Timeline 1943

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1943        Jan 2, The Allies captured Buna in New Guinea.
    (HN, 1/2/99)

1943        Jan 3, A US B-17 bomber was downed over France following a bombing run over a German submarine base in southern France. John Roten, navigator, was the only survivor. Roten spent 28 months as a POW.
    (SFC, 9/10/01, p.A11)

1943        Jan 5, George Washington Carver, Educator and scientist, died at age 81 at Tuskegee, Alabama. Carver was born the son of a slave woman in the early 1860s, went to college in Iowa and then headed to Alabama in 1896. There, at the Tuskegee Institute, Carver served as an agricultural chemist, experimenter, teacher and administrator, working to improve life for African Americans in the rural South by teaching them better agricultural skills. One of the farming methods Carver devised, using peanut and soybean crops to enrich soil depleted by cotton crops, revolutionized Southern farming. Carver became somewhat of a benevolent example of the potential of black intellectuals. He was well-respected by people such as President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Mahatma Gandhi, Josef Stalin and Thomas Edison, whose offer of a job for more than $100 a year Carver refused. Carver worked at Tuskegee until his death.
    (AP, 1/5/98)(HNPD, 1/5/99)
1943        Jan 5, The Japanese began a planned withdrawal from Guadalcanal.
    (HN, 1/5/99)

1943        Jan 7, Nicola Tesla (b.1856), Croatian born inventor and physicist, died In NYC. In 1996 Marc Seifer authored “Wizard: The Life and Times of Nikola Tesla: Biography of a Genius."
    (SFC, 12/29/96, Z1 p.2)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nikola_Tesla)(WSJ, 3/7/09, p.W8)

1943        Jan 8, The British handed Madagascar over to the Free French.
    (HN, 1/8/99)

1943        Jan 9, Soviet planes dropped leaflets on the surrounded Germans in Stalingrad requesting their surrender with humane terms. The Germans refused.
    (HN, 1/9/99)

1943        Jan 10, The submarine USS Argonaut was lost southeast of New Britain in the Bismarck Archipelago of Papua New Guinea. One hundred and two officers and men went down with her, the worst loss of life for an American submarine in wartime.
1943        Jan 10, Russian offensive began against German 6th and 4th Armies near Stalingrad.
    (MC, 1/10/02)

1943        Jan 11, President Franklin D. Roosevelt flew to Morocco for a top-secret meeting with British Prime Minister Winston Churchill. He had not flown since 1932, when he traveled from Albany, New York, to Chicago to accept his nomination at the Democratic national convention. No U.S. president had previously flown while in office because the Secret Service regarded flying as a dangerous mode of transport. Air travel was the only realistic option for the trip to Casablanca because German submarines lurking in the Atlantic made a surface crossing too risky.
    (HNQ, 4/8/02)
1943        Jan 11, The United States and Britain signed treaties relinquishing extraterritorial rights in China.
    (AP, 1/11/98)
1943        Jan 11, The Soviet Red Army encircled Stalingrad.
    (HN, 1/11/99)

1943        Jan 12, Frankfurters were replaced by Victory Sausages, a mix of meat & soy meal.
    (MC, 1/12/02)
1943        Jan 12, San Francisco’s Golden Gate Park Superintendent John McLaren died at age 96. He had ruled the park for over 5 decades. The 318-acre park between the Excelsior and Visitacion Valley was later named in his honor.
    (SFC, 7/28/97, p.A8)(SFC, 2/7/98, p.A15)(SSFC, 1/7/18, DB p.53)
1943        Jan 12, Soviet forces raised the siege of Leningrad.
    (HN, 1/12/99)

1943        Jan 13, General Leclerc's Free French forces merged with the British under Montgomery in Libya.
    (HN, 1/13/99)
1943        Jan 13, The Canadian corvette Ville de Quebec rammed the German U-224 submarine, which sank in the Mediterranean Sea with 57 of its crew. German Lt. Wolf Danckworth was the only survivor. Years later Danckworth established contact with Canadian sailor Frank Arsenault, who was on the Ville de Quebec when it rammed the sub, and the two became good friends.
    (SFC, 12/25/10, p.C1)
1943        Jan 13, Artist Sophie Taeuber-Arp (b.1889) died of carbon monoxide poisoning from a badly installed stove in the Swiss home of a fellow artist. Her husband Hans Arp, also an artist, died in 1966.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sophie_Taeuber-Arp)(Econ., 5/30/20, p.70)

1943        Jan 14, Roosevelt, Churchill, and de Gaulle met at Casablanca, Morocco, to discuss the direction of the war. The Casablanca Conference, a pivotal 10-day meeting during WWII between U.S. President Franklin Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, determined unconditional surrender would be the only basis of negotiations with the Axis. Roosevelt and Churchill also pledged maximum aid to the Soviet Union and China in the war.
    (AP, 1/14/98)(HN, 1/14/99)(HNQ, 1/7/00)
1943        Jan 14, Italian occupation authorities refused to deport any Jews living on their territories in France.
    (HN, 1/14/99)

1943        Jan 15, Work was completed on the Pentagon, headquarters of the U.S. Department of Defense in Arlington, Va. In 2007 Steve Vogel authored “The Pentagon: A History."
    (AP, 1/15/98)(Econ, 6/30/07, p.93)

1943        Jan 16, A state record of -60F (-51C) was recorded in Island Park Dam, Idaho.
    (MC, 1/16/02)

1943        Jan 17, US Tin Can Drive Day.
    (MC, 1/17/02)

1943        Jan 18, A wartime ban on the sale of pre-sliced bread in the United States—aimed at reducing bakeries’ demand for metal replacement parts—went into effect.
    (AP, 1/18/98)
1943        Jan 18, Jews in Warsaw Ghetto began an uprising against the Nazis.
    (MC, 1/18/02)
1943        Jan 18, The Soviets announced they'd broken the long Nazi siege of Leningrad. It was another year before the siege was fully lifted.
    (AP, 1/18/98)

1943        Jan 19, Janice Joplin (d.1970), rock singer, was born.

1943        Jan 20, Giacomo Benvenuti (57), composer, died.
    (MC, 1/20/02)

1943        Jan 21, A Nazi daylight air raid killed 34 in a London school.
    (HN, 1/21/99)

1943        Jan 22, Battle of Anzio: Italy.
    (MC, 1/22/02)
1943        Jan 22, Axis forces pulled out of Tripoli for Tunisia, and destroyed bases as they left.
    (HN, 1/22/99)

1943        Jan 23, Critic Alexander Woollcott suffered a fatal heart attack during a live broadcast of the CBS radio program "People’s Platform."
    (AP, 1/23/98)

1943        Jan 24, President Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Churchill concluded a wartime conference in Casablanca, Morocco.
    (AP, 1/24/98)
1943        Jan 24, Hitler ordered Nazi troops at Stalingrad to fight to death.
    (MC, 1/24/02)

1943        Jan 25, The last German airfield in Stalingrad was captured by the Red Army.
    (HN, 1/25/99)

1943        Jan 26, A US War Department Disposition Form was issued with “Subject: establishment of a War Department Fixed Radio Station in Africa." It detailed operational objectives for what was to become the 4th Detachment of the Second Signal Service Battalion, Asmara, Eritrea. Over time the US paid Ethiopia more than $360m in military aid as rent for the eavesdropping installation at Kagnew.
    (www.kagnewstation.com/history/chapter4/index.html)(Econ, 1/22/05, p.80)
1943        Jan 26, The first OSS (Office of Strategic Services) agent parachuted behind Japanese lines in Burma.
    (HN, 1/26/99)
1943        Jan 26, Nikolai Vavilov (b.1887), Soviet botanist, died in prison. In 1929 he had traced the genealogy of the apple to Kazakhstan.
    (SSFC, 5/25/08, Books p.3)(www.michaelpollan.com/article.php?id=54)

1943        Jan 27, Some 50 bombers struck Wilhelmshaven and Emden in the first all-American air raid against Germany during World War II.
    (AP, 1/27/98)(HN, 1/27/99)

1943        Jan 28, In San Francisco the price of coffee jumped from five cents to a dime in one chain of restaurants.
    (SSFC, 1/28/18, DB p.50)

1943        Jan 30, Field marshal Friedrich von Paulus surrendered himself and his staff to Red Army troops in Stalingrad.
    (HN, 1/30/99)

1943        Jan 31, Chile broke contact with Germany and Japan.
    (MC, 1/31/02)
1943          Jan 31, The Battle of Stalingrad ended as small groups of German soldiers of the Sixth Army under Gen Friedrich von Paulus surrendered to the victorious Red Army forces.
     (HN, 1/31/99)(MC, 1/31/02)

1943        Jan, Duke Ellington led the debut of "Black, Brown and Beige," his 44-minute piece for jazz orchestra at Carnegie Hall in a Russian War Relief effort headed by Harriet Moore, a communist sympathizer. One vocal piece called "The Blues" was featured. It was conceived as an opera and the music was based on a narrative poem he had written about a mythical African named Boola.
    (SFC, 6/25/97, p.E1)(SFC, 7/8/97, p.B3)
1943        Jan, Construction began at Los Alamos, New Mexico, on a research facility for the Manhattan Project, the US atomic bomb program.
    (ON, 8/09, p.8)
1943        Jan, Rutka Laskier (14) began a diary in Bedzin, Poland, shortly before she was deported to Auschwitz. The 60-page memoir ended in April and within a few months Rutka was dead. Her diary was made public in 2007.
    (AP, 6/4/07)

1943        Feb 1, One of America’s most decorated military units of World War II, the 442d Regimental Combat Team, made up almost entirely of Japanese-Americans, was authorized.
    (AP, 2/1/97)
1943        Feb 1, American tanks and infantry were battered at German positions at Fais pass in North Africa.
    (HN, 2/1/99)

1943        Feb 2, The remainder of Nazi forces from the Battle of Stalingrad surrendered in a major World War II victory for the Soviets. 23 generals, 2,000 officers, and at least 130,000 German troops surrendered. This was later considered as the turning point of WW II.
    (AP, 2/2/97)(HN, 2/2/99)(WSJ, 3/28/03, p.A1)

1943        Feb 3, The US transport ship "Dorchester," which was carrying troops to Greenland, sank after being hit by a torpedo. Four Army chaplains (Rev. Lt. George L. Fox, a Methodist minister; Rabbi Lt. Alexander D. Goode; Father Lt. John P. Washington, a Roman Catholic priest; and Rev. Lt. Clark V. Poling, a Protestant minister from the Dutch Reformed Church) gave their life jackets to four other men, and went down with the ship.
    (AP, 2/3/03)(www.fourchaplains.org/story.html)
1943        Feb 3, Finland began talks with the Soviet Union.
    (HN, 2/3/99)

1943        Feb 6, Crooner Frank Sinatra debuted on radio's "Your Hit Parade."
    (MC, 2/6/02)
1943        Feb 6, A Los Angeles jury acquitted actor Errol Flynn of three counts of statutory rape.
    (AP, 2/6/97)

1943        Feb 7, The government announced that shoe rationing would go into effect in two days, limiting each purchaser to three pairs for the remainder of the year.
    (AP, 2/7/97)

1943        Feb 8, British General Wingate led a guerrilla force of "Chindits" behind the Japanese lines in Burma. Detachment 101’s support of Maj. Gen. Orde Wingate’s Chindits and Maj. Gen. Frank Merrill’s Marauders was crucial to the Allied success in Burma and to the eventual victory in Southeast Asia.
    (HN, 2/8/98)(www.chindits.info/)
1943        Feb 8, Red Army recaptured Kursk.
    (MC, 2/8/02)

1943        Feb 9, FDR ordered a minimal 48 hour work week in war industry.
    (MC, 2/9/02)
1943        Feb 9, The World War II battle of Guadalcanal in the southwest Pacific ended with an Allied victory over Japanese forces.
    (AP, 2/9/08)
1943        Feb 9, The Russians took back Kursk 15 months after it fell to the Nazis.
    (HN, 2/9/97)

1943        Feb 11, General Eisenhower was selected to command the allied armies in Europe.
    (MC, 2/11/02)
1943        Feb 11, Transport # 47 departed with French Jews to Nazi Germany.
    (MC, 2/11/02)

1943        Feb 13, The US Marine Corps began allowing women to enlist as reserves.
1943        Feb 13, In Bulgaria Gen. Hristo Lukov was killed by members of a resistance movement. The general served as war minister from 1935 to 1938, and led the pro-Nazi Germany Union of Bulgarian Legions from 1932 until 1943.
    (AP, 2/13/21)
1943        Feb 13, There was a German assault on Sidi Bou Zid, Tunisia, as Gen. Eisenhower visited the front.
    (MC, 2/13/02)

1943        Feb 14, A German offensive was made through the de Faid pass in Tunisia.
    (MC, 2/14/02)
1943        Feb 14, Soviets recaptured Rostov.
    (MC, 2/14/02)
1943        Feb 14, David Hilbert (b.1862), German mathematician, died. He is considered the father of modern mathematics.
    (Econ, 4/2/05, p.73)(www.student.cs.uwaterloo.ca/~cs462/Hall/hilbert.html)

1943        Feb 15, Women's camp Tamtui on Ambon (Moluccas) was hit by allied air raid.
    (MC, 2/15/02)
1943        Feb 15, The Germans broke the U.S. lines at the Fanid-Sened Sector in Tunisia.
    (HN, 2/15/98)

1943        Feb 16, Withdrawing Africa Corps reached the Mareth-line in North Africa.
    (MC, 2/16/02)
1943        Feb 16, Sign on Munich facade: "Out with Hitler! Long live freedom!" was posted by the "White Rose" student group. They were caught on 2/18 and beheaded on 2/22.
    (MC, 2/16/02)
1943        Feb 16, The Red army conquered Kharkov.
    (MC, 2/16/02)

1943        Feb 17, Dutch churches protested to Artur Seyss-Inquart against persecution of Jews.
    (MC, 2/17/02)

1943        Feb 18, Augusto Pinochet Ugarte (Chilean gen., dictator) married Lucia Hiriart.
    (MC, 2/18/02)
1943        Feb 18, Munich resistance group "White Rose" was captured by Nazis.
1943        Feb 18, Rommel took three towns in Tunisia, North Africa. The intercepted communications of an American in Cairo provided a secret ear for the Desert Fox.
    (HN, 2/18/98)

1943        Feb 19, German tanks under brig. general Buelowius attacked Kasserine Pass, Tunisia.
    (MC, 2/19/02)

1943        Feb 20, German troops of the Afrika Korps broke through the Kasserine Pass, defeating U.S. forces.
    (HN, 2/20/99)

1943        Feb 21, German tanks and two infantry battalions broke the Allied line and took Kasserine Pass in North Africa.
    (HN, 2/21/98)

1943        Feb 22, The battleship USS Iowa, the first in the Navy’s 45,000 ton class, was commissioned. The ship carried Pres. Roosevelt to Tehran in Nov. and was decommissioned in 1990. Also noted as 1st in the 48,000 ton class.
    (SFC, 1/27/98, p.A14)(SFC, 10/13/99, p.A6)
1943        Feb 22, Sophie Scholl (b.1921), Hans Scholl (24) and Christoph Probst (22), student members of the Die Weisse Rose (White Rose) resistance, were all beheaded by a guillotine by executioner Johann Reichhart in Munich's Stadelheim Prison. Scholl was convicted of high treason after having been found distributing anti-war leaflets at the University of Munich (LMU) with her brother, Hans. As a result, she was executed by guillotine. Since the 1970s, Scholl has been extensively commemorated for her anti-Nazi resistance work.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sophie_Scholl)    (SFC, 9/7/98, p.A21)

1943        Feb 23, German troops pulled back through the Kasserine Pass in Tunisia.
    (MC, 2/23/02)

1943        Feb 25, George Harrison (d. Nov 29, 2001) of the Beatles was born.
    (SFC, 11/30/01, p.A1)(SFC, 12/4/01, p.A2)
1943        Feb 25, U.S. troops retook the Kasserine Pass in Tunisia, where they had been defeated five days before.
    (HN, 2/25/99)

1943        Feb 26, U.S. Flying Fortresses and Liberators pounded the Reich docks and U-boat lairs at Wilhelmshaven.
    (HN, 2/26/98)
1943        Feb 26, The German assault moved to Beja, North Tunisia.
    (SC, 2/26/02)

1943        Feb 28, "Porgy & Bess" opened on Broadway with Anne Brown & Todd Duncan.
    (MC, 2/28/02)
1943        Feb 28, In Operation Gunnerside Norwegian commandos flown in from Britain bombed the Nazi heavy water plant near Rjukan. The raid was later depicted in the 1965 film "The Heroes of Telemark." The 9 commandos included Claus Helberg (d.2003), Knut Haukelid (d.1994) and Joachim Ronneberg (1919-2018). In 2016 Neil Bascomb authored "The Winter Fortress: The Epic Mission to Sabotage Hitler's Atomic Bomb."
    (SFC, 3/14/03, p.A27)(ON, 4/07, p.4)(SFC, 10/25/18, p.C4)

1943        Feb 13, The US Marine Corps began allowing women to enlist as reserves.

1943        Feb, The 442nd Regimental Combat Team, a Japanese-American fighting unit, was organized at Fort Shelby, Miss. Tooru Joe Kanazawa (d.2002) later authored "Close Support, A History of the Cannon Company of the 442nd Regimental combat Team."
    (SFC, 10/22/02, p.A16)

1943        Feb, German women demonstrated outside a Berlin community center where their Jewish husbands and children had been rounded up for deportation to Auschwitz. 1,200 men and children were released a week later and survived the war. It was the only public protest by Germans against Nazi persecution of the Jews.
    (SFC, 9/10/98, p.C2)

1943        Feb-Nov ‘44, Sweden received about 12.8 tons of gold from Germany.
    (SFC, 1/22/97, p.A9)

1943         Mar 1, The British RAF conducted strategic bombing raids on all European railway lines. From 1939 to 1945, R.A.F. pilots and air crews waged war on Germany from inside Hitler's Reich.
    (HN, 3/1/98)
1943        Mar 1, In Amsterdam a Jewish old age home for disabled was raided.
    (SC, 3/1/02)

1943        Mar 2, George Benson, jazz, blues guitarist (Breezin', This Masquerade), was born.
    (SC, 3/2/02)
1943        Mar 2, The battle of the Bismarck Sea began. US and Australian warplanes were able to inflict heavy damage on a Japanese convoy.
    (AP, 3/2/07)
1943        Mar 2, The center of Berlin was bombed by the RAF. Some 900 tons of bombs were dropped in a half hour.
    (HN, 3/2/99)
1943        Mar 2, 1st transport of Jews from Westerbork, Netherlands, to Sobibor concentration camp.
    (SC, 3/2/02)

1943        Mar 3, F. Ryerson and Cohn Claues' "Harriet" premiered in New York NY.
    (SC, 3/3/02)
1943        Mar 3, US defeated Japan in the Battle of Bismarck Sea.
    (SC, 3/3/02)
1943        Mar 3, A bomb fleeing crowd fell into London shelter and 173 died.
    (SC, 3/3/02)

1943        Mar 4, Transport Number 50 departed with French Jews to Majdanek and Sobibor.
    (SC, 3/4/02)

1943        Mar 5, RAF bombed Essen, Germany. [see Mar 6]
    (MC, 3/5/02)
1943        Mar 5, In desperation due to war losses, fifteen and sixteen year olds are called up for military service in the German army.
    (HN, 3/5/99)
1943        Mar 5, The Gloster Meteor first flew. Great Britain emerged from World War II with a decided head start in jet technology, the only Allied power to have had a jet fighter operational in squadron strength before the German surrender on May 8, 1945. On July 21, 1944, the first two production Meteors arrived at Culmhead and formed the nucleus of No. 616 Squadron, Royal Air Force (RAF). Appropriately, the Meteor’s first duty was to defend Britain from attacks by German V-1 pulse jet-powered guided bombs, of which they destroyed 13 by the end of the war. Meteor IIIs of No. 616 Squadron were committed to Continental Europe in the last months of the conflict, but they never got the opportunity to meet the German Me-262A in battle.
    (HNQ, 8/21/01)

1943        Mar 6, British RAF fliers bombed Essen and the Krupp arms works in the Ruhr, Germany.
    (HN, 3/6/98)
1943        Mar 6, Battle at Medenine, North-Africa: Rommel's assault attack.
    (MC, 3/6/02)

1943        Mar 8, Japanese forces attacked American troops on Hill 700 in Bougainville. The battle lasted five days.
    (HN, 3/8/99)
1943        Mar 8, 335 allied bombers attacked Nuremberg.
    (MC, 3/8/02)

1943        Mar 9, Bobby Fischer (d.2008), first American world chess champion (1972-1975), was born. He later authored “Bobby Fischer’s Games of Chess."
    (HN, 3/9/99)(SFC, 9/7/01, p.D5)(SFC, 1/19/08, p.A2)

1943        Mar 10, Hitler called Rommel back from Tunisia in North Africa. The intercepted communications of an American in Cairo provided a secret ear for the Desert Fox.
    (HN, 3/10/98)

1943        Mar 11, The musical film “Hello, Frisco, Hello" was released. It starred Alice Faye, John Payne, Lynn Bari, and Jack Oakie and was directed by H. Bruce Humberstone. The film tells the story of vaudeville performers in San Francisco, during the period of the 1915 Panama Pacific Exposition when Alexander Graham Bell made the first transcontinental phone call from New York City to San Francisco.

1943        Mar 13, There was a failed assassination attempt on Hitler during the Smolensk-Rastenburg flight.
    (MC, 3/13/02)
1943        Mar 13, Germans closed the Krakow ghetto in Poland.
    (HN, 3/13/98)
1943        Mar 13, Japanese forces ended their attack on the American troops on Hill 700 in Bougainville.
    (HN, 3/13/99)

1943        Mar 14, Aaron Copland’s "Fanfare for the Common Man" premiered in New York, with George Szell conducting.
    (AP, 3/14/97)
1943        Mar 14, The Germans reoccupied Kharkov in the Soviet Union.
    (HN, 3/14/98)

1943        Mar 15, In Thessaloniki, Greece, occupying German forces began founding up the first batch of Jews in Eleftherias (Freedom) Square. By August 1943, 46,091 Jews had been deported to Auschwitz-Birkenau. Of those, 1,950 survived.
    (AP, 3/16/13)

1943      Mar 17, The German occupation authority closed Lithuanian schools of higher education and the Academy of Education.
    (LHC, 3/17/03)

1943        Mar 18, American forces took Gafsa in Tunisia. In the crucible of Operation Torch, the men of Sub-Task Force Goalpost received their baptism of fire capturing the Moroccan town of Port Lyautey.
    (HN, 3/18/98)
1943        Mar 18, The ships James Oglethorpe (US) and Terkolei (Neth.), were torpedoed and sank.
    (MC, 3/18/02)
1943        Mar 18, The Reich called off its offensive in Caucasus.
    (HN, 3/18/98)
1943        Mar 18, Red Army evacuated Belgorod.
    (MC, 3/18/02)

1943        Mar 19, Airship Canadian Star was torpedoed and sank.
    (MC, 3/19/02)

1943        Mar 20, The Allies attacked Rommel’s forces on the Mareth Line in North Africa.
    (HN, 3/20/98)
1943        Mar 20, German U-384 was bombed and sank.
    (MC, 3/20/02)

1943        Mar 21, British 8th army opened an assault on Mareth line, Tunisia.
    (MC, 3/21/02)
1943        Mar 21, An assassination attempt on Hitler failed.
    (MC, 3/21/02)

1943        Mar 22, SS police chief Rauter threatened to kill half Jewish children.
    (MC, 3/22/02)

1943        Mar 23, Germans counter attacked US lines in Tunisia.
    (SS, 3/23/02)

1943        Mar 25, Jimmy Durante and Garry Moore premiered on radio.
    (MC, 3/25/02)

1943        Mar 26, Elsie S. Ott, US army nurse, became the 1st woman to receive air medal.
    (SS, 3/26/02)
1943        Mar 26, Battle of Komandorski Islands, Pacific Ocean.
    (SS, 3/26/02)

1943        Mar 27, US began an assault on Fondouk-pass, Tunisia.
    (MC, 3/27/02)

1943        Mar 28, Sergei Vasilievitch Rachmaninoff (70), Russian-born composer, died in Beverly Hills, Calif.
    (AP, 3/28/97)

1943        Mar 29, Eric Idle, comedian, actor (Monty Python), was born in England.
    (MC, 3/29/02)
1943        Mar 29, John Major, British PM (1990-97), was born.
    (WP, 6/29/96, p.A20)(MC, 3/29/02)
1943        Mar 29, Vangelis, [Papathanasiou], composer, keyboardist (Chariots of Fire), was born.
    (MC, 3/29/02)
1943        Mar 29, World War II meat, butter and cheese rationing began.
    (AP, 3/28/97)

1943        Mar 31, The Rodgers and Hammerstein musical "Oklahoma!" opened at the St. James Theatre on Broadway. Celeste Holm sang the show-stopping number “I Cain’t Say No." Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein hired Agnes de Mille for the choreography. The original is only on documentary videotape and the 1954 film was a "bloated mess."
    (TMC, 1994, p.1943)(WSJ, 2/5/96, p.A-16)(AP, 3/30/97)(SFC, 7/16/12, p.C4)
1943        Mar 31, US Army Air Force bombers attacked harbor facilities in the west of Rotterdam. A combination of strong wind and overcast conditions also caused great damage to the nearby residential areas, especially in the Bospolder-Tussendijken District. The death toll rose to 401 casualties and around 16,500 people lost their homes.

1943        Mar, Britain hatched the Doctor Project, a secret plan to assassinate German Field Marshall Rommel. It was never executed.
    (SFC, 10/27/99, p.C2)
1943        Mar, Bulgarians occupying Macedonia rounded up and deported 7,148 (7,144) Macedonian Jews from Skopje, and cities of Bitola and Stip to the Treblinka death camp  in German-occupied Poland. Of a pre-war population of some 8,000 Jews, only 350 remained after the war.
    (Econ, 7/16/11, p.88)(AP, 3/12/18)

1943        Mar-1943 May, Gen'l. Patton moved his troops across North Africa. North Africa was secured by the Allies.
    (WSJ, 12/8/95, p.A-14)(TMC, 1994, p.1943)

1943        Spring, The 418th Army Air Forces Band under Glenn Miller began in Durfee Hall at Yale Univ. It later became known as the Band of the Training Command through a weekly Army radio series called "I Sustain the Wings."
    (WSJ, 10/24/96, p.A16)

1943        Apr 3, In the SF Bay Area 4 men attempted to escape the federal prison on Alcatraz Island. Harold Brest and Fred Hunter were recaptured. James Boardman and Floyd Hamilton drowned after being wounded by rifle fire from gun towers.
    (SSFC, 4/8/18, DB p.54)

1943        Apr 5, The British 8th Army attacked the next blocking position of the retreating Axis forces at Wadi Akarit.
    (HN, 4/5/99)

1943        Apr 6, British and American armies linked up in Africa.
    (HN, 4/6/98)

1943        Apr 7, The NFL adopted its free substitution rule.
    (MC, 4/7/02)
1943        Apr 7, US Marine Lt. James Swett (1920-2009), division leader of Squadron 221, shot down 7 Japanese bombers over the Solomon Islands. He was later awarded the Medal of Honor for his actions on this day.
    (SSFC, 1/25/09, p.B3)
1943        Apr 7, British and American armies link up between Wadi Akarit and El Guettar in North Africa, forming a solid line against the German army.
    (HN, 4/7/99)
1943        Apr 7, Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini met for an Axis conference in Salzburg.
    (MC, 4/7/02)
1943        Apr 7, Lt. Colonel Claus von Stauffenberg was seriously wounded during allied air raid.
    (MC, 4/7/02)

1943        Apr 8, Michael Bennett, AIDS victim, choreographer (Chorus Line) and theater director, was born as Michael Bennett DiFiglia.
    (NYT, 7/3/87, P.A1)
1943        Apr 8, J.P. Kavanaugh, racehorse trainer, was born.
    (MC, 4/8/02)

1943        Apr 11, Frank Piasecki, Vertol founder, flew his 1st (single-rotor) craft.
    (MC, 4/11/02)

1943        Apr 13, President Roosevelt dedicated the Jefferson Memorial. It was designed by John Russell Pope.
    (AP, 4/13/97)(HN, 4/13/98)(WSJ, 9/21/00, p.A26)
1943        Apr 13, Nazi's discovered a mass grave of Polish officers near Katyn.
    (MC, 4/13/02)

1943        Apr 16, Swiss chemist Albert Hoffman (1906-2008) felt the first rush of LSD when a tiny amount of the substance seeped onto his finger during a laboratory experiment.
    (AP, 4/30/08)

1943        Apr 17, SS lt. General Jurgen Stoop arrived in Warsaw.
    (MC, 4/17/02)

1943        Apr 18, Traveling in a bomber, Japanese Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto (b.1884), the mastermind of the attack on Pearl Harbor, was shot down by American P-38 fighters.

1943        Apr 19, Willy Graf, Kurt Huber and Alexander Schmorell, German resistance fighters, were beheaded.
    (MC, 4/19/02)
1943        Apr 19, Nazis entered the Warsaw ghetto, the eve of the Passover holiday. Three days later they set the ghetto ablaze, turning it into a fiery death trap. Jewish fighters kept up their struggle for nearly a month before they were brutally vanquished. Teenager Simcha Rotem (d.2018), aka Kazik, served as a liaison between the bunkers and took part in the fighting.
    (AP, 12/23/18)
1943        Apr 19, In Warsaw, Poland, some 750 young Jews under Mordechai Anielewicz began their 1st urban uprising against the Nazis. During World War II, tens of thousands of Jews living in the Warsaw Ghetto began a valiant but futile battle against Nazi forces. SS-Gen Jurgen Stroop led the destruction of the ghetto of Warsaw: "The Warsaw Ghetto is no more!" he wrote proudly to Heinrich Himmler and Adolf Hitler. Stroop was hanged on the site of the Warsaw ghetto after the war. Jacek Zlatka (Jack Eisner, 1925-2003) smuggled arms for the revolt. Eisner made a fortune in the import-export business after the war and in 1980 authored the autobiography "The Survivor."
    (SFEC, 3/2/97, p.T11)(AP, 4/19/97)(HN, 4/19/97)(SSFC, 8/31/03, p.A29)
1943        Apr 19, Swiss chemist Albert Hoffman, following up on an experiment on April 16, deliberately ingested .25 milligrams of LSD and soon began to feel its effects. Hallucinations continued on his bicycle ride home and lasted for some 6 hours.
    (SFC, 5/9/96, p.A-1)(Econ, 5/10/08, p.98)

1943        Apr 19-1943 Apr 20, Lance Sgt. Haane Manahi (d.1987) of New Zealand performed gallant actions against overwhelming odds in the bloody battle for Takrouna, a fortified citadel in Tunisia, North Africa. In 2007 the Maori trooper was posthumously honored he 64 years after he was denied a top gallantry award despite a commendation signed by four commanding generals.
    (AP, 3/17/07)(www.nzetc.org/tm/scholarly/name-004807.html)

1943        Apr 21, President Roosevelt announced that several Doolittle pilots were executed by Japanese.
    (HN, 4/21/98)

1943        Apr 22, Louise Gluck, Pulitzer Prize-winning poet, was born.
    (HN, 4/22/01)
1943        Apr 22, There was German counter attack in North Tunisia.
    (MC, 4/22/02)
1943        Apr 22, RAF shot down 14 German transport planes over Mediterranean Sea.
    (MC, 4/22/02)

1943        Apr 23, Herve Villechaize, actor, (Fantasy Island), was born in France.
    (MC, 4/23/02)

1943        Apr 28, German-Italian forces launched a counter offensive in North-Africa.
    (MC, 4/28/02)

1943        Apr 29, Noel Coward's "Present Laughter," premiered in London.
    (MC, 4/29/02)
1943        Apr 29, Internationally prominent theologian Dietrich Bonhoffer was arrested by Nazis.
    (MC, 4/29/02)
1943        Apr 29, Karl Adrian Wohlfart (68), composer, died.
    (MC, 4/29/02)

1943        Apr 30, Pius XII wrote a letter to Bishop von Preysing of Berlin and referred to the extermination of the Jews. His concluding thoughts stated: "Unhappily in the present state of affairs, we can bring no help other than our prayers."
    (WSJ, 5/8/97, p.A23)
1943        Apr 30, The British submarine HMS Seraph dropped ‘the man who never was," a dead man the British planted with false invasion plans, into the Mediterranean off the coast of Spain.
    (HN, 4/30/98)
1943        Apr 30, Bergen-Belsen, located near Hanover, formed as a POW camp.
    (HNQ, 4/13/00)(MC, 4/30/02)
1943        Apr 30, Dutch struck against forced labor in Nazi Germany's war industry.
    (MC, 4/30/02)
1943        Apr 30, Rene Blum (b.1878), art critic and impresario, died in Auschwitz. Blum became director of plays and operettas at Monte Carlo in 1924. In 1931 he was hired to form the Ballet of the Opera of Monte-Carlo by Prince Louis II of Monaco. His brother was Leon Blum, the first Jewish prime minister of France. In 2011 Judith Chazin-Bennahum authored “Rene Blum and the Ballet Russes: In Search of a Lost Life."
    (SSFC, 8/28/11, p.F4)
1943        Apr 30, Etty Hillesum, Dutch diarist, died in Auschwitz.
    (MC, 4/30/02)
1943        Apr 30, Beatrice Potter Webb (b.1858), British socialist, reformer and writer, died. Her books included “My Apprenticeship" (1943).

1943        Apr, Magdaleno Sanchez Duenas, Philippine guerrilla fighter, (1914-2005) assisted in the escape of 10 US servicemen from the Davao Penal Colony.
    (SSFC, 3/6/05, p.A21)
1943        Apr, Irena Sendler (1910-2008), Polish social worker, and her team of some 20 people saved nearly 2,500 children from the Warsaw Ghetto between October 1940 and April 1943, when the Nazis burned the ghetto, shooting the residents or sending them to death camps.
    (AP, 5/12/08)

1943        May 1, Food rationing began in US. [see Mar 29]
    (MC, 5/1/02)
1943        May 1, British India SN Company troop transport in convoy with 23 merchantmen and escorted by eleven destroyers, was bound for Malta. When some 30 miles north of Benghazi, the convoy was attacked by German bombers and torpedo carrying aircraft. On board the Erinpura (Capt. P.V. Cotter) were 1,025 troops. One large bomb exploded in the hold sinking the ship in a matter of minutes. Forty four crewmembers, three gunners and an unspecified number of troops were lost. On the same day, near the Tunisian coast, another troopship (name unknown) was torpedoed and sank. On board were a number of troops from Basutoland (later Lesotho) who were serving with the British Eighth Army. In this tragic sinking, 618 Basutos lost their lives. 
1943        May 1, A German plane sank a boat loaded with Palestinian Jews bound for Malta.
    (MC, 5/1/02)
1943        May 1, German forces were deployed in the following places: Norway (200,000), France (900,000), Africa (150,000), Balkans (80,000), Finland (180,000), Eastern Europe (210,000), Caucasus (260,000), Russia (1,900,000).
    (WSJ, 5/12/99, p.A23)

1943        May 5, Michael Palin, actor and screenwriter (Monty Python's Flying Circus), was born.
    (HN, 5/5/01)
1943        May 5, Postmaster General Frank C. Walker invented the Postal Zone System.
    (MC, 5/5/02)

1943        May 6, British 1st army opened an assault on Tunis.
    (MC, 5/6/02)

1943        May 7, Peter Carey, Australian writer (Illywhacker, Oscar and Lucinda), was born.
    (HN, 5/7/02)
1943        May 7, The last major German strongholds in North Africa, Tunis and Bizerte, fell to Allied forces.
    (HN, 5/7/99)

1943        May 9, The 5th German Panzer army surrendered in Tunisia.
    (MC, 5/9/02)

1943        May 10, Donovan Leitch, guitarist, folk singer (Mellow Yellow), was born in Scotland.
    (MC, 5/10/02)
1943        May 10, U.S. troops invaded Attu in the Aleutian Islands to expel the Japanese.
    (HN, 5/10/98)
1943        May 10, Andre Bertulot, Arnaud/Armand Fraiteur and Maurice-Albert Raskin, Belgian resistance fighters, were hanged.
    (MC, 5/10/02)

1943        May 11, During World War II, American forces landed on Japanese-held Attu island in the Aleutians; the Americans took the island 19 days later.
    (AP, 5/11/02)
1943        May 11, Hermann Goering division in Tunisia surrendered.
    (MC, 5/11/02)

1943        May 12, Axis forces in Tunisia and all of North Africa surrendered.
    (AP, 5/12/97)(HN, 5/12/98)

1943        May 14, Elizabeth Ray, congressman Wilbur Mills' lover, was born in Marshall, NC.
    (MC, 5/14/02)
1943        May 14, Australia’s AHS Centaur was sunk without warning after it was torpedoed by a Japanese submarine. Of the 332 people on board, only 64 survived. In 2009 deep-sea searchers found the wreck of the hospital ship off the city of Brisbane.
    (AFP, 12/19/09)

1943        May 15, Halifax bombers sank U-463.
    (MC, 5/15/02)
1943        May 15, Warsaw ghetto uprising ended in it's destruction by Nazi-SS troops.
    (MC, 5/15/02)

1943        May 16, "Skipping bombs" were used for the first and only time to breach three massive Ruhr Valley dams--the Eder, the Mohne and the Sorpe--that supplied water and hydroelectric power to Germany's vital armament factories. The bombs were designed to bounce over anti-torpedo nets and explode at the base of the dams. Despite only two months of training, Royal Air Force Wing Commander Guy Gibson and his "Dambusters" breached the Eder and the Mohne dams and damaged the Sorpe. While subsequent flooding in the Ruhr Valley claimed 1,294 lives, German industrial production was affected only briefly while the dams were repaired.
    (HNPD, 5/15/99)
1943        May 16, German troops destroyed the synagogue of Warsaw. Jewish resistance in the Warsaw ghetto ended after 30 days of fighting.
    (MC, 5/16/02)

1943        May 17, The Memphis Belle took off from England with a wave of 159 B-17s to drop bombs on the concrete Nazi submarine shelters at Lorient, France. When it landed unscathed that afternoon, the 10 men aboard had just become one of the first bomber crews of the war to survive 25 missions at a time when most weren't making a dozen. In 2018 the restored Memphis Belle was unveiled at the National Museum of the US Air Force near Dayton, Ohio.
    (AP, 5/13/18)

1943        May 18, In Croatia Archbishop Stepinac urged Pius XII to take a firm position to hold on "to its 240,000 converts." Eastern Orthodox practitioners had converted to Catholicism to escape death camps.
    (WSJ, 5/20/99, p.A21)
1943        May 18, Allied bombers attacked Pantelleria in the Mediterranean Sea.
    (SC, 5/18/02)

1943        May 19, In an address to the U.S. Congress, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill pledged his country's full support in the war against Japan.
    (AP, 5/19/97)
1943        May 19, Billy Sing (b.1886), credited with being the most successful and feared sniper in the Gallipoli campaign, died in Australia. The Australian-Chinese war hero was credited with having killed more than 200 enemy soldiers. In 2010 a television film, "The Legend of Billy Sing," raised the ire of the Australian-Chinese community because it featured a white actor as Billy Sing.
    (AFP, 5/9/10)
1943        May 19, Berlin was declared "Judenrien" (cleansed of Jews).
    (MC, 5/19/02)

1943        May 20, French, British and US held a victory parade in Tunis, Tunisia.
    (MC, 5/20/02)

1943        May 22, The 1st US jet fighter was tested. Lockheed Martin had picked Clarence Johnson, a Univ. of Michigan graduate (1932) to develop the nation’s 1st jet fighter. He had already designed the P-38 Lightning. Johnson and his staff developed a jet prototype, the Shooting Star, in 143 days.
    (MC, 5/22/02)(MT, Summer/04, p.7)
1943        May 22, Stalin disbanded the Komintern.
    (MC, 5/22/02)

1943        May 23, Thomas Mann began writing his novel Dr. Faustus.
    (MC, 5/23/02)
1943        May 23-24, Some 826 Allied bombers attacked Dortmund.
    (MC, 5/23/02)

1943        May 25, Leslie Uggams, singer, actress (Leslie Uggams Show, Roots), was born in NYC.
    (SC, 5/25/02)
1943        May 25, Wynand C. Malan, South African lawyer, NP/DP-politician, was born.
    (SC, 5/25/02)
1943        May 25, Following the Trident conference between President Franklin Roosevelt and Prime Minister Winston Churchill in Washington, DC, the target date of May 1, 1944, was set for the invasion of Europe. It actually occurred on the sixth of June.
    (HN, 5/25/99)
1943        May 25, There was a riot at Mobile, Al., shipyard over upgrading 12 black workers.
    (SC, 5/25/02)

1943        May 26, Jews rioted against Germans in Amsterdam.
    (MC, 5/26/02)
1943        May 26, Edsel Ford, president (49) of the Ford Motor Company, died.
    (MC, 5/26/02)

1943        May 27, French resistance members under Jean Moulin met secretly in Paris.
    (MC, 5/27/02)

1943        May 29, Norman Rockwell’s portrait of "Rosie the Riveter" appeared on the cover of "The Saturday Evening Post." Rockwell’s model was Mary Doyle Keefe (19) of Arlington, Vermont (d.2015). In 2002 the painting sold at auction for $4,959,500.
    (AP, 5/29/97)(SFC, 4/24/15, p.D4)
1943        May 29, Churchill, Marshall and Eisenhower met in the Confederacy of Algiers.
    (SC, 5/29/02)
1943        May 29, Meat and cheese began to be rationed in US.
    (SC, 5/29/02)
1943        May 29, Hermann Hans Wetzler (72), composer, died.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1943        May 30, American forces secured the Aleutian island of Attu from the Japanese during World War II.
    (AP, 5/30/97)
1943        May 30, Dr. Josef Mengele arrived at Auschwitz as research assistant to Dr. Otmar Freiherr von Verschuer.
    (SSFC, 11/9/03, p.D6)

1943        May 31, Joe Namath, NFL QB (NY Jets), $400,000 man (1969 Superbowl), was born in PA.
    (MC, 5/31/02)

1943        May, German captors took American POWs Capt. Donald B. Stewart and Lt. Col. John H. Van Vliet Jr. to view mummified corpses of Polish officers massacred in the Katyn forest. They used coded messages to report on the Soviet guilt, but it was suppressed by the Roosevelt administration until a report in 1952. Documents of their coded messages were made public in 2012.
    (AP, 9/10/12)
1943        May, Muddy Waters, the lead disciple of blues artist Robert Johnson, bought a ticket at the Clarksdale train station and headed to Chicago.
    (NH, 9/96, p.55)

1943         Jun 1, A civilian flight from Lisbon to London was shot down by the Germans during World War II, killing all those aboard, including actor Leslie Howard (b.1893). Howard was killed over the Bay of Biscay, when the British Overseas plane he was on was shot down by Luftwaffe fighters. His last on-screen role was that of Spitfire designer R. J. Mitchell in the 1942 film "The First of the Few" (released in the U.S. as a trimmed version entitled Spitfire in 1948). Leslie Howard, perhaps best remembered to modern filmgoers as Ashley Wilkes in "Gone With The Wind" (1939), was a World War I veteran who was advised to take up acting as therapy after he was mustered out for shell shock. He found success throughout the 1930s, but with the outbreak of World War II, devoted himself to the war effort--directing films, writing and broadcasting on the radio.
    (AP, 6/1/98)(HNQ, 3/23/01)

1943        Jun 2, Charles Haid, actor (Hill St Blues, Altered States), was born in SF, Ca.
    (SC, 6/2/02)
1943        Jun 2, 99th Pursuit Squadron flew its 1st combat mission over Italy.
    (SC, 6/2/02)

1943        Jun 3, United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration formed.
    (MC, 6/3/02)

1943        Jun 4, Race riots took place in LA.
    (MC, 6/4/02)
1943        Jun 4, In Argentina, Gen Rawson and Col. Juan Peron led the military coup that overthrew Ramon S. Castillo.
    (HN, 6/4/98)(MC, 6/4/02)

1943        Jun 5, German occupiers arrested Louvain University's chancellor.
    (MC, 6/5/02)

1943        Jun 7, Nikki Giovanni, poet (LHJ Woman of the Year 1973), was born.
    (SC, 6/7/02)
1943        Jun 7, Ken Osmond, actor (Eddie Haskel-Leave it To Beaver), was born.
    (SC, 6/7/02)

1943        Jun 9, "Pay-as-you-go" (withholding) US income tax deductions were authorized. [see Jul 1, 1943]
    (MC, 6/9/02)

1943        Jun 10, FDR signed a withholding tax bill into law.
    (MC, 6/10/02)
1943        Jun 10, The Allies began bombing Germany around the clock.
    (HN, 6/10/98)

1943        Jun 11, The Italian island of Pantelleria surrendered after a heavy air bombardment.
    (HN, 6/11/98)

1943        Jun 14, The US Supreme Court, in West Virginia Board of Education v. Barnette, ruled schoolchildren could not be compelled to salute the flag of the United States and say the Pledge of Allegiance.
1943        Jun 14, A US Army B-17 took off from Mackay, Australia, and crashed in fog at nearby Bakers Creek, killing 40 of the 41 servicemen crammed into the bomb bay and crannies of the aircraft. Wartime censorship restrictions suppressed news of the crash.
    (AP, 6/14/03)

1943        Jun 15, The 8,000-ton Rosandra, an Italian merchant ship, sank after being torpedoed by a British submarine a day earlier off Albania's southern coast. 6 people died but 173 were safely evacuated to land. In 2010 underwater archeologists reported the discovery of the ship.
    (AP, 6/14/10)(www.uboat.net/allies/warships/ship/3507.html)

1943        Jun 16, Comedian Charles Chaplin married his fourth wife, 18-year-old Oona O’Neill, daughter of playwright Eugene O’Neill, in Carpenteria, Calif. In 1998 Jane Scovell authored "Oona, Living in the Shadows: A Biography of Oona O’Neill Chaplin."
    (AP, 6/16/98)(SFEC, 12/13/98, BR p.6)

1943        Jun 17, Newt Gingrich, later Republican Speaker of the House (1995-1998), was born in Hummelstown, Pa.
    (SFC, 11/7/98, p.A4)

1943        Jun 20, Race-related rioting erupted in Detroit; federal troops were sent in two days later to quell the violence that resulted in 34 deaths and 600 wounded.
    (AP, 6/20/97)(SSFC, 12/17/00, Par p.5)

1943        Jun 21, The US Supreme Court held the broad claims of Guglielmo Marconi's patent for improvements in apparatus for wireless telegraphy to be invalid. First written for publication by the Antique Wireless Association, this monograph shows how the nation's high court arrived at its decision. It provides an answer to the continuing argument regarding the popular misconception that Marconi invented radio.
1943        Jun 21, Jean "Max" Moulin, French resistance fighter, was betrayed by fellow Frenchmen and captured in a massive anti-resistance dragnet. Raymond Aubrac (1914-2012) was captured along with Jean Moulin, when police raided a Resistance meeting spot, a doctor's office, near the southeastern city of Lyon. Lucie Aubrac helped orchestrate her husband's escape from a Lyon prison following his arrest.
    (www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/moulin_jean.shtml)(AFP, 4/11/12)

1943        Jun 22, Federal troops put down race-related rioting in Detroit. 36 hours of rioting claimed 34 lives, 25 of them black. More than 1,800 were arrested for looting and other incidents, the vast majority black. Thirteen murders remained unsolved.
    (http://info.detnews.com/history/story/index.cfm?id=185&category=events)(AP, 6/22/03)

1943        Jun 23, James Levine, pianist and conductor, was born.
    (HN, 6/23/01)
1943        Jun 23, RAF discovered and bombed Werner von Braun's V1/V2-base in Peenemunde.
    (MC, 6/23/02)

1943        Jun 24, Royal Air Force Bombers hammered Muelheim, Germany, in a drive to cripple the Ruhr industrial base.
    (HN, 6/24/98)
1943        Jun 25, Crematory III at Birkenau, Poland, was finished.
    (MC, 6/25/02)
1943        Jun 25, Arthur Seyss-Inquart ordered a mass arrest of Dutch physicians.
    (MC, 6/25/02)

1943        Jun 29, Germany began withdrawing U-boats from North Atlantic in anticipation of the Allied invasion of Europe.
    (MC, 6/29/02)

1943        Jun 30, Gen. MacArthur began his island-hopping Operation Cartwheel.
    (MC, 6/30/02)
1943        Jun 30, In Japan all stock exchanges were merged under the wartime conditions as the Japan Securities Exchange. This was dissolved after the war.
    (WSJ, 3/15/07, p.C1)

1943        Jun, The US Liberty Ship S.S. Jeremiah O’Brian was launched.
    (SFC, 6/24/96, p.A19)

1943        Jul 1, In the US "pay-as-you-go" income tax withholding began.
    (AP, 7/1/97)

1943        Jul 2, The U.S. Army Air Corps 99th Fighter Squadron, the first of the all-black Tuskegee Airmen to see combat, had been based in Africa for four months when they were assigned to escort 16 B-25 Mitchell bombers on a routine mission over Sicilian targets. Lieutenant Charles B. Hall of Brazil, Indiana became the first Tuskegee Airman to score a confirmed kill when he shot down a German fighter plane. The United States would not allow black airmen to fight for their country until 1943, when the first of a contingent trained at Tuskegee, Alabama, were formed as the 99th Fighter Squadron and shipped out to North Africa. That unit and the 332nd Fighter Group that followed (which comprised the 99th) would prove their worth in the last two years of World War II. Besides establishing an outstanding record for not losing a single bomber they escorted to enemy fighters, several of the Tuskegee Airmen went on to distinguished postwar careers in the U.S. Air Force.
    (HNPD, 7/5/98)

1943        Jul 3, Liberator bombers sank U-628.
    (MC, 7/3/02)

1943        Jul 4, Geraldo Rivera, TV talkshow host, was born in New York City. He became known for his non-conformity in the subjects he approached.
    (IB, Internet, 12/7/98)
1943        Jul 4, A Liberator II aircraft carrying Gen. Wladyslaw Sikorski, Poland’s prime minister and chief army commander, crashed into the sea just 16 seconds after taking off from Gibraltar. In 2008 Poland began an investigation into the crash.
    (AP, 9/3/08)

1943        Jul 5, US invasion fleet (96 ships) sailed to Sicily.
    (MC, 7/5/02)
1943        Jul 5, The battle of Kursk, the largest tank battle in history, began as German tanks attacked the Soviet salient.
    (HN, 7/5/98)
1943        Jul 5, In the Solomon Islands more than 730 of the USS Helena's crew of 900 survived its sinking during the Battle of Kula Gulf. A group of 165 spent nearly five days adrift in life rafts, during which some of the injured died, before the sunburned, dehydrated and emaciated men took shelter on Japanese occupied Vella Lavella Island. On March 23, 2018, the wreckage of the Helena was found about a half mile (860m) below the surface of the New Georgia Sound by Paul Allen's R/V Petrel team.
    (AP, 4/18/18)

1943        Jul 6, In the 2nd day of battle at Kursk some 25,000 Germans were killed.
    (MC, 7/6/02)

1943        Jul 7, Adolf Hitler made the V-2 missile program a top priority in armament planning.
    (HN, 7/7/98)
1943        Jul 7, In the 3rd day of battle at Kursk the Germans occupied Dubrova. Erich Hartmann shot 7 Russian aircraft at Kursk.
    (MC, 7/7/02)

1943        Jul 8, Faye Wattleton, women’s rights advocate, was born.
    (HN, 7/8/98)
1943        Jul 8, American B-24 bombers struck Japanese-held Wake Island for the first time. An obscure U.S. Navy fighter did yeoman duty when times were toughest early in World War II.
    (HN, 7/8/98)
1943        Jul 8, US invasion fleet passed Bizerta, Tunisia.
    (MC, 7/8/02)
1943        Jul 8, The 4th day of battle at Kursk: Gen Model used his last tank reserve.
    (MC, 7/8/02)
1943        Jul 8, Jean "Max" Moulin (b. Jun 20, 1899), French resistance fighter, was executed.

1943        Jul 9, American and British forces made an amphibious landing on Sicily. The 'man who never was' pulled off one of the greatest deceptions in military history--after his death. In April Britain’s Operation Mincemeat had landed the dead body of an itinerant Welsh laborer, Glyndwr Michael, disguised as a Major Martin, on the shore of Spain near Huelva. False papers on the body led the Germans to believe the allies would attack Greece and Sardinia rather than Sicily. The idea had been originally devised in 1939 as one of 51 submitted by Lt. Commander Ian Fleming. Operation Mincemeat was kept secret until 1953, the same year that “Casino Royale," Fleming’s first James Bond novel was published.
    (ON, 10/10, p.5)

1943        Jul 10, Arthur Ashe, first black tennis player to win the U.S. Championship and Wimbledon, was born.
    (HN, 7/10/98)
1943        Jul 10, US and British forces completed their amphibious landing in Sicily in Operation Husky.
    (AP, 7/10/97)(HN, 7/10/01)(MC, 7/10/02)

1943        Jul 11, US guns at Gela, Sicily, hurled fire at unseen planes overhead. The result was the war’s worst friendly fire incident. Twenty C-47 transports with 18 men each were knocked down by allied gunfire. 318 American soldiers were killed or wounded.
    (SSFC, 3/10/19, DB p.39)(http://tinyurl.com/y36g8ajj)
1943        Jul 11, In Poland the killing of Poles by Ukrainian nationalists peaked.  From 1943-1944 Ukrainian nationalists killed up to 100,000 Poles in Volyn and eastern Galica, areas then in Poland but now in Ukraine. The peak of the killings involved Poles being butchered with axes and saws.
    (AP, 7/11/16)

1943        Jul 12, The US submarine Pampanito was christened in New Hampshire. In 1982 the sub opened to the public at Pier 45 in San Francisco.
    (SFC, 9/24/03, p.A23)
1943        Jul 12, Pope Pius XII received Baron von Weizsacker, the German ambassador.
    (MC, 7/12/02)
1943        Jul 12, Russians beat Nazis in a tank battle at Prochorowka. Some 12,000 died.
    (MC, 7/12/02)

1943        Jul 13, Aubrey Grossman, chairman of the Bay Area Council Against Discrimination reported that Camp Mather, San Francisco's city-operated vacation spot in the Sierra, did not accept Negroes or Oriental patronage.
    (SSFC, 7/8/18, DB p.50)
1943        Jul 13, Greatest tank battle in history ended with Russia's defeat of Germany at Kursk. Almost 6,000 tanks took part and 2,900 were lost by Germany.
    (MC, 7/13/02)

1943        Jul 18, The U.S. Navy airship K-74 was shot down by anti-aircraft fire from a German U-boat.
    (HN, 7/18/98)
1943        Jul 18, There was a British assault on Catania, Sicily.
    (MC, 7/18/02)

1943        Jul 19, More than 150 B-17 and 112 B-24 Allied bombers attacked Rome for the first time.
    (AP, 7/19/97)(HN, 7/19/98)
1943        Jul 19, American planes sank the German U-513 submarine off the coast of southern Brazil. In 2011 researchers from the Vale do Itajai University found the submarine off the coast of Santa Catarina state.
    (AP, 7/15/11)

1943        Jul 21, Tess Gallagher, American writer, was born.
    (HN, 7/21/02)
1943        Jul 21, Edward Herrmann (d.2014), actor (Day of the Dolphin, Reds), was born in Wash., DC.
1943        Jul 21, Ralph B. Beal, research director for Radio Corporation of America (RCA) said television will be ready for every family's use immediately after the war. Screens 6 to 24 inches wide will be available as the radio manufacturing industry converts from war to peace production. The next normal development will be three-dimensional and color TV.
    (SSFC, 7/15/18, DB p.54)

1943        Jul 22, The American Seventh Army forces led by Gen. George S. Patton captured Palermo, Sicily. Gen Patton moved his troops across Sicily through August.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1943)(WSJ, 12/8/95, p.A-14)(AP, 7/22/07)

1943        Jul 23, In France Marcel Langer (b.1903), Polish-born Jew, was guillotined after being sentenced to death by a Vichy court. He was a member of the International Brigades and the Toulouse resistance.
1943        Jul 23, Battle of Kursk, USSR, ended in Nazi defeat. 6,000 tanks took part.
    (MC, 7/23/02)
1943        Jul 23, Meijer de Hond, [Emanuel Querido], rabbi of Sobibor, died.
    (MC, 7/23/02)
1943        Jul 23, Emanuel Querido, publisher (Sobibor), died.
    (MC, 7/23/02)

1943        Jul 24, The U.S. submarine Tinosa fired 15 torpedoes at a lone Japanese merchant ship, but none detonated.
    (HN, 7/24/98)
1943        Jul 24-1943-Aug 2, The RAF bombed Hamburg. Firestorms from the bombing left at least 40,000 dead in the 1st 3 days. American B-17 Fortresses flew 252 daylight sorties in the two days following the first of 4 RAF night raids. Sir Arthur Harris directed 4 major raids against Hamburg in the space of ten nights, known as “Operation Gomorrah."

1943        Jul 25, Jim McCarty, rocker (The Yardbirds-For Your Love), was born.
    (SC, 7/25/02)
1943        Jul 25, Janet Margolin, actress (Take the Money & Run, David & Lisa), was born in NYC.
    (SC, 7/25/02)
1943        Jul 25, Benito Mussolini was dismissed as premier of Italy by King Victor Emmanuel III and placed under arrest. Fascist Grand Council, reeling from the invasion of Sicily and fearing a subsequent destructive invasion of the mainland, forced Dictator Benito Mussolini to resign. Mussolini was later rescued by the Nazis and re-asserted his authority.
    (AP, 7/25/97)(HN, 7/25/98)(The National Interest, 8/25/19)

1943        Jul 26, In England Mick [Michael Phillip] Jagger, musician, member of the Rolling Stones, was born in Dartford, Kent.
    (SFEM, 11/9/97, p.9)(HN, 7/26/01)
1943        Jul 26, Otto Skorzeny's commando group arrived in Rome.
    (MC, 7/26/02)

1943        Jul 28, Mike Bloomfield, blues musician (Analine), was born.
    (SC, 7/28/02)
1943        Jul 28, Bill Bradley, U.S. senator, professional basketball player, was born in Crystal City, Mo.
    (HN, 7/28/98)
1943        Jul 28, President Roosevelt announced the end of coffee rationing.
    (AP, 7/28/97)

1943        Jul 29, Lt. Robert Scott (d.1999 at 85) led a platoon on New Georgia in the Central Solomons to capture a hilltop overlooking the Munda Point airstrip. He found himself alone and continued fighting with grenades and his rifle to force an enemy withdrawal. 28 Japanese were found dead from his attack. He received the Medal of Honor in Oct 1944.
    (SFC, 2/12/99, p.A24)   

1943        Jul, Lt. Thomas McConnell of Kansas crashed in his B-24 Liberator in deep fog on Guadalcanal after a strike against a Japanese air field. He was one of the 3 "Flying McConnell Brothers."
    (SFC, 9/6/97, p.A22)

1943        Aug 1, Race-related rioting erupted in New York City’s Harlem section, resulting in several deaths.
    (AP, 8/1/97)
1943        Aug 1, Over 177 B-24 Liberator bombers attacked the oil fields in Ploesti, Rumania, for a second time.
    (HN, 8/1/98)

1943        Aug 2, A Navy patrol torpedo boat, PT-109, commanded by Lt. John F. Kennedy, sank after being sheared in two by the Amagiri, a Japanese destroyer, off the Solomon Islands. Lt. John F. Kennedy, towing an injured sailor, swam to a small island in the Solomon Islands. The night before, his boat, PT-109, had been split in half by the destroyer Amagiri. Kennedy was credited with saving members of the crew. Two members of the crew were killed in the collision in the Blackett Strait off Gizo, the main town of western Solomon Islands. An injured Kennedy and the ship's other survivors clung to the wreckage and swam to a nearby island, where Aaron Kumana and Biuku Gasa found them. The pair rowed 35 miles through enemy-held waters to summon a rescue boat.
    (AP, 8/2/97)(HN, 8/2/98)(AP, 8/30/07)
1943        Aug 2, The 10-day allied bombing of Hamburg, Germany, ended.
1943        Aug 2, In Poland at the Nazi Treblinka concentration camp some 600 prisoners staged an uprising and fled into the woods. Some 300 inmates managed to escape. Only 40 survived.  Some 900,000 Jews, chiefly from Poland, were killed from 1941 to 1944 at Treblinka. In 1999 Ian MacMillan authored "Village of a Million Spirits: A Novel of the Treblinka Uprising."
    (SFEC, 8/22/99, BR p.5)(AP, 8/2/18)

1943        Aug 3, Gen. George S. Patton slapped a private at an army hospital in Sicily, accusing him of cowardice. Patton was later ordered by Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower to apologize for this and a second, similar episode.
    (AP, 8/3/97)

1943        Aug 5, American forces took the Munda Point airstrip on New Georgia in the Solomon Islands.
    (SFC, 2/12/99, p.A24)

1943        Aug 7, US Major Gen. Lewis B. Hershey, the National Director of Selective Service, said: "There are too many middle-class morons in the country, people with mental diseases who can't pass Army tests."
    (SSFC, 8/5/18, DB p.50)

1943        Aug 9, Bertolt Brecht's "Galileo," premiered in Zurich.
    (MC, 8/9/02)
1943        Aug 9, Franz Jaegerstaetter, an avowed conscientious objector, was executed outside Berlin for treason after his request to be excused from regular army service for religious reasons was denied. The married father of four was posthumously exonerated in 1997 by a Berlin court. In 2007 he was beatified by the Roman Catholic Church.
    (AP, 10/27/07)
1943        Aug 9, Chaim Soutine (b.1893), Jewish expressionist painter, died in Paris of a perforated ulcer.
    (WSJ, 5/14/98, p.A20)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chaim_Soutine)

1943        Aug 10, Hitler watched the lynching of allied pilots.
    (MC, 8/10/02)

1943        Aug 11, Richard Strauss' 2nd Horn Concerto premiered.
    (MC, 8/11/02)

1943        Aug 12, Actor Clark Gable, after being assigned to make a training film for aerial gunners, trained and flew a mission from England with the 351st group over the Ruhr. 25 airplanes were lost on the mission.
    (WSJ, 12/24/96, p.A9)

1943        Aug 13, Harold E. Stearns (b.1891), American journalist, died. His books included “Liberalism in America" (1919). He also edited the influential “Civilization in the United States An Inquiry by Thirty Americans" (1922), the book that inspired many dissatisfied young Americans to go abroad.
    (www.bookrags.com/biography/harold-edmund-stearns-dlb/)(WSJ, 1/4/08, p.W5)
1943        Aug 13, The British bombed Milan. Elmer Alifano was an injured American held captive in a Milan hospital during the bombing where he received more injuries and where a third of the Allied prisoners were killed.
    (SFC, 9/29/97, p.A19)

1943        Aug 15, Allies landed on Kiska in the Aleutians.
    (MC, 8/15/02)

1943        Aug 16, Bulgarian czar Boris III visited Adolf Hitler.
    (MC, 8/16/02)

1943        Aug 17, Robert DeNiro, American actor, was born. He won Oscars for his roles in "The Godfather Part II" and "Raging Bull."
    (HN, 8/17/00)
1943        Aug 17, The Allied conquest of Sicily was completed as U.S. and British forces entered Messina. American casualties were later announced as 7,500 dead, wounded or captured.
    (AP internet, 8/17/97)(HN, 8/17/98)(SSFC, 9/2/18, DB p.50)
1943        Aug 17, A mass attack of 376 B-17s attacked the Messerschmitt Bf-109 factory at Regensburg, Germany.  60 B-17s were shot down. That was a 16 percent loss rate and meant 600 empty bunks in England.

1943        Aug 18, The Royal Air Force Bomber Command completed the first major strike against the German missile development facility at Peenemunde.
    (HN, 8/18/98)
1943        Aug 18, Final convoy of Jews from Salonika, Greece, arrived at Auschwitz.
    (MC, 8/18/02)
1943        Aug 18, The Heinkel-111 of Otto Skorzeny, Waffen SS commander, was shot down at Sardinia.
    (MC, 8/18/02)
1943        Aug 18, Hans Jeschonnek, German air force general, chief-staff, committed suicide.
    (MC, 8/18/02)
1943        Aug 18, Shukri Kouatly was elected president of Syria.

1943        Aug 19, Belgian church excommunicated Nazi Leon Degrelle.
    (MC, 8/19/02)

1943        Aug 22, Soviet troops freed Kharkov.
    (MC, 8/22/02)

1943        Aug 25, U.S. forces completed the occupation of New Georgia in the Solomon Islands during World War II. Losing Hill 700 to the Japanese meant defeat for the American forces on Bougainville. To the men of the 37th Infantry Division, that was unthinkable.
    (AP, 8/25/97)(HN, 8/25/98)
1943        Aug 25, Lt. Andre Devigny (d.1999 at 82) escaped from a German prison in Lyon, France. He was sentenced to be executed on Aug 28 for assassinating the head of the Fascist Italian secret police. He was captured the next day and escaped again by diving into the Rhone River. In 1957 Robert Bresson made the film "A Man Escaped" based on his story.
    (SFC, 2/19/99, p.E2)
1943        Aug 25, Lord Mountbatten was appointed Supreme Allied Commander in SE Asia.
    (MC, 8/25/02)
1943        Aug 25, Red Army under Gen Vatutin recaptured Achtyrka.
    (chblue.com, 8/25/01)

1943        Aug 26, The United States recognizes the French Committee of National Liberation.
    (HN, 8/26/99)

1943        Aug 28, Denmark declared a universal strike against Nazi occupiers.
    (MC, 8/28/01)
1943        Aug 28, Mussolini was transferred from La Maddalena Sardinia to Gran Sasso.
    (MC, 8/28/01)

1943        Aug 29, Responding to a clampdown by Nazi occupiers, Denmark managed to scuttle most of its naval ships.
    (AP, 8/29/97)

1943        Aug 30, Robert Crumb, US, cartoonist (Father Time, Fritz Cat), was born.
    (MC, 8/30/01)
1943        Aug 30, Jean Claude Killy, France, skier (Olympic-3 golds-1968), was born.
    (MC, 8/30/01)

1943         Aug, Italy's surrender to Allied forces weakened Italian hold on Albania; Albanian resistance fighters overwhelmed five Italian divisions.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1943        Sep 3, The British Eighth Army invaded Italy, landing at Calabria, during World War II. Italy signed a secret armistice with the Allies, but it was not announced until Sep 8.
    (AP, 9/3/97)(HN, 9/3/98)

1943        Sep 4, Allied troops captured Lae-Salamaua, in New Guinea.
    (HN, 9/4/98)
1943        Sep 4, British 8th army landed at Taranto in South Italy.
    (MC, 9/4/01)

1943        Sep 6, The United States asked the Chinese Nationals to join with the Communists to present a common front to the Japanese.
    (HN, 9/6/98)
1943        Sep 6, The "Black Ghost," a B-17 bomber, was shot down over occupied France. Its crew survived 13 missions, but anti-aircraft flak and the Luftwaffe's Messerschmitt and Focke-Wulf fighters claimed the airplane. All 10 crew members survived the war.
    (AP, 8/13/05)

1943        Sep 7, Fire in a decrepit old Gulf Hotel killed 45 in Houston, Texas.
    (MC, 9/7/01)

1943        Sep 8, Italy surrendered to the Allies in WW II.

1943        Sep 9, Allied forces in operation Avalanche landed at Salerno and Taranto during World War II. They encountered strong resistance from German troops.
    (AP, 9/9/97)(HN, 9/9/98)(MC, 9/9/01)

1943        Sep 10, German troops occupied Rome and took over the protection of Vatican City.
    (MC, 9/10/01)

1943        Sep 11, The Jewish ghettos of Minsk & Lida in Belorussia were liquidated.
    (MC, 9/11/01)

1943        Sep 12, Michael Ondaatje, Canadian novelist and poet, was born. His work included "The English Patient."
    (HN, 9/12/00)
1943        Sep 12, German paratroopers took Benito Mussolini from the hotel where he was being held by Italian resistance forces. 107 Waffen-SS troops under Otto Skorzeny (1908-1975) freed Mussolini at Gran Sasso in the Abruzzi Mountains. Paratroopers in 12 gliders took the Italian Carabinieri guards by surprise without firing a single shot, and whisked ex-dictator Mussolini away in a Storch airplane to Rome. The rest of the commando team escaped by cable car. Skorzeny then flew Mussolini to meet with Hitler.
    (AP, 9/12/97)(SFC, 4/25/97, p.A15)(The National Interest, 8/26/19)

1943        Sep 13, Chiang Kai-shek became president of China.
    (AP, 9/13/97)
1943        Sep 13, Germans counter attacked at Salerno.
    (MC, 9/13/01)
1943        Sep 13, The Scottish-built S.S. Terra Nova sank off the Greenland after being damaged by ice. It had gained fame by taking the explorer Robert Scott and a crew to the Antarctic in 1910 in an effort to become the first to reach the South Pole. Her crew were saved by a United States Coast Guard cutter Southwind. Wreckage of the ship was discovered in 2012.
    (AP, 8/18/12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Terra_Nova_%28ship%29)

1943        Sep 14, German troops abandoned the Salerno front in Italy.
    (HN, 9/14/98)

1943        Sep 18, Hitler ordered the deportation of Danish Jews (unsuccessful).
    (MC, 9/18/01)

1943        Sep 19, Liberator bombers sank U-341.
    (MC, 9/19/01)

1943        Sep 21, Bishara al-Khuri (1890-1964) was elected the first president of modern-day Lebanon. Lebanon did not become fully independent from French rule until 1946. Khuri had previously been Secretary-General of Mount Lebanon (a political predecessor to modern Lebanon administered by the French) as well as its Prime Minister on several separate occasions. The French held elections to fulfill their earlier promises of Lebanese independence. The new government promptly passed legislation to remove French influences in the constitution.

1943        Sep 22, The Destroyer Keppel sank U-229.
    (MC, 9/22/01)

1943        Sep 23, Julio Iglesias De la Cueva, Spanish singer (To All the Girls I’ve Loved Before…), was born in Madrid.
1943        Sep 23, Benito Mussolini formed a rival fascist government in Italy.
1943        Sep 23, In Lithuania the remaining residents in the Vilnius Ghetto were executed or sent off to concentration camps by the occupying forces of Nazi Germany.
    (AP, 9/22/18)

1943        Sep 24, German forces executed 117 Italian officers on the Greek island of Cephalonia (Kefalonia). The massacre became the basis for the 1994 bestseller Captain Corelli's Mandolin by British writer Louis de Bernieres. On Oct 18, 2013 an Italian court handed a life sentence in absentia to former German army corporal Alfred Stork (90) for his role in the execution.
    (AFP, 10/18/13)
1943        Sep 24, Soviet forces reconquered Smolensk. [see Sep 25]
    (MC, 9/24/01)

1943        Sep 25, The Red Army retook Smolensk from the Germans who were retreating to the Dnieper River in the Soviet Union. [see Sep 24]
    (HN, 9/25/98)

1943        Sep 26, The Germans placed an extortion on the Jews of Rome with an order to produce 50 kg of gold within 2 days or face massive deportations. Pope Pius XII offered to loan the Jewish community 15 kg of gold with interest and with repayment due within 4 years after the war. Rome’s Jews and citizens came up with sufficient gold to make the Pope’s offer needless.
    (WSJ, 5/8/97, p.A23)   

1943        Sep 27, Bing Crosby, the Andrews Sisters and the Vic Schoen Orchestra recorded "Pistol Packin’ Mama" and "Jingle Bells" for Decca Records.
    (AP, 9/27/98)

1943        Sep 28, J.T. Walsh, actor (Col. Frank Bach, Dark Skies), was born.
    (MC, 9/28/01)

1943        Sep 29, Adolf Hitler’s book Mein Kampf was published in the United States.
    (HN, 9/29/98)
1943        Sep 29, General Dwight D. Eisenhower and Italian Marshal Pietro Badoglio signed an armistice aboard the British ship Nelson off Malta.
    (AP, 9/29/97)
1943        Sep 29, Lech Walesa, Polish labor leader who founded the Solidarity party and later became the president of Poland, was born.
    (HN, 9/29/98)

1943        Sep 30, The Women’s Army Auxiliary Corps became the Women’s Army Corps, a regular contingent of the U.S. Army with the same status as other army service corps.
    (HN, 9/30/98)

1943        Sep, The National Geographic included a map of the Pacific Ocean and the Bay of Bengal in this issue to help people understand the Pacific War theater.
    (NG, 5/95, p.69)
1943        Sep, Pearl Cornioley (1916-2008), a British agent, parachuted into France as a secret agent to help arm and organize the Resistance. In 1995 she wrote an autobiography and in 2006 Royal Air Force officers presented her with her parachute wings in a ceremony at her Paris retirement home.
    (AP, 3/8/08)
1943        Sep, German forces invaded and occupied Albania.
    (www, Albania, 1998)
1943        Sep, Trieste was occupied by the Germans and held until the end of the war. Many of the city’s Jews perished at the nearby Risiera di San Sabba Nazi death camp.
    (SFC, 2/3/97, p.C3)
1943        Sep, Jeannie Rousseau, code name Amniarix, collected enough information on V-2 rockets from German officers in France to send a detailed report to England. Reginald Jones, chief of Britain's scientific intelligence, included her text in his book "The Wizard War."
    (SFC, 1/2/99, p.A10)
1943        Sep, Pope Pius XII offered Vatican assets to ransom Jews from the Nazis and in Italy ran an extensive network of hideouts for escaping Jews.
    (WSJ, 4/25/97, p.A18)

1943        Sep - 1943 Oct, About 7,200 Jews, or 95 percent of Denmark's Jewish population, and some 700 of their non-Jewish relatives managed to escape by crossing the narrow waterway from Gilleleje and other coastal spots to neutral Sweden in a risky rescue mission. About 500 Jews were arrested in Nazi raids and deported to concentration camps.
    (Econ, 7/10/04, p.46)(AP, 10/11/18)

1943        Oct 1, Allied forces captured Naples during World War II. British troops in Italy entered Naples and occupied Foggia airfield.
    (HFA, ‘96, p.38)(AP, 10/1/97)(HN, 10/1/98)
1943        Oct 1, Germans attacked Jews in Denmark.
    (MC, 10/1/01)

1943        Oct 4, German occupiers forbade the flying of kites. Violation carried a 6 month jail sentence.
    (MC, 10/4/01)
1943        Oct 4, Some 6,600 Moroccans accounted for the bulk of the fighting force that freed Corsica. In 2013 France honored the Moroccan veterans and fallen soldiers who freed Corsica.
    (AP, 10/4/13)

1943        Oct 6, The Battle at Vella Lavella was fought in the Solomon Islands.
    (MC, 10/6/01)
1943        Oct 6, Himmler ordered the acceleration of "Final Solution."
    (MC, 10/6/01)

1943        Oct 7, Weill's, Perelman's and Nash's musical "One Touch of Venus," premiered in NYC.
    (MC, 10/7/01)
1943        Oct 7, Approximately 100 U.S. prisoners of war remaining on Wake Island were executed by the Japanese.
    (HN, 10/7/98)
1943        Oct 7, Radclyffe Hall (b.1880), English author of the lesbian classic "The Well of Loneliness" (1928), died. The book was the subject of an obscenity trial in Britain which resulted in all copies being ordered destroyed.
    (AP, 9/29/09)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radclyffe_Hall)

1943        Oct 9, Alexander Fleming reported in Lancet the 1st successful treatment of streptococcal meningitis with intramuscular and intrathecal (directly into the spinal fluid) injections of the just-purified penicillin.
    (WSJ, 10/17/02, p.A19)
1943        Oct 9, A Luftwaffe squadron operating from Rhodes lost several Stukas to allied ships and aircraft. In 2006 Greek divers raised the wreckage of a Stuka bomber, believed to be one of the lost planes.
    (AP, 10/6/06)

1943        Oct 10, Chiang Kai-shek took the oath of office as president of China.
    (AP, 10/10/97)

1943        Oct 11, The US submarine Wahoo, Under the command of Dudley "Mush" Morton, was sunk by the Japanese navy as it returned from its seventh patrol. All 79 crewmen died. In 2006 Russian divers found the wreckage in the La Perouse Strait.
    (AP, 8/18/06)
1943        Oct 11, San Francisco acquired its first Negro policeman. William Glenn (45), former Navy civil guard, was hired for the duration of the war and for six month thereafter.
    (SSFC, 10/7/18, DB p.46)

1943        Oct 12, The Radio Corporation of America announced the divestment of the NBC Blue radio network to businessman Edward J. Noble for $8 million. Noble first called it just "The Blue Network." By Feb 1945 it was renamed the American Broadcasting Company.
    (NYT, 10/12/1943, P.23)(NYT, 10/17/1943, P. XII)
1943        Oct 12, The U.S. Fifth Army began an assault crossing of the Volturno River in Italy.
    (HN, 10/12/98)
1943        Oct 12, The US bombed Rabaul, New Britain (S. Pacific, Bismarck Archipelago).
    (WUD, 1994 p.962)(MC, 10/12/01)

1943        Oct 13, During World War II, Italy declared war on Germany, its one-time Axis partner.
    (AP, 10/13/97)(HN, 10/13/98)

1943        Oct 14, US 8th Air Force lost 60 B-17 bombers during assault on Schweinfurt.
    (MC, 10/14/01)
1943        Oct 14, In Germany Rev. Max Josef Metzger was sentenced to death for treason by Roland Freisler, chief judge of the Nazi’s People’s Court. He had written a letter to the British government that denounced the Nazis and called for a German state based on Christian democratic and legal principles. He was exonerated by a Berlin court in 1997
    (SFC, 5/3/97, p.A10)
1943        Oct 14, Some 300 of 600 prisoners escaped from the Nazi’s Sobibor death camp in Poland. Alexander Pechersky, a Russian officer of Jewish origin, roused his fellow prisoners to rebellion. The event was later documented in the book "Escape from Sobibor" by Richard Rashke (1982) and the film of the same name with Alan Arkin. Josef Vallaster, an Austrian guard, was among 11 SS officers and 11 Ukrainians killed in the escape. Most of the escaped prisoners were killed as they fled. Only 50 prisoners survived the war. Vallaster had operated the motor that funneled gas into Sobibor’s shower rooms. After the uprising at Sobibor, the Nazis shut it down and leveled it to the ground, replanting over it to cover their tracks.
    (SFC, 7/11/03, p.A19)(SSFC, 2/17/08, p.A8)(AP, 8/21/12)(AFP, 10/14/13)

1943        Oct 16, Chicago Mayor Edward J. Kelly officially opened the city’s new subway system during a ceremony at the State and Madison street station.
    (AP, 10/16/00)
1943        Oct 16, In Italy the Nazi SS police and Waffen SS began rounding up the Jews of Rome. There was an anti Jewish riot in Rome as the Jewish quarter was surrounded by Nazis, and Jews were evacuated to Auschwitz. Pope Pius XII made no public protest, though he did send some messages of disapproval through intermediaries. In total, nearly 8,000 Italian Jews died in concentration camps in World War II.
    (WSJ, 10/18/99, p.A46)(AFP, 10/27/18)

1943        Oct 18, US bombing of Bougainville, Solomon Islands.
    (MC, 10/18/01)

1943        Oct 19, Delegates from the U.S.S.R. met with representatives from the Allied nations of Great Britain, the U.S., and China, in an attempt to hammer out a greater consensus on war aims, and to improve the rapidly cooling relations between the Soviet Union and its allies.
    (MC, 10/19/01)
1943        Oct 19, Camille Claudel (b.1864), assistant, model and mistress to sculptor Auguste Rodin, died in France.
    (www.reference.com/browse/wiki/Camille_Claudel)(Econ, 1/7/06, p.75)

1943        Oct 20, A US B-17 bomber crashed in the Netherlands near the small town of de Bilt. Of the 10 men on board 5 died and 5 were captured. Robert Surdez, co-pilot, died in 2004.
    (SFC, 3/30/04, p.B1)(SFC, 8/11/04, p.B7)

1943        Oct 22, Catherine Deneuve, [Dorleac], actress (Repulsion, Hunger), was born in Paris.
    (MC, 10/22/01)

1943        Oct 23, The 1st Jewish transport out of Rome reached Birkenau (Poland) extermination camp.
    (MC, 10/23/01)

1943        Oct 24, Anti-Nazi Clandestine Radio Soldatsender, Calais, began transmitting.
    (MC, 10/24/01)

1943          Oct 25, Japanese forces held an official ceremony was held for the 415-km Thailand-Burma railroad. The rail was completed Oct 17 at Konkuita, Thailand.  During its construction, approximately 13,000 prisoners of war died and were buried along the “Death Railway." An estimated 80,000 to 100,000 civilians also died in the course of the project, chiefly forced labor brought from Malaya and the Dutch East Indies, or conscripted in Siam (Thailand) and Burma (Myanmar). The movie “The Bridge on the River Kwai" (1957) was a part of this effort and is today a big tourist attraction in Thailand.

1943        Oct 28, The German U-220 sank.
    (MC, 10/28/01)

1943        Oct 29, 3 Allied officers escaped the German camp Stalag Luft 3.
    (MC, 10/29/01)

1943        Oct 30, The Molotov-Eden-Cordell Hull accord over operations at UN.
    (MC, 10/30/01)

1943        Oct 31, Max Reinhardt, Austrian stage manager (Turandot), died.
    (MC, 10/31/01)

1943        Oct, The United Nations War Crimes Commission UNWCC) was established with a secretariat in London.
    (Econ, 1/29/11, p.84)
1943        Oct, Capt. Austin Shofner (25) led a group of 10 men who escaped from a Japanese prison camp in the Philippines, where the survivors of the Bataan Death March were being held. They told of how some 15,000 prisoners had been shot or hacked to death during the 3-day march in 1942.
    (SFC, 4/25/97, p.A26)
1943        Oct, Germans demolished the ghetto buildings of Minsk, known as the Yama, or Pit, in an effort to find Jews in hiding. 2,000 remaining Jews were rounded up and killed. More than 100,000 Jews were killed there from August 1941.
    (AP, 10/21/08)

1943        Nov 1, American troops invaded Bougainville in the Solomon Islands.
    (HN, 11/1/98)

1943        Nov 2, The Battle of Empress Augusta Bay in Bougainville ended in U.S. Navy victory over Japan.
    (HN, 11/2/98)
1943        Nov 2, Jewish ghetto of Riga, Latvia, was destroyed.
    (MC, 11/2/01)

1943        Nov 3, William Reid (died 2001 at 79), RAF bomber pilot, flew his badly damaged Lancaster bomber on a bombing mission to a ball-bearing factory in Dusseldorf, Germany, and managed to return the crippled plane to England.
    (SFC, 12/15/01, p.A25)
1943        Nov 3, SS and police units shot at least 6,000 Jewish inmates of the Trawniki and Dorohucza Labor Camps.
1943        Nov 3-1943 Nov 4, In Poland the 2-day "Operation Harvest" at the Majdanek concentration camp executed men, women and children. Nazi officer Alfons Goetzfried later admitted to having personally shot 500 people. Over 42,000 people, mostly Jews, were killed in the operation. In 1999 Alfons Goetzfrid (79) was convicted for assisting in the murders of 17,000 Jews at the camp. He was sentenced to 10 years in prison. During the so-called "Mission Harvest Festival" massacres tens of thousands of Jews in the district of Lublin were shot by Nazi officers. Among them were members of Erich Steidtmann’s Hamburg Polizeibataillon 101 company. In 2010 prosecutors reopened an investigation on Steidtmann’s role in the massacre.
    (SFC, 3/5/98, p.A14)(SFC, 5/21/99, p.D2)(AP, 4/22/10)

1943        Nov 5, Sam Shepard, American playwright and actor, was born.
    (HN, 11/5/00)

1943        Nov 6, Michael Schwerner, civil rights worker, was born. He was murdered in 1964.
    (MC, 11/6/01)
1943        Nov 6, Soviet forces reconquered Kiev.
    (MC, 11/6/01)

1943        Nov 7, Joni Mitchell, singer, songwriter, was born as Roberta J. Anderson in Alberta, Canada.   
1943        Nov 7, British troops launched a limited offensive along the coast of Burma.
    (HN, 11/7/98)

1943        Nov 9, Bernhard Lichtenberg (67), German clergyman and antifascist, died.
    (MC, 11/9/01)

1943        Nov 11, In Lebanon the French voiced their dissent by arresting Bishara al-Khuri and most of the government.  An insurrection, British diplomatic efforts and one more crisis in 1945 finally left the government restored.
    (HNQ, 12/24/00)

1943        Nov 14, Leonard Bernstein, the 25-year-old assistant conductor of the New York Philharmonic, made his debut with the orchestra as he filled in for the ailing Bruno Walter during a nationally broadcast concert.
    (AP, 11/14/02)
1943        Nov 14, An American torpedo was mistakenly fired at the U.S. battleship Iowa, which was carrying President Roosevelt and his joint chiefs to the Tehran conference; the torpedo exploded harmlessly in the Iowa's wake.
    (AP, 11/14/01)

1943        Nov 15, Film star Olivia de Havilland met with lawyer Martin Gang and learned that it was illegal for studio bosses to keep actors locked up with salaried contracts for over 7 years. She sued and won a California court of Appeal victory in 1944 against Warner Bros.
    (SFC, 10/2/10, p.E8)

1943        Nov 16, One hundred and forty American bombers flew from British bases to Vemork, Norway, to destroy the Nazi heavy water facility near Rjukan, where production had resumed despite a commando raid in February. Only 14 of some 700 bombs hit the plant killing 24 civilians. The bombing did not harm the basement level where the heavy water was collected and stored.
    (ON, 4/07, p.5)

1943        Nov 18, 444 British bombers attacked Berlin.
    (MC, 11/18/01)
1943        Nov 18, U-211 sank in the Atlantic Ocean.
    (MC, 11/18/01)

1943        Nov 19, U-536 sank in Atlantic Ocean.
    (MC, 11/19/01)

1943        Nov 20, US Marines began landing on Tarawa and Makin atolls in the Gilbert Islands, encountering fierce resistance from Japanese forces but emerging victorious three days later. The US 2nd marine division invaded the tiny isle of Betio on Tarawa Atoll in the Gilberts. It was the first seriously opposed landing experienced by the Americans in WWII. After 3 days 1,027 US Marine and Navy personnel were killed. Of some 4,800 Japanese and Korean laborers on Betio, 146 survived, including 17 Japanese troops. In 2006 John Wukovits authored “One Square Mile Of Hell."
    (AP, 11/20/05)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Tarawa)(AH, 6/07, p.72)
1943        Nov 20, US Marine cinematographer Norman Hatch (1921-2017) began filming much of the 76-hour battle for the island of Tarawa. The film was edited and made into a 20-minute documentary: “With the Marines at Tarawa." In 1945 the film received an Academy Award for best short documentary.
    (https://archive.org/details/WiththeMarinesatTarawa)(SFC, 4/28/17, p.D8)
1943        Nov 20, U-538 sank in the Atlantic Ocean.
    (MC, 11/20/01)

1943        Nov 22, Billie Jean King, U.S. tennis player and women's rights pioneer, was born.
    (HN, 11//00)
1943        Nov 22, President Roosevelt, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and Chinese leader Chiang Kai-shek met in Cairo to discuss measures for defeating Japan.
    (AP, 11/22/99)
1943        Nov 22, US troops landed on Abemada, Gilbert Island.
    (MC, 11/22/01)
1943        Nov 22, RAF began bombing of Berlin.
    (MC, 11/22/01)
1943        Nov 22, Lyricist Lorenz Hart died in New York at age 48.
    (AP, 11/22/97)
1943        Nov 22, The French mandate over Lebanon ended after 23 years of colonial rule. This became marked a Lebanon’s Independence Day.

1943        Nov 23, Andrew Goodman (d.1964), murdered civil rights worker, was born.
    (MC, 11/23/01)
1943        Nov 23, During World War II US forces seized control of the Tarawa and Makin atolls from the Japanese. Makin Atoll, part of the Gilbert and Ellice Islands, was the first central Pacific island to be reconquered by the Allies. More than 900 US marines and 30 sailors were killed in the battle for Tarawa.
    (AP, 11/23/97)(SFC, 1/26/98, p.A17)(SFC, 12/16/19, p.A6)

1943        Nov 25, U-600 sank in the Atlantic Ocean.
    (MC, 11/25/01)
1943        Nov 25, Anti-Fascist Council of Bosnia and Herzegovina (ZAVNOBiH) adopted a resolution declaring Bosnia and Herzegovina an equal community of Serbs, Muslims and Croats. Bosnia was founded by anti-fascist partisans.
    (http://tinyurl.com/hxrp9qt)(Econ, 12/5/15, p.53)

1943        Nov 26, Bruce Paltrow, U.S. director and producer (d.2002), was born
    (AP, 11/26/02)
1943        Nov 26, During World War II, the HMT Rohna, a British transport ship carrying American soldiers, was hit by a German missile off Algeria; 1,138 men were killed, including 1,015 American troops.
    (AP, 11/26/01)
1943        Nov 26, Edward H "Butch" O'Hare, US pilot, lt-comdr (Chicago Airport named for him), died in battle.
    (MC, 11/26/01)

1943        Nov 28, President Roosevelt, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and Soviet leader Josef Stalin met in Tehran, Iran, to map out strategy during World War II.
    (AP, 11/28/97)(DT, 11/28/97)(HN, 11/28/98)

1943        Nov 29, US aircraft carrier Hornet was launched.
    (MC, 11/29/01)
1943        Nov 29, In Yugoslavia partisan Tito formed a temporary government in Jajce, Bosnia.
    (MC, 11/29/01)
1943        Nov 29, U-86 sank in the Atlantic Ocean.
    (MC, 11/29/01)

1943        Nov, In Germany Michael Negele joined the Death’s head Battalion of the Waffen-SS. He later immigrated to the US and withheld information on his wartime activities. In 1997 a Missouri court acted to strip him of US citizenship.
    (SFC, 9/3/97, p.A3)

1943        Dec 1, President Roosevelt, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and Soviet leader Josef Stalin concluded their Tehran conference and agreed to Operation Overlord (D-Day).
    (AP, 12/1/00)

1943        Dec 2, "Carmen Jones," a contemporary reworking of the Bizet opera "Carmen" by Oscar Hammerstein II with an all-black cast, opened on Broadway.
    (AP, 12/2/98)
1943        Dec 2, A US federal judge ordered officials at the Boilermakers' Union to issue temporary work permits for 160 Negro employees at Marin ship. The SF Bay Area employees had been discharged when they refused to join a "Jim Crow" auxiliary, which gave them no voice in the union.
    (SSFC, 12/2/18, DB p.46)
1943            Dec 2, The 1st RSHA (Reichsicherheitshauptamt, the central SS-department) transport out of Vienna reached Birkenau camp (Poland). One of the powers of the RSHA was the imposition of "Protective Custody," which meant the deportation to a concentration camp without trial or the possibility of appeal for the victims.
1943        Dec 2, Italy’s Bari harbor was attacked by German bombers. They achieved a complete surprise bombing shipping and personnel operating in support of the Allied Italian campaign. 27 cargo and transport ships and a schooner were sunk. The release of mustard gas from one of the wrecked cargo ships added to the loss of life.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Air_raid_on_Bari)(Econ, 9/14/13, p.20)

1943        Dec 3, Howard Hanson's 4th Symphony premiered.
    (MC, 12/3/01)
1943        Dec 3, Battle of Monte Cassino, Italy began.
    (MC, 12/3/01)

1943        Dec 8, U.S. carriers sank two cruisers and down 72 planes in the Marshall Islands.
    (HN, 12/8/98)

1943        Dec 9, In the SF Bay Area gale-strong winds and resulting fires caused damages running into millions of dollars. In San Francisco 50-74 mph winds invoked a rare 10-1 emergency call ordering all firemen to stand by.
    (SSFC, 12/9/18, DB p.50)

1943        Dec 10, Franklin D. Roosevelt signed a bill that postponed a draft of pre-Pearl Harbor fathers.
    (HN, 12/10/98)
1943        Dec 10, Allied forces bombed Sofia, the capital of Bulgaria.
    (HN, 12/10/98)

1943        Dec 11, John Kerry, Massachusetts Senator and 2004 Democrat presidential candidate, was born in Denver, Colorado.
    (SSFC, 2/29/04, p.D2)
1943        Dec 11, Donna Mills, actress (Knots Landing, Incident), was born in Chicago, Illinois.
    (MC, 12/11/01)
1943        Dec 11, U.S. Secretary of State, Cordell Hull, demanded that Hungary, Rumania, and Bulgaria withdraw from the war.
    (HN, 12/11/98)

1943        Dec 12, The exiled Czech government signed a treaty with the USSR for postwar cooperation.
    (HN, 12/12/98)
1943        Dec 12, The German Army launched Operation Winter Tempest, the relief of the Sixth Army trapped in Stalingrad. The attempt to relieve Stalingrad fell short due to stubborn Soviet resistance and the Germans' indecision within the besieged city.
    (HN, 12/12/98)

1943      Dec 15, Thomas "Fats" Waller (39), US jazz stride piano artist (Hot Chocolate), died in Kansas City, Mo. Guitarist Al Casey performed with Waller for 10 years prior to WW II.
    (SFEM, 10/6/96, p.16,18)

1943        Dec 16, Steven Bochco, producer (Hill St Blues, LA Law, St Elsewhere, NYPD Blue), was born.
    (MC, 12/16/01)

1943        Dec 17, The Magnuson Act, also known as the Chinese Exclusion Repeal Act of 1943, was signed into law. The immigration legislation was proposed by US Representative (later Senator) Warren G. Magnuson of Washington.

1943        Dec 17, U.S. forces invaded New Britain Island in New Guinea.
    (HN, 12/17/98)

1943        Dec 19, William De Vries, surgeon-inventor (Symbion artificial heart), was born in Brooklyn.
    (MC, 12/19/01)

1943        Dec 20, "International" was no longer USSR National Anthem.
    (MC, 12/20/01)
1943        Dec 20, Soviet forces halted a German army trying to relieve the besieged city of Stalingrad.
    (HN, 12/20/98)

1943        Dec 22, Beatrix Potter (b.1866), English author, died. She first told the story of Peter Rabbit in the form of a "picture letter" to Noel Moore, the son of Potter's former governess in 1893. A 2nd illustrated letter the same month later became “The Tale of Jeremy Fisher." The “Tale of Peter Rabbit" was published in 1901. At her death she bequeathed all her holdings, 14 farms and 4,000 acres of land, to the National Trust.
    (Econ, 1/6/07, p.67)(www.visitcumbria.com/bpotter.htm)

1943        Dec 23, The 1st telecast of a complete opera (Hansel & Gretel) was made from Schenectady, NY.
    (MC, 12/23/01)
1943        Dec 23, Gen. Montgomery was appointed British commandant for D-day.
    (MC, 12/23/01)

1943        Dec 24, President Roosevelt appointed Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower supreme commander of Allied forces as part of Operation Overlord. Almost everyone had believed the position would go to American Chief of Staff George C. Marshall.
    (AP, 12/24/97)(HN, 12/24/00)

1943        Dec 26, Count Claus von Stauffenberg tried in vain to plant a bomb in Hitler’s headquarters.
    (MC, 12/26/01)
1943        Dec 26, The 32,000-ton German battleship Scharnhorst sank off Norway following an Allied attack led by the British battleship Duke of York. Only 36 of the 1,900 crew survived. Researchers found the wreck in 2000.
    (CMW, 1968, p.589)(HN, 12/26/98)(SFC, 10/4/00, p.A12)

1943        Dec 27, Cokie Roberts, American political broadcaster for NPR and ABC, was born.
    (HN, 12/27/98)
1943        Dec 27, President Franklin Roosevelt ordered the U.S. Army to take temporary possession of all railroads in order to prevent a strike by railway workers. The action was taken under the wartime Labor Disputes Act. The railroads were returned to private management on January 18, 1944.
    (HNQ, 7/16/98)

1943        Dec 31, John Denver, singer (Rocky Mt High), was born in NM.
    (MC, 12/31/01)
1943        Dec 31, Ben Kingsley, actor (Gandhi, Betrayal, Maurice), was born in Scarborough, England.
    (MC, 12/31/01)
1943        Dec 31, NYC's Times Square greeted Frank Sinatra at the Paramount Theater.
    (MC, 12/31/01)

1943        Tammy Wynette (d.1998 at 55), country singer, was born as Virginia Wynette Pugh on a cotton farm in Itawamba County. In 1968 she recorded her hit song "Stand by Your Man."
    (SFC, 4/798, p.A7)

1943        Max Ernst created his painting "Flute of the Angels."
    (WSJ, 6/10/99, p.A24)

1943        Jacob Lawrence (1917-2000) painted "Ironers."
    (WSJ, 8/3/01, p.W8)

1943        Pablo Picasso painted "First Steps," and created his bronze sculpture "Man With a Lamb." The sculpture represented the death of a friend in a concentration camp. He also painted "Atelier Window."
    (SFEC, 9/20/98, DB p.39)

1943        Jackson Pollock (1912-1956) created his 500-pound work titled “Mural," a canvas nearly 8x20 feet. It was made for collector Peggy Guggenheim and marked a transition from his modestly sized easel paintings to his drip paintings. Pollock also created this year his work titled “The She-Wolf."
    (WSJ, 7/30/08, p.D7)(SFC, 10/1/10, p.F4)(SFC, 3/12/14, p.F5)

1943        Diego Rivera painted Vendedora de Alcatraces and Retrato De La Senora Natasha Gelman. Frida Kahlo painted "Diego En Mi Pensamiento."
    (SFC, 4/14/96, EM, p.18)

1943        American artist Norman Rockwell painted “Four Freedoms," a series of four oil paintings: Freedom of Speech, Freedom of Worship, Freedom from Want, and Freedom from Fear, referring to their mention in President Franklin D. Roosevelt's January 6, 1941, speech to Congress.
    (http://tinyurl.com/y9mt3yy6)(Econ 7/29/17, p.28)

1943        Jean Potter Chelnov returned to Alaska to research her book "The Flying North," a book on aviation in Alaska. It was edited by Dashiell Hammett, detective author then serving in Alaska.
    (SFC, 1/8/96, p.A17)

1943        Lillian Hellman wrote her play: "The Searching Wind."
    (WSJ, 2/23/96, p.A-10)

1943        Larry LeSueur (d.2003 at 93), war correspondent, authored "Twelve Months That Changed the World," based on his 1941-1942 reports from the Russian front. He was initially hired by Edward R. Murrow in 1939.
    (SFC, 2/8/03, p.A1)

1943        US pilot Captain Ted Lawson authored “Thirty Seconds Over Tokyo." Here he told the story of his bomber crashing just off an island on China’s eastern coast following the April 1941 Doolittle Raid on Japan. Gunner David Thatcher 1921-2016) helped save four wounded crewman including Lt. Lawson. A Hollywood movie based on the book came out in 1944.
    (SFC, 6/23/16, p.E5)

1943        Erle Loran (d.1999 at 93) authored "Cezanne's Composition," an instructional book on 20th century art.
    (SFC, 5/24/99, p.C4)

1943        Jerre Mangione (d.1998 at 89) published his first book "Mount Allegro." It was a non-fiction account of his life as the son of Sicilian immigrants but his publisher, Houghton Miflin, insisted that it be published as a novel.
    (SFC, 9/1/98, p.A20)

1943        J.T. McCurdy (1886-1947),  Canadian psychiatrist, authored "The Structure of Morale,"  an objective analysis of the nature of the psychological factor in war.

1943        Jean-Paul Sartre wrote his best play "The Flies." It was based on an ancient myth. “Being and Nothingness," his most famous philosophical treatise, was also published this year.
    (WSJ, 8/12/98, p.A13)

1943        Curt Siodmak authored the novel "Donovan’s Brain." It was about a disembodied brain with malicious intentions.
    (SFC, 11/21/00, p.A25)

1943        "The Little Prince" by Antoine de St. Exupery (d.1944) was published.
    (SFEC, 2/27/00, BR p.12)

1943        William Whyte (d.2000 at 86) authored "Street Corner Society," a study of Italian gangs in Boston’s North End.
    (SFC, 7/20/00, p.C2)

1943        Wendell Wilkie published his "One World."

1943        Ira Wolfert (d.1997 at 89) wrote his novel "Tucker’s People." It was made into the 1948 film "Force of Evil." He also wrote the nonfiction work "Battle for the Solomons."
    (SFC, 11/28/97, p.B8)

1943        The musical "Carmen Jones" was based on Bizet’s opera "Carmen" in turn based on the novella by Prosper Merimee.
    (SFC, 10/24/96, p.D1)(WSJ, 2/5/97, p.A16)

1943        Bartok composed his "Concerto for Orchestra," one of the great works in the modern Western canon.
    (WSJ, 7/1/03, p.D8)

1943        The ballet "Kratt" (The Goblin) by Eduard Tubin was first performed in Estonia. Tubin left Estonia in 1944 and took up residence in Stockholm.
    (SFC, 2/13/98, p.C8)

1943        Columbia Pictures released its first color film.
    (SFEC, 2/9/97, Par p.4)

1943        Roy Acuff, country music superstar, invited the governor of Tennessee to a party. Gov. Prentice Cooper snubbed him saying that he and his awful musicians were making Tennessee “the hillbilly capital of the United States."
    (Econ, 12/23/06, p.45)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prentice_Cooper)

1943        Texan singer Ernest Tubb began performing for the live radio show, the Grand Ole Opry. He had an amplified sound heavy on the fiddle and steel guitar.
    (Hem., 4/97, p.69)

1943        The music "Rapsodia Negra" by Cuban composer Ernesto Lecuona had its premier in Carnegie Hall. Lecuona was the composer of "Malaguena."
    (WSJ, 5/27/99, p.A24)

1943        "Tico Tico" was composed by Zequinha Abreu.
    (SI-WPC, 1997)

1943        Sy Oliver composed his jazz piece "Opus One."
    (SI-WPC, 12/6/96)

1943        "One Touch of Venus" was an eccentric opus with music by Kurt Weill and lyrics by Ogden Nash about Venus coming to life and falling for a New jersey barber. It made a star of Mary Martin.
    (WSJ, 4/15/96, p.A-16)

1943        The NYC Opera was established by Mayor Fiorello LaGuardia to bring high culture at low prices to ordinary New Yorkers. In 2013 the company filed for banktuptcy.
    (Econ, 10/5/13, p.34)

1943        A UN concert was presented by the SF CIO and featured Paul Robeson.
    (SFEC, 8/16/98, DB p.23)

1943        Francoise Gilot met Picasso as a 23-year-old art student and became his lover for 10 years and mother of 2 children. She later married Jonas Salk, the polio vaccine pioneer.
    (SFC, 10/5/96, p.E1)

1943        Eugene O'Neill, playwright, burned most of the plays in his planned cycle "A Tale of Possessors Self-Dispossessed." Two of the plays survived: "More Stately Mansions," and "A Touch of the Poet." The Mansions play was incomplete and had instructions to be burned upon his death, but was later staged. Eugene O'Neill wrote his last play "A Moon for the Misbegotten."
    (WSJ, 10/8/97, p.A20)(WSJ, 2/8/00, p.A24)(WSJ, 3/22/00, p.A20)

1943        Rex Applegate (d.1998 at 84) published his book "Kill or Be Killed," a military manual on hand-to-hand combat.
    (SFC, 7/28/98, p.A20)

1943        David Brinkley began his career as a correspondent for NBC News in Washington.
    (SFC, 10/18/96, C6)

1943        Maxine Reams (d.1997 at 79) became the first female staff photographer for the LA Times.
    (SFC, 9/29/97, p.A23)

1943        The American Bar Association (ABA) opened its ranks to black lawyers
    (WSJ, 8/14/02, p.A1)

1943        The All-American Girls Professional Baseball League began in this year. Teams like the Racine (Wisconsin) Belles and the Rockford (Illinois) Peaches participated. In 1992 the movie "A League of Their Own" depicted the first season of the Peaches.
    (Smith., 4/95, p. 44)

1943        Ira Wolfert received a Pulitzer Prize for his telegraphic reporting on the 1942 sea battle off Guadalcanal.
    (SFC, 11/28/97, p.B8)

1943        The US Smith-Connally Act prohibited labor unions from contributing to federal campaigns.
    (SFEC, 10/5/97, p.D9)

1943        Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt signed the act that repealed the Chinese exclusion laws after China became an ally in WW II. Chinese were given the right to naturalize and a token annual quota of 105 was set. 
    (SFEC, 3/1/98, p.W39)(SFEC, 2/6/00, Rp.10)

1943        Congress authorized the US Cadet Nurse Corps under the leadership of Lucile Petry Leone (d.1999 at 97).
    (SFC, 12/6/99, p.B2)

1943        An anonymous letter to FBI chief Herbert Hoover unmasked Soviet spies. The letter said that Vassili Zarubin and his wife, Soviet diplomats, were spies. The FBI did not take action against them but focused on ways to fight spying.
    (WSJ, 10/4/96, p.A1)

1943        Lady Bird Johnson purchased KTBC, a low-powered radio station in Texas. The Federal Communications Commission, which reviewed all broadcast-license transfers, was close to being abolished. Congressman Lyndon Johnson used his political influence in both Congress and the White House to prevent that from happening. In 1945 the FCC OK'd KTBC's request to quintuple its power, which cast its signal over 63 counties.
    (Econ, 7/21/07, p.85)(www.slate.com/id/2170481/nav/navoa/)

1943        Jacqueline "Jackie" Cochran convinced the U.S. military that qualified women pilots could free men for combat duty by performing non-combat missions. Supported by Eleanor Roosevelt and Army aviation chief General Henry H. "Hap" Arnold, Cochran's goal was achieved with the formation of the Women's Air Force Service Pilots (WASPs).
    (HNPD, 2/25/99)

1943        The US began minting steel pennies in order to save on copper for the war effort.
    (SFEC, 9/8/96, Par p.21)

1943        A new $68 million carrier USS Hornet was commissioned. It was named in honor of the carrier that was sunk by the Japanese Oct 26, 1942 near Guadalcanal. The new Hornet was the 8th US Navy ship to take the name.
    (SFC, 8/17/98, p.A22)   

1943        The new carrier USS Intrepid was deployed and served as a mainstay of the war against Japan in the Pacific. By the end of the war it lost 270 crew members. It was decommissioned in 1974. New York builder Zach Fisher saved it from the scrap year and by 1982 it was berthed off Manhattan as the Intrepid Sea Air & Space Museum.
    (SSFC, 11/12/06, p.A4)(WSJ, 11/8/08, p.W9)

1943        The US introduced the P-51 airplane.
    (WSJ, 8/14/97, p.A13)

1943        The Hanford nuclear reservation was constructed in Washington state for the Manhattan Project. Hanford made plutonium until the 1980s.
    (SFC, 4/10/99, p.A7)

1943        The battleship Missouri was launched. The Iowa class battleship was later made into a memorial at Pearl Harbor.
    (SFC, 9/14/96, p.A16)(SFC, 10/13/99, p.A6)

1943        In the Pacific, the marines fought their way from Guadalcanal to Tarawa.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1943)

1943        The Allies decided on demanding unconditional surrender and a second front invasion was led by Eisenhower.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1943)

1943        Coast Guard Lt. Carlton Skinner (d.2004) took command of the weather ship Sea Cloud, the 1st fully integrated US naval warship.
    (SSFC, 8/29/04, p.B7)

1943        The US Kooskia Internment Camp for people of Japanese ancestry opened in northern Idaho. It operated until the end of WWII and held more than 250 detainees. Similar camps included Manzanar in California, Heart Mountain in Wyoming and Minidoka in Idaho.
    (SFC, 7/27/13, p.A7)

1943        Two American oil firms decided to expand their refinery in Bahrain and hired Bechtel. Capacity was doubled to 65,000 barrels per day.
    (SSFC, 5/4/03, p.A8)

1943        The RP-5A was designed as a reusable target drone for use by student aerial gunners. It was flown by remote control and weighed 120 lbs. with a maximum speed of 85 mph. It ran on a 2-cycle, 2-cylinder motor and gasoline.
    (FB, 9/12/96, p.B1)

1943        Austrian economist Paul Rosenstein-Rodan (1902-1985) outlined his “big push" theory. The big push model, a concept in development economics or welfare economics, emphasizes the fact that a firm's decision whether to industrialize or not depends on its expectation of what other firms will do. In general it said that even the simplest activity requires a network of other activities and that individual firms cannot organize such a large network, so the state or some other giant agency must step in. He emigrated to Britain in 1930, and taught at University College London and then at London School of Economics until 1947. He then moved to the World Bank, before moving on to MIT, where he was a professor from 1953 to 1968.
    (Econ, 12/3/11, p.92)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paul_Rosenstein-Rodan)

1943        General Motors invited Peter Drucker (1909-2005), a young author, to study the company from the inside. His seminal study of General Motors: “The Concept of the Corporation" (1946) introduced the idea of decentralization as a principle of organization, in contrast to the practice of command and control in business.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Concept_of_the_Corporation)(Econ, 11/19/05, p.72)

1943        The RCA Corp. was forced to divest one of its two networks, the Blue radio network, and the American Broadcasting Corp. (ABC) was formed.
    (SFC, 12/28/99, p.B3)(SFC, 12/29/99, p.E3)

1943        Willem Kolff invented the 1st dialysis machine in Holland.
    (WSJ, 10/2/03, p.A2)

1943        US psychiatrist Leo Kanner 1st described autism. Symptoms included a lack of interest in others.
    (SSFC, 2/2/03, Par p.4)

1943        By this year the Hopi land had dwindled to 624,000 acres and was surrounded by a 16-million-acre Navajo reservation.
    (SFC, 1/3/97, p.A26)

1943        A UN concert was presented by the SF CIO and featured Paul Robeson.
    (SFEC, 8/16/98, DB p.23)
1943        The Main Library of San Francisco reached full capacity.
    (SFC, 4/14/96, EM, p.22)
1943        In San Francisco the Westside Courts, a public housing project for African Americans, opened at Bush and Baker streets.
    (SFC, 8/6/16, p.C2)
1943        SF’s Fillmore merchants voted to melt down the 14 cast-iron arches that spanned Fillmore from Fulton to California streets to support the war effort.
    (SFCM, 7/18/04, p.8)
1943        In San Francisco John Brucato set up a produce market at Duboce and Market for small farmers in the local area. In 1947 the market was moved to Alemany and Crescent at the junction of Highway 101 and 280.
    (SFC, 1/14/98, Z1 p.8)
1943        In San Francisco three limited tenure black police officers were hired for the first time to serve during World War II. Walter Ervin Threadgill (d.1997 at 86) was one of 3 African Americans to enter the recruiting class.
    (SFC, 10/7/97, p.A23)
1943        Paul Fagan, the wealthy San Francisco businessman, shipped a herd of Hereford cattle to Hana on the island of Maui, Hawaii. He owned the San Francisco Seals of the pacific Coast League.
    (SFEC, 9/8/96, p.T8)
1943        In California Cesare Mondavi purchased the Charles Krug winery in Napa Valley and began making wine with his sons Robert and Peter. Robert Mondavi (1913-2008) persuaded his parents to buy Charles Krug Winery. Robert became the salesman and his brother Peter the winemaker.
    (USAT, 6/17/98, p.2D)(SFC, 5/17/08, p.A7)

1943        Preston T. Tucker (1903-1956) of Ypsilanti, Michigan, developed an innovative new passenger car for postwar America. The Tucker, of which only 51 were built, boasted disc brakes, pop-out windshields, padded dashboards and front-passenger crash compartments. It pioneered several automotive features that would later become standard. Tuckers were capable of a top speed of 122 mph and originally cost about $2,450. The last Tucker was manufactured in 1948, shortly before Preston Tucker faced charges of fraud by the Securities and Exchange Commission. Tucker successfully fought off the SEC charges and was at work on an automobile to be built in Brazil, the Carioca, when he died in 1956.
    (HNPD, 10/3/98)

1943        Richard James (d.1974) observed a torsion spring balance bounce off a ship’s deck while working at a Philadelphia shipyard and conceived the idea of a "slinky" toy for children, named by his wife Betty James (d.2008). In 1945 they founded James Industries. In 1998 the company was sold to POOF Products of Michigan.
    (IBCC, 10/97, #9)(SSFC, 11/23/08, p.B9)

1943        A US Army exercise used live ammunition on the wrong beach at Slapton sands near Torquay, England, and hundreds of people were killed.
    (SFEC, 5/11/97, p.T16)

1943        Abraham Maslow, American behavioral scientist, published an article entitled “A Theory of Human Motivation," in which he argued that people everywhere are subject to what he called a “hierarchy of needs."
    (Econ, 2/14/09, SR p.7)

1943        Stephen Vincent Benet (b.1898), novelist and poet, died. His poem "Western Star" won a 2nd Pulitzer Prize shortly after his death. He authored the story "The Devil and Daniel Webster."
    (SFC, 1/2/98, p.C20)

1943        Marsden Hartley (b.1877), one of the 1st American modern painters, died.
    (SFC, 3/8/01, p.D7)

1943        Oscar Hartzell (68), former Illinois farmer, died in a prison hospital with assets of 10 cents. At the turn of the century he had sold to some 100,000 Midwesterners pieces of the purported $100 billion estate of Sir Francis Drake. He was tried and convicted of mail fraud in Sioux City, Iowa. In 2002 Richard Rayner authored "Drake’s Fortune."
    (WSJ, 5/17/02, p.W11)(SSFC, 6/9/02, p.M1)

1943        Gustav Vigeland (b.1869), Norwegian sculptor, died. His major life's work was the creation of 212 sculptures of 600 figures in an Oslo park named Vigeland Park.
    (SSFC, 6/22/03, p.A1)

1943        Laszlo Biro, fled his native Hungary to Argentina, where he patented his ballpoint pen. England soon manufactured some 30,000 pens for use by RAF navigators in unpressurized cockpits, where fountain pens failed.
    (SFEC, 5/23/99, p.B7)

1943        A draught occurred in the outback of Western Australia.
    (NH, 2/97, p.12)

1943        In Austria Sister Restituta Kafka was beheaded by the Nazis for putting up crosses in a hospital. Pope John Paul II planned to beatify her in 1998.
    (SFC, 6/20/98, p.B3)(SFC, 6/22/98, p.A10)

1943        Bangladesh, while still part of Pakistan, experienced a famine.
    (Econ, 11/3/12, p.23)

1943        Brazil adopted a rigid labor law transplanted from Benito Mussolini’s Italy.
    (Econ 7/22/17, p.52)

1943        Gladwyn Jebb (1900-1996), British diplomat, prepared the early drafts for the proposed UN Charter.
    (SFC, 10/26/96, p.A20)
1943        Anthony E. Pratt, fire warden in Leeds, England, conceived the game of "Clue," based on a pre-war social game called Murder.
    (SFEC, 12/1/96, p.C14)
1943        British scientists led by Tommy Flowers (1905-1998) developed Colossus, the world's first large electronic valve programmable logic calculator, in order to break the German communication's code. Colossus is considered by many to be the world's first digital, programmable electronic computer. Its existence was only made public in 1989!
    (Wired, 10/96, p.78)(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tommy_Flowers)
1943        Britain’s National Trust purchased the stone circles of Avebury, Windham Hill and adjoining lands.
    (SSFC, 12/24/00, p.T4)
1943        Arthur Osborne, ceramic designer, died in England. His business, which made plaster-of-Paris plaques, continued operations under his daughter until 1965. W. H. Bossons bought the company in 1971, removed the “AO" mark and operated until 1997.
    (SFC, 10/24/07, p.G2)
1943        British air strikes in Greece hit the railway station and port of Thessaloniki. Hundreds of local inhabitants died. One bomb that failed to detonate was discovered in 2017 and was successfully defused following an evacuation of tens of thousands.
    (AFP, 2/12/17)

1943        A Vultee BT-13 Valiant disappeared on a flight from San Antonio, Texas, to Chile. Pilot Werner Martinez and Sgt. Tomas Ayala were on ill-fated flight, which crashed in Costa Rica. In 2008 police were led to the crash site after an anonymous caller reported seeing a local resident carrying plane parts in the town of San Isidro de El Guarco.
    (AP, 2/27/08)

1943        Bulgarian King Boris Cobourgh-Gotha III died shortly after he yielded to pressure from Adolph Hitler to ally with Nazi Germany. Prince Simeon (6) acceded to the thrown and reigned under regencies until 1946 when the monarchy was abolished.
    (SFC, 2/29/00, p.A19)

1943        Fitzroy Maclean parachuted into German-occupied Yugoslavia as Brigadier commanding the British Military Mission to the Tito partisans. He later wrote his memoir: "Eastern Approaches" that described his 2-years there.
    (SFC, 4/2/99, p.A20)

1943        The French film “Le Corbeau" was directed by Henri-Georges Clouzot.
    (SFC, 10/31/15, p.E4)
1943        Working with a script by Jean Cocteau, Jean Delannoy (1908-2008) revisited the Tristan and Isolde legend in "L'Eternel Retour" (Eternal Return).
    (AP, 6/19/08)
1943        In France Sabina Zlatin (1907-1996) opened a home in Izieu to help Jewish children threatened by Nazi capture. She managed to smuggle about a 100 children to freedom before being ruthlessly shutdown. [see 4/6/44.]
    (SFC, 9/24/96, p.B2)
1943        Germaine Tillion (1907-2008) was sent to the Nazi camp for women and children in Ravensbruck, Germany, for her work with France's underground Resistance network. Later she was the recipient of the Grand Cross of the Legion of Honor, one of France's highest distinctions.
    (Reuters, 4/20/08)
1943        In France Jacques Cousteau and Emile Gagnan used a modified gas feeder valve as an oxygen regulator for the "aqua lung."
    (SFC, 6/26/97, p.A7)

1943        In Germany Karlrobert Kreiten, a piano virtuoso, was executed by the Nazis after a neighbor denounced him for offhand remarks about Hitler.
    (SFC, 11/28/97, p.B8)
1943        Primo Levi (25) was sent to the Nazi concentration camp at Auschwitz. He later authored "Survival in Auschwitz."
    (SFEC, 3/5/00, BR p.8)
1943        Roman Frister (15) was sent to the Nazi concentration camp at Plaszow. In 1993 Frister published his biography "The Cap: The Price of Life."
    (SFEC, 3/5/00, BR p.8)

1943        The Umaid Bhawan Palace in Rajasthan, India, was completed after 15 years of construction. It was built by the Jodhpur royal family and designed by the renowned Edwardian British architect Henry Lanchester.
1943        In India Brajraj Kshatriya Birbar Chamaputi Singh Mahapatra (1921-2015) became king of the 26 princely states of Orissa.
    (Econ, 12/19/15, p.128)
1943        There was a major famine in Bengal that left 3 million people dead. As many as three million people died in India after Japan captured neighboring Burma -- a major source of rice imports -- and British colonial rulers stockpiled food for soldiers and war workers.
    (SFC, 10/15/98, p.A2)(AFP, 4/9/19)

1943        Iraq declared war against the Axis after British troops ran military leaders in support of Hitler out of the country.
    (SFEC, 3/15/98, Z1 p.8)

1943        Slave laborers at the Japanese NKK Corp. went on strike. Kim Kyung Suk (16) of Korea was hanged from a ceiling by company employees and beaten with wooden and bamboo swords for leading the strike against the steel giant. Suk filed suit in 1991 and was awarded $33,900 in compensation in 1999.
    (SFC, 4/8/99, p.C3)

1943        Lebanese writer Said Freiha founded the Dar al-Sayyad publishing house.
    (AFP, 9/28/18)
1943        Lebanon adopted power-sharing agreement after the country won its independence from France. Aimed at maintaining a balance between the 18 religious communities, the agreement called for the president to be a Maronite Christian, the prime minister to be Sunni Muslim and parliament speaker a Shiite.
    (AFP, 5/6/12)

1943        William Tubman was elected president of Liberia. He promoted foreign investment and local participation in government.
    (AP, 7/1/03)

1943        In Mexico the evangelical church "Light of the World" began a relationship with the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI). The cult provided crowds at political rallies in exchange political leverage.
    (SFC, 2/19/98, p.A8,10)

1943        The Lacandon people of southern Mexico went almost extinct. By 2019 their population had grown significantly, yet remains small, at approximately 650 speakers of the Lacandon language. Their ancestral home in Chiapas state is the last pocket of tropical rain forest in North America.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lacandon)(SSFC, 10/13/19, p.A23)
1943        Parcutin Volcano in central Mexico began a 9-year eruption.
    (AM, 3/04, p.50)

1943        Polish lawyer Raphael Lemkin (1900-1959) coined the word genocide about this time. He first used the word in print in “Axis Rule in Occupied Europe: Laws of Occupation - Analysis of Government - Proposals for Redress" (1944), and defined it as "the destruction of a nation or an ethnic group."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Raphael_Lemkin)(Econ., 4/18/15, p.10)

1943        Sergei Mikhalkov (96), an author favored by Stalin, was commissioned to write the lyrics for the Soviet and Russian national anthems. His lyrics, co-written with journalist El Registan and set to music by Alexander Alexandrov, lauded Stalin who "brought us up on loyalty to the people" and "inspired us to labor and to heroism."
    (AP, 8/27/09)
1943        Russia began producing palladium in Norilsk.
    (WSJ, 3/6/00, p.A1)

1943        In Slovenia Lojze Grozde (20), a high school student, was captured as the country was occupied by Italy and Germany. Communist-run antifascist rebels, known as partisans, reportedly found a Latin prayer book in his possession and suspected him of collaborating with Italian fascists. His mutilated body was found a month later in a forest. In 2010 Grozde was beatified by Pope Benedict XVI.
    (AP, 6/13/10)

1943        In Sweden the Riksbank director Ivar Rooth wrote a memorandum that said he and Trade Minister Hermann Eriksson discussed the risk that the gold Sweden received from Germany was looted.
    (SFC, 1/22/97, p.A9)
1943        Ingvar Kamprad (b.1926) of Elmtaryd, Agunnaryd, began selling farm implements by mail order under the name IKEA. The first deliveries were made by milk truck. The 1st catalog was published in 1951 and the 1st showroom opened in Almhult in 1953. By 1996 the Swedish firm had grown to $6.5 billion in sales. In 1999 it had 152 stores in 28 countries.
    (WSJ, 9/9/99, p.A24)(SFC, 3/10/00, p.B2)(http://tinyurl.com/4r88f4z)

1943        In Tunisia Khaled Abdelwahhab hid a group of Jews on his farm outside Mahdia, saving them from the Nazi troops occupying the North African nation. In 2007 Abdelwahhab became the first Arab to be nominated for recognition as "Righteous Among the Nations," an honor bestowed on non-Jews who risked their lives to save Jews from Nazi persecution.
    (AP, 1/30/07)

1943        Some 35,000 Poles in Lviv, Ukraine, were massacred by extreme Ukrainian nationalists. Poland opened investigations around 2001.
    (SFC, 6/27/01, p.A12)

1943        Venezuela negotiated the first 50-50 oil deal with Shell Oil and Standard Oil of New Jersey.
    (WSJ, 9/13/99, p.R4)

1943-1944    Some 2,264 Japanese people from 13 Central and South American countries were sent to the US for internment. In 1998 the US apologized and agreed to pay each of the people $5,000.
    (SFC, 6/13/98, p.A1)
1943-1944    The US submarine Seahorse, commanded by Capt. Slade D. Cutter (d.2005), sank 19 Japanese ships.
    (SFC, 6/17/05, p.B5)

1943-1945    "FDR & Stalin: A Not So Grand Alliance" by Amos Perlmutter covers this period.
    (WSJ, 11/19/96, p.A22)

1943-1945    Some 4,800 soldiers of Germany’s Afrika Corps were held in a POW camp near Hearne, Texas.
    (AM, May/Jun 97 p.28)

1943-1945    Ho Chi Minh worked for American intelligence during this time rescuing downed American pilots and reporting on Japanese troop movements in Vietnam. His story was later told in the 1998 book: "Our Ho: Fact and Fiction" by Alan Trustman.
    (A.Com, 1/25/98)

1943-1947    Archibald Wavell (1883-1950), British Field Marshal, served as the penultimate viceroy of India. In 2009 Adrian Fort authored “Archibald Wavell: The Life and Times of an Imperial Servant."
    (Econ, 1/17/09, p.82)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archibald_Wavell,_1st_Earl_Wavell)
1943-1947    Thousands of Italians were killed by Yugoslav partisans in and around the Istrian peninsula, which had fallen to Italy after the 1st world war. Mussolini’s fascists had brutally Italianized the peninsula prior to the arrival of the partisans.
    (Econ, 8/28/04, p.48)

1943-1948    Little Lulu starred in an animated cartoon series that later ran on TV. She appeared in comic books from 1945-1980s and in newspapers from 1950 to 1969. Kleenex advertisements featured her from 1944-1960.
    (SFC, 2/4/98, Z1 p.6)

1943-1949    Chiang Kai-shek (1886?-1975), Chinese statesman and president of the Republic (1943-1950).
    (WUD, 1994, p.254)

1943-1955    Thomas E. Dewey (d.1971), born in Owosso, Mich., in 1902, served as governor of New York. He also was a two-time Republican presidential nominee.
    (HN, 3/24/01)(AP, 3/24/02)(AH, 12/02, p.4)

1943-1957    The Kalmyks of southern Russia were banished to Siberia on charges of collaborating with the Nazis. In their absence their land was overgrazed and turned to desert. In an attempt to solve the problem the steppe was irrigated with water from the Volga which brought underlying salt to the surface and turned some of the land to marsh.
    (SFC, 11/6/97, p.D2)

1943-1960    Those born in this period in the US were considered part of the "baby boomer" generation. In 2001 Joe Queenan authored ""Balsamic Dreams: A Short But Self-Important History of the Baby Boomer Generation."
    (WSJ, 5/25/01, p.W8)
1943-1965    Members of the Special Operations Division from Maryland’s Fort Detrick biological weapons program conducted over 200 tests during this period on the effectiveness of aerially dispersed pathogens. At least 4 men died during the years of the project. Some 658,039 animals were killed, including sheep, ferrets, cats, pigs, white mice and guinea pigs.
    (SFEC, 1/11/98, p.A11)(AH, 6/03, p.46)
1943-1986     Building E5625, the “Pilot Plant," at the US Army Aberdeen Proving Ground was built and used for experiments and production of agents in chemical and biological warfare. In 1977 public knowledge of the pathogen experiments caused citizen outrage.
    (SFEC, 1/11/98, p.A11)

1943-1970     Janis Joplin, American rock singer: "Don’t compromise yourself. You are all you’ve got."
    (AP, 8/19/97)

1943-1971    Jim Morrison, American rock singer: "When you make your peace with authority, you become authority."
    (AP, 11/11/98)

1943-1996    Bobby Enriquez (aka the Wild Man of Mindanao) jazz pianist. He was known for his fast fingerwork and style of attacking the piano. In the Philippines he was hailed as the "Ambassador of Jazz."
    (SFC, 8/10/96, p.A20)

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