Timeline 1942

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1942        Jan 1, Atlantic Charter members, including the US, Britain, the USSR and 23 other countries all lined up against the Axis, issued a Joint Declaration stressing their solidarity in the defense against Hitlerism.
    (Econ, 1/29/11, p.84)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atlantic_Charter)
1942        Jan 2, The Philippine capital of Manila and the US Naval base at Cavite were captured by Japanese forces.
    (AP, 1/2/98)(HN, 1/2/02)

1942        Jan 4, Japanese forces began the evacuation of Guadalcanal
    (HN, 1/4/00)

1942        Jan 5, U.S. and Filipino troops completed their withdrawal to a new defensive line along the base of the Bataan peninsula.
    (HN, 1/5/99)
1942        Jan 5, 55 German tanks reached North-Africa.
    (MC, 1/5/02)
1942        Jan 5, Tina Modotti (b.1896), Italian born actress, model, photographer and secret agent, died in Mexico City. She had been expelled from Mexico in 1930 but returned incognito in 1939. In 1999 her biography by Pino Cacucci was translated into English.
    (SFEC, 7/25/99, BR p.1)(SFC, 9/2/06, p.E3)(http://tinyurl.com/lklsy)

1942        Jan 6, The Pan American Airways "Pacific Clipper" arrived in New York under Captain Robert Ford. He flew west from New Zealand to avoid Japanese attacks and became the first commercial pilot to make a round-the-world trip. The Pacific Clipper was known as a "flying boat." This flight was 31,500 miles and took 209 hours to complete.
    (AP, 1/6/98)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boeing_314)

1942        Jan 7, Vasili Alexeyev, weightlifter (Olympic-gold-72, 76), was born in USSR.
    (MC, 1/7/02)
1942        Jan 7, The World War II siege of Bataan began in the Philippines.
    (AP, 1/7/98)

1942        Jan 9, US Joint Chiefs of Staff became established.
    (MC, 1/9/02)

1942            Jan 10, Jim Croce, (d.1973) rock vocalist (Time in a Bottle, Workin' At The Car Wash Blues), was born in Phila.

1942        Jan 11, Japan declared war against the Netherlands, the same day that Japanese forces invaded the Dutch East Indies (later Indonesia) at Borneo.
    (AP, 1/11/98)(HN, 1/11/00)

1942        Jan 12, President Roosevelt created the National War Labor Board.
    (AP, 1/12/98)

1942        Jan 14, President Franklin D. Roosevelt ordered all U.S. aliens to register with the government.
    (HN, 1/14/99)

1942        Jan 15, Jawaharlal Nehru succeeded Mohandas K. Gandhi as head of India's National Congress Party.
    (AP, 1/15/02)

1942        Jan 16, William Knudsen became the 1st civilian appointed as general in US army.
    (MC, 1/16/02)
1942        Jan 16, Actress Carole Lombard and her mother were among some 20 people killed when their plane crashed near Las Vegas while returning from a tour to promote war bonds.
    (AP, 1/16/00)
1942        Jan 16, Japan’s advance into Burma began. [see Jan 19]
    (HN, 1/16/99)

1942        Jan 17, Muhammad Ali [Casius Clay], U.S. boxer, "The Greatest," who is the only three-time heavyweight champion, was born.
    (HN, 1/17/99)

1942        Jan 18, General MacArthur repelled the Japanese in Bataan. The United States took the lead in the Far East war criminal trials.
    (HN, 1/18/02)

1942        Jan 19, Japanese forces invaded Burma. [see Jan 16]
    (MC, 1/19/02)

1942        Jan 20, Top Nazis met at Grossen-Wannsee, outside Berlin, and there formulated the infamous "Final Solution" to the Jewish question. Chaired by SS General Reinhard Heydrich, the one-day conference was designed to address the Nazi efforts at removing the Jews. The 15 top-ranking men of the German Reich agreed upon a blueprint for the extermination of Europe’s Jews. Their "final solution" called for exterminating Europe's Jews. Until this time, the plan had been to deport all Jews to the island of Madagascar off Africa, but by 1942 this plan was rejected in favor of transporting Jews to the east where the able-bodied would become slave laborers for the Reich. SS chief Heinrich Himmler would be in charge. Those unfit to work would be, the conference minutes noted, "appropriately dealt with." This phrase was left unexplained, but there was no doubt of its sinister meaning. After approving genocide as Nazi policy, the conference attendees adjourned for lunch. The minutes were taken by Adolf Eichmann. In 2004 Christopher R. Browning authored "The Origins of the Final Solution."
    (AP, 1/20/98)(WSJ, 4/28/97, p.A17)(HNPD, 1/20/99)(WSJ, 3/23/04, p.D8)(AP, 1/20/12)
1942        Jan 20, There was a Japanese air raid on Rabaul, New Britain.
    (MC, 1/20/02)

1942        Jan 21, Count Basie and His Orchestra recorded "One O’Clock Jump" in New York City for Okeh Records.
    (AP, 1/21/98)
1942        Jan 21, A Bronx magistrate ruled all pinball machines illegal.
    (MC, 1/21/02)
1942        Jan 21, In North Africa, German Field Marshal Erwin Rommel launched a drive to push the British eastward.
    (HN, 1/21/99)

1942        Jan 23, At Novi Sad, Serbia, some 1200 people (predominantly Jewish), rounded up over a period of three days, were shot along the shores of the Danube. Their bodies were dumped into the frozen waters. Sandor Kepiro (1914-2011), a Hungarian gendarmerie officer, participated in the mass murder. In 1944 he was sentenced to 10 years in prison for his part in the atrocities, but conviction was later annulled. Kepiro, who was at the top of the Simon Wiesenthal Center's most-wanted war criminals list, returned to Hungary in 1996 after living for decades in Argentina. In 2011 Kepiro (96) was charged with war crimes in the slaughter, but was cleared by a court on July 18, 2011.
    (http://tinyurl.com/o5n5j3)(AP, 9/15/09)(AP, 2/14/11)(AP, 7/18/11)(AP, 9/3/11)

1942        Jan 24, A special court of inquiry into America's lack of preparedness for the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor placed much of the blame on Rear Adm. Husband E. Kimmel and Lt. Gen. Walter C. Short, the Navy and Army commanders.
    (AP, 1/24/00)

1942        Jan 26, The first American expeditionary force to go to Europe during World War II went ashore in Northern Ireland.
    (AP, 1/26/98)(HN, 1/26/99)

1942        Jan 29, German and Italian troops took Benghazi in North Africa.
    (HN, 1/29/99)

1942        Jan, Chile and Argentina were the only two Latin American countries that did not comply at once with the Rio de Janeiro Conference recommendation to those countries who had not already done so to sever diplomatic and commercial relations with the Axis powers, Germany, Italy and Japan. Chile eventually broke Axis relations in January 1943 and Argentina complied in January 1944. The conference of Western Hemisphere foreign ministers also called for suppression of pro-Axis activity in the Americas, establishment of an Inter-American defense board and economic cooperation within the hemisphere.
    (HNQ, 9/24/00)
1942        Jan, The high Nazi bureaucracy received word of the decision to exterminate all Jews at the Wannsee Conference.
    (WSJ, 12/31/96, p.5)
1942        Jan, In occupied Poland Samuel Kunz (20) started working as a guard at Belzec prison camp and continued working there to July, 1943. In 2010 he was charged with allegedly participating in the murder of more than 430,000 Jews at the death camp, and was involved in the entire killing process: From taking victims from trains to pushing them into gas chambers to throwing their corpses into mass graves, according to court documents.
    (AP, 7/29/10)

1942        Feb 1, Planes of the U.S. Pacific fleet attacked Japanese bases in the Marshall and Gilbert Islands.
    (HN, 2/1/99)

1942        Feb 2, A Los Angeles Times column urged security measures against Japanese-Americans, arguing that a Japanese-American "almost inevitably ... grows up to be a Japanese, not an American."
    (AP, 2/2/99)
1942        Feb 2, US auto factories switched from commercial to war production.
    (MC, 2/2/02)

1942        Feb 4, In Egypt Sir Miles Lampson, British high commissioner, staged a virtual coup d’etat against King Farouk. In 1998 David Freeman wrote a romantic historical novel: "One of Us," that was loosely set on this background.
    (WSJ, 2/25/98, p.A20)

1942        Feb 8, Terry Melcher, Rip Chords, Doris Day's son, was born.
    (MC, 2/8/02)
1942        Feb 8, Congress advised FDR that Americans of Japanese descent should be locked up en masse so they wouldn't oppose the US war effort.
    (MC, 2/8/02)
1942        Feb 8, The Japanese landed on Singapore. By 1941, Gen. Yamashita was the commanding general of Japan’s Twenty-Fifth Army. His plans for taking Singapore were already underway.
    (HN, 2/8/98)

1942        Feb 9, The U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff held its first formal meeting to coordinate military strategy during World War II.
    (AP, 2/9/99)
1942        Feb 9, FDR reimposed daylight saving time (DST) in the US calling it "war time" with clocks turned one hour forward. It remained in effect until Sep 30, 1945. [see 1966]
    (AP, 2/9/99)(WSJ, 3/31/05, p.D8)(www.energy.ca.gov/daylightsaving.html)
1942        Feb 9, The former French cruise ship Normandie, launched in 1935, burned in New York Harbor during its conversion to an Allied trip transport ship. It was once regarded as most elegant ocean liner ever built. In 1947 it was cut up for scrap. In 2007 John Maxtone-Graham authored “Normandie."
    (AP, 2/10/97)(WSJ, 12/8/07, p.W13)
1942        Feb 9, Chiang Kai-shek met with Sir Stafford Cripps, the British viceroy in India. Detachment 101 harried the Japanese in Burma and provided close support for regular Allied forces.
    (HN, 2/9/97)
1942        Feb 9, Japanese troops landed near Makassar, South Celebes.
    (MC, 2/9/02)

1942        Feb 10, RCA Victor presented Glenn Miller and his Orchestra with a "gold record" for their 1941 recording of "Chattanooga Choo Choo," which had sold more than 1 million copies.
    (AP, 2/10/99)
1942        Feb 10, The war halted civilian car production at Ford. Henry Ford opposed America's entry into World War II until the attack on Pearl Harbor, which inspired him to begin an all-out effort to manufacture planes and vehicles for the war effort.
    (HN, 2/10/97)
1942        Feb 10, The former French liner Normandie capsized in New York Harbor a day after it caught fire while being refitted for the U.S. Navy.
    (AP, 2/10/97)

1942        Feb 11, The German battleships Gneisenau, Scharnhorst and Prinz Eugen began their famed channel dash from the French port of Brest. Their journey took them through the English Channel on their way back to Germany.
    (HN, 2/11/99)

1942        Feb 12, Painter Grant Wood (b.1892), creator of "American Gothic" (1930), died in Iowa City, Iowa, a day before his 51st birthday.
    (AP, 2/12/02)
1942        Feb 12, In Palestine British police killed Avraham Stern (34),  founder of the breakaway militant Zionist group named Lehi. British forces had begun shooting members of “Fighters for the Freedom of Israel" (Lehi) after the group had ambushed British soldiers and solicited fascist and Nazi support for their campaign.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avraham_Stern)(Econ, 5/3/14, p.75)
1942        Feb 12, Three German battle cruisers escaped via Channel to Brest, N. Germany.
    (MC, 2/12/02)

1942        Feb 13, Hitler's invasion of England was cancelled.
    (MC, 2/13/02)

1942        Feb 14, The Japanese attacked Sumatra. Aidan MacCarthy’s RAF unit flew to Palembang, in eastern Sumatra, where 30 Royal Australian Air Force Lockheed A-28 Hudson bombers were waiting. The elation was short-lived as Japanese soldiers were parachuting into the jungle that surrounded the airfield.
    (HN, 2/14/98)

1942        Feb 15, British forces in Singapore surrendered to Japanese General Tomoyuki Yamashita. Yamashita prevailed, when British Lt. Gen. Sir Arthur Percival and 130,000 Empire troops surrendered. It was the largest surrender in British history.
    (HN, 2/15/98)(AP, 2/15/98)

1942        Feb 16, German submarines attacked an Aruba oil refinery and sank the tanker Pedernales.
    (MC, 2/16/02)(SSFC, 11/10/02, p.C11)
1942        Feb 16, Tojo outlined Japan’s war aims to the Diet, referring to "new order of coexistence" in East Asia. During the Japanese war crimes trials, Tojo himself took responsibility, as premier, for anything either he or his country had done. He asserted, however, with the other defendants, that they—and Japan—had made war only in "self-defense."
    (HN, 2/16/98)

1942        Feb 17, Sidney Newsom (b.1877), California architect, died. He and his brother Noble created homes that recalled Spanish haciendas, English cottages, French chateaus and American colonial homesteads.
    (SFC, 2/4/05, p.F1)(https://digital.lib.washington.edu/architect/architects/1794/)

1942        Feb 18, Japanese troop landed on Bali.
    (MC, 2/18/02)

1942        Feb 19, Tommy Dorsey and his orchestra recorded "I'll Take Tallulah."
    (MC, 2/19/02)
1942        Feb 19, President Roosevelt signed executive order 9066 that gave the military the authority to relocate and intern Japanese-Americans. The order resulted in the incarceration of more than 110,000 Japanese-Americans living in California, Oregon, Washington and Arizona. By the end of March, 1942, the Japanese-Americans were moved to 10 relocation camps throughout the U.S.  interior. The mass expulsion of Japanese-Americans from the West Coast ended on January, 2, 1945. [see Feb 20]
    (AP, 2/20/98)(SFC, 2/19/98, p.A13)(HNQ, 9/3/99)
1942        Feb 19, Port Darwin, on the northern coast of Australia, was bombed by about 150 Japanese warplanes; at least 243 people were killed. General George C. Kenney, who pioneered aerial warfare strategy and tactics in the Pacific theater, ordered 3,000 parafrag bombs to be sent to Australia, where he thought they might come in handy against the Japanese. Darwin was virtually leveled by 64 bombing raids over 21 months.
    (HN, 2/19/98)(SFEC, 9/10/00, p.T10)(AP, 2/19/08)
1942        Feb 19, Japanese troops landed on Timor. Australian commandos battled the Japanese with support from local people. Japanese reprisals killed 60,000 civilians, 13% of the population.
    (SFC, 5/17/02, p.A15)(MC, 2/19/02)

1942        Feb 20, Franklin D. Roosevelt authorized the internment of Japanese Americans on the West Coast. [see Feb 19]
    (HN, 2/20/98)
1942        Feb 20, Lt. Edward O’Hare downed five out of nine Japanese bombers that were attacking the carrier Lexington, which earned him the Congressional Medal of Honor. Lieutenant Edward H. "Butch" O’Hare became the first Wildcat ace.
    (HN, 2/20/98)

1942        Feb 22, President Franklin Roosevelt ordered Gen. Douglas MacArthur to leave the Philippines.
    (HN, 2/22/99)
1942        Feb 22, India’s Capt. Sam Manekshaw (1914-2008) was severely wounded in a counteroffensive against Japanese forces on the Sittong River in Burma. In 1969 Manekshaw became the 8th chief of the Indian army.
    (SFC, 7/1/08, p.B5)

1942        Feb 23, A Japanese submarine shelled an oil refinery at Ellwood, near Santa Barbara, Calif., the first Axis bombs to hit American soil.
    (HN, 2/23/98)(MC, 2/23/02)
1942        Feb 23, Stefan Zweig (b.1881), Austrian Jewish writer (Die Welt von Gestern), committed suicide with his wife in Brazil. Zweig's nostalgic but rather impersonal memoirs of the "Golden Age of Security", The World of Yesterday, was published posthumously in 1943. His last novel (The Ecstasy of Transformation) was published posthumously in Germany in 1982. In 2008 it was translated into English as “The Post-Office Girl." In 2014 George Prochnik authored “The Impossible Exile: Stefan Zweig at the End of the World."
    (www.kirjasto.sci.fi/szweig.htm)(WSJ, 6/21/08, p.W9)(Econ, 5/23/09, p.91)(Econ, 6/14/14, p.76)

1942        Feb 24, The Voice of America went on the air for the first time with broadcasts in German. The US State Dept. made William Winter (d.1999) its first Voice of America three months before the bombing of Pearl Harbor.
    (AP, 2/24/98)(SFC, 11/9/99, p.A23)(MC, 2/24/02)
1942        Feb 24, Some 1,600 Pittsburg, Ca., residents of Italian descent were evacuated. In the Bay Area more than 75 leading members of the Federation of Italian War Veterans were seized this month by the FBI. Nationwide some 600,000 of 5 million Italians were undocumented and deemed "enemy aliens" until Oct 12.
    (SSCM, 10/21/01, p.11, 19)(SSFC, 2/26/17, DB p.50)
1942        Feb 24, The SS Struma was sunk in the Black Sea by a Soviet torpedo. The ship with over 750 Jewish passengers fleeing Romania, had docked in Istanbul, but was denied entry to Palestinian territory by colonial power Britain. On Feb 23 Turkey towed the vessel to the Black Sea and set it adrift. Only one person survived.
    (AP, 2/24/12)

1942        Feb 26, Don Mason, WWII Navy flier, sent the message: "Sighted sub sank same."
    (SC, 2/26/02)
1942        Feb 26, German battle cruiser Gneisenau was deactivated by bomb.
    (SC, 2/26/02)
1942        Feb 26, Werner Heisenberg informed Nazis about uranium project "Wunderwaffen."
    (SC, 2/26/02)

1942        Feb 27, The 1st transport of French Jews left to Nazi Germany.
    (MC, 2/27/02)
1942        Feb 27, Battle of Java Sea began. 13 US warships sank-2 Japanese.
    (MC, 2/27/02)
1942        Feb 27, British Commandos raided a German radar station at Bruneval on the French coast. The warrior spies of the Abwehr, Germany’s intelligence agency, were the Brandenburg commandos.
    (HN, 2/27/98)

1942        Feb 28, There was a riot at the new Sojourner Truth Homes in Detroit. There was a great deal of racial fighting with 40 injuries, but no deaths. Police called off the entry of blacks to their homes and, by the end of the day, arrested 220 – 217 blacks and 3 whites.
1942        Feb 28, The German submarine U-578 torpedoed and sank the US destroyer Jacob Jones off the New Jersey coast. Only 11 of some 102 crew members survived.
    (SFC, 1/15/05, p.B8)(http://uboat.net/allies/warships/ship/2174.html)
1942        Feb 28, Japanese landed in Java, the last Allied bastion in Dutch East Indies.
    (MC, 2/28/02)
1942        Feb 28, The Japanese sank the USS Houston during the Battle of Sunda Strait. The ship carried 1,068 crewmen, but only 291 sailors and Marines survived both the attack and being prisoners of war.  In 2014 Navy divers from the US and Indonesia confirmed that a sunken vessel in the Java Sea is the wreck of the Houston.
    (AP, 8/18/14)

1942        Feb, The first transport of Jews arrived at Auschwitz, Poland, and the adjoining Birkenau camp. Dr. Josef Mengele (d.1979), the "angel of death," worked at Auschwitz and fled secretly to Sao Paolo, Brazil, after the war. Rudolf Hoess was the last commander of Auschwitz and kept a diary that was used in the 1961 trial of Adolf Eichmann.
    (SF E&C, 1/15/1995, A-10)(SFC, 4/8/97, p.A10)(WSJ, 4/28/97, p.A17)
1942        Feb, The Soviet government established the Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee (JAC) to drum up int’l. support as the Red Army struggled against the German onslaught. As the war progressed the group collected evidence of atrocities and genocide and planned to publish its “Black Book." Incomplete versions appeared in the 1980s and the first complete version was published in Lithuania in 1993. In Russia it was published as “The Unknown Black Book." In 2008 an English translation was edited by Joshua Rubenstein and Ilya Altman.
    (WSJ, 1/19/08, p.W8)

1942        Mar 1, J. Milton Cage Jr.’s "Imaginary Landscape No 3" premiered in Chicago.
    (SC, 3/1/02)
1942        Mar 1, Baseball decided that players in military can't play when on furlough.
    (SC, 3/1/02)
1942         Mar 1, The 3 day Battle of Java Sea ended as US suffered a major naval defeat. Japanese troops occupy Kalidjati airport in Java. More than 900 Dutch and 250 Indo-Dutch sailors died during the battle in which the Allied navies suffered a disastrous defeat by the Imperial Japanese Navy.
    (HN, 3/1/98)(SC, 3/1/02)(AFP, 11/17/16)
1942        Mar 1, Tito established the 2nd Proletariat Brigade in Bosnia.
    (SC, 3/1/02)
1942        Mar 1, Suriname camp for NSB people opened to save Jews.
    (SC, 3/1/02)

1942        Mar 2, John Irving, novelist (The World According to Garp), was born.
    (HN, 3/2/01)
1942        Mar 2, Lou Reed [Louis Firbank], vocalist, guitarist (Walk on the Wild Side, Velvet Underground), was born in Freeport, NY.
    (SC, 3/2/02)
1942        Mar 2, 14th Academy Awards: "How Green was My Valley", Gary Cooper and Joan Fontaine won.
    (SC, 3/2/02)
1942        Mar 2, Admiral Helfrich departed Java for Ceylon.
    (SC, 3/2/02)

1942        Mar 3, Canada's Avro Lancaster military plane made its 1st combat flight.
    (SC, 3/3/02)
1942        Mar 3, The RAF raided the industrial suburbs of Paris.
    (HN, 3/3/99)

1942        Mar 5, In San Francisco Nelson A. Eckart, the acting manager of utilities, ordered grumbling motormen to train Audley Cole (21), a young black man, in the operation of a streetcar or face dismissal. Union members several months earlier had voted to fine any member instructing Cole $100.
    (SSFC, 3/5/17, DB p.54)
1942        Mar 5, Josip Broz "Tito" established the 3rd Proletariat Brigade in Bosnia.
    (MC, 3/5/02)
1942        Mar 5, Japanese troop marched into Batavia.
    (MC, 3/5/02)

1942        Mar 7, Michael Eisner, CEO (Walt Disney), was born in Mt. Kisko, NY.
    (MC, 3/7/02)
1942        Mar 7, Tamara Faye LaValley (d.2007) was born in International Falls, Minn. She later married fellow bible college student Jim Bakker. Together they established a Christian talk variety show, the PTL Club, which collapsed in 1987 amid a sex and money scandal.
    (SSFC, 7/22/07, p.B7)
1942        Mar 7, Japanese troops landed on New Guinea.
    (HN, 3/7/98)
1942        Mar 7, 15 Mk-VB Spitfires reached Malta.
    (MC, 3/7/02)

1942        Mar 8, Japanese captured Rangoon, Burma, during World War II.
    (AP, 3/8/98)(HN, 3/8/98)

1942        Mar 9, Construction of the Alaska Highway began.
    (MC, 3/9/02)

1942        Mar 11, As Japanese forces continued to advance in the Pacific during World War II Gen. Douglas MacArthur left Corregidor in the Philippines for Australia. MacArthur, who subsequently vowed, "I shall return," kept that promise more than 2 1/2 years later. MacArthur relinquished command in the Philippines to Gen’l. Jonathon Wainwright.
    (SFEC, 12/15/96, p.T7)(AP, 3/11/98)(http://tinyurl.com/736ws)
1942        Mar 11, 1st deportation train left Paris for the Auschwitz Concentration Camp.
    (MC, 3/12/02)
1942        Mar 11, Japanese troops landed on North Sumatra.
    (MC, 3/12/02)

1942        Mar 12, Salvatore "the Bull" Gravano, mobster (testified against John Gotti), was born.
    (MC, 3/12/02)

1942        Mar 13, Julia Flikke of the Nurse Corps became the first woman colonel in the U.S. Army.
    (HN, 3/13/98)

1942        Mar 15, Alexander van Zemlinsky (70), Austrian-US composer (African Dance), died.
    (MC, 3/15/02)

1942        Mar 17, John Wayne Gacy, serial killer (32 boys), was born in Chicago, Ill.
    (MC, 3/17/02)
1942        Mar 17, Gen. Douglas MacArthur arrived in Australia to become supreme commander of Allied forces in the southwest Pacific theater during World War II.
    (AP, 3/17/97) (HN, 3/17/98)
1942        Mar 17, Belzec Concentration Camp opened. 30,000 Lublin Polish Jews were transported.
    (MC, 3/17/02)
1942        Mar 17, The Nazis began deporting Jews to the Belsen camp.
    (HN, 3/17/98)

1942        Mar 18, The third military draft began in the U.S. because of World War II.
    (HN, 3/18/98)
1942        Mar 18, Black players, Jackie Robinson and Nate Moreland, requested a tryout with the Chicago White Sox. They were allowed to work out.
    (MC, 3/18/02)

1942        Mar 19, FDR ordered men between 45 and 64 to register for non military duty.
    (MC, 3/19/02)

1942        Mar 20-22, There was a major German assault on Malta.
    (MC, 3/20/02)(MC, 3/21/02)(MC, 3/22/02)

1942        Mar 21, Convoy QP9 departed Great Britain to Murmansk.
    (MC, 3/21/02)

1942        Mar 23, During World War II the US government began moving the first of some 112,000 Japanese-Americans from their West Coast homes to detention centers.
    (AP, 3/23/97)(AH, 4/07, p.14)
1942        Mar 23, The Japanese occupied the Andaman Islands in the Indian Ocean.
    (HN, 3/23/98)(SS, 3/23/02)
1942        Mar 23, Some 2,500 Jews of Lublin were massacred or deported.
    (SS, 3/23/02)

1942        Mar 24, Western Defense Commander Lt. Gen. John L. De Witt proclaimed a rigid curfew restricting movement of all enemy aliens and American Japanese in West Coast military zones effective March 27.
    (SSFC, 3/19/17, DB p.50)

1942        Mar 25, Aretha Franklin, American singer, the "Queen of Soul," was born in Memphis, Tenn.
    (HN, 3/25/01)(SSFC, 6/30/02, Par p.30)
1942        Mar 25-26, The 1st 700 Jews from Polish Lvov-district reached concentration camp Belzec. The Germans began sending Jews to Auschwitz in Poland.
    (HN, 3/25/98)(MC, 3/25/02)(SS, 3/26/02)

1942        Mar 26, Erica Jong [Mann], poet, novelist (Fear of Flying, How to Save Your Own Life), was born in NYC.
    (HN, 3/26/01)(SS, 3/26/02)
1942        Mar 26, 20 tons of gelignite killed 21 in a stone quarry in Easton, PA.
    (SS, 3/26/02)
1942        Mar 26, A German offensive took place in North-Africa under Colonel-General Rommel.
    (SS, 3/26/02)

1942        Mar 27, Michael York, actor (Cabaret, Logan's Run, 3 Musketeers), was born in England.
    (MC, 3/27/02)
1942        Mar 27-28, Allies raided the Nazi submarine base at St. Nazaire, France.
    (HN, 3/27/98)(MC, 3/27/02)

1942        Mar 28, Samuel Ramey, bass (La Scala, Met Opera), was born in Colby, Kansas.
    (MC, 3/28/02)
1942        Mar 28, Japanese-American lawyer Minoru Yasui (1916-1986) violated a military curfew in Portland, Oregon, and demanded to be arrested after he was refused enlistment to fight for the US. He was one of the few Japanese Americans who fought laws that directly targeted Japanese Americans or Japanese immigrants following the bombing of Pearl Harbor. In 2015 he was among 17 people awarded the presidential Medal of Freedom.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Minoru_Yasui)(SFC, 11/24/15, p.A5)
1942        Mar 28, British naval forces continued the raid on the Nazi-occupied French port of St. Nazaire. British Bomber Command launched an attack on the German city of Lubeck with 234 RAF bombers.
    (AP, 3/28/97)(HN, 3/28/98)(MC, 3/28/02)
1942        Mar 28, A British ship, the HMS Capbeltown, a Lend-Lease American destroyer, which was specifically rammed into a German occupied dry-dock in France, exploded, knocking the area out of action for the German battleship Tirpitz.
    (HN, 3/28/00)

1942        Mar 29, British cruiser Trinidad torpedoed itself in the Barents Sea.
    (MC, 3/29/02)
1942        Mar 29, German submarine U-585 sank.
    (MC, 3/29/02)

1942        Mar 30, SS murdered 200 inmates of Trawniki labor camp.
    (MC, 3/30/02)

1942        Mar, The US government launched its "Salvage for Victory" campaign to collect tin, rubber, scrap iron, rags and paper for the war effort.
    (Ind, 8/26/00,5A)
1942        Mar, British and US intelligence received information on Nazi plans for the Holocaust: "It has been decided to eradicate all the Jews." This was part of a dispatch from a Chilean consul in Prague, Gonzalo Montt Rivas, to Santiago of a German decree that Jews abroad could no longer be German subjects.
    (SFC, 7/3/01, p.A8)
1942        Mar, Japan established relations with the Vatican, the 1st non-Christian state to do so. The first ambassador's name was Ken Harada.
    (Econ, 7/21/07, p.59)(www.reformation.org/vatican-and-japan.html)

1942        Spring, Soviet soldiers retreated for 3 days through a corridor 50-yards wide in the Mysnoi Bor under constant German shelling. The retreat was from a botched campaign to free Leningrad, 150 miles to the north. The official death toll was 20,000, but some claim as many as 300,000.
    (WSJ, 10/1/96, p.A20)

1942        Apr 1, The U.S. Navy began a partial convoy system in the Atlantic.
    (HN, 4/1/99)
1942        Apr 1, In San Francisco the northern and western areas of the city went off limits to all Japanese, whether alien or non-alien, following an order by Lt. Gen. John L. De Witt.
    (SSFC, 3/26/17, DB p.54)

1942        Apr 2, Glenn Miller and his orchestra recorded "American Patrol" at the RCA Victor studios in Hollywood.
    (AP, 4/2/97)

1942        Apr 3, Marsha Mason, actress (Blume in Love, Cinderella Liberty), was born in St Louis, Mo.
    (MC, 4/3/02)
1942        Apr 3, The Japanese began their all-out assault on the U.S. and Filipino troops at Bataan.
    (HN, 4/3/99)

1942        Apr 6, In San Francisco 660 Japanese were evacuated and sent to the Santa Anita racetrack pending later movement inland. Another 4,000 Japanese in the city remained to be evacuated.
    (SSFC, 4/2/17, DB p.54)

1942        Apr 7, There was a heavy German assault on Malta.
    (MC, 4/7/02)

1942        Apr 9, In the Battle of Bataan, some 70,000 soldiers gathered at the bottom of the Bataan peninsula during World War II. American and Philippine defenders on Bataan capitulated to Japanese forces; the surrender was followed by the notorious 55-mile “Bataan Death March" which claimed nearly 10,000 lives. 12,000 American soldiers surrendered to the Japanese and some 1000 died on the march. 85% of the surrendering troops suffered from malaria.
    (SFEC, 12/15/96, p.T7)(AP, 4/9/97)(HN, 4/9/98)(SSFC, 6/17/01, Par p.4)(Econ., 12/19/20, p.35)

1942        Apr 10, The 65-mile Bataan Death March began to a prison camp near Cabanatuan. The prisoners were forced to march 85 miles in six days with only one meal of rice during the entire journey. Some 10k-15k soldiers perished on the march. Bataan is a peninsula of western Luzon in the Philippines. It was surrendered to the Japanese in this year and retaken by American forces in 1945. [see Apr 9]
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bataan_Death_March)(SFEC, 12/15/96, p.T7)(SFC, 4/25/97, p.A26)

1942        Apr 11, Detachment 101 of the OSS, a guerrilla force, was activated in Burma.
    (HN, 4/11/99)

1942        Apr 12, Japan killed about 400 Filipino officers in Bataan.
    (MC, 4/12/02)

1942        Apr 13, Bill Conti, composer (For Your Eyes Only, Rocky IV), was born in Providence, RI.
    (MC, 4/13/02)

1942        Apr 14, Destroyer Roper sank German U-85 of US east coast.
    (MC, 4/14/02)

1942        Apr 15, Kenneth Lay, the son of a Baptist minister, was born. He grew up in Rush, Missouri, and in 1986 became the CEO of Texas-based Enron Corp.
    (SSFC, 2/3/02, p.A19)
1942        Apr 15, George VI awarded the George Cross to the citizens of Malta.
    (HN, 4/15/98)

1942        Apr 16, In San Francisco US federal agents arrested seaman Fred Shirer (30) in a tavern at 301 Turk Street for possession of hashish, the first time the narcotic as found in this country.
    (SSFC, 4/16/17, p.54)
1942        Apr 16, The Japanese occupying army on Java installed film censorship.
    (MC, 4/16/02)
1942        Apr 16, Britain’s King George V awarded the Island of Malta the George Cross in recognition for heroism under constant German air attack. It was the first such award given to any part of the British Commonwealth.
    (HN, 4/16/99)(HNQ, 7/8/01)
1942        Apr 16, Swiss Nazis in Payerne killed Jewish cattle trader Arthur Bloch. In 2009 novelist Jacques Chessex (1934-2009) recounted the event in his novel “A Jew Must Die."
    (AP, 10/10/09)(http://tinyurl.com/yzz3kvl)

1942        Apr 18, First issue of the newspaper for U.S. armed forces, Stars and Stripes, was published.
    (HN, 4/18/98)
1942        Apr 18, The first US air strike against Japan, an air squadron from the USS Hornet led by Lt. Col. James H. Doolittle (d.1993), raided Tokyo and other Japanese cities. 16 U.S. Army B-25 bombers broke through Japanese defenses to strike Tokyo and other cities in broad daylight. The North-American B-25B Mitchells were launched from the deck of the aircraft carrier Hornet, and after striking their targets, flew on to China. 2 of the 80 men drowned. 3 of 8 captured by the Japanese were executed and 1 died in a prison camp. Doolittle later became the commander general of the Eighth Air Force. In 1943 Ted Lawson authored “Thirty Seconds Over Tokyo," an account of the bombing of Tokyo.
    (AP, 4/18/97)(SFC, 5/15/02, p.A23)(SSFC, 3/30/03, p.A1)(SFC, 8/12/06, p.P8)
1942        Apr 18, The 16th plane of the Doolittle air strike against Japan landed outside Vladivostok in the Soviet Union following its mission. Nolan Herndon (1918-2007), the bombardier, later reported that their plane was used to test the Soviet resolve as an ally. The 5-man crew was held for over 13 months before escaping to a British Embassy in what later became Iran.
    (SFC, 10/16/07, p.D8)

1942        Apr 20, Pierre Laval, the premier of Vichy France, in a radio broadcast, established a policy of "true reconciliation with Germany."
    (HN, 4/20/99)
1942        Apr 20, Heavy German assault on Malta.
    (MC, 4/20/02)
1942        Apr 20, The battle for Moscow ended. It officially lasted from September 30, 1941, to April 20, 1942, but in reality spanned more than those 203 days of unremitting mass murder, and marked the first time that Hitler's armies failed to triumph with their Blitzkrieg tactics. In 2007 Andrew Nagorski authored “The Greatest Battle: Stalin, Hitler, and the Desperate Struggle for Moscow That Changed the Course of World War II."
    (WSJ, 1/11/08, p.W6)

1942        Apr 23, A 4-day allied bombing of Rostock began.
    (MC, 4/23/02)
1942        Apr 23, Luftwaffe bombed Exeter.
    (MC, 4/23/02)

1942        Apr 24, Barbra Streisand, singer, actress, was born in Brooklyn, NY.
    (MC, 4/24/02)
1942        Apr 24, Luftwaffe bombed Exeter.
    (MC, 4/24/02)

1942        Apr 26, Bobby Rydell (Ridarelli), singer, was born. His songs included: "Wild One," "We Got Love," and "Volare."
    (440 Int’l. Internet, 4/26/97, p.1)
1942        Apr 26, Luftwaffe bombed Bath.
    (MC, 4/26/02)

1942        Apr 27, Tornado destroyed Pryor, Oklahoma, killing 100 and injuring 300.
    (MC, 4/27/02)
1942        Apr 27, Belgium Jews were forced to wear stars.
    (MC, 4/27/02)

1942        Apr 28, Nightly "dim-out" began along the East Coast.
    (MC, 4/28/02)
1942        Apr 28, In the SF Bay Area some 700 Japanese from San Francisco and the East Bay moved into the enclosed internment camp at Tanforan Racetrack. Another 600 were expected the next day and 900 more a day later.
    (SSFC, 4/23/17, DB p.50)

1942        Apr 29, Japanese troops marched into Lashio and cut off the Burma Road.
    (MC, 4/29/02)

1942        Apr, Operation Bolero was the name of the logistics mission to transfer equipment and fighting men from Canada and the United States to England in preparation for an cross-Channel invasion in 1943. Started in April, 1942, this colossal logistical effort was undertaken by the Services of Supply (SOS), part of the U.S.  Army.
    (HNQ, 7/13/00)

1942        Apr, A stenographic record of Hitler’s conferences with his generals from this time until Apr, 1945, was published in 2003 as: "Hitler and His Generals." It was edited by Helmut Heiber and David M. Glantz."
    (WSJ, 2/5/03, p.D10)
1942        Apr, In Germany the Gestapo closed the Grosse Hamburgerstrasse School, the last Jewish school operating in Berlin. A film was made in 1996 of surviving pupils reuniting at the site.
    (WSJ, 5/30/97, p.A16)

1942        May 2, Admiral Chester J. Nimitz, convinced that the Japanese would attack Midway Island, visited the island to review its readiness.
    (HN, 5/2/99)
1942        May 2, Japanese troops occupied Mandalay Burma.
    (MC, 5/2/02)

1942        May 3, Executive Order 9066, signed by Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt, was issued by Lt. Gen’l. John DeWitt from his headquarters in the SF Presidio. It called for the evacuation of Japanese-Americans from Los Angeles effective May 9. Some 110,000-112,000 Japanese-Americans were settled in 10 relocation camps, the first of which was in Manzanar in Owens Valley, Ca. In the Bay Area most Japanese-Americans were sent to the Tanforan racetrack where they were put up in stables and later relocated to Topaz, Utah. Soon after, the War Relocation Authority hired Dorothea Lange, a photographer already well-known for her striking Depression-era photos of migrant workers, to document the internment process. Lange's poignant photos reflected her disagreement with government policy and brought her into conflict with her employers.
    (SFC, 10/30/96, p.C2)(SFEC, 4/13/97, Z1 p.6)(SFC, 11/19/96, p.A17)(HNPD, 4/24/99)
1942        May 3, The Luftwaffe bombed Exeter.
    (MC, 5/3/02)
1942        May 3, Nazis executed 72 in reprisal in Sachsenhausen, Netherlands. Johan H. Westerveld, lt.-Col, leader Order Service, was among the executed.
    (MC, 5/3/02)

1942        May 4, The U.S. began food rationing.
    (HN, 5/4/98)
1942        May 4,    The Battle of the Coral Sea, the first naval clash fought entirely with carrier aircraft, began during World War II.
    (AP, 5/4/97)(HN, 5/4/98)

1942        May 5, Tammy Wynette, country singer (Stand by your Man), was born in Redbay, Alabama.
    (MC, 5/5/02)
1942        May 5, Sales of sugar resumed in the United States under a rationing program.
    (AP, 5/5/97)(HN, 5/5/98)
1942        May 5, General Joseph Stilwell learned that the Japanese had cut his railway out of China and was forced to lead his troops into India.
    (HN, 5/5/99)
1942        May 5, The first Japanese soldiers landed on the Philippine island of Corregidor defended by only 13,000 soldiers under Gen’l. Wainwright. More than 1,000 Americans and Filipinos died in defense of the island.
    (SFEC, 12/15/96, p.T7)

1942        May 6, Ariel Dorfman, Chilean writer (Death and the Maiden), was born.
    (HN, 5/6/01)
1942        May 6, On Corregidor US Gen’l. Jonathan Wainwright surrendered his forces, some 15,000 Americans and Filipinos, to the Japanese. This began a 3-year ordeal for 4 doctors as POWs under the Japanese. In 2005 John A. Glusman authored “Conduct Under Fire," and account of their survival as POWs.
    (AP, 5/6/97)(SSFC, 7/10/05, p.E4)(http://tinyurl.com/736ws)

1942        May 7, In the Battle of the Coral Sea, Japanese and American navies attacked each other with carrier planes. It was the first time in the history of naval warfare where two enemy fleets fought without seeing each other. This battle stopped Japanese expansion.
    (HN, 5/7/99)(MC, 5/7/02)
1942        May 7, A Nazi decree ordered all Jewish pregnant women of Kovno Ghetto executed.
    (MC, 5/7/02)
1942        May 7, Felix Paul von Weingartner, Austria conductor, composer, died.
    (MC, 5/7/02)

1942        May 8, Battle of the Coral Sea between the Japanese Navy and the US Navy ended as a tactical victory for the Japanese. They sank more tons of ships than the US did. It was a strategic victory for the US in that the Japanese were halted in their drive south. The aircraft carrier Lexington was sunk by Japanese air attack at Coral Sea.
    (HN, 5/8/99)(MC, 5/8/02)
1942        May 8, The badly damaged USS Lexington air craft carrier, nicknamed "Lady Lex," was deliberately sunk by another US warship at the conclusion of the Battle of the Coral Sea. On March 4, 2018, wreckage of the USS Lexington was found by the research vessel, the R/V Petrel, some 3,000 meters (two miles) below the surface more than 500 miles (800 km) off the eastern coast of Australia.
    (AP, 3/6/18)
1942        May 8, German summer offensive opened in Crimea.
    (MC, 5/8/02)

1942        May 9, John Ashcroft, later Missouri governor (1984-1992) senator (1995-2000) and US Attorney Gen’l (2001-2004), was born in Chicago, Ill.
    (USAT, 11/5/04, p.4A)

1942        May 12, A Nazi U-boat sank an American cargo ship at mouth of Mississippi River.
    (MC, 5/12/02)
1942        May 12, David Ben-Gurion left the Jewish state in Palestine.
    (MC, 5/12/02)
1942        May 12, The Soviet Army launched its first major offensive of the war and took Kharkov in the eastern Ukraine from the German army. The occupation lasted until Aug 23, 1943.
    (HN, 5/12/99)(MC, 5/12/02)
1942        May 12, 1,500 Jews were gassed in Auschwitz.
    (MC, 5/12/02)

1942        May 13, Pitcher Jim Tobin belted 3 HRs in a game.
    (SS, Internet, 5/13/97)
1942        May 13, A helicopter made its 1st cross-country flight.
    (MC, 5/13/02)

1942        May 14, Aaron Copland’s "Lincoln Portrait" was first performed by the Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra, conducted by Andre Kostelanetz, who had commissioned the work.
    (AP, 5/14/98)
1942        May 14, US Congress voted to establish the Women's Auxiliary Army Corps (WAAC).
    (AP, 5/14/07)
1942        May 14, The British, in retreat from Burma, reached India. A half million Indian civilians joined the chaotic exodus. It was later estimated that as many as one in ten perished.
    (HN, 5/14/98)(Econ, 5/7/15, p.78)

1942        May 15, In San Francisco movers said they have trucked away nearly 1,000 potted shrubs and plants from the Japanese Tea Garden in Golden Gate Park. They will be cared for by an expert until the Hagiwara family can put them in another garden as they face evacuation from their home in the park.
    (SSFC, 5/14/17, DB p.54)
1942        May 15, Gasoline rationing went into effect in 17 US states, limiting sales to 3 gallons a week for nonessential vehicles.
    (AP, 5/15/97)(HN, 5/15/98)

1942        May 17, Dutch SS vowed loyalty to Hitler.
    (MC, 5/17/02)

1942        May 18, New York ended night baseball games for the rest of World War II.
    (HN, 5/18/98)
1942        May 18, Allied forces bombed the harbor city of Kupang (Koepang), Timor.

1942        May 19, Sir Joseph Larmor (b.1857), professor of mathematics, died in Ireland. His contributions bridged the old and the new physics. He published three papers all entitled “A dynamical theory of the electric and luminiferous medium" between 1894 and 1897. These papers presented his theory of the electron, which gained further weight in 1897 when J J Thomson experimentally identified the electron.
    (http://tinyurl.com/y9y5wg)(WSJ, 10/13/06, p.A13)

1942        May 20, Glenn Miller and His Orchestra recorded "(I've Got a Gal in) Kalamazoo" at Victor Studios in Hollywood.
    (AP, 5/20/02)
1942        May 20, US Navy 1st permitted black recruits to serve.
    (MC, 5/20/02)
1942        May 20, Japan completed the conquest of Burma.
    (HN, 5/20/98)

1942        May 25, Bill Young, rocker, was born.
    (SC, 5/25/02)
1942        May 25, Brian "Blinky" Davison, rocker, was born.
    (SC, 5/25/02)
1942        May 25, In San Francisco Carmelo Zito, editor of the Italian language anti-Fascist newspaper, testified before the Tenney committee on subversive and un-American activities and accused Mayor Rossi of having given the Fascist salute on many occasions at meetings in dreamland and Scottish Rite auditoriums.
    (SSFC, 5/21/17, DB p.58)

1942        May 26, John R. Brinkley (b.1885), Kansas scam artist, died in Texas. He was known as the “goat gland doctor" for touting sexual vitality with goat gland implants. He also built one of the nation’s 1st radio stations KFKB (Kansas Folks Know Best), and ran for governor there in 1930 and 1932. In 2002 R. Alton Lee authored “The Bizarre Careers of John R. Brinkley."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_R._Brinkley)(WSJ, 5/24/02, p.W11)
1942        May 26, Tank battle at Bir Hakeim: African corps vs. British army.
    (MC, 5/26/02)

1942        May 27, Nazi overlord and SS general Reinhard Heydrich critically wounded in Prague by Czech commandos, who had parachuted in and ambushed his car. Hitler promptly ordered the deaths of 10,000 residents of Lidice, near Prague. Heydrich died of his wounds on June 4. The commandos had been sheltered in Lidice and as a result the entire population was either executed or driven out. This has become a hallmark of Nazi brutality. Heydrich was the man charged with "The Final Solution of the Jewish Problem." Heydrich was responsible for the development of an espionage system outside Germany. As an SS general he was the first administrator of the concentration camps and the program to eliminate Jews from Europe.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reinhard_Heydrich)(SFC, 12/17/19, p.A2)
1942        May 27, German General Erwin Rommel began a major offensive in Libya with his Afrika Korps.
    (HN, 5/27/99)

1942        May 28, Jean F. van Royen, German secretary PTT (camp Amersfoort), died.
    (MC, 5/28/02)

1942        May 29, Kevin Conway, actor (Flash Point, Cage of Angels), was born in NYC.
    (SC, 5/29/02)
1942        May 29, The movie "Yankee Doodle Dandy," starring James Cagney, premiered at a war-bonds benefit in New York.
    (AP, 5/29/99)
1942        May 29, Bing Crosby, the Ken Darby Singers and the John Scott Trotter Orchestra recorded Irving Berlin’s "White Christmas" in Los Angeles for Decca Records.
    (AP, 5/29/98)
1942        May 29, Actor John Barrymore died in Hollywood at age 60.
    (HN, 5/29/00)(AP, 5/29/01)
1942        May 29, The German Army completed its encirclement of the Kharkov region of the Soviet Union. The Red Army had lost over 250,000 men including many prisoners.
    (HN, 5/29/99)

1942        May 30, US aircraft carrier Yorktown left Pearl Harbor.
    (MC, 5/30/02)
1942          May 30, The Royal Air Force under RAF Commander Arthur Harris launched the first 1,000 plane raid over Germany. 1,047 RAF bombers bombed Cologne.
1942        May 30, Reichsfuhrer Heinrich Himmler arrived in Prague.
    (MC, 5/30/02)

1942        May 31, In Australia 3 midget submarines slipped into the Sidney Harbor after being launched from a fleet of five larger Japanese submarines offshore. Two were spotted and attacked, leading the two-man crews to commit suicide. A 3rd midget submarine managed to fire two torpedoes at the US heavy cruiser USS Chicago, one of which exploded beneath an Australian depot ship HMAS Kuttabul, killing 21 sailors. In 2006 the M24 midget submarine was found by scuba divers in deep waters off the coast. In 2007 the Australian government decided to leave the M24 and its 2 Japanese sailors undisturbed on the seabed.
    (AFP, 11/24/06)(AFP, 5/23/07)
1942        May 31, Luftwaffe bombed Canterbury.
    (MC, 5/31/02)

1942        May, Japanese documents in 1998 revealed that their military used poison gas in a northern China battlefield. China claimed that poison gas was used 2,900 times.
    (SFC, 6/15/98, p.A14)

1942        Jun 1, America began sending Lend-Lease materials to the Soviet Union.
    (HN, 6/1/98)
1942        Jun 1, The US Supreme Court, in Skinner v. Oklahoma ex rel. Williamson, struck down Oklahoma’s Habitual Criminal Sterilization Act.
    (WSJ, 9/25/08, p.A18)(http://supreme.justia.com/us/316/535/case.html)

1942        Jun 2, The American aircraft carriers Enterprise, Hornet and Yorktown moved into their battle positions for the Battle of Midway.
    (HN, 6/2/99)

1942        Jun 3, Japanese carrier-based planes strafed Dutch Harbor in the Aleutian Islands as a diversion of the attack on Midway island.
    (HN, 6/3/99)

1942        Jun 4, The Battle of Midway began. It was Japan’s first major defeat in World War II. Four Japanese carriers were lost. The carrier USS Yorktown was hit by 3 Japanese bombs and put on tow to Pearl Harbor. It was torpedoed three days later and sank in waters 16,650 deep. The Yorktown was found in 1998 by a team led by oceanographer Robert Ballard, who had also found the Titanic and the Bismarck. The story of the Battle of Midway was told by Walter Lord in "Incredible Victory." In 2005 Alvin Kernan authored “The Unknown Battle of Midway."
    (AP, 6/4/97)(HN, 6/4/98)(SFC, 6/5/98, p.A3)(SFEC, 6/4/00, p.C1)(WSJ, 11/29/05, p.D8)

1942        Jun 6, The 1st nylon parachute jump was made in Hartford, Ct., by Adeline Gray.
    (MC, 6/6/02)
1942        Jun 6, Japanese troops landed on Kiska, Aleutians.
    (MC, 6/6/02)
1942        Jun 6, Japanese forces retreated in the World War II Battle of Midway.
    (AP, 6/6/97)

1942        Jun 7, US military area No. 1, comprising western portions of California, Oregon and Washington were completely evacuated of Japanese residents by this time. By August 7 some 109,000 Japanese were transferred to relocation centers.
    (SSFC, 7/30/17, DB p.50)
1942        Jun 7, The USS Yorktown was sunk off of Midway Atoll.
    (F, 10/7/96, p.174)
1942        Jun 7, The Japanese invaded Attu and Kiska in the Aleutian Islands.
    (HN, 6/7/98)

1942        Jun 8, Andrew Weil, physician and author (Spontaneous Healing), was born.
    (HN, 6/8/01)
1942        Jun 8, Bing Crosby recorded "Adeste Fideles" and "Silent Night" in Los Angeles for Decca Records.
    (AP, 6/8/00)
1942        Jun 8, In Paris on the first day Helene Berr was forced to wear the yellow star to distinguish Jews: "My God, I didn't know this would be so hard. I was very brave all day. I held my head high and looked people so straight in the eyes they turned away. But it's hard ... This morning, I went out with Mother. Two kids in the street pointed at us saying 'Hey? You see? Jewish.'"
    (AP, 1/9/08)

1942        Jun 9, German-Neth press reported that 3 million Dutch were sent to East-Europe.
    (MC, 6/9/02)
1942        Jun 9, The Japanese high command announced that "The Midway Occupation operations have been temporarily postponed."
    (HN, 6/9/99)

1942        Jun 10, German Gestapo massacred 173 male residents of Lidice, Czechoslovakia, in retaliation for the killing of SS Gen Reinhard Heydrich. All together, 340 people died in the Nazi reprisal (192 men, 60 women and 88 children). The death toll resulting from the effort to avenge the death of Heydrich is estimated at 1,300. This count includes relatives of the partisans, their supporters, Czech elites suspected of disloyalty and random victims like those from Lidice.
    (AP, 6/10/97)(HN, 6/10/98)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lidice)

1942        Jun 11, The United States and the Soviet Union signed a lend-lease agreement to aid the Soviet war effort in World War II.
    (AP, 6/11/97)

1942        Jun 11-Oct 20, In Malta the German and Italian air blockade and repeated bombing failed to break the people-who lived in caves and catacombs through the worst. Hitler’s planned airborne invasion-Operation Hercules-was finally called off.
    (HNQ, 4/8/99)

1942        Jun 12, American bombers struck the oil refineries of Ploesti, Rumania for the first time.
    (HN, 6/12/98)
1942        Jun 12, Anne Frank received her diary as a birthday present in Amsterdam.
    (MC, 6/12/02)

1942        Jun 13, President Roosevelt created the Office of War Information, and appointed radio news commentator Elmer Davis to be its head. The OSS, Office of Strategic Services, was formed.
    (AP, 6/13/97)(MC, 6/13/02)
1942        Jun 13, In Operation Pastorius four men landed overnight on a Long Island beach from a German submarine with plans to sabotage NYC’s water system and industrial sites across the Northeastern US [see June 16, 27].
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Pastorius)(SFC, 11/30/01, p.A1)
1942        Jun 13, Delegates from the Six Nations Confederacy (Iraquois League) assembled in conference to draft a formal declaration of war. The following day, on the steps of the United States Capitol, a spokesman of the Confederacy said it has entered World War II on its own consent and terms.
1942        Jun 13, 1st V-2 rocket launch from Peenemunde, Germany, reached 1.3 km.
    (MC, 6/13/02)

1942        Jun 14, Anne Frank began her diary.
    (MC, 6/14/02)
1942        Jun 14, The first bazooka rocket gun, produced in Bridgeport, Ct., demolished a tank from its shoulder-held position.
    (MC, 6/14/02)

1942        Jun 15, Xaviera Hollander, [DeVries], celebrity "author" (Happy Hooker), was born in Surabaya, Indonesia.
    (MC, 6/15/02)

1942        Jun 16, Lt. Edwin P. Ramsey led the last US cavalry charge at the village of Morong in the Philippines. His mounted platoon of 27 men routed a force of hundreds of Japanese soldiers.
    (SFEC, 2/23/97, BR p.4)
1942        Jun 16, The SS Port Nicholson was headed for New York with 71 tons of platinum valued at about $53 million when it was sunk off Maine in an attack that left six people dead. The platinum was a payment from the Soviet Union to the US for war supplies.
    (AP, 2/2/12)(www.shippingtimes.co.uk/item_10244.html)
1942        Jun 16, A German team headed by Edward John Kerling landed without incident at Ponte Vedra Beach, Florida, south of Jacksonville. They came on submarine U-584 as part of Operation Pastorius. This group came ashore wearing bathing suits but wore German Navy hats. After landing ashore, they threw away their hats, put on civilian clothes, and started their mission by boarding trains to Chicago, Illinois and Cincinnati, Ohio.

1942        Jun 17, Rod Padgett, poet, was born.
    (HN, 6/17/01)
1942        Jun 17, Yank a weekly magazine for the U.S. armed services, began publication. Hartzell Spence (d.2001 at 93), executive editor of Yank, a new US Army publication, soon introduced the term "pinup" for the photo inserts of beautiful women and added the "Sad Sack" cartoon strip.
    (HN, 6/17/98)(SFC, 5/29/01, p.A17)
1942        Jun 17, Four men landed on a Florida beach from a German submarine with plans to sabotage US industrial sites. [see Jun 27]
    (SFC, 11/30/01, p.A1)

1942        Jun 18, Roger Ebert, film critic, was born in Urbana, Ill.
    (SFEC, 3/7/99, Par p.26)
1942        Jun 18, Paul McCartney, songwriter and singer and member of the Beatles, was born. He went on to form Wings before heading on to a solo career.
    (HN, 6/18/99)
1942        Jun 18, The U.S. Navy commissioned its first black officer, Harvard University medical student Bernard Whitfield Robinson.
    (HN, 6/18/99)
1942        Jun 18, Eric Nessler of France stayed aloft in a glider for 38h 21m.
    (MC, 6/18/02)
1942        Jun 18, John Kubris (28), Czech resistance fighter, killed Nazi SS leader Reinhard Heydrich, died.
    (MC, 6/18/02)
1942        Jun 18, Adolf Opalka, Czech resistance fighter, was shot down.
    (MC, 6/18/02)

1942        Jun 19, Prime Minister Winston Churchill arrived in Washington D.C. to discuss the invasion of North Africa with President Roosevelt.
    (HN, 6/19/98)
1942        Jun 19, In Czechoslovakia PM Alois Elias, sentenced to death in October 1941 for high treason and espionage, was executed. In 2006 his ashes were buried with state honors.
    (AP, 5/7/06)

1942        Jun 20, Brian Wilson (Beach Boys), was born.
    (MC, 6/20/02)
1942        Jun 20, Adolf Eichmann proclaimed the deportation of Dutch Jews.
    (MC, 6/20/02)

1942        Jun 21, President Roosevelt and Prime Minister Churchill met in Washington, DC.
    (MC, 6/21/02)
1942        Jun 21, German General Erwin Rommel captured the port city of Tobruk in North Africa and 25,000 Allied troops.
    (HN, 6/21/98)(Camelot, 6/21/99)

1942        Jun 22, The first delivery of V-Mail was in 1942.
    (HFA, ‘96, p.32)
1942        Jun 22, A Japanese submarine shelled Fort Stevens, Oregon, at the mouth of the Columbia River.
    (HN, 6/22/98)(MC, 6/22/02)
1942        Jun 22, A Jewish Brigade, attached by British Army, formed.
    (MC, 6/22/02)

1942        Jun 24, Mick Fleetwood (musician: drums: group: Fleetwood Mac: Dreams, Don't Stop), was born.
    (MC, 6/24/02)
1942        Jun 24, The German Africa Corps occupied Egypt.
    (MC, 6/24/02)

1942        Jun 25, Major General Dwight Eisenhower was appointed commander of US forces in Europe.
    (MC, 6/25/02)
1942        Jun 25, Some 1,000 British Royal Air Force bombers raided Bremen, Germany, during World War II.
    (AP, 6/25/97)

1942        Jun 26, The Grumman F6F Hellcat fighter flew for the first time.
    (HN, 6/26/98)

1942        Jun 27, Bruce Johnston, rocker (Beachboys-In My Room), was born.
    (SC, 6/27/02)
1942        Jun 27, The FBI announced the capture of eight Nazi saboteurs who had been put ashore from 2 submarines, one off New York’s Long Island and the other off of Florida. The men were tried by a military court and 6 were secretly executed in a DC jail. Ernest Burger and George Dasch were sentenced to 30 years in prison for their help in revealing the plot. They were pardoned in 1948 by Pres. Truman.
    (AP, 6/27/97)(SFC, 11/30/01, p.A18)
1942        Jun 27, The Allied Convoy PQ-17 left Iceland for Murmansk and Archangel. As their escorts turned away, the ships of the doomed Allied convoy PQ-17 followed orders and began to disperse in the Arctic waters.
    (HN, 6/27/98)

1942        Jun 28, German troops launched an offensive to seize Soviet oil fields in the Caucasus and the city of Stalingrad.
    (HN, 6/28/98)

1942        Jun 30, Col-gen Von Paulus' 6th Army stormed into the Ukraine.
    (MC, 6/30/02)

1942        Jun, The US authorized an additional 200 blimps, most of which were built by Goodyear Co. of Akron, Ohio. When the war began the Navy had 10 blimps.
    (Ind, 1/27/00, 5A)
1942        Jun, Four men waded ashore on a Florida beach wearing nothing but bathing trunks and German army hats. In 2011 declassified British intelligence files described how the men were part of Nazi sabotage teams sent to the US to undermine the American war effort (See June 13 and June 27).
    (AP, 4/4/11)

1942        Jun, British Flight Sergeant Denis Copping (24), made a "fairly flawless emergency landing" of his American-built Kittyhawk P-40 in the desert of western Egypt. It was part of General Montgomery's British forces, mobilized to fight the Afrika Korps of Germany's Rommel. In 2012 the plane was found almost intact" in a vast sea of sand and rock.
    (AFP, 5/12/12)
1942        Jun, In Poland by this month 100,000 people of the Warsaw ghetto had died due to disease or starvation.
    (SFC, 7/10/97, p.A7)

1942        Summer, Members of Kiev’s Dynamo soccer team were brought out from forced labor to play a series of exhibition games. The last game was against Flakelf, a Luftwaffe team, which lost to Dynamo 5-2. Dynamo members were later arrested. One died of torture and 3 more were killed near the Babi Yar ravine. In 2002 Andy Dougan authored "Dynamo: Triumph and Tragedy in Nazi-Occupied Kiev."
    (WSJ, 9/6/02, p.W10)

1942        Jul 1, Genevieve Bujold, actress (King of Hearts, Choose Me, Coma), was born in Montreal.
    (MC, 7/1/02)
1942        Jul 1, German troops captured Sevastopol, Crimea, in the Soviet Union.
    (HN, 7/1/98)

1942        Jul 2, Allied convoys QP-13 and PQ-17 passed each other while the German battleships Tirpitz and Hipper prepared to attack PQ-17 in the North Atlantic.
    (HN, 7/2/98)

1942        Jul 4, Irving Berlin’s musical review "This Is the Army" opened at the Broadway Theater in New York.
    (AP, 7/4/00)
1942        Jul 4, Allied convoy PQ-17 scattered when its escort ships were withdrawn, leaving the convoy to face German U-boats alone.
    (HN, 7/4/98)
1942        Jul 4, 1st American bombing mission over enemy-occupied Europe (WW II). US air offensive against Nazi-Germany began.

1942        Jul 5, 1st performance of Heitor Villa-Lobos' Choros 6/9/11.
    (MC, 7/5/02)
1942        Jul 5, Ian Fleming graduated from a training school for spies in Canada.
    (MC, 7/5/02)

1942        Jul 6, Anne Frank's family went into hiding in After House, Amsterdam.
    (MC, 7/6/02)

1942        Jul 9, Anne Frank (13), her family and 4 other Jews went into hiding in the attic above her father's office in an Amsterdam warehouse.
    (HN, 7/9/01)(MC, 7/9/02)

1942        Jul 10, General Carl Spaatz became the head of the U.S. Air Force in Europe.
    (HN, 7/10/98)
1942        Jul 10, Himmler ordered the sterilization of all Jewish woman in Ravensbruck Camp.
    (MC, 7/10/02)

1942        Jul 11, In the longest bombing raid of World War II, 1,750 British Lancaster bombers attacked the Polish port of Danzig. The Polish submarine Orzel escaped from internment and went on to fight the Germans against long odds.
    (HN, 7/11/98)

1942        Jul 12, Richard Stoltzman, classical and jazz clarinetist (Tashi), was born in Omaha, Nebraska.
1942        Jul 12, The US Navy issued its seventh casualty list of officers and men dead, wounded or missing between June 18 and June 30. The list included 49 dead, seven wounded and 211 missing.
    (SSFC, 7/9/17, p.50 DB)

1942        Jul 13, Harrison Ford, actor (Star Wars, Indiana Jones, Frantic), was born in Chicago, Ill.
    (MC, 7/13/02)
1942        Jul 13, 5,000 Jews of Rovno, Polish Ukraine, were executed by Nazis.
    (MC, 7/13/02)
1942        Jul 13, SS shot 1,500 Jews in Josefov, Poland.
    (MC, 7/13/02)

1942        Jul 15, A group of 19 merchant ships were being escorted by the US Navy and Coast Guard from Norfolk, Va., to Key West, Fla., to deliver cargo for the war effort. En route Convoy KS-520 was attacked by the German U-576 off of Cape Hatteras near North Carolina. The German submarine damaged two ships and sank Bluefields. In retaliation, a US naval aircraft bombed the U-576. The two ships sank to the ocean floor 30 miles off the cape. All 45 members of U-576 were lost. Wreckage of the two ships was found on Aug 30, 2014.
1942        Jul 15, The first supply flight from India to China over the 'Hump' was flown to help China's war effort.
    (HN, 7/15/99)

1942        Jul 16, Jews were transported from Holland to an extermination camp.
    (MC, 7/16/02)
1942        Jul 16, The first large-scale roundups of Jews began under protests by only a half-dozen Catholic church leaders. French police rounded up some 13,000 Jews over 2 days in Paris, many of whom were first holed up in harsh conditions at Paris' Vel d'Hiv, or the Winter Velodrome stadium. The roundup of foreign-born Jews was based on a list compiled by Paris police. Some 125,000 Jews had been recorded in a roll based on a census the Nazis demanded in 1941. In 1942 the Vichy police handed over some 40,000 Jews to the Germans.
    (SFEC, 9/28/97, p.A22)(Econ, 7/24/04, p.49)(AP, 7/22/12)(AFP, 9/19/18)

1942        Jul 18, The German Messerschmitt Me 262 Schwalbe, the first jet-propelled aircraft to fly in combat, made its first flight. Walter Nowotny was a rising your star in the Luftwaffe, chosen by Hitler to be the point man to lead the new jet fighter under the tutelage of General of Fighters Adolf Galland who was assigned to prove the airplane in battle. The Axis hopes were dashed when Nowotny was attacked by American pilots during landing and crashed. Col. Edward R. "Buddy" Haydon was one of those American pilots.
    (www.fighter-planes.com/info/me262.htm)(HNQ, 9/2/02)

1942        Jul 19, German U-boats were withdrawn from positions off the U.S. Atlantic coast due to effective American anti-submarine countermeasures.
    (HN, 7/19/98)

1942        Jul 20, Time put Russian composer Dmitri Shostakovitch on its cover.
    (MC, 7/20/02)
1942        Jul 20, The first detachment of the Women’s Army Auxiliary Corps (WAAC), later known as WACs, began basic training at Fort Des Moines, Iowa.
    (HN, 7/20/02)(AP, 7/20/02)

1942        Jul 22, Gasoline rationing involving the use of coupons began along the Atlantic seaboard.
    (AP, 7/22/99)
1942        Jul 22, The Americans approved Operation Torch, the British alternative to an invasion of Europe. The design of Operation Torch was to secure all of North Africa for the Allies. In 2002 Rick Atkinson authored "An Army At Dawn," an account of Operation Torch.
    (HN, 2/26/98)(WSJ, 11/19/02, p.D6)
1942        Jul 22, Warsaw Ghetto Jews (300,000) were sent to death at Treblinka extermination Camp.
    (MC, 7/22/02)

1942        Jul 23, Harry James and his Orchestra recorded "I Had the Craziest Dream" in Hollywood for Columbia Records.
    (AP, 7/23/02)
1942        Jul 23, Treblinka Concentration Camp was destroyed.
    (MC, 7/23/02)

1942        Jul 24, The Soviet city of Rostov was captured by German troops.
    (HN, 7/24/98)

1942        Jul 26, Roman Catholic churches protested the Dutch bishops’ stand against the spread of Judaism.
    (MC, 7/26/02)
1942        Jul 26, RAF bombed Hamburg.
    (MC, 7/26/02)

1942        Jul 27, Benny Goodman and his Orchestra and vocalist Peggy Lee recorded "Why Don't You Do Right" in New York for Columbia Records.
    (AP, 7/27/02)
1942        Jul 27, The advance of German army was halted in the first battle of El Alamein, Egypt.

1942        Jul 28, Nazis liquidated 10,000 Jews in Minsk, Russia.
    (SC, 7/28/02)

1942        Jul 30, President Roosevelt signed a bill creating a women’s auxiliary agency in the Navy known as "Women Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Service" or WAVES for short.
    (AP, 7/30/97)
1942        Jul 30, The US passenger-freighter Robert E. Lee with 268 passengers was sunk by the German U-166 submarine. 15 crew members and 10 passengers died. In 2001 wreckage of the U-166 was found in the Gulf of Mexico and it appeared that it was sunk by Coast Guard PC-566 right after the attack. U-166 had 52 crew members. [see Aug 1, 1942]
    (SFC, 6/9/01, p.A5)
1942        Jul 30, German SS einsatzgruppen death battalions killed 25,000 Jews in Minsk, Belorussia.
    (MC, 7/30/02)
1942        Jul 30, The Battle of Rzhev began as a Soviet offensive to recapture Rzhev and strike a blow against Germany's Army Group Center that would push them away from Moscow. It was part of a series of battles that lasted 15 months in the center of the Eastern Front. The effort involved enormous Soviet losses from persistent, poorly prepared attacks against well-fortified Nazi positions.
    (AP, 6/30/20)

1942        Jul 31, At midnight the record studios fell silent in a struggle with James Caesar Petrillo (d.1984), head of the American Federation of Musicians. Petrillo insisted that the record industry pay a ¼ to ¾ cent royalty to the musicians union. Decca signed an agreement in Aug, 1943, and Columbia and Victor surrendered Nov 11, 1944.
    (WSJ, 7/31/02, p.D10)
1942        Jul 31, The German SS gassed some 1,000 Jews in Minsk, Belorussia.
    (MC, 7/31/02)

1942        Jul, Dr. Paul Fildes led a British test of anthrax in a bomb on Gruinard Island in northwest Scotland. The island became contaminated from tests and Britain acquired it for £500. Cleanup was undertaken in 1986 and the island was returned to its original owners in 1990.
    (WSJ, 10/18/01, p.A23)(Econ, 5/8/04, p.78)
1942        Jul, Maurice Papon (1910-2007), French civil servant, in his first report to German occupiers, noted that he had “dejudaised" 204 businesses, while 493 others were “in the process of dejudaisation."
    (Econ, 2/24/07, p.99)
1942        Jul, Hitler made his fateful decision to split the armies engaged in the offensive and to occupy the city of Stalingrad with the weaker of the 2 groups.
    (WSJ, 1/14/07, p.P8)

1942        Aug 1, Jerry Garcia, lead singer of the Grateful Dead, was born.
    (HN, 8/1/98)
1942        Aug 1, Ensign Henry C. White, while flying a J4F Widgeon plane, sank U-166 as it approaches the Mississippi River, the first U-boat sunk by the U.S. Coast Guard. In the summer of 1942, German submarines put saboteurs ashore on American beaches. [see Jul 30, 1942]
    (HN, 8/1/98)(SFC, 6/9/01, p.A5)
1942        cAug 1, Jose Diaz, a young Mexican national, was killed in southern Ca. His death was associated with a brawl between the Downey Boys and the 38th Street gang. 24 young men from the 38th Street neighborhood were indicted in the Sleepy Lagoon murder case and a dozen men served 21 months in prison before their convictions were overturned. The vent formed the basis for a play by Luis Valdez and the film "Zoot Suit."
    (SFC, 5/23/01, p.C5)

1942        Aug 2, Isabel Allende, author of "The House of the Spirits," was born.
    (HN, 8/2/00)

1942        Aug 4, The "Bracero Program," began running under the auspices of the US Dept. of Labor. It sent Mexican workers to the US to help the labor shortage created by World War II. From 1942-1949 10% of their wages was deposited with the National Bank of Rural Credit, Banrural (Banco Nacional de Credito Agricola, a predecessor of Banrural). The program ended in 1964. Workers in 1999 demanded to know the status of the fund. Mexican banking officials in 1999 reported no evidence of the funds. In 2001 a suit for $500 million was filed for deposits and interest from 1942-1949.
    (SFC, 8/6/99, p.A16)(SFC, 10/6/99, p.A16)(SSFC, 7/15/01, p.A4)(SFC, 1/16/04, p.A19)
1942        Aug 4, The 1st train with Jews departed Mechelen, Belgium, to Auschwitz.
    (MC, 8/4/02)

1942        Aug 5, Janusz Korczak and the children he cared for were taken away by the Nazis from an orphanage in the Warsaw Ghetto. He chose to stay with the children in his care as they went together into the gas chambers at Treblinka. In 2002 a memorial in Warsaw was dedicated to Korczak and the children.
    (AP, 8/6/02)

1942        Aug 6, Goering proclaimed occupied areas "thoroughly empty to plunder."
    (MC, 8/6/02)
1942        Aug 6, The Soviet city of Voronezh fell to the German army.
    (HN, 8/6/98)

1942        Aug 7, Garrison Keillor, American humorist and writer, was born.
    (HN, 8/7/00)
1942        Aug 7, B.J. (Billy Joe) Thomas, singer (Raindrops Keep Falling on My Head, Hooked on a Feeling), was born.
    (MC, 8/7/02)
1942        Aug 7, The U.S. 1st Marine Division under General A. A. Vandegrift landed on the islands of Guadalcanal and Tulagi in the Solomon islands. This was the first American amphibious landing of the war and the start of the first major allied offensive in the Pacific during World War II. The initial landing party included Navajo Codetalkers. This was the 1st land Japanese defeat of WWII; Japan was building an air base with designs on isolating the  Australian continent.
    (AP, 8/7/97)(HN, 8/7/98)(WSJ, 10/12/99, p.A24)(MC, 8/7/02)
1942        Aug 7, Transport 16 departed with French Jews to Nazi-Germany.
    (MC, 8/7/02)
1942        Aug 7, The Nazi 36th Police Battalion, made up of ethnic Estonians, massacred some 2,500 Jews at Novogrudok, Belarus (according to the Simon Wiesenthal Foundation).
    (SSFC, 2/15/04, p.A4)

1942        Aug 8, U.S. Marines captured the Japanese airstrip on Guadalcanal.
    (HN, 8/8/98)
1942        Aug 8, Six convicted Nazi saboteurs who had landed in the United States were executed in Washington, D.C. Two others received life imprisonment.
    (AP, 8/8/97)
1942        Aug 8, Gerhart Riegner (d.2001 at 90), World Jewish Congress official in Geneva, cable the US vice consul to describe Hitler’s plan to deport an estimated 4 million Jews to Eastern Europe and to annihilate them.
    (SFC, 12/4/01, p.A19)

1942        Aug 9, Mahatma Gandhi and 50 others were arrested in Bombay after the passing of a "quit India" campaign by the All-India Congress.
    (MC, 8/9/02)
1942        Aug 9, Carmelite nun Teresa Benedicta of the Cross, whose given name was Edith Stein (b.1891), was executed by the Nazis at Auschwitz for her Jewish heritage. A Roman Catholic convert from Judaism, Stein was an educator, nun, philosopher and spiritual writer and is generally regarded as a modern saint and martyr. Born in Germany on October 12, 1891, she joined the Carmelites in 1934 and wrote a number of important philosophical and spiritual works, including "Finite and Eternal Being." With Hitler’s 1942 order for the arrest of all non-Aryan Catholics, Stein was seized and shipped to the concentration camp at Auschwitz where she died in the gas chamber with her sister Rosa. A woman of singular intelligence and learning, she left behind a body of writing notable for its doctrinal richness and profound spirituality. She was beatified by Pope John Paul II at Cologne on May 1, 1987. She was made a saint in 1998.
    (HNQ, 10/6/98)(SFC, 10/12/98, p.A1)
1942        Aug 9, In Russia conductor Karl Eliasberg led a performance of Shostakovich's Seventh Symphony in Leningrad as it was besieged by the German army. A day earlier the Soviet army did a very vicious bombardment of the German army lines in order to silence the German guns, so the concert could take place without being interrupted.

1942        Aug 10, Gen. Bernard Law Montgomery became commandant British 8th leader in N. Africa.
    (MC, 8/10/02)

1942        Aug 11, Some 999 Jews were taken from Mechelen transit camp in Belgium.
    (MC, 8/11/02)
1942        Aug 11, During World War II, Vichy government official Pierre Laval publicly declared that "the hour of liberation for France is the hour when Germany wins the war."
    (AP, 8/11/99)
1942        Aug 11, The German submarine U-73 attacked a Malta bound British convoy and sank the HMS Eagle, one of the world's first aircraft carriers.
    (HN, 8/10/98)
1942        Aug 11, Slovakian-born Adolf Burger (1917-2016) was arrested after he was caught producing fake baptism certificates for Jews to help them escape transportation to Nazi death camps. In 1944 at the Sachsenhausen concentration camp in Germany, Burger became one of 139 inmates who were put to work forging British pound notes, a top secret plan to destabilize Britain known as "Operation Bernhard." Burger described his experiences in "The Commando of Counterfeiters," a 1983 memoir. The film "The Counterfeiters" went on to win the Oscar for best foreign film in 2008.
    (AP, 12/8/16)(AFP, 12/8/16)

1942        Aug 11-1942 Sep 30, The SS began exterminating 3,500 Jews in Zelov Lodz, Poland.
    (MC, 8/11/02)

1942        Aug 12, British premier Churchill arrived in Moscow to meet Stalin.
    (MC, 8/12/02)

1942        Aug 13, Walt Disney's animated feature "Bambi" premiered at Radio City Music Hall in New York. The film was a watered down version of a 1923 novel by Felix Salten. The animated cartoon featured "Thumper" the bunny. The Bambi character was imbued with poetic quality by Chinese-born artist Tyrus Wong (1910-2016).
    (SFEC, 5/11/97, DB p.37)(WSJ, 10/14/97, p.A20)(AP, 8/13/99)(SFC, 1/2/17, p.A10)
1942        Aug 13, Brazil-based Bemol was founded by three grandsons of Moroccan Jewish immigrants who had arrived in 1887. By 2020 it was the largest department store in the Amazon.
    (https://www.linkedin.com/company/bemol/)(Econ., 11/7/20, p.30)

1942        Aug 14, Dwight D. Eisenhower was named the Anglo-American commander for Operation Torch, the invasion of North Africa.
    (HN, 8/14/98)

1942        Aug 15, The Japanese submarine I-25 departed Japan with a floatplane in its hold. It was assembled upon arriving off the West Coast of the US, and used to bomb U.S. forests.
    (HN, 8/15/99)
1942        Aug 15, In Switzerland shoemaker Marcelin Dumoulin (40) and his schoolteacher wife Francine (37) left their village of Chandolin to graze their cattle in the mountainside and disappeared. Seven orphans -- five boys and two girls -- were placed in foster homes. In 2017 the bodies of Marcelin and Francine were found preserved in a receding glacier.
    (AFP, 7/18/17)

1942        Aug 16, The US Navy L-8 patrol blimp crash-landed at 419 Bellevue St., Daly City, Ca., after drifting in from the ocean. The ship’s crew, Lt. Ernest Dewitt Cody (27) and Ensign Charles E. Adams (38), were missing and no trace of them was ever found.
    (GDCH, 1986, p.17)(Ind, 5/3/03, p.5A)

1942        Aug 17, U.S. Eighth Air Force bombers attacked Rouen, France.
    (AP, 8/17/02)
1942        Aug 17, Marine Raiders attacked Makin Island (Kiribati) in the Gilbert Islands from two submarines. [see Aug 18]
    (HN, 8/17/98)

1942        Aug 18, Carlson's Raiders landed on Makin (Kiribati) in the Gilbert islands and killed 350 Japanese. [see Aug 17]
    (MC, 8/18/02)
1942         Aug 18, Japan sent a crack army to Guadalcanal to repulse the U.S. Marines fighting there.
    (HN, 8/18/98)

1942        Aug 19, 19 US Marines died during a commando raid on Makin atoll in the Gilbert Islands. The raid was 2,000 miles behind enemy lines and 9 Marines were left behind. The 1943 movie, “Gung Ho," was based on the raid and  starred Randolph Scott as Lt. Col. Evans Carlson, leader of the raid. In 2001 the bodies of 13 Marines, who died on Makin, were reburied at Arlington National Cemetery.
    (SFC, 12/26/00, p.A1)(SFC, 8/18/01, p.A3)
1942        Aug 19, About 5,000 Canadian and 2,000 British soldiers launched a disastrous raid against the Germans at Dieppe, France. Over 3,600 men  perished in this battle. The information gathered from this landing was considered valuable for planning the successful Allied landings in Northern Africa, Sicily, and Normandy, France.  Brit. Col. Pat Porteous (d.2000) received a Victoria Cross for his valor in the attack which was aimed at gaining experience for the later D-Day invasion.
    (AP, 8/19/97)(HN, 8/19/98)(SFC, 10/16/00, p.A22)(MC, 8/19/02)
1942        Aug 19, Gen. Paulus ordered the German 6th Army to conquer Stalingrad.
    (MC, 8/19/02)

1942        Aug 20, Isaac Hayes (d.2008), American singer and composer (Shaft), was born in Covington, TN.
1942        Aug 20, The California department of the American Legion urged that all Japanese  or persons of Japanese ancestry be denied citizenship, and that all those now in the US be placed in concentration camps and deported after the war.
    (SSFC, 3/20/17, DB p.54)
1942        Aug 20, Plutonium was first weighed. Glenn T. Seaborg was a co-discoverer of Plutonium.
    (HFA, ‘96, p.36)(SFC, 8/26/97, p.A17)

1942        Aug 21, U.S. Marines turned back the first major Japanese ground attack on Guadalcanal in the Battle of Tenaru.
    (HN, 8/21/98)

1942        Aug 22, Brazil declared war on the Axis powers. She was the only South American country to send combat troops into Europe.
    (HN, 8/22/98)
1942        Aug 22, Mikhailmichel Fokine (b.1880), Russian ballet dancer, choreographer, died.
    (MC, 8/22/02)

1942        Aug 23, Patricia McBride, ballerina (NYC Ballet Co), was born in Teaneck, NJ.
    (MC, 8/23/02)
1942        Aug 23, The 1st US flights landed on Guadalcanal.
    (MC, 8/23/02)
1942        Aug 23, German forces began an assault on the major Soviet industrial city of Stalingrad. From Aug. to Feb. 1943, The Battle of Stalingrad, 600 miles southeast of Moscow, was fought and ended with the encirclement and destruction of the German 6th Army Group. Stalingrad has since been renamed to Volgograd. In 1998 Antony Beevor published "Stalingrad: The Fateful Siege." The German in charge was Gen’l. Friedrich Paulus. 600 Luftwaffe bombers killed some 40,000 people in the first week of fighting.
    (WSJ, 2/21/96, p.A-15)(WSJ, 7/8/98, p.A13)(HN, 8/23/98)(MC, 8/23/02)

1942        Aug 24, In the battle of the Eastern Solomons, the third carrier-versus-carrier battle of the war, U.S. naval forces defeated a Japanese force attempting to screen reinforcements for the Guadalcanal fighting.
    (HN, 8/24/98)

1942        Aug 25,  German SS began transporting Jews of Maastricht, Neth.
    (chblue.com, 8/25/01)
1942        Aug 25, W. van Daalen, opposition leader on Celebes, was beheaded.
    (MC, 8/25/02)

1942        Aug 26, Haile Selassie issued a new proclamation outlawing slavery in Ethiopia. Slavery was first outlawed in 1924.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R28)(http://nazret.com/history/)
1942        Aug 26, Haile Selassie established the State Bank of Ethiopia.
1942        Aug 26, 7,000 Jews were rounded up in Vichy, France.
    (MC, 8/26/02)
1942        Aug 26, Japanese troops landed on New Guinea, Milne Bay.
    (MC, 8/26/02)
1942        Aug 26, A Russian counter offensive began in Moscow.
    (MC, 8/26/02)

1942        Aug 27, Cuba declared war on Germany, Japan and Italy.
    (MC, 8/27/01)

1942        Aug 29, The American Red Cross announced that Japan had refused to allow safe conduct for the passage of ships with supplies for American prisoners of war.
    (HN, 8/29/98)

1942        Aug 31, The British army under General Bernard Law Montgomery defeated Field Marshal Erwin Rommel’s Afrika Korps in the Battle of Alam Halfa in Egypt.
    (HN, 8/31/98)
1942        Aug 31, U boats sunk this month 108 ships (544,000 ton).
    (MC, 8/31/01)

1942        Aug,  Following the Battle of Midway, American forces at Guadalcanal--code-named "Cactus"--took delivery of 12 Douglas SBD Dauntless dive bombers and their escort of 19 Grumman F4F-4 Wildcat fighters, the advance squadrons of Marine Air Group (MAG) 23. Within 12 hours the fledgling "Cactus Air Force" helped finish off a Japanese infantry assault.
    (HNQ, 8/15/01)
1942-1943    Aug-Feb, The Battle of Guadalcanal transformed the US military services to world class status. The story of WW II is told in "Clash of Titans: World War II at Sea" by Walter J. Boyne.
    (WSJ, 6/1/95, p.A-12)
1942        Aug, Irene Nemirovsky (39), French-Jewish author, died at Auschwitz. She had recently authored "Suite Francaise" while waiting in rural France for what she knew was her imminent arrest and deportation. It is a powerful account of the effect on ordinary people of the military collapse of June 1940, the panicked flight from Paris and the arrival of the German army. It was finally published in France in 2004 and Nemirovsky was awarded a top French literary award. In 2006 Jonathan Weiss authored “Irene Nemirovsky: Her Life and Works."
    (AFP, 11/8/04)(SSFC, 9/24/06, p.M1)(SSFC, 5/16/10, p.F5)

1942        Sep 1, A federal judge in Sacramento, Calif., upheld the wartime detention of Japanese-Americans as well as Japanese nationals.
    (AP, 9/1/97)

1942        Sep 2, German troops entered Stalingrad.
    (MC, 9/2/01)
1942        Sep 2, Eric Ravilious (b.1903), English painter, died when the aircraft he was on was lost off Iceland.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eric_Ravilious)(Econ., 4/18/15, p.76)

1942        Sep 4, Soviet planes bombed Budapest in the war’s first air raid on the Hungarian capital.
    (HN, 9/4/98)

1942        Sep 5, Eduardo Mata, Mexico City Mexico, conductor (Improvisaciones), was born.
    (MC, 9/5/01)
1942        Sep 5, Werner Herzog, director (Burden of Dreams, Stroszek, Woyzeck), was born.
    (MC, 9/5/01)
1942        Sep 5, British & US bombed Le Havre & Bremen.
    (MC, 9/5/01)

1942        Sep 7, The Red Army pushed back the German line northwest of Stalingrad. The Krummer Lauf allowed German infantry and motorized artillery units to actually fire around corners.
    (HN, 9/7/98)

1942        Sep 9, A Japanese float plane, launched from a submarine, made its first bombing run on a US forest near Brookings, Oregon. Japanese planes drop incendiary bombs on Oregon in an attempt to set fire to the forests of the Northwest. The forests failed to ignite, but Pacific Coast citizens stepped-up their blackout drills in preparation for future Japanese raids.
    (HN, 9/9/99)

1942        Sep 10, RAF dropped 100,000 bombs on Dusseldorf.
    (MC, 9/10/01)
1942        Sep 10, British troops landed on Madagascar.
    (MC, 9/10/01)

1942        Sep 11, Wheeler Bryson Lipes (1921-2005), a US Navy pharmacist's mate, saved the life of sailor Darrell Dean Rector (19) by operating, following a medical manual, in the officer’s mess aboard the Seadragon below the surface of the South China Sea. George Weller (d.2002), war correspondent, won the Pulitzer in 1943 for his account of the operation. The films “Destination Tokyo" (1943) and “Run Silent, Run Deep" (1958) memorialized the surgery.
    (AP, 12/20/02)(SFC, 4/19/05, p.B5)

1942        Sep 12, Free-Poland & Belgium asked Pope to condemn Nazi-war crimes. He did not.
    (MC, 9/12/01)

1942        Sep 13, Battle of Edson's Ridge began at Guadalcanal.

1942        Sep 14, The 3-day Battle of Edson's Ridge at Guadalcanal continued.
1942        Sep 14, Armies of Nazi Germany began their siege of the Russian city of Stalingrad. [see Sep 2, 13]
    (MC, 9/14/01)

1942        Sep 15, The USS Wasp was torpedoed by a Japanese submarine at Guadalcanal; the US Navy ended up sinking the badly damaged aircraft carrier.
    (www.b-26marauderarchive.org/PM/PM2105/PM4223.htm)(AP, 9/15/07)

1942        Sep 16, The Japanese base at Kiska in the Aleutian Islands was raided by American bombers.
    (HN, 9/16/98)

1942        Sep 17, US Army Lt. Gen. Leslie R. Groves (1896-1970) made a temporary Brigadier General and was placed in charge of the Manhattan Engineer District, which became known as the Manhattan Project, the fledgling US atomic bomb program.
    (ON, 8/09, p.7)(http://unjobs.org/authors/leslie-r.-groves)
1942        Sep 17, Japanese detainees from the California assembly center at Tanforan race track began their transfer to Abraham, Utah, 140 miles south of SLC. The assembly center remained in operation for 169 days after which detainees were transferred to relocation camps. The first trainload internees arrived at the Topaz internment camp. By October the desert camp had reached its maximum capacity of 8,232.
    (Ind, 2/2/02, 5A)(SFC, 4/30/16, p.C2)
1942        Sep 17, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill met with Soviet Premier Josef Stalin in Moscow as the German Army rammed into Stalingrad.
    (HN, 9/17/98)

1942        Sep 20, In France a shipment of 1,000 French and foreign Jews, including 163 children, was arranged. They were sent to Drancy, north of Paris, and then to Auschwitz.
    (SFC, 2/1/97, p.A14)

1942        Sep 21, British forces attacked the Japanese in Burma.
    (HN, 9/21/98)
1942        Sep 21, Nazis executed 116 hostages in Paris.
    (MC, 9/21/01)

1942        Sep 23, At Auschwitz Nazis began experimental gassing executions.
    (MC, 9/23/01)
1942        Sep 23, The Russian counter offensive at Stalingrad began.
    (MC, 9/23/01)

1942        Sep 25, The War Labor Board ordered equal pay for women in the United States.
    (HN, 9/25/98)

1942        Sep 27, Glenn Miller and his Orchestra performed together for the last time, at the Central Theater in Passaic, N.J., prior to Miller’s entry into the Army.
    (AP, 9/27/97)
1942        Sep 27, The S.S. Stephen Hopkins, a Liberty Ship with an all-San Francisco crew, engaged the German raider Stier and her tender, Tannenfels. It shelled and brought down the Stier and hit the Tannenfels before it was sunk. Of a crew of 58, only 15 survived. They reached the shore of Brazil after a 31-day voyage in an open lifeboat.
    (SFC, 9/27/96, p.B1)
1942        Sep 27, Australian forces defeated the Japanese on New Guinea in the South Pacific.
    (HN, 9/27/98)

1942        Sep 28, Luftwaffe bombed Stalingrad.
    (MC, 9/28/01)

1942        Sep 30, Adm. Nimitz' B-17 found Guadalcanal by consulting a National Geographic map.
    (MC, 9/30/01)
1942        Sep 30, The German SS exterminated some 3,500 Jews in Zelov Lodz, Poland, in 6 week period.
    (MC, 9/30/01)

1942        Sep, More than 400 villagers died of bubonic plague in China’s eastern Zhejiang province after Japanese warplanes of medical Unit 731 dropped germ bombs. Unit 731 was stationed on the outskirts of Harbin, China, until the Soviet Union entered the war. The unit deposited typhus into the water supply flowing into Manchuria. In 2000 Yoshio Shinozuka testified to seeing men infected with the plague and then being dissected while still alive. Harbin had 26 affiliates across China and its germ bombs (anthrax, cholera, typhus and bubonic plague) killed an estimated 270,000 people. Biological warfare activities of Unit 731 were unknown to most Japanese citizens until 1981, when author Seiichi Morimura exposed its dark history in a book, "The Devil's Gluttony".
    (SFEC, 12/8/96, p.C8)(SFC, 8/30/97, p.A12)(SFC, 8/15/98, p.A12)(SFC, 12/22/00, p.D6)(SFC, 6/12/01, p.A8)(AP, 8/27/02)

1942         Sep, In Albania the Communist Party organized a National Liberation Movement as a popular front resistance organization.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1942        Sep, Japanese detainees from the California assembly center at Tanforan race track began their transfer to Abraham, Utah, 140 miles south of SLC.
    (Ind, 2/2/02, 5A)

1942        Sep, In Theresienstadt, Czechoslovakia, some 50,000 Jews were held by the German SS in crowded conditions and half the inmates died that year from disease.
    (SFC,10/24/97, p.A11)

1942        Sep, 98 U-boats were sunk this month.
    (MC, 9/30/01)
1942        Sep, Michael Kolnhofer joined the German Waffen-SS and served as an armed guard at the Sachsenhausen concentration camp near Berlin until Jan, 1944.
    (SFC, 1/1/97,p.A3)

1942        Oct 1, Bell P-59 Airacomet fighter, 1st US jet, made its maiden flight.
    (MC, 10/1/01)
1942        Oct 1, Little Golden Books (children books) began publishing.
    (MC, 10/1/01)
1942        Oct 1, At Frobisher Bay, Baffin Island, Canada, the US Air Force Crystal II Radar Base was established as part of the defensive DEW Line Project. The air base was closed in 1963. The site was renamed Iqaluit in 1987 and in 1999 became the capital city of the Inuit-run territory of Nunavut.
    (SSFC, 5/15/11, p.C3)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frobisher_Bay_Air_Base)
1942        Oct 1, The German Army ground to a complete halt within the city of Stalingrad.
    (HN, 10/1/98)

1942        Oct 2, The "Queen Mary" sliced the cruiser "Curacao" in half, killing 338.
    (MC, 10/2/01)

1942        Oct 3, President Roosevelt established the Office of Economic Stabilization and authorized controls on farm prices, rents, wages and salaries.
    (AP, 10/3/97)
1942        Oct 3, In Germany the rocket-development team of Werner von Braun conducted the 1st successful test flight of an A-4/V-2 missile from the Peenemunde test site. It flew perfectly over a 118-mile course to an altitude of 53 miles (85 km). The 13-ton, 46-foot long V2 rocket was the world’s 1st long-range ballistic missile.
    (HN, 10/3/98)(AM, 5/01, p.63)(WSJ, 2/21/09, p.A5)

1942        Oct 5, 5,000 Jews of Dubno, Russia, were massacred.
    (MC, 10/5/01)

1942        Oct 7, Maxwell Anderson's "Eve of St Mark," premiered in NYC.
    (MC, 10/7/01)
1942        Oct 7, US and British government announced the establishment of United Nations.
    (MC, 10/7/01)
1942        Oct 7, A single salvo Katyusha rocket destroyed a Nazi battalion in Stalingrad.
    (MC, 10/7/01)

1942        Oct 8, Fight at Matanikau, Guadalcanal (John Hersey Into the Valley).
    (MC, 10/8/01)

1942        Oct 10, 1,300 Austrian Jews were transported to Theresienstadt.
    (MC, 10/10/01)

1942        Oct 11, In the World War II Battle of Cape Esperance in the Solomon Islands, U.S. cruisers and destroyers decisively defeated a Japanese task force in a night surface encounter.
    (AP, 10/11/97)(HN, 10/11/98)

1942        Oct 12, Louis Armstrong (40) married Lucille Wilson (24).
    (SFEM, 1/25/98, p.69)
1942        Oct 12, During World War II, President Roosevelt delivered one of his so-called "fireside chats" in which he recommended drafting 18- and 19-year-old men.
    (AP, 10/12/99)
1942        Oct 12, US Navy defeated Japanese in WW II Battle of Cape Esperance.
    (AP, 10/12/02)
1942        Oct 12, During World War II, Attorney General Francis Biddle announced that Italian nationals in the United States would no longer be considered enemy aliens.
    (AP, 10/12/97)

1942        Oct 13, In the first of four attacks, two Japanese battleships sail down the slot and shelled Henderson field on Guadalcanal, in an unsuccessful effort to destroy the American Cactus Air Force.
    (HN, 10/13/99)

1942        Oct 15, Dirk Bannink, nurse and local councilor Deventer, Netherlands, was executed.
    (MC, 10/15/01)

1942        Oct 16, The ballet "Rodeo," with music by Aaron Copland and choreography by Agnes de Mille, premiered at New York's Metropolitan Opera House.
    (AP, 10/16/02)
1942        Oct 16, In India a cyclone devastated Bengal and about 40,000 lives were lost.
.    (www.emergency-management.net/cyclone.htm)

1942        Oct 17, In Switzerland Eduard von Steiger, Justice Minister and minister of police, told leaders of the Swiss Fatherland Assoc. that the government had decided on a "fundamental slowing" of Jewish immigration.
    (SFC, 6/10/98, p.a10)

1942        Oct 18, Hitler orders allied commandos to be killed.
    (MC, 10/18/01)

1942        Oct 19, The Japanese submarine I-36 launched a floatplane for a reconnaissance flight over Pearl Harbor. The pilot and crew reported on the ships in the harbor, after which the aircraft was lost at sea.
    (HN, 10/19/98)

1942        Oct 21, Eight American and British officers landed from a submarine on an Algerian beach to take measure of Vichy French to the Operation Torch landings.
    (HN, 10/21/00)

1942        Oct 22, The 1st ships of invasion fleet for Oran (Algeria) left Scotland.
    (MC, 10/22/01)

1942        Oct 23, Michael Crichton, writer, was born. His work includes "Jurassic Park" and "The Andromeda Strain."
    (HN, 10/23/00)
1942        Oct 23, The Western Task Force, destined for North Africa, departed from Hampton Roads, Virginia. The command of the Western Task Force, part of an invasion of North Africa during World War II known as Operation Torch, was given to General George Patton. Placed under the command of General George Patton, the Western Task Force had the advantage of having a man at the top who would stop at nothing to see that the mission was accomplished, a quality that would be needed in the days ahead. Naval operations were in the hands of Rear Adm. H. Kent Hewitt, an easygoing man who, in the beginning, found it difficult to work with Patton, but with increasing familiarity became a solid partner.
    (HN, 10/23/98)(HNQ, 12/8/00)
1942        Oct 23, Ralph Rainger (41), pianist and song writer, was among 12 people killed when their DC-3 crashed after being clipped by a B-34 bomber flown by Army Lt. William Wilson, who had wanted to thumb his nose at Louis Reppert, a flight school buddy and co-pilot of the DC-3. An Army court-martial panel later exonerated Wilson, who had been charged with manslaughter. Rainger’s songs included “Love in Bloom" and “Thanks for the Memories," which Bing Crosby made a hit in 1934.
    (WSJ, 12/30/08, p.D7)
1942        Oct 23, During World War II, Britain launched a major offensive against Axis forces at El Alamein in Egypt.
    (AP, 10/23/97)

1942        Oct 24, The 2nd day of battle at El Alamein (Egypt).
    (MC, 10/24/01)

1942        Oct 25, In the 3rd day of battle at El Alamein (Egypt), the British continued an offensive move.
    (MC, 10/25/01)
1942        Oct 25, Battle of Henderson Field, Guadalcanal began.
    (MC, 10/25/01)
1942        Oct 25, Field marshal Erwin Rommel returned to North-Africa.
    (MC, 10/25/01)

1942        Oct 26, Japanese planes badly damaged the US ship Hornet in the Battle of Santa Cruz Islands, in the South Pacific Solomon Islands. 300 survivors were rescued by the destroyer Barton. The Hornet sank early the next morning.
    (HN, 10/26/98)(AP, 10/26/07)(SFC, 10/14/05, p.B6)
1942        Oct 26, In the Battle of Santa Cruz the USS South Dakota shot down a record 32 enemy planes
    (MC, 10/26/01)
1942        Oct 26, Japanese attacked Guadalcanal, sinking two U.S. carriers. It was the 2nd day in the Battle of Henderson Field.
    (HN, 10/26/98)(MC, 10/26/01)
1942        Oct 26, Mitchell Paige (1918-2003), US Marine platoon sergeant, held his position against Japanese forces at Guadalcanal as all his men were killed or wounded, until reinforcements arrived. He received a battlefield commission and later a Medal of Honor. In 1975 he authored the autobiography "A Marine Named Mitch."
    (SFC, 11/19/03, p.A29)
1942        Oct 26, In the 4th day of the battle at El Alamein (Egypt) the Australians made a breakthrough.
    (MC, 10/26/01)

1942        Oct 27, In the 5th day of battle at El Alamein: heavy battles and Australians advanced.
    (MC, 10/27/01)
1942        Oct 27, In Starachowice, Poland, Nazi soldiers separated out weak Jews from the strong. The strong were sent to work and the weak were sent to the extermination camp at Treblinka.
    (WSJ, 11/25/03, p.A1)

1942        Oct 28, The 6th day of the battle at El Alamein. British offensive under Montgomery.
    (MC, 10/28/01)

1942        Oct 29, The Alaska highway was completed. [see Nov 21]
    (MC, 10/29/01)
1942        Oct 29, In the 7th day of battle at El Alamein Montgomery led an assault.
    (MC, 10/29/01)
1942        Oct 29, Nazis murdered some 16,000 Jews in Pinsk, Soviet Union.
    (MC, 10/29/01)

1942        Oct 30, On the 8th day of battle at El Alamein a new Australian assault began.
    (MC, 10/30/01)

1942        Oct 31, David Ogden Stiers, actor (Winchester-M*A*S*H, Doc), was born in Peoria, Ill.
    (MC, 10/31/01)
1942        Oct 31, 94 U boats were sunk this month (619,000 ton).
    (MC, 10/31/01)
1942        Oct 31, the 9th day in battle at El Alamein (Egypt).
    (MC, 10/31/01)

1942        Oct, Pres. Roosevelt signed special legislation that allowed General Motors to take a complete tax write-off for the loss of Opel, its Nazi subsidiary. The tax reduction amounted to some $22.7 million, an amount equal to about $285 billion in 2007.
    (SSFC, 1/7/07, p.E6)
1942        Oct, Under the command of Maj. Gen. Edward M. Almond, the U.S. Army's  92nd Infantry Division began combat training and went into action in Italy in the summer of 1944. The 92nd was the only African-American infantry division to see combat in Europe in World War II. Nicknamed "Buffalo Soldiers," the 92nd, which had fought in France during World War I, was once again activated in 1942. More than 909,000 black Americans were selected for duty in the racially segregated U.S. Army during World War II. The vast majority of African Americans in uniform were assigned to segregated construction or supply units or placed in units that performed unpleasant duties such as graves registration. The 92nd continued a long and proud tradition by retaining the buffalo as its divisional symbol. Its circular shoulder patch, which featured a black buffalo on an olive drab background, was called The Buffalo--as was the division’s official publication. The 92nd even kept a live buffalo as a mascot.
    (HNQ, 1/22/99)(HNQ, 6/20/01)
1942        Oct, A US government ban on gin and whiskey production went into effect.
    (SSFC, 7/29/18, DB p.50)

1942        Oct, In Albania non-communist nationalist groups formed to resist the Italian occupation.
    (www, Albania, 1998)
1942        Oct, In Belarus on Yom Kippur 2,900 Jews were killed in Domachevo.
    (SFEC, 2/14/99, p.A23)
1942        Oct, An advance team of 4 Norwegian commandos parachuted into Norway as part of Operation Grouse to destroy the German-operated heavy-water Vemork plant on the Mane River near Rjukan.
    (ON, 4/07, p.2)
1942        Oct, In Poland by this month some 300,000 occupants of the Warsaw ghetto had been shipped off to the gas chambers at Treblinka.
    (SFC, 7/10/97, p.A7)

1942        Nov 1, The 10th day of battle at El Alamein (Egypt).
    (MC, 11/1/01)

1942        Nov 2, Lt. General Dwight D. Eisenhower arrived in Gibraltar to set up an American command post for the invasion of North Africa.
    (HN, 11/2/98)
1942        Nov 2, An amphibious PBY-5A aircraft foundered in rough weather, in the waters surrounding what is now the Mingan Archipelago National Park Reserve in the eastern Gulf of Saint Lawrence. The plane was based at Presqu'Ile, Maine, in the US, and serviced an airfield in the village of Longue-Pointe-de-Mingan, Quebec. Four of the crew escaped the flooding plane and were rescued by local fishermen rowing out from shore in open boats in rough seas. Five others perished, trapped inside. In 1941 and 1942, the US had constructed a series of airfields in Eastern Canada to ferry aircraft to Allied air forces in Northern Europe, as part of the so-called "Crimson Route." Wreckage of the downed plane was found in 2009. In 2012 remains of the other crew members were recovered.
    (AFP, 8/7/09)(SFC, 7/31/12, p.A2)
1942        Nov 2, 11th day of battle at El Alamein, Egypt: British made an assault on Tel el Aqqaqir. Montgomery defeated Rommel in battle of Alamein Egypt.
    (MC, 11/2/01)

1942        Nov 3, The 12th day of battle at El Alamein (Egypt): Scottish assault.
    (MC, 11/3/01)
1942        Nov 3, Martin Cruz Smith, novelist, was born. His work included "Gorky Park."
    (HN, 11/3/00)

1942        Nov 4, The 13th day of battle at El Alamein: Axis Africa corps retreated from El Alamein in North Africa in a major victory for British forces commanded by Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery.
    (AP, 11/4/97)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Battle_of_El_Alamein)

1942        Nov 5, Art Garfunkel, American singer and actor, was born. He teamed with Paul Simon in the 1960s to form the group 'Simon and Garfunkel.'
    (HN, 11/5/02)
1942        Nov 5, George M. Cohan (64), composer, actor, dancer, died.
    (MC, 11/5/01)
1942        Nov 5, Richard Carver (28), the stepson of Britain’s Gen. Montgomery, was captured by the Afrika Corps, a day after the battle of El Alamein. A year later after serving time in an Italian prison, he journeyed some 400 miles to reunite with Gen. Montgomery. In 2009 Tom Carver, his son, authored “Where the Hell Have You Been" Monty, Italy and One Man’s Incredible Escape."
    (Econ, 10/24/09, p.97)(http://tinyurl.com/ykwz9t7)
1942        Nov 5, Nazis raided on Greek Jews in Paris.
    (MC, 11/5/01)

1942        Nov 6, Nazis executed 12,000 Minsk ghetto Jews.
    (MC, 11/6/01)

1942        Nov 7, FDR became the 1st US president to broadcast in a foreign language, French.
    (MC, 11/7/01)

1942        Nov 8, Operation Torch began during World War II as U.S. and British forces landed in French North Africa. Gen’l. Eisenhower landed with American troops in Algiers, Casablanca.
    (AP, 11/8/97)(HN, 11/6/98)(WSJ, 6/4/98, p.A19)(MC, 11/8/01)
1942        Nov 8, Hitler proclaimed the fall of Stalingrad from Munich beer hall.
    (MC, 11/8/01)
1942        Nov 8, Vichy-France dropped diplomatic relations with US.
    (MC, 11/8/01)

1942        Nov 9, Transport #44 departed with French Jews to Nazi Germany.
    (MC, 11/9/01)

1942        Nov 10, US and British troops occupied Oran, Algeria.
    (MC, 11/10/01)
1942        Nov 10, Winston Churchill delivered a speech in London in which he said, "I have not become the King's First Minister to preside over the liquidation of the British Empire."
    (AP, 11/10/02)
1942        Nov 10, Admiral Jean Darlan ordered French forces in North Africa to cease resistance to the Anglo-American forces. Admiral Jean Francois Darlan, leader of the armed forces of Vichy France, was assassinated in Algiers in 1942.
    (HN, 11/10/98)

1942        Nov 11, US code breakers reported that the Japanese were about to launch a large convoy to resupply US troops and annihilate US forces on Guadalcanal.
    (SFC, 5/26/18, p.C2)
1942        Nov 11, 745 French Jews were deported to Auschwitz.
    (MC, 11/11/01)
1942        Nov 11, French warrant officer Marcel Bigeard (1916-2010) escaped from German captivity, made his way to Senegal, in what was then French West Africa, and was commissioned into Gen. Charles de Gaulle's  Free French Forces.
    (AP, 6/18/10)
1942        Nov 11, Germany completed its occupation of France.
    (AP, 11/11/04)

1942        Nov 12, The World War II naval Battle of Guadalcanal began. 21 Japanese Mitsubishi torpedo bombers attacked the cruisers San Francisco and Helena. One plane struck the San Francisco killing 11 men firing at the plane. 11 others were killed elsewhere on the ship. The Allies eventually won a major victory over the Japanese. The battle was described by Ira Wolfert in news reports and his 1943 book "Battle for the Solomons." In 2011 James Hornfischer authored "Neptune's Inferno: The US Navy at Guadalcanal.
    (SFC,11/28/97, p.B8)(AP, 11/12/07)(SFC, 5/26/18, p.C2)

1942        Nov 13, US Pres. Roosevelt signed a measure lowering the minimum draft age from 21 to 18.
    (AP, 11/13/07)
1942        Nov 13, Lt Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower flew to Algeria to conclude an agreement with French Admiral Jean Darlan. The Admiral was assassinated soon after.
    (HN, 11/13/99)
1942        Nov 13, On the 2nd day of the 4-day battle between Japanese and US naval forces off Guadalcanal Island in the Solomon Island chain Rear Adm. Daniel Callaghan, aboard the heavy cruiser San Francisco and Capt. Cassin Young, the ship’s commanding officer, were among 107 men killed. Adm. Norman Scott of the cruiser Atlanta was also killed  by mistaken fire from the San Francisco. The US Navy won the battle.
    (http://tinyurl.com/y9oj23ew)(SFC, 12/11/12, p.C3)(SSFC, 12/10/17, DB p.54)
1942        Nov 13, An American fleet defeated a Japanese naval force in a clash off Guadalcanal. The five Sullivan brothers, onboard USS Juneau, were all killed in the action. 687 men aboard the Juneau were killed after the ship was torpedoed and sank.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/USS_Juneau_%28CL-52%29)(SFC, 6/9/18, p.C2)
1942        Nov 14, American planes sank Japan's battleship Hiei (Heiei) following the Battle of Guadalcanal. 188 of her crew were lost.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Japanese_battleship_Hiei)(SFC, 6/9/18, p.C2)
1942        Nov 14, Last Vichy French troops in Algeria surrendered.
    (MC, 11/14/01)

1942        Nov 15, Daniel Barenboim, Israeli pianist and conductor, was born in Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    (HN, 11/15/00)(MC, 11/15/01)

1942        Nov 17, Martin Scorsese, film director, was born. His films include "Taxi Driver" and "Raging Bull."
    (HN, 11/17/00)

1942        Nov 18, Jeffrey Siegel, pianist (Chicago Symph), was born in Chicago Ill.
    (MC, 11/18/01)
1942        Nov 18, Thornton Wilder's "Skin of our Teeth," premiered in NYC.
    (MC, 11/18/01)
1942        Nov 18, An AT-7 Beechcraft military training plane crashed in the Mendel Glacier in California’s Kings Canyon National Park. The 4-member training flight left Mather Field in Sacramento, Ca., and was never heard from again. On Sep 24, 1947, a hiker discovered wreckage of the plane on a glacier in Kings Canyon. On Oct 16, 2005, a climber on the Mendel Glacier discovered a body believed to be one of the crew members. He was later identified as Leo M. Mustonen (22) of Brainerd, Minn. The others were John M. Mortenson (25) of Moscow, Idaho, William R. Gamber (23) of Fayette, Ohio, and Ernest G. Munn of St. Clairsville, Ohio. A 2nd body was found under receding snow in 2007 and was identified Ernest G. Munn.
    (SFC, 10/20/05, p.A14)(SSFC, 10/23/05, p.B2)(SFC, 11/12/05, p.A1)(SFC, 2/9/06, p.A4)(SFC, 8/21/07, p.B2)(SFC, 3/10/08, p.B2)

1942        Nov 19, Calvin Klein, fashion designer (Calvin Klein Jeans, CK), was born in Bronx, NYC.
    (MC, 11/19/01)
1942        Nov 19, Sharon Olds, poet, was born. Her work included "The Dead and The Living" and  "The Gold Cell."
    (HN, 11/19/00)
1942        Nov 19, Bruno Schulz (b.1892), Polish writer and graphic artist, was shot dead by a German officer, a rival of Schulz’s German protector. In 1992 Theatre de Complicite created their play “The Street of Crocodiles" based on the life and work of Schulz.
    (Econ, 9/1/07, p.76)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bruno_Schulz)
1942        Nov 19, During World War II, Russian forces launched their winter offensive against the Germans along the Don front. Soviet forces took the offensive at Stalingrad
    (AP, 11/19/97)(HN, 11/19/98)

1942        Nov 20, Joseph Biden, later US Senator for Delaware, was born in Scranton, Pa. In 2008 Barack Obama named Biden as his vice presidential running mate.
    (SSFC, 8/24/08, p.A15)
1942        Nov 20, Meredith Monk, choreographer, composer and performing artist, was born in Lima, Peru.
    (MC, 11/20/01)
1942        Nov 20, British 8th Army recaptured Benghazi, Libya.
    (MC, 11/20/01)
1942        Nov 20, Hitler named field marshal Erich von Manstein to command.
    (MC, 11/20/01)
1942        Nov 20, The 26th Russian Armored Corps recaptured Perelazovski. A million Russians breached German lines in a Soviet army offensive.
    (MC, 11/20/01)

1942        Nov 21, Tweety Bird, cartoon character, was born.
    (MC, 11/21/01)
1942        Nov 21, The Alaska-Canadian Highway across Canada was formally opened.
    (HFA, ‘96, p.42)(AP, 11/21/97)

1942        Nov 22, Gen-major Rodin's 26th Panzer corps recaptured Ostrov. Hitler ordered Rommel's Africa Korps to fight to last man.
    (MC, 11/22/01)

1942        Nov 23, The film "Casablanca" premiered in New York City. [see Nov 26]
    (HN, 11/23/00)
1942        Nov 23, US Coast Guard Woman's Auxiliary (SPARS) was authorized.
    (MC, 11/23/01)
1942        Nov 23, Gen. Von Paulus asked Hitler's permission to surrender at Stalingrad. The German 4th and 6th Army were surrounded at Stalingrad.
    (MC, 11/23/01)

1942        Nov 24, Field marshal Erich von Manstein arrived in Starobelsk.
    (MC, 11/24/01)

1942        Nov 26, The film Casablanca with Ingrid Bergman and Humphrey Bogart was made. It had its world premiere at the Hollywood Theater in New York. It was based on a play by Murray Burnett (d.1997 at 86) titled: "Everybody Comes to Rick’s." The 1931 song "As Time Goes By" by Herman Hupfield was used. It won an Oscar for best movie.
    (SFC, 2/14/97, p.D5)(SFC, 9/30/97, p.A21)(AP, 11/26/97)
1942        Nov 26, President Roosevelt ordered nationwide gasoline rationing, beginning Dec 1.
    (AP, 11/26/97)
1942        Nov 26, The German ship SS Donau prepared to leave the Oslo wharf with 332 Norwegian Jews bound for death camps.
    (AP, 8/24/06)

1942        Nov 27, Jimi Hendrix, rock musician famous for "All Along the Watch Tower" and "Foxy Lady," was born in Seattle, Wa.
    (HN, 11/27/98)(SFC, 11/28/02, p.E13)
1942        Nov 27, During World War II, the French navy at Toulon scuttled its ships and submarines to keep them out of the hands of the Nazis.
    (AP, 11/27/97)

1942        Nov 28, In Massachusetts 492 people died in a fire that destroyed the Cocoanut Grove nightclub in Boston. The cause of the fire was never officially determined, though many blamed a busboy who had survived the blaze.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cocoanut_Grove_fire)(AP, 11/28/97)

1942        Nov 29, Coffee rationing went into effect in the U.S., and lasted until the next summer.

1942        Nov, Virginia Hall, an American spy working for the British Special Operations Executive in France, escaped to Spain. In 2005 Judith Pearson authored a biography of Hall titled “The Wolves at the Door."
    (SFC, 7/12/17, p.A11)
1942        Nov, Sir William Beveridge (1879-1963) in his Social Insurance and Allied Services, aka the Beveridge Report, laid the foundations of Britain’s post-war welfare state. He committed the government to slaying “five giant evils" (squalor, ignorance, want, idleness, and disease). In 1953 he authored “Power and Influence."
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beveridge_Report)(Econ, 11/12/05, p.78)
1942        Nov, A Royal Air Force bomber and 2 gliders, carrying 34 British commandos, crash landed in Norway. This was part of Operation Freshman, which planned a raid on the heavy-water plant at Vemork. The survivors were captured by German soldiers and executed by the Gestapo.
    (ON, 4/07, p.2)
1942        Nov, In Balkaria, Central Asia, a valley-full of women and children were hunted down in several villages and butchered by the joint NKVD and Red Army task force under the command of captain Nakin. This became known as the Cherek massacre.
    (Econ, 4/3/10, p.86)(http://tinyurl.com/y7b5tse)
1942        Nov, In Bronsk, Poland, 2500 Jews living in a shtetl (small village), were rounded up by the Nazis and gassed at Treblinka. In 1996 a 3-hr Frontline documentary film was aired that revisited the sight of the vanished Jewish life.
    (SFC, 4/14/96, EM, p.6)(SFC, 4/17/96, p.E-3)
1942        Nov, German troops arrived in Tunisia. The nation was home to some 100,000 Jews at the time. The Germans imposed anti-Semitic policies that included fines, forcing Jews to wear Star of David badges and confiscating property. More than 5,000 Jews were sent to forced labor camps, where 46 are known to have died. About 160 Tunisian Jews in France were sent to European death camps.
    (AP, 1/30/07)
1942        Nov, Some 1200 American POWs, survivors of the Bataan Death March, arrived at Japan’s Mukden POW camp in Manchuria. Additional troops from Australia, Britain, the Netherlands and New Zealand brought the population to 2,000. In August, 1945, 1,300 survivors of the camp were rescued by Red Army troops.
    (SFC, 11/24/17, p.E3)

1942        Dec 1, Nationwide gasoline rationing went into effect in the United States.
    (AP, 12/1/97)(HN, 12/1/98)

1942        Dec 2, A self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction was demonstrated for the first time at the University of Chicago. On the squash court underneath a football stadium of the University of Chicago, the first nuclear chain reaction was set off. At 3:45 p.m., control rods were removed from the "nuclear pile" of uranium and graphite, revealing that neutrons from fissioning uranium split other atoms, which in turn split others in a chain reaction. The reaction was part of the Manhattan Project, the United States' top-secret plan to develop an atomic bomb. The group of scientists was led by Enrico Fermi and they proved that building an atomic bomb would be feasible. Dr. Alexander Langsdorf was one of the designers of the first 2 nuclear reactors that followed the first sustained nuclear chain reaction at the Univ. of Chicago. The first and last atomic bombs ever used in war were dropped on Japan in 1945.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1942)(SFC, 5/26/96, p.C-10)(AP, 12/2/97)(HNPD, 12/2/98)
1942        Dec 2, The Allies repelled a strong Axis attack in Tunisia, North Africa.
    (HN, 12/2/98)

1942        Dec 4, President Roosevelt ordered the dismantling of the Works Progress Administration, which had been created to provide jobs during the Depression.
    (AP, 12/4/97)
1942        Dec 4, U.S. bombers struck the Italian mainland and Naples for the first time in World War II.
    (AP, 12/4/97)(HN, 12/4/98)

1942        Dec 5, Arthur Seyss-Inquart ordered students in Nazi Germany to  work.
    (MC, 12/5/01)

1942        Dec 6, Peter Handke, playwright and poet, was born.   
    (HN, 12/6/00)

1942        Dec 7, Harry Chapin, rock vocalist (Taxi, Cat's in the Cradle), was born in NYC.
    (MC, 12/7/01)
1942        Dec 7, The U.S. Navy launched the USS New Jersey, the largest battleship ever built.
    (HN, 12/7/98)

1942        Dec 9, Dick Butkus, NFL hall of fame linebacker (Bears) and sportscaster, was born in Chicago, Ill.
    (MC, 12/9/01)
1942        Dec 9, The Aram Khachaturian ballet "Gayane," featuring the surging "Saber Dance," was first performed by the Kirov Ballet.
    (AP, 12/9/97)

1942        Dec 10, George W. Merck, former president of Merck Pharmaceutical and head of the War Research Service, requested the Chemical Warfare Service to develop a biological warfare program.
    (AH, 6/03, p.46)
1942        Dec 10, The Progressive Conservative Party of Canada was founded. The party had begun as the Conservative Party of Canada in 1867, becoming Canada's first governing party under Sir John A. Macdonald, In 2003 it was dissolved under PM Stephen Harper and merged into the Conservative party of Canada.

1942        Dec 18, Hitler met with Mussolini and Pierre Laval.
    (HN, 12/18/98)

1942        Dec 19, British advanced 40 miles into Burma in a drive to oust the Japanese from the colony.
    (HN, 12/19/98)

1942        Dec 20, 1st Japanese began the bombing of Calcutta.
    (MC, 12/20/01)

1942        Dec 21, The US Supreme Court ruled all states had to recognize divorces granted in Nevada.
    (AP, 12/21/05)

1942        Dec 22, The Soviets drove German troops back 15 miles at the Don River.
    (HN, 12/22/98)

1942        Dec 24, Jean LXF Darlan, French admiral and leader of the armed forces of Vichy France, was murdered by Gaullists in Algiers.
    (HN, 7/5/98)(MC, 12/24/01)

1942        Dec 25, Pope Pius XII issued an encyclical with a strong attack on Nazism but no explicit mention of Jews.
    (WSJ, 5/8/97, p.A23)

1942        Dec 27, The 1st Japanese women camp at Ambarawa went into use.
    (MC, 12/27/01)

1942        Dec 28, In the SF Bay Area shore leaves for 1,800 Negro sailors were cancelled as the Navy began investigations of weekend riots in Vallejo.
    (SSFC, 12/24/17, DB p.54)
1942        Dec 28, Ober Kommando Wehrmacht ordered strategic flights out of the Caucasus.
    (MC, 12/28/01)

1942        Dec 30, Five thousand screaming girls shouted "Frankie! Frankie!" when Sinatra appeared with Benny Goodman’s band at New York’s Paramount Theater.
    (SFC, 5/16/98, p.A13)

1942        Dec 31, After five months of battle, Emperor Hirohito allowed the Japanese commanders at Guadalcanal to retreat.
    (HN, 12/31/98)

1942        Dec, Dr. Ira Baldwin (1896-1999), plant bacteriologist at the Univ. of Wisconsin, was selected to head US biological warfare.
    (AH, 6/03, p.46)
1942        Dec, Hu Jintao was born in China’s eastern Anhui province. He served as vice-president under Jiang Zemin and became president in 2003.
    (SSFC, 3/11/01, p.D8)(Econ, 11/5/05, p.46)

1942        John Irving, author, was born in Exeter, N.H. In 1978 he authored his novel "The World According to Garp," which was made into a 1982 film.
    (SSFC, 7/8/01, DB p.66)

1942        Edward Hopper painted his "Nighthawks."
    (WSJ, 6/28/95, p.A-16)

1942        Henri Matisse created his painting “Danseuse dans le fauteuil." It sold for $22 million at a Sotheby’s auction in 2007.
    (SFC, 11/8/07, p.E3)

1942        Frank R. Paul did the "City of the Future" cover for an issue of Amazing Stories sci-fi magazine.
    (SFEC, 1/3/99, DB p.27)

1942        Maxfield Parrish painted “The Study for the River at Ascutney." It was stolen in 1984 and turned up un 2004 valued at around $50,000.
    (SFC, 9/9/04, p.A1)

1942        Gordon Parks, photographer, writer, composer and filmmaker, shot "American Gothic," a photo of a charwoman in a government building posed against an American flag with a mop and a broom.
    (SFC,10/15/97, p.D3)

1942        John Malcolm Brinnin (d.1998 at 81) published his first collection of poems: "The Garden Is Political."
    (SFC, 6/29/98, p.A19)

1942        Francis Chase Jr. authored “Sound and Fury," an informal history of radio broadcasting.
    (WSJ, 11/1/08, p.W12)

1942        Robert Frost published his collection of poems titled: "A Witness Tree."
    (WSJ, 4/30/96, p.A-12)

1942        Margaret Walker Alexander (1915-1998), black author, was wrote her poem "For My People."
    (SFC, 12/1/98, p.B2)

1942        Charles MacArthur wrote his play "Johnny On the Spot."
    (WSJ, 7/31/97, p.A16)

1942        Thornton Wilder wrote his play "The Skin of Our Teeth." It was an allegory of the history of the human race experienced by a New Jersey family.
    (WSJ, 7/1/98, p.A1)

1942        Albert Camus (1913-1960), Algeria-born French writer, authored "The Stranger" and "The Myth of Sisyphus." He established himself as a spokesman for a philosophy of the absurd along with Jean-Paul Sartre.
    (WSJ, 12/12/97, p.A16)(WSJ, 10/21/06, p.P14)

1942        Camilo Jose Cela (d.2002), Spanish author, published "The Family of Pascual Duarte" in Argentina because it was considered too violent and crude for Spain. Cela won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1989. Cela’s style was called "tremendismo" and clashed with the lyrical writing of previous Spanish writers.
    (SFC, 1/19/02, p.A23)

1942        Peter Drucker (1909-2005), Austria-born management visionary, authored his 2nd book “The Future of Industrial Man."
    (Econ, 11/19/05, p.72)

1942        Marion Hargrove (d.2003 at 83) authored "See Here, Private Hargrove," a light-hearted account of Army basic training. It became a best-seller and was made into a 1944 movie.
    (SFC, 8/29/03, p.A28)

1942        Rudolph H. Hartman, an investigator for the Treasury Dept., wrote a report titled "The Kansas City Investigation: Pendergast's Downfall, 1938-1939" as a report to his superiors, Elmer Irey and Treasury Sec. Henry Morgenthau. In 1999 Robert H. Ferrell published an edition of the work.
    (WSJ, 7/19/99, p.A13)

1942        The Hungarian novel "Embers" by Sandor Marai was published in Budapest. Marai committed in San Diego in 1989. An English translation was published in 2001.
    (WSJ, 10/26/01, p.W10)

1942        Alfred Kazin (1915-1998) authored “On Native Grounds," a history of the rise of literary realism in America.
    (WSJ, 1/12/08, p.W9)(www.nybooks.com/articles/article-preview?article_id=784)

1942        Beryl Markham (d.1986) authored "West With the Night," an memoir of her life as a hunter, horse trainer and aviator in Africa.
    (SFC, 3/9/02, p.A24)

1942        Mary McCarthy published her first novel "The Company she Keeps."
    (SFEC, 4/30/00, BR p.3)

1942        Samuel Eliot Morison wrote "Admiral of the Ocean Sea." It is on Christopher Columbus and supports Watling Island as the historic landfall San Salvador.
    (NH, 10/96, p.23)

1942        Charles Norman (1904-1996), poet and biographer, published his volume of war poetry: "The Savage Century."
    (SFC, 9/16/96, p.A15)

1942        Robert Musil, Austrian author of "The Man Without Qualities" set in Vienna around 1913, died. His book was unfinished but got published in short form in English in 1953. A full 2 volume set ($60) was published in 1995.
    (WSJ, 4/12/95, A-12)

1942        Dawn Powell wrote her novel "A Time to Be Born."
    (WSJ, 10/19/98, p.A24)

1942        Joseph Schumpeter (1883-1950), former Austrian minister of finance (1919-1920), authored "Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy," in which he predicted the decline of the family. He introduced here the concept of “creative destruction:" that old ways of doing things are constantly being swept away for new ones."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Schumpeter)(Econ, 11/24/07, SR p.11)

1942        John Steinbeck wrote "The Moon Is Down." The book was not a success, nor was his "The Short Reign of Pippin IV" successful.
    (SFEC, 6/21/98, DB p.35)

1942        Robert St. John (1902-2003), American war journalist, authored "From the Land of Silent People," an account of his war experiences in the Balkans.
    (SFC, 2/10/03, p.B5)

1942        Jean Anouilh wrote his play "Antigone." It was staged in Paris in 1944 during the German occupation.
    (SFC, 9/27/96, p.C6)(WSJ, 8/12/98, p.A13)

1942        The opera Brundibar by Hans Krasa was 1st performed at a Prague orphanage. It had been intended for a 1938 government competition. It was later performed at the Terezin concentration camp. Krasa died at Auschwitz Oct 17, 1944.
    (WSJ, 2/7/03, p.D8)

1942        Agnes de Mille choreographed the ballet "Rodeo."
    (SFC, 10/14/96, p.B1)

1942        The film "Mrs. Miniver" with Greer Garson was directed by William Wyler. It won 5 awards including an Oscar for best picture of the year. Garson won an Oscar for her role. The film was based on the life of Joyce Anstruther (1901-1953), pen name Jan Struther, who wrote for London’s Times newspaper in the late 1930s. In 2002 Ysenda Maxtone Graham authored "The Real Mrs. Miniver: Jan Struther’s Story."
    (SFEC, 3/23/97, DB p.38)(SFC, 3/14/01, p.E1)(TVM, 1975, p.382)(SSFC, 11/3/02, p.M6)
1942        The film "My Gal Sal" starred Victor Mature and Rita Hayworth and was directed by Irving Cummings. It was a gay 90s musical about song writer Paul Dresser. Joseph C. Wright (d.1985) received an Oscar for color art direction. In 2014 the gold Oscar was sold at auction for $79,200. As of 1950 the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences prohibited Oscar recipients and their heirs from selling the statues without first offering them back to the academy for $1.
    (TVM, 1975, p.394)(SFC, 8/10/99, p.A20)(SFC, 6/25/14, p.F2)
1942        The US Dept. of Agriculture produced the film “Hemp for Victory," which urged farmers to grow hemp after Japan’s seizure of the Philippines curtailed supply.
    (Econ, 6/23/07, p.40)

1942        Helen Forrest (d.1999 at 82) was rated the top female vocalist by Down Beat with Frank Sinatra as the top male. Forrest published her autobiography: "Springtime in the Rockies," in 1982.
    (SFC, 7/13/99, p.A19)

1942        Saunders Samuel King (d.2000 at 91), Oakland gospel singer, made a hit with "S.K. Blues." It was the same year that his wife, Margie King, killed herself.
    (SFC, 9/4/00, p.B4)

1942        Aram Khatchaturian composed "Gayane" that included "Sabre Dance."
    (SI-WPC, 12/6/96)

1942        Richard Strauss, German composer, wrote his final opera "Capriccio" with a libretto by Clemens Krauss. In the work a poet and composer declare their love for a countess who will decide the "words vs. music" debate.
    (WSJ, 1/21/98, p.A20)

1942        Bing Crosby recorded "White Christmas." It became the top-selling single record until the 1997 "Candle In the Wind" by Elton John and Bernie Taupin was re-written for the funeral of Princess Diana.
    (SFC, 1/29/98, p.C1)

1942        Ella Mae Morse (1924-1999) recorded her hit "Cow-Cow Boogie." It was the 1st million-seller for Capital Records.
    (SFC, 10/19/99, p.A23)

1942        The first Hewlett Packard factory was built in Silicon Valley.
    (SFC, 1/8/98, p.C3)

1942        W. Donald Fletcher (1908-1996) and Van Duyn Dodge founded the Coro Foundation to encourage citizen involvement and more capable political leadership.
    (SFC, 8/29/96, p.C4)

1942        US and Filipino forces held the island of Corregidor for five months under Japanese siege.
    (NG, 10/1988, geographica)

1942        French North Africa was taken by an expeditionary force led by Eisenhower.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1942)

1942        The US government declared potato chips to be an essential food.
    (WSJ, 9/5/96, p.A4)

1942        The US Congress outlawed the opium poppy. There was a time before this when the US Dept. of Agriculture taught farmers how to grow opium.
    (SFC, 3/15/97, p.E3)

1942        The US government halted all passenger car and civilian truck production.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)

1942        Congress passed the Stabilization Act, which limited wage increases to keep prices in check during the war. The act permitted the adoption of employer-paid insurance plans in lieu of wage increases.
    (WSJ, 8/18/97, p.A14)

1942        A Revenue Act was passed that for the first time subjected working-class Americans to federal income tax.
    (WSJ, 3/11/98, p.A20)
1942        The US Federal Reserve agreed, at the Treasury’s request, to hold Treasury notes to 2.5% or below. This continued to 1951.
    (Econ, 11/5/11, p.92)

1942        The US Supreme Court ruled that subsistence wheat farming fell under federal regulation because it affected the interstate wheat trade. In 2005 the court used the same logic against medical marijuana.
    (Econ, 6/11/05, p.31)

1942        James Francis Byrnes, after serving as a U.S. Supreme Court Justice in 1941 and ‘42, went on to become director of the Office of Economic Stabilization and secretary of state.  Byrnes, a close associate of President Franklin D. Roosevelt, left the bench to lead the Office of Economic Stabilization in 1942-‘43 and then the Office of War Mobilization from 1943-‘45. Byrnes was a key leader in the U.S. mobilization for war and a close confidante to FDR on foreign policy. He served as secretary of state for President Harry Truman from 1945-‘47.
    (HNQ, 2/15/00)

1942        Fred Korematsu, a shipyard welder from Oakland, refused to obey the US government internment order for Japanese Americans. He was arrested, convicted of a felony and interned in Utah. He reopened the case in 1983 and got his conviction reversed.
    (SFEC, 3/8/98, p.W27)

1942        Clare Boothe Luce (d.1987) was elected to Congress.
    (SFEC, 6/1/97, BR p.4)

1942        Robert C. Byrd of West Virginia began winning elections when his local chapter of the Ku Klux Klan picked him as its leader. He was elected a US Senator in 1959.
    (Econ, 11/15/08, p.36)

1942        The US FDA approved Premarin, an estrogen drug made from the urine of pregnant mares.
    (WSJ, 10/21/06, p.R3)

1942        Construction began on the new Friant Dam near Fresno, Ca. Completion of the dam in 1944 ended the salmon run on the San Joaquin River. Legislation in 2008 hoped to restore the river’s salmon run.
    (SFC, 5/8/08, p.B1)
1942        In San Francisco the Sacramento-Clay cable car line made its last run between the Ferry Building and the Western Addition.
    (SFC, 2/8/14, p.C1)
1942        Moffet Field received its 1st squadron of blimps, non-rigid airships.
    (Ind, 1/27/01, 5A)
1942        The Stanford basketball team won the NCAA championship.
    (SFC, 3/27/98, p.A1)
1942        In California Earl Warren was elected governor. A 1997 biography was written by Ed Cray: "Chief Justice: A Biography of Earl Warren."
    (SFEC, 6/8/97, BR p.1)
1942        The US Army dog training facility, Dogtown, the War Dog Reception and Training Center, was established in San Carlos, Ca.
    (Ind, 6/14/03, p.5A)
1942        Ulysses S. Webb, California's former Attorney Gen'l. (1902-1939), argued on behalf of the Native Sons of the Golden West that Americans of Japanese descent were not entitled to birthright citizenship because the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution were created "by and for white people." The suit failed and the Supreme Court denied to hear an appeal in 1943.
    (SFC, 1/2/19, p.A6)
1942        Max Friedman opened The Marin Town and Country Club on property purchased from the Marin School for Boys in 1940.
    (SFC, 5/29/98, p.A19)(SFC, 6/4/98, p.A24)
1942        Roderick McLellan began selling orchids in the SF Bay Area and by 1998 over 3,000 orchids were registered with the Royal Horticultural Society in England.
    (PI, 1/24/98, p.5)
1942        Thousands of Mexican arrive in the SF Bay Area to work on agricultural and railroad jobs under the Bracero Program.
    (SFEC, 9/20/98, Z1 p.5)
1942        Kaiser Shipyards in Richmond, Ca., set a ship construction record by building the Robert E. Peary Liberty Ship in 4 days and 15 hours. A total of 747 ships were built at the Richmond facility. The improved Victory ships were developed late in the war and in 1998 the Red Oak Victory cargo ship was de-mothballed for exhibit at the Richmond Point Molate Naval Station.
    (SFC, 7/13/98, p.A12)
1942        Bechtel Corp. began producing Liberty ships at the Marinship shipyard on Richardson Bay in Sausalito, Ca. Fifteen Liberty cargo ships were built before production was switched to tankers with one produced every 43 days until operations closed in 1945.
    (SFC, 8/1/17, p.C2)

1942        Camp Lejeune, a US Marine Corps Base, was established near Jacksonville, N.C.

1942        Japanese pilot, Nobuo Fujita (d.1997 at 85), flew bombing runs over Oregon and set fires in the coastal forests. In 1962 he visited the area he had bombed with deep shame and sincere apologies and gave his 400-year-old samurai sword to the town of Brookings.
    (SFC, 10/3/97, p.B13)

1942        In Wyoming the Heart Mountain Relocation Center began to serve as an internment camp for some 10,000 Japanese Americans. It’s story was later documented by Mamoru Inouye in "The Heart Mountain Story" with photographs by Hansel Mieth and Otto Hagel.
    (SFC, 2/17/98, p.E4)

1942        Anthony W. LeVier (d.1998 at 84) flew the first P-38 Lightening, which saw combat over Britain. He also flew the first T-33 Thunderbird.
    (SFC, 2/11/98, p.A24)

1942        Igor Sikorsky, founder of Sikorsky Aircraft in Stratford, Conn., produced a film that promoted the capabilities of his VS-300 helicopter.
    (HN, 11/17/98)

1942        Dennis Pulestin (d.2001 at 95) helped design the DUKW amphibian landing craft commonly known as the Duck.
    (SSFC, 6/17/01, p.A27)

1942        Hecker Products Corp., a soap maker, acquired and took the name of Best Foods.
    (WSJ, 5/28/96, p. R-45)

1942        Heidi Schoop (1906-1996) began her Heidi Schoop Art Creations in Hollywood and continued to 1958. She made plaster dolls, then pottery figurines and bowls. The Swiss-born ceramic artist fled Nazi Germany in the 1933,
    (SFC, 1/7/09, p.G2)(http://tinyurl.com/7v266s)

1942        The Kodacolor process produced the 1st color print.
    (SFC, 7/26/04, p.F4)

1942        Lionel Corp. of New Jersey ceased the production of toy electric trains to save metal for the war effort. The company went out of business in 1969 and sold the brand name.
    (WSJ, 5/7/99, p.W14)

1942        Napalm, a jellied gasoline, was developed by Harvard and Army chemists who combined naphthene and palmitate.  It was later used in the Vietnam war.
    (SFC, 4/4/01, p.A3)

1942        Gertrude Scharff Goldhaber (d.1998 at 86), research physicist at the Univ. of Illinois, discovered that spontaneous fission is associated with the emission of neutrons.
    (SFC, 2/7/98, p.21)

1942        Four engineers at Standard Oil, including Donald L. Campbell (d.2002 at 98), invented a process called fluid catalytic cracking, which became essential to increasing the yield of high-octane gasoline from crude oil.
    (SFC, 9/20/02, p.A25)

1942        Dr. Paul Hodges (1894-1997) introduced a photo-timer that automatically calculated the optimal X-ray exposure for a high-quality diagnostic image. He was the founding chairman of the radiology department at the Univ. of Chicago Medical Center and also invented an X-ray film viewer and an automatic film exposure instrument.
    (SFC, 1/27/97, p.A20)

1942        Hedy Lamarr, actress, and George Antheill, composer, patented a shielding concept in wireless radio communications. It later provided the foundation for spread-spectrum technology used in modern wireless communications.
    (WSJ, 2/21/97, p.B15B)

1942        A circus fire sent crazed elephants stampeding through downtown Cleveland.
    (SFC, 6/2/96, p.T-11)

1942        An American anti-submarine research project discovered the mesopelagic zone of the ocean, a layer of ocean that begins a few hundred meters below the surface and is home to an abundance of animals, who rise at night to feed and return to depths between 200 meters and 1 km to escape predation.
    (Econ, 4/15/17, p.66)

1942        Samuel P. Welles (d.1997), paleontologist, discovered and described the first known skeleton of Dilophosaurus wetherilli. The reptile was later featured as the poison-spitting dinosaur in the film "Jurassic Park." He wrote many books and articles on the Mesozoic dinosaurs.
    (SFC, 8/13/97, p.C2)

1942        Moses Annenberg, owner of the Philadelphia Enquirer, died. His son Walter took over as editor and publisher.
    (SFC, 10/2/02, p.A2)

1942        Charlie Christian (25), jazz electric guitarist, died of tuberculosis. In 2002 a four-CD set was released titled: "Charlie Christian: The Genius of the Electric Guitar."
    (WSJ, 10/4/02, p.W13)

1942        Bruce Fahnestock was killed by an American fighter plane that mistook his ship for a Japanese vessel. He and his brother Sheridan had been engaged since the 1930s by the American Museum of Natural History to document the indigenous music of the South Pacific Islands.
    (Nat. Hist. 3/96, p.24)

1942        Joseph A. Faurot (70), former NYC detective, died. He introduced fingerprint technology from London to NYC and the rest of the US.
    (ON, 4/04, p.11)

1942        Photographer Tina Modotti (1896-1942) died.
    (SFEM, 6/30/96, p.6)

1942        Lev Nussimbaum (37), Orientalist and writer (aka Essad Bey or Kurban Said), died in Italy, while researching a biography of Mussolini. In 2005 Tom Reiss authored “The Orientalist," a biography of Nussimbaum, whose books included the novel “Ali and Nino" (1937), translated to English in 1970.
    (WSJ, 2/17/05, p.D8)(SSFC, 3/6/05, p.B3)

1942        Walter Richard Sickert (b.1860), English Impressionist painter, died. In 2002 Patricia Cornwell, crime writer, reported that he was Jack the Ripper, the murderer of 5 London prostitutes in 1888.
    (WSJ, 9/27/01, p.A16)(SSFC, 2/24/02, Par p.2)

1942        Sabina Spielrein, Russian-Jewish psychoanalyst and theorist, died. She was a patient of Jung and a friend of Freud and is credited by some to have been the real inventor of such concepts as the Freudian death instinct and the Jungian notion of the universal myth. She was burned to death with her daughters by the Nazis in the synagogue of her native Rostov.
    (WSJ, 3/22/96, p.A-10)

1942        Emil von Stauss (65), chief of Deutsche Bank, died. He was a friend of Hitler and helped finance the Nazi war machine. He had acquired a 9% stake in the Wertheim retail chain in a forced sale.
    (WSJ, 3/29/02, p.A8)

1942        Andree Geulen-Herscovici was a teacher in Brussels when she witnessed a Gestapo raid on a school. That prompted her to join a rescue organization and for more than two years she took in over 300 Jewish children and hid them in Christian homes and monasteries under assumed identities. In 2007 Geulen-Herscovici (86) was granted honorary Israeli citizenship.
    (AP, 4/18/07)

1942        In Brazil Companhia do Vale do Rio Doce, a state mining concern, was founded. It was pivotal in developing the Amazon Basin.
    (SFC, 1/7/97, p.A10)

1942        Nikolaus Pevsner (1902-1983), German-born British architectural researcher, authored “An Outline of European Architecture." 
    (Econ, 11/5/11, p.103)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nikolaus_Pevsner)
1942        Oxfam was started by a group in Oxford, and began as the "Oxford Committee for Famine Relief". In towns all over the UK, groups of people collected parcels of food and clothes to send to families whose lives had been destroyed by the war.
1942        Thomas Peirson Frank (d.1951), chief engineer for London County Council, was knighted for leading work to repair London’s flood defenses hit in German air raids. Details of his job were kept under wraps. He later became president of the Institution of Civil Engineers. He died in 1951.
    (AP, 10/29/14)
1942        British forces in Burma crated and buried some 60 Spitfire aircraft to keep them out of the hands of the invading Japanese. In 2012 aviation enthusiast David J. Cundall signed an agreement with the Myanmar government for their excavation.
    (AP, 10/17/12)
1942        British forces in India built a 100-km road from Imphal to Moreh, Manipur state, on the Burma border to help its soldiers flee advancing Japanese troops.
    (Econ, 11/15/14, p.43)

1942        After capturing and imprisoning Vietnamese Communist leader Ho Chi Minh in 1942, the Chinese Nationalist leader Chiang Kai-shek was pressured into releasing him by America‘s Office of Strategic Services (OSS). The OSS was formed during WWII to engage in intelligence operations and was the forerunner of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). Ho Chi Minh was leading Vietnamese resistance against the Japanese and was captured while in China setting up his Communist-inspired Viet Minh movement. The OSS sought his release so he could continue his fight against the Japanese. The Viet Minh also benefited from U.S. arms and equipment.
    (HNQ, 1/25/00)

1942        Alice Sommer Herz (39) of Prague and her son were sent to the Nazi camp at Theresienstadt. It was established by the Gestapo in the fortress and garrison city of Terezin, Czechoslovakia. In 2011 a new documentary about Alice Sommer Herz was made public. In 2010 Alice, the world's oldest Holocaust survivor, was about to celebrate her 107th birthday. "Music is God," she said.

1942        A treaty set the 1,050-mile border between Ecuador and Peru, but a 49-mile stretch in the Cordillera del Condor region was not demarcated.
    (SFC, 10/17/98, p.A14)

1942        The French police rounded up some 13,000 Jews in Paris including some 4,000 children. In 2010 the film “La Rafle" portrayed these events through the eyes of Jo Weisman (11), who later escaped from an internment camp near Orleans.
    (Econ, 3/20/10, p.60)
1942        In France the Nazis banned English language films. "Mr. Smith Goes to Washington" was the last English-language film shown.
    (WSJ, 5/20/97, p.A18)

1942        Richard Strauss wrote his final opera "Capriccio" with a libretto by Clemens Krauss. In the work a poet and composer declare their love for a countess who will decide the "words vs. music" debate.
    (WSJ, 1/21/98, p.A20)
1942        In Germany artifacts of the German Baroque were taken from the Green Vault in Dresden to Fortress Konigstein. In 1958 the Soviets returned the lot to Communist Dresden.
    (Econ, 9/16/06, p.95)
1942        Nazi documents of this year showed that the Einsatzgruppe, a Nazi-run Serbian police unit, killed 6,280 Serbian Jewish women and children who were held as prisoners at Semlin Camp. In two months, those women and children allegedly were taken from a camp and forced into a specially designed van, in which they were gassed with carbon monoxide. The unit was allegedly run by Peter Egner, who emigrated to the US in 1960, and received citizenship in 1966 [see 1941]. In 2010 Serbia issued an international warrant for the arrest of Egner (88), who has denied the accusations.
    (AP, 4/14/09)(AP, 4/2/10)(AP, 11/26/10)
1942        Alice Sommer Herz (39) of Prague and her son were sent to the Nazi camp at Theresienstadt. It was established by the Gestapo in the fortress and garrison city of Terezin, Czechoslovakia. In 2011 a new documentary about Alice Sommer Herz was made public. In 2010 Alice, the world's oldest Holocaust survivor, was about to celebrate her 107th birthday. "Music is God," she said.
1942        Emil von Stauss (65), chief of Deutsche Bank, died. He was a friend of Hitler and helped finance the Nazi war machine. He had acquired a 9% stake in the Wertheim retail chain in a forced sale.
    (WSJ, 3/29/02, p.A8)
1942        Rommel and Montgomery faced off in Egypt and Libya.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1942)
1942        Nazis forced Greece to make an interest-free loan of 568 million Reichsmark (7.1 billion euros or $7.7 billion). The Economist put the loan at 476 million Reichsmark.
    (AP, 3/22/15)(Econ., 3/21/15, p.44)
1942        The Jewish community paid some 1.9 billion drachmas, around 50 million euros ($55 million) today, as ransom to German occupying authorities in Greece in return for 10,000 Jewish men being held as slave laborers. The men were released only to be sent to concentration camps the following year.
    (AP, 3/22/15)

1942        Christopher Woodhouse helped the Greek resistance plan and carry out the destruction of the Gorgopotamos viaduct, which carried the railway from Thessaloniki to Athens.
    (SFC, 2/17/01, p.A23)

1942        Indian forces served loyally to crush an incipient insurrection.
    (Econ, 5/7/15, p.78)

1942        In Indonesia there was a Japanese internment camp for women on the island of Sumatra. 200 of the 600 inmates died of disease of starvation. Helen Colijn told of her stay there in the 1997 book "Song of Survival: Women Interned." Her experiences inspired the 1997 film "Paradise Road."
    (SFEC, 4/13/97, Par p.16)(SFC, 4/18/97, p.A19)

1942        The Biblical Zoo in Jerusalem was created by Aharon Shulov as a center for children of all denominations.
    (SFC, 6/3/96, p.A19)

1942        In the Netherlands the Catholic hierarchy of Amsterdam spoke against the Nazi treatment of Jews. This led to a redoubling of roundups and deportations.
    (WSJ, 4/25/97, p.A18)

1942        In Northern Ireland Joe Cahill and 5 other IRA members were sentenced to death for the killing of a police officer. Tom Williams was hanged and the rest had their sentences commuted to life. Cahill was freed in 1949.
    (SFC, 7/26/04, p.B4)

1942        American rabbi Judah Magnes (d.1948) helped found a political party in Palestine called Ihud (Unity). He argued for a single binational state to be shared by Arabs and Jews.
    (Econ, 3/16/13, p.25)

1942        In Peru nearly 2,000 people of Japanese heritage were rounded up by police, turned over to American troops and shipped to prison camps in Texas and other states in response to Japan's Dec. 7, 1941, attack on Pearl Harbor.
    (SFC, 8/24/18, p.D2)

1942        In Poland Jan Karski (d.2000 at 86), former Polish diplomat, disguised as a Nazi guard and snuck into the Izbica death camp and twice entered the Warsaw Ghetto. He witnessed the mass killings and torture of Jews and reported his story to political and religious leaders in the West. His book "Story of a Secret State" appeared in the US in 1944.
    (SFC, 7/15/00, p.A23)

1942        In Scotland the testing of anthrax was sanctioned on the island of Gruinard amid fears the Germans might attack the UK with biological or chemical weapons. A film was made of their work and it remained classified until 1997.
    (http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/scotland/1457035.stm)(AH, 6/03, p.46)

1942        Nazi documents of this year showed that the Einsatzgruppe, a Nazi-run Serbian police unit, killed 6,280 Serbian Jewish women and children who were held as prisoners at Semlin Camp. In two months, those women and children allegedly were taken from a camp and forced into a specially designed van, in which they were gassed with carbon monoxide. The unit was allegedly run by Peter Egner, who emigrated to the US in 1960, and received citizenship in 1966 [see 1941]. In 2010 Serbia issued an international warrant for the arrest of Egner (88), who has denied the accusations.
    (AP, 4/14/09)(AP, 4/2/10)(AP, 11/26/10)

1942        Switzerland passed a euthanasia law to enable those with just a few weeks to live the opportunity of a dignified death. Swiss law made assisted suicide lawful under some conditions.
    (WSJ, 11/22/02, p.A1)(Econ, 10/15/05, p.59)
1942        Switzerland outlawed capital punishment for civilians.
    (SFC, 7/20/12, p.A2)
1942        Switzerland legalized prostitution.
    (AP, 8/26/13)

1942        Thailand declared war on Britain and US, but Thai ambassador in Washington refuses to deliver declaration to US government.

1942        The Ukrainian Insurgent Army, or UPA, was created and battled both Soviet and Nazi forces during the war. Hostility toward the partisans later ran deep because they initially sought support from the Nazis, believing the Germans would grant Ukraine independence.
    (AP, 10/15/07)

1942-1943    In Norway under the Quisling government 767 Jews were deported to Auschwitz. An estimated 1,100 Jews fled to Sweden and bureaucrats looted the possessions of 1,179 Jewish families and 71 Jewish companies.
    (SFC, 6/25/97, p.A10)

1942-1943     Irena Sendler (29), posing as a nurse, visited the Warsaw Ghetto and persuaded parents that their children had better chances of survival outside its walls. She and 20 helpers smuggled some 2,500 children out of the ghetto and placed them with Polish families. In 2003 Sendler was awarded Poland's highest order. In 2007 Sendler (97) was honored by parliament at a ceremony during which Poland's president said she deserves the Nobel Peace Prize.
    (AP, 11/11/03)(AP, 3/14/07)

1942-1944    Zhengfeng or Cheng Feng, also known as the Rectification Movement, was the first ideological mass movement initiated by the Chinese Communist Party (CCP). The movement took place at the communist base at Yan'an, a remote and isolated mountainous area in northern Shaanxi, after the communists' Long March. More than 10,000 were killed in the "rectification" process, as the Party made efforts to attack intellectuals and replace the culture of the May Fourth Movement with that of Communist culture.
1942-1944    The Jasenovac concentration camp southeast of Zagreb was commanded by Capt. Dinko Sakic for 8 months. Croatia extradited him from Argentina in 1998. Sakic commanded the Stara Gradiska concentration camp and was deputy commander of the Jasenovac camp. Sakic was found guilty in 1999 of carrying out or condoning the torture and slaying of inmates.
    (SFEC, 4/12/98, p.A20)(SFC, 6/17/98, p.C2)(SFC, 11/3/98, p.C12)(SFC, 3/16/99, p.A9)(SFC, 10/5/99, p.A12)
1942-1944    SS Captain Bruno Melmer was in charge of valuables stolen from Nazi victims. Gold objects were turned over to the Reichsbank, which sent it to the Degussa smelting company for processing into gold bars.
    (SFC, 5/26/98, p.A6)
1942-1944    Gen’l. Eduard Dietl (d.1944) led the German 20th mountain army and was later found to be responsible for the slaughter of hundreds of prisoners in northern Europe.
    (SFC, 3/19/97, p.A14)
1942-1944    Maurice Papon, Vichy police supervisor in Bordeaux, was later charged with the arrest and deportation of 1,690 French Jews. Under the Vichy regime some 75,000 (76,000) were deported to Nazi death camps. Rene Bousquet was the national Vichy police chief.
    (SFC, 1/24/97, p.A15)(WSJ, 10/1/97, p.A1)

1942-1945    Ronald Reagan, a second lieutenant in the army reserve during WWII, did not serve in combat because of his disqualification due to poor eyesight.  Reagan, who had become a Hollywood star through his roles in the films Knute Rockne-All American Hero (1940) and King’s Row (1941), made armed forces training films from 1942-45. Born in Tampico, Illinois, on February 6, 1911, Reagan went on to become the 40th president of the United States.
    (HNQ, 8/20/99)
1942-1945    The Manzanar Internment Camp in Inyo County was one of ten that held some 120,000 Japanese-Americans during this period. The Tule Lake Segregation Camp was another. In 1999 Marnie Mueller, born in the Tule Lake camp, published the novel "The Climate of the Country," set at Tule Lake in this time. In 2000 Lawson Fusao Inada edited "Only What We Could Carry: The Japanese-American Internment Experience." In 2000 Kimi Kodani Hill edited "Topaz Moon: Chiura Obata’s Art of the Internment."
    (SFC, 7/29/97, p.A18)(SFEC, 5/2/99, BR p.5)(SFEC, 10/1/00, BR p.5)
1942-1945    Some 22,000 Japanese-Canadians were interred during WW II. Their property was confiscated and sold to pay for the camps. At the end of the war they were not allowed to return to their former communities. The 1981 novel "Obasan" by Joy Kogawa was about their experiences.
    (SFC, 2/8/99, p.E1,3)
1942-1945    The US promised Filipino fighters citizenship with full military benefits during WW II. Shortly after the war the US Congress withdrew this pledge.
    (SFEC,12/14/97, Z1 p.4)
1942-1945    J.G. Ballard (b.1930), English novelist born in Shanghai, was interned by the Japanese. His 1984 autobiographical novel "Empire of the Sun" described his experiences.
    (SFEC, 6/28/98, BR p.10)
1942-1945    Victor Klemperer (b.1881), a professor in Dresden, in 2000 authored part 2 of his diaries that covered this period: "I Will Bear Witness: A Diary of the Nazi Years, 1942-1945." His first volume went up to 1941 and was published in 1998.
    (WSJ, 3/22/00, p.A20)
1942-1945    Jose Arturo Castellanos (d.1977 at 86), Salvadoran diplomat in Geneva, gave citizenship certificates to as many as 40,000 Jews during the Holocaust. In 2010 Israel named him posthumously as one of the "Righteous Among the Nations."
    (AP, 5/14/10)(http://tinyurl.com/28n2pd7)
1942-1945    In Taiwan the Kinkaseki copper mine was worked by prisoners of war under Japanese dictate. Of the 523 men who went into the mine in Dec 1942, only about 100 were alive at the end of the war.
    (SFEC, 1/11/98, p.A25)

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