. 23)(AP, 8/1/97)(HN, 8/1/98)(AP, 3/6/08)(Econ, 10/10/09, p.91)

1944        Aug 2, The US 383rd Squadron assigned to Honnington, England, executed an air raid on a German ammunition train at Remy, France. Lt. Houston Lee Braley Jr. was killed in his downed P-51.
    (SFC, 11/11/96, p.A1,18)
1944        Aug 2, Jewish survivors of Kovno Ghetto, Lithuania, emerged from their bunker.
    (MC, 8/2/02)
1944        Aug 2, Foundations were laid for establishing the republic of Macedonia within the former Yugoslavia.
    (Reuters, 5/20/18)

1944        Aug 4, RAF pilot T. D. Dean became the first pilot to destroy a V-1 buzz bomb when he tipped the pilotless craft’s wing, sending it off course.
    (HN, 8/4/98)
1944        Aug 4, British 8th army reached the suburbs of Florence, Italy.
    (MC, 8/4/02)
1944         Aug 4, Nazi police raided the secret annex of a building in Amsterdam and arrested eight people, including 15-year-old Anne Frank, whose diary became a famous account of the Holocaust. She died at the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp in the spring of 1945, just weeks before the camp was liberated. Miep Gies (1909-2010), secretary to Anne’s father Otto, collected the scattered pages of Anne’s diary and returned them to Otto Frank after the war. In 2022 Rosemary Sullivan authored "The Betrayal of Anne Frank: A Cold Case Investigation."
    (AP, 8/4/02)(Econ, 1/30/10, p.95)(SFC, 1/1922, p.A4)
1944        Aug 4, A Halifax JP-276A took off on its final flight from the Italian city of Brindisi around 8 p.m., to drop weapons, ammunition and medical supplies for resistance fighters involved in the Warsaw Uprising against the Nazis. The plane was shot down by Poland's Nazis occupiers and crashed near the town of Dabrowa Tarnowska, in southern Poland. Remnants were recovered in 2006 and the remains of the crew, 5 Canadians and 2 Britons, were formally buried in 2007.
    (AP, 10/4/07)

1944        Aug 5, Nearly a thousand Jewish refugees from Europe arrived in upstate New York at the invitation of President Roosevelt. It was supposed to be the first of many relief camps. It turned out to be the only one.
    (NY Times, 9/13/20)

1944        Aug 6, All 1,200 Jewish death marchers from Lipcani, Moldavia, died by this date.
    (MC, 8/6/02)
1944        Aug 6, The deportation of 70,000 Jews from Lodz. Poland, to Auschwitz began.
    (MC, 8/6/02)

1944        Aug 7, July 20th Plot trial under Nazi judge Roland Freisler began in Berlin.
    (MC, 8/7/02)
1944        Aug 7, German forces launched a major counter attack against U.S. forces near Mortain, France.
    (HN, 8/7/98)

1944        Aug 8, U.S. forces completed the capture of the Marianas Islands.
    (HN, 8/8/98)
1944        Aug 8, Erwin von Witzleben (62), German fieldmarshal, was hanged.
    (MC, 8/8/02)
1944        Aug 8, On the island of Guam US Marine Corps patrols from the 21st Regiment discovered 45 bodies of young Chamorro men in Chagui'an, beheaded and with their hands tied behind their backs. The site of the massacre was later disputed as the Guam Preservation Trust moved to put the Chagui'an Massacre site in Yigo into the National Register of Historic Places.
    (AP, 4/4/15)

1944        Aug 9, Smokey Bear debuted as spokesman for fire prevention. The image of "Smokey the Bear" was created by an artist as the official forest-fire spokesbear. He was named in 1945 reportedly in honor of Smokey Joe Martin, asst. chief of the New York City Fire Dept. A real bear from a 1950 New Mexico fire was pressed into service and lived until 1976 at the Washington National Zoo. [see 1945]
    (SFEC, 6/22/97, p.T6)(ON, 4/03, p.9)
1944        Aug 9, 258 black American sailors based at Port Chicago, Calif., refused to load a munitions ship following the Jul 17 explosion of another ship that killed 320 men, two-thirds of them black. The sailors were court-martialed, fined and imprisoned for their refusal.
    (AP, 8/9/04)
1944        Aug 9, The Halyard Mission began rescuing over 500 bomber fliers shot down over Serbia. This mission was a combined project of the American Strategic Services (OSS - precursor of the CIA) under the command of General William J. Donovan, Lt. George (Guv) S. Musulin, of the OSS and an American of Serbian descent, and General Draza Mihailovich and his Serbian chetnik freedom fighters in the former Yugoslavia. In 2007 Gregory A Freeman authored “The Forgotten 500: The Untold Story of the Men Who risked All for the Greatest Rescue Mission of World War II."    
    (www.generalmihailovich.com/2006/09/halyard-mission-rescue-operation.html)(SFC, 10/18/10, p.A5)

1944        Aug 10, Race riots took place in Athens, Alabama.
    (MC, 8/10/02)
1944        Aug 10, During World War II, American forces overcame Japanese resistance on Guam.
    (AP, 8/10/97)

1944        Aug 11, German troops abandoned Florence, Italy, as Allied troops closed in on the historic city.
    (HN, 8/10/98)

1944        Aug 12, Churchill and Tito met in Naples.
    (MC, 8/12/02)
1944        Aug 12, Joseph P. Kennedy Jr., eldest son of Joseph and Rose Fitzgerald Kennedy, was killed with his co-pilot when their explosives-laden Navy plane blew up over England during World War II.
    (AP, 8/12/97)

1944        Aug 13, In NYC Lucien Carr stabbed to death David Kammerer following sexual advances by Kammerer, who had been Carr's Boy Scout Scoutmaster during his youth. Carr turned himself in and was later sentenced to 20 years, but served only 2 years in prison at Elmira Correctional Facility in upstate, NY. Lucien Carr later introduced Allen Ginsberg, Jack Kerouac  and William Burroughs  to each other.

1944        Aug 14, The US federal government allowed the manufacture of certain domestic appliances, such as electric ranges and vacuum cleaners, to resume on a limited basis.
    (AP, 8/14/04)
1944        Aug 14, In Seattle, Wa., a riot took place at Fort Lawton, following a scuffle between  an Italian prisoner and a black soldier. POW Guglielmo Olivotto was found hanged the next day. In an ensuing trial 28 men were convicted. In 2005 Jack Hamann and his wife Leslie authored “On American Soil,“ which covered the riot and the subsequent events. The convictions of the soldiers were overturned based largely on shortcomings in the prosecution described in the book.
    (SFC, 7/28/08, p.A4)(www.historylink.org/essays/output.cfm?file_id=7378)

1944        Aug 15, Linda Ellerbee, newscaster (Weekend, NBC Overnight), was born in Bryan, Texas.
    (MC, 8/15/02)
1944        Aug 15, American, British and French forces landed on the southern coast of France, between Toulon and Cannes, in Operation Dragoon. The amphibious landing was met with minimal resistance.
    (AP, 8/15/97)(HN, 8/15/98)(SFC, 9/11/00, p.A22)

1944        Aug 15-16, In a secret military trial in Arizona, 7 German seamen, aged 22-26, were convicted in the murder of fellow seaman Vernard Drechsler. They were sentenced to murder and were hanged at Leavenworth on Aug 25, 1945.
    (HC, 1/29/98)

1944        Aug 16, US bombers of the 8th Air Force raided the oil refinery at Rositz, Germany. As of 1998 21 unexploded bombs were dug up at the site.
    (WSJ, 11/24/08, p.A12)
1944        Aug 16, Chartres, France, was freed.
    (MC, 8/16/02)

1944        Aug 17, The mayor of Paris, Pierre Charles Tattinger, met with the German commander Dietrich von Choltitz to protest the explosives being deployed throughout the city.
    (HN, 8/17/98)
1944        Aug 17, Japanese and Swiss officials agreed to divert 40% of millions of dollars, paid by the US and Britain for the care of prisoners of war held by the Japanese, to pay off Japan’s debts to Swiss businesses. The other 60% was for the free disposal by the Japanese government.
    (SFC, 12/1/97, p.A10)

1944        Aug 19, In an effort to prevent a communist uprising in Paris, Charles DeGaulle began attacking German forces all around the city.
    (HN, 8/19/98)
1944        Aug 19, The last Japanese troops were driven out of India.
    (MC, 8/19/02)
1944        Aug 19, US 90th and Polish 1st Division occupied Chambois, Normandy.
    (MC, 8/19/02)
1944        Aug 19, In France Marcel Pinte (6), code name Quinquin, was killed when a sensitive Sten automatic pistol dropped from a parachute of arms and munitions into a field let off a spray of gunfire when the arms were being distributed. He had served as a veritable liaison agent crossing enemy lines to pass messages if needed.
    (AP, 11/11/20)

1944        Aug 20, Rajiv Gandhi, Prime Minster of India (1984-89), was born.
    (HN, 8/20/98)(MC, 8/20/02)
1944        Aug 20, "Anna Lucasta," opened on Broadway.
    (MC, 8/20/02)
1944        Aug 20, United States and British forces closed the pincers on the German 7th Army in the Falaise-Argentan pocket in France.
    (HN, 8/20/98)(MC, 8/20/02)
1944        Aug 20, The US liberty ship SS Richard Montgomery was wrecked off the Nore in the Thames Estuary, with some 1500 tons of explosives. As of 2008 it continued to be a hazard to the area. 
1944        Aug 20, Gen. de Gaulle returned to France.
    (MC, 8/20/02)

1944        Aug 21, Jackie DeShannon, singer (What the World Needs Now), was born in Hazel, Kentucky.
    (SC, 8/21/02)
1944        Aug 21, The US, Britain, the Soviet Union and China opened the Dumbarton Oaks conference in Washington, D.C. It laid the foundation for the establishment of the UN.
    (SFEC, 6/29/97, p.T10)(AP, 8/21/07)
1944        Aug 21-1947 Jun 3, Albert Camus edited the clandestine newspaper Combat. In 2006 his WW II pieces, edited by Jacqueline Levi-Valensi, were published as "Camus at Combat."
    (WSJ, 2/11/06, p.P10)

1944        Aug 22, Hitler ordered Paris to be destroyed.
    (MC, 8/22/02)
1944        Aug 22, In Bordeaux, France, Heinz Stahlschmidt (d.2010 at 92), a junior officer in the German navy, defied his superiors plans to blow up Bordeaux's port by blowing up a munitions depot, rendering some 4,000 fuses useless and saving the port. Heinz Stahlschmidt became a French citizen in 1947 under the name of Henri Salmide and a Knight of the French Legion d’Honneur in September 2000.
    (http://tinyurl.com/yesjr4g)(AP, 2/26/10)
1944        Aug 22, Last transport of French Jews departed to Nazi Germany.
    (MC, 8/22/02)

1944        Aug 23, Allied troops captured Marseilles, France.
    (MC, 8/23/02)
1944        Aug 23, General George Leclerc's troops advanced towards Paris.
    (MC, 8/23/02)
1944        Aug 23, A US B-24 crashed into a school in Freckelton, England, and 76 were killed.
    (MC, 8/23/02)
1944        Aug 23, German SS engineers began placing explosive charges around the Eiffel Tower in Paris. Adolf Hitler had decreed that Paris should be left a smoking ruin, but Dietrich von Choltitz thought better of his Fuhrer's order.
    (HN, 8/23/98)
1944        Aug 23, Romanian PM Ion Antonescu was dismissed by King Michael, paving the way for Romania to abandon the Axis in favor of the Allies. King Michael organized a coup against the pro-Nazi dictator, Marshal Ion Antonescu, but was double-crossed by Joseph Stalin and betrayed by the Allies who ceded the country to the Russians at the Yalta summit in 1945.
    (SFC, 6/27/97, p.A16)(AP, 8/23/97)

1944        Aug 24, Allied forces captured Bordeaux. Spanish forces entered Paris.
    (www.euronet.nl/users/wilfried/ww2/1944.htm)(SFC, 8/16/19, p.A4)

1944        Aug 25,  US 12th Army Corp. reached Troyes.
    (chblue.com, 8/25/01)
1944        Aug 25, Paris, occupied since June 1940, was liberated from German occupation by Free French Forces under General Jacques LeClerc and his 2nd Tank division. Although ordered by Adolf Hitler to leave Paris a smoldering ruin, Paris' military governor Major General Dietrich von Cholitz lied to his superiors and left the city's landmarks intact. Retreating German troops massacred 124 of Maille's 500 residents then razed the town, possibly in retaliation for Resistance action in the region.
    (AP, 8/25/97)(HNPD, 8/25/98)(HN, 8/25/98)(AP, 7/16/08)
1944        Aug 25, In France 11 US planes were shot down when a squadron was overwhelmed in a dogfight with 80 German fighters. 5 pilots survived and eluded capture. 2 pilots were captured. The remains of 3 missing were later recovered. In 2008 the remains of Army Air Force 2nd Lt. Ray Packard were identified and returned home.
    (SSFC, 11/16/08, p.B8)
1944        Aug 25, Romania declared war on Germany.
    (AP, 8/25/99)

1944        Aug 26, US 12th Army Corps crossed the river Seine East of Paris.
    (MC, 8/26/02)
1944        Aug 26, In World War Two, Bulgaria announced that it had withdrawn from the war and that German troops in the country were to be disarmed.
    (RTH, 8/26/99)

1944        Aug 27, 200 Halifax bombers attack oil-installations in Hamburg.
    (MC, 8/27/01)

1944        Aug 28, German forces in Toulon and Marseilles, France, surrendered to the Allies.
    (HN, 8/28/98)

1944        Aug 28-1944 Sep 9, In Italy 10 citizens from Forli were killed "without need and without any justified motive" by a platoon led by German officer Heinrich Nordhorn. In 2006 an Italian military tribunal convicted Nordhorn (86) in absentia in the killings of the 10 civilians.
    (AP, 11/4/06)(http://italy.indymedia.org/news/2006/11/1175818.php)

1944        Aug 29, 15,000 American troops marched down the Champs Elysees in Paris as the French capital continued to celebrate its liberation from the Nazis.
    (AP, 8/29/97)
1944        Aug 29, The Slovak National Uprising broke out against the Germans.
    (SFC, 10/2/09, p.E5)

1944        Aug 30, Ploesti, the center of the Rumanian oil industry, fell to Soviet troops.
    (HN, 8/30/00)

1944        Aug 31, A US B-24-J bomber crashed into Maoer Mountain in China after having completed its bombing mission over the port of Takao in Taiwan. All 10 men onboard were killed. The wreckage was not discovered until Oct, 1996.
    (SFC, 1/17/97, p.A13)
1944        Aug 31, The British Eighth Army penetrated the German Gothic Line in Italy.
    (HN, 8/31/98)
1944        Aug 31, The French provisional government moved from Algiers to Paris.
    (MC, 8/31/01)

1944        Aug, Gen. Patton directed his Third Army from Sicily to France. By March of 1945 he drove through the German line and across the Rhine.
    (WSJ, 12/8/95, p.A-14)
1944        Aug, In the weeks following the liberation of France some 20,000 women, accused of relations with the enemy, had their heads shaven.
    (Econ, 9/21/13, IL p.22)
1944        Aug, Hungary’s regent Miklos Horthy fired his pro-German prime minister and opened peace talks with the Russians.
    (ON, 10/20/11, p.2)
1944        Aug, Representatives of Messerschmidt, Volkswagen AG and other companies met at a Strasbourg hotel to discuss financing plans for the Fourth Reich.
    (WSJ, 4/28/97, p.A17)

1944        Sep 1, Leonard Slatkin, conductor, was born in LA, Calif.
    (MC, 9/1/02)
1944        Sep 1, In Meximeux, France, Lt. Col. Michael Davison (1917-2006) led a 2-day defense against an attack by retreating German forces. In 1974 Meximeux named its town square “Place de General Davison."
    (SFC, 9/12/06, p.B4)

1944        Sep 2, Troops of the U.S. First Army entered Belgium.
    (HN, 9/2/98)
1944        Sep 2, Navy pilot George Herbert Walker Bush was shot down by Japanese forces as he completed a bombing run over the Bonin Islands. Bush was rescued by the crew of the U.S. submarine Finback; his two crew members, however, died.
    (AP, 9/2/04)

1944        Sep 3, US forces entered Belgium at Peruwelz led by reconnaissance scout James W. Carroll on his Harley-Davidson motorcycle.
    (WSJ, 12/18/97, p.A1)
1944        Sep 3, The U.S. Seventh Army captured Lyons, France. French troops liberate Lyon.
    (HN, 9/3/98)(MC, 9/3/01)
1944        Sep 3, The 68th & last transport of Dutch Jews, which included Anne Frank, left for Auschwitz.
    (MC, 9/3/01)
1944        Sep 3, A tank division of British Guards freed Brussels.
    (MC, 9/3/01)

1944        Sep 4, British troops liberated Antwerp, Belgium.
    (HN, 9/4/98)

1944        Sep 5, "Mad Tuesday" 65,000 Dutch Nazi collaborators fled to Germany.
    (MC, 9/5/01)
1944        Sep 5, Germany launched its first V-2 missile at Paris, France.
    (HN, 9/5/98)
1944        Sep 5, Flight Sgt. Maximilian Volke, a German ace pilot, took off from a northern Italian air base with three other fighters to intercept a group of American bombers. He was shot down by gunners in one of the US planes. His plane and remains were found in 2007.
    (AP, 8/14/07)

1944        Sep 6, During World War II, the British government relaxed blackout restrictions and suspended compulsory training for the Home Guard.
    (AP, 9/6/97)

1944        Sep 7, Nazi SS-General Kurt ("Panzer") Meyer took Durnal, Belgium.
    (MC, 9/7/01)

1944        Sep 8, Germany's V-2 offensive against England began. The 1st V-2 rockets landed in London & Antwerp.
    (HN, 9/8/98)(MC, 9/8/01)
1944        Sep 8, Erwin von Witzleben (62), German field marshal, was hanged.
    (MC, 9/8/01)

1944        Sep 10, Thomas Allen, British opera singer, was born.
    (MC, 9/10/01)
1944        Sep 10, Lt. Gen. Frederick Browning spoke against Montgomery: "But, sir, I think we might be going a bridge too far."
    (MC, 9/10/01)

1944        Sep 11, President Roosevelt and British PM Winston Churchill met in Canada at the second Quebec Conference.
    (AP, 9/11/97)
1944        Sep 11, American troops entered Luxembourg.
    (HN, 9/11/98)

1944        Sep 12, The second Quebec Conference opened with President Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill in attendance.
    (AP, 9/12/06)
1944        Sep 12, During World War II, U.S. Army troops entered Germany for the first time, near Trier.
    (AP, 9/12/97)(HN, 9/12/98)
1944        Sep 12, A US submarine patrol that included the USS Pampanito, the Growler and the Sealion II, came upon a Japanese convoy carrying war material. The Japanese transport Kachidoki Maru, carrying over 900 British soldier, was sunk by the Pampanito. Much of the convoy was sunk including most of some 2,000 Allied prisoners of war. The subs after chasing stragglers of the convoy returned to find 159 British and Australian survivors clinging to wreckage [see Sep 15]. Some 1000 POWs from Australia were on the Japanese freighter Enoura Maru sunk by the USS Sealion. Alistair Urquhart of Scotland, a prisoner on the Kachidoki Maru, was picked up 5 days later by a Japanese whaling ship and taken to Japan, where he was forced to work in a coal mine. Kachidoki Maru had been captured earlier in the war as the President Harrison home ported in SF. The Pampanito was later berthed as a visitor attraction in SF. In 2008 Urquhart (89) visited the Pampanito.
    (SFC, 5/27/97, p.A17)(SFC,12/5/97, p.C3)(SFC, 9/17/08, p.B1)

1944        Sep 13, Jacqueline Bisset (actress: Rich and Famous, The Deep, Airport, Bullitt, Wild Orchid, Murder on the Orient Express, Choices), was born in England.
    (MC, 9/13/01)
1944        Sep 13, Heath Robinson (b.1872), English cartoonist, died. He is best known for drawings of eccentric machines and "Heath Robinson" has entered the language as a description of any unnecessarily complex and implausible contraption.
1944        Sep 13, US 28th Infantry division opened an assault on the Siegfried line, Westwall.
    (MC, 9/13/01)
1944        Sep 13, Heath Robinson (b.1872), English cartoonist, died. He is best known for drawings of eccentric machines and "Heath Robinson" has entered the language as a description of any unnecessarily complex and implausible contraption.

1944        Sep 14, A Category 3 hurricane, the Great Atlantic Hurricane, struck eastern New England. Winds hit 109 MPH in Connecticut and 46 people were killed on land and caused $100 million in damage. The storm sank 5 ships killing 344 people.
    (AP, 9/21/97)(WSJ, 5/31/06, p.B1)(www.geocities.com/hurricanene/Majorne.htm)

1944        Sep 15, US troops landed on Palau and Morotai Islands.
1944        Sep 15, The submarine USS Pampanito picked up 73 allied prisoners left adrift following the Sep 12 submarine attack on a Japanese convoy that included the transport ships Rakuyo Maru and Kachidoki Maru.
    (SFC, 3/18/09, p.B2)(SSFC, 9/15/19, p.A2)
1944        Sep 15, British bombers hit the German pocket battleship Tirpitz with Tallboy bombs.

1944        Sep 16, Glen Miller made his last recording at the Abbey Road studio in London with an Allied Forces band and Dinah Shore.
    (Sky, 9/97, p.55)

1944        Sep 17, Operation Market Garden, one of the largest allied operations of WW II, was launched. It failed to liberate the north of the Netherlands from Nazi Germany. American infantry glider troops of the 82nd Airborne Division parachuted into Holland to capture the Arnhem bridge as part of Operation Market Garden. The plan called for the airborne troops to be relieved by British troops, but they were left stranded and eventually surrendered to the Germans. Around 15,000 allied soldiers and thousands of German soldiers lost their lives in the operation. The 1974 book by Cornelius Ryan, "A Bridge Too Far," was based on this operation and was made into the 1977 film "A Bridge Too Far", starring Sean Connery.
    (HN, 9/17/98)(HC, 12/12/01)(AP, 9/17/06)(Reuters, 9/21/19)

1944        Sep 18, British submarine Tradewind torpedoed Junyo Maru: 5,600 killed. Tradewind, a twin-screw Triton-class boat of the Royal Navy, attacked the Japanese merchant ship Junyo Maru, killing an estimated 4,320 people--around 1,700 Western POWs, 500 Indonesian prisoners and thousands of Japanese slave laborers. Tradewind’s captain, Lt. Cmdr. S.L.C. Maydon, wasn’t aware until many years later that the ship he had sunk had been carrying human cargo, including thousands of his own, and Allied, troops.
    (MC, 9/18/01)(HNQ, 3/7/02)

1944        Sep 19, The Luftwaffe bombed Eindhoven: 200 killed.
    (MC, 9/19/01)
1944        Sep 19, The 3-month battle at Huertgen Forest on the Belgian-German border began. A 1998 HBO film made a rough portrayal: "When Trumpets Fade."
    (WSJ, 7/24/98, p.A15)(www.angelfire.com/ak5/combat/HuertgenForest.html)

1944        Sep 21, U.S. troops of the 7th Army, invading Southern France, crossed the Meuse River.
    (HN, 9/21/98)
1944        Sep 21, The last British paratroopers at bridge of Arnhem surrendered.
    (MC, 9/21/01)

1944        Sep 22,  The Allies  reoccupied Boulogne.
    (MC, 9/22/01)
1944        Sep 22, Mark Linenthal (1922-2010), navigator on a B-24 Liberator, was shot down on the way back from bombing an aircraft factory in Munich. He was taken to Stalag Luft I and remained there it was liberated by the Russians. He later established himself as a Prof. of English at San Francisco State Univ., where he published 2 books of poetry “Growing Light" (1979) and “The Man I Am Watching" 1987).
    (SSFC, 9/12/10, p.C1)
1944        Sep 22, Aldert Klaas Dijkema, a Dutch resistance fighter, was executed by the Nazi Waffen SS shortly after he was captured. In 2012 Dutch-born Siert Bruins (91) was charged with Dijkema’s murder. In 2014 a German court dropped the case against Bruins ruling that there are too many gaps in the evidence to deliver a verdict.
    (www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-4312068,00.html)(SFC, 11/27/12, p.A2)(SFC, 9/3/13, p.A2)(AP, 1/8/14)

1944        Sep 25, Michael Douglas, actor (Coma, Wall St, Jewel of the Nile), was born in New Jersey.
    (MC, 9/25/01)

1944        Sep 27, Aimee Semple McPherson (b.1890), Canadian and US evangelist and faith healer, died at age 53. In 2007 Matthew Avery Sutton authored “Aimee Semple McPherson and the Resurrection of Christian America.
    (SSFC, 5/13/07, p.M4)
1944        Sep 27, Aristide Maillol, French sculptor and graphic artist, died in car crash  at 82.
    (MC, 9/27/01)
1944        Sep 27, Thousands of British troops were killed as German forces rebuffed their massive effort to capture the Arnhem Bridge across the Rhine River in Holland.
    (HN, 9/27/98)

1944        Sep 28, At the Battle of Arnhem the Germans defeated the British airborne in Netherlands.
    (MC, 9/28/01)

1944        Sep 29-1944 Oct 5, Nazi murders took place in Marzabotto, Italy, under SS-major Reder. Retreating Nazi troops killed some 1,000 women, children and elderly while allegedly pursuing resistance fighters. In 2002 German Pres. Rau apologized for the massacre. In 2007 an Italian military tribunal gave life sentences in absentia to 10 German former SS men for massacring about 800 Italian villagers. They had laid waste to the villages of Marzabotto, Grizzana and Vado di Monzuno near Bologna, as the Germans retreated before Allied troops.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marzabotto_massacre)(USAT, 4/18/02, p.4A)(Reuters, 1/14/07)

1944        Sep 30, Calais was reoccupied by Allies.
    (MC, 9/30/01)

1944        Sep, The U.S. 1st Marine Division sought to take Peleliu, to protect General Macarthur’s eastern flank as he tried to retake the Philippines, where he had retreated from in 1942.
    (HNQ, 8/29/01)
1944        Sep, SS men Heinrich Boere and an accomplice named Hendrik Kromhout shot Dutch bicycle-shop owner Teun de Groot when he answered the doorbell at his home in the town of Voorschoten. They then continued to the apartment of F.W. Kusters, and forced him into their car. They drove him to another town, stopped on the pretense of having a flat tire and shot him.
    (AP, 3/7/08)
1944        Sep, Finland concluded a truce with Moscow, with the country finding itself beaten and impoverished - but free.
    (AP, 12/6/17)
1944        Sep, Finland began fighting Nazi Germany in the Lapland War and continued to April 1945.
    (Econ, 3/30/13, p.54)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lapland_War)

1944        Oct 1, The U.S. First Army began the siege Aachen, Germany.
    (HN, 10/1/98)
1944        Oct 1, In the Netherlands 600 men in Putten were sent to German work camps for the killing of German oficer by the resistance.  Only 48 returned at the end of the war.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Putten_raid)(Econ., 2/29/20, p.12)

1944        Oct 2, Nazi troops crushed the 2-month-old (63 days) Warsaw Uprising, during which a quarter-million people were killed.
    (AP, 10/2/97)

1944        Oct 3, German troops evacuated Athens, Greece.
    (HN, 10/3/98)

1944        Oct 5, Joseph B "Aristide" Maillol, French sculptor and graphic artist, died.
    (MC, 10/5/01)

1944        Oct 6, Soviets marched into Hungary and Czechoslovakia.
    (MC, 10/6/01)

1944        Oct 7, Field marshal Rommel got orders to return to Berlin.
    (MC, 10/7/01)
1944        Oct 7, Jews several hundred prisoners assigned to Crematorium IV at Auschwitz-Birkenau rebelled after learning that they were going to be killed. During the uprising, the prisoners killed three guards and blew up the crematorium and adjacent gas chamber. The prisoners used explosives smuggled into the camp by Jewish women who had been assigned to forced labor in a nearby armaments factory. The Germans crushed the revolt and killed almost all of the prisoners involved in the rebellion. The Jewish women who had smuggled the explosives into the camp were publicly hanged.

1944        Oct 8, "The Adventures of Ozzie and Harriet" made its debut on CBS Radio on Ozzie  (1906-1975) and Harriet (1909-1994) Nelson’s ninth wedding anniversary. In 1949 their sons David (1936-2011) and Rickie (1940-1985) joined the cast.
    (AP, 10/8/98)(SFC, 1/13/11, p.C6)

1944        Oct 10, The US took Okinawa. [see Jun 21, 1945]
    (MC, 10/10/01)

1944        Oct 12, German army retreated from Athens.
    (MC, 10/12/01)

1944        Oct 13, The US 1st army entered Aachen, Germany.
    (AP, 10/13/97)(MC, 10/13/01)
1944        Oct 13, British and Greek advance units landed at Piraeus during World War II.
    (AP, 10/13/97)
1944        Oct 13, Riga, Latvia, was freed.
    (MC, 10/13/01)

1944        Oct 14, Allied troops landed in Corfu, Greece.
    (MC, 10/14/01)
1944        Oct 14, German Field Marshal Rommel (52), suspected of complicity in the July 20th plot against Hitler, was visited at home by two of Hitler's staff and given the choice of public trial or suicide by poison. He chose suicide and it was announced that he died of wounds.
    (AP, 10/14/97)(HN, 10/14/98)

1944        Oct 15, Philip Mechanicus, journalist, was executed in Auschwitz-Birkenau.
    (MC, 10/15/01)
1944        Oct 15, Hungary’s regent Miklos Horthy announced in a radio broadcast that the German Reich has lost the war and that he was negotiating with the Russians for Hungarian self-determination. Nazi operatives kidnapped Horthy’s son and forced him to abdicate and surrender to the Germans.
    (ON, 10/20/11, p.2)

1944        Oct 16, In Hungary the Horthy government fell as Adolf Eichmann returned to Budapest and immediately ordered the resumption of the Jewish deportation program. Ferenc Szalasi (1897-1946) became the prime minister.
    (ON, 10/20/11, p.2)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ferenc_Sz%C3%A1lasi)
1944        Oct 16, Ferencz Szalasi, leader of the extremist right-wing organization Arrow Cross, was put in charge of the Hungary by the occupying Germans when the Hungarian government sought an armistice with the Soviet Union. Thousands of Jews from Budapest were murdered on the banks of the Danube as the pro-Nazi Arrow Cross party took power. In 2019 divers from ZAKA, Israeli volunteer group, began scanning the bottom of the Danube with an underwater sonar near a Budapest bridge where some remains were recovered several years earlier.
    (HNQ, 5/7/99)(Reuters, 1/15/19)

1944        Oct 17 Hans Krasa, Czech-Jewish composer, died at Auschwitz. The opera Brundibar by Krasa was 1st performed at a Prague orphanage. It had been intended for a 1938 government competition. It was later performed at the Terezin concentration camp.
    (WSJ, 2/7/03, p.D8)

1944        Oct 18, Katherine Kurtz, UK sci-fi author (Deryni Rising, Saint Camber), was born.
    (MC, 10/18/01)
1944        Oct 18, Lt. General Joseph Stilwell was recalled from China by president Franklin Roosevelt.
    (HN, 10/18/98)
1944        Oct 18, Soviet troops invaded Czechoslovakia during World War II.
    (AP, 10/18/97)

1944        Oct 19, The play "I Remember Mama," by John van Druten, opened at the Music Box Theater on Broadway.
    (AP, 10/19/04)
1944        Oct 19, The Navy announced that black women would be allowed into Women Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Service.
    (AP, 10/19/97)
1944        Oct 19, The US Army 442nd Regiment, composed of Japanese-Americans, fought their way into Bruyeres, France. It included the 100th Battalion of Japanese-Americans from Hawaii.
    (SSFC, 9/11/05, p.E5)
1944        Oct 19, US forces landed in the Philippines. [see Oct 20]
    (MC, 10/19/01)

1944        Oct 20, US 1st army won the battle of Aachen.
    (MC, 10/20/01)
1944        Oct 20, A US air raid targeted an industrial complex near Milan, Italy, but a second wave of bombers went off course and released their bombs southeast of the target to lighten their loads as they returned to base. The bombing raid killed 184 elementary school children.
    (AP, 10/20/19)
1944        Oct 20, Gen. Douglas MacArthur stepped ashore on A-Day (attack day) at Leyte in the Philippines, 2 1/2 years after he'd said, "I shall return." He landed with Sergio Osmena, the president-in-exile, and Gen’l. Carlos Romulo, who later served as foreign minister.
    (AP, 10/20/97)(HN, 10/20/98)(SFC, 10/20/04, p.B3)
1944        Oct 20, Liquid-gas tanks in Cleveland exploded. 135 died and 3,600 were left homeless.
    (MC, 10/20/01)
1944        Oct 20, The Yugoslav cities of Belgrade and Dubrovnik were liberated during World War II. Russian and Yugoslavian troops were freed.
    (AP, 10/20/97)(MC, 10/20/01)

1944        Oct 21, During World War II, U.S. troops captured the German city of Aachen.
    (AP, 10/21/97)
1944        Oct 21, Col. Henry Mucci (d. 1997 at 88) led a small Ranger assault force on the Philippines just 3 days before MacArthur made his celebrated return.
    (SFC, 4/25/97, p.A26)
1944        Oct 21, The 1st kamikaze attack took place near Leyte Island; gunners from both the flagship of the Royal Australian Navy, HMAS Australia, and HMAS Shropshire fired at, and reportedly hit, an unidentified Japanese aircraft. The plane then flew away from the ships, before turning and flying into Australia, striking the ship's superstructure above the bridge, and spewing burning fuel and debris over a large area. A 200 kg (440 pound) bomb carried by the plane failed to explode.

1944        Oct 23, In the Philippines the Battle of Leyte Gulf began. In 1947 C. Van Woodward authored "The Battle of Leyte Gulf."
    (AP, 10/23/97)(SFEC, 12/19/99, p.C14)
1944        Oct 23, Hanička "Hana" Brady (b. 1931 as Hana Bradyová), Czechoslovakian Jewish girl, was murdered in the gas chambers at German concentration camp of Auschwitz, located in the occupied territory of Poland. She is the subject of the 2002 non-fiction children's book Hana's Suitcase, written by Karen Levine.
1944        Oct 23, Soviet army invaded Hungary.
    (MC, 10/23/01)

1944        Oct 24, The aircraft carrier USS Princeton was sunk by a single Japanese plane during the Battle of Leyte Gulf.
    (HN, 10/24/98)(SFC, 6/22/01, p.D5)
1944        Oct 24, The US Destroyer Johnson DD-557 sank from Japanese fire in the Battle of Leyte Gulf. Survivors were rescued 4 days later.
    (SFC, 11/1/05, p.B5)
1944        Oct 24, A US air raid on Japanese battleships and cruisers in Sibuya Sea sank the 65,000 ton Musashi battleship. The ship lost about half of its 2,400 crew members. In 2015 wreckage of the ship was discovered off the Philippines by a team led by Microsoft co-founder Paul Allen.
    (SFC, 4/2/04, p.B7)(AP, 3/5/15)
1944        Oct 24, "Ace of Aces" David McCampbell (1910-1996) and one other fighter faced 60 planes approaching US forces. He shot down 9 "Zekes" and with his comrade managed to scatter the remaining 51 planes at the battle of Leyte Gulf.
    (SFC, 7/3/96, p.C4)
1944        Oct 24, US submarines sank the Japanese merchant ship Arisan Maru. The ship carried 1,800 American POWs and 1,792 of them perished.
    (SSFC, 8/7/05, p.B2)

1944        Oct 25, In eastern France near Bruyeres Sgt. Clyde Lee Choate (d.2001 at 81) destroyed a German Mark IV tank with 2 bazooka shots while under heavy fire. Choate was later awarded the Medal of Honor and served in the Illinois Legislature (1947-1967). Choate gave credit for the medal to his 601st Tank Destroyer Battalion.
    (SFC, 10/18/01, p.A21)
1944        Oct 25, The USS Samuel B. Roberts (DE-413), a John C. Butler-class destroyer escort of the US Navy, sank off the Island of Samar during the Battle of Leyte Gulf. 120 survivors of the crew clung to three life rafts for 50 hours before being rescued. The wreck was discovered around June 22, 2022, at a depth of 6,895 metres (22,621 ft).
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/USS_Samuel_B._Roberts_(DE-413))(AP, 6/26/22)
1944        Oct 25-1944 Oct 26, The Japanese were defeated in the Straits of Surigao in the Battle of Leyte Gulf, the world's largest sea engagement. Japan lost 26 capital ships. From this point on, the depleted Japanese Navy increasingly resorted to the suicidal attacks of Kamikaze fighters.
    (HN, 10/25/98)(AH, 10/04, p.15)

1944        Oct 27, Tito reached free Belgrade.
    (MC, 10/27/01)

1944        Oct 28, Dennis Franz, actor (NYPD Blue), was born in Maywood, Ill.
1944        Oct 28, The first B-29 Superfortress bomber mission flew from the airfields in the Mariana Islands in a strike against the Japanese base at Turk [Truk].
    (HN, 10/28/98)
1944            Oct 28, The last Nazi transport of Jews to the gas chambers of Auschwitz-Birkenau was sent from Theresienstadt.

1944        Oct 29, The US Navy ship Intrepid was engaged in the Battle of Leyte Gulf. African-American petty officer Robert Jones kept his gun on a kamikaze fighter plane flying straight at him. He survived and was awarded the Medal of Honor in 1997.
    (SFC, 5/1/97, p.A7)
1944        Oct 29, A Halifax JP244 plane supplying the British mission in Albania, which was fighting alongside Albanian partisan forces, crashed in a mountainside in Biza. The remains of seven British military personnel were found in 2015.
    (AP, 10/24/18)

1944        Oct 30, The Martha Graham ballet "Appalachian Spring," with music by Aaron Copland, premiered at the Library of Congress, with Graham in a leading role.
    (AP, 10/30/97)
1944        Oct 30, Ahmad Chalabi, founding head of Jordan’s Petra Bank (1977), was born in Iraq. His family left in 1956 and he spent most of his life in the US and Great Britain. In 1969 he received a Ph.D. in mathematics from the Univ. of Chicago.
    (Econ, 10/4/03, p.44)(WSJ, 11/7/05, p.A4)
1944        Oct 30, Anne Frank (of Diary fame) was deported from Auschwitz to Belsen.
    (MC, 10/30/01)
1944        Oct 30, Sweden announced its intention to stay neutral and refused sanctuary in WW II.
    (MC, 10/30/01)

1944        Oct 31, Kinky Friedman, country rocker (Ride 'em Jewboy), was born in Palestine, Tx.
    (MC, 10/31/01)

1944        Oct, In Croatia at the Jasenovac camp the "autumn liquidation" began under Dinko Sakic. For 20 days the old and sick were killed and thrown into the Sava River.
    (SFC, 3/23/99, p.A10)
1944        Oct, Oskar Schindler, a Nazi intelligence officer and war profiteer, transferred over 1,100 Jews, destined for Auschwitz, to work in his munitions plant Czechoslovakia. Mimi Reinhard (1915-2022) typed the list that selected those saved. They were liberated in may, 1945. In 1982 Australian author Thomas Keneally published his novel "Schindler's Ark," which appeared in the US as "Schindler's List." A Steven Spielberg move by that name came out in 1993.
    (SSFC, 4/17/22, p.F7)
1944        Oct, In Hungary Eduard Benedek Brunschweiler, a Swiss representative of the International Red Cross, took charge of the Pannonhalma Abbey and kept it under Red Cross protection until Soviet forces expelled him in April 1945. Some 3,000 people, mostly children, spent the end of the war in the abbey, including dozens of Jews. In 2006 Hungarian officials unveiled a memorial at the abbey honoring Brunschweiler.
    (AP, 10/16/06)

1944        Nov 1, Gen. Patton greeted the 761st Tank Battalion, an all black unit, near Nancy, France. They had no day off until linking Russian allies on May 5, 1945.
    (SSFC, 5/30/04, p.B4)

1944        Nov 2, Patrice Chereau, actor (Danton) and director ("The Ring" at Bayreuth), was born.
    (MC, 11/2/01)

1944        Nov 3, Pro-German government of Hungary fled.
    (MC, 11/3/01)

1944        Nov 6, A US bomber came under fire over Slovenia. Co-pilot 2nd Lt. Ernest N. Vienneau was mortally wounded. The pilot was forced to ditch the bomber off Vis Island, Croatia. The wreck of the bomber was found in a dive in 2017. In 2021 Vienneau's remains were buried in his home state of Maine.
    (AP, 8/26/21)
1944        Nov 6, British official Lord Moyne was assassinated in Cairo, Egypt, by members of the Zionist Stern gang (Lehi).
    (AP, 11/6/06)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lehi_%28group%29)

1944        Nov 7, President Roosevelt won an unprecedented fourth term in office, defeating Thomas E. Dewey.
    (AP, 11/7/97)(HN, 11/7/98)
1944        Nov 7, The submarine USS Albacore (SS-218) was lost off of northern Hokkaido with all hands. This was just after it struck the Japanese aircraft carrier Taiho, which went down with 1,650 officers and men.
1944        Nov 7, Hannah Szenes (b.1921, Jewish poet, was executed by the Nazis in Budapest. She was one of 37 Jewish SOE recruits from Mandate Palestine parachuted by the British into Yugoslavia during the Second World War to assist anti-Nazi forces and ultimately in the rescue of Hungarian Jews about to be deported to the German death camp at Auschwitz.
1944          Nov 7, Richard Sorge and Ozaki Hozumi were hanged in Tokyo after being convicted as spies for the Soviet Union.
1944        Nov 7, A train derailed at Aguadilla, Puerto Rico, and about 16 people died.

1944        Nov 8, In Hungary Jews under Nazi custody and the command of Adolf Eichmann began marches of 120 miles to the Austrian border.
    (ON, 10/20/11, p.3)
1944        Nov 8, In Hungary Peter Balazs (18) was fatally beaten to death for failing to wear a yellow star marking him as a Jew. In 2009 Australia agreed to extradite Charles Zentai (87) to face charges regarding the fatal beating of Balazs. In 2012 Australia said Mr Zentai cannot be surrendered for extradition because the offence of 'war crime' did not exist under Hungarian law at the time of his alleged criminal conduct.
    (www.shalom-magazine.com/Article.php?id=480310)(AP, 11/12/09)(AFP, 8/15/12)

1944        Nov 9, Red Cross won the Nobel peace prize.
    (MC, 11/9/01)
1944        Nov 9, The 455-foot Red Oak Victory ship was launched from Richmond, Ca. It was named after an Iowa town with the highest number of casualties per capita in WW II. The Victory ships were successors of the Liberty ships. The ship was laid up in 1968 and became a museum ship in 1998.
    (SFC, 9/16/98, p.A20)(SSFC, 8/26/18, p.A2)

1944            Nov 11, Private Eddie Slovik was convicted of desertion and sentenced to death for refusing to join his unit in the European Theater of Operations. [see Jan 31, 1945]
    (HN, 11/11/00)

1944        Nov 12, U.S. fighters wiped out a Japanese convoy near Leyte, consisting of six destroyers, four transports, and 8,000 troops.
    (HN, 11/12/98)
1944        Nov 12, The RAF sank the German battleship Tirpitz at Troms Fjord, Norway. Great Britain so feared the Tripitz, that any hint of its use caused escort ships to flee their convoys.
    (HN, 11/12/98)(MC, 11/12/01)

1944        Nov 14, Tommy Dorsey and Orchestra recorded "Opus No. 1" for RCA Victor.
    (AP, 11/14/97)

1944        Nov 17, Danny DeVito, actor (Taxi, Ruthless People, Twins), was born Neptune, NJ. [see Mar 17]
    (MC, 11/17/01)

1944        Nov 20, The 1st Japanese suicide submarine attack was at Ulithi Atoll, Carolines.
    (MC, 11/20/01)

1944        Nov 24, American B-29 bombers based on Saipan attacked Tokyo in the first raid against the Japanese capital by land-based planes.
    (HN, 11/24/98)(AP, 11/24/05)
1944            Nov 24, Heinrich Himmler ordered the destruction of the Auschwitz and Birkenau crematoriums.

1944        Nov 25, Two Japanese planes struck the USS Intrepid aircraft carrier in kamikaze attacks that left 69 dead and 35 injured.
    (WSJ, 11/8/08, p.W9)
1944        Nov 25, Baseball commissioner Judge Kenesaw Mountain Landis died at age 78.
    (AP, 11/25/97)

1944        Nov 28, Rita Mae Brown, novelist, was born.
    (HN, 11/28/00)
1944        Nov 28, The MGM musical film "Meet Me In St. Louis," starring Judy Garland, opened in NYC.
    (AP, 11/28/02)
1944        Nov 28, The first Allied supplies reached Antwerp by convoy.
    (HN, 11/28/98)

1944        Nov 29, Mary Forni (1915-2006) reported 2 unusual men on the side of a rural road near Bar Harbor, Maine. They turned out to be Erich Gimpel, a German spy, and William Colepaugh, an American defector, who had slipped ashore as spies from a German U-boat. Both men were later captured, tried and sentenced to death. Pres. Truman later pardoned them.
    (SSFC, 12/24/06, p.D7)
1944        Nov 29, Johns Hopkins hospital performed the 1st open heart surgery. A surgical fix for a fetal heart defect, tetralogy of Fallot or blue baby syndrome, was first performed at Johns Hopkins by surgeon Alfred Blalock and Vivien Thomas, a black assistant who perfected the procedure. Thomas authored an autobiography in 1985.
    (BS, 5/12/01, p.1A)(MC, 11/29/01)
1944        Nov 29, Albania was liberated from Nazi control (National Day). Germans withdrew from Tirana and communists entered the capital. The Communists established a provisional government with Enver Hoxha as prime minister.
    (www, Albania, 1998)(Econ, 3/22/08, p.97)(SSFC, 11/25/12, p.H3)

1944        Nov 30, A US Navy reconnaissance plane crashed into the south face of Mount Tamalpais, in Marin County, Ca. 8 Navy fliers were killed.
    (SSFC, 11/29/09, p.A1)
1944        Nov 30, Biggest and last British Battleship, HMS Vanguard, ran aground.
    (MC, 11/30/01)

1944        Nov, Glenn Miller’s Army band recorded a number of songs in German that were designed to be played for enemy consumption only, "allied propaganda with a clarinet lead."
    (WSJ, 10/24/96, p.A16)
1944        Nov, Roosevelt won a fourth term against Thomas E. Dewey. In the 1944 U.S. presidential election between Franklin Roosevelt and Thomas Dewey, the endorsements from more than 1,000 American newspapers were 796 for Dewey (68.5 percent of total circulation) and 291 for Roosevelt (17.7 percent of circulation). Roosevelt’s press support was the lowest for a candidate since the election of 1896. Roosevelt won the election by 3.5 million votes.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1944)(HNQ, 8/25/98)
1944        Nov, An Int'l. Civil Aviation Conference established English as the air traffic control language. The Chicago Convention on air travel attempted to lay down technical and legal rules for the post-war order in int’l. air transport.
    (SFC, 5/16/03, p.A25)(Econ, 10/4/03, p.66)(Econ, 7/9/11, p.69)   
1944        Nov, The allies attacked Fort Jeanne d’Arc at Metz, France. Robert E. Gajdusek was wounded and captured and later wrote his memoir in 1998: "Resurrection, A War Journey."
    (SFEC, 1/11/98, BR p.7)

1944        Dec 1, Bela Bartok's Concerto for Orchestra, premiered.
    (MC, 12/1/01)

1944        Dec 2, General Patton’s troops entered the Saar Valley and broke through the Siegfried line. US 95th Infantry division occupied bridge at Saar.
    (HN, 12/2/98)(MC, 12/2/01)
1944        Dec 2, Filippo Tommaso Emilio Marinetti (b.1876), Italian ideologue, poet, and editor, died in Bellagio, Italy. He was main founder of the Futurist movement [see 1909]. In 2006 Gunter Berghaus edited “Critical Writings by F.T. Marinetti," translated by Doug Thompson.
    (http://tinyurl.com/y7v7f3)(SFC, 10/24/06, p.E2)

1944        Dec 3, US 5th Armour division occupied Brandenburg, Hertzgenwald.
    (MC, 12/3/01)
1944        Dec 3, A British order to disarm caused a general strike in Greece.
    (MC, 12/3/01)
1944        Dec 3, Hungarian death march of Jews ended.
    (MC, 12/3/01)

1944        Dec 6, US 95th Infantry division reached Westwall.
    (MC, 12/6/01)

1944        Dec 8, The U.S. conducted the longest most effective air raid of the Pacific island of Iwo Jima.
    (HN, 12/8/98)
1944        Dec 8, American Olivia De Havilland won a California court of Appeal victory against Warner Bros. She had sued the studio using a California law, which limited the right of an employer to enforce a contract against an employee for more than seven years.

1944        Dec 10, The US 394th Regiment’s Intelligence and Reconnaissance platoon was ordered into the village of Lanzareth, Belgium, to fill a gap between allied divisions along the Western front. A German counteroffensive, launched on Dec 16, sent through Lanzareth. The platoon surrendered after running out of ammunition. All members survived imprisonment. In 2004 Alex Kershaw authored “The Longest Winter: The Battle of the Bulge and the Epic Story of World War II’s Most Decorated Platoon."
    (WSJ, 12/7/04, p.D11)(SSFC, 1/2/05, p.E1)

1944        Dec 13, During World War II, the U.S. cruiser Nashville was badly damaged in a Japanese kamikaze suicide attack that claimed 138 lives.
    (AP, 12/13/97)
1944        Dec 13, US carrier planes bombed the Japanese transport ship Oryoku Maru off of Olongapo in the Philippines. 300 POWs were killed.
    (SSFC, 8/7/05, p.B2)
1944        Dec 13, Wassily Kandinsky (b.1866), Russian artist credited with the invention of abstract art, died in France. He held that shapes and colors in art, like notes in music, should represent feelings and emotions, not actual objects.
    (WSJ, 8/13/99, p.W10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wassily_Kandinsky)

1944        Dec 14, Congress established the rank of General of Army, the 5-star General.
    (MC, 12/14/01)
1944        Dec 14, The former NYK liner Oryoku Maru left Manila with 1619 American POWs packed in the holds. U.S. Navy planes from the "Hornet" attacked, causing the Hell Ship to sink the following day. Only 200 of the men survived.
    (Internet)(SSFC, 2/15/04, p.A29)

1944        Dec 15, The US Senate approved the promotions of Henry H. Arnold, Dwight D. Eisenhower, Douglas MacArthur and George C. Marshall to the five-star rank of General of the Army and the nominations of William D. Leahy, Ernest J. King and Chester W. Nimitz as Admirals of the Fleet.
    (AP, 12/15/04)
1944        Dec 15, In the Philippines the opening of the battle for Luzon started when MacArthur ordered troops ashore on the nearby island of Mindoro.
    (HN, 12/15/98)(AP, 12/15/07)
1944        Dec 15, Bandleader Glenn Miller, a US Army major,  was lost in a single-engine plane flight over the English Channel en route to Paris. His music included “Kalamazoo," “Chattanooga Choo Choo," “Tuxedo Junction," and “In the Mood." Trombonist Glenn Miller boarded a single-engine C-64 Norseman in England for a flight to France, where he was to make arrangements for a Christmas broadcast. The plane never reached France and no trace of it or its occupants was ever found. Iowa-born Glenn Miller became a professional musician after graduating from high school. By the time he volunteered for military service in 1942, the Glenn Miller Orchestra was world famous and had appeared in two motion pictures. Miller persuaded the U.S. Army to accept his service to "put a little more spring into the feet of our marching men and a little more joy into their hearts." For the next 18 months, Miller's 50-member band stayed busy with morale-building concerts and radio broadcasts. No cause has ever been established for the loss of Miller's aircraft, but the Norseman did not have de-icing equipment on board and it is likely that icy weather forced the plane down in the English Channel.
    (WSJ, 10/24/96, p.A16)(SFC, 1/7/97, p.A18)(AP, 12/15/97)(HNPD, 12/15/98)
1944        Dec 15, In Hungary a gold train departed Budapest on orders from Adolf Eichmann. In May it was intercepted by American forces in Austria. Some of the valuables were requisitioned by US commanders and the rest was later auctioned in NY and the proceeds given to a UN agency to help Jewish refugees. Kenneth Alford later authored "The Spoils of World War II."
    (SFC, 10/15/99, p.A18)

1944        Dec 16, The Germans mounted a major surprise counterattack in the Ardennes Forest in Belgium. As the center of the Allied line fell back, it created a bulge, leading to the name--the Battle of the Bulge. Hitler hoped to cripple the advance Allies by breaking through their lines to destroy fuel supplies and lines of communication. The striking force (the Fifth and Sixth Panzer Armies) amounted to 24 divisions, 10 of them armored. The German attack achieved total surprise, but slowed by the end of December due to German supply problems and Allied resistance. Between January 8-16, in the face of a fierce Allied counteroffensive, the Germans finally withdrew. By January 21, the Germans had been pushed back to their original line, having lost some 120,000 men in the offensive. The Allies suffered 81,000 casualties including some 19,000 Americans killed. In 1997 Charles B. MacDonald authored “A Time for Trumpets: The Untold Story of the Battle of the Bulge."
    (AP, 12/16/97)(HN, 12/16/98)(HNQ, 7/11/01)(WSJ, 12/7/04, p.D11)
1944        Dec 16, US Army Lt. Charles P. Murray Jr. (1921-2011) single-handedly overcame a force of some 200 Germans in northeastern France. He killed at least 20 enemy soldiers and with his platoon captured 10 others before a grenade severely injured his leg. He was later awarded the Medal of Honor for his efforts.
    (SFC, 8/17/11, p.A7)

1944        Dec 17, The U.S. Army announced the end of its policy of excluding Japanese-Americans from the West Coast.
    (AP, 12/17/97)
1944        Dec 17, A US B-24 Liberator bomber crashed into the Adriatic Sea near the Croatian island of Vis. Three members of the 10-man crew were killed. Wreckage of the plane was found in 2010. In 2017 divers located human bones near the wreckage.
    (AP, 7/10/17)
1944        Dec 17, The Germans renewed their attack on the Belgian town of Losheimergraben against the American Army during the Battle of the Bulge.
    (HN, 12/17/98)

1944        Dec 18, In a pair of rulings, the US Supreme Court upheld the wartime relocation of Japanese-Americans (Korematsu v. United States), but also said undeniably loyal Americans of Japanese ancestry could not continue to be detained (Ex parte Endo).
    (AP, 12/18/07)
1944        Dec 18, The US Third Fleet encountered a typhoon near the Philippines. The naval destroyers "Hull," "Spence" & "Monaghan" sank in the typhoon. The storm killed 778 American sailors. 62 of 264 men on the Hull were rescued. 24 of 340 men on the Spence were rescued. 6 of 251 men on the Monaghan survived. In 1981 C. Raymond Calhoun, the captain of the destroyer Dewey, authored “Typhoon: The Other Enemy."
    (AH, 10/02, p.56, 60)
1944        Dec 18, The Japanese were repelled from northern Burma by British troops.
    (HN, 12/18/98)

1944        Dec 19, Richard Leakey, anthropologist, was born.
    (MC, 12/19/01)
1944        Dec 19, American troops began pulling back from the twin Belgian cities of Krinkelt and Rocherath in front of the advancing German Army.
    (HN, 12/19/98)
1944        Dec 19, The French newspaper Le Monde began publishing. Charles de Gaulle called for the launch of Le Monde to replace Le Temps, which had become tainted by collaboration with German invaders.
    (Econ, 6/12/10, p.70)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Le_Monde)

1944        Dec 20, Terence Rattigan’s "O Mistress Mine" premiered in London.
    (MC, 12/20/01)
1944        Dec 20, A Catholic Bishop forbade membership in non Catholic unions.
    (MC, 12/20/01)
1944        Dec 20, The Women's Air Force Service Pilots were deactivated. Before deactivation 1,074 WASPs logged 60 million miles flying for the U.S. Army Air Forces.
    (HNPD, 2/25/99)
1944        Dec 20, In Brazil the Fundacao Getulio Vargas (Getulio Vargas Foundation, often abbreviated as FGV or simply GV) was founded as an institution of higher education. Its original goal was to train people for the country's public- and private-sector management.
1944        Dec 20, In the Battle of Bastogne the Nazis surrounded 101st Airborne. [see Dec 21]
    (MC, 12/20/01)

1944        Dec 21, German troops surrounded the 101st Airborne Division at the Bastogne in Belgium. The Airborne troops were later nicknamed the "Battered Bastards of Bastogne."
    (HN, 12/21/98)(SFC, 7/13/99, p.A19)

1944        Dec 22, During the Battle of the Bulge, the Germans demanded the surrender of American troops at Bastogne, Belgium; Brigadier Gen. Anthony C. McAuliffe (1898-1975) reportedly replied: "Nuts!"
    (AP, 12/22/97)(HN, 12/22/98)

1944        Dec 23, General Dwight D. Eisenhower confirmed the death sentence of Private Eddie Slovik, the only American shot for desertion since the Civil War.
    (HN, 12/23/01)
1944        Dec 23, In Belgium a US B-26 Marauder went down while on a mission to take out a critical rail bridge over the Moselle in Eller, Germany. William Parker Cook (27) and his 5-man crew were among ten planes and dozens of men lost in the mission. In 2006 aviation researchers found the crash site near Allmuthen, Belgium. DNA evidence identified Cook and two other crew members.
    (SFC, 10/20/14, p.A1)

1944        Dec 24, The SF Ballet staged the first US full-length "Nutcracker."
    (SFEC, 11/24/96, DB p.44)(SFEC, 8/17/97, DB p.37)
1944        Dec 24, Adolf Eichmann fled Hungary to Austria as Soviet troops encircled Budapest. He left orders for German forces to massacre all the Jews in Budapest. German Gen. August Schmidthuber, assigned to oversee the mass execution, cancelled the operation after receiving word from Swedish diplomat Raoul Wallenberg that the impending carnage would mark him as a war criminal. 
    (ON, 10/20/11, p.4)

1944        Dec 25, Prime Minister Winston Churchill went to Athens to seek an end to the Greek civil war.
    (HN, 12/25/98)

1944        Dec 26, Tennessee Williams’ play "The Glass Menagerie" was first performed publicly, at the Civic Theatre in Chicago.
    (AP, 12/26/97)
1944        Dec 26, In the World War II Battle of the Bulge, the embattled U.S. 101st Airborne Division was relieved by units of the 4th Armored Division. The Battle of the Bulge was the final major German counter-offensive of the war and thrust deep into allied territory in N & E Belgium and Luxembourg. US Gen Patton's tanks repulsed the Germans. Jimmy Hendrix (19) captured 13 Germans in two 88-mm gun batteries and rescued 3 Americans under enemy fire. Hendrix (d.2002 later awarded the Medal of Honor.
    (WUD, 1994, p.195)(SFC, 9/1/96, T3)(AP, 12/26/97)(MC, 12/26/01)(SFC, 11/21/02, p.A25)
1944        Dec 26, In Italy two platoons of the segregated 92nd Infantry Division fought the German 14th Army at Sommocolonia. Of 70 "Buffalo Soldiers" and 25 Italian Partisans only 18 survived. In 1977 Lt. John Fox and 6 other black Americans were awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor. By the end of the war 2,916 Buffalo soldiers fell breaking the Gothic Line.
    (SFC, 7/13/00, p.A15)(Ind, 1/11/03, 5A)
1944        Dec 26, In Slovakia American OSS personnel were captured in a surprise raid by a German intelligence unit. Slovak agent Maria Gulovich (1921-2009) helped 2 American and 2 British agents escape. In 2002 Jim Downs authored “World War II: OSS Tragedy in Slovakia."
    (SFC, 10/2/09, p.E5)

1944        Dec 27, General Patton’s Third Army, spearheaded by the 4th Armored Division, relieved the surrounded city of Bastogne in Belgium.
    (HN, 12/27/00)
1944        Dec 27, Sister Sara Salkahazi was killed by the Arrow Cross, the Hungarian allies of the Nazis, for hiding Jews in a Budapest building used by her religious order, the Sisters of Social Service. In 2006 she was beatified by Pope Benedict XVI.
    (AP, 9/18/06)

1944        Dec 28, The Broadway musical "On the Town" was produced on Broadway. The music was composed by Leonard Bernstein while Betty Comden and Adolph Green wrote the book and lyrics. Jerome Robbins did the choreography.
    (WSJ, 8/21/97, p.A12)(AP, 12/28/97)

1944        Dec 30, King George II of Greece proclaimed a regency to rule his country, virtually renouncing the throne.
    (AP, 12/30/97)

1944        Dec, Gen’l. Dwight D. Eisenhower invited African Americans into combat units at the Battle of the Bulge in the Ardennes region of southern Belgium. 2,221 African Americans signed up for combat duty and gave up their military rank to replace white casualties.
    (SFC, 7/24/98, p.A2)
1944        Dec, A Communist provisional government adopted laws allowing state regulation of commercial enterprises, foreign and domestic trade.
    (www, Albania, 1998)
1944        Dec, Carol Deutsch, Jewish artist, perished in the Holocaust. Deutsch created illustrations of the Bible while in hiding from the Nazis in Belgium. He was informed upon, and died in the Buchenwald camp. After the war, his daughter Ingrid discovered that the Nazis had confiscated their furniture and valuables but had left behind a single item: a meticulously crafted wooden box adorned with a Star of David and a seven-branched menorah, containing a collection of 99 of the artist's illustrations of biblical scenes.
    (AP, 1/11/08)

1944        Odd Nerdrum, Norwegian figurative artist, was born. He made haunting oils of eerily incandescent nudes.
    (WSJ, 3/19/97, p.A16)(www.oddnerdrum.com)

1944        Juan Miro made his sculpture "Moonbird."
    (WSJ, 1/9/97, p.A8)

1944        Gorky painted his "Scent of Apricots on the Fields." In 1995 it was sold by Sotheby’s for $3.9 mil.
    (WSJ, 11/21/95, p.A-12)

1944        Georgia O’Keeffe painted "Black Place III" and "Pelvis IV."
    (SFEC, 8/10/97, p.T5)(SFEC, 9/7/97, BR p.9)

1944        Jackson Pollock painted his semi figurative "Totem Lesson I."
    (SFEC, 10/1/00, DB p.41)

1944        Mark Rothko created his painting "Slow Swirl by the Edge of the Sea."
    (SFC, 3/2/02, p.D1)

1944        Charles Norman (1904-1996), poet and biographer, published his volume of war poetry: "A Soldier’s Diary."
    (SFC, 9/16/96, p.A15)

1944        Theodore Adorno and Max Horkheimer authored “Dialectic of Enlightenment," which examined the culture that gave birth to Auschwitz. This became the founding text of the post modern writers (pomos), later represented by Jean-Francois Lyotard, Roland Barthes, Michel Foucault and Jacques Derrida.
    (Econ, 12/23/06, p.106)

1944        Saul Bellow arrived on the literary scene with his novel "Dangling Man."
    (SFEC, 10/15/00, BR p.1)

1944        Argentine writer Jorge Luis Borges published his collection of stories "Ficciones."
    (WSJ, 9/21/98, p.A26)

1944        Sally Carrighar recorded the events on a single wild spot on a single day in her book: "One Day on Beetle Rock."
    (Civil., Jul-Aug., ‘95, p.77)

1944        Violet Kazue de Cristoforo (1917-2007), California poet, authored “Poetic Reflections of the Tule Lake Internment Camp." She was interned from 1942-1946.
    (SFC, 10/9/07, p.B5)

1944        William T.R. Fox, a Yale scholar, (1912-1988) authored “The Super-Powers." He is generally credited with coining the word “superpower" with the publication of this book.
    (WSJ, 12/29/07, p.W8)

1944        Margaret Halsey (1911-1997) published "Some of My Best Friends are Soldiers." It was about race relations in the US.
    (SFC, 2/8/97, p.A24)

1944        Friedrich August von Hayek (1899-1992), Austrian-born British economist,  published "The Road to Serfdom," wherein he defended laissez faire economics and theorized on the problems of a socialist system. He asserted that central planning and individual freedom could not coexist. It became an influential and popular exposition of market libertarianism.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R20)(WSJ, 5/7/99, p.A18)(WSJ, 4/19/01, p.A16)(Econ, 12/24/16, p.30)

1944        Charles Jackson (1903-1968), American writer, authored his novel “The Lost Weekend."
    (SSFC, 3/24/13, p.F2)

1944        The "Prospectus on Nucleonics," also known as the Jeffries Report, from the Chicago Metallurgical Lab addressed the "dilemma of technological progress in a static world order" and warned that "technological advances without moral development are catastrophic."
    (SFEM, 7/30/00, p.16)

1944        Gunnar Myrdal, Swedish sociologist hired by the Carnegie Foundation, published his work: "An American Dilemna: The Negro Problem and Modern Democracy." This book shaped intellectual thought over the next four decades. It was later criticized by authors Roberts and Stratton in their work: "The new Color Line: How Quotas and Privilege Destroy Democracy."
    (WSJ, 10/26/95, p.A-20)

1944        Reinhold Niebuhr (1892-1971), US theologist, authored “The Children of Light and the Children of Darkness," a profound analysis of man and history.  (WSJ, 12/29/07, p.W8)

1944         The play "The Man Who Had All the Luck," Arthur Miller's 1st play, premiered.
    (SFC, 3/10/04, p.D1)

1944        Merce Cunningham, dancer and choreographer, gave his first solo con-cert.
    (SFC, 4/14/96, EM, p.14)

1944        George Balanchine created "Dansas Concertantes" for his schoolmate Alexandra Danilova (d.1997 at 93) and Frederic Franklin, her English partner at the Ballet Russe de Monte Carlo.
    (SFC, 7/15/97, p.A18)

1944        George Balanchine cast Maria Tallchief in the Broadway musical "Song of Norway." She published her autobiography in 1997 with Larry Kaplan titled: "Maria Tallchief: America’s Prima Ballerina." George Forrest and Robert Wright wrote the words and music for the show.
    (SFEC, 8/17/97, BR p.5)(SFC, 10/13/99, p.C2)

1944        The ballet "Fancy Free" was composed and choreographed by Leonard Bernstein and Jerome Robbins (25).
    (WSJ, 8/21/97, p.A12)

1944        Linda Stirling (d.1997) was signed by Republic Pictures to make serial pictures that included "The Tiger Woman" and "Zorro’s Black Whip." She appeared in some 2 dozen Westerns and feature films that included "The Cherokee Flash," "The Sheriff of Cimarron," "Topeka Terror," "The Mysterious Mr. Valentine," "The Invisible Informer," "The San Antonio Kid" and Vigilantes of Dodge City." After her film career she taught English literature at Glendale College for 27 years.
    (SFC, 8/11/97, p.A15)

1944        Aaron Copland produced "Appalacian Spring" and featured the old Shaker song: "Simple Gifts."
    (WSJ, 10/16/95, p. A-12)

1944        Roy Rogers in the film "Hollywood Canteen" introduced the Cole Porter song "Don't Fence me In".
    (SFC, 7/7/98, p.A2)

1944        Sir Michael Tippett, British composer, composed his oratorio "A Child of Our Time."
    (SFC, 1/10/98, p.A19)

1944        Herbert Huncke, a Times Square street hustler, brought the word "beat" to the attention of writer William Burroughs after introducing him to heroin. [The word later became an ikon of the beatniks.]
    (SFEC, 10/13/96, DB p.8)

1944        Stanley Kubrick (16), best known for directing the film "2001: A Space Odyssey," began his career as a photographer for Look magazine. Kubrick began his photography career with Look Magazine. He sold them one of his photographs for $25. After that he worked for the magazine as a freelancer, until he was later hired as a staff photographer.
    (HNQ, 9/26/01)

1944        Adam Clayton Powell (1908-1972) was elected as a Democrat to the US House of Representatives, representing the 22nd congressional district, which included Harlem. He was the first black Congressman from New York, and the first from any Northern state other than Illinois in the Post-Reconstruction Era.
1944        In NYC some 1.4 million people gathered in Central Park to celebrate "I am an American Day."
    (NG, 5/93, p.23)

1944        In the US the work force on the assembly lines was largely female, [and made famous by] Rosie the Riveter. [one famous poster was based on a 1945 photo]
    (TMC, 1994, p.1944)

1944        Seventeen Magazine was begun by Walter Annenberg.
    (WSJ, 3/24/97, p.B1)(WSJ, 6/18/99, p.W6)

1944        In SF Thomas C. Fleming (1907-2006) co-founded the weekly Reporter with the owner of several underground gambling clubs. It later merged with the Sun to become the premier African-American newspaper of SF.
    (SFEC, 8/9/98, p.D5)(SFEC, 1/31/99, DB p.29)(SFC, 11/23/06, p.B6)

1944        The Big Bend National Park (708,221 acres) in Texas was established with support of the Texas legislature and the zeal of E.E. Townsend and A.G. Carter.
    (NG, Jan, 1968, N.T. Kenney p. 107)

1944        Jeno Paulucci (b.1918), American food entrepreneur, started his Chun King business with a loan of $2,500. Less than 2 decades later he sold it to R. J. Reynolds for $63 million. In 1985 he sold his Jeno pizza roll business to General Mills for $150 million.
    (SSFC, 12/24/06, p.F2)
1944        The Mai Tai was invented at Trader Vic’s in Oakland, Ca.
    (SFCM, 1/16/05, p.31)

1944        Isidore Isaac Rabi was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for his resonance method for recording the magnetic properties of atomic nuclei.
1944        Otto Hahn 1944 was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work on nuclear fission. During WW II physicist Lisa Meitner (1878-1968), while in hiding from Hitler in Sweden, analyzed and understood for its significance the work of Hahn.
    (MT, 10/94, letters, p.10)
1944        Dr. Joseph Erlanger (b.1874) won the Nobel Prize for his work in shock therapy.
    (MC, 1/5/02)

1944        Pres. Roosevelt ordered the Army to seize the executive offices of Montgomery Ward and Co. after Sewell Avery, chairman of Montgomery Ward, refused to comply with a National War labor Board directive to extend a 1942 labor contract. Avery was bodily removed along with other senior managers. The US government took control of operations until the end of the war.
    (SFC, 12/29/00, p.A12)(SFC, 10/4/02, p.A17)

1944        The US federal government imposed a 30% excise tax on nightclubs that featured dancing and forced many dancehalls to close.
    (WSJ, 7/24/00, p.A24)
1944        The top income tax rate in America reached 94%.
    (Econ, 3/4/17, p.67)

1944        US forces peaked with 2,372,000 personnel, nearly twice the previous year's figure.

1944        The USS John Barry, a US military cargo ship, was torpedoed by a German submarine in the Arabian Sea. The cargo is thought to have included $3 million silver Saudi royal coins minted in the US and 2,000 tons of silver bullion. The ship lies 8,500 feet below the waves some 70 miles off the Oman coast. Around 1993 Sheik Ahmed Farid Al Aulaqui of Muscat, Oman, purchased the salvage rights with a guarantee of 10% to the US treasury.
    (WSJ, 3/9/95, p.B-1)

1944        The US submarine Scorpion was lost with 77 crewmen. A history of the ship and its crew was in the making by relatives in 1997.
    (SFC, 6/6/97, p.A26)

1944        The US 10th Mountain Division expelled the Nazis from the mountains of northern Italy.
    (SFC, 12/13/96, p.C3)

1944        The US military Bronze Star was created as an award to soldiers in ground combat.
    (Econ, 3/29/14, p.33)

1944        Hundreds of natives died during the US invasion of the Northern Marianas. 5,000 American troops and 40,000 Japanese also died.
    (SFEC, 3/7/99,Z1 p.4)

1944        The NAACP meeting in Detroit held a symbolic funeral for Jim Crow.
    (SFC, 7/10/07, p.A3)

1944        Rear Admiral Grace Hopper (1906-1992) became one of the first programmers of the Harvard Mark I electro-mechanical computer. She was later credited with popularizing the term "debugging" for fixing computer glitches, inspired by an actual moth removed from a computer.
    (SFC, 2/18/14, p.A6)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grace_Hopper)

1944        California Indians were awarded $17 million that was promised in treaties nearly a century earlier. $12 million was deducted for goods and services already given.
    (SFEC, 9/20/98, Z1 p.5)
1944        The US Navy built the Midway Village housing complex in Daly City, Ca., next to the former PG&E gas plant site off Bayshore Blvd. Plant residues were used to fill the marshland of the complex site.
    (SFC, 1/19/00, p.A4)(SFC, 3/2/09, p.B1)
1944        California state officials blamed the pollution from Iron Mountain, near Redding, for killing a third of the salmon run before they could spawn.
    (SFEC,11/2/97, p.A13)
1944        California vintner Samuele Sebastiani died.
    (WSJ, 4/16/97, p.CA1)

1944        In Nevada piano prodigy Walter Liberace (25) performed at the Last Frontier in Las Vegas, starting a relationship with the city that lasted until his death in 1987.
    (SSFC, 3/12/17, p.F4)
1944        Singer-comedian Sophie Tucker played the last Frontier, the first legitimate star to feature in fledgling Las Vegas.
    (SSFC, 3/12/17, p.F4)

1944        The first female employees as air stewardesses were selected for their looks, personality and poise.
    (SFEM, 2/13/00, p.37)

1944        Armand Hammer was granted a unique license to produce beverage alcohol by the Roosevelt administration due to its short wartime supply.
    (SFC, 1/17/97, p.D7)

1944        The last undisputed report of an ivory-billed woodpecker in the continental North America was in Louisiana this year.
    (Econ, 10/15/11, p.42)

1944        Dr. Norman Borlaug (b.1914), a microbiologist on the staff of the du Pont de Nemours Foundation, arrived in Mexico to deal with the failure of the wheat crop caused by stem rust. In 1970 he was awarded the Nobel Prize for developing new strains of wheat as well as systems for fertilizing and nurturing growth.
    (WSJ, 1/17/07, p.A16)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Norman_Borlaug)

1944        Dr. Harold N. Johnson (1907-1996), rabies expert, traced a cattle epidemic in Mexico to rabid vampire bats. He was bitten by a bat and became quadriplegic 5 months later. He underwent rehabilitation for 5 months and went back to work.
    (SFC, 9/10/96, p.A17)

1944        Hans Asperger, Austrian pediatrician 1st described a syndrome (Asperger’s syndrome) that related to autism, which was 1st described in 1943 by psychiatrist Leo Kanner. Symptoms included problems with social interaction.
    (SSFC, 2/2/03, Par p.4)

1944        The first US viral diagnostic laboratory was established in Berkeley.
    (SFC,12/17/97, p.A2)

1944        Felix Nussbaum, an artist from Osnabruck, died in Auschwitz. A museum in Osnabruck, designed by Daniel Libeskind, was later named in his honor.
    (WSJ, 10/8/98, p.A16)

1944        Al Smith (b.1873) and Wendell Wilkie died in the same week. In 2001 Robert A. Slayton authored "Empire Statesman," a biography of Alfred E. Smith, former 4-term governor of New York.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1944)(WUD, 1994 p.1345)

1944        After the German withdrawal from Albania, a Communist government under Enver Hoxha, a rigid Stalinist, was established.
    (Compuserve Online, Grolier’s Amer. Acad. Enc./ Albania)

1944        In Argentina Juan Peron met Eva Duarte (Evita).
    (SFC, 1/1/97,p.D1)

1944        In Belarus Minsk was liberated from the Nazis.
    (SFC, 7/5/97, p.C2)

1944        The Vegan Society was founded in England. Vegans generally limit their diets to vegetables, fruits, nuts, and grains.

1944        In Cuba Ramon Grau San Martin became president.
    (SFC, 11/6/98, p.D5)

1944        Rudolf Vrba (1925-2006), a Jew from Czechoslovakia, and Alfred Wetzler, a Hungarian Jewish leader, escaped from the Nazi death camp of Auschwitz. They made their way to a Czech safe house and dictated a report that became known as the Auschwitz Protocols, a seminal Holocaust document containing eyewitness accounts of the atrocities. In 1963 Vrba published a memoir entitled, "I Cannot Forget," which was eventually released in six languages.
    (AP, 4/14/06)

1944        In Finland retreating German troops burned Rovaniemi to cinders. The town was redesigned by Alvar Aalto, Finland's patron saint of modern design.
    (SFEC, 1/31/99, p.T8)

1944        Sidonie Gabrielle Colette (1873-1954), French actress, librettist, novelist and critic, authored her novel “Gigi," about a young girl being groomed as a courtesan.
    (SFC, 4/12/16, p.E2)

1944        Hans Fallada (1893-1947), German writer, was confined to a psychiatric prison after taken a shot at his wife. In 2015 his prison diary was publiched as “A Stranger in My Own Country: The 1944 Prison Diary."
1944        Germany fired off its V-1 and V-2 rockets at Britain. The guidance system of the V-2 rockets was under a team headed by Wernher von Braun in Peenemunde, Germany, to which Wilhelm Angele (1905-1996) belonged. Both scientists later came to the US and worked for NASA.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1944)(SFC, 9/2/96, p.A20)

1944        A revolution in Guatemala occurred against the eccentric strongman Jorge Ubico.
    (NG, 6/1988, p.781)(HNQ, 1/30/99)(WSJ, 3/3/99, p.A18)

1944        Hungary’s Admiral Miklos Horthy passed the 4th of four anti-Jewish laws, outlawing sexual intercourse between Jews and non-Jews.
    (Econ, 11/9/13, p.59)
1944        Some 150,000 Hungarian troops fought under Nazi command at the Don River. The Red army killed about 90,000 and thousands died trying to walk back to Hungary.
    (SFC, 8/12/00, p.A11)

1944        The Japanese shipped some 43,000 Korean workers to Sakalin Island as slave laborers for their Imperial Army.
    (SFC, 2/19/96, p.A10)

1944        The Communists regained control of Latvia. They sent the captured members of the Latvian Legion, who had fought under the German Waffen SS, to prison camps in Siberia.
    (SFC, 4/798, p.A14)
1944        Vasily Kononov (21) led a small band of pro-Soviet partisans in Latvia. He was arrested in 1998 for ordering the execution of 9 civilians in the village of Mazie Bati, whom he suspected of pro-Nazi sympathies, but maintained his innocence. In 2000 Latvia sentenced Kononov to 6 years in prison but he was soon freed pending further investigation. Russian president Vladimir Putin granted Kononov Russian citizenship.
    (SFC, 4/26/00, p.A16)

1944        Mexico and the US signed a treaty allowing cross-border flows of water to each other.
    (SFC, 2/6/20, p.A2)

1944        In the Netherlands Marion Phillipina van Binsbergen (b.1920), later Marion Pritchard, shot and killed a Nazi collaborator in Huizen as he returned to a house where Jewish children were being hidden. In 2009 Pritchard received the Simon Wiesenthal Center’s Medal of Valor for her efforts in saving children in Amsterdam during WWII.
    (SSFC, 12/25/16, p.C12)

1944        Irgun leader Menachem Begin, an officer with the exiled Polish army, led some 3,500 men to fight Britain’s occupation of Palestine.
    (Econ., 3/21/15, p.76)

1944        In Poland there was mass murder at the Nazi Treblinka labor camp. In 1997 Polish guard Bronislaw Hajda, a retired machinist in Chicago’s Schiller Park, was convicted by a US federal judge for taking part in the mass murder.
    (SFC, 4/11/97, p.A3)
1944        Wilhelm "Wilm" Hosenfeld  (1895-1952), a German officer in the Wehrmacht stationed in Warsaw for most of the war, encountered Wladyslaw Szpilman (1911-2000), when the musician was looking for somewhere to hide after the city was razed in the brutal Nazi suppression of the Warsaw Uprising. Szpilman's experiences became the basis his autobiography and for Roman Polanski's 2002 film "The Pianist," for which Polanski won the best director Oscar and Adrien Brody took the best actor prize for his portrayal of Szpilman. Hosenfeld saved two Jews from the Nazi Holocaust but he died in obscurity in a Soviet prison after World War II.
    (AP, 6/19/09)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wilm_Hosenfeld)
1944        By this year 360,000 of the 500,000 inmates of the Nazi Majdanek concentration camp in eastern Poland had perished in the gas chambers or from brutal treatment by the guards.
    (SFC, 3/5/98, p.A14)

1944        In Rhodesia James Kapnek donated the founding grant for the University of Rhodesia and Nyasaland (later the Univ. of Zimbabwe).
    (SFC, 7/7/98, p.A20)

1944        The Russian film "Ivan the Terrible" was directed by Sergei Eisenstein with music by Prokofiev. It was planned as a 3-part epic. Part 2 was released after Stalin’s death and part 3 was never made.
    (SFC,11/1/97, p.E3)
1944        The Mother Heroine award was established by Josef Stalin to encourage repopulation in wake of the country's high casualty count from World War II. At the time, the award was described as a "badge of special distinction." It was stopped in 1991 alongside the fall of the Soviet Union. In 2022 Russian President Vladimir Putin reinstated the award.
    (ABC News, 8/22/22)
1944        Nikolai Baibakov (1911-2008) was named Stalin's oil commissioner. He was fired in 1985 by Mikhail Gorbachev, whose economic and social reforms preceded the Soviet collapse.
    (AP, 4/2/08)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nikolai_Baibakov)
1944        The Soviet army re-conquered Bessarabia. Only then were the two parts of present-day Moldova joined together to form the Moldavian SSR. At the same time, about one-third of Bessarabia, including its entire Black Sea coastline, was incorporated into the Ukrainian SSR. The Transdniester region, having long been part of the Russian Empire and then the Soviet Union, remained more Russified and Sovietized than Right-Bank Moldavia.
1944        Some 150,000 Hungarian troops fought under Nazi command at the Don River. The Red army killed about 90,000 and thousands died trying to walk back to Hungary.
    (SFC, 8/12/00, p.A11)
1944        The Soviet Union annexed Tuva and closed the region to the outside world.
    (WSJ, 4/1/06, p.A5)
1944        The Normandie-Niemen Fighter Regiment, a Fighter unit of the French Air Force formed in 1942 as Groupe de Chasse Normandie 3, was redesignated as a Regiment (without and with "Niemen" designation the same year). The unit served on the Eastern Front of the European Theatre of World War II with the 1st Air Army. The regiment is notable for being one of only three units from Western Allied countries to see combat on the Eastern Front during World War II, and Normandie-Niemen was the only Western Allied unit to fight with the Soviet forces until the end of the war in Europe. Its battle honors included such names such as Bryansk, Orel 1943, Ielnia, Smolensk 1943, Orsha 1944, Berezina 1944, Niemen 1944, Chernyakhovsk 1945, Königsberg (later renamed Kaliningrad by the Soviets), Baltiysk 1945, and Pillau. In 1944 Joseph Stalin awarded the regiment the name Nieman, (thus becoming Normandie-Niemen) in recognition of its participation in the battles to liberate the river of the same name.
1944        Vasily Kononov (21) led a small band of pro-Soviet partisans in Latvia. He was arrested in 1998 for ordering the execution of 9 civilians in the village of Mazie Bati, whom he suspected of pro-Nazi sympathies, but maintained his innocence. In 2000 Latvia sentenced Kononov to 6 years in prison but he was soon freed pending further investigation. Russian president Vladimir Putin granted Kononov Russian citizenship.
    (SFC, 4/26/00, p.A16)

1944        Ladislav Niznansky, a Slovak army captain, at first supported a revolt against Nazi occupation, but changed sides after he was captured. He then took charge of the Slovak section of a Nazi unit, code-named Edelweiss, that hunted resistance fighters and Jews. [see Dec 19, 2005]
    (AP, 12/19/05)

1944        In South Africa Walter Sisulu (1912-2003), Nelson Mandela and Oliver Tambo formed the ANC Youth League.
    (AP, 5/6/03)(SFC, 5/7/03, p.A20)

1944        Nikolai Baibakov (1911-2008) was named Stalin's oil commissioner. He was fired in 1985 by Mikhail Gorbachev, whose economic and social reforms preceded the Soviet collapse.
    (AP, 4/2/08)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nikolai_Baibakov)
1944        The Soviet army re-conquered Bessarabia. Only then were the two parts of present-day Moldova joined together to form the Moldavian SSR. At the same time, about one-third of Bessarabia, including its entire Black Sea coastline, was incorporated into the Ukrainian SSR. The Transdniester region, having long been part of the Russian Empire and then the Soviet Union, remained more Russified and Sovietized than Right-Bank Moldavia.
1944        The Soviet Union annexed Tuva and closed the region to the outside world.
    (WSJ, 4/1/06, p.A5)

1944 - 1945 May, Nazi's kept some 2000 Danish policemen in custody. Most of them in KZ-camps, brought to Neuengamme and from there to places as Buchenwald and Stutthof in Germany. After Danish negotiations with the Germans the Nazi's accepted their status as prisoners of war and 1600 came to the POW-camp at Mühlberg. Around 100 Danish policemen died in the camps.

1944-1945    The last 2 years of the Roosevelt administration is covered in the 1998 book "The Dying President: Franklin D. Roosevelt, 1944-1945," by Robert H. Ferrell.
    (WSJ, 4/27/98, p.A20)
1944-1945    This period in Italy was covered by James Holand in his 2008 book “Italy’s Sorrow: A Year of War, 1944-1945."
    (Econ, 4/12/08, p.93)
1944-1945    The US war with Japan during this period was covered by Max Hastings in his 2008 book “Retribution: The Battle for Japan."
    (WSJ, 3/15/08, p.W10)
1944-1945    Some 16,000 people starved to death in the Dutch “hunger winter."
    (Econ, 6/18/16, p.46)
1944-1945    Bunol, Spain, 25 miles west of Valencia. La Tomatina, the tomato throwing festival, began when some boys tossed tomatoes during a procession in honor of the patron saint, San Luis Bertran. The festival grew even though banned a few times in the 50s to the purchase of $18,400 worth of tomatoes by the town government from the Spanish province of Extremadura, 500 miles away. [see 1932]
    (WSJ, 8/31/95, p.A-1)
1944-1945    In Vietnam 1-2 million people starved to death during this period in large part due to policies imposed by Japan.
    (Econ, 2/5/11, p.97)

1944-1946    In France Gen’l. de Gaulle took over leadership of the government after leading the French Resistance. He quit after 2 years for having too little power.
    (WSJ, 9/3/98, p.A6)

1944-1949    The Uighers held the free Republic of East Turkestan until Chinese Communists seized power. [see Jan 5, 1945]
    (USAT, 2/11/97, p.5A)(www.unpo.org/member.php?arg=21)

1944-1952    Partisan warfare resists Soviet occupation in Lithuania causing an estimated 40 to 60 thousand casualties. More than 350,000 people were deported to Soviet labor camps many of whom perished.
    (Compuserve, Online Encyclopedia)

1944-1956    The French intellectuals of this period were later discussed in the 1992 book "Past Perfect" by Tony Judt.
    (WSJ, 1/28/99, p.A16)

1944-1972    Radioactive releases from the Hanford Nuclear Reservation were the heaviest over this period. The releases were only acknowledged in 1987.
    (SFEC, 4/27/97, p.A18)

1944-1974    Thousands of people in the US were subject to government experiments. The Defense Dept. and the Atomic Energy Commission conducted hundreds of secret experiments. During the 1940s 11 people were subjected to injections of plutonium and one to uranium. In 1996 the government agreed to pay $4.8 million for the radiation experiment. In 1999 Eileen Welsome published "The Plutonium Files: America's Secret Medical Experiments in the Cold War."
    (SFC, 11/20/96, p.A3)(SFEC, 10/31/99, BR p.3)(SSFC, 10/28/01, p.A5)

1944-1983    Enver Hoxha was the leader of the Balkan nation of Albania. Hoxha, leader of a national liberation movement during Italy's occupation of Albania in World War II, came to power when the Communist insurgency seized control of the country in 1944, beginning nearly 40 years of harsh Stalinist rule. Albania, which borders on Greece and Yugoslavia, eventually broke with the Soviet Union and later China over ideological issues and by the time of the death of Hoxha in 1983 it had become one of the most politically and socially isolated countries in the world.
    (SFC, 5/29/96, p.A7)(HNQ, 1/29/99)

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