Timeline 1932-1933

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1932        Jan 2, Japanese forces in Manchuria set up a puppet government known as Manchukuo.
    (HN, 1/2/99)

1932        Jan 3, Coo Coo (Clifton) Marlin auto race: Winston Cup star, was born.
    (440 Int'l. 1/3/99)
1932        Jan 3, Dabney Coleman actor, was born: Judicial Consent, The Beverly Hillbillies, Amos and Andrew, Clifford, Never Forget, Short Time, Dragnet, The Man with One Red Shoe, Tootsie, On Golden Pond, 9 to 5, North Dallas Forty, The Other Side of the Mountain, Cinderella Liberty, The President’s Plane is Missing, Buffalo Bill.
    (440 Int'l. 1/3/99)

1932        Jan 5, Umberto Eco, Italian novelist who wrote "The Name of the Rose," was born.
    (HN, 1/5/99)
1932        Jan 5, Raisa Maximovna Titorenko Gorbachev, Russia's 1st lady (1982-1991), was born.
    (MC, 1/5/02)

1932        Jan 6, Julius Rosenwald (b.1862), president of Sears, Roebuck & Co., died in Highland Park, Ill. By 1931 he had financed the construction of 5,295 schools throughout the South in association with Booker T. Washington and William Baldwin Jr., a Boston railway executive and founder of the Urban League. In 2015 Aviva Kemper directed the film documentary “Rosenwald".
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Julius_Rosenwald)(WSJ, 2/24/98, p.A22)(WSJ, 4/23/02, p.D7)(SFC, 9/11/15, p.E4)

1932        Jan 8, Joseph Kahahawai (21) was kidnapped and killed by a vigilante group following an alleged gang rape. Thalia Massie, her husband, mother, and 2 other suspects were convicted of manslaughter in the Kahahawai murder, but their sentences were commuted to one hour in the custody of Territorial Gov. Lawrence Judd. They then sailed to SF to avoid a new trial. In 2005 David E. Stannard authored “Honor Killing: How the Famous Masie Affair Transformed Hawaii."
    (SFC, 5/28/05, p.E1)

1932        Jan 12, Philip Barry's "Animal Kingdom," premiered in NYC.
    (MC, 1/12/02)
1932        Jan 12, Mrs. Hattie W. Caraway (Ophelia Wyatt Caraway) a Democrat from Arkansas, became the first woman elected to the  US Senate.
    (AP, 1/12/98)
1932        Jan 12, Oliver Wendell Holmes quit the Supreme Court at age 90.
    (HN, 1/12/99)

1932        Jan 18, Robert Anton Wilson, US sci-fi author (Trick Top Hat), was born.
    (MC, 1/18/02)

1932        Jan 21, Lytton Strachey (b.1880), author and part of the Bloomsbury group, died. He wrote "Eminent Victorians," a scandalous collection of sketches that revolutionized English biography in 1918. Michael Holdroyd later authored his biography. In 2005 Paul Levy edited “The Letters of Lytton Strachey."
    (SFEC, 8/22/99, BR p.4)(WUD, 1994, p.1403)(SFEC, 3/5/00, DB p.4)(WSJ, 12/17/05, p.P13)

1932        Jan 22, Pablo Picasso painted "Repose."
    (SFC, 6/4/96, p.E5)
1932        Jan 22, British Anglicans merged with the Old-Catholic church.
    (MC, 1/22/02)
1932        Jan 22, Government troops crushed a Communist uprising in Northern Spain.
    (HN, 1/22/99)

1932        Jan 23, New York Gov. Franklin D. Roosevelt announced his candidacy for the Democratic presidential nomination.
    (AP, 1/23/98)(HN, 1/23/99)
1932        Jan 23, El Salvador army killed 4,000 protesting farmers.
    (MC, 1/23/02)

1932        Jan 26, William K. Wrigley, owner (Wrigley Gum, Chicago Cubs), died.
    (MC, 1/26/02)

1932        Jan 28, The Japanese attacked Shanghai, China, and declared martial law.
    (HN, 1/28/99)

1932        Jan, Wisconsin became the first state to provide unemployment benefits.
    (Econ, 2/26/11, p.31)(http://dwd.wisconsin.gov/dwd/publications/ui/ucb3006.pdf)

1932        Feb 2, Al Capone was sent to prison at Atlanta, Georgia, for "tax evasion."
    (MC, 2/2/02)

1932        Feb 4, Robert Coover, novelist & short story writer, was born.
    (HN, 2/4/01)
1932        Feb 4, New York Gov. Franklin D. Roosevelt opened the Winter Olympic Games at Lake Placid, N.Y.
    (AP, 2/4/97)(HN, 2/4/99)

1932        Feb 6, Francois Truffaut, French film director, was born. His work included "The 400 Blows" and "Shoot the Piano Player."
    (HN, 2/6/01)

1932        Feb 7, Gay Talese, author (Honor Thy Father), was born.
    (MC, 2/7/02)

1932        Feb 8, Vincent "Mad Dog" Coll, mobster, was killed by Dutch Schultz gang.
    (MC, 2/8/02)

1932        Feb 15, George Burns and Gracie Allen debuted as regulars on "Guy Lombardo Show."
    (MC, 2/15/02)
1932        Feb 15, US bobsled team member Eddie Eagan became the only athlete to win gold in both Summer & Winter Olympics (1920 boxing gold)
    (440 Int’l., 2/15/99)

1932        Feb 16, The 1st patent for a tree was issued to James Markham for a peach tree.
    (MC, 2/16/02)

1932        Feb 17, Irving Berlin's musical "Face the Music," premiered in NYC.
    (MC, 2/17/02)

1932        Feb 18, Milos Forman, Czech-US director (Cuckoos Nest, Amadeus), was born.
    (MC, 2/18/02)
1932        Feb 18, Sonja Henie won her 6th straight World Women's figure skating title.
    (MC, 2/18/02)
1932        Feb 18, In SF federal prohibition agents seized the offices and storehouses of two wholesale liquor setups: The Chicago Specialty Company at 724 Montgomery St. and J.C. Millet at 241 Clay St. The raids were aimed at breaking up a major bootlegging ring said to be headed by Johnny Marino.
    (SSFC, 2/18/07, DB p.58)
1932        Feb 18, Manchurian independence was formally declared. In 1928 the Japanese army unilaterally instigated armed clashes in China’s Manchuria region to justify full-scale intervention. In 1931 the Japanese army invaded Manchuria without its own government’s consent.
    (HN, 2/18/98)

1932        Feb 19, Jean-Pierre Ponnele, opera director (Carmina Burana), was born in Paris, France.
    (MC, 2/19/02)
1932        Feb 19, In SF Bank of Canton manager Arthur G. Wong reported that over $1,000,000 in gold had been wired from SF to aid Chinese forces in Shanghai.
    (SSFC, 2/18/07, DB p.58)

1932        Feb 20, Japanese troops occupied Tunhua, China.
    (MC, 2/20/02)

1932        Feb 21, Camera exposure meter was patented by WN Goodwin.
    (MC, 2/21/02)

1932        Feb 22, Edward Kennedy, Massachusetts Senator, was born. He was the brother of John F. Kennedy who championed the poor.
    (HN, 2/22/99)
1932        Feb 22, The first modern US Purple Heart was awarded. The original Purple Heart, designated as the Badge of Military Merit, was established by George Washington, by order from his Newburgh, New York headquarters on August 7, 1782.

1932        Feb 24, Michel Legrand, composer (Summer of '42, Windmills of Your Mind), was born.
    (MC, 2/24/02)

1932        Feb 25, The German state government of Brunswick, in which the Nazi Party participated, appointed Adolph Hitler of Austria to a minor administrative post this month and on this day gave him German citizenship. Hitler was thus able to stand against Hindenburg in the forthcoming Presidential election.

1932        Feb 26, Johnny Cash (d.2003) country singer (I Walk The Line, Folsom Prison Blues, Boy Named Sue), was born in Kingsland, Arkansas.
    (NW, 9/22/03, p.98)

1932        Feb 27, Elizabeth Taylor, actress, was born. Her films included "Cleopatra" and "Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf?"
    (SFC, 2/16/97, Par. p.22)(HN, 2/27/01)
1932        Feb 27, The Glass-Steagall Act was passed, giving the Federal Reserve the right to expand credit in order to increase money circulation. It separated regular banks from investment banks. Senator Carter Glass (d.1946 at 88) of Virginia and Rep. Henry Steagall (d.1943 at 70) of Alabama sponsored it. The act had two measures. The 1932 act was a bookkeeping provision that allowed the Treasury to balance its account. [see 1933]
    (SFC, 4/7/97, p.A4)(WSJ, 8/8/97, p.A11)(HN, 2/27/98)(WSJ, 4/10/98, p.A1,6)
1932        Feb 27, Explosion in coal mine in Boissevain, Virginia, left 38 dead.
    (MC, 2/27/02)

1932        Mar 1, Charles Lindbergh Jr. (20 months), the infant son of Charles and Anne Lindbergh was kidnapped from his nursery at the family home near Hopewell, (Princeton) N.J. A handwritten note left at the scene demanded a $50,000 ransom. Under relentless public scrutiny, the Lindberghs complied with the ransom demands, but on May 12, the child’s remains were found two miles from their home. German immigrant Bruno Richard Hauptmann was arrested and convicted for the crime amid a frenzy of biased media coverage. Hauptmann maintained his innocence until his execution in 1936. In 1961 George Waller authored “Kidnap," an account of the kidnapping and trial.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1932)(AP, 3/1/98)(HN, 3/1/98)(HNPD, 3/1/99)(WSJ, 11/10/07, p.W8)

1932        Mar 4, The Pecora Investigation began. It was an inquiry by the United States Senate Committee on Banking and Currency to investigate the causes of the Wall Street Crash of 1929. The name refers to the fourth and final chief counsel for the investigation, Ferdinand Pecora, chief lawyer on the Senate Banking Committee from 1933-1934. In 2010 Michael Perino authored “The Hellhound of Wall Street: How Ferdinand Pecora’s Investigation of the Great Crash Forever Changed American Finance."
    (Econ, 1/9/10, p.33)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pecora_Commission)(Econ, 11/13/10, p.103)
1932        Mar 4, Miriam Makeba, singer (Grammy 1965), was born in Johannesburg, South Africa.
    (HN, 3/4/01)(SC, 3/4/02)

1932        Mar 6, John Philip Sousa (77), US composer (Stars & Stripes Forever), died.
    (MC, 3/6/02)

1932        Mar 7, Riots at Ford factory in Dearborn, Michigan, killed 4.
    (MC, 3/7/02)
1932        Mar 7, Aristide Briand (b.1862), 11-time premier of France (Nobel 1926), died.

1932        Mar 9, Eamon De Valera was elected Taoiseach (prime minister) of Ireland and pledged to abolished all loyalty to the British Crown.
    (HN, 3/9/98)(http://www.clarelibrary.ie/)
1932        Mar 9, Former Chinese emperor Henry Pu-Yi was installed as head of Manchuria.
    (MC, 3/9/02)

1932        Mar 12, Ivar Kreuger (b.1880), the so-called "Swedish Match King," committed suicide in Paris, leaving behind a financial empire that turned out to be worthless. The “Kreuger crash’ shook Wall Street and led to a 1933 Securities Act, which strengthened disclosure requirements for all companies selling stock. In 1961 Robert Shaplen authored “Kreuger, Genius and Swindler." In 2009 Frank Partnoy authored “The Match King."
    (AP, 3/12/99)(Econ, 12/22/07, p.115)(WSJ, 4/17/09, p.A11)

1932        Mar 13, Hindenburg won 49.6% of the vote in the German presidential election, Hitler won 30.1%, and the rest of the votes went to other candidates. Since Hindenburg did not win a majority, a run-off election was set for April.

1932        Mar 14, George Eastman (77), founder of Eastman Kodak, committed suicide. “To my friends. My work is done, why wait?"
    (ON, 3/05, p.12)(http://tinyurl.com/5fjeq)

1932        Mar 17, German police raided Hitler's Nazi headquarters.
    (MC, 3/17/02)

1932        Mar 18, John Updike, American poet, novelist, was born. He wrote "Witches of Eastwick."
    (HN, 3/18/99)

1932        Mar 19, Sydney Harbor Bridge, Australia, officially opened.
    (AP, 3/19/03)

1932        Mar 20, The German dirigible, Graf Zepplin, made the first flight to South America on regular schedule.
    (HN, 3/20/98)

1932        Mar 21, Joseph Silverstein, violinist (Denver Symphony Orch), was born in Detroit, Mich.
    (MC, 3/21/02)

1932        Mar 23, The executive committee of the DAR (Daughters of the American Revolution) ruled to exclude blacks from appearing at Constitution Hall.
    (WSJ, 4/3/97, p.A19)
1932        Mar 23, Britain warned Ireland that the loyalty oath was mandatory.
    (HN, 3/23/98)

1932        Mar 24, A New York radio station (WABC) broadcast a variety program from a moving train in Maryland.
    (AP, 3/23/97)

1932        Mar 29, A vaudeville comedian made his radio debut, saying, "Ladies and gentlemen, this is Jack Benny talking. There will be a slight pause while you say, ‘Who cares?"’
    (AP, 3/29/97)

1932        Mar 31, Ford Motor Co. publicly unveiled its V-8 engine.
    (AP, 3/30/97)
1932        Mar 31, 150 wild swans died in Niagara waterfall.
    (MC, 3/31/02)

1932        Apr 2, Aviator Charles A. Lindbergh and Dr. John F. Condon turned over $50,000 in ransom to an unidentified man in a New York City cemetery in the Bronx, in exchange for Lindbergh’s kidnapped son. The infant, however, was not returned, and was found dead the following month.
    (AP, 4/2/97)(HN, 4/2/98)

1932        Apr 4, Anthony Perkins, actor (Psycho), was born in NYC.
    (HN, 4/4/01)(MC, 4/4/02)
1932        Apr 4, George Bernard Shaw's "Too True to be Good," premiered in NYC.
    (MC, 4/4/02)
1932        Apr 4, Vitamin C was 1st isolated by C.C. King at the Univ. of Pittsburgh.
    (MC, 4/4/02)
1932        Apr 4, Andrei Tarkovsky, Russian film maker, was born.
    (DVD, Criterion, 1998)

1932        Apr 5, A Dutch textile strike was broken by trade unions.
    (MC, 4/5/02)

1932        Apr 7, Erv A. Kelley, US policeman, was shot to death by Pretty Boy Floyd.
    (MC, 4/7/02)

1932        Apr 9, Paul Krassner, founder and editor of The Realist, cartoonist (MAD mag.), was born.
    (MC, 4/9/02)

1932        Apr 10, Omar Sharif (Michael Shalhoub), actor (Dr. Zhivago), was born.
    (HN, 4/10/98)
1932        Apr 10, Paul von Hindenburg was elected the first German president. German president Paul von Hindenburg was re-elected with 53% of the vote; Adolf Hitler coming in 2nd with 36%.
    (www.historyplace.com/worldwar2/riseofhitler/runs.htm)(AP, 4/10/98)

1932        Apr 11, Joel Grey (Joe Katz), actor, was born.
    (HN, 4/11/01)

1932        Apr 12, Emmanuel Chabrier's and Balanchine's ballet premiered in Monte Carlo.
    (MC, 4/12/02)

1932        Apr 14, Bizet's, Massine's and Miro's "Jeux d'Enfants," premiered in Monte Carlo.
    (MC, 4/14/02)
1932        Apr 14, Germany’s Pres. Hindenburg signed a decree outlawing Nazi SA and SS. Chancellor Bruning thought this would curb Hitler’s growth. Instead, it will prove to be Bruning’s fall.

1932        Apr 15, Eva Figes, British novelist, was born.
    (HN, 4/15/01)

1932        Apr 17, Graziella Sciutti, Italian opera singer, was born.
    (MC, 4/17/02)

1932        Apr 21, Elaine May, comedy writer, was born.
    (HN, 4/21/01)

1932        Apr 23, Jim Fixx, runner and writer, was born, He popularized running as a form of exercise in the 1970s.
    (HN, 4/23/99)
1932        Apr 23, Halston, [R Halston Frowick], fashion designer (1972 Hall of Fame), was born.
    (MC, 4/23/02)
1932        Apr 23, The Royal Shakespeare Theatre opened at Stratford-on-Avon. It replaced one built in 1879 that burned down in 1926.
    (www.guardian.co.uk/fromthearchive/story/0,,1740490,00.html)(Econ, 3/31/07, p.91)

1932        Apr 24, In German national elections the NSDAP/NAZI won 36.3% in Prussia.
    (MC, 4/24/02)

1932        Apr 25, William Roache, actor (Ken Barlow-Coronation Street), was born in England.
    (SS, 4/25/02)

1932        Apr 26, Ed Wynn, the Texaco fire chief, was heard on radio’s Texaco Star Theater for the first time. He demanded and got a live audience to react to his humor.
    (440 Int’l. Internet, 4/26/97, p.1)

1932        Apr 27, American poet Hart Crane (b.1899) drowned after jumping from a steamer while en route to New York. In 1967 R.W.B. Lewis (d. 2002) authored  "The Poetry of Hart Crane."
    (AP, 4/27/97)(SFC, 6/17/02, p.B5)

1932        Apr 28, A yellow fever vaccine for humans was announced.
    (HN, 4/28/98)

1932        Apr, In Denmark 6 of the world’s leading quantum physicists gathered at Niels Bohr’s Institute for Theoretical Physics to discuss the latest developments in the field. In 2007 Gino Segre authored “Faust in Copenhagen: A Struggle for the Soul of Physics." The book is organized around a short comedy performed at the end of the meeting.
    (SSFC, 6/24/07, p.M3)(Econ, 7/14/07, p.87)

1932        May 2, Pulitzer prize was awarded to Pearl S. Buck for "The Good Earth."
    (MC, 5/2/02)
1932        May 2, Walter Duranty of the NY Times won a Pulitzer Prize for his series on the Soviet Union that contained uncritical praise of Joseph Stalin. In 2003 a historian argued, without success, that the prize should be revoked due to Duranty's deliberate failure to cover the forced famine in the Ukraine that killed millions of people. In 2004 David C. Engerman authored "Modernization from the Other Shore," an American view of the Soviet experience."
    (SFC, 10/23/03, p.A3)(SFC, 11/22/03, p.A3)(WSJ, 2/24/04, p.D8)
1932        May 2, Jack Benny’s first radio show made its debut on the NBC Blue Network.
    (AP, 5/2/97)

1932        May 4,    Mobster Al Capone, convicted of income-tax evasion, entered the federal penitentiary in Atlanta. Capone was later transferred to Alcatraz Island in San Francisco Bay.
    (AP, 5/4/08)

1932        May 7, Jenny Joseph, English poet and novelist (The Thinking Heart, The Inland Sea), was born.
    (HN, 5/7/02)

1932        May 8, Ricardo Jimenez Oreamuno (b.1859) began serving his 3rd term as president of Costa Rica.  In 1936 he was succeeded by Leon Cortes Castro.

1932        May 9, Piccadilly Circus was lit by electricity.
    (MC, 5/9/02)

1932        May 10, Government of Netherland declared "Wilhelmus" the national anthem.
    (MC, 5/10/02)

1932        May 12, Goofy, aka Dippy Dawg, 1st appeared in 'Mickey's Revue' by Walt Disney.
    (MC, 5/12/02)
1932        May 12, The body of the kidnapped son of Charles and Anne Lindbergh was found in a wooded area of Hopewell, N.J.
    (AP, 5/12/97)(HN, 5/12/98)

1932        May 14, There was a "We Want Beer!" parade in NY.
    (MC, 5/14/02)

1932        May 15, Japan’s PM Tsuyoshi Inukai (b.1855) and his family were assassinated by young right-wing naval officers. His son Ken Inukai, watching a Sumo wrestling match with Charlie Chaplin, survived.
    (WSJ, 8/3/06, p.D5)

1932        May 17, Congress changed the name "Porto Rico" to "Puerto Rico".
    (HN, 5/17/98)

1932        May 18, Luigi Malvese, bootleg gangster, was ambushed and shot to death in front of the Del Monte Barbershop at 720 Columbus Ave, SF, Ca. A police dragnet rounded up some 1,000 "usual suspect" in an attempt to pressure the underworld to rein in its wild men. Louis Dinato, Al Capone’s tailor, was among those rounded up.
    (SSFC, 6/2/02, p.D3)

1932        May 20, In Austria Engelbert Dollfuss (1892-1934) was sworn in as head of a coalition government between the Christian-Social Party, the Landbund — a right-wing agrarian party — and Heimatblock, the parliamentary wing of the Heimwehr, a paramilitary ultra-nationalist group.
1932        May 20, Amelia Earhart took off from Newfoundland to become the first woman to fly solo across the Atlantic. Because of weather and equipment problems, Earhart set down in Northern Ireland after 13 ½ hours instead of her intended destination, France.
    (HFA, '96, p.30)(HN, 5/20/01)(AP, 5/20/07)(ON, 12/07, p.9)

1932        May 21, Amelia Earhart made her first transatlantic solo flight from Newfoundland to Ireland.
    (HN, 5/21/98)(AP, 5/20/97)

1932        May 25, John Gregory Dunne (d.2003), author, screenwriter and husband of Joan Didion, was born in Hartford, Conn.
    (HN, 5/25/01)(SFC, 1/1/04, p.A23)
1932        May 25, Georgi Mikhailovich Grechko, USSR cosmonaut (Soyuz 17, 26, T-14), was born.
    (SC, 5/25/02)

1932        May 26, Ligget & Myers, Mack Trucks, United Air Transport, Paramount Publix, Radio corp., Texas Gulf Sulphur, National Cash Register and Hudson Motor were removed from the DJIA. American Tobacco B was re-instated as a component of the Dow Jones. Drug Inc., Proctor & Gamble, Loew's, Nash Motors, Int'l. Shoe, Int'l. Business Machines and Coca Cola were added.
    (WSJ, 5/28/96, p. R-45)(WSJ, 4/8/04, p.C4)

1932        May 28, Stephen Birmingham, novelist and biographer (Real Lace: America's Irish Rich), was born in Hartford.
    (HN, 5/28/01)(MC, 5/28/02)

1932        May 29, Paul Erlich, environmental scientist, was born.
    (SC, 5/29/02)
1932        May 29, World War I veterans began arriving in Washington DC to demand cash bonuses they weren’t scheduled to receive for another 13 years. 17,000 veterans, calling themselves the Bonus Expeditionary Force, marched on Washington demanding cash for their bonus certificates. They were led by Walter Waters, a former sergeant from Portland, Ore.    
    (TMC, 1994, p.1932)(AP, 5/29/97)(WSJ, 11/7/05, p.B1)

1932        May 31, Socal, formerly Standard Oil of California, discovered oil in Bahrain. This was the 1st middle eastern oil discovered by an American firm.
    (SFC, 10/20/04, p.C6)(www.saudiaramcoworld.com/issue/199901/prelude.to.discovery.htm)

1932        Jun 1, Christopher Lasch, American social critic and writer, was born.
    (HN, 6/1/01)

1932        Jun 2, Sammy Turner, singer (Lavender Blue Moods), was born in Patterson, NJ.
    (SC, 6/2/02)
1932        Jun 2, George W. Perry (19), a Georgia farmer, caught a record 22-pound, 4-ounce largemouth bass with a Chubb Wiggle Fish lure. The record still stood in 2001.
    (WSJ, 5/18/01, p.A1)

1932        Jun 3, Von Hindenburg disbanded the German Parliament.
    (MC, 6/3/02)

1932        Jun 5, Christy Brown, Irish novelist and poet (My Left Foot), was born.
    (HN, 6/5/01)

1932        Jun 6, A US Federal gas tax was enacted.
    (MC, 6/6/02)

1932        Jun 7, Over 7,000 war veterans march on Washington, D.C. demanding their bonuses for service in WW I.
    (HN, 6/7/98)

1932        Jun 11, Athol Fugard, playwright, director, actor and novelist, was born in Middelburg, South Africa as Harold Athol Lanigan Fugard. As a child he was known as Hally before he decided he wanted to be called Athol.
    (www.litencyc.com/php/speople.php?rec=true&UID=1651)(HN, 6/11/01)
1932        Jun 11, E. Delporte discovered asteroid #1222 Tina.
    (SC, 6/11/02)

1932        Jun 14, Representative Edward Eslick died on the floor of the House of Representatives while pleading for the passage of the bonus bill for US veterans.
    (HN, 6/14/98)

1932        Jun 15, Mario M. Cuomo, (Gov-D-NY, 1982-94), was born in NYC.
    (MC, 6/15/02)
1932        Jun 15, Gaston Means was sentenced to 15 years for fraud in the Lindbergh baby kidnapping.
    (HN, 6/15/98)

1932        Jun 16, President Hoover and Vice President Charles Curtis were renominated at the Republican national convention in Chicago.
    (AP, 6/16/02)
1932        Jun 16, The ban on Nazi storm troopers was lifted by the von Papen government in Germany. Germany forbade SA/SS street brawls.
    (HN, 6/16/98)(MC, 6/16/02)

1932        Jun 17, The U.S. Senate defeated a cash-now bonus bill as some 10,000 veterans massed around the Capitol.
    (HN, 6/17/98)(WSJ, 11/7/05, p.B1)

1932        Jun 19, Hailstones killed 200 in Hunan Province, China PR.
    (DTnet, 6/19/97)

1932        Jun 21, Lalo [Boris] Schifrin, composer, was born in Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    (MC, 6/21/02)
1932        Jun 21, Heavyweight Max Schmeling lost a title fight by decision to Jack Sharkey (American Lithuanian Sarkis Zukauskas); Schmeling’s manager, Joe Jacobs, exclaimed: "We was robbed!"
    (AP, 6/21/97)(LC, 1998, p.18)

1932        Jun 24, A coup ended the absolute monarchy in Thailand.
    (http://countrystudies.us/thailand/19.htm)(SFC, 5/28/96, p.A17)

1932        Jun 27, In Thailand King Prajadhipok (Rama VII) signed a new provisional constitution. The absolute power of kings ended and a constitutional monarchy began. By 2008 Thailand had gone thru 17 permanent or temporary constitutions.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constitution_of_Thailand)(Econ, 5/24/08, p.27)

1932        Jun 29, Siam’s army seized Bangkok and announced an end to the absolute monarchy.
    (HN, 6/29/98)

1932         Jun 30, Mongo Beti, novelist and political writer, was born.
    (HN, 6/30/01)

1932        Jul 1, New York Gov. Franklin D. Roosevelt was nominated for president at the Democratic convention in Chicago.
    (AP, 7/1/07)

1932        Jul 2, Sammy Turner, vocalist (Lavender Blue), was born in Paterson, NJ.
    (SC, 7/2/02)
1932        Jul 2, New York Gov. Franklin D. Roosevelt won the nomination for president on the 4th ballot at the Democratic convention in Chicago.
    (ON, 12/07, p.3)

1932        Jul 5, Antonio de Oliveira Salazar became premier and dictator of Portugal.
    (MC, 7/5/02)

1932        Jul 8, The Dow Jones Industrial Average closed at 41.22, with an intra-day low of 40.56, its lowest point during the Great Depression.
    (WSJ, 11/22/08, p.B1)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dow_Jones_Industrial_Average)

1932        Jul 9, The Dow Jones Industrial Average closed at 41.63, down 91% from its level exactly 3 years earlier. Trading volume for the day was 235,000 shares.
    (WSJ, 10/11/08, p.W1)
1932        Jul 9, John Paul Getty II, US-British oil magnate, billionaire (Getty Oil), was born.
    (MC, 7/9/02)

1932        Jul 18, The United States and Canada signed a treaty to develop the St. Lawrence Seaway.
    (AP, 7/18/97)
1932        Jul 18, The Matson luxury liner "Lurline" was christened in Quincy, Mass. by  Lurline M. Roth, daughter of company founder Capt. William Mattson.
    (Ind, 11/4/00,5A)

1932        Jul 22, Megan Terry, playwright (Calm Down Mother, Goona Goona), was born.
    (HN, 7/22/02)
1932            Jul 22, Florenz Ziegfeld (b.1869), US theatre producer (Ziegfeld Follies), died. In 2008 Ethan Mordden authored “Ziegfeld: The Man Who Invented Show Business."
        (http://www.ibdb.com/person.asp?ID=5539)(WSJ, 11/14/08, p.W10)

1932        Jul 23, Alberto Santos-Dumont (b.1873), aviation pioneer, hanged himself in Guaraja, Brazil after hearing a bomber discharge its load on fellow countrymen. In 2003 Paul Hoffman authored "Wings of Madness: Alberto Santos-Dumont and the Invention of Flight."
    (SSFC, 6/28/03, p.M1)

1932        Jul 25, Paul J. Weitz, astronaut (Skylab 2, STS 6), was born in Erie, Pennsylvania.
    (SC, 7/25/02)

1932        Jul 28, Under orders from Pres. Hoover shacks built in the shadow of the nation’s Capitol by World War I veteran demonstrators were burned. In 1924 Congress had enacted a law that provided compensation to veterans—those entitled to more than $50 would receive certificates maturing in 1945. However, because of the Depression, Congress proposed in 1932 that the certificates be redeemable immediately, as a bonus. Veterans groups began to gather in Washington, D.C., to march for their cause. When the bill was defeated, the veterans (nicknamed the Bonus Expeditionary Force (BEF), "Bonus Army") refused to leave. Hoover resorted to using U.S. troops to force them to evacuate. One veteran was killed and 50 veterans and police were injured in the melee. In May 1933, newly elected President Franklin Roosevelt also opposed the bill, but he issued an executive order allowing 25,000 veterans to enroll in the Citizens’ Conservation Corps in lieu of getting bonuses. In 1971 Roger Daniels authored “The Bonus March." In 1994 Donald J. Lisio authored “The President and Protest."
    (AP, 7/28/97)(HNPD, 7/28/98)(WSJ, 11/7/05, p.B1)   

1932        Jul 30, The Summer Olympic Games opened in Los Angeles. The US won 41 gold medals, Italy was 2nd with less than a third of that. Bill Miller of Stanford won a gold medal in the pole vault when he cleared 14'-1 ¾". Later in the year he set a world record at 14'-1 7/8". Babe Didriksen (21) of Texas won 2 track gold medals and a silver. Track events in this summer’s Olympics were timed with manual stopwatches.
    (SFC, 7/14/96, Par p.4)(AP, 7/30/97)(NG, 8/04, Geographica)(WSJ, 8/23/04, p.C3)

1932        Jul 31, The George Washington quarter went into circulation as a 200 year commemorative of G. Washington’s birth. It has been in use ever since.
    (WSJ, 7/12/96, p.B5B)(MC, 7/31/02)
1932        Jul 31, Adolf Hitler's Nationalist Socialist German Workers' Party (Nazis) doubled its strength in legislative elections. Nazi Party won 37.3% of the vote.
    (HN, 7/31/98)(www.germanculture.com.ua/july/july31.htm)   

1932        Jul, The Dow Jones Industrial fell to 41.89, a point above where the average began in 1896.
    (WSJ, 5/20/96, p. C-1)

1932        Aug 2, Peter O'Toole, actor (Lord Jim, Beckett, Lawrence  of Arabia), was born in Ireland.
    (HN, 8/2/00)(MC, 8/2/02)

1932        Aug 4, Luigi Beccali (1907-1990), Italian athlete, won Olympic gold in the 1500 meters. He gave a Fascist salute at the winners’ podium.
    (WSJ, 4/12/08, p.R2)(http://tinyurl.com/6al4up)

1932        Aug 7, American economist Fred Manville Taylor (b.1855), died in Los Angeles. He is best known for his contribution to the theory of market socialism.  His “Principles of Economics" (1911) went through 9 editions.
1932        Aug 7, Abebe Bikila (d.1973), barefoot runner from Ethiopia, winner of the 1960 Olympic marathon, was born.
    (HN, 8/7/98)(www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q7ZLB1-Ofyw)

1932        Aug 10, Rin Tin Tin (b.1918), US Hollywood-dog, died. In 2011 Susan Orlean authored “Rin Tin Tin: The Life and Legend." In 1922 Rin Tin Tin was spotted by the maker of a motion picture camera and his career began. He went on to create a total of 26 motion pictures for Warner Brothers and received over 10,000 fan letters per week.

1932        Aug 12, Porter Wagoner, country singer, discovered Dolly Parton (Y'All Come), was born.
    (SC, 8/12/02)
1932        Aug 12, The DJIA dropped 8.4%
    (SFC,10/17/97, p.B2)

1932        Aug 13, Adolf Hitler refused President Hindenburg’s offer to serve as Franz Von Papen's vice chancellor saying he was prepared to hold out "for all or nothing."
    (AP, 8/13/97)(HN, 8/13/98)

1932        Aug 14, Philips made its 1 millionth radio.
    (MC, 8/14/02)

1932        Aug 17, Chet Allen, actor (Jerry-Bonino, Slats-Troubleshooter), was born in Chickasha, Okla.
    (SC, 8/17/02)
1932        Aug 17, John (Red) Kerr, basketball coach, was born.
    (HN, 8/17/00)
1932        Aug 17, V.S, Naipaul (b.1932), English novelist (Middle Passage), was born in Chaguana, Trinidad. He won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 2001.
    (SFC, 10/12/01, p.C1)(SC, 8/17/02)

1932        Aug 18, Luc Montagnier, virologist, was born. He discovered the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
    (HN, 8/18/00)
1932        Aug 18, Auguste Piccard and Max Cosijns reached 16,201m in a balloon.
    (MC, 8/18/02)

1932        Aug 22, BBS began experimental regular TV broadcasts.
    (MC, 8/22/02)

1932        Aug 24, Amelia Earhart became the first woman to fly nonstop across the United States, traveling from Los Angeles to Newark, N.J., in just over 19 hours.
    (AP, 8/24/97)

1932        Aug 25, Anatoli Yakovlevich Kartashov, Russian cosmonaut, was born.
    (MC, 8/25/02)
1932        Aug 25,  Amelia Earhart completed a transcontinental flight.
    (chblue.com, 8/25/01)

1932        Aug 27, Antonia Fraser, biographer (Mary Queen of Scots), was born.
    (MC, 8/27/02)
1932        Aug 27-28, In England 200,000 textile workers went on strike.
    (MC, 8/27/01)

1932        Aug 30, Nazi leader Hermann Goering was elected president of the Reichstag.
    (HN, 8/30/98)

1932        Sep 1, New York City Mayor James "Gentleman Jimmy" Walker resigned following charges of graft and corruption in his administration.
    (AP, 9/1/97)

1932        Sep 3, In Soviet Russia Pavel Morozov (13) was allegedly killed by his relatives in Gerasimovka for having reporting his father to the state authorities. In 2005 Catriona Kelly authored “Comrade Pavlik: The Rise and Fall of a Soviet Boy Hero."
    (Econ, 6/4/05, p.80)(http://encycl.opentopia.com/term/Pavlik_Morozov)

1932        Sep 8, Patsy Cline (d.1963), country singer, was born in Winchester, Va. Her hits included "Crazy" and "I Fall to Pieces."
    (HN, 9/8/00)(MC, 9/8/01)

1932        Sep 9, The steamboat SS Observation exploded in NYC East River and 71 were killed.
    (MC, 9/9/01)

1932        Sep 10, The Independent City Owned Rapid Transit Railroad (IND) opened in NYC.
    (MC, 9/10/01)

1932        Sep 11, Valentino, fashion designer for Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis, was born in Milan, Italy.
    (MC, 9/11/01)

1932        Sep 12, The German Reichstag under the new chairmanship of Hermann Goring gave a vote of no confidence to Franz von Papen and his government. Just before that vote was taken, Papen had slapped an order on Göring's desk dissolving the Reichstag and calling yet again for new elections.

1932        Sep 13, Paul Gorguloff, the murderer of French Pres. Doumer, was beheaded.
    (MC, 9/13/01)

1932        Sep 19, Mike Royko, journalist (Chic Daily News) and author (Boss), was born in Chicago.
    (MC, 9/19/01)

1932        Sep 20, Gandhi began a hunger strike against the treatment of untouchables.
    (MC, 9/20/01)

1932        Sep 22, The government of the Kingdom of the Hejaz and Nejd officially changed its name to Saudi Arabia.

1932        Sep 23, In 2005 King Abdullah established this day as the official unification date of Saudi Arabia and made it an official holiday.
    (Econ, 10/2/10, p.49)

1932        Sep 25, Glenn Gould, concert pianist best known for his Bach interpretations, was born.
    (HN, 9/25/98)

1932        Sep 29, A five-day work week was established for General Motors workers.
    (HN, 9/29/98)

1932        Oct 1, Albert Collins, guitarist, was born.
     (HN, 10/1/00)
1932        Oct 1, Oswald Mosley formed the British Union of Fascists.
    (MC, 10/1/01)

1932        Oct 2, The NY Yankees won the World Series against the Chicago Cubs in 4 games.

1932        Oct 3, Iraq became independent after a hundred years of direct foreign rule. Created as a British mandate after World War I, Iraq received its full independence when it was admitted into the League of Nations.
    (NH, 9/96, p.14)(SFC, 2/24/98, p.A9)(HNQ, 6/20/99)(MC, 10/3/01)

1932        Oct 5, The DJIA dropped 7.2%
    (SFC,10/17/97, p.B2)

1932        Oct 10, Dnjepr Dam in USSR, the world's biggest, was put into operation.
    (MC, 10/10/01)

1932        Oct 11, The first American political telecast took place as the Democratic National Committee sponsored a program from a CBS television studio in NYC.
    (AP, 10/11/02)

1932        Oct 12, Dick Gregory, comedian, social  and political activist and dietician (Bahamian Diet), was born.
    (HN, 10/12/00)(MC, 10/12/01)

1932        Oct 15, In India J.R.D Tata began flying regular mail service. India’s first airline, Air India, was founded by the Tata family. In 1953 Air India was nationalized. In 2007 it merged with Indian Airlines.
    (www.airindia.com/SBCMS/Webpages/JRD.aspx?MID=196#)(Econ, 3/23/13, p.72)(Econ 7/8/17, p.59)

1932        Oct 16, Henry Jay Lewis, conductor and bass player (LA Philharmonic 1955-59), was born in LA, Calif.
    (MC, 10/16/01)

1932        Oct 19, Austria forbade demonstration by Nazis and antifascists.
    (MC, 10/19/01)

1932        Oct 20, Michael McClure, beat poet, was born.
    (HN, 10/20/00)

1932        Oct 22, George Kaufman's and Edna Ferber's "Dinner at 8," premiered in NYC.
    (MC, 10/22/01)

1932        Oct 23, "Fred Allen Show" premiered on radio.
    (MC, 10/23/01)

1932        Oct 25, Mussolini promised to remain dictator for 30 years.
    (MC, 10/25/01)

1932        Oct 27, Sylvia Plath (d.1963), poet and novelist (Colossus, 3 Women, Bell Jar), was born.
    (SFC, 1/19/98, p.A10)(HN, 10/27/00)

1932        Oct 29, The French liner Normandie was launched.
    (MC, 10/29/01)

1932        Oct 30, Louis Malle, director (Atlantic City, Black Moon, Viva Maria), was born in France.
    (MC, 10/30/01)

1932        Nov 1, Werner von Braun was named head of German liquid-fuel rocket program.
    (MC, 11/1/01)

1932        Nov 2, Melvin Schwartz, physicist, was born. He won the Nobel Prize for work on neutrinos.
    (HN, 11/2/00)

1932        Nov 5, Mussolini freed 16,000 criminals.
    (MC, 11/5/01)

1932        Nov 6, Don King, fight promoter, was born.
    (MC, 11/6/01)

1932        Nov 8, New York Gov. Franklin D. Roosevelt defeated incumbent Herbert Hoover for the presidency. Roosevelt became the 32nd president with about 87% of the Electoral College.
    (AP, 11/8/97)(HN, 11/6/98)(HNQ, 11/7/00)

1932        Nov 9, Nadya Aliluieva (30), wife of Joseph Stalin, died.
    (MC, 11/9/01)

1932        Nov 10, Roy Scheider (d.2008), boxer and actor (Jaws, French Connection, Marathon Man), was born.

1932        Nov 15, Charles Waddell Chesnutt (b.1858), author and political activist, died. He is best known for novels and short stories from Fayetteville, North Carolina. In 1978 Frances Richardson Keller (1915-2007) authored “An American Crusade: The Life of Charles Waddell Chesnutt."

1932        Nov 17, German government of von Papen resigned paving the way for a Nazi takeover.

1932        Nov 19, Shaft and Thyssen demanded that Hitler become German chancellor.
    (MC, 11/19/01)

1932        Nov 22, Robert Vaughn, actor (Napolean Solo- Man from UNCLE, Hamlet, Superman), was born in NYC.
    (MC, 11/22/01)
1932        Nov 22, A pump was patented that computed quantity and price delivered.
    (MC, 11/22/01)

1932        Nov 23, The kingdoms of Nejd and Hejaz merged to become the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia under King Abdul Aziz Ibn Saud. Abdul Aziz (d.1953) proclaimed the unified Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Saudi Arabia was named after King Ibn Saud, founder of the Saudi dynasty. Abdul Aziz al-Saud fathered 44 sons.
    (SFC, 9/1/96, Z1 p.2)(SFEC, 8/23/98, p.A15)(SFC, 5/26/00, p.D3)(WSJ, 11/13/01, p.A14)(AP, 11/23/02)

1932        Nov 27, Benigno Aquino Jr. (d.1983), Philippine opposition leader; was born.
    (MC, 11/27/01)

1932        Nov 28, Benjamin William Bova, US sci-fi author (Exiled from Earth), was born.
    (MC, 11/28/01)
1932        Nov 28, Groucho Marx performed on radio for the first time this day. Using his fast-paced, ingenious patter, he invented a new form of comedy that delighted audiences from coast to coast.
    (DTnet, 11/28/97)

1932        Nov 28, France & USSR signed not-attack treaty.
    (DTnet, 11/28/97)

1932        Nov 29, Cole Porter's musical "Gay Divorcee," premiered in NYC.
    (MC, 11/29/01)
1932        Nov 29, The Committee on Cost of Medical Care urged socialized medicine in the United States.
    (HN, 11/29/98)

1932        Nov, In San Francisco the Group f.64 announced themselves to a sceptical art world at the M.H. de Young Memorial Museum. The 11-member group of photographers included Imogen Cunningham, Preston Holder and Brett Weston.
    (SFC, 11/24/14, p.78)

1932        Dec 2, "Adventures of Charlie Chan" was 1st heard on NBC-Blue radio network.
    (MC, 12/2/01)
1932        Dec 2, In Germany Pres. Hindenburg appointed Gen. Schleicher as Chancellor.

1932        Dec 5, Richard Wayne Penniman [Little Richard], singer, was born.
    (HN, 12/5/00)
1932        Dec 5, German physicist Albert Einstein was granted a visa, making it possible for him to travel to the United States. In 2003 Thomas Levenson authored "Einstein in Berlin."
    (AP, 12/5/97)(SSFC, 4/20/03, p.M2)

1932        Dec 8, Gertrude Jekyll (b.1843), English gardener and writer, died.
    (WSJ, 3/1/08, p.W16)(http://www.cix.co.uk/~museumgh/jekyll.htm)
1932        Dec 8, Japan told the League of Nations that it had no control over her designs in China.
    (HN, 12/8/98)

1932        Dec 11, Snow fell in San Francisco and accumulated to 1 inch. Temperatures dropped to a record low of 27 degrees.
    (SFEM, 12/22/96, p.20)(SFC, 12/25/08, p.A14)

1932        Dec 19, The British Broadcasting Corp. began transmitting overseas with its "Empire Service" to Australia.
    (AP, 12/19/97)

1932        Dec 21, Fred Astaire and Ginger Rogers made their 1st movie together, "Flying Down to Rio."
    (MC, 12/21/01)
1932        Dec 21, Carl McGee, Oklahoma inventor, applied for a patent for his parking meter. He had came up with the 1st coin-operated, single-space, mechanical meter to be used to free up parking spaces in downtown Oklahoma City.
    (WSJ, 6/30/05, p.B1)(www.ok-history.mus.ok.us/enc/parking.htm)

1932        Dec 22, The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia was proclaimed.

1932        Dec 26, Some 70,000 were killed in a massive earthquake in Kansu, China.
    (HN, 12/26/98)(www.disaster-management.net/earthqu1.htm)

1932        Dec 27, Radio City Music Hall was opened in New York City. The new acoustics proved unpopular. In 2002 Emily Thompson authored "The Soundscape of Modernity," a look at the early era of modern acoustics.
    (HFA, '96, p.44)(AP, 12/27/97)(WSJ, 4/24/02, p.D9)

1932        Dec 30, The USSR barred food handouts for housewives under 36 years of age. They would now have to work to eat.
    (HN, 12/30/98)

1932        Dec, Marlin R.M. Kemmerer drew a revolver in the Capital House gallery. Rep. Melvin Maas, a republican from Minn., convinced the man to drop the gun.
    (SFC, 7/25/98, p.A6)

1932        Svetlana Beriosova (d.1998) was born in Kaunas, Lithuania. Her father, Nicholas Beriozoff, worked at the Lithuanian State Opera. He later danced for the Ballet Russe de Monte Carlo. Svetlana went on to become a leading ballerina with the Royal Ballet of England.
    (SFC, 11/14/98, p.A23)

1932        Toshio Asaeda made his watercolors of Galapagos fishes.
    (NH, 5/97, p.12)

1932        Alexander Calder (1898-1976) made his "Half-Circle, Quarter-Circle and Sphere."
    (SFC,11/15/97, p.C6)

1932        Isaac Friedlander made his wood engraving "The Accordion Player."
    (SFC, 2/5/97, p.E1)

1932        Alberto Giacometti made his bronze sculpture "Femme Egorgee," (Woman With Her Throat Cut).
    (SFEC, 9/14/97, BR p.10)(WSJ, 12/19/01, p.A16)

1932        Arshile Gorky created his "Nightmare, Enigma and Nostalgia" series.
    (SFEM, 6/29/97, p.4)
1932        Edward Hopper painted his "Room in New York."
    (SFEC, 5/11/97, BR p.1)
1932        Lois Mailou Jones, Harlem Renaissance artist, painted "The Ascent of Ethiopia."
    (SFEM, 2/1/98, p.18)
1932        Georgia O’Keeffe painted "Jimson Weed."
    (SFEC, 8/10/97, p.T5)
1932        Picasso (1881-1973) painted "The Mirror." In 1989 it sold for $26.4 mil. and in 1995 for $20 mil. He also painted "Bather With a Beach Ball" later at New York’s MOMA. His work "The Dream" sold for $48.4 mil in 1997. His painting "Nu au fauteuil noir" (nude on a black armchair), a nude portrait of Maria-Theresa Walter, was auctioned for $45.1 million in 1999. His work "Compotier et Guitare" sold for $8.9 million in 2000. A painting titled “La Lecture," depicting his young lover Maria-Theresa Walter (17), sold in 2011 for $40.7 million.
    (WSJ, 11/21/95, p.A-12)(SFC, 6/4/96, p.E5)(WSJ, 11/25/97, p.A20)(SFC, 11/6/99, p.B1)(WSJ, 11/10/99, p.A4)(WSJ, 5/12/00, p.W16)(SFC, 2/9/11, p.A2)
1932        Picasso’s created his painting “Nude, Green Leaves and Bust." In 2010 it sold for a record $106.5 million to an unidentified buyer at a Christie’s auction in NYC.
    (SFC, 5/5/10, p.A6)
1932        Mexican artist Diego Rivera arrived in Detroit, Michigan with his artist wife Frida Kahlo. He had been commissioned by William Valentiner, a German art historian and director of the Detroit Institute of Arts (DIA), to create murals at the DIA under a grant from Edsel Ford.
    (SFC, 5/1/15, p.77)
1932        David Alfaro Sigueiros, Mexican artist, arrived in Los Angeles to teach at the LA Art School and spent seven months there. He experimented with new industrial tools and created large outdoor murals. His 80x18 foot mural, “La America Tropical," on City Hall on Olvera Street, commissioned by Christine Sterling, was painted over following completion. Soon thereafter his request for a visa renewal was denied. In 2006 LA and the Getty Foundation began a $7.7 million project to restore the work.
    (SFC, 8/4/06, p.E7)(Econ, 9/25/10, p.103)

1932        J.R. Ackerly authored "Hindoo Holiday." It is about a small Indian kingdom seen through the eyes of a homosexual Englishman.
    (WSJ, 7/6/01, p.W11)

1932         Frederick A. Barber authored the anti-war book “The Horror of It: Camera Records of War’s Gruesome Glories."

1932        Columbia professor Adolf Berle and researcher Gardiner Means wrote "The Modern Corporation and Private Property," wherein they argued that with the rise of the public corporation, the owners had lost control and that managers had gained the upper hand over small shareholders. They called for more regulation to check abuses.
    (WSJ, 4/18/96, p.C-1)(WSJ, 6/26/02, p.A18)(WSJ, 3/22/04, p.A12)

1932        Louis-Ferdinand Celine (1894-1961), French physician and writer, authored “Journey to the End of Night."
    (www.kirjasto.sci.fi/lfceline.htm)(WSJ, 9/23/06, p.P8)

1932        Zelda Sayre Fitzgerald authored her novel “Save Me the Waltz."
    (SSFC, 6/20/04, p.M6)

1932        Aldous Huxley wrote "Brave New World." A 2-hour TV version was made in 1998.
    (WSJ, 4/13/98, p.A20)

1932        Joseph Roth (1894-1939), an Austrian-Jewish writer, authored “The Radetzky March," a novel of the decline of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. It was translated into English in 1995. Roth’s 1938 sequel was translated to English in 2013.
    (Econ, 2/2/13, p.74)

1932        John Steinbeck wrote his novel "The Red Pony." It was made into a 1948 film.
    (SFEC, 6/21/98, DB p.35)

1932        Philip Stong published his novel “State Fair." It was made into a non-musical film in 1933 and in 1945 became a musical film with songs by Richard Rogers and Oscar Hammerstein.
    (WSJ, 8/16/06, p.D12)

1932        Latin Prof. Berthold L. Ullman of the Univ. of Chicago authored "Ancient Writing and Its Influence."
    (WSJ, 11/16/99, p.A1)

1932        Carl Schmitt authored his classic "The Concept of the Political." [see 1927]
    (WSJ, 10/11/01, p.A20)(WSJ, 10/19/01, p.W19)

1932        Laura Ingalls Wilder wrote "Little House in the Big Woods," the first of a series. A biography "Laura Ingalls Wilder: Storyteller of the Prairie" was written in 1997 by Ginger Wadsworth.
    (SFEC, 3/30/97, BR. p.10)

1932        Eugene O’Neill’s play, "Strange Interlude," opened in Quincy, Mass. The crowds saved the restaurant across the street owned by Howard Johnson.
    (SFEC, 12/6/98, Z1p.10)

1932        The Disney short film “Flowers and Trees" was the first cartoon made in full-color Technicolor and was the first animated film to win an Oscar.
    (WSJ, 6/28/08, p.W6)

1932        The Milton Ager and Jack Yellen song “Happy Days Are Here Again" was used as the campaign song for the election of Franklin Delano Roosevelt.
    (SFC, 1/19/09, p.E1)

1932        Berthold Goldschmidt (1903-1996), composer and conductor, had his first opera "Der Gewaltige Hahnrei" (The Splendid Cuckold) performed in Mannheim. His later work included a "Clarinet Quartet" (1983), the choral work "Belsatzar" (1985) and his 3rd (1988) and 4th (1992) string quartets.
    (SFC, 10/19/96, A22)

1932        Edna Ferber and George S. Kaufman co-wrote the Broadway comedy "Dinner at Eight."
    (WSJ, 2/9/96, p.A-10)

1932        The Kurt Weill production of "Die Burgschaft" had its premier in Berlin. It depicted the decline of a society based on power and money.
    (WSJ, 6/7/99, p.A16)

1932        Bob Hope made his radio debut on the "Capitol Family Hour."
    (SFC, 10/24/96, p.D5)

1932        The national radio show "One Man’s Family" premiered. It was about a fictional San Francisco family.
    (SFEC, 3/30/97, BR. p.4)

1932        Fletcher Henderson scored a major hit with Jelly Roll Morton's "King Porter Stomp."
    (SFC, 5/24/03, p.D3)

1932        Darius Milhaud recorded "La Creation de monde" with 19 members of the Orchestre du Theatre du Champs-Elyssees, the band that premiered the work in 1923.
    (SFEM, 6/9/96, p.32)

1932        Arnold Schoenberg composed "Moses und Aron." The 3rd act was never completed.
    (WSJ, 2/18/99, p.A20)

1932        The Cowles Commission for Research in Economics was founded by the businessman and economist, Alfred Cowles. It was dedicated to the pursuit of linking economic theory to mathematics and statistics. The Cowles Commission initially found its home in Colorado Springs under the directorship of Charles F. Roos.

1932        Elmer Doolin of Texas gave a border cook $100 for a corn chip recipe that grew to become Fritos.
    (SFEC, 1/17/99, Z1 p.1)

1932        The Mars Bar chocolate candy was invented.
    (Econ, 5/30/15, p.66)

1932        Lefty O’Doul (d.1969), baseball star, was the National League batting champ with the Brooklyn Dodgers.
    (SFC, 3/5/96, p.C1)(SFC, 7/18/97, p.A9)

1932        John Galsworthy (1867-1933), English novelist and dramatist, won the Nobel Prize for Literature.
    (WUD, 1994, p.581)
1932        Werner C. Heisenberg (1901-1976), Germany physicist, won the Nobel Prize in physics.
    (SFC, 2/7/02, p.A2)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Werner_Heisenberg)
1932        Franklin D. Roosevelt was nominated at the Democratic Convention in Chicago and proposed the New Deal. He was elected.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1932)(WSJ, 8/26/96, p.A1)

1932        In the presidential campaign, President Herbert Hoover warned Americans that if the "New Deal" proposed by Democrat Franklin Roosevelt came to power, "the grass will grow in the streets of a hundred cities, a thousand towns; the weeds will overrun the fields of millions of farms…." Roosevelt won the election and quickly implemented his "New Deal" policies to bring America out of the Great Depression.
    (HNQ, 7/13/98)
1932        Pres. Hoover pushed through a ferocious tax increase to balance the budget and restore "confidence."
    (WSJ, 9/25/02, p.D8)
1932        The Great Sand Dunes in Colorado were declared a national monument by Pres. Herbert Hoover.
    (AP, 9/12/04)

1932        John Nance Garner, speaker of the House of Representatives, won the nomination on the Democratic presidential ticket. Vice President in the first two Franklin Roosevelt administrations, Garner later described the position of vice president of the U.S. as "not worth a bucket of warm spit."
    (HNQ, 7/22/99)

1932        The US government began its 40-year Tuskegee Syphilis Study on 623 black men in rural Macon County, Ala. It ended in 1972 after Health Service investigator Peter Buxton exposed the study's unethical procedures.
    (SSFC, 1/25/04, p.A27)

1932        Federal charges were brought against Samuel Insull, who had bribed lawmakers and the Illinois Power Commission to prevent local governments from generating their own power. His investors lost over $1 billion. Insull fled the country, was extradited, tried and acquitted of all charges.
    (SSFC, 7/14/02, p.G2)

1932        Los Angeles voters removed three Superior Court judges accused of taking kickbacks.
    (SFC, 5/28/18, p.A1)
1932        In San Francisco a series of homes were built on the 1500 block of 36th Avenue in the storybook style designed by architect Oliver Rousseau.
    (SSFC, 6/10/12, p.E2)
1932        In San Francisco the structure at 320-326 Judah was built and extended in 1940. It contained the sales office of Henry Doelger, who developed the Sunset district from sand dunes to subdivisions.
    (SSFC, 3/25/12, p.C2)
1932        In San Francisco the Roman Catholic church St. Anne of the Sunset was built at 850 Judah St. It was designed in a Romanesque style by architects Shea & Lofquist.
    (SSFC, 11/15/09, p.C3)
1932        In San Francisco the Convent of the Good Shepherd opened on University Mound in the Portola District. It later sold its educational complex to an evangelical school and in 1961 began offering shelter for homeless women in a small house that formerly served graduates of the girls school.
    (SFC, 6/12/13, p.E5)
1932        In San Francisco the Mission revival style Pier 38 was completed. The bulkhead building on the pier was built in 1936.
    (SFEC, 2/27/00, p.B3)(SSFC, 7/10/16, p.A12)
1932        In Oakland, Ca., the Morcom garden was built as a Works Progress Administration (WPA) project. The 8-acre park included a lily pond and a cascading waterfall.
    (SFC, 9/21/09, p.D2)
1932        The 18-hole Sharp Park Golf Course opened in Pacifica, Ca. SF park superintendent John McLaren had hired Alister MacKenzie to design the course on land donated by sugar magnate Adolph Spreckels.
    (SFC, 8/31/09, p.A1)

1932        The new Student Publications Building of the Univ. of Michigan, designed by UM alumni, opened.
    (LSA, Fall/06, p.63)

1932        The New York Supreme Court decreed: "Of all the expensive hobbies, the collection of wives is among the most expensive."
    (SFC, 7/14/96, Z1 p.2)

1932        Over [5,000] 5,700 banks failed in the US this year.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1932)(SFEC, 11/5/00, pen 2)

1932        The Communist Party asked Whittaker Chambers to serve as courier for the Soviet espionage networks in the US. Chambers had entered Columbia Univ. in 1920 with classmate Lionel Trilling and studied under Mark Van Doren. His biography, "Whittaker Chambers," by Sam Tanenhaus was published in 1997.
    (WSJ, 2/20/97, p.A18)

1932        The Dust Bowl hit the US and 12 million people were out of work, 24% of the labor force. 30 million were unemployed in all the major industrial countries.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1932)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R25)

1932        GE Capital was founded as General electric contracts corp. to provide financing to support the groups industrial businesses.
    (Econ, 3/21/09, p.73)

1932        Sears opened its first downtown Chicago store on State St. Some 15,000 customers visited on opening day.
    (SFC, 1/23/14, p.C3)

1932        The first automatic chokes were featured in automobiles.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)
1932        Ford introduced the first low-cost V-8 engine. Industry experts in 1996 picked the 1932 Ford V-8 as the number 10 favorite car.
    (F, 10/7/96, p.68)(WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)

1932        RCA severed its ties to GE and Westinghouse.
    (WSJ, 11/4/99, p.B6)

1932        Night flying was introduced in the US and transcontinental travel was cut to 24 hours.
    (Ind, 11/16/02, 5A)

1932        George Blaisdell founded the Zippo Manufacturing Co. The bottom of every Zippo lighter was marked with slashes, dots or other symbols to identify its year of production.
    (WSJ, 8/4/95, p.B-1)

1932        Charles Revson (1906-1975), his brother Joseph, and chemist Charles Lachman, founded Revlon in NYC to manufacture and market nail polish.
    (SFC, 8/10/05, p.G4)(www.revsonfoundation.org/about_chr.htm)

1932        Kenton Hardware Manufacturing Co., founded in Ohio in 1890 as a lock maker, began making toy concrete mixers under the Jaeger brand name. The company closed in 1952.
    (SFC, 5/28/08, p.G2)

1932        The Scotch tape dispenser was invented.
    (SFC, 7/14/99, p.7)

1932        George Wald (d.1997 at 90), helped discover Vitamin A in the retina and retinol as a component of the visual cycle as a National Research Council fellow in Germany. In 1967 he won a Nobel Prize for his work on the biochemistry of vision.
    (SFC, 4/14/97, p.A19)

1932        Dr. Louis K. Diamond (d.1999 at 97) and Dr. Kenneth Blackfan discovered that 4 infant diseases were manifestations of erythroblastosis fetalis, called Rh disease. In 1946 Dr. Diamond and Dr. Fred Allen began performing transfusions through newborn's umbilical vein.
    (SFC, 6/26/99, p.A23)

1932        Carl Anderson confirmed Paul Dirac’s prediction of antimatter with his discovery of a positron or positive electron or antielectron.
    (NG, May 1985, J. Boslough, p. 654)(NH, 5/96, p.72)

1932        John Cockcroft and Ernest Walton invented the particle accelerator. It extracted protons or electrons from atoms of hydrogen gas.
    (NG, May 1985, J. Boslough, p. 650)

1932        James Chadwick discovered the neutron. This neutron has almost the mass as a proton but no electrical charge.
    (NG, May 1985, J. Boslough, p. 642)(BHT, Hawking, p.64)

1932        John von Neumann adduced a mathematical proof that no "realistic" theory could match the predictions of quantum physics.
    (WSJ, 1/23/97, p.A12)

1932        Alfonso Caso, dean of Mexican anthropologists, published the results of his discoveries at Mt. Alban in Oaxaca. "It is our problem to learn why the Mixtecs buried their nobles in this ancient Zapotecan tomb."
    (RFH-MDHP, p.255,273)

1932        Richard Pough took photos of piles of dead and dying hawks, shot as a pastime from Hawk Mountain in Kempton, Pennsylvania, during their migration. The photos inspired the transformation of the site to a sanctuary by 1934.
    (NH, 10/96, p.48)

1932        San Diego was the suicide capital of the country.
    (SFEC, 5/2/99, Z1 p.1)

1932        Hart Crane (b.1899), American poet, committed suicide by jumping off a ship in the Atlantic Ocean.
    (WSJ, 8/19/97, p.A17)

1932        In Australia Sidney’s Harbor Bridge between north and south Sydney was completed after 10 years. It was supposed to be the world's longest single-span bridge on completion, but New York’s Bayonne Bridge beat it by 25 inches.
    (SFEC, 1/4/98, p.T1)(USAT, 9/17/99, p.1D)(SFEC, 9/10/00, p.T12)
1932        Phar Lap, an Australian race horse, took ill and died after being taken to the United States. The giant New Zealand-born chestnut became an icon in Australia during the Great Depression, winning 37 of his 51 races, including one Melbourne Cup in 1930 and two Cox Plates in 1930 and 1931. In 2008 tests proved that Phar Lap was poisoned by arsenic.
    (AFP, 6/19/08)

1932        The Boerentoren (Farmer’s Tower) in Antwerp, Belgium was completed. It was referred to as Torengebouw, or the Tower Building, and was Europe’s first skyscraper at 27 stories.
    (Hem., 7/95, p.30)

1932        Brazilian women won the right to vote.
    (SFC, 9/25/96, p.A1)
1932        Brazil enacted a no-arrest provision that prohibited voters from being arrested five days before elections unless they are caught red-handed. It was included in the Brazilian electoral code after a period in which election fraud and arrests to intimidate voters were common.
    (AP, 10/27/10)

1932        A British team at Cambridge Univ. split the atom. Mark Oliphant (d.2000 at 98) was a member of the team at Cavendish Laboratory.
    (SFC, 7/18/00, p.A22)

1932        Chile and Peru signed an extradition treaty.
    (Econ, 11/12/05, p.40)

1932        Denmark’s LEGO Group was founded by Ole Kirk Kristiansen, a carpenter. The name came from the Danish words leg godt (play well). Christiansen and his grandson perfected toy bricks made of wood and later shifted to plastic. Lego produced its first interlocking bricks in 1949.
    (www.lego.com/en-us/aboutus/lego-group)(Econ, 4/28/12, p.76)(Econ, 3/8/14, p.71)(Econ, 1/16/16, p.46)

1932        In El Salvador acting president Maximiliano Hernandez Martinez crushed a peasant rebellion, leaving more than 30,000 people dead.
    (AFP, 2/1/19)

1932        In France the Basler Handelbank affair broke out. The president and vice-president of the commercial bank in Basle were arrested in Paris by the French police. In their trunks, the investigators found the list of 2,000 French clients who had confidentially deposited their holdings in Switzerland. They represented all of French high society: a few senators, a former minister, bishops, generals and manufacturers.
    (Econ, 3/7/09, p.62)(http://swiss-bank-accounts.com/e/banking/secrecy/handelsbank.html)
1932        Paul Ricard (1909-1997) mixed liquorice, aniseed and star aniseed to make the aperitif that he called Ricard pastis. His brand became a market leader and he became one of the country’s richest and most influential men. The Ricard firm later became Pernod Ricard.
    (SFC,11/8/97, p.A22)(Econ, 4/5/08, p.68)

1932        Hans Fallada (1893-1947), German writer, authored “Little Man, What Now?" The book was an immediate success in Germany, where today it is considered to be a modern classic, given its intense descriptions of the last days of the Weimar Republic.
    (http://tinyurl.com/nksb5cj)(Econ, 1/3/15, p.70)
1932        In Germany there was a transport workers’ strike in Berlin in which the Communists collaborated with the Nazis against the democratic Weimar Republic.
    (WSJ, 6/02/97, p.A20)

1932        In Greece Aristotle Onassis bought his first 6 freight ships. He became a shipping magnate worth $500 million when he died in 1975.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)

1932        Fianna Fail, led by Irish premier Eamon de Valera, won a majority in the Dail Eireann, the Irish legislative assembly.
    (ON, 9/04, p.7)

1932        In Japan the Iwasaki Co., a maker of replica food, was founded.
    (Econ 6/10/17, p.66)

1932        Kuwait’s Municipal Council was established.

1932        Edmund Safra (d.1999) was born to a banking family in Beirut. The Safras left for Brazil in 1948.
    (SFC, 12/4/99, p.A15)
1932        Lebanon counted the number of adherents to various religions in order to share out power under a system known as confessionalism. Christians made up 50% of the population. As of 2008 this was Lebanon’s last census. By 2016 Maronite Catholics numbered 21% of voters.
    (Econ, 12/22/07, p.99)(Econ, 11/5/16, p.39)

1932        In Mali French colonial authorities planned a 2.47 million acre irrigation project to grow cotton and rice and to develop hydropower in the Mali desert. By 1982 only 6% of the region was developed. The World Bank took over in 1985 with some success in farming rice.
    (SFC, 12/21/07, p.A31)

1932        The Los Flamingos Hotel was built in Acapulco, Mexico. John Wayne and a number of Hollywood pals bought it in 1954 and closed it to the public.
    (SSFC, 11/2/03, p.C6)

1932        Mexico abolished the death penalty.
    (SFC, 1/16/02, p.A3)

1932        Netherlands passed a blasphemy law that mandated a maximum sentence of three months in prison for a convicted "scornful blasphemer."
    (AP, 5/24/11)

1932        In Rhodesia (later Zimbabwe) the Gospel of God church was founded by Johane Masowe (1914-1973, a Shona prophet who believed he was a reincarnation of John the Baptist and traveled the continent spreading the word.
    (www.dacb.org/stories/zimbabwe/johane_masowe.html)(Reuters, 5/29/15)

1932        In Russia the Gorky Automobile Works (GAZ) was founded in Nizhny Novgorod.
    (USAT, 10/9/98, p.12A)

1932        In Spain the town of Bunol banned bullfighting. An annual Tomatina festival later took its place where participants pelt each other with tomatoes. [see 1944-45]
    (SFC, 8/29/96, p.A12)

1932-1933    Stalin imposed terror and famine on the Ukraine, Kuban and Kazakhstan that was carried out be Lazar Kaganovich. Millions died in the famine. Stalin provoked what the Ukrainians called the Great Famine as part of his campaign to force Ukrainian peasants to give up their land and join collective farms. During the height of the famine, which was enforced by methodical confiscation of all food by the Soviet secret police, cannibalism was widespread. In 2017 Anne Applebaum authored "Red Famine: Stalin's War on Ukraine".
    (WSJ, 2/14/96, p.A-15)(SFC, 4/3/97, p.C2)(AP, 11/26/05)(Econ, 9/30/17, p.76)

1932-1934    Pablo Picasso painted the Head of Marie-Theresa "suavely abstracted into a bowl of fruit."
    (SFC, 6/4/96, p.E5)

1932-1935    The Chaco War was fought between Paraguay and Bolivia. The war was waged over disputed territory in the Chaco Boreal, a plain shared by both South American countries. Although outnumbered and poorly equipped, the Paraguayan army won every major engagement with the Bolivians. Some 90,000 people were killed in the war. A commission of neutral nations awarded most of the disputed territory to Paraguay in 1938.
    (HNQ, 7/18/98)(SFC, 8/17/06, p.A10)

c1932-1936    The approximate number of "Okies" who fled to California during the Dust Bowl was 300,000-400,000. Already battered by the Great Depression, small farmers in eastern Colorado, western Texas and Kansas, and Oklahoma were devastated by a dry-weather cycle that created swirling dust storms in the mid-1930s. Those who fled the farms for work in California were dubbed "Okies," a term popularized by John Steinbeck’s 1939 novel The Grapes of Wrath. The Okies sought a stable life in California on farms of their own but were largely forced to become migrant workers in California’s great agricultural valleys and live in ramshackle shantytowns.
    (HNQ, 9/29/98)

1932-1947    Louis Armstong recorded for RCA Victor and the records "The Complete RCA Victor Recordings" resulted.
    (SFC, 7/4/97, p.D9)

1932-1968    The Chisso Corporation, located in Kumamoto Japan, dumped an estimated 27 tons of mercury compounds into Minamata Bay. The name Minamata Disease was coined in 1956 to identify villagers suffering dizzy spells with troubles walking and speaking. Growing numbers fell into convulsions, wasted away and died.

1932-1990    Ralph Humphrey, New York abstract painter. His work included Thin Edge (1981-82).

1932-1995    Louis Malle, French film-maker, he directed such films as: Atlantic City, My Dinner with Andre and Au Revoir, Les Enfants. He died of lymphoma on 11/23/95.
    (WSJ, 11/27/95, p.A-1)

1932-2010    The US state of Louisiana lost more than 1,800 square miles of land to the sea during this period.
    (Econ, 1/26/17, p.23)

World War timeline 1933: http://history.acusd.edu/gen/WW2Timeline/start.html

1933         Jan 3, The Japanese took Shuangyashan, China, killing 500 in the process.
    (HN, 1/3/99)

1933        Jan 5, The 30th president (1923-1929) of the United States, Calvin Coolidge, died in Northampton, Mass., at age 60. In 1998 Robert Sobel published his biography: "Coolidge: An American Enigma." Robert Ferrell published "The Presidency of Calvin Coolidge." In 2006 David Greenberg authored “Calvin Coolidge."
    (AP, 1/5/98)(WSJ, 6/16/98, p.A17)(WSJ, 8/7/98, p.W13)(WSJ, 12/12/06, p.D8)
1933        Jan 5, In San Francisco federal judge Harold Lauderback ordered the auction of 2,245 gallons of moonshine that had been seized in raids.
    (SSFC, 1/4/09, DB p.50)
1933        Jan 5, Work on the Golden Gate Bridge began on the Marin County side of SF Bay.
    (SSFC, 5/20/12, p.E10)

1933        Jan 8, Charles Osgood, news anchor (CBS Weekend News), was born in NYC.
    (MC, 1/8/02)

1933        Jan 10, Eugene Talmadge (1884-1946), began serving his first term as governor of Georgia. Talmadge served two terms as the 67th Governor of Georgia from 1933 to 1937, and a third term from 1941 to 1943.

1933        Jan 12, US Congress recognized the independence of the Philippines.
    (MC, 1/12/02)
1933        Jan 12, An uprising of Guardia Civil in Spain left 25 dead.
    (MC, 1/12/02)

1933        Jan 16, Oleg Grigoryevich Makarov (d.2003 at 70), USSR cosmonaut (Soyuz 12, 18A, 27, T-3), was born.
    (MC, 1/16/02)(SFC, 5/31/03, p.A21)

1933        Jan 18, Ray Dolby, sound expert, inventor (Dolby noise limiting system), was born.
    (MC, 1/18/02)
1933        Jan 18, The White Sands National Monument in NM was established.
    (MC, 1/18/02)

1933        Jan 21, Itzhak Fuks, Israeli El Al captain, was born. He was captain of the Jumbo Jet that crashed in Amsterdam on Oct 4, 1992.
    (MC, 1/21/02)
1933        Jan 21, The League of Nations rejected Japanese terms for settlement with China.
    (HN, 1/21/99)

1933        Jan 25, Corazon Aquino was born as Corazon Cojuangco. She defeated the corrupt Ferdinand Marcos to become the President of the Philippines (1986-1992). Her husband had been killed by Marcos’ gunmen.
    (HN, 1/25/99)(www.answers.com/topic/coraz-n-aquino)

1933        Jan 27, Mohamed Al Fayed, CEO of Harrods, was born.
    (MC, 1/27/02)

1933        Jan 28, Susan Sontag, American essayist and novelist, was born. Her works included "The Style of Radical Will" and "Illness as a Metaphor."
    (HN, 1/28/99)

1933        Jan 30, German President Paul von Hindenburg made Adolf Hitler chancellor. After World War I, Germany fell into disarray and looked for a leader to strengthen it again. Hitler had emerged after joining the Nazi Party in 1919 and taking it over in 1921. In 1932 Hitler ran against von Hindenburg and lost--but not by a wide margin. The Nazis won 230 seats in the German parliament and continued to gain influence, stifling democracy and communism by force and by making laws against them. After Hindenburg's death in 1934, Hitler proclaimed himself Der Führer of the Third Reich and continued as Germany's leader through World War II. Gen. Kurt von Hammerstein-Equord tried to block the appointment of Hitler as chancellor but was overruled by Pres. Hindenburg.
    (AP, 1/30/98)(HN, 1/30/99)(HNPD, 1/31/99)(SFC, 2/5/00, p.A19)
1933        Jan 30, The first episode of the "Lone Ranger" radio program was broadcast on station WXYZ in Detroit. The show was created by George Washington Trendle and Fran Striker. The show ran for 21 years on ABC radio.
    (AP, 1/30/98)(SFC, 12/29/99, p.A11)(MC, 1/30/02)

1933        Feb 1, German Parliament was dissolved and Gen Ludendorf predicted catastrophe.
    (MC, 2/1/02)

1933        Feb 2, Adolf Hitler dissolved Parliament 2 days after becoming chancellor.
    (MC, 2/2/02)
1933        Feb 2, Reichstag President Herman Goring banned communist meetings and demonstrations in Germany.
    (MC, 2/2/02)
1933        Feb 2, Than Shwe, later military ruler of Myanmar (1992), was born.
    (WSJ, 5/15/08, p.A9)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Than_Shwe)

1933        Feb 4, German Pres. Von Hindenburg limited freedom of the press.
    (MC, 2/4/02)

1933        Feb 6, Walter E. Fountroy, U.S. Delegate to the House of Representatives and civil rights leader, was born.
    (HN, 2/6/99)
1933        Feb 6, The 20th Amendment to the Constitution was declared in effect. The Lame-Duck Amendment changed the inauguration date of congressmen from March 4 to January 3. Moving back the inauguration date for newly-elected congressmen reduced the time that defeated members, or "lame ducks," remain in office. January 20 was the date set for the president and vice-president. Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt became the 1st to be inaugurated on Jan 20 in 1937.
    (AP, 2/6/97)(SSFC, 1/20/13, Par p.4)
1933        Feb 6, Adolf Hitler's Third Reich began to press censorship.
    (HN, 2/6/99)
1933        Feb 6, Highest recorded sea wave, but not a tsunami, was 34 m. in a Pacific hurricane.
    (MC, 2/6/02)

1933        Feb 7, At a Social-Democrat meeting in Berlin thousands cheered as Marxism was pronounced dead.
    (MC, 2/7/02)

1933        Feb 8, Elly Ameling, soprano (Ilya-Idomeneo), was born in Rotterdam, Holland.
    (MC, 2/8/02)
1933        Feb 8, The 1st flight of all-metal Boeing 247.
    (MC, 2/8/02)

1933        Feb 9, The Oxford Union, Oxford University's debating society, endorsed, 275-153, a motion stating "that this House will in no circumstances fight for its King and Country," a pacifist stand widely denounced by Britons. [see Feb 9, 1983]
    (AP, 2/9/00)

1933        Feb 10, The first singing telegram was introduced by the Postal Telegram Company in New York.
    (AP, 2/10/97)

1933        Feb 11, Pres. Hoover declared Death Valley a national monument.
    (SFEC, 1/3/99, p.T5)

1933        Feb 13, Kim Novak, actress, was born.
    (HN, 2/13/01)

1933        Feb 15, President-elect Roosevelt escaped an assassination attempt in Miami. Giuseppa Zangara, an unemployed New Jersey bricklayer from Italy, fired five pistol shots at the back of President-elect Franklin Roosevelt's head from only twenty-five feet away. While all five rounds missed their target, each bullet found a separate victim. One of these was Mayor Anton Cermak of Chicago. Gunman Giuseppe Zangara was executed more than four weeks later, on March 20. [see Mar 6, 20]
    (WSJ, 5/24/00, p.A24)(AP, 2/15/07)

1933        Feb 17, Newsweek magazine was first published by Thomas J.C. Martyn under the title "News-Week." Newsweek was founded as a newsweekly to rival Henry Luce’s Time. In 1961, it was bought by The Washington Post Co. At its peak 30 years later, it had a circulation of more than 3.3 million. As late as 2007, it had 10 international bureaus. In 2010, The Washington Post Co. offloaded it — for $1 — to billionaire investor Sidney Harman, who also assumed $40 million in liabilities. He merged it with The Daily Beast, the IAC web publication. Newsweek was later sold to IBT Media for an undisclosed price.
    (NY Times, 2/15/20)(AP, 2/17/07)
1933        Feb 17, Blondie Boopadoop married Dagwood Bumstead in the comic Blondie.
    (MC, 2/17/02)
1933        Feb 17, US Senate accepted the Blaine Act ending prohibition.
    (MC, 2/17/02)
1933        Feb 17, The League of Nations censured Japan in a worldwide broadcast. The rise of militaristic nationalism led Japan down the road to Pearl Harbor and World War II.
    (HN, 2/17/98)

1933        Feb 18, James Corbett (b.1866), American heavyweight boxing champ, died. He is best known as the man who defeated the great John L. Sullivan in 1892. Corbett’s 1926 memoir was titled “The roar of the Crowd: the True Tale of the Rise and Fall of a Champion."
    (AH, 2/06, p.35)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_J._Corbett)

1933        Feb 19, Herman Goring, Nazi Prussian minister, banned all Catholic newspapers.
    (MC, 2/19/02)

1933        Feb 20, The House of Representatives completed congressional action on an amendment to repeal Prohibition. [see Apr 7]
    (AP, 2/20/98)

1933        Feb 22, Nazi Herman Goring formed SA/SS-police.
    (MC, 2/22/02)

1933        Feb 24, Final demonstration of German communist party in Berlin took place.
    (MC, 2/24/02)
1933        Feb 24, The League of Nations told the Japanese to pull out of Manchuria.

1933        Feb 25, The 1st genuine aircraft carrier was christened: USS Ranger.
    (MC, 2/25/02)

1933        Feb 26, Sir James Goldsmith (d.7/18/97), later financier and corporate raider (Referendum Party), was born in Paris to a Catholic French mother and a German Jewish father who later moved to Britain and served as a Conservative member of parliament.
    (SFEC, 7/20/97, p.B6)(SC, 2/26/02)
1933        Feb 26, Ground was broken for the Golden Gate Bridge in San Francisco. Russell Cone was hired to oversee the construction of the Golden Gate Bridge. He had already worked on the Philadelphia-Camden (Ben Franklin) Bridge, the Detroit-Windsor Ambassador Bridge and the Tacony-Palmyra Bridge.
    (HN, 2/26/98)(SFC,12/20/97, p.A21)

1933        Feb 27, Jean Genet's "Intermezzo," premiered in Paris.
    (MC, 2/27/02)
1933        Feb 27, Germany's parliament building, the Reichstag, caught fire. The Nazis blamed the Communists and used the fire as a pretext for suspending civil liberties and increasing their power. Georgi Dimitrov, a Bulgarian Communist, was one of the accused plotters, but was acquitted. After WW II Dimitrov became the 1st premier of communist Bulgaria. In 2003 Ivo Banac edited "The Diary of Georgi Dimitrov."
    (AP, 2/27/98)(HN, 2/27/99)(WSJ, 6/6/03, p.W9)

1933        Feb 28, Francis Perkins was appointed Secretary of Labor, the 1st female in cabinet.
    (MC, 2/28/02)
1933        Feb 28, German Pres. Von Hindenburg abolished the free expression of opinion.
    (MC, 2/28/02)
1933        Feb 28, Hitler disallowed the German communist party (KPD).
    (MC, 2/28/02)
1933        Feb 28, In Germany Carl von Ossietzky, an anti-fascist writer, was arrested after the Reichstag fire and held in so-called protective custody in Spandau prison.

1933        Feb, The US Congress passed the 21st amendment to repeal the 18th amendment, which outlawed alcohol.
    (SFC, 4/7/96, p.B-11)

1933        Mar 1, Bank holidays were declared in 6 states to prevent run on banks.
    (SC, 3/1/02)

1933         Mar 2, Hollywood premiered "King Kong" in New York featuring Fay Wray. The film, directed by Meriam C. Cooper, used stop-motion photography and an 18-inch model for Kong. The film saved RKO Studios from bankruptcy. It was re-released in 1938 with a scene excised of Kong ripping at Fay Wray’s dress and then sniffing his finger. It was rated #43 by the Amer. Film Inst. in 1998. In 2001 it was rated the #12 most thrilling film.
    (SFC, 4/13/96, p.E5)(SFC,11/15/97, p.C6)(AP, 3/2/98)(WSJ, 3/19/98, p.R4)
1933        Mar 2, Most powerful earthquake in 180 years hit Japan.
    (SC, 3/2/02)

1933        Mar 3, The Buy American Act, passed by Congress, was signed by Pres. Hoover on his last full day in office.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buy_American_Act)(Econ., 1/30/21, p.10)
1933        Mar 3, Mount Rushmore was dedicated.
    (SC, 3/3/02)
1933        Mar 3, NYC premiere of "King Kong."
    (SC, 3/3/02)
1933        Mar 3, German Presidential candidate Earnest Thälmann (KPD) was arrested.
    (SC, 3/3/02)

1933        Mar 4, Henderson, DeSylva and Brown's "Strike Me Pink" premiered in NYC.
    (SC, 3/4/02)
1933        Mar 4, Franklin D. Roosevelt was inaugurated to his first term as president in Washington, D.C. He pledged to lead the country out of the Great Depression: "We have nothing to fear but fear itself." The start of President Roosevelt's first administration brought with it the first woman to serve in the Cabinet: Labor Secretary Frances Perkins. He chose Homer Cummings as his attorney general. Cummings served 5 years and 10 months. Herbert Hoover was denied the courtesy of Secret Service protection traditionally accorded an outgoing president.
    (AP, 3/4/98)(HN, 3/4/98)(SFC, 1/11/99, p.A5)(HNQ, 1/16/01)(SC, 3/4/02)
1933        Mar 4, The US Federal Reserve refused to lend and shut its doors. NYC bankers had turned to the Federal Reserve for funds as failing inland state banks called in inter-bank deposits.
    (Econ, 4/12/14, p.54)

1933        Mar 5, Franklin D. Roosevelt ordered a four-day bank holiday in order to stop large amounts of money from being withdrawn from the banks.
    (HN, 3/5/98)
1933        Mar 5, In German parliamentary elections, the Nazi Party won 44 percent of the vote, enabling it to join with Nationalists to gain a slender majority in the Reichstag.
    (AP, 3/5/98)(HN, 3/5/98)

1933        Mar 6, A nationwide bank holiday declared by President Roosevelt went into effect. Overseas deposits shrank by just 2% as a result of the closure.
    (AP, 3/6/98)(Econ, 5/15/10, SR p.13)
1933        Mar 6, Anton J. Cermak (b.1873), Czech-born 35th mayor of Chicago, died in Miami following the Feb 15th assassination attempt by Giuseppe Zangara, who was trying to shoot FDR. Zangara was executed in the electric chair on March 21, 1933. Cermak became the 2nd US mayor to die in a political killing.
    (SFC, 11/28/03, p.E2)(www.cermak.com/mayor/index3.html)
1933        Mar 6, Poland occupied free city Danzig (Gdansk).
    (MC, 3/6/02)

1933        Mar 7, George Darrow added some copyrighted art work to the board game Monopoly and began selling it commercially in Philadelphia. He sold it to Parker Brothers in 1934. The game had originally been patented in 1904 as the Landlord’s Game by Elizabeth J. Magie. In Oct 1929 Ruth Hoskins brought a version to Atlantic City, refined the rules and street names. It was later introduced to George Darrow.  
    (HN, 3/7/98)(WSJ, 2/3/05, p.W12)(http://richard_wilding.tripod.com/history.htm)
1933        Mar 7, Chancellor Engelbert Dollfuss (1892-1934) dissolved the Austrian parliament. From this point onwards, he governed as dictator by emergency decree with absolute power.

1933        Mar 9, The Emergency Banking Relief Act of 1933 was signed into law by President Franklin D. Roosevelt. The Act's primary function was to prohibit the hoarding of gold coins, and did so by authorizing the United States Treasury to request all people and companies of the US to send in their gold reserves.
1933        Mar 9, Congress, called into special session by President Roosevelt, began its 100 days of enacting New Deal legislation.
    (AP, 3/9/98)

1933        Mar 10, Nevada became the first U.S. state to regulate narcotics.
    (HN, 3/10/98)(MC, 3/10/02)
1933        Mar 10, In Long Beach a 6.3-6.4 earthquake killed 115 people.
    (SFEC, 10/17/99, p.A3)(WSJ, 6/21/00, p.A1)

1933        Mar 12, President Roosevelt delivered the first of his radio "fireside chats," telling Americans what was being done to deal with the nation’s economic crisis.
    (AP, 3/12/98)
1933        Mar 12, Hindenburg dropped the flag of the German Republic and ordered that the swastika and empire banner be flown side by side.
    (HN, 3/12/98)

1933        Mar 13, US Banks began to re-open after a holiday declared by President Roosevelt.
    (AP, 3/13/97)
1933        Mar 13, In Germany Wagner’s opera "Die Meistersinger" was used to celebrate the first Nazi-dominated Reichstag and became the Third Reich’s national festival opera.
    (WSJ, 8/2/96, p.A10)
1933        Mar 13, Josef Goebbels became Nazi minister of Information and Propaganda.
    (MC, 3/13/02)

1933        Mar 14, Michael Caine, [Maurice J. Micklewhite Jr.], actor (Alfie), was born in London.
    (MC, 3/14/02)(SSFC, 2/9/03, Par p.4)
1933        Mar 14, Winston Churchill wanted to boost air defense.
    (MC, 3/14/02)

1933        Mar 15, Ruth Bader Ginsberg, U.S. Supreme Court Justice, was born.
    (HN, 3/16/01)
1933        Mar 15, The NAACP began a coordinated attack on segregation and discrimination.
    (MC, 3/15/02)

1933        Mar 16, Hitler named Hjalmar Horace Greeley Shacht president of Bank of Germany.
    (MC, 3/16/02)

1933        Mar 18, Unita Blackwell, 1st black mayor in Mississippi, was born.
    (MC, 3/18/02)

1933        Mar 19, Phillip Roth, American novelist and short-story writer (Portnoy's Complaint), was born.
    (HN, 3/19/01)
1933        Mar 19, Italy's dictator Benito Mussolini proposed a pact with Britain, France and Germany.
    (AP, 3/19/03)

1933        Mar 20, Giuseppe [Joe] Zangara was electrocuted for an assassination attempt on FDR. [see Feb 15, Mar 8]
    (MC, 3/20/02)

1933        Mar 21, Hitler, Goering, Prince Ruprecht, Bruning and other top army commanders met in Berlin.
    (MC, 3/21/02)

1933        Mar 22, During Prohibition, President Roosevelt signed a measure to make wine & beer containing up to 3.2 percent alcohol legal. [see Feb 20, Apr 7, Dec 5]
    (AP, 3/22/97)(HN, 3/22/97)

1933        Mar 23, Kroll Opera in Berlin opened.
    (SS, 3/23/02)
1933        Mar 23, The German Reichstag adopted the Enabling Act, which effectively granted Adolf Hitler dictatorial legislative powers, i.e. the power to rule by decree.
    (AP, 3/23/97)(WSJ, 11/26/96, p.A16)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enabling_act)

1933        Mar 26, Vine Deloria, Jr., writer, activist, was born.
    (HN, 3/26/01)

1933        Mar 27, Some 55,000 people staged a protest against Hitler in New York.
    (HN, 3/27/98)
1933        Mar 27, Polythene was discovered by Reginald Gibson and Eric William Fawcett.
    (MC, 3/27/02)
1933        Mar 27, Japan left the League of Nations.

1933        Mar 28, Nazis ordered a ban on all Jews in businesses, professions and schools.
    (HN, 3/28/98)
1933        Mar 28, German Reichstag conferred dictatorial powers on Hitler.
    (MC, 3/28/02)

1933        Mar 29, The front page of the New York Evening Post said "Famine Grips Russia — Millions Dying." The report was by Welsh journalist Gareth Jones who had recently sneaked into Ukraine, at the height of a famine engineered by Soviet dictator Josef Stalin. Jones was killed by bandits in 1935 while covering Japan's expansion into China. In 2009 the diaries of Jones were put on display for the first time in London.
    (AP, 11/13/09)

1933        Mar 31, Shirley Jones, actress (Partridge Family, Elmer Gantry), was born in Smithton, Pa.
    (MC, 3/31/02)
1933        Mar 31, Congress approved, and President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed, the Emergency Conservation Work Act (Reforestation Relief Act), which created the Civilian Conservation Corps. The US unemployment rate reached 25%. In its nine years of existence, the New Deal’s Civilian Conservation Corps had a total of 2.9 million men aged 18 to 25 enrolled. The program was designed to provide jobs for young men in the national forests, conservation programs and national road construction. Enacted as one of President Franklin Roosevelt’s first New Deal programs, it lasted until World War II. At its high point in September 1935, the CCC had 2,514 work camps across the U.S. with 502,000 men enrolled.
    (SFEC, 5/2/99, Z1 p.1)(HNQ, 7/23/99)(AP, 3/31/08)(SSFC, 1/18/09, p.D6)
1933        Mar 31, German Republic gave dictatorial power to Hitler.
    (MC, 3/31/02)

1933        Mar, FDR appointed Dean Acheson (1893-1953) Under Secretary of the Treasury. Acheson was forced to resign from the Roosevelt Administration after only six months because he opposed the president’s plan to devalue the gold content of the dollar. He remained close to the president however and became an Assistant Secretary of State in 1941. Acheson served as Secretary of State from 1949 to 1953 and was a major architect of postwar U.S. foreign policy.
1933        Mar, The low point for America's economy during the Great Depression was in March 1933. Industrial production was dropping dramatically with output nearly half of the previous year and unemployment mounting to 15 million. The bank crisis deepened with banking holidays blanketing the nation and one-third of the country's railroad mileage in bankruptcy. With the inauguration of Franklin Roosevelt on March 4, 1933, and his summoning of a special session of the 73rd Congress, the New Deal policies of economic reconstruction began.
    (HNQ, 11/25/98)

1933        Apr 1, Nazi Germany began persecuting Jews with a boycott of Jewish-owned businesses. [see Mar 28]
    (AP, 4/1/98)
1933        Apr 1, Heinrich Himmler became Police Commander of Germany (Reichsfuhrer-SS).
    (MC, 4/1/02)

1933        Apr 3, The dirigible Akron crashed into the Atlantic off of New Jersey and killed 73 0f the 76 men aboard.
    (SFC, 9/20/97, p.A21)
1933        Apr 3, Royal Air Force Lieutenant David McIntyre and the Scottish Marquess of Clydesdale, flying two open-cockpit Westland aircraft, completed the first overflight and aerial photographic survey of Mount Everest. The British Mount Everest team, battled extreme cold and high winds as they photographed the previously unknown crest of the 29,028-foot peak.
    (HNPD, 4/3/99)

1933        Apr 7, "Near beer" (3.2 beer) became legal after FDR signed an amendment to the Volstead Act, which had made drinking alcohol a federal crime. Prohibition ended when Utah became the 38th state to ratify 21st Amendment.  [see Dec 5]
    (SFC, 4/7/96, p.B-11)(HN, 4/7/97)(MC, 4/7/02)
1933        Apr 7, The 1st two Nazi anti-Jewish laws barred Jews from legal and public service.
    (MC, 4/7/02)
1933        Apr 7, Jan Erik/Eric Jan Hanussen, Berlin astrologer, illusionist, was murdered.
    (MC, 4/7/02)

1933        Apr 8, Manchester Guardian warned of unknown Nazi terror.
    (MC, 4/8/02)

1933        Apr 11, Hermann Goering became premier of Prussia.
    (MC, 4/11/02)

1933        Apr 12, Montserrat Caballe, soprano (Mimi-La Boheme), was born in Barcelona, Spain.
    (MC, 4/12/02)

1933        Apr 13, The first flight over Mount Everest was completed by Lord Clydesdale. [see Apr 3]
    (HN, 4/13/98)

1933        Apr 15, Elizabeth Montgomery, actress (Samantha/Serena-Bewitched), was born in LA, Calif.
    (MC, 4/15/02)

1933        Apr 17, Johnny Roventini (d.1998 at 86), a Brooklyn-born bellhop, first went on radio during "The Ferde Grofe Show" to promote Philip Morris cigarettes.
    (SFC, 12/3/98, p.D5)

1933        Apr 19, Etheridge Knight, poet, was born.
    (HN, 4/1901)
1933        Apr 19, The United States went off the gold standard by presidential proclamation. FDR tied this with orders that 445,000 newly minted gold $20 "Double Eagle" coins be destroyed. Ten coins escaped and one was scheduled for auction in 2002. The coin fetched $7.59 million. In 2005 the US Mint recovered 10 double eagle gold pieces from a family that had sought to authenticate them. In 2006 Alison Frankel authored “Double Eagle." [see Jun 5]
    (AP, 4/19/97)(SFC, 7/31/02, p.A2)(SFC, 8/12/05, p.A12)(WSJ, 5/13/06, p.P8)

1933        Apr 22, Dutch government forbade a left-wing radio address.
    (MC, 4/22/02)

1933        Apr 25, Romanian Baron Franz Nopcsa von Felso-Szilvas (b.1877) killed his long time companion and secretary, an Albanian named Bajazid Elmas Doda, and committed suicide.
    (SFC, 6/8/06, p.A7)(http://tinyurl.com/jffdw)

1933        Apr 26, Carol Burnett, comedian, actress (Annie, 4 Seasons), was born in San Antonio, Tx.
    (MC, 4/26/02)
1933        Apr 26, Jewish students were barred from school in Germany.
    (MC, 4/26/02)

1933        Apr 29, Constantine Cavafy (b.1863), Greek poet, died in Alexandria, Egypt. The 1996 Greek film "Cavafy" was a profile of the Greek homosexual poet, and a winner of Greece’s National Film Award for best feature of the year. Cavafy spent 30 years working as a clerk in the Ministry of Irrigation. In 2006 “The Collected Poems of C.P. Cavafy," translated by Aliki Barstone, was published.
    (SFC, 6/18/98, p.E4)(SSFC, 6/24/01, DB p.64)(www.kirjasto.sci.fi/kafavis.htm)

1933        Apr 30, Willie Nelson, country singer who sang "On the Road Again" and "To All the Girls I’ve Loved Before," was born.
    (HN, 4/30/98)
1933        Apr 30, The 70-story RCA Building, later renamed the GE Building, opened to the public at 30 Rockefeller Plaza in NYC. A mural in the building by Diego Rivera that included a picture of Lenin was destroyed in Feb 1934. The “top of the Rock" observatory closed in 1986, but was re-opened in 2005.
    (http://archive.rockefeller.edu/faqs/?printer=1)(WSJ, 11/4/99, p.B6)(SSFC, 11/6/05, p.F2)

1933        May 2, In Germany, Adolf Hitler banned trade unions.
    (MC, 5/2/02)

1933        May 3, James Brown, American singer and songwriter, was born. [see May 3, 1928]
    (HN, 5/3/01)
1933        May 3, Nellie T. Ross became the first female director of the U.S. Mint.
    (AP, 5/3/97)
1933        May 3, A white buffalo calf was born in western Montana. He was later named "Big Medicine" and lived until Aug 25, 1959. His hide was molded to a mannequin and that went on display at the Montana Historical Society on Jul 13, 1961.
    (Helena Museum flyer, 9/11/97)

1933        May 4, Pulitzer prize was awarded to Archibald Macleish (Conquistador).
    (MC, 5/4/02)

1933        May 7, Johnny Unitas (d.2002), the son of Lithuanian immigrants, was born in Pittsburgh, Pa. He became a NFL Quarterback for the Baltimore Colts and San Diego Chargers. He was voted into the Pro Football Hall of Fame in 1979.

1933        May 8, Gandhi began a hunger strike to protest British oppression in India.
    (HN, 5/8/98)

1933        May 9, Spanish anarchists called for a general strike.
    (MC, 5/9/02)

1933        May 10, Barbara Taylor Bradford, author, was born.
    (MC, 5/10/02)
1933        May 10, The Nazis staged massive public book burnings at Opernplatz in Berlin, Germany. Some 40,000 people watched or took part. In the great Nazi book-burning frenzy Freud’s work went up in flames, with the declaration: "Down with the soul-devouring exaggeration of instinctive life, up with the nobility of the human soul!" Also burned were books by "unGerman" writers such as: Marx, Brecht, Bloch, Hemingway, Heinrich Mann and Erich Maria Remarque, author of All Quiet on the Western Front.
    (AP, 5/10/97)(SFC, 1/8/99, p.A13)(HNPD, 3/24/00)(HN, 5/10/02)
1933        May 10, Paraguay declared war on Bolivia.
    (MC, 5/10/02)

1933        May 11, Louis Farrakhan, leader of the black Nation of Islam, was born.
    (HN, 5/11/98)

1933        May 12, The Federal Emergency Relief Administration and the Agricultural Adjustment Administration were established to provide help for the needy and farmers.
    (AP, 5/12/03)
1933        May 12, In San Francisco a drawbridge, designed by Joseph B. Strauss, opened on Third St. across Mission Creek Channel. In 1969 it was renamed in honor of the famous baseball player Lefty O'Doul.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lefty_O%27Doul_Bridge)(SFC, 3/14/00, p.A15)
1933        May 12, Andrey Andreyevich Voznesensky, Russian poet, was born.
    (HN, 5/12/01)

1933        May 14, Richard P. Brickner, novelist (The Broken Year), was born.
    (HN, 5/14/01)

1933        May 15, 1st voice amplification system was used in US Senate.
    (MC, 5/15/02)

1933        May 18, The Tennessee Valley Authority Act was signed by President Roosevelt. The TVA proceed to build damns in the Tennessee Valley.
    (AP, 5/18/97)(HN, 5/18/99)

1933        May 20, Danny Aiello, actor (Moonstruck, Do the Right Thing), was born in NYC.
    (MC, 5/20/02)

1933        May 22, John Browning, pianist (Leventritt Award-1956), was born in Denver, Colorado.
    (MC, 5/22/02)
1933        May 22, Loch Ness Monster was 1st "sighted"  by John Mackay.
    (SFEC,12/797, p.T4)(MC, 5/22/02)

1933        May 24, Dmitri Shostakovitch's Preludes premiered in Moscow.
    (MC, 5/24/02)

1933        May 25, Roger Bowen, actor (MASH, Main Event, What about Bob, Petulia), was born.
    (SC, 5/25/02)

1933        May 26, Jimmie Rodgers (b.1897), American country singer known most widely for his rhythmic yodeling, died of tuberculosis in NYC.
     (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jimmie_Rodgers_%28country_singer%29)(SSFC, 10/7/12, p.C12)

1933        May 27, Walt Disney’s Academy Award-winning animated short "The Three Little Pigs" was released.
    (AP, 5/27/97)
1933        May 27, The US Federal Securities Act was passed to monitor and regulate stocks and bonds.
    (SSFC, 1/18/09, p.D6)

1933        May, Saudi Arabia gave Standard Oil of California exclusive rights to explore for oil. Socal formed the California Arabian Standard Oil Co. to drill for oil in Saudi Arabia.
    (www.chevron.com)(SFC, 10/20/04, p.C6)

1933        Jun 2, Bob Rozario, orchestra leader (Tony Orlando, Marie), was born in Shanghai, China.
    (SC, 6/2/02)

1933        Jun 3, Pope Pius XI encyclical "On oppression of the Church in Spain."
    (MC, 6/3/02)

1933        Jun 5, Congress voided any and all gold clauses in public and private debts. The United States went off the gold standard. [see Apr 19]
    (AP, 6/5/97)(HNQ, 6/6/99)

1933        Jun 6, The US Congress passed the National Employment Service, creating a national system of public employment offices.
    (SSFC, 1/18/09, p.D6)
1933        Jun 6, Richard M. Hollingshead Jr., auto products salesman, opened the first drive-in movie theater, in Camden, NJ. The movie shown was "Wives Beware," an Adolphe Menjou comedy previously released under the title "Two White Arms." The number of drive-ins peaked at over 4,000 in 1958.
    (SFEC,11/30/97, Par p.2)(Hem, 11/02, p.38)(AP, 6/6/08)

1933        Jun 10, F. Lee Bailey, American defense attorney, was born. He later defended the Boston Strangler, Patty Hearst and O.J. Simpson
    (HN, 6/10/99)
1933        Jun 10, Robert Porterfield and 22 other hungry actors opened the doors of the Barter Theater in Abingdon, Virginia. Admission was 40 cents per head or the equivalent in produce.
    (HT, 3/97, p.14)
1933        Jun 10, Col. Eugene Northington (53) of the US Army Medical Corps died in SF from X-ray cancers. He had dedicated his life to pioneering work studying X-rays.
    (SSFC, 6/8/08, DB p.58)

1933        Jun 11, Jud Strunk, singer, comedian (Laugh-In), was born in Jamestown, NY.
    (SC, 6/11/02)

1933        Jun 12, The World Monetary and Economic Conference in London opened and had as its object the checking of the world depression by means of currency stabilization and economic agreements. Unbridgeable disagreements among the delegates from 64 nations and the attitude of the United States made the meeting a total failure.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/London_Economic_Conference)(Econ, 3/28/09, p.65)

1933        Jun 13, US Congress passed the Home Owners Refinancing Act, which authorized the Home Owners’ Loan Corporation. Large infusions of US federal cash into institutions through the Reconstruction Finance Corporation, chartered under Pres. Hoover in 1932, and to households through the Home Owners’ Loan Corporation, began a recovery out of the Great Depression. This was noted in a 1983 paper by later Federal Reserve Chairman Ben Bernanke.
    (www.nps.gov/hofr/upload/On%20this%20day%20in%201933.pdf)(Econ, 9/27/08, p.82)
1933        Jun 13, German Secret State Police (Gestapo) was established.
    (MC, 6/13/02)

1933        Jun 14, Jerzy Kosinski, Polish-American novelist (The Painted Bird, Being There), was born.
    (HN, 6/14/01)

1933        Jun 16, The 2nd US Glass-Steagall Act, actually the Bank Act of 1933, banned banks from underwriting stocks. It separated regular banks from investment banks. It was the 2nd act of the same name. Mr. Glass agreed to attach Mr. Steagall’s pet amendment, which authorized bank deposit insurance for the first time. [see 1932]
    (WSJ, 8/8/97, p.A11)(WSJ, 4/10/98, p.A1,6)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glass-Steagall_Act)
1933        Jun 16, The US Congress passed the National Industrial Recovery Act, which established the Public Works Administration (PWA) and the National Recovery Administration. A $.25-per-hour standard wage was set as part of the Act. However, in 1935 the US Supreme Court declared the National Recovery Act unconstitutional, and the minimum wage was abolished. In July a code of the NRA instituted a 35 hour week for blue-collar workers and a 40-hour week for office employees. Minimum wages were also instituted, ranging from 12 ½ cents an hour for needlework employees in Puerto Rico to 70 cents an hour for wrecking and salvage workers in NYC. Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt had employers sign a “President’s Reemployment Agreement" covering 16.3 million employees. The employers who signed on agreed to limit work weeks to 40 hours, to pay a minimum wage of $12-$15 per week (at least 30 cents/hour) and to not hire children under 16.
1933        Jun 16, US Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) became effective. The initial deposit insurance level was set at $2,500.
    (www.fdic.gov/regulations/laws/rules/1000-200.html)(WSJ, 7/21/08, p.A10)

1933        Jun 17, In the Kansas City Massacre 1 FBI agent, 4 cops and 1 gangster were killed by the mob.
    (MC, 6/17/02)

1933        Jun 19, France granted Leon Trotsky political asylum.
    (HN, 6/19/98)

1933        Jun 22, Dianne Feinstein, 1st female mayor of SF, (Sen-D-Ca), was born.
    (MC, 6/22/02)
1933        Jun 22, Germany became a one political party country as Hitler banned parties other than the Nazis.
    (HN, 6/22/98)

1933        Jun 26, Claudio Abbado, composer, conductor (London Symph-1982), was born in Milan, Italy.
    (MC, 6/26/02)

1933        Jun 27, Gary Crosby, son of Bing, actor (Which Way to the Front), was born.
    (SC, 6/27/02)

1933        Jun 29, Roscoe "Fatty" Arbuckle (46), US actor (Keystone comedies), died at the Park Central Hotel in NYC.
    (www.2020site.org/fattyarbuckle/bio.html)(SSFC, 6/29/08, DB p.58)

1933        Jul 1, Strauss-Hofmannsthal opera "Arabella," premiered in Dresden.
    (MC, 7/1/02)
1933        Jul 1, German Nazi regime decreed married women should not work.
    (MC, 7/1/02)
1933        Jul 1, Italian Air Force Gen. Italo Balbo led a flight of twenty-four flying boats on a round-trip flight from Rome to the Century of Progress in Chicago, Illinois. The flight had seven legs and ended on Lake Michigan near Burnham Park on Aug 12. In honor of this feat, Mussolini donated a column from Ostia to the city of Chicago; it can still be seen along the Lakefront Trail, a little south of Soldier Field.

1933        Jul 4, Work began on Oakland Bay Bridge.
    (Maggio, 98)

1933        Jul 6, The first All-Star baseball game was played, at Chicago's Comiskey Park; the American League defeated the National League, 4-2.
    (AP, 7/6/08)
1933        Jul 6-11933 Jul 7, Steponas Darius and Stasy Girenas, Lithuanian pilots, flew across the Atlantic and died when their plane crashed near Soldin, Germany (later Poland). Their portrait is on the 10-litas note.
    (LC, 1998, p.4,20)(LHC, 1/8/03)

1933        Jul 9, Oliver Sachs, neurologist, was born. In 2001 he authored "Uncle Tungsten: Memories of a Chemical Boyhood," a memoir of his years from 1943-1947.
    (SFC, 7/14/96, Z1 p.3)(WSJ, 10/12/01, p.W13)

1933        Jul 10, Jerry Herman, songwriter, was born.
    (HN, 7/10/01)
1933        Jul 10, 1st police radio system began operations at Eastchester Township, NY.
    (MC, 7/10/02)

1933        Jul 13, David Storey, English novelist (The Sporting Life), was born.
    (HN, 7/13/01)

1933        Jul 14, All German political parties except the Nazi Party were outlawed.
    (AP, 7/14/97)
1933        Jul 14, Nazi Germany promulgated the Law for the Protection of Hereditary Health. It was the beginning of their Euthanasia program.
    (HN, 7/14/00)

1933        Jul 15, Julian Bream, guitarist, was born.
    (MC, 7/15/02)
1933        Jul 15, Wiley Post began the 1st solo flight around world.
    (MC, 7/15/02)(ON, 12/03, p.12)

1933        Jul 18, Yevgeny Yevtushenko, Russian poet, was born in Zima, Russia.
    (HN, 7/18/01)(MC, 7/18/02)

1933        Jul 20, Nelson Doubleday, publisher (Doubleday), owner (NY Mets), was born.
    (MC, 7/20/02)
1933        Jul 20, Cormac McCarthy, novelist (All the Pretty Horses), was born.
    (HN, 7/20/01)
1933        Jul 20, Vatican state secretary Pacelli (later Pope Pius XII) signed an accord with Hitler.
    (MC, 7/20/02)

1933        Jul 21, John Gardner (d.1982), poet and novelist (Grendel, October Light), was born.
    (HN, 7/21/02)
1933        Jul 21, The DJIA dropped 7.8%
    (SFC,10/17/97, p.B2)
1933        Jul 21, Haifa Harbor in Palestine opened.
    (MC, 7/21/02)

1933        Jul 22, American aviator Wiley Post completed the first solo flight around the world as he returned to New York's Floyd Bennett Field after traveling for 7 days, 18 and 3/4 hours. 
    (AP, 7/22/08)

1933        Jul 28, The NFL divided into two, 5 team divisions.
    (SC, 7/28/02)
1933        Jul 28, The first singing telegram was delivered to vocalist Rudy Vallee for his birthday. It was the idea of George P. Oslin (1899-1996), a Western Union executive. He wrote "The Story of Telecommunications" in 1992.
    (HFA, ‘96, p.34)

1933        Jul, Rodolphe Agassiz, recently acquitted of insider trading by the Mass. state supreme court, died. The court ruled that his 1926 purchase of Cliff Mining stock, based on a geologist’s estimates, was a perk.
    (WSJ, 7/3/02, p.B1)
1933        Jul, The Friends of New Germany (FONG) was established in NYC with assistance given by the German consul in NYC. It took over the membership of two older pro-Nazi organizations in the United States, the Free Society of Teutonia and Gau-USA.

1933        Aug 1, The National Recovery Administration's "Blue Eagle" symbol began to appear in store windows and on packages to show support for the National Industrial Recovery Act.
    (AP, 8/1/08)
1933        Aug 1, The death penalty was declared for anti fascists in Germany.
    (MC, 8/1/02)

1933        Aug 5, President Franklin D. Roosevelt established the National Labor Board to enforce the right of collective bargaining. It was later replaced with the National Labor Relations Board.
    (AP, 8/5/08)(SSFC, 1/18/09, p.D6)
1933        Aug 5, Harry V. Hill (50) drowned off Yerba Buena Island becoming the 1st fatality in the construction of the SF-Oakland Bay Bridge.
    (SSFC, 8/4/08, DB p.54)

1933        Aug 8, The Colleges of the City of Detroit reorganized as a University.
    (WSUAN, Winter 1997, p.8)

1933        Aug 11, Jerry Falwell (d.2007), founder of the conservative political lobbying organization, the Moral Majority, was born in Virginia.

1933        Aug 14, A wildfire began in Tillamook, Oregon. It was extinguished on Sep 5 by rain. Some 311,000 acres burned in the wildfire.
    (http://www.fact-index.com/t/ti/tillamook_burn.html)(SFC, 8/10/02, p.A5)

1933        Aug 15, Drug Inc., and Int'l. shoe were removed from the DJIA. Corn Products Refining and United Aircraft were added.
    (WSJ, 5/28/96, p. R-45)(WSJ, 4/8/04, p.C4)

1933        Aug 18, Roman Polanski, Polish film director best known for Rosemary’s Baby and Chinatown, was born.
    (HN, 8/18/98)

1933        Aug 21, Dame Janet Baker, mezzo-soprano (Owen Wingrave), was born in York, England.
    (SC, 8/21/02)

1933        Aug 23, Adolf Loos (b.1870), Austrian and Czech architect and influential European theorist of modern architecture, died in Vienna.

1933        Aug 25, Wayne Shorter, jazz saxophonist and composer, was born.
    (HN, 8/25/00)
1933        Aug 25, Tom Skerritt, actor (Ryan's Four, Alien, Big Bad Mama, Pickett Fences), was born in Detroit, Mich.
    (MC, 8/25/02)

1933        Aug 28, For the first time, a BBC-broadcasted appeal was used by the police in tracking down a wanted man.
    (HTnet, 8/28/99)

1933        Aug 30, Portuguese dictator Salazar formed secret police (PIDE).
    (MC, 8/30/01)

1933        Aug, The Puerto Rico legislature forced the governor to reinstate cockfighting, which had been banned, by threatening to block the budget. It won official status and became known as the "gentleman's sport" because of its honor-based betting system in which men yell bets at each other and later pay them.
    (SFEC, 4/26/98, p.A3)(AP, 7/23/12)

1933        Sep 1, Ann Richards, Gov-Tx., was born.
    (SC, 9/1/02) 
1933        Sep 1, Conway Twitty [Harold Jenkins], country singer (Hello Darlin'), was born in Miss.
    (SC, 9/1/02)

1933        Sep 5, In an uprising known as the "Revolt of the Sergeants," Fulgencio Batista took over control of Cuba. Pres. Cespedes and his cabinet abandoned the Presidential palace the next day.

1933        Sep 8, Michael Frayn, playwright, was born. His work included "A Very Private Life" and "Noises Off."
    (HN, 9/8/00)
1933        Sep 8, Iraq's King Faisal I (b.1885) died one year after independence and his son, Ghazi I, succeeded him. In 2014 Ali A. Allawi authored “Faisal I of Iraq."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Faisal_I_of_Iraq)(Econ, 2/8/14, p.79)
1933        Sep 8, In Ireland the Fine Gael ("Family (or Tribe) of the Irish") was founded as a liberal-conservative political party following the merger of its parent party Cumann na nGaedheal, the National Center Party and the National Guard.

1933        Sep 14, Zoe Caldwell, actress (Prime of Miss Jean Brodie), was born in Australia. In 2001 Caldwell authored “I Will Be Cleopatra: An Actress’s Journey."
    (www.infoplease.com)(SSFC, 12/16/01, p.M4)

1933        Sep 15, Rafael Fruhbeck de Burgos, conductor, was born in Burgos, Spain.

1933        Sep 21, The trial against Marinus der Lubbe opened. He was accused of starting the Feb 27 Reichstag fire.
    (MC, 9/21/01)

1933        Sep 22, Fay Weldon, author, was born. Her work included "The Life and Loves of a She-Devil."
    (HN, 9/22/00)

1933        Sep 25, 1st state poorhouse opened in Smyrna, Georgia.
    (MC, 9/25/01)
1933        Sep 25, The 5th "extermination campaign" against communists in Nanjing China.
    (MC, 9/25/01)

1933        Oct 2, Eugene O'Neill's comedy "Ah, Wilderness," premiered in NYC.
    (MC, 10/2/01)

1933        Oct 4, First issue of Esquire magazine was published.
    (MC, 10/4/01)

1933        Oct 8, In Afghanistan Nadir Khan was assassinated by a college student, and his son, Zahir, inherited the throne.

1933        Oct 9, Bill Tidy, English cartoonist (Fosdyke Saga), was born.
    (MC, 10/9/01)

1933        Oct 10, At Rio de Janeiro, nations of the Western Hemisphere signed a non-aggression and conciliation treaty.
    (HN, 10/10/98)
1933        Oct 10, The 1st synthetic detergent, "Dreft" by Procter & Gamble, went on sale.
    (MC, 10/10/01)

1933        Oct 12, The US Army left Alcatraz Island. In 1934 it reopened as a federal penitentiary.
    (OAH, 2/05, p.A6)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alcatraz_Island)
1933        Oct 12, Bank robber John Dillinger escaped from a jail in Allen County, Ohio, with the help of his gang, who killed the sheriff, Jess Sarber.
    (AP, 10/12/07)

1933        Oct 14, The Geneva disarmament conference broke up as Germany proclaimed withdrawal from the disarmament initiative, as well as from the League of Nations, effective October 23.
    (AP, 10/14/97)(HN, 10/14/98)

1933        Oct 17, Hugh Bancroft, president of Dow Jones & Co., died.
1933        Oct 17, Due to rising anti-Semitism and anti-intellectualism in Hitler’s Germany, Albert Einstein immigrated to the United States. He made his new home in Princeton, N.J.
    (AP, 10/17/97)(HN, 10/17/98)

1933        Oct 19, Dallas Egan, condemned slayer, was executed at San Quentin after California Gov. James Rolph agreed to allow him 8 ounces of good Kentucky bourbon whiskey.
    (SSFC, 10/19/08, DB p.58)(www.freeotrshows.com/otr/c/Calling_All_Cars.html)

1933        Oct 23, Germany withdrew from the League of Nations in light of the failure of the Germans to gain military parity with the Western powers.

1933        Oct 30, Michael S. Dukakis, (Gov-D-Mass) and presidential candidate (D-1988), was born.
    (MC, 10/30/01)

1933        Oct, San Francisco’s Coit Tower was dedicated. It was built with $100,000 in funds bequeathed by Lillie Hitchcock Coit. It was designed by Arthur Brown Jr. and contains frescoes by Mexican artist Diego Rivera. Eliza Wychie Hitchcock Coit died at age 88 and rests in Cypress Lawn, Colma.
    (SFEC, 11/3/96, DB p.33)(HT, 5/97, p.14)(CHA, 1/2001)
1933        Oct, In Germany police records later revealed that 26,000 communists, Social Democrats, and other Reich skeptics had been arrested since Hitler took power.
    (WSJ, 11/26/96, p.A16)

1933          Nov 4, Hermann Goring, Hitler's chief minister (1893-1946), and Georgi Dimitrov, Bulgarian Communist, had a duel of wits over whether Dimitrov was guilty of the burning of the Reichstag on February 27, 1933. Dimitrov conducted his own defense winning recognition and acclaim worldwide. He was acquitted and went to Russia where he became a Soviet citizen.

1933        Nov 5, Spanish Basques voted for autonomy.
    (MC, 11/5/01)

1933        Nov 6, Polly Bemis (b.1853), Chinese American pioneer woman born as Lalu Nathoy, died in Grangeville, Idaho. As a child a group of bandits raided her village and she was forcefully sold by her father for two much needed bags of seed. Lalu was later smuggled into the US and sold as a slave in San Francisco for $2,500 in 1872. Her buyer, Hong King, ran a saloon in a mining camp in Warrens (now Warren, Idaho), Idaho. In 1894 she married Charlie Bemis, whom she had befriended when she first arrived in Warrens. Together, they were among the first pioneers to help settle the Idaho Territory, especially along the Salmon River. Her life was fictionalized in the 1991 film “A Thousand Pieces of Gold," starring Rosalind Chao (as Polly) and Chris Cooper (as Charlie).

1933        Nov 7, Pennsylvania voters overturned blue law, by permitting Sunday sports.
    (MC, 11/7/01)

1933        Nov 8, President Roosevelt unveiled the Civil Works Administration, designed to create jobs for more than 4 million unemployed.
    (AP, 11/8/97)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Civil_Works_Administration)

1933        Nov 9, The Civil Works Administration was created as a short term program designed to carry the nation over a critical winter while other programs such as the Federal Emergency Relief Administration were being planned and developed.
1933        Nov 9, Brooke Hart (22) was abducted from the parking lot of the family-owned department store in San Jose, Ca. The 1943 novel “Against a Darkening Sky" by Janet Lewis was based on the lynching of his accused abductors. The abductors, who killed Hart, were later captured after police traced their calls arranging a $40,000 ransom. [see Nov 26]
    (SFC, 12/5/98, p.C2)(Ind, 4/28/01, 5A)(SFC, 9/13/05, p.B3)

1933        Nov 10, Black Blizzard snowstorm-dust storm raged from SD to Atlantic.
    (MC, 11/10/01)

1933        Nov 11, The first of the great dust storms of the 1930s hit North Dakota.
    (HN, 11/11/00)

1933        Nov 12, In Germany 92% of votes went to National Socialists in the First Reichstag elections in the one-party state.
1933        Nov 12, In the Kashgar region Uyghur separatists declared the short-lived and self-proclaimed East Turkestan Republic (ETR), using the term "East Turkestan" to emphasize the state's break from China and new anti-China orientation. East Turkestan referred to the Tarim Basin in the southwestern part of Xinjiang province of the Qing Dynasty.
    (Econ, 12/3/05, p.39)(Econ, 8/18/12, p.39)( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/East_Turkestan)

1933        Nov 13, The 1st modern sit-down strike began with Hormel meat packers in Austin, Minn.
    (MC, 11/13/01)

1933        Nov 16, The United States and the Soviet Union established diplomatic relations. President Roosevelt sent a telegram to Soviet leader Maxim Litvinov, expressing hope that U.S.-Soviet relations would "forever remain normal and friendly."
    (AP, 11/1697)
1933        Nov 16, American pilot and adventurer Jimmie Angel (1899-1956) flew over the world's tallest waterfall in Venezuela, while searching for a cloud-shrouded, flat-topped mountain where he had previously discovered gold. The falls became known as Angel Falls. In 2009 Pres. Hugo Chavez said that the waterfall should revert to its original indigenous name, Kerepakupai-Meru.
    (AP, 12/21/09)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jimmie_Angel)

1933        Nov 17, US recognized USSR and opened trade.
    (MC, 11/17/01)

1933        Nov 22, Mahmud Tarzi (b.1865), Afghan intellectual, died in Turkey at the age of 68. He is known as the father of Afghan journalism.

1933        Nov 23, FDR recalled Ambassador Welles from Havana and urged stability in Cuba.
    (HN, 11/23/98)
1933        Nov 23, Krzysztof Penderecki, Polish composer and conductor was born in Debica. He grew to become Poland's leading composer and conductor using unconventional forms and sounds that evoke classical associations.
    (AP, 11/16/18)

1933        Nov 26, In California a mob attacked the Santa Clara County Jail and dragged out John M. Holmes and Thomas H. Thurmond for the kidnapping and murder of Brooke Hart (22), heir to a San Jose department store fortune. The 2 men were hung and stripped from 2 sycamores at St. James Park, one of which Pres. McKinley had stood under in 1901 to deliver a speech on American liberties and the US Constitution. Gov. Rolph said that if anyone was arrested for the lynching, he would pardon them. [see Nov 9]
    (Ind, 4/28/01, 5A)(SFEC, 5/2/99, Z1 p.4)(SFC, 9/13/05, p.B3)
1933        Nov 26, A judge in New York ruled the James Joyce book "Ulysses" was not obscene and could therefore be published in the United States.
    (AP, 11/26/07)

1933        Nov 29, Japan began the persecution of communists.
    (MC, 11/29/01)

1933        Dec 1, Rudolf Hess and Earnest Roehm became ministers in Hitler govt. Nazi storm troops become an official organ of the Reich.
    (HN, 12/1/98)(MC, 12/1/01)

1933        Dec 3, Paul Crutzen, Dutch chemist, was born.
    (HN, 12/3/00)

1933        Dec 4, Jack Kirkland's "Tobacco Road," premiered in NYC.
    (MC, 12/4/01)

1933        Dec 5, Prohibition was repealed--much to the delight of thirsty revelers--when Utah became the 36th state to ratify the 21st Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. The nationwide prohibition of the manufacture, sale or transportation of alcoholic beverages was established in January 1919 with passage of the 18th Amendment. Prohibition's supporters gradually became disenchanted with it as the illegal manufacture and sale of liquor fostered a wave of criminal activity. By 1932, the Democratic Party's platform called for the repeal of Prohibition. In February 1933, Congress adopted a resolution proposing the 21st Amendment to repeal the 18th and with Utah's vote in December, Prohibition ended. Three-quarters of the states approved the repeal of the 18th amendment and FDR proclaimed the end of Prohibition.
    (SFC, 4/7/96, p.B-11)(AP, 12/5/97)(HNPD, 12/5/98)

1933        Dec 6, Henryk Mikolaj Gorecki, composer, was born.
    (MC, 12/6/01)
1933        Dec 6, The US ban on James Joyce' "Ulysses" was lifted. [see Nov 26]
    (MC, 12/6/01)

1933        Dec 7, President Roosevelt adopted a "good neighbor" policy toward Latin America and announced a policy of nonintervention in Latin American affairs at the December 7th International American Conference at Montevideo, Uruguay.
    (HN, 10/10/98)

1933        Dec 8, Flip Wilson (d.1998), the fist successful black host of a TV variety show, was born in Jersey City. He hosted the Flip Wilson Show from 1970-1974.
    (SFC, 11/26/98, p.B9)
1933        Dec 8, Patrick Leigh Fermor (b.1915), London-born student, set off to walk the length of Europe, from the Hook of Holland to Constantinople. He later recounted his adventures in “A Time of Gifts" (1977) and “Between the Woods and the Water" (1986). He was later widely regarded as Britain’s greatest travel writer.
    (WSJ, 11/24/07, p.W8)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Patrick_Leigh_Fermor)

1933        Dec 11, Reports said Paraguay had captured 11,000 Bolivians in the war over Chaco.
    (HN, 12/11/98)

1933        Dec 15, In San Francisco Lloyd J. Evans became the first worker on the Bay Bridge to die. He had been working 112 feet down on the bay bottom and experienced decompression sickness. An 11-hour effort to revive him in a recompression chamber failed.
    (SSFC, 12/14/08, p.54)

1933        Dec 17, In the first world championship football game, the Chicago Bears defeated the New York Giants, 23-21, at Wrigley Field.
    (AP, 12/17/08)
1933        Dec 17, Thubten Gyatso (b.1876), Tibet’s 13th Dalai Lama, died.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/13th_Dalai_Lama)(Econ., 3/21/15, p.38)

1933        Dec 19, Ciciley Tyson, actress, best remembered for her role in The Autobiography of Ms. Jane Pittman, was born.
    (HN, 12/19/98)

1933        Dec 20, The German government announced 400,000 citizens were to be sterilized because of hereditary defects.
    (HN, 12/20/98)

1933        Dec 21, Dried human blood serum was 1st prepared at the Univ. of Pennsylvania.
    (MC, 12/21/01)
1933        Dec 21, Newfoundland reverted to being a crown colony.
    (MC, 12/21/01)

1933        Dec 23, Akihito, emperor of Japan (1989- ), was born.
    (MC, 12/23/01)
1933        Dec 23, The Pope condemned the Nazi sterilization program.
    (HN, 12/23/98)
1933        Dec 23, Marinus van der Lubbe was sentenced to death for Reichstag "Fire."
    (MC, 12/23/01)

1933        Dec 24, A Paris express train derailed and killed 160. Some 300 were injured.
    (MC, 12/24/01)

1933        Dec 27, Josef Stalin called tensions with Japan a grave danger.
    (HN, 12/27/01)

1933        Dec 28, President Franklin D. Roosevelt stated, "The definite policy of the U.S. from now on is one opposed to armed intervention."
    (HN, 12/28/98)

1933        Dec, In San Francisco Walter Heil, head of the de Young Museum, and other officials chose 25 artists to create murals at the new Coit Tower. They would be paid $25 to $45 per week.
    (SFC, 7/7/17, p.C1)
1933        Dec, Excavation began for the Grand Coulee Dam in Central Washington. The Columbia River dam was completed in 1941. In 1954 Murray Morgan (1916-2000) authored “The Dam," a historical overview of the dam.
1933        Dec, The US National Park Service began the Historic American Building Survey (HABS) after Charles E. Peterson of the National Park Service submitted a proposal for one thousand out-of-work architects to spend ten weeks documenting "America's antique buildings."

1933        Dec, In France the financial scandal known as the Stavisky Affair triggered right-wing agitation that caused a major crisis for the government. In December 1933 the bonds issued by the credit organization of financier Alexandre Stavisky were found to be worthless and in January 1934 Stavisky was found dead. Although ruled a suicide, the French right wing claimed Stavisky had been killed to cover up the involvement of government officials in the scandal. [see Feb 6, 1934]
    (HNQ, 4/20/99)

1933        Hope Lange (d.2003), film actress, was born in Connecticut.
    (SFC, 12/22/03, p.A20)

1933        Balthus painted "The Street."
    (SFEC, 2/6/00, BR p.12)

1936        Salvadore Dali painted "Myself at the Age of 10 When I was a Grasshopper Child."
    (WSJ, 1/26/00, p.A20)

1933        Edgar Leeteg sold his first painting for $4 and a sandwich. The American expatriate Edgar "Leeteg coined everything we think of today as velvet." In 1998 the Seattle Museum of Black Velvet Painting was co-founded by David price with a mobile collection partly devoted to Leeteg's work.
    (WSJ, 2/24/99, p.B1)

1933        Sargent Johnson (1888-1967), a successful African-American artist in SF, made his sculpture "Forever Free."
    (SFEC, 2/8/98, DB p.31)(SFEM, 3/22/98, p.8)

1933        David Park painted "Violinists."
    (SFEC, 12/1/96, DB p.21)

1933        Stanley Spencer, English artist, painted his botanical "Gypsophilia."
    (SFC, 6/5/98, p.C4)

1933        John Steinbeck (31) published his 1st California novel: "To a God Unknown." It was about nature and the ways of God and was set in the Salinas Valley.
    (SSFC, 2/24/02, p.C9)

1933        Grant Wood painted his "Shriner's Quarter."
    (WSJ, 3/27/00, p.A46)

1933        Cao Yu (1910-1996), Chinese realist playwright, published his first play "Thunderstorm." In 1935 he wrote "Sunrise."
    (SFEC, 12/15/96, p.C16)

1933        Journalist Herbert Asbury (1889-1963) authored “The Barbary Coast:  An Informal History of the San Francisco Underworld."

1933        Vera Brittain wrote "Testament of Youth." It was one of those books that helped define a generation. Her biography was written in 1996 by Paul Berry and Mark Bostridge and titled: "Vera Brittain: A Life." In 1979 the book was made into a powerful BBC drama.
    (WSJ, 5/14/96, p.A-20)

1933        "The Story of Babar" by Jean de Brunhoff was published.
    (SFEC, 2/27/00, BR p.12)

1933        Charles Galton Darwin, a grandnephew of Francis Gallton, published "The Next Million Years." He showed that any program of eugenics based on control of human interbreeding cannot succeed in the long run.

1933        Charles Henri Ford (d.2002 at 94) authored "The Young and Evil," considered by some to be the 1st gay novel. It was based on Ford’s adventures in Greenwich Village and was banned in the US until the 1960s.
    (SFC, 10/1/02, p.A18)

1933        Vincent T. Hamlin began his "Alley Oop" comic strip. It was named after words used by French gymnast and trapeze artists: allez oup.
    (SFC, 12/15/01, p.A25)

1933        James Hilton, British writer, authored his novel "Shangri-La."
    (SFEC, 11/28/99, p.A22)

1933        Bob Marshall, founder of the Wilderness Society, published "The Arctic Village," a collection of observations on life in Alaska. The book was a best seller. He divided his royalties with the citizens of Wiseman, Alaska, amongst whom he lived from 1929-1930. A second book came out the same year: "The People’s Forests," was an indictment of the timber companies for mismanaging their lands. Bob argued that the government should take over most of those lands
    (NG, May 1985, M. Edwards, p.679,682)

1933        Arthur Raper (1899-1979), sociologist, authored “The Tragedy of Lynching." He was at this time working for the US federal agency: Commission on Interracial Cooperation, which had been created after WW I to help black veterans in the segregated South.
    (WSJ, 2/17/07, p.P13)

1933        Gertrude Stein wrote "The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas."
    (SFC,12/22/97, p.E6)

1933         Franz Werfel wrote his novel "The Forty Days of Musa Dagh," an account of the 1915 massacre of Armenians by Turkey. The author's friend, Rabbi Albert Amateau, testified in 1989 that Werfel was ashamed for having written the book, learning that he had extensively relied on the forgeries of Aram Andonian, which provides the only "evidence" of extermination orders.

1933        Nathanael West (1902-1940) wrote his 2nd novel "Miss Lonelyhearts."
    (WSJ, 8/11/97, p.A12)

1933        Carter G. Woodson wrote his work: "The Mis-Education of the Negro."
    (Civilization, July-Aug, 1995, p. 14)

1933        Eugene O’Neill wrote his play "Ah, Wilderness." It was set in a Connecticut town on Jul 4-5, 1906.
    (WSJ, 3/19/98, p.A16)

1933        Col. W. de Basil organized the Ballet Russes as a successor to the company run by Sergei Diaghilev.
    (SFC, 7/15/97, p.A18)

1933        Irving Berlin and Moss Hart created their Broadway musical "As Thousands Cheer." The "musical newspaper" ran for 400 performances.
    (SFC, 9/14/00, p.F1)

1933        Wilf Carter (aka Montana Slim, 1905-1996), Canadian singer, had his songs "Swiss Moonlight Lullaby" and "The Capture of Albert Johnson" released by RCA Victor.
    (SFC, 12/11/96, p.A24)

1933        Billie Holiday made her 1st recording with Benny Goodman. In 2002 a 10-CD box set: "Lady Day: The Complete Billie Holiday (1933-1944)" was issued.
    (WSJ, 3/5/02, p.A14)

1933        Stephane Grappelli, jazz violinist, and Django Reinhardt, Gypsy guitarist, began playing with bassist Louis Vola at the Hotel Claridges in Paris and went on to form formed the Hot Club Quintet.
    (SFC, 12/2/97, p.A22)

1933        Art Tatum made his first piano recordings.
    (SFC, 12/28/99, p.C5)

1933        Engineer Russell Cone was hired to oversee the construction of the Golden Gate Bridge. He had already worked on the Philadelphia-Camden (Ben Franklin) Bridge, the Detroit-Windsor Ambassador Bridge and the Tacony-Palmyra Bridge.
    (SFC,12/20/97, p.A21)

1933        Dorothy Day issued the first edition of the Catholic Worker newspaper.
    (SFC, 3/30/97, Z1. p.7)

1933        Kirkus Reviews (or Kirkus Media), an American book review magazine, was founded in NYC by Virginia Kirkus (1893–1980). In 2014 Kirkus Reviews started the Kirkus Prize.

1933        Virginia Cherill married Cary Grant. The marriage ended after 2 years.
    (SFEC, 11/17/96, p.C12)

1933        Joseph Mitchell, New York newspaperman, covered the story of the Hollinans, an "irascible and hard-drinking" couple that lived in a Central Park cave.
    (WSJ, 12/31/96, p.5)

1933        Lillian Schuman (1906-1996) and her husband Adolph founded the San Francisco clothing company Lilli Ann Corp.
    (SFC, 6/18/96, p.A17)

1933        The first drive-in theater opened in Camden New Jersey.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)

1933        The Int’l. Rescue Committee was founded at the suggestion of Albert Einstein to help Jews escape from Nazi, Germany. It later broadened its mandate to cover all refugees and displaced people.
    (SFC, 10/5/02, p.A19)

1933        US News & World Report was founded by David Lawrence, a conservative publisher.
    (WSJ, 9/9/96, p.A1)

1933        Erwin G. "Canon Ball" Baker (51) drove a Graham-Paige BlueStreak-8 sedan from Los Angeles to New York solo in 53 hours.
    (WSJ, 7/19/02, p.W9)

1933        Myron Scott, photographer, organized a group of boys racing wheeled crates in Dayton, Ohio into what became the Soap Box Derby. The official derby began a year later with 34 winners from all over the Midwest pitted against each other.
    (Smith., 5/95, p.26)

1933        Morgan (d.1993) and Marvin Smith, photographers, arrived in Harlem from rural Kentucky. Their work was collected in the 1998 book "Harlem: The Vision of Morgan and Marvin Smith."
    (SFEC, 3/8/98, BR p.7)

1933        Photographer Horace Bristol moved to SF from Ventura Ct. and opened a studio near Union Square. He soon met Ansel Adams and the members of the Group f/64, a Bay Area affiliation of photographers that included Imogen Cunningham, Edward Weston, Dorothea Lange, Otto Hagel and Hansel Mieth. Bristol collaborated with Steinbeck in 1938 to shoot photographs of migrant workers in the valley and their work led to Steinbeck’s 1939 "The Grapes Of Wrath."
    (SFC, 8/7/97, p.A18)

1933        Louie Meyer won the Indianapolis 500 and asked for a glass of buttermilk.
    (SFC, 8/7/99, p.D3)

1933        Art Rooney founded the Pittsburgh Pirates football team for $2,500.
    (WSJ, 7/8/08, p.A17)

1933        Sir Norman Angell (1872-1967), English journalist, won the Nobel Peace Prize.  He was knighted in 1931. From 1928-1931 he had served on the Council of the Royal Institute of International Affairs, was an executive for the World Committee against War and Fascism, a member of the executive committee of the League of Nations Union, and the president of the Abyssinia Association.

1933        The Business Plot was an alleged political conspiracy in the United States. Retired Marine Corps Major General Smedley Butler claimed that wealthy businessmen were plotting to create a fascist veterans' organization with Butler as its leader and use it in a coup d'état to overthrow President Franklin D. Roosevelt.
1933        Pres. Roosevelt devalued the dollar and the economy bounced back temporarily from the Depression.
    (WSJ, 10/16/98, p.A1)
1933        Roosevelt in his first 100 days recreated the economy with such programs as the: NRA, CCC, TVA and AAA.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1933)
1933        Pres. Roosevelt signed a law that granted workers the right to choose which labor union they wanted to join.
    (SFC, 9/27/02, p.D11)
1933        Irving Fisher, American economist, first described how falling prices and high leverage could foment “debt-deflation."
    (Econ, 11/15/08, p.88)

1933        The state of Arkansas defaulted on its debt.
    (Econ, 6/19/10, p.31)

1933        In San Francisco Pasquale Gagno constructed a 4-storey stack of one-room flats topped with a blue dome on Dunne’s Alley, Telegraph Hill.
    (SSFC, 1/22/15, p.C2)
1933        The California state legislature approved the Central Valley Project which included the Shasta and Friant Dams. It became a federally built water system to sustain California agriculture. The Friant dam was completed in 1944.
    (SFC, 12/29/99, Z1 p.1)
1933        The Black Cat Café, a San Francisco Tenderloin bar driven out of business in 1921, reopened at 710 Montgomery under Charles Ridley, the same manager who had run the original. In 1945 it was sold to Sol Stouman and began to attract a clientele of homosexuals. In 1947 Jose Sarria (1922-2013) began hanging out there and gained a reputation for performing female impersonations. In 1998 Michael R. Gorman authored “The Empress Is a Man: Stories from the Life of Jose Sarria."
    (SFC, 11/8/14, p.C1)

1933        Agnes and Eugene Meyer purchased the Washington Post at a bankruptcy auction.
    (USAT, 2/13/97, p.5D)(SFC, 7/18/01, p.A6)

1933        In Cleveland, Ohio, Glenville High School classmates Jerry Siegel (b.1914) and Joe Shuster (b.1914) created the Superman cartoon character.

1933        In Pennsylvania the Pymatuning Dam impounded the Pymatuning Reservoir. It was constructed to regulate the flow of the Shenango and Beaver rivers. The reservoir later became a major attraction for tourists, who came to feed the local carp.
    (www.dnr.state.oh.us/parks/parks/pymatuning.htm)(WSJ, 6/16/07, p.A1)
1933        Texas Canyons State Park on the "Big Bend" of the Rio Grande was established. R.E. Thomason, a Texas Congressman, introduced legislation for a national park on the "Big Bend" of the Rio Grande.
    (NG, Jan, 1968, p. 107)

1933        Strom Thurmond, South Carolina politician, first held public office.
    (SFEC, 10/27/96, p.A8)

1933        In the US the whole banking system collapsed on Hoover’s last day in office. The federal government defaulted when it failed to honor its obligation to bondholders in gold.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1933)(WSJ, 12/12/95, p.A-19)
1933        Economists from the Univ. of Chicago sent Pres. Roosevelt a memo outlining a plan to split the two main functions of banks: taking deposits and making loans. This came to be known as the Chicago Plan. Roosevelt opted instead for deposit insurance.
    (Econ, 6/7/14, p.82)

1933        The National Park Service of the US took charge of 146 acres of Point Loma, San Diego, home of the Cabrillo National Monument.
    (AAM, 3/96, p.52)

1933        John Dillinger was paroled. He robbed several banks to provide money for his friends’ escape. He was caught in Ohio, but by then his friends had escaped and they helped him break out.
    (HN, 7/22/99)

1933        In San Francisco the Municipal Pier at Aquatic Park, begun in 1931, reached its full length of 1,850 feet.
    (SFC, 11/14/15, p.C2)
1933        The California state legislature approved the Central Valley Project. It became a federally built water system to sustain California agriculture.
    (SFC, 12/29/99, Z1 p.1)
1933        California voters approved a constitutional amendment requiring a two-thirds vote by legislators for budgets. The requirement was extended to tax increases as part of Proposition 13 in 1978.
    (SFC, 2/25/09, p.A1)
1933        California created a sales tax following the plummet of property taxes during the Great Depression.
    (SFC, 6/21/11, p.D5)
1933        Northern California’s 4,350-acre Castle Crags state park was created thanks to land purchases by private citizens. The adjacent federal wilderness area, covering another 10,500 acres, was established in 1984.
    (SSFC, 5/14/06, p.G8)

1933        The Ingersoll-Waterbury Co. of Waterbury, Conn., made the first Mickey Mouse wristwatches.
    (SFC, 9/2/98, Z1 p.6)

1933        Chicago hosted the "Century of Progress Exhibition." The Sally Rand Fan Dancer clock made by Lux was sold at the Chicago World’s Fair. Sally Rand performed her titillating fan dance 16 times a day at the fair and was one of the most publicized attractions.
    (HT, 3/97, p.14)(SFC, 4/15/98, Z1 p.6)

1933        The state of Maine named the area around Mt. Katahdin Baxter State Park, after former Gov. Percival Baxter (1921-1924) who personally donated the land for permanent preservation. Over 32 years Baxter donated 201,018 acres to the state.

1933        The Minnesota Mortgage Moratorium Law of 1933 was enacted to help farmers hold on to their property during the Depression.
    (WSJ, 5/1/08, p.A15)

1933        A Wisconsin milk strike began as a series of strikes conducted by a cooperative group of dairy farmers in an attempt to raise the price of milk paid to producers during the Great Depression. Three main strike periods occurred in 100933, with length of time and level of violence increased during each one.

1933        Elrey B. "Jepp" Jeppesen (1907-1996) began to make and publish navigation charts for aviators and formed the Jeppesen Sanderson Company to promote the Jeppeson Airway Manual.
    (SFC, 11/30/96, p.A23)

1933        Sam Zemurray, a Russia-born immigrant and shareholder in United Fruit, appeared at a board meeting of United Fruit and with a bag of proxies declared himself overseer of the company. He proceeded to rule UF for the next 25 years. In 2012 Rich Cohen authored “The Fish That Ate the Whale: The Life and Times of America’s Banana King."
    (SSFC, 7/8/12, p.F5)

1933        Chrysler edged past Ford as the number 2 automaker.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)

1933        Industry experts in 1996 picked the 1933 Duesenberg as the number 6 favorite car.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)

1933        AT&T Bell Labs scientists invented stereo recording.
    (WSJ, 9/22/95, p.A-7)

1933        Ernst and Julio Gallo founded the Gallo winery in Modesto, Ca.
    (SFC, 3/24/00, p.B3)

1933        The soft drink Lithiated Lemon was renamed 7-Up.
    (SFC, 3/24/00, p.B3)

1933        Drackett introduced Windex.
    (SFC, 3/24/00, p.B3)

1933        Pan American Airlines took over China Airways, founded by Clement Keys, and renamed it China National Aviation Corp. (CNAC).
    (SFEM, 2/13/00, p.38)

1933        Automatic shifting was introduced by the Reo Car Co. (1904-1936).
    (SSFC, 4/27/08, DB p.58)(www.canadiandriver.com/articles/bv/reo.htm)

1933        The Shure Brothers went into business making phonograph cartridges.
    (SFC, 9/4/96, z1 p.10)

1933        The Debye effect, the selective absorption of electromagnetic waves by a dielectric, due to molecular dipoles, became known. In 2009 the US Navy issued research grants to check whether tit could be used for submarine detection.
    (http://tinyurl.com/l8zmtyc)(Econ, 11/12/16, p.71)

1933        A design patent (89968) was issued for Sham-Poodle bottles, a cobalt blue or amber glass bottle shaped like a poodle that contained dog shampoo.
    (SFC, 1/7/98, Z1 p.6)

1933        Frits Zwicky and Walter Baade, astronomers at Pasadena, suggested that supernovae might form neutron stars.
    (NG, 5/88, p.636)

1933        Robert R. Williams synthesized and named the nutrient vitamin B1.
    (MT, Fall ‘96, p.4)

1933        Malcolm Muggeridge (1903-1990), English writer and reporter, broke the story on the famine in the Ukraine.
    (WSJ, 4/17/96, p.A-18)

1933         Fred Holland Day, photographer, died. His career is covered in the Winter 1994 issue of The British journal History of Photography. [see 1864-1933, Day]
    (Civilization, July-Aug. 1995, p.40-47)
1933        Reuben Haley (b.1872), American glass designer, died.
    (SFC, 7/19/06, p.G3)
1933        Horace Liveright, American-Jewish publisher, died. His life is documented in a book by Tom Dardis titled: "Firebrand: The Life of Horace Liveright."
    (WSJ, 8/8/95, p. A-12)
1932        Barzilla L. Marble (b.1851), Ohio chair maker, died. His B.L. Marble Chair Co. made chairs for homes from 1894 to 1910, when the company switched to making office furniture. In 1965 Marble Chair merged with the Dictaphone Corp.
1933        Jimmy Rogers, country singer, died at 35 of tuberculosis. In 1997 Bob Dylan produced the album "The Songs of Jimmy Rogers: A Tribute" by a variety of artists. He was born in Meridian, Miss. His biography was written by Nolan Porterfield: "Jimmy Rogers: The Life and Times of America’s Blue Yodeler."
    (SFEC, 8/17/97, DB p.56)(WSJ, 9/26/97, p.A20)
1933        Charles Thompson, head of Thompson Products, Inc., died. Leadership in the company was passed to Frederick C. Crawford.
    (F, 10/7/96, p.68)
1933        Richard Throssel (b.1882), photographer and Montana legislator, died. He was a Cree Indian who was adopted by the Crow tribe and lived on the Montana Crow Reservation from 1902-1911. A Book of his work by Peggy Albright was published in 1997: "Crow Indian Photographer: The work of Richard Throssel."
    (SFEC, 7/27/97, BR p.6)
1933        Louis Comfort Tiffany (b.1848), American painter, stained-glass artist, and glass manufacturer, died. He was the son of Charles Lewis Tiffany (1812-1902), the founder of the Tiffany & Co. jewelry business.
    (HFA, ‘96, p.22)(AHD, p.1344)(HN, 2/18/98)(WSJ, 8/4/98, p.A13)

1933        Britain was still operating under the Ten Year Rule which imposed the assumption that the country would not be engaged in any great war for the next ten years and that no Expeditionary Force was required.
    (WSJ, 10/28/97, p.A22)
1933        British intelligence agents discovered that the Nazis were defying a ban on weapons imposed at Versailles.
    (ON, 11/05, p.1)
1933        The first unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) was the radio-controlled “Fairey Queen" biplane. It was catapulted into the air and survived 2 hours of live fire from a British warship. In 1934 Britain’s Air Ministry ordered 420 such aircraft, known as the Queen Bee, which gave rise to the word drone to describe such aircraft.
    (Econ, 12/8/07, TQ p.23)
1933        Harold Peto (b.1854), English architect and gardener, died. In 2007 Robin Halley authored “The Great Edwardian Gardens of Harold Peto."
    (WSJ, 3/1/08, p.W16)

1933        Under threat of impending war, custodians of the art of the Forbidden City of China packed the valuable treasures into some 20,000 boxes and shipped the works to Taipei, Taiwan. Tsang Fu-Ting led a Chinese Communist most-wanted list for his role in arranging the transport .
    (WSJ, 12/29/95, p.A-11)

1933        In Colombia the Palacio de San Francisco, begun in 1918, was completed in La Candelaria, the historic section of Bogota.
    (SSFC, 3/4/07, p.G4)

1933        Denmark legalized gay sex, but it took nearly eight decades before gay people could marry.
    (Econ., 11/21/20, p.48)

1933        Count Byron De Prorok undertook an archeological expedition from Egypt into Ethiopia. His book "Dead Men Do Tell Tales" described the venture. He pioneered the use of motion pictures from 1920. His other books included "Digging for Lost African Gods" (1926), "Mysterious Sahara" (1929) and "In Quest of Lost Worlds" (1935).
    (AM, 9/01, p.64)

1933        Rene Lacoste (b.1905), French tennis player, founded the Lacoste apparel company. He applied a crocodile insignia to polo shirts after his nickname, “Le Crocodile." His son Bernard Lacoste (1931-2006) succeeded as president in 1963.
    (SFC, 3/23/06, p.B7)
1933        Eugene Marioton (b.1854/57), French sculptor, died. Some sources date his death to 1925. Some 400 bronzes are attributed to him, including one titled “Diogenes" (c.1885).
    (SFC, 10/29/08, p.G2)(http://bullrichgaonawernicke.com/R64/pag64-escultura.htm)

1933        German spy activities began in the US soon after Hitler came to power. In 2020 Rhodri Jeffreys-Jones authored "Ring of Spies," an account of Nazi espionage.
    (Econ., 8/15/20, p.73)
1933        Einstein renounced his German citizenship and fled to the US.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.326)(TMC, 1994, p.1933)
1933        Fritz Hirschberger (1912-2004), later Holocaust artist, founded the Dresden chapter of the Zionist underground organization "Betar."
    (SFC, 2/6/04, p.A25)
1933        The Bauhaus was forced to close by the Nazis.
1933        The Nazis closed the Institute of Sexual Science in Berlin run by Dr. Magnus Hirschfeld.
    (SFEC, 6/15/97, DB p.47)(SFC, 8/2/97, p.E4)

1933        In Greenland Martin Lindsay and team with Andrew Croft (d.1998 at 91) made the world’s longest self-supporting dogsled expedition.
    (SFC, 7/4/98, p.C2)

1933        Wing Lung Bank was founded in Hong Kong. It survived a forced relocation to Macau during the Japanese occupation. In 2008 China Merchants Bank launched a takeover of Wing Lung for $4.7 billion.
    (Econ, 6/7/08, p.86)

1933        Francesco Illy founded Illycafe in Trieste, Italy. He invented the compressed air coffee machine (patented in 1934), the predecessor of the espresso machine as we now know it.

1933        Nicholas Shoumatoff captured a couple of small butterflies in Jamaica that were later used to describe a new subspecies: Thecla celida shoumatoffi, or Shoumatoff’s hairstreak.   
    (Nat. Hist. 3/96, p.11)

1933        Japan left the League of Nations.
    (Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 216)
1933        In Japan Kazuma Tateisi founded the OMRON Corporation. By 2006 its automated control technologies approached the level of human knowledge and judgement.
    (Econ, 10/8/05, Survey p.2)(Econ, 12/24/05, p.54)
1933        Japan’s Sanwa Bank was founded. In 2001 it joined with Tokai Bank Tokyo Trust Bank to form UFJ Holdings. In 2005 it became part of the Mitsubishi UFJ Financial Group.
    (WSJ, 9/23/08, p.C1)

1933        Lithuanian popular singer Antanas Sabaniauskas sang "Pasaka" (Story).

1933        Choudhary Rahmat Ali, a student at Cambridge, coined the name Pakistan 14 years before the country came into existence. It was an acronym derived from the regions Punjab, Afghan province (later Khyber Pakhtunkkhwa), Kashmir, Sindh and the final letters of Balochistan. The name is also said to be product of two words in Urdu and Persian: stan and pak, which together mean “land of the pure."
    (SSFC, 12/17/06, p.G5)(Econ, 4/22/17, p.74)

1933        In Portugal Antonio Salazar began his 41-year conservative dictatorship.
    (SFC, 10/9/98, p.A2)

1933        In Romania a gold-embellished hunting rifle was commissioned for King Carol II. Decades later it came into the possession of dictator Nicolae Ceauscescu, who engraved his name on it. In 2017 the gun sold at auction for $37,000.
    (SFC, 7/12/17, p.A2)

1933        Yakov Chernikhov (d.1951) Russian architect, authored "101 Architectural Fantasies." His adventurous designs were poorly regarded by Soviet authorities and few of his buildings were constructed.
    (AP, 8/8/06)
1933        Alexander Rodchenko, artist and photographer, was dispatched to document the White Sea-Baltic Canal project in which some 200,000 political prisoners were killed.
    (WSJ, 7/8/98, p.A13)(Econ, 2/9/08, p.91)
1933        In Russia Stalin launched the Moscow Metro. It took 75,000 workers 3 years to complete the first 7-mile line.
    (WSJ, 11/4/98, p.A1)
1933        Provideniya, USSR, was founded across from Alaska by the Soviets as a supply port for Arctic settlements.
    (NG, Oct. 1988, p. 507)
1933        George F. Kennan (1904-2005) established America’s first embassy in the Soviet Union.
    (Econ, 11/12/11, p.97)

1933        In Spain a revolutionary uprising was staged by anarchists at Casas Viejas and was drowned in blood by Spanish authorities. In 1968 Jerome Mintz (d.1997 at 67), US anthropologist, published "The Anarchists of Casa Viejas," an account and oral history of the uprising.
    (SFC,12/20/97, p.A21)

1933        Silpakorn, Thailand’s largest fine arts university, was founded by the Italian sculptor Corrado Feroci.
    (WSJ, 3/5/97, p.A16)

1933-1934    Martin Heidegger (b.1889) served as the Nazi rector of the Univ. of Freiburg.
    (WSJ, 10/11/01, p.A20)

1933-1935    The US Justice Department’s War on Crime took place. In 2004 Bryan Burrough authored “Public Enemies: America’s Greatest Crime Wave and the Birth of the FBI, 1933-1934" a reconstruction of this period based on FBI files.
    (WSJ, 7/15/04, p.D8)(SSFC, 7/25/04, p.M3)

1933-1936    A destructive combination of dry farming techniques, drought and wind erosion obliterated farms and fields in the central Plains states, driving thousands of desperate refugees off the land. The dust storms were so fierce that skies as far away as Albany, N.Y., darkened with the topsoil of the Plains.
    (HNPD, 5/3/99)

1933-1937    In London, England, the huge Battersea Power Station was built on the Thames. Sir Giles Gilbert Scott designed the Battersea power station. [He also designed traditional red telephone boxes of London.] The station was decommissioned in 1982. In 1997 it was scheduled for a $2.2 billion redevelopment by Parkview Int’l.
    (WSJ, 6/25/97, p.B12)(WSJ, 5/11/00, p.A24)(SSFC, 6/19/05, p.E5)

1933-1939    In 2005 Richard J. Evan authored “The Third Reich in Power: 1933-1939."
    (Econ, 10/29/05, p.87)

1933-1941    Henry A. Wallace, the son of Henry C. Wallace, served as Secretary of Agriculture under Franklin Roosevelt from 1933 to 1941. He went on to become vice president in Roosevelt’s third term. Because of his ultraliberal views, Wallace was passed over for the vice-presidential nomination in 1944, but served as Secretary of Commerce until forced to resign after Roosevelt’s death because of differences with President Truman.
       (HNQ, 8/28/99)

1933-1944    Cordell Hull served as secretary of state in the Franklin Roosevelt Administration longer than any other individual. Hull, born in Tennessee in 1871, had been a U.S. senator prior to his appointment by Roosevelt. Hull was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1945 for his role in founding the United Nations. He died in 1955.
    (HNQ, 7/6/98)

1933-1945    Franklin D. Roosevelt was the 32nd President of the US.
    (A&IP, ESM, p.96b, photo)
1933-1945    A study of classical music during the German Third Reich was published in 1997 by Michael H. Kater: "The Twisted Muse: Musicians and Their Music in the Third Reich."
    (WSJ, 10/27/97, p.A20)
1933-1945    In 1998 the "Penguin Dictionary of the Third Reich" was published.
    (SFEC, 8/28/98, Par p.20)
1933-1945    In Germany the Sachsenhausen camp at Oranienburg held some 200,000 people over this period. About half died including an estimated 10,000 Jews and 18,000 Soviet soldiers.
    (SFEC, 9/19/99, p.A21)
1933-1945    In 2008 Latvian filmmaker Edvins Snore, directed “Soviet Story." It shows the close connections—philosophical, political and organizational—between the Nazi and Soviet systems beginning in 1933 thru WWII.

1933-1946    Harold LeClaire Ickes, longtime American political leader served as Secretary of the Interior under Pres. Roosevelt. Ickes was an outspoken opponent of big business and a strong supporter of conservation and comprehensive national planning.  Nicknamed "Honest Harold" because of his scrupulous concern for the public interest and ferreting out of graft and corruption, Ickes also was director of the Public Works Administration from 1933 to 1939. Ickes-once president of the Chicago NAACP-and Eleanor Roosevelt were the New Deal‘s staunchest advocates of civil rights. Ickes was born in Frankstown, Pennsylvania, March 15, 1874. He died on February 3, 1952. Ickes‘ son, Harold, served as a senior advisor in the Clinton Administration.
    (HNQ, 9/9/99)

1933-1951    Jack Armstrong, the fictional "All-American Boy," starred in a radio adventure serial during this period.
    (SFC,11/12/97, Z1 p.7)

1933-1953    James Conant ran Harvard Univ. He took what was a regional, parochial and snobbish institution, resistant to Jews and women, and  turned it into a national, meritocratic university.
    (Econ, 2/25/06, p.38)

1933-1954    The square-rigged Balclutha was renamed the Pacific Queen. It was dubbed a pirate ship and towed around as a floating carnival boat.
    (SFEC,11/23/97, p.D3)

1933-1955    Nellie Tayloe Ross, former governor of Wyoming, served as the first woman director of the U.S. Mint.
    (HNQ, 4/29/02)

1933-1956    Black Mountain College in western North Carolina. It was founded by Theodore Dreir (d.1997), an electrical engineer, to develop the educational ideas of John Dewey with innovation in the arts as characterized by the Bauhaus movement. Artists who taught there included Merce Cunningham, John Cage, Elaine and Willem de Kooning, Buckminster Fuller, and Edward Dorn.
    (SFC, 5/10/97, p.A20)(SFC, 12/15/99, p.B2)

1933-1967    The Andrews Sisters (Maxene (d.1995), LaVerne (d.1967) and Patty) sang as a close-harmony trio and sold over 100 million records. Their hits included "Don't Sit Under the Apple Tree," and "The Boogie Woogie Bugle Boy from Company B."
    (SFEC, 5/30/99, p.C15)

1933-1973    King Zahir Shah (1914-2007) began his rule as king of Afghanistan. He kept the country in feudal backwardness until he was overthrown in 1973. His uncles served as prime ministers and advisors until 1953.
    (https://www.afghan-web.com/history/chronology/)(SFC, 9/23/96, A9)

1933-1997    The 1998 book "German Art from Beckmann to Richter" was edited by Eckhart Gillen. It accompanied a large 1997 exhibition in Berlin.
    (SFEC, 2/1/98, BR p.6)

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