Timeline 1939

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In 2013    Lynne Olson authored “Roosevelt, Lindbergh, and America’s Fight Over World War II, 1939-1941."
    (Econ, 9/14/13, p.39)(
http://lynneolson.com/those-angry-days/ )

1939        Jan 1, In Palo Alto, Ca., the Hewlett-Packard partnership was formed and a coin toss determined the order of the company name.
    (SFC, 3/3/99, p.A11)

1939        Jan 3, Bobby Hull ‘The Golden Jet’: Hockey Hall of Famer, was born: Chicago Blackhawks left wing: Hart Memorial Trophy, NHL’s MVP award [1965, 1966]; Lady Byng Trophy for good sportsmanship [1965]; 1st pro hockey player to score more than 50 goals in one season [54: 1965].
    (440 Int'l. 1/3/99)
1939        Jan 3, Tennis legend Don Budge played a pro tennis match, his first in Madison Square Garden, NY, before 6,000 spectators. Budge was touring the country as the top U.S. tennis player, having won the grand slam of tennis (Australian, French and U.S. Opens and Wimbledon) the year before.
    (440 Int'l. 1/3/99)

1939        Jan 4, Hermann Goering appointed Reinhard Heydrich as head of Jewish Emigration.
    (MC, 1/4/02)

1939        Jan 6, Alfred Lion recorded his first Blue Note session with boogie-woogie and blues pianists Albert Ammons and Meade Lux Lewis. He had just founded the jazz label in New York. He was later joined by his Berlin friend and photographer Francis Wolff.
    (WSJ, 10/3/97, p.A8)(WSJ, 1/15/98, p.W10)
1939        Jan 6, Joe Arridy (23), a mentally disabled man, was executed in Colorado after being convicted of killing a Pueblo girl with a hatchet. Arridy appeared to have given a coerced confession and was likely not in Pueblo when Dorothy Drain (15) was killed on Aug 15, 1936. In 2011 outgoing Gov. Bill Ritter issued a posthumous pardon.
    (http://ccpl.lib.co.us/history_old/prisons/ArridyJoe.html)(SFC, 1/8/11, p.A5)

1939        Jan 7, Tom Mooney (1882-1942), California imprisoned labor leader, was pardoned by newly elected Democratic Governor Culbert Olson (1876-1962). Mooney had been convicted and imprisoned for over 22 years for the SF Preparedness Day Bombing of 1916.

1939        Jan 13, Five men attempted to escape the US federal prison on Alcatraz island. Kidnapper Arthur “Doc" Barker was killed by guards. He was one of the four sons of Ma Barker (b.1873), killed behind a machine gun by federal agents in Florida in 1935.
    (SSFC, 1/12/14, DB p.42)
1939        Jan 13, Jacob Ruppert, CEO of the NY Yankees (1915-39), died.
    (MC, 1/13/02)

1939        Jan 15, In the 1st NFL pro bowl the NY Giants beat the All Stars 13-10 in Wrigley Field.
    (MC, 1/15/02)

1939        Jan 16, The comic strip "Superman" debuted.
    (MC, 1/16/02)
1939        Jan 16, Franklin D. Roosevelt asked for an extension of the Social Security Act to more women and children.
    (HN, 1/16/99)
1939        Jan 16, Albert Fish, mass murderer, was executed.
    (MC, 1/16/02)

1939        Jan 17, The Reich issued an order forbidding Jews to practice as dentists, veterinarians and chemists.
    (HN, 1/17/99)

1939        Jan 19, Ernest Hausen of Wisconsin set a chicken-plucking record of 4.4 sec.
    (MC, 1/19/02)

1939        Jan 20, Hitler proclaimed to German parliament his intention to exterminate all European Jews.
    (MC, 1/20/02)

1939        Jan 21, Wolfman Jack, DJ (Midnight Special), was born in Brooklyn, NY as Bob Smith.
    (MC, 1/21/02)
1939        Jan 21, Picasso painted two pictures, both titled "Reclining Woman with Book." In one Marie-Theresa Walter is pictured in a smooth S-curve, in the other Dora Maar (born as Theodora Markovitch d.1997 at 89) is broken into jagged forms. Maar was a painter and photographer and struggled to develop her own ambitions, but failed and spent much of her life as a recluse.
    (WSJ, 4/26/96, p.A-13)(SFC, 7/26/97, p.A24)

1939        Jan 22, A Nazi order erased the old officer caste, tying the army directly to the Party.
    (HN, 1/22/99)

1939        Jan 24, Some 28-30,000 were killed by magnitude 8.3 earthquake in Chillan, Chile.
    (MC, 1/24/02)(AP, 6/22/02)

1939        Jan 25, The cyclotron of Nebraska-born nuclear physicist John R. (Ray) Dunning (31) produced nuclear fission for the first time in America in Room 128 of Columbia University's Pupin Physics Laboratory. Eugene T. Booth was a member of the experimental team which conducted the first nuclear fission experiment in the US; the other members of the team were Herbert L. Anderson, John R. Dunning, Enrico Fermi, G. Norris Glasoe, and Francis G. Slack.

1939        Jan 26, Franco conquered Barcelona.
    (MC, 1/26/02)

1939        Jan 27, President Franklin D. Roosevelt approved the sale of U.S. war planes to France.
    (HN, 1/27/99)

1939        Jan 29, Germaine Greer, feminist, author (Female Eunuch), was born in Melbourne, Australia.
    (MC, 1/29/02)

1939        Jan 30, Felix Frankfurter (1882-1965), Harvard law professor, was sworn in as the 80th US Supreme Court Justice (1939-62). He retired in 1962. "There is no inevitability in history except as men make it."
    (AP, 2/27/98)(HNQ, 3/16/99)(www.oyez.org/oyez/resource/legal_entity/78/)

1939        Jan 31, In Poland Renia Spiegel, a Jewish teenager, began writing a diary and continued until she killed at age 18 by Nazi soldiers in 1942. Her diary survived and was published as "Renia's Diary" in 2019.
    (SFC, 9/25/19, p.A3)

1939        Jan, In SF the new bathhouse and Aquatic Park public space was dedicated. It was part of a WPA project. The bathhouse was designed by city architect William Mooser Jr. 35-foot speaker towers were included in the park. The Streamline Moderne design resembled a ship in its dock. It included a mural by Hilaire Hiler depicting the underwater world of Atlantis. In 1951 it was converted into the SF Maritime Museum. Renovation of the structure was completed in 2008.
    (SFC, 6/21/06, p.B3)(SFC, 10/3/08, p.B7)(SSFC, 5/27/12, p.C5)(SFC, 11/21/15, p.C2)

1939        Feb 1, Benny Goodman and his Orchestra recorded "And the Angels Sing", on Victor Records, on this day. The vocalist on that number, who went on to find considerable fame at Capitol Records, was Martha Tilton.
    (440 Int'l, 2/1/1999)
1939        Feb 1, Contralto Marian Anderson was denied a performance at Constitution Hall by the Daughters of the American Revolution, who owned the place. She performed instead on Easter Sunday at the Lincoln Memorial at the invitation of the Dept. Of the Interior.
    (WSJ, 2/28/97, p.A14)(WSJ, 7/24/98, p.W11)
1939        Feb 1, Some 4,00 prisoners at California’s San Quentin Prison, went on a hunger strike in protest against the monotony of prison menus.
    (SSFC, 2/2/14, p.42)

1939        Feb 2, Hungary broke relations with the Soviet Union.
    (HN, 2/2/99)

1939        Feb 6, Spanish government fled to France.
    (MC, 2/6/02)

1939        Feb 10, Pope Pius XI died in Rome. He was born in Desio, Italy, as Ambrogio Damiano Achille Ratti. In 2014 David I. Kertzer authored The Pope and Mussolini: The Secret History of Pius XI and the Rise of Fascism in Europe."
    (www.nndb.com/people/327/000088063/)(SSFC, 2/9/14, p.F5)
1939        Feb 10, Japan occupied the Chinese island of Hainan located off the coast of French Indochina (modern day Vietnam).
    (HN, 2/10/97)

1939        Feb 11, The Negrin government returned to Madrid, Spain.
    (HN, 2/11/97)
1939        Feb 11, Franz Schmidt (64), Austrian composer, died.
    (MC, 2/11/02)

1939        Feb 14, The Reich launched the battleship Bismarck.
    (HN, 2/14/98)

1939        Feb 15, Lillian Hellman's "Little Foxes," premiered in NYC.
    (MC, 2/15/02)

1939        Feb 15, SF officials attended IBM’s preview of an electric typewriter and a punch card method of electric accounting at the Palace of Electricity and Communications on Treasure Island.
    (SSFC, 2/9/14, DB p.42)

1939        Feb 18, The Golden Gate International Exposition opened on Treasure Island in the SF Bay.
    (HN, 2/18/98)(SFC, 2/18/99, p.D10)

1939        Feb 20, In NYC the German American Bund, founded in 1936 to promote Nazism in America, held a rally at Madison Square Garden drawing 20,000 supporters.
    (Econ, 8/19/17, p.20)

1939        Feb 24, Hungary signed an anti-Communist pact with Italy, Germany and Japan.
    (HN, 2/24/98)

1939        Feb 27, The US Supreme Court, in Leser v. Garnett, unanimously upheld the 19th Amendment to the Constitution that guaranteed the right of women to vote.
    (HN, 2/27/98)(AP, 2/27/08)
1939        Feb 27, Nadezjda K. Krupskaja (70), Russian revolutionary, wife of Lenin, died.
    (MC, 2/27/02)

1939        Feb 28, Tommy Tune, dancer, choreographer (Boyfriend), was born in Wichita Falls, Tx.
    (MC, 2/28/02)
1939        Feb 28, Great Britain recognized the Franco regime in Spain.
    (MC, 2/28/02)

1939        Feb, In Washington DC Cissy Patterson combined the afternoon Times and the morning Herald newspapers.
    (SFEM, 3/2/97, p.22)

1939        Mar 2, The Massachusetts legislature voted to ratify the Bill of Rights, 147 years after the first 10 amendments to the U.S. Constitution had gone into effect.
    (AP, 3/2/98)
1939        Mar 2, Roman Catholic Cardinal Eugenio Pacelli was elected Pope; he took the name Pius XII.
    (WSJ, 4/25/97, p.A18)(WSJ, 5/8/97, p.A23)(AP, 3/2/98)
1939        Mar 2, Howard Carter, archeologist, died in London at age 62. He led the discovery of the Tomb of Tutankhamen in 1922.
    (ON, 5/00, p.8)

1939        Mar 3, The new Goldfish swallowing craze began to sweep college campuses getting a start at the Ivy League’s Harvard University.
    (HC, Internet, 3/3/98)
1939        Mar 3, Eleanor Roosevelt christened Pan Am's new Boeing built Yankee Clipper.
    (SFEM, 2/13/00, p.38)
1939        Mar 3, In Bombay, Ghandi began a fast to protest the state's autocratic rule.
    (HN, 3/3/99)

1939        Mar 4, Laurence Steinhardt was named as the U.S. ambassador to the USSR
    (HN, 3/4/98)

1939        Mar 6, Miron Cristea, PM of Romania (1938-1939), died. Cristea was also the first Patriarch of the Romanian Orthodox Church (1925-1939).
1939        Mar 6, Jose Miaja took over the Madrid government after a military coup and vowed to seek "peace with honor."
    (HN, 3/6/98)

1939        Mar 7, Guy Lombardo and Royal Canadians made the 1st recording of "Auld Lang Syne."
    (MC, 3/7/02)

1939        Mar 8, Robert Tear, tenor (Welsh Nat’l Opera 1970), was born in Barry, Wales.
    (MC, 3/8/02)

1939        Mar 9, Czech President Emil Hacha ousted pro-German Joseph Tiso as the Premier of Slovakia in order to preserve Czech unity.
    (HN, 3/9/98)

1939        Mar 12, Pope Pius XII was formally crowned in ceremonies at the Vatican.
    (HN, 3/12/98)(AP, 3/12/98)

1939        Mar 14, Nash Kelvinator and IBM were removed from the DJIA. AT&T was again added to the DJIA along with United Aircraft.
    (WSJ, 5/28/96, p. R-42)(WSJ, 4/2/04, p.C4)
1939        Mar 14, In Czechoslovakia the first 20 Jewish children bound for London left Prague on a train as part of a program organized by Nicholas Winton (1909-2015), a London stockbroker. By September he managed to get out seven of eight train loads carrying 669 children. The 8th train, carrying 250 children, disappeared on September 1 as Hitler invaded Poland and all borders were closed.   
    (SFC, 7/2/15, p.A6)
1939        Mar 14, The republic of Czechoslovakia was dissolved, opening the way for Nazi occupation of Czech areas and the separation of Slovakia.
    (AP, 3/14/08)

1939        Mar 15, Germany occupied Bohemia and Moravia, Czechoslovakia. Slovakia  became independent
    (Voruta #27-28, Jul 1996, p.2)(WSJ, 12/12/96, p.A13)(HN, 3/15/98)(MC, 3/15/02)
1939        Mar 15, The Republic of Carpatho-Ukraine, led by Avhustyn Voloshyn (d.1945), declared independence amid the Nazi dismemberment of Czechoslovakia. Independence ending that same evening by an invasion from Hungary. In 1946 the area became part of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, as the Zakarpattia Oblast ('Transcarpathian Oblast'). After the break-up of the Soviet Union, it became part of independent Ukraine as Zakarpattia Oblast.
    (Econ, 3/14/09, p.57)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carpatho-Ukraine)

1939        Mar 16, Germany occupied the rest Czechoslovakia.
    (HN, 3/16/99)

1939        Mar 18, The U.S. raised the duties on German imports by 25 percent.
    (HN, 3/18/98)
1939        Mar 18, Georgia finally ratified the Bill of Rights, 150 years after the birth of the federal government. Connecticut and Massachusetts, the only other states to hold out, also accepted the Bill of Rights in this year.
    (HN, 3/18/98)

1939        Mar 20, Franklin D. Roosevelt named William O. Douglas to the Supreme Court. He replaced Louis D. Brandeis (1856-1941), appointed in 1916, who retired. Douglas left the court in 1975, holding the record as the longest serving Supreme Court justice.
    (HN, 3/20/98)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_Brandeis)(Econ, 11/20/10, p.95)

1939        Mar 21, Singer Kate Smith recorded "God Bless America" for Victor Records. She introduced the song on her radio program in 1938.
    (HN, 3/21/98)(SFC, 12/28/99, p.C5)
1939        Mar 21, In Egypt King Farouk arrived at Tanis for the opening of the coffin of the 21st Dynasty King Psusennes I, recently discovered by French archeologist Pierre Montet. It turned out that this coffin actually belonged to Sheshonq II of the 22nd Dynasty.
    (Arch, 5/05, p.21)
1939        Mar 21, Nazi Germany demanded Gdansk (Danzig) from Poland.
    (MC, 3/21/02)
1939        Mar 21, Ghandi called on the world to disarm, thinking that Hitler would follow.
    (HN, 3/21/98)

1939        Mar 22, Germany marched into Klaipeda (Memel), Lithuania. The Lithuanian warship Prezidentas Smetona was left without a harbor. The ship soon settled at Latvia’s port of Liepaja. In December Ltn. P. Labanauskas was named captain. In 1940 Soviet occupiers called for the ship to raise the Soviet flag, but Captain Labanauskas sailed the ship out of Soviet territory. The ship was later handed over to the Soviet Baltic fleet. On Jan 11, 1945, it hit a mine and sank off the coast of Finland.        
    (Voruta #27-28, Jul 1996, p.2)(http://tinyurl.com/cs545k)

1939        Mar 23, At San Quentin prison in northern California 41 prisoners were tortured and beaten by guards. On Nov 10 guard boss William G. Lewis testified that he had loaded a rubber hose used to beat convicts with BB shot and detailed his regiment of punishments.
    (SSFC, 10/12/14, p.42)(SSFC, 11/9/14, p.42)

1939        Mar 25, Billboard Magazine introduced the hillbilly (country) music chart.
    (MC, 3/25/02)

1939        Mar 27, The Borley Rectory, reputedly the most haunted house in England, was severely damaged by a fire. It was demolished in 1944.
    (Econ, 11/20/10, p.97)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Borley_Rectory)

1939        Mar 28, Philip Barry's "Philadelphia Story," premiered in NYC.
    (MC, 3/28/02)
1939        Mar 28, Clark Gable (d.1960) and Carol Lombard (d.1942) stayed at the Arizona Oatman Hotel for their honeymoon. [see Mar 29]
    (SSFC, 6/17/01, p.T8)
1939        Mar 28, The Spanish Civil War ended as Madrid fell to Francisco Franco. He emerged victorious and became head of Fascist Spain ending the Spanish Civil War. France executed more than 100,000 people who had opposed him. In 1982 Dan Richardson wrote "Comintern Army," a historical work on the Spanish Civil War. "The Historical Dictionary of the Spanish Civil War" was published in 1982. In 1991 Burnett Bolloten wrote "The Spanish Civil War." In 2006 Antony Beevor authored “The Battle for Spain: The Spanish Civil War 1936-1936." This was an update of his 1982 account.
    (SFC, 11/12/96, p.A12)(AP, 3/28/97)(HN, 3/28/98)(WSJ, 11/19/96, p.A22)(Econ, 6/24/06, p.97)

1939        Mar 29, Clark Gable (38) married Carole Lombard (29) in Arizona while filming "Gone With the Wind." [see Mar 28]
    (SFEM, 1/25/98, p.47)

1939        Mar 31, Britain and France agreed to support Poland if Germany threatened to invade. Seven French islands were annexed by Japan.
    (HN, 3/31/98)

1939         Mar, Mussolini of Italy delivered an ultimatum to Albania.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1939        Mar, In Slovakia Germany set up a puppet regime. The Jewish community was estimated to number 70,000 at the start of the war. Fewer than 10,000 survived the war.
    (SFC, 6/28/97, p.A11)   

1939        Apr 1, The United States recognized the Franco government in Spain following the end of the Spanish civil war. A Spanish official later said that without American petroleum and American trucks and American credit we could never have won the civil war.
    (AP, 4/1/98)(Econ, 6/24/06, p.97)

1939        Apr 2, Marvin P. Gaye Jr, singer (Sexual Healing), was born in Wash, DC.
    (MC, 4/2/02)

1939        Apr 5, Membership in Hitler Youth became obligatory.
    (MC, 4/5/02)

1939        Apr 6, Great Britain and Poland signed a military pact.
    (MC, 4/6/02)

1939        Apr 7, Francis Ford Coppola, director (Godfather, Apocalypse Now), was born in Detroit.
    (MC, 4/7/02)
1939        Apr 7, Italy invaded Albania, which offered only token resistance. Less than a week later, Italy annexed Albania. [see Apr 8]
    (AP, 4/7/99)

1939        Apr 8, Italy, under Fascist dictatorship led by Benito Mussolini seized the country of Albania. The Albanian parliament voted to unite Albania with Italy; King Zog fled to Greece. Under Mussolini’s totalitarian rule Italy embarked on expansion and military conquest. Ethiopia fell victim, conquered by Italy in 1936. Italy’s foreign policy cooperation with Germany began in 1936 and both joined forces to intervene in the Spanish Civil War on the side of Francisco Franco’s rebel forces. Italy’s military alliance with Germany was struck in 1939. [see Apr 7]
    (HN, 4/8/98)(www, Albania, 1998)

1939        Apr 9, On Easter Sunday Marion Anderson, at the invitation of Secretary of the Interior Harold L. Ickes, sang a triumphant outdoor concert at the Lincoln Memorial before a crowd of 75,000 and a radio audience of millions. In early 1939, the Daughters of the American Revolution denied the internationally famed contralto the opportunity to sing at Constitution Hall in Washington, D.C., because of her race. First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt was so dismayed by the injustice that she resigned her own D.A.R. membership in protest.
    (AP, 4/9/97)(WSJ, 7/24/98, p.W11) (HNPD, 4/9/99)

1939        Apr 11, SS Van Dine (50), [William Huntingdon Wright], detective writer, died.
    (MC, 4/11/02)

1939        Apr 12, Alan Ayckbourn, playwright, was born in London.
    (MC, 4/12/02)

1939        Apr 13, Seamus Heaney, Irish poet, Nobel laureate, was born.
    (HN, 4/13/01)
1939        Apr 13, Paul Sorvino, actor, was born.
    (MC, 4/13/02)
1939        Apr 13, W. Saroyan's "My Heart's in the Highlands," premiered in NYC.
    (MC, 4/13/02)

1939        Apr 14, The John Steinbeck novel "The Grapes of Wrath" was first published.
    (SFEC, 11/3/96, DB p.71)(AP, 4/14/97)
1939        Apr 14, The motion picture "Wuthering Heights," starring Merle Oberon and Laurence Olivier, premiered in New York.
    (AP, 4/14/99)

1939        Apr 16, Toni Matt on Mt. Washington in New Hampshire’s White Mountains raced down the headwall on wooden skis in a record 6 min. and 29.4 sec.
    (WSJ, 4/17/97, p.A1,10)
1939        Apr 16, Stalin requested a British, French and Russian anti-Nazi pact.
    (MC, 4/16/02)

1939        Apr 17, S.N. Behrman's "No Time for Comedy," premiered in NYC.
    (MC, 4/17/02)

1939        Apr 18, Franz von Papen became German ambassador in Turkey.
    (MC, 4/18/02)

1939        Apr 19, Connecticut finally approved Bill of Rights.
    (HN, 4/19/97)

1939        Apr 20, The Kehlsteinhous, aka the Eagle’s Nest, a mountaintop teahouse located in the Kehlstein mountains near Berchtesgaden, was given to Adolf Hitler as a 50th birthday present.
    (SSFC, 8/6/06, p.G4)

1939        Apr 21, In Texas the new San Jacinto Monument was dedicated following 3 years of construction. It stood over 14 feet taller than the Washington Monument. The monument is topped with a 220-ton star that commemorates the site of the Battle of San Jacinto, the decisive battle of the Texas Revolution.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/San_Jacinto_Monument)(AH, 2/03, p.24)

1939        Apr 26, Following a period during which the Country Party leader, Sir Earle Page, was caretaker Prime Minister, Robert Gordon Menzies (1894-1978) was elected Leader of the UAP and was sworn in as PM.

1939        Apr 28, Hitler claimed the German-Polish non-attack treaty to be still in effect.
    (MC, 4/28/02)

1939        Apr 29, Whitestone Bridge, connecting Bronx and Queens, opened.
    (MC, 4/29/02)

1939        Apr 30, The New York World’s Fair, billed as a look at "the world of tomorrow," officially opened. NY Mayor Fiorello LaGuardia mandated that the city's nude dancers cover up during the fair. The cover-up evolved into the G-string and later the thong. The General Motors exhibit was titled Futurama. Philo T. Farnsworth premiered his television at the fair. AT&T presented its first Picture Phone at the World's Fair. Salvador Dali created a pavilion that was called “Dream of Venus" and described as the “funny house of tomorrow." In 2000 Miles Beller authored "Dream of Venus (Or Living Pictures): A Novel of the 1939 New York world’s Fair." National Presto Industries introduced the home pressure cooker at the fair.
    (AP, 4/30/97)(WSJ, 6/7/99, p.A8)(SFEC, 4/16/00, BR p.7)(NYTBR, 2/2/03, p.20) (www.imdb.com/title/tt0149460/trivia)(WSJ, 12/27/08, p.A7)

1939        Apr, In Czechoslovakia Alois Elias, an army general, became prime minister more than a month after the occupation of his country by Nazi Germany began. He maintained ties with the exiled Czechoslovak government in London and supported underground resistance at home throughout his term. He was sentenced to death in October 1941 for high treason and espionage and was executed on June 19, 1942.
    (AP, 5/7/06)

1939        May 1, Judy Collins, singer (Send in the Clowns, Clouds), was born in Seattle, Wash.
1939        May 1, Batman comics hit the street in Detective Comics No. 27. Bob Kane (d.1998 at 83) created Batman for DC Comics. The cartoon hero was based on Zorro, da Vinci’s sketch of a flying man, and a silent mystery movie titled "The Bat."
    (SFC, 11/6/98, p.D5)(SFC, 12/14/00, p.C9)(WSJ, 10/25/02, p.A1)(AP, 8/2/10)

1939        May 2, Baseball player Henry Louis Gehrig, "the Iron Horse," asked to be taken out of the NY Yankees starting lineup in a game where the Yanks beat Tigers 22-2. He had played 2,130 consecutive games. A few weeks later he was diagnosed with amyotrophic lateral schlerosis, a fatal neuromuscular disease.
    (SFEC, 3/30/97, Par. p.2)(SFEC, 3/30/97, BR. p.10)(MC, 5/2/02)

1939        May 3, Soviet leader Joseph Stalin replaced Maxim Litvinov, the People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs, with Vyacheslav Molotov.

1939        May 4, Amos Oz, Israeli novelist (The Black Box, The Third State), was born.
    (HN, 5/4/01)

1939        May 6, 1st performance of Honegger and Claudel's "Jeanne d'Arc at the Stake."
    (MC, 5/6/02)

1939        May 7, Germany and Italy announced a military and political alliance known as the Rome-Berlin Axis.
    (AP, 5/7/97)

1939        May 11, In San Francisco the Top of the Mark Nightclub opened at the top of the Mark Hopkins Hotel.
    (SFEM, 11/24/96, p.13)(SSFC, 5/11/14, DB p.50)

1939        May 12, Ronald Ziegler, press secretary to Pres. Nixon, was born.
    (MC, 5/12/02)

1939        May 13, Harvey Keitel, actor (Taxi Driver, Pulp Fiction, Reservoir Dogs), was born.
    (MC, 5/13/02)
1939        May 13, The SS St Louis departed Hamburg with some 937 passengers including over 900 Jewish refugees. They sought refuge in Cuba, but only 22 were allowed to disembark there. No country in the Americas would take them. It returned to Germany where a number of the Jews were later murdered. [see May 27, June 4 and June 16]
    (http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/z?c107:H.+Con.+Res.+185:)(WSJ, 11/3/98, p.A20)

1939        May 15, US Supreme Court Justice James McReynolds in the US vs. Miller case said that the 2nd Amendment did not bar restrictions on the ownership of sawed-off shotguns, because the regulations did not have a "reasonable relationship" to militias. A District Court had held that section eleven of the National firearms Act violates the Second Amendment. It accordingly sustained the demurrer and quashed the indictment. The Supreme Court rejected the decision of the lower court.
    (USAT, 12/23/98, p.10A)(www.hoboes.com/Politics/Firearms/miller/)

1939        May 16, US food stamps were 1st issued.
    (MC, 5/16/02)

1939        May 19, In San Francisco a new Safeway grocery store opened at Bush and Larkin at a site once occupied by Lurline baths.
    (SSFC, 5/18/14, DB p.50)

1939        May 20, Regular trans-Atlantic air mail service began as a Pan American Airways plane, the Yankee Clipper, took off from Port Washington, N.Y., bound for Marseilles, France.
    (AP, 5/20/97)(www.airliner.net/pan-am-clipper-flying-boat/transatlantic-airline-service/)

1939        May 22, The foreign ministers of Germany and Italy, Joachim von Ribbentrop and Galeazzo Ciano, signed a "Pact of Steel" committing Germany and Italy to a military alliance forming the Axis powers.
    (HN, 5/22/99)(AP, 5/22/07)

1939        May 23, The US submarine Squalus sank off the coast of New Hampshire. A diving bell designed by Charles "Swede" Momsen (d.1967) brought 33 survivors (26 perished) safely to the surface. In 1999 Peter Maas authored "The Terrible Hours," an account of the sinking and rescue. This was the first successful undersea rescue operation to retrieve a sunken submarine crew
    (SFEC, 9/26/99, Par p.4,5)(WSJ, 8/17/00, p.A22)(HNQ, 5/29/01)
1939        May 23, British parliament planned to make Palestine independent by 1949.
    (MC, 5/23/02)
1939        May 23, Hitler proclaimed he wants to move into Poland.
    (MC, 5/23/02)
1939        May 23, Dmitri Shostakovitch was appointed professor at conservatory of Leningrad.
    (MC, 5/23/02)

1939        May 25, Dixie [Virginia] Carter, actress (Designing Women, Edge of Night), was born in McLemoresville, TN.
    (SC, 5/25/02)
1939        May 25, Ian McKellen, actor (Keep, Plenty, Scarlet Pimpernel), was born in England.
    (SC, 5/25/02)
1939        May 25, Joseph Duveen (b.1869), Dutch-Jewish art collector, died in London. In 2004 Meryle Secrest authored “Duveen: A Life in Art."
    (Econ, 11/20/04, p.86)(www.britannica.com/eb/article?tocId=9031630)

1939        May 26, Charles H. Mayo (74), US surgeon, co-founder (Mayo Clinic), died.
    (MC, 5/26/02)

1939        May 27, The ship St. Louis sailed into Havana Bay with 937 Jewish passengers fleeing the Nazis. The ship was turned away and headed for the Florida coast. The 1976 film "Voyage of the Damned" was based on this. [see June 4]
    (SFC, 10/4/99, p.D1)
1939        May 27, Joseph Roth, Austrian-born Jewish writer, died in Paris. His books included “Radetzkymarsch" (The Radetzky March) (1932), a novel of the Habsburg empire from 1859-1916 and “The Auto-da-Fe of the Mind."

1939        May 29, Nanette Newman, writer, actress (Endless Game, Of Human Bondage), was born.
    (SC, 5/29/02)
1939        May 29, Joseph Grinnell, founding director of the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology at UC Berkeley, died.
    (SSFC, 11/27/05, p.E1)(www.esa.org/history/officers.php)

1939        May 31, Terry Waite, Anglican Church envoy, Lebanese hostage, was born.
    (MC, 5/31/02)

1939        May, John Hench (d.2004) joined Disney as a sketch artist on "Fantasia." He was the official portrait painter of Mickey Mouse.
    (SFC, 2/7/04, p.A21)
1939        May, The Ravensbruck concentration camp opened in northern Germany. It was primarily set up for women. Between 1939 and 1945, over 130,000 female prisoners passed through the Ravensbrück camp system; only 40,000 survived.
1939        May, In Manchuria a Japanese punitive attack failed and combined Soviet and Mongolian forces wiped out a 200-man Japanese unit. This marked the beginning of the conflict called the Nomonhan Incident by Japanese, the Battle of Khalkhin Gol by Russians. Gen. Georgy Zhukov destroyed the Kwantung Army.
    (http://tinyurl.com/ml2j3oh)(Econ, 11/7/15, p.79)

1939        Jun 1, The Douglas DC-4 made its first passenger flight from Chicago to New York.
    (HN, 6/1/98)
1939         Jun 1, Submarine Thetis: sank in Liverpool Bay, England; 99 perished.
    (DTnet, 6/1/97)

1939        Jun 4, During what became known as the "Voyage of the Damned," the SS St. Louis, carrying 907 Jewish refugees from Germany, was turned away from the Florida coast. Also denied permission to dock in Canada and Cuba, the ship eventually returned to Europe. The passengers were divided among England, France, Belgium and Holland and a number of the refugees later died in Nazi concentration camps. By 2003 efforts to track their fates identified 935 out of the 937 passengers. Some 260 ended in Nazi killing centers.
    (AP, 6/4/99)(SFC, 10/4/99, p.D3)(SSFC, 12/7/03, Par p.5)(Econ, 6/24/06, p.44)

1939        Jun 5, Margaret Drabble, English novelist (The Millstone, The Realms of Gold), was born.
    (HN, 6/5/01)

1939        Jun 6, Marian Wright Edelman, first African-American woman to be admitted to the Mississippi Bar, was born. She was the founder of the Children's Defense Fund. 
    (HN, 6/6/00)
1939        Jun 6, In Pennsylvania the first Little League baseball game was played. The league was founded by Carl Stotz in Williamsport. The Little League World Series began in 1947. Girls were banned from 1951-1974.
    (SSFC, 6/1/14, Par. p.8)

1939        Jun 7, King George VI and his wife, Queen Elizabeth, arrived at Niagara Falls, N.Y., from Canada on the first visit to the United States by a reigning British monarch.
    (AP, 6/7/97)

1939        Jun 8, Herb Adderley, Hall of Famer and defensive back for the Green Bay Packers.
    (HN, 6/8/99)

1939        Jun 11, King & Queen of England tasted their 1st "hot dogs" at FDR's party.
    (SC, 6/11/02)

1939        Jun 12, The National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum was dedicated in Cooperstown, NY, on the 100th anniversary of the day Abner Doubleday supposedly invented the sport.
    (http://baseballhall.org/museum/experience/history)(AP, 6/12/97)

1939        Jun 16-1939 Jun 20, Jewish refugees, whose quest for freedom in the Americas was denied, began to disembark the SS St. Louis back in Europe. Holland took 181, France received 224, 228 went to Great Britain, and 214 went to Belgium. [see May 13 and June 4]

1939        Jun 17, Eugene Weldman became the last person guillotined in France.
    (MC, 6/17/02)

1939        Jun 21, Baseball legend Lou Gehrig was forced to quit baseball because of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
    (HN, 6/21/98)

1939        Jun 28, Pan American Airways began regular trans-Atlantic passenger air service as the "Dixie Clipper" left Port Washington, N.Y., for Portugal.
    (AP, 6/28/99)(NPub, 2002, p.13)
1939        Jun 28, Richard Meinertzhagen (1877-1967, a British army colonel, met with Adolf Hitler to plead on behalf of the Jews in Germany. He later claimed to have smuggled a pistol into the chancellery but lost his nerve and failed to shoot Hitler. In 2007 Brian Garfield authored “The Meinertzhagen Mystery."
    (WSJ, 2/10/07, p.P9)

1939        Jun 30, Frank Sinatra made his first appearance with the Harry James' band.
    (MC, 6/30/02)

1939        Jun, In Britain 50 letter bombs exploded in postboxes and post offices in London, Birmingham and Manchester. The IRA claimed responsibility as part of their S-Plan campaign.
    (Econ, 11/6/10, p.74)

1939        Jul 1, The US "Bureau of Lighthouses" was transferred to the US Coast Guard, which then took charge of America’s more than 1,000 lighthouses.
    (Econ, 3/31/12, p.41)(www.uscg.mil/history/articles/h_USLHSchron.asp)

1939        Jul 2, John Sununu, US Secretary of State (1989-91), was born.
    (SC, 7/2/02)

1939        Jul 3, Ernst Heinkel demonstrated an 800-kph rocket plane to Hitler.
    (MC, 7/3/02)

1939        Jul 4, Baseball's "Iron Horse," Lou Gehrig (1904-1941), said farewell to 61,808 fans honoring him with a special day at New York City's Yankee Stadium. He was suffering from A.L.S. (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis), a neurodegenerative disorder that destroys the body's neuromuscular system. Many now call it Lou Gehrig's disease. He did less than two years later at the age of 37.
    (SFEC, 3/30/97, Par. p.2)(AP, 7/4/97)(IB, Internet, 12/7/98)

1939        Jul 6, Nazis closed the last Jewish enterprises.
    (MC, 7/6/02)

1939        Jul 8, Henry Havelock Ellis (80), English sexologist (Man & Woman), died.
    (MC, 7/8/02)

1939        Jul 11, Yanks hosted the 7th All Star Game. McCarthy started 6 Yanks, AL won 3-1.
    (PGA, 12/9/98)

1939        Jul 13, Frank Sinatra recorded his first song, "From the Bottom of my Heart," with the Harry James Band.
    (HN, 7/13/01)
1939        Jul 13, Howard Long was hanged at the New Hampshire State Prison for the sex-killing of 10-year-old Mark Neville Jensen of Alton.

1939        Jul 14, Alphonse Mucha (b.1860), Moravia born artist, died in Czechoslovakia. He created the 20 canvasses which make up his Slav Epic from 1912-1926. In 1928 he and American millionaire Charles Crane presented the work as a gift to the city of Prague.

1939        Jul 17, Spencer Davis, vocalist (Spencer Davis Group-Gimme Some Lovin), was born in Wales.
    (MC, 7/17/02)

1939        Jul 18, Edwin H. Armstrong (1890-1954), US radio engineer, started the 1st FM (frequency modulation) radio station in Alpine, NJ.
    (SSFC, 10/24/04, Par p.5)

1939        Jul 20, Judy Chicago, artist, was born.
    (HN, 7/20/01)
1939        Jul 20, Joseph Mendes da Costa, sculptor, died.
    (MC, 7/20/02)

1939        Jul 21, Ambroise Vollard (b.1866), French art patron, author and publisher, died in a car crash. He wrote biographies on Cézanne, Degas, and Renoir. Many of his works, including pantings by Derain, Renoir, Cezanne, Picasso and Matisse, ended up in the hands of Erich Slomovic, a young Croatian Jew who had come to Paris in the mid-1930s and befriended the aging dealer. Slomovic was killed by the nazis in 1942. The art remained locked up in a Paris bank vault until it was found in 1979. In 2010 it was put up for auction.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ambroise_Vollard)(SFC, 6/12/10, p.E3)(http://tinyurl.com/2dbmtbc)

1939        Jul 23, Nicholas Gage, journalist and author (Eleni), was born.
    (HN, 7/23/02)

1939        Jul 26, The London Times reported the discovery of a buried ship and other artifacts at Sutton Hoo. Archeologist later suspected that it was an empty grave and memorial for a 7th century Anglo-Saxon chief.
    (ON, 4/03, p.10)

1939        Jul 27, Michael Longley, Irish poet, was born.
    (HN, 7/27/01)

1939        Jul, The sci-fi story "Black Destroyer" by A.E. van Vogt (1912-2000) appeared in Astounding Science Fiction magazine
    (SFC, 2/5/00, p.A19)

1939        Aug 2, US Congress passed the Hatch Act. Its main provision is to prohibit federal employees from engaging in partisan political activity. Named after Senator Carl Hatch of New Mexico, the law was officially known as An Act to Prevent Pernicious Political Activities.
    (SFC, 3/12/08, p.E2)(www.multieducator.com/Documents/hatchact.html)
1939        Aug 2, Albert Einstein signed a letter to President Roosevelt urging creation of an atomic weapons research program.
    (HFA, ‘96, p.36)(AP, 8/2/97)

1939        Aug 11, Moses Annenberg, owner of the Philadelphia Enquirer, was indicted by a federal jury in Chicago for evading some $3.2 million in income taxes.
    (SFC, 10/2/02, p.A2)
1939        Aug 11, Sergei Rachmaninov had his last appearance in Europe.
    (MC, 8/11/02)

1939        Aug 12, George Hamilton, actor (Love at 1st Bite, Where the Boys Are), was born in Memphis, Ten.
    (SC, 8/12/02)

1939        Aug 13, Saul Steinberg, American artist (The Art of Living, New Yorker Magazine), was born in Romania.
    (MC, 8/13/02)

1939        Aug 15, The MGM musical "The Wizard of Oz" premiered at Grauman’s Chinese Theater in Hollywood.
    (AP, 8/15/97)

1939        Aug 17, Luther Allison, guitarist (Bad News is Coming), was born in Arkansas.
    (SC, 8/17/02)
1939        Aug 17, The film "Wizard of Oz" opened at Loew's Capitol Theater in NYC.
    (SC, 8/17/02)

1939        Aug 19, Vyacheslav Molotov outlined the Soviet requirements to the German Ambassador, Friedrich von Schulenburg. He insisted that trade agreements be signed and that a special protocol be made defining the German and Soviet spheres of interest.
    (DrEE, 10/26/96, p.4)

1939        Aug 20, Russian offensive under Gen. Zhukov against Jap invasion in Mongolia.
    (MC, 8/20/02)
1939        Aug 20, Soviet and German trade agreements were signed.
    (DrEE, 10/26/96, p.4)

1939        Aug 21, Clarence Williams III, actor (Mod Squad, 52 Pick Up, Purple Rain), was born in NYC.
    (SC, 8/21/02)

1939        Aug 23, Zane Grey (b.1872), American novelist, died. He best known for his popular adventure novels and stories that presented an idealized image of the rugged Old West. He authored over 90 books, some published posthumously and/or based on serials originally published in magazines. Grey was one of the first millionaire authors.
1939        Aug 23, Sidney Coe Howard (b.1891), US playwright and short story writer, died. He adapted “Gone With the Wind" into the 1939 film. "Half of knowing what you want is knowing what you have to give up to get it."
    (SFEC, 2/6/00, Z1 p.2)(SFC, 1/27/05, p.E1)
1939        Aug 23, German Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop and Soviet Commissar for Foreign Affairs Vyacheslav M. Molotov signed a Treaty of Non-Aggression, the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact freeing Hitler to invade Poland and Stalin to invade Finland. Secret protocols, made public years later, were added that assigned Finland, Estonia, Latvia and Bessarabia to be within the Soviet sphere of influence. Poland was partitioned along the rivers Narev, Vistula and San. Germany retained Lithuania enlarged by the inclusion of Vilnius. Just days after the signing, Germany invaded Poland, and by the end of September, both powers had claimed sections of Poland.
    (WP, 6/29/96, p.A16)(AP, 8/23/97) (HNPD, 8/22/98)(HN, 8/23/98)

1939        Aug 25, Britain and France signed a treaty with Poland promising military assistance should the Germans invade.
    (ON, 11/05, p.3)

1939        Aug 26, The first televised major league baseball games were shown on experimental station W2XBS, a double-header between the Cincinnati Reds and the Brooklyn Dodgers at Ebbets Field. The Reds won first, 5-2; the Dodgers, second, 6-1.
    (AP, 8/26/98)

1939        Aug 27, Nazi Germany demanded Danzig and Polish corridor.
    (MC, 8/27/01)
1939        Aug 27, The world's first jet-propelled plane, the Heinkel He-178, made its first flight at Marienehe, north Germany. Hans von Ohain’s aircraft became the first jet-powered airplane to fly. It remained airborne for 7 minutes. Erich Warsitz made the 1st jet-propelled flight.
    (SFC, 8/10/96, p.A20)(Reuters, 8/28/01)(MC, 8/27/01)

1939        Aug 29,  William Friedkin, director (Exorcist, Cruising, French Connection), was born in Chicago.
    (MC, 8/29/01)
1939        Aug 29, Chaim Weizmann informed England that Palestine Jews would fight in WW II.
    (MC, 8/29/01)

1939        Aug 30, Isoroku Yamamoto was appointed supreme commander of the Japanese fleet.
    (MC, 8/30/01)

1939        Aug 31, Japanese invasion army was driven out of Mongolia.
    (MC, 8/31/01)
1939        Aug 31, There was a staged "Polish" assault on radio station in Gleiwitz by Nazis dressed as Poles to "provoke" war, an excuse for Germany to invade Poland the next day to start World War II.
    (MC, 8/31/01)

1939        Aug, The Soviet Union and Japan fought a massive tank battle at Khalkhin-Gol on the Mongolian border. It was the largest armored battle in the world until that point. By the end of the month the Soviets claimed victory over the Japanese army at the Khalkhyn Gol river. This helped fend off a possible Japanese invasion of Russia with Nazi Germany in 1941.

1939        Sep 1, Lily Tomlin, comedienne, actress (9 to 5, Laugh-in, All of Me), was born in Detroit.
    (SC, 9/1/02)
1939        Sep, 1, At 4:40 a.m., World War II began. The Germans attacked Poland with their strategy of Blitzkrieg, or lightning war. The war started at dawn with salvos from the cruiser Schleswig-Holstein at the Polish garrison in Gdansk. In 1989 Donald Cameron Watt authored “How War Came."
    (WSJ, 4/26/95, p.A-16)(AP, 9/1/97)(WSJ, 1/14/07, p.P8)
1939        Sep 1, A transport train carrying 250 children from Czechoslovakia disappeared as Germany invaded Poland. It was the last transport organized by English stockbroker Nicholas Winton (1909-2015).
    (Econ, 7/11/15, p.82)
1939        Sep 1, US Sen. William Borah of Idaho said 'Lord, if only I could have talked to Hitler, all of this might have been avoided.' We have an obligation to call this what it is — the false comfort of appeasement, which has been repeatedly discredited by history." In 2008 Pres. Bush quoted these words in a speech to the Israeli Knesset.
    (AP, 5/17/08)
1939        Sep 1, Physical Review published the 1st paper to deal with "black holes." UC Berkeley physicist Robert Oppenheimer (b.1904) spelled out the inevitable fate of a massive star.
1939        Sep 1, Hitler ordered the extermination of mentally ill.
    (MC, 9/1/02)
1939        Sep 1, Switzerland proclaimed neutrality.
    (MC, 9/1/02)

1939        Sep 1-1945 Sep 2, From Germany 's invasion of Poland until Japan 's surrender, America lost an average of 170 planes a day. On average 6600 American service men died per month (about 220 a day).

1939        Sep 2, Stutthof, a Nazi German concentration camp, became operational in a secluded, wooded area near the town of Sztutowo (German: Stutthof) 34 km (21 mi) east of the city of Danzig in the former territory of the Free City of Danzig. It continued operating until May 9, 1945, during which some 65,000 people were executed.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stutthof_concentration_camp)(SSFC, 10/7/18, p.A9)
1939        Sep 2, Ireland’s Taoiseach de Valera told the lower house of parliament that neutrality was the best policy for the country. The Irish constitution was amended to allow the Government to take emergency powers, and then the Emergency Powers Act 1939 was passed that included censorship of the press and mail correspondence. In 2007 Clair Wills authored “The neutral Island: A cultural History of Ireland during the Second World War."

1939        Sep 3, British envoy Sir Neville Henderson delivered Britain’s final ultimatum to the Reich’s Foreign Ministry.
    (DrEE, 10/26/96, p.4)
1939        Sep 3, Britain and France declared war on Germany, two days after the Nazi invasion of Poland. After Germany ignored Great Britain's ultimatum to stop the invasion of Poland, Great Britain declares war on Germany, marking the beginning of World War II in Europe. France follows 6 hours later quickly joined by Australia, NZ, South Africa & Canada.
    (AP, 9/3/97)(HN, 9/3/98)(MC, 9/3/01)

1939        Sep 3-May 10, 1940, This period is know as the Sitzkreig (the Sitting War) or "Phony War." There was very little action on the Western Front.
    (DrEE, 10/26/96, p.4)

1939        Sep 4, German troops stormed into Danzig (Gdansk).
    (MC, 9/4/01)
1939        Sep 4, The Nazis marched into Czestochowa, Poland, two days after they invaded Poland.
1939        Sep 4, The Polish ghetto of Mir was exterminated.
    (MC, 9/4/01)

1939        Sep 5, The United States under FDR proclaimed its neutrality in World War II.
    (AP, 9/5/97)
1939        Sep 5, In Czestochowa, Poland, approximately 150 Jews were shot dead by the Germans. The day was remembered as “Bloody Monday."

1939        Sep 6, Arthur Rackham, English artist and illustrator (Grimm's Fairy Tales), died at 71.
    (MC, 9/6/01)
1939        Sep 6, The 1st WW II German air attack on Great Britain took place.
    (MC, 9/6/01)
1939        Sep 6, The Union of South Africa declared war on Germany.
    (AP, 9/6/07)

1939        Sep 7, In response to the German invasion of Poland a week earlier, France invaded its neighbor Germany. In Operation Saar, French forces marched into the Cadenbronn and Wendt Forest near Saarrucken. The French met little or no opposition as they drove five miles into Germany. The sluggish advance was hindered by low troop morale and lack of support. The Soviet Union’s invasion of Poland from the east on September 17 prompted the French withdrawal to the Maginot Line in anticipation of a German counterattack. The only French offensive of WWII lasted 14 days.
    (HNQ, 7/9/99)

1939        Sep 8, President Franklin D. Roosevelt declared a "limited national emergency" in response to the outbreak of war in Europe.
    (AP, 9/8/99)
1939        Sep 8, Gen. Von Reichenau's panzer division reached the suburbs of Warsaw.
    (MC, 9/8/01)

1939        Sep 9, Nazi army reached Warsaw.
    (MC, 9/9/01)

1939        Sep 10, Canada declared war on Nazi Germany.
    (AP, 9/10/97)

1939        Sep 11, British submarine Triton torpedoed British submarine Oxley.
    (MC, 9/11/01)

1939        Sep 12, In response to the invasion of Poland, the French Army advanced into Germany and on this day made their furthest penetration-five miles.
    (HN, 9/12/00)

1939        Sep 13, Joyce Arleen Auger, US soprano (Songs of the Auvergne), was born.
    (MC, 9/13/01)
1939        Sep 13, Igor Sikorsky invented the 1st helicopter. [see Sep 14]
    (MC, 9/13/01)

1939        Sep 14, British fleet sank the German U-39 U-boat.
1939        Sep 14, In the 1930s Igor Sikorsky (d.1972) turned his attention again to helicopter design and on this day flew the VS-300 on its first test flight. Sikorsky, scientist, engineer, pilot and businessman, was a pioneer in aircraft design who is best known for his successful development of the helicopter. He was fascinated with flight even as a child in Russia, and a 1908 meeting with the Wright brothers determined the course of his life in aviation. After two early helicopter designs failed, Sikorsky turned his attention to fixed-wing aircraft. By 1913 he had developed the Il’ya Muromets, four-engine passenger aircraft that were converted to bombers for use in WWI. The Bolshevik Revolution forced Sikorsky and his family to emigrate to America in 1919 where he established the Sikorsky Aero Engineering Corporation in New York. Over the next 20 years, Sikorsky’s company built passenger planes and flying boats, including the S-40 American Clipper that was used to open new air routes across the Pacific.
    (HNPD, 10/27/98)

1939        Sep 15, The Polish submarine Orzel arrived in Tallinn, Estonia, after escaping the German invasion of Poland.
    (HN, 9/15/99)
1939        Sep 15, The Soviet Union and Japan agreed to a cease-fire in Manchuria (later Mongolia), which took effect the following day.

1939        Sep 17, The Harry James Orchestra and Frank Sinatra recorded "All or Nothing at All" for Columbia Records.
    (AP, 9/17/99)
1939        Sep 17, David H Souter, 107th Supreme Court Justice (1990- ), was born in Weir, NH.
    (MC, 9/17/01)
1939        Sep 17, The German U-29 sank the British aircraft carrier Courageous, 519 died.
1939        Sep 17, The Soviet Union attacked Poland, more than two weeks after Nazi Germany launched its assault. They took 217,000 Poles prisoner and occupied eastern Poland within a week with losses of 737 dead and 2,000 wounded. The Polish submarine Orzel escaped from internment and went on to fight the Germans against long odds.
    (AP, 9/17/97)(DrEE, 10/26/96, p.4)(HN, 9/17/98)(MC, 9/17/01)

1939        Sep 19, The British Expeditionary Force reached France.
    (MC, 9/19/01)
1939        Sep 19, Lord Haw-Haw became the radio host of Reichsrundfunk Berlin.
    (MC, 9/19/01)
1939        Sep 19, Wehrmacht (German regular army) murdered 100 Jews in Lukov, Poland.
    (MC, 9/19/01)

1939        Sep 20, After sinking trawlers off the northern Hebrides, German U-27 was located and sunk by destroyers "Fortune" and "Forester."

1939        Sep 21, In the SF Bay Area temperatures reached an all time high of 99 degrees on Treasure Island as a week of high temperatures left 13 people in the Bay Area.
    (SSFC, 9/21/14, p.42)
1939        Sep 21, Reinhard Heydrich met in Berlin to discuss final solution of Jews.
    (MC, 9/21/01)

1939        Sep 22, Junko Tabei, Japan, the 1st woman to climb Mount Everest, was born.

1939        Sep 23, Sigmund Freud (b.1856), founder of psychoanalysis, died in London. He had escaped from Vienna in 1938. His work “Moses and Monotheism" was published this year. Freud was nominated for the Nobel Medicine Prize for the first time in 1915 by US neurologist William Alanson White, and went on to be nominated for a Nobel a total of 13 times until 1938. In 1986 Frederick Crews, a skeptic on Freud's work, published "Skeptical Engagements." Crews also published "The memory wars: Freud's Legacy in dispute" and "Unauthorized Freud: Doubters Confront a Legend." Freud's last days were dramatized in 1999 by Terry Johnson in the play "Hysteria."
    (SFEM, 1/10/99, p.4)(AP, 9/23/99)(WSJ, 12/23/99, p.A16)(AFP, 9/30/17)

1939        Sep 25, German Luftwaffe struck Warsaw with fire bombs.
    (MC, 9/25/01)
1939        Sep 25, Andorra and Germany finally signed an official treaty ending WW I. The 1919 Versailles Peace Treaty failed to include Andorra.
    (MC, 9/25/01)

1939        Sep 27, Germany occupied Warsaw. Poland surrendered after 19 days of resistance to invading forces from Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union. Poland had endured a brutal 3 day bombing campaign by the German Luftwaffe.
    (AP, 9/27/97)(HN, 9/27/98)

1939        Sep 28, The Boundary and Friendship Treaty between the USSR and Germany was supplemented by secret protocols to amend the secret protocols of Aug 23. Among other things Lithuania was reassigned to the Soviet sphere of influence. Poland’s partition line was moved eastwards from the Vistula line to the line of the Bug. Germany kept a small part of south-west Lithuania, the Uznemune region. A separate Soviet mutual defense pact was signed with Estonia that allowed 25,000 Soviet troops to be stationed there.
    (DrEE, 9/28/96, p.3)(DrEE, 10/26/96, p.4)(DrEE, 10/26/96, p.4)(AP, 9/28/97)

1939        Sep 29, Germany and the Soviet Union reached an agreement on the division of Poland. [see Sep 28]
    (HN, 9/29/98)

1939        Sep 30, The first college football game to be televised was shown on experimental station W2XBS in New York as Fordham University defeated Waynesburg College, 34-7 in Triboro Stadium on Randalls Island.
    (AP, 9/30/98)(SFEC, 6/13/99, p.C18)
1939        Sep 30, The French Army was called back into France from its invasion of Germany. The attack, code named Operation Saar, only penetrated five miles.
    (HN, 9/30/99)
1939        Sep 30, Germany and Russia agreed to partition Poland. [see Sep 28,29]
    (MC, 9/30/01)

1939        Sep, 41 U-boats were sunk this month.
    (MC, 9/30/01)
1939        Sep, The Pepsi jingle: Pepsi-Cola hits the spot. / Two full glasses, that‘s a lot. / Twice as much for a nickel too. / Pepsi-Cola is the drink for you!  (Nickel nickel nickel nickel, trickle trickle trickle trickle) made its debut. The jingle, created by the Lord & Thomas agency, was based on the old English tune "John Peel." Most soft drinks were sold in 6-ounce units, but starting in 1934, 12-ounce Pepsi bottles appeared in stores. Pepsi was constantly trying to gain on Coca-Cola and quickly capitalized on the jingle. It debuted in multiple 15-second slots while radio listeners were updated about Hitler‘s invasion of Poland. Soon people across the country were humming it. When the United States entered World War II, the jingle went out into the world with the troops via radio. It was even altered to sell war bonds (Uncle Sam is calling you/to fight this war and see it through/ By buying bonds and stamps today/ you can help protect the U.S.A). After about a decade, the jingle was eventually phased out, as the "twice as much for a nickel" line seemed too thrift-minded for postwar prosperity.
    (HNQ, 10/27/00)
1939        Sep, Paul Hermann Muller, a Geigy pesticide researcher in Switzerland, first synthesized DDT. He combined chloral hydrate with chlorobenzene and a catalyst to make dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane. The discovery was reported 2 years later.
    (SFC, 9/1/96, z1 p.2)(ON, 11/01, p.6)

1939        Fall, The Univ. of Michigan played the Univ. of Chicago at Stagg Field in Chicago and won by a score of 85-0. Football under UC Pres. Robert Hutchins (29) was very much discouraged. The day after the game Hutchins banned football and turned the stadium over to scientists and the first atomic pile was later created there.
    (LSA, Spg/97, p.25)

1939        Oct 1, Churchill called the Soviets a "riddle wrapped in a mystery inside an enigma."
    (MC, 10/1/01)

1939        Oct 2, The Benny Goodman Sextet recorded "Flying Home."
    (AP, 10/2/99)

1939        Oct 4, Pamela Churchill Harriman married Randolph Churchill, son of Winston. She was later appointed by Pres. Clinton as ambassador to France. In 1996 Sally Bedell Smith wrote her biography: "Reflected Glory: The Life of Pamela Churchill Harriman."
    (SFC, 10/23/96, p.E6)(SFC, 2/6/97, p.A14)
1939        Oct 4, Last Polish troops surrendered to German Wehrmacht.
    (MC, 10/4/01)

1939        Oct 5, The Soviets signed a mutual defense pact with Latvia that allowed 30,000 troops to be stationed there.
    (DrEE, 10/26/96, p.4)
1939        Oct 5, Soviet Foreign Minister Molotov invited the Finnish Foreign Minister, Elias Erkko, to come to Moscow for political discussions. The Finns delayed the meeting until Oct 12. Field Marshall Gustaf Mannerheim prepared Finland for war.
    (DrEE, 10/26/96, p.4)

1939        Oct 6, In an address to the Reichstag, Adolf Hitler denied having any intention of war against France and Britain.
    (AP, 10/6/97)
1939        Oct 6, Hitler announced plans to resolve "The Jewish problem."
    (MC, 10/6/01)

1939        Oct 7, Harvey (William) Cushing, US neurologist, died at 70.
    (MC, 10/7/01)

1939        Oct 8, Germany annexed Western Poland.
    (MC, 10/8/01)

1939        Oct 9, Finland called for full scale mobilization for war.
    (DrEE, 10/26/96, p.4)

1939        Oct 10, Lithuania signed a treaty that allowed a soviet garrison of 20,000 troops to be stationed in the country in return for Vilnius and other regions with a population of 600,000.
    (DrEE, 10/12/96, p.3)(DrEE, 10/26/96, p.4)

1939        Oct 11, Albert Einstein wrote his famous letter to FDR about the potential of the atomic bomb. Einstein, a long time pacifist, was concerned that the Nazis would get the bomb first. In the letter, Einstein argued the scientific feasibility of atomic weapons, and urged the need for development of a US atomic program. The physicists Leo Szilard, Eugene Wigner, and Edward Teller, who were profoundly disturbed by the lack of American atomic action, had enlisted the aid of the Nobel prize-winner Einstein in the summer of 1939, hoping that a letter from such a renowned scientist would persuade Roosevelt into action.
    (MC, 10/11/01)

1939        Oct 12-Nov 8, Finnish special envoy, Juho Paasikivi, began negotiations in Moscow. The Finns refused to allow the establishment of Soviet military bases.
    (DrEE, 10/26/96, p.4)

1939        Oct 14, Ralph Lauren, fashion designer (Chaps), was born.
    (MC, 10/14/01)
1939        Oct 14, The German U-47, commanded by Kapitan Gunther Prien, sank the British battleship HMS Royal Oak at Scapa Flow, Scotland, and 833 people were killed. This prompted Churchill to order the creation of concrete barriers at the eastern entrance of Scapa Flow.
    (SFEM, 10/10/99, p.49)(http://www.undiscoveredscotland.co.uk/hoy/scapa/)

1939        Oct 15, The New York Municipal Airport was dedicated. It was the largest, most advanced commercial airport in the world. Its new terminal featured innovative design that kept arriving and departing passengers separated on two levels for greater efficiency. It was also terminals adorned with Art Deco details and fine restaurants and a rooftop viewing promenade as well as many technological details that made flying safer and less expensive.  On Mar 31, 1940, the new airport was rechristened LaGuardia Airport after the mayor, who had been a bomber pilot in World War I and whose interest in aviation lasted throughout his lifetime, barely a month after it opened.
    (www.arcadiapublishing.com/news_article.html?id=1816)(AP, 10/15/97)

1939        Oct 16, The comedy "The Man Who Came to Dinner," by George S. Kaufman and Moss Hart, opened on Broadway.
    (AP, 10/16/99)(WSJ, 8/2/00, p.A20)
1939        Oct 16, Charlotte Maxeke (b.1871), South African social worker and activist, died in Johannesburg. She was the first black South African woman to receive a college degree (Ohio’s Wilberforce University, 1901).

1939        Oct 17, Frank Capra's comedy-drama "Mr. Smith Goes to Washington" premiered in the nation's capital.
    (AP, 10/17/99)

1939        Oct 18, Mike Ditka, coach and tight end (Bears, Cowboys, NFL rookie year 1961), was born.
    (MC, 10/18/01)
1939        Oct 18, R. Rodger's & Lorenz Hart's "Too Many Girls," premiered in NYC.
    (MC, 10/18/01)
1939        Oct 18, Lee Harvey Oswald, the assassin of President John F. Kennedy, was born.
    (HN, 10/18/00)
1939        Oct 18, President Franklin D. Roosevelt banned war submarines from U.S. ports and waters.
    (HN, 10/18/98)
1939        Oct 18, Labor activist Warren K. Billings, convicted and sentenced to life in prison for the 1916 Preparedness Day Bombing in San Francisco was released from Folsom Prison after being pardoned by Democratic Governor Culbert Olson.
    (SSFC, 10/19/14, p.42)

1939        Oct 19, Benita Valente, soprano (Pamina-Die Zauberflote), was born in Delano Calif.
    (MC, 10/19/01)
1939        Oct 19, Reichsmarshal Hermann Goering began plundering art treasures throughout Nazi occupied areas.
    (MC, 10/19/01)

1939        Oct 21, As war heated up with Germany, the British war cabinet held its first meeting in the underground war room in London.
    (HN, 10/21/99)

1939        Oct 23, Zane Grey (67), US western writer (Spirit of the Border), died. He authored 89 books, mostly Westerns. He books on fishing included: "Tales of fishes" and "An American Angler in Australia."
    (SFEC, 9/24/00, p.T10)(MC, 10/23/01)(WSJ, 1/8/02, p.A16)

1939        Oct 24, Benny Goodman and his orchestra recorded their signature theme, "Let’s Dance," for Columbia Records in New York.
    (AP, 10/24/00)
1939        Oct 24, Nylon stockings, made from nylon developed by DuPont Chemical, were sold publicly for the first time, in Wilmington, Del.
    (AP, 10/24/97)(SSFC, 1/26/14, DB p.42)
1939        Oct 24, Nazis required Jews to wear star of David.
    (MC, 10/24/01)

1939        Oct 25, George Kaufman and Moss Hart's "Man Who Came to Dinner," premiered in NYC.
    (MC, 10/25/01)
1939        Oct 25, The drama "The Time of Your Life," by William Saroyan, opened in New York.
    (AP, 10/25/97)

1939        Oct 26, Polish Jews were forced into obligatory work service.
    (MC, 10/26/01)

1939        Oct 27, John Cleese, actor-writer, was born. He is best known for comedy productions "Monty Python" and "Fawlty Towers."
    (HN, 10/27/00)

1939        Oct 28, Anti-German demonstrations and strikes took place in Czechoslovakia.
    (MC, 10/28/01)
1939        Oct 28, A Spitfire shot down a German Heinkel-111 over Scotland.
    (MC, 10/28/01)

1939        Oct 30, German U boat failed in an attack of English battleship Nelson with Winston Churchill, Dudley Pound and Charles Forbes aboard.
    (MC, 10/30/01)
1939        Oct 30, USSR and Germany agreed on partitioning Poland. Hitler deported Jews.
    (MC, 10/30/01)

1939        Oct 31, 27 U boats were sunk this month (135,000 ton).
    (MC, 10/31/01)
1939        Oct 31, Otto Rank, [Rosenfeld], Austria psychoanalyst (Trauma of Geburt), died.
    (MC, 10/31/01)

1939        Oct, The Federal Hourly Minimum Wage was set at $0.30 an hour.

1939        Nov 1, The 1st animal, a rabbit, conceived by artificial insemination was displayed.
    (MC, 11/1/01)
1939        Nov 1, 1st jet plane, a Heinkel He 178, was demonstrated to German Air Ministry.
    (MC, 11/1/01)

1939        Nov 3, Terrence McNally, playwright (Bad Habits, Master Class), was born in St. Petersburg, Fla.
    (MC, 11/3/01)

1939        Nov 4, The United States modified its neutrality stance in World War II, allowing "cash and carry" purchases of arms by belligerents, a policy favoring Britain and France.
    (AP, 11/4/99)
1939        Nov 4, The 1st air conditioned automobile, the Packard, was exhibited, Chicago, Ill.
    (MC, 11/4/01)

1939        Nov 8, The H. Lindsay and R. Crouse play "Life With Father," based on the book by Clarence Day, opened on Broadway.
    (AP, 11/8/99)(MC, 11/8/01)
1939        Nov 8, There was a failed assassination attempt on Hitler in Burgerbraukeller, Munich.
    (MC, 11/8/01)

1939        Nov 9, "Ninotchka," with Greta Garbo premiered.
    (MC, 11/9/01)
1939        Nov 9, Nobel for physics was awarded to Ernest O. Lawrence for his work on the cyclotron.
    (MC, 11/9/01)
1939        Nov 9, In the Venlo-incident, German Abwehr killed 2 English agents.
    (MC, 11/9/01)

1939        Nov 10, Bob Marshall, founder of the Wilderness Society, first recreation chief of the US Forest Service, died at the age of 38.
    (NG, May 1985, M. Edwards, p.667)

1939        Nov 10-Mar 13,1940, Finland began to wage a defensive war against the Soviet Union for 104 days.
    (DrEE, 10/26/96, p.4)

1939        Nov 12, Lucia Popp, soprano (Die Zauberflote), was born in Uhorsk Ves, Czechoslovakia.
    (MC, 11/12/01)
1939        Nov 12, Jews in Lodz Poland were ordered to wear yellow star of David.
    (MC, 11/12/01)

1939        Nov 14, Wendy (Walter) Carlos, composer (Switched on Bach), was born in Pawtucket, RI.
    (MC, 11/14/01)

1939        Nov 15, President Roosevelt laid the cornerstone of the Jefferson Memorial in Washington, D.C.
    (AP, 11/15/97)
1939        Nov 15, Nazis began their mass murder of Warsaw Jews.
    (MC, 11/15/01)

1939        Nov 16, Al Capone was freed from Alcatraz.
    (MC, 11/16/01)
1939        Nov 16, German U-boat torpedoed the tanker Sliedrecht near Ireland.
    (MC, 11/16/01)

1939        Nov 17, Jerome Kern's and Oscar Hammerstein's "Very Warm for May," premiered in NYC.
    (MC, 11/17/01)
1939        Nov 17, German U-boat torpedoed a passenger ship.
    (MC, 11/17/01)

1939        Nov 18, Margaret Atwood, Canadian writer, was born. Her books included "The Edible Woman" and "The Handmaid's Tale."
    (HN, 11/18/00)
1939        Nov 18, The Irish Republican Army exploded three bombs in Picadilly Circus.
    (HN, 11/18/98)
1939        Nov 18, The Netherland KNSM passenger ship Simon Bolivar hit a German mine and 86 died.
    (MC, 11/18/01)

1939        Nov 23, Thanksgiving. Franklin D. Roosevelt had proclaimed Thanksgiving Day a week earlier--on the fourth, not the last, Thursday of November--in an effort to encourage more holiday shopping.
    (HN, 11/26/98)
1939        Nov 23, Hans Frank, the Nazi Gov. of Poland, required Jews to wear a blue star.
    (MC, 11/23/01)

1939        Nov 24, In Czechoslovakia, the Gestapo executed 120 students who were accused of anti-Nazi plotting.
    (HN, 11/24/98)

1939        Nov 25, Shelagh Delaney, playwright whose work included "A Taste of Honey," was born.
    (HN, 11/25/00)
1939        Nov 25, Nazis reported four British ships sunk in the North Sea, but London denied the report.
    (HN, 11/25/98)

1939        Nov 26, Tina Turner, U.S. pop singer, was born.
    (AP, 11/26/02)
1939        Nov 26, Soviets charged Finland with an artillery attack on border leading to a 105-day Winter War. Soviet Foreign Minister V.M. Molotov accused Finnish troops of firing at the Russians across the 800-mile (1,300km) border near the southeastern  village of Mainila.
    (AP, 11/26/02)(AP, 11/30/09)

1939        Nov 27, The play "Key Largo," by Maxwell Anderson, opened at the Ethel Barrymore Theater in New York. James Gregory made his Broadway debut.
    (AP, 11/27/97)(SFC, 9/19/02, p.A24)

1939        Nov 28, Nazi Gov-Gen of Poland, Hans Frank organized Judenrat.
    (MC, 11/28/01)
1939        Nov 28, USSR scraped its non-aggression pact with Finland.
    (HN, 11/28/98)
1939        Nov 28, James A. Naismith (78), creator of basketball, died.
    (MC, 11/28/01)

1939        Nov 29, Soviet planes bombed an airfield at Helsinki, Finland.
    (HN, 11/29/98)

1939        Nov 30, The Russo-Finnish war began when Stalin attacked Finland with 4 armies, 540,000 men, 2485 tanks, and 2000 guns. Finnish troops were led by Field Marshall Gustaf Mannerheim. Over the next two weeks, a greatly outnumbered Finnish army resisted the invasion of nearly fifty Red Army divisions--over one million men. The Finnish used forest combat to inflict heavy damage on the Russian invaders. The British and French came to the Finnish defense in mid-December but by March, the "Peace of Moscow" treaty was signed, and Finland ceded 16,000-square miles of land to the Soviet Union, including the city of Vyborg and the Karelian Isthmus.
    (DrEE, 10/26/96, p.4)(AP, 11/30/99)(MC, 12/30/01)
1939        Nov 30, Bela Kun (53), [Balazs Kolozsvary], Hungarian revolutionary, died.
    (MC, 11/30/01)

1939        Nov, In Birmingham, England, John Randall invented the cavity magnetron. It was a microwave transmitter 1000 times more powerful than any other at the time.
    (Wired, 2/98, p.134)

1939        Dec 1, Reichsfuhrer-SS Heinrich Himmler ordered the deportation of Polish Jews.
    (MC, 12/1/01)

1939        Dec 2, New York's Municipal Airport began operations as an airliner from Chicago landed at one minute after midnight. The North Beach Airport opened in Queens, NYC, with 2 levels for passenger circulation. It was renamed LaGuardia on March 31, 1940.
    (Hem., 5/97, p.70)(AP, 12/2/98)
1939        Dec 2, British Imperial Airways and British Airways merged to form BOAC.
    (MC, 12/2/01)

1939        Dec 6, The Cole Porter musical comedy "Du Barry Was a Lady" opened on Broadway.
    (AP, 12/6/99)
1939        Dec 6, Britain agreed to send arms to Finland.
    (HN, 12/6/98)

1939        Dec 7, Lou Gehrig, 36, was elected to Baseball's Hall of Fame.
    (MC, 12/7/01)

1939        Dec 8, James Galway, flutist (18k gold flute, Royal Phil), was born in Belfast, Ireland.
    (MC, 12/8/01)

1939        Dec 11, Tom McGuane, novelist and screenwriter, was born. His work includes "The Sporting Club" and "Bushwacked Piano."
    (HN, 12/11/00)
1939        Dec 11, New anti Jewish measurements in Poland were proclaimed.
    (MC, 12/11/01)

1939        Dec 12, Douglas Fairbanks (56), actor (Zorro, 3 Musketeers, Robin Hood), died.
    (MC, 12/12/01)

1939        Dec 13, In the Battle at La Plata three British cruisers fought the German "pocket battleship," Graf Spee, which limped into Montevideo's harbor. It had prowled the South Atlantic and sank several Allied merchant ships before warships from Britain and New Zealand tracked it down.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/German_cruiser_Admiral_Graf_Spee)(AP, 6/21/19)

1939        Dec 14, The Soviet Union was dropped from the League of Nations. [see Nov 30 attack on Finland]
    (AP, 12/14/97)(HN, 12/14/98)

1939        Dec 15, The motion picture "Gone With the Wind" had its world premiere in Atlanta. [WSJ later claimed Dec 19 as the opening date in NYC]
    (AP, 12/15/97)(WSJ, 3/18/98, p.B1)

1939        Dec 16, National Women’s Party urged immediate congressional action on equal rights.
    (HN, 12/16/98)

1939        Dec 18, The Graf Spee was scuttled. The German captain Hans Langsdorf, later killed himself. On Dec. 13th, the heavily the armed German ship held off the three vessels for three hours, sustaining some damage, and then fled into the harbor of Montevideo, Uruguay. Over the next few days the British tricked the Germans into believing that a large British fleet had them trapped.

1939        Dec 19, The British destroyer HMS Hyperion sighted the German liner Columbus about 400 miles off the coast of Virginia. The still neutral American heavy cruiser Tuscaloosa was also in the area, and silently observed the two ships. Rather than surrender the ship, her crew scuttled her, and she burned and sank. Her passengers and crew, 567 men and nine women, were taken aboard Tuscaloosa as rescued seamen, not as prisoners of war as they would have been had the British picked them up. Tuscaloosa took all personnel to New York City. A year later 512 members of the crew were settled on Angel Island in SF Bay. After the end of war many returned to Germany.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SS_Columbus_%281924%29)(SSFC, 1/18/15, DB p.46)

1939        Dec 20, Dianne Arndt, artist, photographer, was born.
    (MC, 12/20/01)
1939        Dec 20, Hans Langsdorff, German captain of the Graf Spee, committed suicide.
    (MC, 12/20/01)

1939        Dec 21, Heinrich Himmler and Reinhard Heydrich named Adolf Eichmann leader of "Referat IV B," the group in charge of transport of Jews for Final Solution.
    (MC, 12/21/01)

1939        Dec 22, Ma Rainey (53), "Mother of the Blues", US blues singer and composer, died.
    (MC, 12/22/01)
1939        Dec 22, 125 died in train wreck at Magdeburg, Germany.
    (MC, 12/22/01)
1939        Dec 22, 99 died in 2nd train wreck at Friedrichshafen, Germany.
    (MC, 12/22/01)

1939        Dec 23, The first Canadian troops arrived in Britain.
    (HN, 12/23/98)
1939        Dec 23, Anthony H.G. Fokker (49), Dutch airplane builder (Spider), died in America.

1939        Dec 24, John Hammond produced a 2nd Carnegie Hall Jazz concert that was a panorama of black heritage. Selections from the 1938 & 1939 concerts were issued in 1959, 1987 and a CD set in 1999.
    (WSJ, 11/5/99, p.W11)

1939        Dec 25, Finnish troops entered Soviet territory.
    (HN, 12/25/98)

1939        Dec 26-27, In Turkey a series of vicious earthquakes in Erzincan province, magnitude 7.9, took some 33,000 lives in Turkey.
    (HN, 12/27/98)(MC, 12/27/01)(SFEC, 8/22/99, p.A17)(AP, 6/22/02)

1939        Dec 31, The DJIA closed the decade at 150.24.
    (WSJ, 4/8/04, p.C4)

1939        Henry Moore (1898-1985) created his sculpture "Three Points."
    (WSJ, 5/1/01, p.A24)

1939        In France Pierre Bonnard painted "The Garden."
    (WSJ, 6/24/98, p.A16)

1939        Edward Hopper painted his "New York Movie."
    (WSJ, 6/28/95, p.A-16)

1939        Sargent Johnson (1888-1967), African-American artist in SF, made his glazed ceramic "Hippopotamus."
    (SFEC, 4/12/98, DB p.43)

1939        Picasso painted "The Yellow Sweater." It later became the trademark of the Berggruen collection. He also painted "Night Fishing at Antibes."
    (WSJ, 9/13/96, p.A8)(SFC, 10/10/98, p.E8)

1939        Ben Shahn painted his "Myself Among the Churchgoers."
    (WSJ, 12/1/98, p.A20)

1939        Chaim Soutine painted "Return From School After the Storm."
    (WSJ, 5/14/98, p.A20)

1939        Hale Woodruff painted a mural on the 1839 Amistad mutiny.
    (SFEM, 3/8/98, p.8)

1939        The Salon des Realites Nouvelles was held in France and featured abstract painters.
    (Calg. Glen., 1996)

1939        Eric Ambler wrote his spy thriller "A Coffin for Dimitrios."
    (SFC, 10/24/98, p.A22)

1939        W.H. Auden (1907-1973), Anglo-American poet, authored his poem “Epitaph on a Tyrant."
    (Econ, 9/4/10, p.91)

1939        Isaiah Berlin (1909-1997) wrote a book on Karl Marx.
    (SFC,11/6/97, p.C14)

1939        E.H. Carr, British scholar, authored “The Twenty Years’ Crises: 1919-1939." It became a seminal work on the realism that instructed US and British Cold War statesmen.
    (WSJ, 12/29/07, p.W8)

1939        Raymond Chandler introduced detective Philip Marlowe in his mystery fiction "The Big Sleep."
    (SFC, 7/9/97, p.D5)(WSJ, 8/26/06, p.P14)

1939        Peter Drucker (1909-2005), Austria-born management visionary, authored his 1st book “The End of Economic Man."
    (Econ, 11/19/05, p.72)

1939        W.E.B. Du Bois published his work: "Black Folk, Then and Now: An Essay in the History and Sociology of the Negro Race."
    (Civilization, July-Aug, 1995, p. 36)

1939        Caryl Haskins (d.2001 at 93), ant expert, authored "Of Ants and Men."
    (SFC, 10/26/01, p.D7)

1939        Earnest A. Hooton, Harvard Prof., authored "Apes, Men and Morons."
    (WSJ, 1/31/00, p.A19)

1939        Edward MacCurdy published a compilation of "Leonardo de Vinci’s notebooks."
    (NH, 5/97, p.19)

1939        Dennis Pulestin (d.2001 at 95) authored "Blue Water Vagabond," an account of his adventures in China as the Sino-Japanese War was beginning. Pulestin later helped design the DUKW amphibian lander in 1942 and the Environmental Defense Fund in 1967.
    (SSFC, 6/17/01, p.A27)

1939        John Steinbeck wrote his short story "Johnny Bear."

1939        Monroe Boston Strause, the Pie King, wrote his book "Pie Marches On."
    (SFC,1/22/97, zz-1 p.2)

1939        Nathanael West (1902-1940) wrote his last novel "The Day of the Locust." It was made into a film in 1975.
    (WSJ, 8/11/97, p.A12)(SFEC,12/21/97, DB p.58)

1939        Ernest Vincent Wright wrote his novel "Gadsby" as a lipogram. The 50,000 words had no letter e.
    (SFEC, 10/22/00, Z1 p.2)

1939        Noel Coward wrote his play "Present Laughter."
    (WSJ, 11/21/96, p.B12)

1939        Lillian Hellman wrote her melodrama "The Little Foxes." It was about a "wicked Alabama family in 1900."
    (WSJ, 4/30/97, p.A12)

1939        Paul Osborne wrote his bittersweet comedy "Morning’s at Seven."
    (WSJ, 4/24/02, p.D9)

1939        Christopher Isherwood wrote "Goodbye to Berlin." It included a story about a singer called Sally Bowles that became the basis for the 1951 play "I Am a Camera," the 1955 film "I Am a Camera," the 1966 musical play "Caberet" and the 1972 musical film "Cabaret." His Berlin books also included "The Last of Mr. Norris," and "I Am a Camera." In 1998 Norman Page published "Auden and Isherwood: The Berlin Years."
    (WSJ, 3/23/98, p.A20)(SFEC, 9/27/98, BR p.8)

1939        James Joyce had his book "Finnegan's Wake" published by Viking.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1939)(SFC, 12/9/99, p.B1)

1939        Olive Schreiner wrote her novel: "The Story of an African Farm."
    (SFEC, 11/3/96, BR p.5)

1939        The 1999 novel "The Summer of '39" by Miranda Seymour was based on a visit by poet Laura Riding and Robert Graves to Kit and Schuyler Jackson.
    (SFEC, 10/3/99, BR p.5)

1939        Charles Edward Smith authored “Jazzmen."
    (WSJ, 5/17/06, p.D14)

1939        Dalton Trumbo (1905-1976), US writer, authored “Johnny Got His Gun." It was made into a film in 1971.

1939        Carl Van Doren (1885-1950), the brother of critic and teacher Mark Van Doren and the uncle of Charles Van Doren, received a Pulitzer Prize for his biography of Benjamin Franklin.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carl_Van_Doren)(SFC, 4/12/19, p.C5)

1939        Ernest V. Wright wrote the novel "Gadsby." It was a 50,000 word work with no letter "e."
    (SFC, 12/21/96, p.E4)

1939        The Philip Barry play "The Philadelphia Story" was staged in new York.
    (WSJ, 12/6/95, p.A-18)

1939        Philip Barry wrote his play "The Philadelphia Story."
    (SFEC, 5/30/99, DB p.37)

1939        Berthold Brecht wrote his play "Mother Courage and Her Children." It was set during the Thirty Years War (1618-1648) between the German Catholics and Swedish Lutherans.
    (WSJ, 1/24/97, p.A13)(WSJ, 10/23/01, p.A24)

1939        Lillian Hellman wrote her play "The Little Foxes."
    (SFEC, 5/30/99, DB p.37)

1939        Eugene O'Neill wrote his play "The Iceman Cometh."
    (SFEC, 5/30/99, DB p.37)

1939        The 161-page founding document of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), commonly known as the “Big Book," outlined the group’s 12-step program. In 2018 it was up for auction and expected to fetch 2-3 million dollars.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alcoholics_Anonymous)(SFC, 3/8/18, p.A8)

1939        The Kenyon Review was founded to advance the ideas of the New Critics who favored a close reading of literary texts over the previous biographical or social-context readings.
    (WSJ, 10/30/03, p.W9)

1939        The Cole Porter musical "Du Barry Was a Lady" was produced.
    (WSJ, 2/23/96, p.A-10)

1939        George Bernard Shaw wrote his play "In Good King Charles’s Golden Days." It depicted an imaginary visit in 1680 by Charles II to Isaac Newton.
    (WSJ, 8/29/97, p.A9)

1939        "Meet the People" was staged in Hollywood and New York.
    (SFC, 12/2/96, p.D2)

1939        Hector Berlioz (1803-1869), composed "Romeo and Juliet," and conducted its first performance.
    (T&L, 10/80, p. 58)(SFC, 10/5/96, p.E1)

1939        Lena Horne (1917-2010) performed in the Broadway revue “Lew Leslie’s Blackbirds of 1939." The revue ran for 9 performances.
    (SFC, 5/10/10, p.C4)

1939        The Carter Family left Virginia and went to Texas to pioneer border radio broadcasts.
    (SSFC, 8/4/02, p.M3)

1939        Billie Holiday 1st sang "Strange Fruit," a ballad about lynching in the south, at Manhattan’s Café Society. The song had been written by Abel Meeropol, a Jewish schoolteacher. In 2001 David Margolick authored "Strange Fruit: Biography of a Song."
    (SFC, 3/8/02, p.D18)

1939        Prokofiev arranged the "Alexander Nevsky Cantata" from music he wrote for Sergei Eisenstein’s film.
    (WSJ, 7/8/96,p.A9)

1939        Arnold Schoenberg finished his "Chamber Symphony No. 2" in LA.
    (SFC, 3/5/99, p.C5)

1939        Trumpeter Legh Knowles (d.1997) joined the Glenn Miller Band. He went on to record 123 records with the band including tunes such as: "In the Mood," "Moonlight Serenade," and "Tuxedo Junction."
    (SFEC, 8/17/97, p.D8)

1939        Ruth Lowe, pianist and band leader, wrote the song "I’ll Never Smile Again" in memory of her late husband.
    (SFC, 9/1/96, z1 p.2)

1939        Robert M. Crawford, Princeton voice teacher, wrote "The Army Air Corps Song" (aka "off we go into the wild blue yonder") for a Liberty Magazine contest and won a $1,000 first prize.
    (SFC, 4/12/97, p.E3)

1939        Jimmie Davis made a hit with "You Are My Sunshine." He became governor of Louisiana in 1944 and again in 1960.
    (SFC, 11/6/00, p.A23)

1939        The song "Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer" began life as a poem handed to shoppers at the Montgomery Ward department store chain. It was recorded in 1949 by Gene Autrey after Perry Como turned it down.
    (SFC, 12/24/99, p.C8)

c1939        Alfred Lion founded the Blue Note jazz label in New York. He was later joined by his Berlin friend and photographer Francis Wolff.
    (WSJ, 10/3/97, p.A8)

1939        George Whittel Jr. (1881-1969), heir to a SF family wealthy from the gold rush, completed his Thunderbird Lodge at Lake Tahoe. He had acquired some 30,000 acres along the Nevada shore since 1936. It was begun in 1937 and designed Nevada architect Frederick De Longchamps. He deeded most of the land to the US Forest Service.
    (SSFC, 4/6/03, p.C8)(SFC, 7/21/07, p.F1)(www.thunderbirdlodge.org/theman.html)

1939        Frank Lloyd Wright designed the Johnson Wax Administration Building.
    (SFEM, 4/19/98, p.23)

1939        Willis & Geiger outfitted the "Flying Tigers" volunteer group fighting in China.
    (NH, 9/96, p.17)

1939        The Guggenheim Museum began as the Museum of Non-Objective Painting and initially occupied a building on East 54th St. in New York City.
    (WSJ, 2/14/96, p.A-12)

1939        Harry Max Foster (1906-1996) founded Foster Farms with a $1000 down payment on a re-possessed 80-acre farm near Empire, Ca.
    (SFC, 9/26/96, p.C2)

1939        Jim Rex founded the Ranger Joe Breakfast Food Co. in Philadelphia. It was sold in the 1940s to Philadelphia businessman Moses Berger and sold again in 1954 to Nabisco and renamed "Wheat and Rice Honeys."
    (SFC,11/19/97, Z1 p.7)

1939        Latrobe Brewing of Latrobe, Pa., began making Rolling Rock, a pale lager. It was later acquired by InBev SA. In 2006 Rolling Rock was acquired by Anheuser-Busch, which moved operations to Newark NJ. In 2008 Anheuser-Busch was acquired by InBev SA.
    (www.nytimes.com/2006/08/08/nyregion/08brew.html?fta=y)(WSJ, 4/13/09, p.B1)

1939        In Jackson, Miss., the weekly Advocate newspaper, a news source for black residents, was founded.
    (SFC, 1/27/98, p.A4)

1939        The United Jewish Appeal was founded. William Rosenwald (1903-1996) was one three signatories to the agreement for founding the organization. His father, Julius, was a chairman and builder of Sears, Roebuck & Co.
    (SFC, 11/2/96, p.A21)

1939        Arthur Davis Shores became the first black attorney licensed in Alabama.
    (SFEC, 3/1/98, Z1 p.4)

1939        Jules Lederer married Esther Friedman. Lederer later founded Budget Rent A Car and Friedman began an advice column as Ann Landers.
    (SFC, 1/25/99, p.A20)

1939        Edwin Sutherland, sociology prof. at Indiana Univ., coined the term white-collar crime.
    (WSJ, 10/15/03, p.B1)

1939        David McConnell renamed his California Perfume Company, founded in 1886, to Avon in tribute to Shakespeare.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R25)(WSJ, 9/18/00, p.B1)

1939        Edward Teller and Leo Szilard, newly immigrated Hungarian physicists, drove to Princeton, New Jersey, to visit Albert Einstein to persuade him to help develop the atomic bomb. They feared that Germany would acquire one first.
    (SFEM, 8/28/98, p.14)

1939        This year’s NY Yankee baseball season was covered by Richard J. Tofel in his 2002 book ""The Legend in the Making." The season culminated with a 4th consecutive World Series championship.
    (WSJ, 3/14/02, p.A16)

1939        Ernest O. Lawrence (1901-1958) of UC Berkeley won the Nobel Prize in Physics for his invention of the cyclotron.
    (SFC, 10/10/96, p.A1)(LHS, 2/12/1998)

1939        The US Department of State created a Special Division to handle some of the problems that the complexity of modern warfare had created for diplomatic means. During the Second World War, those duties came to include the implementation of civilian personnel exchanges between the 'arsenal of democracy' and the Axis nations. More than 6,000 ethnic German, Italian and Japanese residents in Latin America were kidnapped to exchange for US civilians caught behind enemy lines in the Pacific and
Europe. In 1987 P. Scott Corbett authored "Quiet Passages: The Exchange of Civilians Between the United States and Japan During the Second World War."
    (http://tinyurl.com/yb5f3bh3)(SFC, 12/17/18, p.A10)

1939        Government Aid to Dependent Children began to serve primarily divorced, deserted and unwed mothers, and widows became eligible for Social Security.
    (SFEC, 1/5/97, Z1 p.5)

1939        Augie Hiebert went to Alaska to help build the first radio station in Fairbanks.
    (WSJ, 9/22/07, p.A8)

1939        At Angels Camp in California Zip the frog jumped a record setting 15 ft 10 inches.
    (SFC, 4/28/96, p.T-3)
1939        Thomas C. Rice (1914-1996) graduated from USF. He went on to become a professional wrestler known as "The Masked Marvel."
    (SFC, 8/28/96, C2)
1939        The San Francisco to Oakland Bay Bridge was completed.
    (SFC, 5/19/96,Mag, p.11)
1939        The San Francisco West Portal Branch Library opened with funds from the WPA. It was designed by Frederick H. Meyer. A renovation began in 2005 and was completed in 2007.
    (SFC, 5/6/05, p.F1)(SSFC, 10/4/15, p.C2)
1939        In San Francisco the Presidio Theater was built as a movie house. In 2017 it was restored as a performance space.
    (SFC, 6/7/17, p.D7)
1939        Treasure Island on San Francisco Bay was created with 29.5 million cubic yards of sand and gravel. The 403-acre island was built to host the Golden Gate Int’l. Exposition. Jacques Schnier, sculptor, designed art works for the world’s fair on Treasure Island. Pacifica, the 80-foot-tall theme statue of the Int'l. Expo, was created by Ralph Stackpole (d.1973 at 88).
    (SFC, 5/7/97, p.A15)(SFC, 5/9/97, p.E2)(SFC, 10/17/98, p.C2)(Ind, 1/23/99, p.5A)
1939        San Francisco FM radio station KALW began broadcasting at the World Fair on Treasure Island. In 1941 it was donated to the SF Unified school district to train students in radio broadcasting.
    (SFC, 1/15/11, p.C1)
1939        In Berkeley, Ca., the UC Printing Plant on Oxford Street was built with New Deal stimulus funds. In 2010 it was selected as the new home for the Berkeley Art Museum and Pacific Film Archives.
    (SFC, 3/8/10, p.C2)
1939        The new SF Transbay Terminal, designed by Timothy Pflueger, opened at First and Mission. It served as the port of entry for electric-powered trains that went back and forth from the East Bay on the lower deck of the Bay Bridge.
    (SFC, 8/7/07, p.A6)(SFC, 8/11/18, p.A13)
1939        The Federal style annex of the San Mateo County Courthouse was built. The original Corinthian pillars in front were removed.
1939        In San Francisco Benjamin Kaplan opened the eclectic Kaplan’s retail outlet on Third St. In 1969 the business moved to Market St. between 6th and 7th to a building that cost $240,000. In 2013 Zane Kaplan (88) sold the building for $4.5 million to make way for a small hotel.
    (SFC, 12/26/13, p.D1)
1939        In Berkeley, Ca., the UC Printing Plant on Oxford Street was built with New Deal stimulus funds. In 2010 it was selected as the new home for the Berkeley Art Museum and Pacific Film Archives.
    (SFC, 3/8/10, p.C2)
1939        Harry Hind (1915-2012) and a classmate, seniors at the UC School of Pharmacy, developed the first device to read the pH of chemical solutions. Hind and Clifford Barnes went on the found Barnes-Hind Prescription Pharmacy and Barnes-Hind Pharmaceutical Laboratories, which was acquired by Revlon in 1976.
    (SFC, 5/2/12, p.C5)
1939         Los Angeles banned pinball machines after they became considered devices for gambling. The ban was overturned by the Supreme Court of California in 1974. Pinball was banned beginning in the early 1940s until 1976 in NYC.
    (SFC, 6/20/14, p.A1)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pinball)
1939        The last person fluent in the Chochenyo, one of eight languages used by the Ohlone people of the San Francisco Bay Area, died.
    (SFC, 11/24/12, p.C4)
1939        California passed the Coogan Act, a law to safewguard part of a child actor's earnings in trust, and provide for time off, schooling  and limits on working hours.
    (SFC, 2/29/20, p.C5)

1939        John Atanasoff created the Atanasoff-Berry Computer (ABC) in the basement of the physics building at Iowa State College, which did not file patents. Physics Prof. John Mauchly took many of his ideas and filed a patent on over 100 ideas revolving around the computer in 1947. The patent, granted in 1964, claimed the Mauchly had invented the computer. This was disproved in 1973, following a 2-year court battle. In 2010 Jane Smiley authored “"The Man Who Invented the Computer: The Biography of John Atanasoff, Digital Pioneer."
    (SSFC, 10/24/10, p.F3)

1939        Tom Pendergast, boss of Kansas City’s political machine, went to prison for failing to report a large part of $620,000 in bribe and business income.
    (SFC, 12/2/96, p.A10)

1939        Paul Dorfman and Jack Ruby ran the Waste Handlers Union in Chicago.
    (SFC, 11/18/96, p.B7)

1939        Ford debuted the Lincoln Continental created under the design team led by Bob Gregorie (d.2002 at 94).
    (SFC, 12/3/02, p.A21)
1939        GM’s Buick introduced electrical, directional indicator signals.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)
1939        Oldsmobile was the first car to offer an automatic transmission. [see 1937]
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)
1939        Packard introduced the first auto air-conditioning system.
    (F, 10/7/96, p.69)

1939        Dorothy Schiff (1903-1989) bought the New York Post at the urging of her husband, George Backer. He resigned in 1942 and she took over the paper.
    (WSJ, 4/7/07, p.P10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dorothy_Schiff)

1939        Philo T. Farnsworth sold his television patents to RCA Victor for $1 million.
    (SFC, 9/7/02, p.D4)

1939        In Texas Buchanan Dam was completed. Lake Buchanon was formed by the construction of the dam by the Lower Colorado River Authority to provide a water supply for the region and to provide hydroelectric power. The lake covered the tiny town of Bluffton.
    (AP, 11/21/11)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lake_Buchanan_%28Texas%29)

1939        The Del Orleans, a passenger-cargo liner, was completed and plied the waters between north and south America. The US Navy acquired it in 1941 and turned it into a troop transport named Crescent City. From 1970-1995 it served as a training ship for the California Maritime Academy. In 1995 Oakland artist Slobodan Dan Paich had it towed to Oakland and rechristened as the Artship. The project failed to get funding and in 2004 it was sold for scrap.
    (SFC, 6/14/04, p.B5)(SFC, 9/16/05, p.B5)

1939        The first fluorescent lights and FM radio receivers came out.
    (SFC, 9/1/96, z1 p.2)

1939        Little Lulu dolls began to be made by the Knocker-Bocker Toy Co. and were offered as premiums to subscribers of the Saturday Evening Post.
    (SFC, 2/4/98, Z1 p.6)

1939        William Gruber and Harold Graves produced the 1st View-Master in Portland. 2 cameras were used to create stereo images. They were introduced at the New York World’s Fair and became an overnight sensation. In 2009 Fisher-Price eliminated almost all of its View Master titles, except for a handful of children’s titles.
    (SFC, 8/31/00, p.C8)(Econ, 3/14/09, p.34)

1939        Financier William R. Lovett bought the Piggly Wiggly business and later moved the headquarters to Jacksonville, Fla.
    (WSJ, 11/16/98, p.A12)

1939        Sir John Templeton purchased shares in 104 almost worthless NY stockbrokers in anticipation of a strong recovery due to impending war. Within 3 years he turned a profit on 100 of the 104 purchases.
    (Econ, 12/18/04, p.110)

1939        The Toastolator Co., a subsidiary of Crocker-Wheeler, began making the conveyer belt Toast-o-Lator toasters. Production continued to 1952.
    (SFC, 5/14/08, p.G6)

1939        Earl Tupper (d.1983), a Massachusetts tree surgeon and inventor, founded Tupperware. In 1942 he introduced a polyethylene container with a fitted cap. The containers took off in 1951 when he hired Brownie Wise (d.1992), a secretary from Detroit, who developed a sales network based on patio parties. Tupper forced Wise out in 1958 and sold the company to Rexall Drugs. [see 1938]
    (WSJ, 2/18/04, p.A9)

1939        Bra makers first started using cup sizes.
    (SFC, 9/1/96, Z1 p.2)

1939        Erno Laszlo (1891-1973), Hungary immigrant, opened the Laszlo Institute on Fifth Ave in NYC. In 1927 he had opened the Laszlo Institute for Scientific Cosmetology in Budapest.
    (Econ, 11/29/03, p.18)

1939        Scientist Walter Elsasser proposed that the Earth‘s core might contain a large deposit of uranium. The idea was later supported by scientist J. Marvin Herndon and in 2004 researchers planned tests for the hypothesis.
    (SFC, 11/29/04, p.A4)

1939        Richard Bloch (21) taught programming to Grace Hopper (43), who later invented COBOL. Bloch (d.2000 at 78), as chief operations officer at Harvard's Computation Laboratory, played a key role in the development of the Mark I digital computer and invented the parity check for automatic error detection. Hopper led the effort to bring together people in 1959 to collaborate on the development of the Cobol computer language, but did not participate in its creation.
    (SFC, 5/27/00, p.A26)(SSFC, 6/4/17, p.C10)

1939        Godfrey Thompson, a British researcher, proposed that intelligence (as measured in IQ tests) involved the interworking of multiple mental "bonds" in the brain.
    (SFC, 7/21/00, p.B3)

1939        The California state Division of Fish and Game, concerned about dead fish in the north, launched a study and found a creek downstream from Iron Mountain getting 2,876 pounds of copper a day. The state told mine operators to reduce metals and acid drainage.
    (SFEC,11/2/97, p.A13)

1939        At this time about 90% of Americans lived on no more than $800 per year.
    (Econ, 7/3/10, p.81)

1939        Harvey Cushing, Yale professor known as the godfather of neurosurgery, died and left a collection of some 600 brains known as the Cushing Tumor Registry.
    (WSJ, 2/15/96, p.A-1)

1939        Heinrich Hoffman (b.1875), Paris glass artist, died.
    (SFC, 4/12/06, p.G4)

1939        William Butler Yeats, Irish-born poet, died in Southern France at age 73. He was taken home to Ireland in 1949. In 1999 Brenda Maddux published "Yeats's Ghosts: The Secret Life of W.B. Yeats."
    (SFEC, 8/8/99, p.T6)

1939        In Afghanistan the state-run Karkar coal mine began production in Baghlan province.
    (Econ, 11/25/06, p.64)

1939        Australia set up a wheat board for growers to market their crops collectively and get better prices. The AWB was privatized in 1999 and later quoted on the stock market.
    (Econ, 7/30/05, p.59)

1939        The first Catholic church in the Gulf was opened in Bahrain's capital, Manama.
    (AP, 3/14/08)

c1939    Belgium feared a Nazi invasion and shipped $2.5 billion of gold to France, which in turn shipped it to the port city of Dakar, its West African colony now known as Senegal. The Nazis discovered the shipment after their occupation of France and had the gold transferred to their account in Switzerland.
    (WSJ, 4/28/97, p.A17)

1939        Britain’s Ministry of Information crafted a poster with the injunction “Keep Calm and Carry On" to raise the morale of the British public in the case of invasion.
    (Econ, 10/9/10, p.82)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Keep_Calm_and_Carry_On)

1939        In China Mao Zedong (Mao Tse-tung), in response to the Nazi-Soviet pact, mounted a close collaboration with Japanese intelligence to undermine Chiang Kai-shek, head of the KMT.
    (Econ, 5/28/05, p.83)

1939        In Colombia the Museo de Oro (Museum of Gold) opened in Bogota.
    (SSFC, 3/4/07, p.G4)

1939        Nicholas Winton (b.1909), English stockbroker, saved 669 Jewish children by organizing train transport from Prague to London at the outbreak of World War II. In 2007 the Czech Rep. awarded Sir Nicholas Winton (98) the Cross of Merit of the 1st class for saving the children. In 2001 the biography, “Nicholas Winton and the Rescued Generation," by Muriel Emmanuel and Vera Gissing was published. The documentary film “Nicholas J Winton - the Power of Good," was shown in September 2001 in Prague, where Sir Nicholas met 250 of those he saved.
    (AP, 10/9/07)(www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/biography/Winton.html)
1939        Nazis seized the Koh-i-noor snap button factory in Prague, owned by Zikmund Waldes, during their occupation of Czechoslovakia. In 2014 the Czech Rep. Constitutional Court confirmed a 2010 verdict, which overturned a 2009 Supreme Court ruling and all previous rulings of lower courts that found in favor of three relatives of Waldes. Heirs will also not get back a collection of some 20 paintings that were housed in the plant.
    (AP, 5/2/14)

1939        The Dominican Rep. and Haiti in their “Agreement on Migration" said that all Haitian descendants in the Dominican Rep. are Haitians as provided in the Haitian constitution.
    (Econ, 1/4/14, p.11)

1939        German scientists split the uranium atom with a slight loss of total mass that is converted into energy.
1939        By this time Heinrich Himmler’s Ahnenerbe, an organization dedicated to studying the Aryan roots for purposes of propaganda, included 137 scholars and scientists plus 82 members of support staff. In 2006 Heather Pringle authored “The Master Plan," an account of the Ahnenerbe.
    (WSJ, 2/9/06, p.D8)
1939        Two Germany scholars unearthed a cache of mammoth ivory fragments in a cave. The pieces were fitted together after 3 decades and were found to form a 30 cm. high figure with human legs, an arm and the head of a lion. The Der Lowenmensch figure had been carved some 40 thousand years earlier.
    (Econ, 2/2/13, p.71)

1939        A rationing system which was created in Bombay by India's British colonial rulers and quickly spread nationwide as a weapon against famine.
    (AFP, 4/28/12)

1939        In Iraq ruler Ghazi I died mysteriously. The official explanation was that he drove his car into a lamppost.
    (NW, 9/8/03, p.32)

1939        Italy passed a law for the Protection of Artistic Patrimony. It required that art over 50 years old be offered to the government for acquisition before export.
    (AM, May/Jun 97 p.64)

1939        In Mexico the National Action Party (PAN) was founded in the state of Chihuahua.
    (WSJ, 7/1/98, p.A1)

1939        Siam became Thailand. [see 1949]
    (Hem., 3/97, p.27)

1939        In South Africa Solomon Linda’s Original Evening Birds made recordings that included the piece "Mbube" (The Lion). In 1951 the Zulu song was recorded by Pete Seeger with "Uyimbube" (You’re the lion) mistranslated to "Wimoweh." The song became a big hit in 1961 recorded by the Tokens as "The Lion Sleeps Tonight." Linda died in poverty.
    (NH, 6/97, p.66)(SFC, 7/9/01, p.A10)

1939        Dan West, a relief worker from Indiana, concluded during the Spanish Civil War that there must be a better way to help the needy than simply handing out free milk. In 1944, the first shipment of 17 heifers left York, Pennsylvania, for Puerto Rico, going to families whose malnourished children had never even tasted milk.
    (SSFC, 11/26/06, p.E3)(www.heifer.org)

1939        In Erzincan, Turkey, an earthquake killed 30,000 people.
    (SFEC, 8/22/99, p.A17)

1939        In the USSR Yuli Khariton and Yakow Zeldovich made the first Soviet calculations for nuclear fission.
    (SFC, 12/20/96, p.B6)
1939        The USSR census of this year classified the results and reported 170 million to Stalin. Census officials responsible for the 1937 census had been shot for their count of 162 million.
    (Econ, 12/22/07, p.99)

1939        A Communist uprising took place and failed in French Indochina (Vietnam).
    (SFC, 5/3/00, p.A24)

1939        Reinhold Niebuhr presented his Gifford Lectures at the Univ. of St. Andrews in Scotland. The purpose of religion for him shifted from salvation to economic and scientific progress on earth.
    (WSJ, 12/24/01, p.A9)

1939        A handful of Spanish artists, including Eugenio Granell and Jose Vela Zanetti, immigrated to Santo Domingo of the Dominican Republic and introduced the modern art idiom.
    (WSJ, 6/18/96, p.A14)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eugenio_Granell)

1939-1940    The Golden Gate Int’l. Exposition was held on Treasure Island in the San Francisco Bay. It featured the Tower of the Sun, the height of a 40-story building, and the immense statue of Pacifica.
    (SFC, 5/7/97, p.A15)

1939-1941    This period is covered in Lynne Olson’s 2013 book: “Those Angry Days: Roosevelt, Lindbergh, and America’s Fight Over World War II." Hundreds of British agents flooded neutral America with Roosevelt’s tacit approval.
    (Econ, 4/27/13, p.78)

1939-1944    In the United States, the percentage of total national output that was in military production rose from 2 percent in 1939 to 40 percent in 1944. The dramatic shift from civilian to military production was driven by American involvement in World War II.
    (HNQ, 3/17/99)

1939-1945    Norman Davies covered this period in his 2006 book “Europe at War 1939-1945: No Simple Victory." His central theme was the Western alliance with Stalin and its consequences. In 2012 Max Hastings authored “All Hell Let Loose: The World At War: 1939-1945." On average nearly 30,000 people were killed every day.
    (Econ, 11/11/06, p.94)(Econ, 6/9/12, p.87)
1939-1945    Richard Overy covered this period in his 2013 book “The Bombing War: Europe 1939-1945."
    (Econ, 9/21/13, p.91)
1939-1945    In 2015 Nicholas Stargardt authored “The German War: A Nation Under Arms, 1939-1945."
    (Econ, 9/26/15, p.86)
1939-1945    During WW II Elizabeth W. Schickele (1908-1996) and a team of researchers in the US Army Quartermasters Corp. originated the concept of the wind-chill factor.
    (SFC, 9/7/96, p.A19)
1939-1945    During WW II the US set up spider farms to produce silk for optical and gun sight cross-hairs. 405,399 Americans were killed in the war.
    (SFEC, 9/15/96, Z1 p.5)(SFEM, 11/10/96, p.12)(SFEC, 9/28/97, Z1 p.2)
1939-1945    US Intelligence revealed in 1997 that during WW II the Swiss National Bank sent 280 truckloads of Nazi gold to Spain and Portugal.
    (USAT, 1/13/97, p.3A)
c1939-1945    Some 119,000 people died at the Mauthausen Concentration Camp in Austria.
    (SFC, 2/25/00, p.A16)
1939-1945    Winston Churchill authorized bribes of some $100 million to Spanish military leaders to keep Spain out of the war.
    (SFC, 8/5/97, p.A10)
1939-1945    Johnnie Johnson (d.2001 at 85), British fighter pilot and leading Allied air ace in Europe, shot down 38 German planes. In 1956 he authored the autobiography "Wing Leader." Richard Bong of the US Army Air Forces shot down 40 Japanese planes.
    (SFC, 2/2/01, p.D7)
1939-1945    Heinrich Mohn and his associates used the war to transform Bertelsmann from a German provincial publisher of religious texts into the largest supplier of war literature to Hitler’s army.
    (WSJ, 12/23/02, p.A6)
1939-1945    In Germany during WW II some 5-15,000 homosexual men were sent to prison camps and marked for special treatment with a pink triangle on their uniforms. The majority died in the camps.
    (SFEC, 6/29/97, p.A18)
1939-1945    During WW II the Germans and Ukrainians used Transdniestria as a killing field to purge Europe of some 150,000 Jews.
    (SSFC, 2/12/06, p.E2)
1939-1945    The German U-boat casualty rate during the war was 80% of the 28,000 men who served.
    (HC, 1/29/98)
1939-1945    The Hungarian Gendarmerie carried out orders to round up Jews for Nazi death camps where some 550,000 perished.
    (SFC, 2/25/00, p.A16)
1939-1945    Ireland stayed neutral during WWII. It barred the Allies’ Atlantic convoys from sheltering in Irish ports, refused to accept Jewish refugees from continental Europe, and maintained cordial diplomatic relations with both Germany and Japan. Nearly 5,000 men deserted its armed forces to fight for Britain.
    (SFC, 5/8/13, p.A2)
1939-1945    A 1997 report said that Sweden received some 38 tons of gold from the Nazis in payment for exports.
    (SFC,1/22/97, p.A9)
1939-1945    Switzerland took in nearly 30,000 Jews fleeing Nazi terror and turned away at least 24,500. Refugees were forced to work in labor camps.
    (SFC, 1/15/98, p.A12)(SFC, 12/11/99, p.C1)

1939-1953    In 2007 Geoffrey Roberts authored “Stalin’s Wars: From World War to Cold War, 1939-1953."
    (Econ, 1/6/07, p.68)

1939-1960    Ernest Hemingway (d.1961), American writer, lived in Cuba.
    (SSFC, 6/5/05, p.F8)

1939-1962    A drinking club called "The Inklings" gathered every Tuesday at "The Eagle and Child" public house in Oxford, England. Members included CS Lewis, Charles Williams, JRR Tolkien and others.
    (SSFC, 1/26/03, p.B12)

1939-1971    California maintained a Senate Fact-Finding Subcommittee on Un-American Activities. Files on some 20,000 Californians were declared still closed to the public in 1998.
    (SFC, 4/14/98, p.A20)

1935-1976    In Sweden an involuntary sterilization program was conducted over this period during which some 60,000 people were deemed genetically inferior and involuntarily sterilized. In 1999 a commission recommended that victims be paid $21,000 each.
    (SFC, 8/26/97, p.C3)(SFC, 1/27/99, p.C10)

1939-1996    John Register, California realist painter. His work included: "Waiting Room" (1982), "Desert Restaurant" (1986), and "Mojave Bus Station" (1978).
    (SFC, 1/21/99, p.D1)

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