Return to home1924 Jan 2,
Simon & Schuster was originally setup in NYC by Richard L. Simon
and M. Lincoln Schuster to publish crossword puzzles.
1924 Jan 3, Hank Stram
football: coach, was born: Kansas City Chiefs: Super Bowls I, IV;
sportscaster: CBS radio.
(440 Int'l. 1/3/99)
1924 Jan 3, Howard Carter
opened the doors to the last shrine in the hall, revealing the large
stone sarcophagus of the Pharaoh Tutankhamen. The next day Carter
was photographed with Arthur Callender and an Egyptian workman in
the Burial Chamber, looking through the open doors of the four
gilded shrines, towards the quartzite sarcophagus tomb of
1924 Jan 9, Ford Motor Co.
stock was valued at nearly $1 billion.
1924 Jan 9, Sun Yat-sen
appealed to the U.S. to seek international pressure for peace in
1924 Jan 16, Katy Jurado
(d.2002), Mexican-US film actress, was born as Maria Cristina Jurado
Garcia in Guadalajara.
(SFC, 7/6/02, p.A19)
1924 Jan 21, Benny Hill
(d.1992), British comedian who hosted his own comedy show, was born
in Southampton, England. [Some sources give 1925 as the birth year]
1924 Jan 21, Russian
revolutionary Vladimir Ilyich Lenin died at age 53 and a major
struggle for power in the Soviet Union began. A triumvirate led by
Joseph Stalin succeeded Lenin. By 1928, Stalin had assumed absolute
power, ruling as an often brutal dictator until his death in 1953 of
a brain hemorrhage. In 1998 Vladimir Brovkin published "Russia After
Lenin." After the death of Lenin, Bukharin became a full member of
the Politburo and opposed the policy of initiating rapid
industrialization and collectivization in agriculture-a position
shared by Stalin at the time. In 2000 Robert Service authored
(TMC, 1994, p.1924)(AP, 1/21/98)(WSJ, 8/3/98,
1924 Jan 22, J.J. Johnson,
composer, jazz trombonist, was born.
1924 Jan 22, American Tobacco
was re-instated as a component of the Dow Jones.
(WSJ, 5/28/96, p. R-45)
1924 Jan 24, The wedding of
Alma Reed, a New York Times reporter, and Felipe Carrillo, governor
of the Yucatan, was to have taken place in Merida. Carrillo was
executed in Merida, a few days before the wedding, by hacienda
owners angry over his planned reforms.
(SSFC, 5/6/01, p.T6)
1924 Jan 24, The Russian city
of Petrograd (formerly St. Petersburg) was renamed Leningrad in
honor of the late revolutionary leader. It has since been re-named
1924 Jan 25, The 1st Winter
Olympic games opened in Chamonix, France.
1924 Jan 26, Saad Zaghloul
(1859-1927) began serving as PM of Egypt and continued to November
1924 Jan 27, Lenin's body was
laid in a marble tomb on Red Square near the Kremlin.
1924 Jan 29, An ice cream cone
rolling machine was patented by Carl Taylor in Cleveland.
1924 Feb 1, Soviet Union was
formally recognized by Britain.
1924 Feb 3, Woodrow Wilson
(68), the 28th president of the United States, died in Washington.
The Woodrow Wilson Foundation in 1958 asked Prof. Arthur Link
(1920-1998) of Northwestern Univ. to oversee the publication of
Wilson’s papers. Link spent 35 years on the project and completed
his 69th and final volume in 1983. Link also produced a 5-volume
biography on Wilson. In 2013 A. Scott Berg authored the biography
(AP, 2/3/97)(SFEC, 3/29/98, p.E7)(Econ, 9/7/13,
1924 Feb 4, The 1st Winter
Olympic games closed at Chamonix, France.
1924 Feb 7, Mussolini
government exchanged diplomats with USSR.
1924 Feb 8, The gas chamber was
used for the first time to execute a murderer. Major D.A. Turner of
the US Medical Corps used hydrocyanic gas on an alleged Chinese Tong
member named Gee Jon at the Nevada State Prison in Carson City, Nev.
(HN, 2/8/98)(SFC, 6/27/98, p.E4)(AP, 2/8/99)
1924 Feb 12, George Gershwin’s
groundbreaking symphonic jazz composition "Rhapsody in Blue"
premiered at Carnegie Hall with Gershwin himself playing the piano
with Paul Whiteman’s orchestra.
(AP, 2/12/98)(HN, 2/12/01)(MC, 2/12/02)
1924 Feb 12, Women were banned
from entering the tomb of Tutankhamun which leads to diplomatic
problems with Great Britain and America. Carter wrote a pamphlet to
document interference by authorities and leaves the excavation and
locks the tomb. Pierre Lacau, the French Director of Antiquities,
demands the keys and Carter refuses to give them up.
1924 Feb 14, Patricia Edwina
Victoria Mountbatten, the 2nd Countess Mountbatten of Burma, was
born in London.
1924 Feb 14, Thomas J. Watson,
general manager of Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company (CTR),
renamed the firm International Business Machines (IBM).
1924 Feb 17, Margaret Truman,
pres. daughter, writer (Murder at FBI), singer, was born in Mo.
1924 Feb 20, Gloria Vanderbilt,
fashion designer, was born. In 2004 she published her memoir “It
Seemed Important At the Time."
(HN, 2/20/98)(WSJ, 10/1/04, p.W7)
1924 Feb 20, Pierre Lacau, the
French Director of Antiquities, was authorized by the Egyptian
Cabinet to reopen the tomb of Tutankhamun and resume work. Howard
Carter refuses its offer to continue his work under Egyptian
May 1985, p.598)(SFC, 8/5/96, p.A10)
1924 Feb 21, Robert Mugabe,
Zimbabwe president, was born in southern Rhodesia into the Zezeru
sub-group of the Shona tribe.
(www.afroamerica.net/RobertMugabe122001.html)(Econ, 1/15/05, p.44)
1924 Feb 22, Columbia
University declared radio education a success.
1924 Feb 22, Calvin Coolidge
delivered the first presidential radio broadcast from the White
House as he addressed the country over 42 stations.
1924 Feb 23, Allan MacLeod
Cormack, physicist, was born. He later developed the CAT scan.
1924 Feb 24, Mahatma Gandhi was
released from jail.
1924 Feb 26, Noboru Takeshita,
Japanese PM (1987-89), was born.
1924 Feb 26, U.S. steel
industry finds claimed an eight-hour day increased efficiency and
1924 Feb 26, A trial against
Hitler began in Munich.
1924 Feb 28, U.S. troops were
sent to Honduras to protect American interests during an election
1924 Feb 29, Al Rosen, baseball
player, was born.
(SFC, 2/29/00, p.A1)
1924 Mar 1, Emile Fradin
(d.2010 at 103), French peasant, discovered an underground chamber
containing ancient artifacts that were later dated anywhere from 300
BC to the 15th century. The field, called Duranthon, was later
renamed the Champ des Morts (field of the Dead).
(Econ, 3/13/10, p.89)
1924 Mar 1, Germany's
prohibition of Communist Party (KPD) was lifted.
1924 Mar 3, Sean O'Casey's
"Juno and the Paycock" premiered in Dublin.
1924 Mar 3, German and Turkish
friendship and trade treaty was signed.
1924 Mar 3, Kemal Ataturk
forced the abolition of the Muslim caliphate through the protesting
assembly and banned all Kurdish schools, publications and
associations. This ended the Ottoman Empire and created the modern
Middle East, though Iraq, Jordan, Syria and Saudi Arabia were still
colonies of Britain and France.
(WSJ, 2/11/99, p.A24)(SSFC, 10/14/01, p.A3)
1924 Mar 4, "Happy Birthday To
You" was published by Claydon Sunny.
1924 Mar 5,
Computing-Tabulating-Recording Corp became IBM.
1924 Mar 6, Sarah Caldwell,
conductor, opera director (Flagstaff), was born in Maryville, Mo.
1924 Mar 6, William H. Webster,
US judge, head FBI and CIA, was born.
1924 Mar 8, Coal mine explosion
killed 171 at Castle Gate, Utah.
1924 Mar 10, The U.S. Supreme
Court upheld a New York state law forbidding late-night work for
1924 Mar 13, The Reichstag was
dissolved for the fifth time in German history.
1924 Mar 15, Sweden recognized
1924 Mar 17, Four Douglas army
aircraft left Los Angeles for an around the world flight.
1924 Mar 19, U.S. troops were
rushed to Tegucigalpa as the Honduran capital was taken by rebel
1924 Mar 19, Charles Villiers
Stanford (71), Irish composer, author, died.
1924 Mar 20, The Virginia
Legislature passed two closely related eugenics laws: SB 219,
entitled "The Racial Integrity Act" and SB 281, "An ACT to provide
for the sexual sterilization of inmates of State institutions in
certain cases", henceforth referred to as "The Sterilization Act".
The Racial Integrity Act (one drop law) required that a racial
description of every person be recorded at birth, and felonized
marriage between "white persons" and non-white persons. The law was
the most famous ban on miscegenation in the US, and was overturned
by the US Supreme Court in 1967, in Loving v. Virginia. Virginia
repealed the sterilization in 1979. In 2001 the House of Delegates
voted to express regret for the state’s selecting breeding policies
that had forced sterilizations on some 8,000 people. The Senate soon
2/4/01, p.A3)(SFC, 2/15/01, p.C16)
1924 Mar 24, Greece became a
1924 Mar 25, Greece was made a
republic and King George II (1890-1947) was deposed in favor of a
non-royal government. King George was king from 1922-1923 and from
(HN, 3/24/98)(WUD, 1994, p.593)
1924 Mar 26, Premiere of
Bernard Shaw's "Saint Joan" in London.
1924 Mar 28, At the request of
French President Raymond Poincaré Col. Ernest Mercier with the
support of ninety banks and companies founded Compagnie française
des pétroles (CFP), later renamed Total.
1924 Mar 29, Charles Villiers
Stanford (71), Irish composer, writer, died.
1924 Mar 30, In SF Sts. Peter
and Paul Church was dedicated in North Beach on Washington Square.
The original 1884 church, at the corner of Grant and Filbert, was
destroyed in the 1906 earthquake.
(SSFC, 5/17/09, DB p.50)(SFC, 11/22/14, p.C1)
1924 Mar 31, Leo Buscaglia,
"Dr. Hug", psychologist (Love), was born in LA, Calif.
1924 Mar, In Albania Zogu's
party won elections for the National Assembly, but Zogu stepped down
after a financial scandal and an assassination attempt.
(www, Albania, 1998)
1924 Apr 1, Adolf Hitler was
sentenced to five years in prison for "Beer Hall Putsch." Gen
Ludendorff was acquitted for leading the botched Nazi's "Beer Hall
Putsch" in the German state of Bavaria
(HN, 4/1/98)(MC, 4/1/02)
Apr 1, Imperial Airways was formed in Britain.
1924 Apr 3, Marlon Brando,
actor (On the Waterfront, The Godfather), was born in Omaha, Neb.
(HN, 4/3/01)(MC, 4/3/02)
1924 Apr 3, Murray Dickie,
opera singer, director, was born.
1924 Apr 3, Doris Von
Kappelhoff [Doris Day], American singer and actress, was born in
(HN, 4/3/01)(MC, 4/3/02)
1924 Apr 20, Nina Foch
(d.2008), film, theater and TV actress, was born in Leyden,
Netherlands. Her films later included “An American in Paris"
(SFC, 12/13/08, p.A5)
1924 Apr 6, Four open-cockpit
biplanes took off from Seattle for a round the world flight. Two of
the planes made it back. They flew 26,000 miles in 363 hours over a
175 days at an average speed of 77 mph. The US Congress had to
approve the financing and the airplanes were built by Douglas
Aircraft. [see May 3, 1923]
(Hem., 2/96, p.43)(HN, 4/6/98)
1924 Apr 6, Italy fascists
received 65% of vote of parliament.
1924 Apr 10, David Halberstam,
New York Times correspondent, author, Pulitzer Prize winner in 1964,
1924 Apr 11, WLS-AM in Chicago
IL began radio transmissions.
1924 Apr 13, Stanley Donen,
film director, producer (Bedazzled, Damn Yankees), was born in SC.
1924 Apr 14, Louis Henri
Sullivan (67), Chicago architect (Wainwright building St Louis),
died. He wrote an autobiography entitled "The Autobiography of an
Idea." "Imagination is the greatest of man’s single working powers -
and the trickiest; as the intellect is the frailest, the most
subject to derangement, the most given to cowardice and betrayal,
unless it be held steady and sane by the power of instinct."
(Hem., 7/95, p.82)(MC, 4/14/02)
1924 Apr 16, Henry Mancini,
composer and conductor of such songs as "Moon River."
1924 Apr 18, Henry J. Hyde,
(Rep-R-IL), was born.
1924 Apr 19, The "National Barn
Dance" premiered on WLS in Chicago.
1924 Apr 20, Nina Foch, actress
(American in Paris), was born in Leiden, Netherlands.
1924 Apr 21, Eleanora Duse
(b.1858), Italian actress (La Gioconda, La Locandiera), died in
Pittsburgh at age 64. In 2003 Helen Sheehy authored "Eleonora Duse:
(WSJ, 8/22/03, p.W10)(http://tinyurl.com/6x59r)
1924 Apr 23, Eugen Goldbeck
shot his photo: "National Balloon Race."
(SFC, 9/26/96, p.E1)
1924 Apr 23, The U.S. Senate
passed a Soldiers Bonus Bill, but deferred payments to some 4
million veterans to 1945. Pres. Coolidge vetoed the bill, but
Congress overrode him.
(HN, 4/23/99)(WSJ, 11/7/05, p.B1)
1924 Apr 26, Teddy Edwards,
tenor sax player, was born. He did "Me and My Lover."
(440 Int’l. Internet, 4/26/97, p.1)
1924 Apr 26, House Joint
Resolution No. 184, The child labor amendment to prohibit the labor
of persons under 18 years of age, was adopted by the US House of
Representatives, with a vote of 297 yeas, 69 nays, 2 "present" and
64 not voting. It was then adopted by the Senate on June 2, 1924,
with a vote of 61 yeas, 23 nays and 12 not voting. With that, the
proposed constitutional amendment was submitted to the state
legislatures for ratification pursuant to Article V of the
Constitution. It was never ratified and in 2007 was still
1924 Apr 29, Open revolt broke
out in Santa Clara, Cuba.
1924 Apr 30, Sheldon Harnick,
lyricist (Fiorello, Fiddler on the Roof), was born in Chicago.
1924 May 1, Terry Southern,
novelist and screenwriter (Candy, The Magic Christian, Dr.
Strangelove, Easy Rider), was born.
(HN, 5/1/01)(MC, 5/1/02)
1924 May 2, Theodore Bikel,
Austrian-US folk singer, actor (Russians Are Coming), was born.
1924 May 4, The summer Olympics
opened in Paris. The French rugby team beat the Rumanians 61-3.
1924 May 4, Fascists and
communists gained power in the German Republic elections.
1924 May 5, Kate Claxton
(b.1850), NYC theater actress, died.
1924 May 8, Arthur Honegger's
"Pacifica 231," premiered.
1924 May 8, Ricardo Jimenez
Oreamuno (b.1859) began serving his 2nd term as president of Costa
Rica. In 1928 he was succeeded by Cleto Gonzalez Viquez.
1924 May 10, J. Edgar Hoover
was appointed head of the Federal Bureau of Investigation at age 29.
(TMC, 1994, p.1924)(AP, 5/10/97)(HN, 5/10/98)
1924 May 12, Russian-American
poet Alexander Esenin-Volpin was born in Leningrad. A notable
dissident, political prisoner and a leader of the Soviet human
rights movement, he spent total of fourteen years incarcerated and
repressed by the Soviet authorities in prisons, psikhushkas and
1924 May 16, Frank F.
Mankiewicz, columnist (Perfectly Clear), was born in NYC.
1924 May 17, In Santa Cruz,
Ca., the Giant Dipper roller coaster opened to the public. It was
built by local resident Arthur Looff. It cost $50,000 and took 47
days to construct. It was declared a Historic Landmark in 1987.
(CG, #205, 1991)(SFEC, 3/14/99, DB p.71)
1924 May 18, At the Olympics in
Paris the American rugby team beat the French 17-3. Only France,
Rumania and America fielded rugby teams. Rugby was dismissed from
the Olympics after rival fans rioted following the American upset
(WSJ, 7/23/96, p.A6)(Ind, 2/16/02, 6A)
1924 May 21, Bobby Franks (14)
was murdered in a "thrill killing" committed by Nathan Leopold Jr.
(19) and Richard Loeb (18), two rich college kids of the University
of Chicago. The meticulously planned crime might never have been
solved had Leopold's unique eyeglasses not been found near Franks'
body. They were defended by Clarence Darrow, who pleaded his clients
guilty in order to keep the case from a jury. Richard Loeb was a
cousin of Bobby Franks. The sensational two-month trial generated an
outcry in favor of execution, but Judge John Caverly sentenced the
two to life imprisonment. Loeb was killed in a prison fight in 1936.
Leopold, with the support of Prosecutor Crowe, was released from
prison in 1958 and died of a heart attack in 1971. In 1956 Meyer
Levin authored “Compulsion," an account of the case. A play
dramatizing the case was written in 1995 by John Logan. In 2008
Simon Baatz authored “For the Thrill of It: Leopold, Loeb, and the
Murder That Shocked Chicago."
(AP, 5/21/97)(WSJ, 12/1/95, p.A-12)(AP,
5/21/97)(WSJ, 11/10/07, p.W8)(WSJ, 8/8/08, p.W8)
1924 May 25, Theodore Morse
(51), composer, died.
1924 May 26, President Coolidge
signed an Immigration-restriction law based on eugenic principles.
1924 May 26, The US Immigration
Act of 1924 (aka Johnson–Reed Act) prevented any further Japanese
immigration to the US for the next four decades. It included
the National Origins Act and the Asian Exclusion Act which
prohibited the immigration of Arabs, East Asians, and Indians.
1924 May 26, Victor Herbert
(65), Irish-US cellist, composer ("Babes in Toyland," "Eileen," "The
Red Mill") conductor, died.
1924 May 26, German government
of Marx resigned.
1924 May 29, Pierre-Paul Cambon
French diplomat (Madrid/London), died.
1924 May 30, The Rivoli Theater
in Manhattan opened with a new air-conditioning system developed by
Willis Carrier. This followed 3 successful installation in Texas.
(ON, 8/07, p.11)
1924 May, Benjamin Spock, a
Yale medical student, won a gold medal as part of the men’s 8-man
rowing team in the Paris Olympics.
(WSJ, 7/23/96, p.A6)
1924 May, Helen Wills and
Vincent Richards swept all 5 tennis titles. Tennis was dropped from
the Olympic Games after 1924 because the best players had turned
(SFC, 2/5/00, p.B3)(Ind, 2/16/02, 6A)
1924 May, Johnny Weissmuller
(19) won gold in the 100-meter swimming event.
(Ind, 2/16/02, 6A)
1924 May, Gertrude Ederle won a
gold medal the summer Olympics in Paris as a member of the US
400-meter relay team.
(ON, 2/10, p.4)
1924 May, The US dominated the
summer Olympics in Paris and Finland ranked a distant 2nd.
(Ind, 2/16/02, 6A)
1924 Jun 2, Congress granted
U.S. citizenship to all American Indians. The Snyder Act granted
full citizenship to all Native Americans born in the U.S.
(AP, 6/2/97)(HN, 6/2/98)(HNQ, 3/1/99)
1924 Jun 3, The US Forest
Service designated 750,000 acres of the Gila National Forest in New
Mexico as the Gila Wilderness, America’s first wilderness area. The
Forest Service extended itself in a conservation direction promoted
by Aldo Leopold, Arthur Carhart, and other agency staff.
1924 Jun 3, Franz Kafka
(b.1883), Czech writer, died. He was born in Prague and authored
"The Castle" and "The Trial," both published after his death. Kafka
had requested that his papers be burned after his death, but his
friend, Max Brod, kept them and carried them to Tel Aviv when he
fled Prague in 1939. Brod died in 1968 and left his personal
secretary, Esther Hoffe, in charge of his literary estate and
instructed her to transfer the Kafka papers to an academic
institution. A critical German edition of The Castle was published
in 1982 and an English translation of that edition came out in 1998.
In 1927 Max Brod edited Kafka’s unfinished manuscript called "The
Man Who Disappeared" and published it as "Amerika." In 2005 Roberto
Calasso authored “K," a contemporary evaluation of Kafka’s work. In
2010 more of Kafka’s unfinished work emerged from safety deposit
boxes in Tel Aviv and Zurich, Switzerland.
(WSJ, 10/10/96, p.A1)(SFEC, 4/5/98, BR
p.11)(SSFC, 12/8/02, p.M4)(SSFC, 2/20/05, p.B1)(SFC, 8/18/08,
1924 Jun 6, The German
Reichstag accepted the Dawes Plan, an American plan to help Germany
pay off its war debts.
1924 Jun 7, Dolores Gray,
singer, actress (Designing Woman, Kismet), was born in Chicago.
1924 Jun 8, George Mallory
(38), a British schoolteacher, and Andrew Irvine (28), a student at
Cambridge, attempted to reach the top of Mount Everest from their
camp at 26,800 feet. The body of Mallory was found May 1, 1999 on a
ledge at 27,000 feet. Irvine’s body was not found. Two books were
published in 1999 that used parallel narratives for the 2
expeditions: "The Lost Explorer" by Conrad Anker and David Roberts,
and "Ghosts of Everest" by Jochen Hemmleb, Larry A. Johnson and Eric
R. Simonson (as told to William E. Northdurft). In 2012 Wade Davis
won Britain’s leading nonfiction book prize for “Into the Silence:
The Great War, Mallory and the Conquest of Everest."
(SFC, 5/5/99, p.A10)(WSJ, 12/16/99, p.W10)(SFC,
1924 Jun 9, "Jelly-Roll Blues,"
was recorded by blues great, Jelly Roll Morton.
1924 Jun 10, The Italian
socialist leader Giacomo Matteotti was kidnapped and assassinated by
Fascists in Rome.
1924 Jun 12, George H.W. Bush
(d.2018), the forty-first US President, was born in Milton, Mass. He
sent the US Armed Forces to defeat Iraq in the Persian Gulf War.
(SSFC, 12/2/18, p.A13)
1924 Jun 15, J. Edgar Hoover
assumed leadership of the FBI. [see May 10]
1924 Jun 17, The Fascist
militia marched into Rome.
1924 Jun 20, Chet Atkins,
guitarist, was born.
1924 Jun 20, Audie Murphy was
born in Kingston, Tx. He became the most decorated American soldier
of World War II who went on to make movies and write a book about
his war experiences called "To Hell and Back."
(HN, 6/20/98)(MC, 6/20/02)
1924 Jun 23, Lt. Russell
Maugham flew from New York to San Francisco in his 3rd attempt at a
dawn to dusk traverse of the continent.
(SFEC, 12/26/99, p.W7)
1924 Jun 23, Cecil [James]
Sharp (64), English folk musician, died.
1924 Jun 24, The Democrats
began their convention in New York’s Madison Square Garden. They
were lured there by newspaper mogul Herbert Bayard Swope’s
fundraising offer of $205,000. US Democrats offered Mrs. Lena Jones
Springs (d.1942) for vice presidential nomination, the first woman
considered for the job, for her party work in South Carolina.
(HN, 6/27/98)(SFC, 1/31/07, p.G6)
1924 Jun 24, The US political
conventions were first broadcast nationally by radio. The democrats
settled on John W. Davis after 103 ballots. He was then defeated
soundly by Calvin Coolidge.
(WSJ, 7/22/96, p.A12)(WSJ, 8/9/96, p.A11)
1924 Jul 24, Palmer Cox
(b.1840), Canadian artist and writer, died. He wrote and illustrated
children’s stories about brownies, little elves from Scottish
folklore. 2 dozen of his stories were collected and published in
1887 as “The Brownies: Their Book." His characters inspired the name
for a Kodak camera and for young girl scouts.
1924 Jun 26, After eight years
of occupation, American troops left the Dominican Republic.
1924 Jun 28, A tornado struck
Sandusky & Lorain, Ohio, killing 93.
1924 Jul 1, A regular
transcontinental airmail service formed between NYC and SF.
1924 Jul 2, The 1st day of
transcontinental airmail service brought news to SF mailed from New
York after 34 hours and 45 minutes.
(SFEC, 12/26/99, p.W7)
1924 Jul 5, Janos Starker,
cellist (Chic Symph 1953-58), was born in Budapest, Hungary.
1924 Jul 10, Denmark took
Greenland as Norway ended its claim.
1924 Jul 11, After 103 roll
calls the Democrats bypassed New York governor Alfred E. Smith and
William G. McAdoo of California and nominated John W. Davis of West
Virginia and Charles Bryan, brother of William Jennings, to run
against Calvin Coolidge. The Democrats won just 29% of the popular
vote in a 3-way race with Coolidge and Senator Robert "Fighting Bob"
LaFolette of Wisconsin who led the Progressive Party.
(Hem., 8/96, p.87)
1924 Jul 13, Alfred Marshall
(b.1842), a founding father of modern economics, died in Cambridge,
England. His book, “Principles of Economics" (1890), was the
dominant economic textbook in England for many years. He described
economics as “the study of men as they live and move and think in
the ordinary business of life." He was the first to lay out the
wider costs of human behavior, called externalities and
(Econ, 10/27/12, SR
p.72)(Econ, 8/19/17, p.58)
1924 Jul 21, Don Knotts
(d.2006), later film and TV star (The Andy Griffith Show, Matlock,
Three’s Company), was born in Morgantown, West Virginia.
(SSFC, 2/26/06, p.B7)
1924 Jul 25, Frank Church,
Sen-D-Id, was born in Boise.
1924 Jul 25, Estelle Getty,
actress (Sophia Petrillo-Golden Girls), was born in NYC.
1924 Jul 25, Greece announced
the deportation of 50,000 Armenians.
1924 Jul 27, The summer
Olympics closed in Paris.
1924 Jul 27, Ferruccio Dante
Michelangelo Benvenuto Busoni (58), composer, died. He left
unfinished his opera "Doktor Faust," which was finished in 1982 by
Antony Beaumont. The opera was based on work by Christopher Marlowe
and puppet plays that preceded the Goethe treatment.
(SFC, 6/25/96, p.E2)(WSJ, 9/2/99, p.A12)(MC,
1924 Jul 30, William H. Gass,
writer (Omensetter's Luck), was born.
1924 Jul, In Albania a
peasant-backed insurgency won control of Tirana; Fan S. Noli became
Prime Minister; Zogu fled to Yugoslavia.
(www, Albania, 1998)
1924 Aug 2, James Baldwin
(d.1987), writer, was born. His books included "The Fire the Next
Time," "Go Tell it on the Mountain" and "Notes of a Native Son." His
quotes include: "People are trapped in history and history is
trapped in them." "The price one pays for pursuing any profession,
or calling, is an intimate knowledge of its ugly side."
(AP, 3/1/98)(AP, 12/18/98)(HN, 8/2/02)
1924 Aug 2, Carroll O'Connor
(d.2001), actor (All in the Family, Heat of the Night), was
born in NYC. His youngest brother Robert was born Aug 1, 1935.
(www.bookrags.com/biography-carroll-oconnor/)(e-mail from Robert)
1924 Aug 3, Leon Uris, writer,
was born. His works included "Battle Cry" and "Exodus."
1924 Aug 3, Joseph Conrad
(b.1857), Ukraine-born and Poland-raised novelist (Jozef Teodor
Konrad Korzeniowski), died in England. In 2008 Jim Stape authored
“The Several Lives of Joseph Conrad."
1924 Aug 5, The comic strip
"Little Orphan Annie" by Harold Gray (d.1968) made its debut in the
NY Daily News. Daddy Warbucks was her millionaire guardian. Leonard
Starr took over the strip in 1979. Her image was updated in 2000 by
cartoonist Andrew Pepoy. [see Oct 5]
(AP, 8/5/97)(SFEC, 10/17/99, p.C12)(SFC, 6/12/00,
1924 Aug 5, The San Francisco
Bay Area town of Colma was incorporated under the name “Lawndale."
The name was changed in December, 1941, as the US Post Office
declared that there was another Lawndale in California.
1924 Aug 14, Georges Pretre,
conductor (NY Met), was born in Waziers, France.
1924 Aug 15, Robert Oxton Bolt,
English screenwriter and playwright, was born. He is best known for
"A Man for all Seasons."
(HN, 8/15/00)(MC, 8/15/02)
1924 Aug 16, Conference about
German recovery payments opened in London.
1924 Aug 25, An
international maritime treaty was drawn.
1924 Aug 29, Dinah Washington
(d.1963), singer, was born as Ruth Jones in Tuscaloosa, Alabama. She
was known in the 50s as "Queen of the Harlem Blues."
(HN, 8/29/00)(SSFC, 8/22/04, p.M1)
1924 Sep 2, The Rudolf Friml
operetta "Rose Marie" opened on Broadway and ran for 558
performances. Producer Arthur Hammerstein ordered that it be written
for singer Mary Ellis (1897-2003).
(AP, 9/2/99)(SFC, 2/3/03, p.B4)
1924 Sep 3, "What Price
Glory?", written by Maxwell Anderson and Lawrence Stallings
premiered in NYC. It was turned into a film in 1926 and again in
5/30/99, DB p.37)
1924 Sep 6, Forty teenagers
from Armenia, who had escaped from the Armenian genocide in Turkey,
arrived in Addis Ababa. Emp. Haile Selassie had invited the band
after hearing them in Jerusalem. The band along with bandleader
Kevork Nalbandian became the first official orchestra of Ethiopia.
Nalbandian composed the music for Ethiopia’s Imperial National
Anthem, Marsh Teferi (words by Yoftahé Negusé), official from 1930
1924 Sep 7, Daniel Ken Inouye,
(Sen-D Hawaii, 1963- ), was born.
1924 Sep 10, Leopold and Loeb
were found guilty of deliberate, casual murder in Chicago.
1924 Sep 10, Architect Willis
Polk (b.1867) died. He had designed the Filoli estate on the
Peninsula and the glass-fronted Hallidie Building on Sutter St. The
Filoli House, an elegant Georgian house west of Redwood City, was
built by mining millionaire William Bourn.
1924 Sep 11, Tom Landry, coach
of the Dallas Cowboys professional football team, who won two Super
Bowls, was born.
1924 Sep 13, Maurice Jarre,
composer (Dr. Zhivago-Acad Award 1966), was born in Lyons, France.
1924 Sep 24, Boston,
Massachusetts, opened its airport.
1924 Sep 25, Charlotte Mignon
(Lotta) Crabtree (b.1847), the red-headed vaudeville dancer known as
the "California Girl," died in Boston. Her life story was
filmed as Golden Girl (1951), starring Mitzi Gaynor.
1924 Sep 27, Bud Powell, jazz
pianist, was born.
1924 Sep 28, Marcello
Mastroianni, Italian actor, was born. His films included "La Dolce
Vita" and "8 ½."
1924 Sep 28, Two US Army planes
landed in Seattle, Wash., having completed the first round-the-world
flight in 175 days. Three U.S. Army aircraft arrived in Seattle,
Washington, after completing a 22 day round-the-world flight.
(AP, 9/28/97)(HN, 9/28/98)
1924 Sep 30, Truman Capote,
author and playwright whose works include "Breakfast at Tiffany's"
and "In Cold Blood," was born in New Orleans, La.
(HN, 9/30/98)(MC, 9/30/01)
1924 Sep 30, Allies stopped
checking on the German navy.
1924 Oct 1, Jimmy Carter (James
Earl), 39th president of the U.S. (1977-1981), was born in Plains,
(SFEC, 1/12/97, Z3 p.3)(HN, 10/1/98)(MC,
1924 Oct 1, William Rehnquist
was born in Milwaukee. He served as Supreme Court Justice (1972-86)
and US Chief Justice (1987- ).
(USAT, 1/7/99, p.2A)(MC, 10/1/01)
1924 Oct 1, Paavo Nurmi ran a
world record 4 mile (19:15.4) and 5 miles (24:06.2).
1924 Oct 5, 1st Little Orphan
Annie strip appeared in NYC Daily News. [see Aug 5, 1924]
1924 Oct 10, James Clavell,
novelist, was born. His books included "Shogun" and "Noble House."
1924 Oct 10, Edward D. Wood Jr,
director (Plan 9 from Outer Space), was born in Poughkeepsie, NY.
1924 Oct 12, Anatole France,
French satiric master (Penguin Island, Revolt of the Angels, Thais),
died at 80. He won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1920.
1924 Oct 15, Lee A. Iacocca,
CEO (Chrysler Corp), was born.
1924 Oct 15, Pres Coolidge
declared the Statue of Liberty a national monument.
1924 Oct 15, German ZR-3 flew
5000 miles, the furthest Zeppelin flight to date.
1924 Oct 18, Notre Dame beat
Army 13-7. The NY Herald Tribune dubbed the backfield "The Four
1924 Oct 20, Baseball’s first
"colored World Series" was held in Kansas City, Mo.
1924 Oct 24, Nobel prize for
physiology and medicine was awarded to W. Einthoven.
1924 Oct 24, Christian Gen.
Feng Joe Siang occupied Beijing.
1924 Oct, The SF Chronicle
moved to its new building at Fifth and Mission. This replaced the
1890 de Young building at Kearny and Market.
(SFC, 8/7/99, p.A8)(SFC, 1/17/09, p.E1)
1924 Oct, D.P. Davis put up 2
island developments for sale near Tampa, Florida. The entire 875
acres, much of it still under water, sold out for $18 million.
(WSJ, 8/3/05, p.B1)
1924 Oct, Anton Flettner
(1885-1961), German aerospace engineer, demonstrated his Flettner
rotor, a rotating cylinder placed on a ship to extract energy from
the wind using the Magnus effect.
1924 Oct, The Kingdom of the
Hijaz (later Saudi Arabia) was short lived with King Hussain
abdicating in favor of his son Ali. Hussain was exiled to Cyprus,
eventually dying in Amman in 1930. Ali himself departed the Hijaz in
1924 Nov 1, Victoria de los
Angeles, soprano (Mimi-La Boheme), was born in Spain.
1924 Nov 1, Bill
Tilghman (b.1854), legendary Oklahoma marshal, was gunned down by a
drunk in Cromwell, Oklahoma, while trying to arrest Wiley Lynn, a
corrupt prohibition officer.
1924 Nov 2, Sunday Express
published the 1st British crossword puzzle.
1924 Nov 4, Calvin Coolidge was
elected 30th president on a platform of pro-business policies.
(HN, 11/4/98)(SFEC, 10/17/99, p.C12)
1924 Nov 4, Nellie T. Ross was
elected the governor of Wyoming; she was to serve the remaining term
of William B. Ross, her husband who died in office in October 1924.
Ross took office on Jan 5 1925, 15 days before Miriam Ferguson, who
was elected governor in Texas.
1924 Nov 4, Miriam Ferguson was
elected governor in Texas. She began office Jan 20, 1925, as the
nation’s 2nd woman governor, 15 days after Nellie T. Ross in
1924 Nov 4, Gabriel Faure
(b.1845), French composer, organist, pianist, and teacher, died in
Paris. He was the foremost French composer of his generation. His
musical style influenced many 20th century composers.
1924 Nov 9, Robert Frank,
photographer, was born.
1924 Nov 11, The California
Palace of the Legion of Honor, dedicated on Armistice Day, opened in
Lincoln Park. It was constructed to resemble the Hotel de Salm in
Paris. The Parisian Hotel was used by Napoleon as headquarters for
his Legion d'Honneur. After the 1987 earthquake it was closed for
renovation. It opened in 1995 after three years work and $37 mil. It
was originally given to the City by Alma Spreckels, the wife of a
local sugar baron, as a World War I memorial. She stocked it
with her personal collection of more than 70 Rodin sculptures.
Lincoln Park had been built over the old City Cemetery without
(WSJ, 11/16/95, p.A-18)(SFEM, 11/7/99, p.4)(SFC,
1924 Nov 14, Leonid B. Kogan,
violinist (Lenin Prize-1952), was born in Dnepropetrovsk, Russia.
1924 Nov 22, Geraldine Page,
actress, was born. She was well known for roles in Tennessee
1924 Nov 22, England ordered
the Egyptians out of Sudan.
1924 Nov 23, The New York Times
published news of Edwin Hubble’s discoveries of other galactic
systems: “Spiral Nebulae Are Stellar Systems: Dr. Hubbell Confirms
That They Are ‘Island Universes’ Similar to Our Own."
(ON, 12/10, p.3)
1924 Nov 26, George Segal,
sculptor, was born.
1924 Nov 26, The Mongolian
People’s Republic was officially proclaimed. Close political,
economic, cultural, and ideological ties with the Soviet Union
1924 Nov 27, In San Francisco
the first Turkey Bowl high school football championship was played
at the new Kezar Stadium.
(SSFC, 6/28/15, p.D3)
1924 Nov 27, The 1st Macy's
Thanksgiving Day Parade was held in New York's Herald Square. It was
billed as a “Christmas Parade".
( http://tinyurl.com/q5s5nzl)(Detroit Free Press,
1924 Nov 29, Italian composer
Giacomo Puccini (b.1858) died in Brussels before he could complete
his opera "Turandot." Franco Alfano finished it. His death marked
the end of a 300-year tradition of Italian opera. In 2003 Mary Jane
Phillips-Matz authored "Puccini."
(AP, 11/29/97)(SFC, 12/28/99, p.C1)(WSJ, 4/11/03,
1924 Nov 30, Shirley Chisholm
(d.2004), first African-American congresswoman (1968), was born as
Shirley St. Hill in NYC.
(SFC, 1/3/05, p.A3)
1924 Nov 30, 1st photo
facsimile transmitted across Atlantic by radio from London to NYC.
1924 Nov, Stanley Baldwin
(1867-1947) returned for a 2nd time as Britain’s PM and held office
1924 Dec 1, George and Ira
Gershwin's musical "Lady Be Good," premiered in NYC.
1924 Dec 3, John Backus,
inventor (FORTRAN computer language), was born.
1924 Dec 4, Frank Press,
geophysicist, was born.
1924 Dec 8, Composer Franz
Xaver Scharwenka, German-Polish pianist, composer and teacher, died
1924 Dec 12, Edward I Koch,
Mayor-D-NYC, 1977-89, judge on TV’s People's Court, was born in NYC.
1924 Dec 15, Soviets warned the
U.S. against repeated entry of ships into the territorial waters of
1924 Dec 20, Adolf Hitler was
released from prison after serving less than one year of a five year
sentence for treason.
1924 Dec 25, Rod Serling
(d.1975), writer and host (Twilight Zone, Night Gallery), was born
in Syracuse, NY. He was also the author of "Requiem for a
Heavyweight." He was remembered in the PBS production titled:
"Submitted for Your Approval," first broadcast on 11/29/95.
(WSJ, 11/27/95, p.A-14)(Internet)
1924 Dec 29, Milton Berle
(d.2002) at 16 made his debut at Loew’s State Theater in Times
Square for $600 per week.
(SFC, 3/28/02, p.A15)
1924 Dec, Albert Einstein
completed a manuscript that predicted that particles of gas near
absolute zero will clump together in one larger mono-atom. The paper
was published in 1925 in the proceedings of the Prussian Academy of
Sciences. In 2001 the Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to Eric
Cornell, Carl Wiemann and Wolfgang Ketterlie of the US for their
1995 discovery of the Bose-Einstein condensate, a new state of
(SSFC, 8/21/05, p.A3)
1924 Dec, Zogu, backed by
Yugoslav army, returned to power and began to smother parliamentary
democracy; Noli fled to Italy.
(www, Albania, 1998)
1924 George Bellows painted
"Dempsey and Firpo." The oil on canvas was later acquired by the
Whitney Museum of American Art, New York with funds from Gertrude
1924 Otto Dix did art with
skulls crawling with maggots.
(WSJ, 6/15/95, p.A-14)
1924 Arthur Dove made his thing
"Rain," an assemblage of twigs and rubber cement on metal and glass.
(WSJ, 3/6/98, p.A13)
1924 Nicolai Fechin (1881-1955)
painted "Russian Singer with Fan." He moved to Taos, New Mexico, in
1926 and turned his home into a work of art now known as the Fechin
Institute. He was born in Kazan, Russia and emigrated in 1923. He
died on the West Coast.
(HT, 5/97, p.50)
1924 Piet Mondrian began work
on his diamond-shaped "Tablieu IV," and finished in 1925.
(SFC, 10/4/97, p.E1)
1924 Matisse painted
"Arabesque" and "Pianist with Checkers Players."
(HT, 5/97, p.60)(SFC, 1/22/98, p.D11)
1924 Chaim Soutine painted
"Still Life With Skate."
(WSJ, 5/14/98, p.A20)
1924 George Kelly wrote his
play "The Show-Off."
(SFEC, 5/30/99, DB p.37)
1924 Eugene O'Neill wrote his
tragedy play "Desire Under the Elms."
(SFC, 11/1/99, p.E1)
1924 The spoof autobiography
"Augustus Carp Esq." was published anonymously. It was written by
Sir Henry Howarth Bashford.
(WSJ, 7/6/01, p.W11)
1924 Andre Breton published his
first Manifesto of Surrealism. Surreal work was done by artists such
as Rene Magritte known for his "Le Sens des Realites" (a large
potato-like rock floating in the sky).
(WSJ, 8/1/95, p.A-9)(NH, 4/97, p.6)
1924 André Gide (1869-1953),
French author, published "Corydon," a set of philosophical dialogues
defending a certain kind of homosexual relations between men, and
the novel "The Counterfeiters."
(WSJ, 4/6/99, p.A24)(SFEC, 6/13/99, BR p.4)
1924 The character Caspar
Milquetoast appeared in the comic strip “The Timid Soul" created by
H.T. Webster. The term milquetoast became a description for a weak,
ineffectual or bland person.
1924 Charles Norman
(1904-1996), poet and biographer, published his first volume of
verse: "The Far Harbor: A Sea Narrative."
(SFC, 9/16/96, p.A15)
1924 Ferenc Molnar, Hungarian
playwright, wrote "Play at the Castle." A version by P.G. Wodehouse
was written the following year in English and called "The Play’s the
Thing." A 1984 adaptation by Tom Stoppard was titled "Rough
(WSJ, 5/2/96, p.A-13)(WSJ, 8/15/97, p.A14)
1924 Karl Pearson published
"The Life, Letters and Labours of Francis Galton."
(MT, 10/94, p.8)
1924 E.M. Forster published his
"Passage to India," described by M. McLuhan as a "dramatic study of
the inability of oral and intuitive oriental culture to meet with
the rational visual European patterns of experience."
1924 O.E. Rolvaag, Norwegian
author, wrote "Giants in the Earth."
(SFEC, 11/17/96, DB p.41)
1924 Konstantin Stanislavsky
authored "My Life in Art."
(SFC, 12/28/99, p.C4)
1924 The Ballet Russes
performed “Les Noces" by Bronislava Nijinsky. The décor was by
(WSJ, 12/8/04, p.D12)
1924 Noel Coward (1899-1973)
wrote, directed and starred in “The Vortex," a play about drug abuse
among the English upper classes.
1924 The film "Greed" starred
Gibson Gowland and Zasu Pitts. It was made by Erich von Stroheim in
San Francisco based on the novel "McTeague" by Frank Norris about a
Polk Street dentist. The original 8-hour film was cut down to 140
(SFC, 7/8/98, p.D1)(SFEC, 2/7/99, DB p.61)(SFC,
2/24/00, p.A20)(SFC, 4/10/09, p.E8)
1924 George and Ira Gershwin
produced their first Broadway musical "Lady, Be Good."
(SFC, 12/4/96, p.E1)
1924 Peter Pan was ist produced
as a Broadway musical with 2 songs by Jerome Kern.
(USAT, 9/2/04, p.2D)
1924 The "Student Prince" by
Romberg was produced.
(WSJ, 7/23/96, p.A20)
1924 Janacek composed his opera
"The Cunning Little Vixen."
(WSJ, 11/18/98, p.A20)
1924 Emmett Miller, a blackface
performer, made his debut album. In 2001 Nick Tosches authored
"Where Dead Voices Gather," a biography of Miller.
(SSFC, 9/9/01, DB p.69)
1924 Eric Satie composed
"Relache," his last work.
(SFEM, 6/9/96, p.32)
1924 The song "It Had to Be
You" was composed by Isham Jones and Gus Kahn.
(SFC, 7/5/96, p.D1)
1924 In Georgia the 600-room
Biltmore Hotel in Atlanta opened. It was developed by William
Candler, the youngest son of Coca Cola founder Asa Candler. It was
designed in a neo-Georgian style by New York architect Leonard
Schultze. It closed in 1982 and was planned for renovation as an
office complex in 1998. It was listed on the National Registry of
(WSJ, 2/4/98, p.B8)
1924 The phorid fly was first
described in Maine. It became known to parasitize bumblebees and
paper wasps. In 2011 it was found to parasitize honey bees.
(SSFC, 3/25/12, p.N4)
1924 In Philadelphia, Pa., the
18-storey Philadelphia Inquirer building was completed as home for
the Philadelphia Inquirer newspaper.
(WSJ, 8/29/07, p.B1)
1924 Angell Hall at the Univ.
of Michigan was completed with its distinguished 480-foot long
facade and massive Doric columns. It was named after the
University’s third president, James Burill Angell, whose tenure
lasted 38 years.
(LSA., Fall 1995, p.15)
1924 Brothers J.B., Frank and
Herbert Book opened the Book-Cadillac Hotel in Detroit. It was the
city’s tallest building and the tallest hotel in the world. In 1951
it was acquired by the Sheraton hotel corporation. It changes hands
a number of more times before plummeting demand forced it to close
in 1984. In 2007 a developer planned to re0open it as a 455-room
Westin by fall of 2008.
(WSJ, 6/1/07, p.A11)
1924 J.P. Morgan Jr.
(1867-1943) established the Morgan Library as a public institution.
(SFC, 2/15/97, p.D1,6)
1924 James B. Duke, a cigarette
magnate, donated $40 million to Duke Univ.
(SFC, 10/4/99, p.A3)
1924 The San Francisco General
Hospital (SFGH) opened the city’s first psychiatric ward.
(SFC, 5/22/16, p.N11)
1924 In SF the Chinese Hospital
was built in Chinatown at 835 Jackson. An addition was added next
door in 1979. Expansion plans in 2012 called for the original
building to be torn down and replaced by a new, $160 million,
(SFC, 5/10/12, p.C1)
1924 In SF the Benevolent and
Protective Order of Elks built a 15-story, Gothic style lodge at 450
(SSFC, 7/28/13, p.C2)
1924 A three-dimensional relief
map of California, as long as 2 football fields, was unveiled. The
$147,000 work was constructed under the supervision of J.T. Edwards
and 25 sculptors, engineers and geographers at the old Max Sennett
silent movie studio near Echo Park, LA. It was later installed in
the Ferry Building of San Francisco. In 1960 it went into storage.
As of 2010 it was in 230 crates in a warehouse at the Port of SF.
(SSFC, 10/3/10, p.C1)
1924 In San Francisco the
3-storey Leonard R. Flynn elementary school was built at 3125 Army
Street (later Cesar Chavez St.). It was designed by John Galen
(SSFC, 2/14/10, p.C2)
1924 A new Federal Reserve
building was built in the SF financial district.
(SFC, 4/21/05, p.C1)
1924 In San Francisco Billy
Newman (d.1984) opened Newman’s Gym on the ground floor of the
Cadillac Hotel at Leavenworth and Eddy streets. In 1984 there was a
move to designate the oldest boxing gym in the US as a historic
(SSFC, 8/23/09, DB p.50)
1924 In SF, Ca., Kezar Stadium
/ Pavilion was constructed at 755 Stanyan St. next to Goldengate
Park. In 2008 it was reported that an unusually high number of
long-term workers at the pavilion had died of cancer.
(SFC, 7/29/97, p.A7)(SSFC, 2/24/08, p.A10)
1924 In San Francisco Edward
Cerruti Jr., an Italian immigrant, bought four pieces of property at
775 Lombard St. and built a pool on the lot calling it the Crystal
Palace Salt Water Baths. He also built a dance on the 2nd floor. The
pool became the training place for Olympic gold medalist Ann Curtis
(1948). In 1956 the pool closed due to damage from storms.
(SFC, 1/6/06, p.F6)(SFC, 1/31/15, p.D1)
1924 In SF the Hibernia Bank at
1098 Valencia, designed by Bakewell & Brown, was built. The bank
was later closed and the building was taken over for use by the
Social Security Administration.
(SSFC, 8/16/09, p.C2)
1924 In San Francisco the Hills
Bros. coffee plant, designed by George Kelham, was built at 345
Spear. In 1986 the plant was converted to a block of offices topped
(SSFC, 4/3/11, p.D2)
1924 In San Francisco the Park
Lane Apartments, designed by architect Edward E. Young, were built
at 1100 Sacramento St. Three stories were added in 1929 making it 11
(SSFC, 9/1/13, p.C2)
1924 The Dean Witter brokerage
firm was founded in San Francisco.
(SFC, 2/6/97, p.A1)
1924 Phebe Ward Bostwick
(d.1997 at 88) of SF was admitted to Stanford at age 15 after being
identified as "gifted" by Dr. Lewis Terman, developer of the
Stanford-Binet intelligence test. After WW II she served as the
principal of Galileo High School for 25 years and then director of
master planning for the SF Community College District.
(SFC, 7/19/97, p.A21)
1924 In California 14 buffalo
were brought to Catalina Island for the filming of the silent movie
"The Vanishing American." In 2001 there were 350. In 2009
conservation officials began a birth control program and hoped to
keep the herd down to 150-200 animals.
(SFC, 12/6/01, p.E6)(SFC, 11/21/09, p.A4)
1924 The last known native wolf
in California was trapped and killed in Lassen County. In 2011 a
wolf named OR7 entered northern California from Oregon. OR7 returned
to Oregon but as of 2018 the wolf's progeny appeared to have settled
in the state.
(SFC, 2/18/12, p.A9)(SFC, 5/9/18, p.D1)
1924 Frederic Burk, president
of SF State Normal School, died.
(SFEC, 3/21/99, Z1 p.4)
1924 A retired Episcopal Bishop
was tried and defrocked for declaring that communism was more
relevant than Christianity.
(SFC, 5/16/96, p.A-11)
1924 The Simon & Schuster
Publishing firm was begun with the publication of a little book of
(SFEC, 9/7/97, Z1 p.5)
1924 The Giant Dipper roller
coaster opened in Santa Cruz, Ca.
(SFC, 9/22/96, DB p.27)
1924 Lionel Steinberger put a
slice of cheese on a hamburger in Pasadena. It was the first
(SFEC, 6/14/98, Z1 p.8)
1924 Red Grange, football
player from the Univ. of Illinois, led his team to victory against
the Univ. of Michigan by scoring 5 touchdowns in the first half of
(LSA, Spg/97, p.25)
1924 The Teapot Dome Scandal
came to a head. Of the three men of the Harding cabinet accused,
only one went to jail.
(TMC, 1994, p.1924)
1924 Calvin Coolidge took a
long nap every afternoon. His 16-year-old son had just died of blood
poisoning and this caused severe depression in the president.
(TMC, 1994, p.1924)(WSJ, 6/16/98, p.A17)
1924 The US passed an
Immigration Restriction Act.
(SFC, 1/12/98, p.A19)
1924 The Father’s Day holiday
was approved by President Calvin Coolidge.
1924 Florida abolished income
and inheritance taxes to attract investors.
(WSJ, 8/3/05, p.B1)
1924 Strom Thurmond (22), later
SC Senator, fathered a daughter, with house servant Carrie Butler
(16) while living in his parents' home in Edgefield, South Carolina.
In 2003 the Thurmond family finally acknowledged that Ms. Essie May
Washington-Williams was his illegitimate, biracial daughter.
(SFC, 12/16/03, p.A2)
1924 In Georgia the electric
chair replaced hanging as the means of execution.
(SFC, 2/22/00, p.A5)
1924 John Dillinger was sent
to the Indiana State Reformatory for holding up a grocer, and was
later transferred to the Michigan City, Indiana, State Prison, where
he hatched a plan for a mass breakout with a group of other infamous
1924 Three Boston securities
executives pooled their money together to create Massachusetts
Investors Trust, the first modern US mutual fund. A Dutch merchant
had cobbled together the earliest mutual-style fund, Eendragt Maakt
Magt (Unity creates Strength) in 1774.
1924 US labor leader Samuel
Gompers visited Mexico.
(SFC, 1/22/98, p.E3)
1924 US Lithuanians purchased a
home on the 2200 block of 16th St. owned by Senator John B.
Henderson for $90,000 as its embassy in Washington DC.
(Dr, 7/96, V1#1, p.3)
c1924 The railroad made it to
(SFEC, 2/8/98, p.T7)
1924 DuPont and GM combined
efforts to produce a fast drying color lacquer that had a longer
lasting finish and the result, "true blue," first appeared on the
1924 GM Oakland model.
(WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)
1924 The Chrysler Six sold
32,000 models and lifted the company to a $4.1 million profit from
$5 million in the red.
(WSJ, 6/1/00, p.A20)
1924 Walter Chrysler
(1875-1940) bought Maxwell Chalmers. He was a locomotive mechanic
who founded Chrysler with money and experience gained as general
manager of Buick and executive VP of GM. In 1928 he oversaw the
purchase of Dodge Brothers, which was much bigger than Chrysler at
(WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)
1924 CBS Film Sales, named
after founders Cohn-Brandt-Cohn, was renamed to Columbia. The
company icon, "Our Lady of Columbia," had initially debuted clad in
a flag and holding a torch. The flag was changed to a cape in 1941.
(SFEC, 2/9/97, Par p.4)
1924 The Hearst Corp. acquired
the Albany Times Union.
(SFC, 8/7/99, p.A9)
1924 The Du Pont company
introduced rayon. It was a synthetic fiber manufactured from the
cellulose fiber of natural wood pulp. It was good at holding dye
patterns and allowed the proliferation of colored Hawaiian shirts.
The Aloha shirts had their origin in the brightly patterned work
shirts worn by prospectors and pioneers in the late 1800s in
California and Oregon.
(SFEC, 9/8/96, p.T6)
1924 Kimberley-Clark introduced
the Kleenex tissue as a handy way for women to remove cold cream
from their faces. In 1981 Kleenex pioneered the first perfumed
(WSJ, 1/22/06, p.A12)
1924 Otis Elevator Co.
installed its first automatic elevator requiring no attendants in a
residential apartment building. Automatic elevators in skyscrapers
arrived 30 years later.
(WSJ, 11/14/06, p.A18)
1924 In Le Sueur, Minn., The
Green Giant was conceived to promote a new European variety of peas
called "Prince of Wales" for the Minnesota Valley Canning Co. Sales
of Green Giants began in 1925.
(SFC, 8/10/99, p.C4)
1924 US Food Products Corp.
restructured and became National Distillers and Chemical Corp.
(WSJ, 5/28/96, p. R-45)
1924 M.B. Zale and his brother
William founded a jewelry business in Wichita Falls, Texas. The Zale
family cashed out of Zale Corp. in the 1980s.
(WSJ, 6/26/06, p.A1)
1924 Prince Louis de Broglie,
French theoretical physicist, conceived that different quantum
orbits in Bohr’s atomic model correspond to different modes of
vibrations in some kind of "out-of-this-world" fluid surrounding the
1924 The frosted incandescent
lamp was invented in the US.
(SFC, 7/14/99, p.7)
1924 Margaret Murie (b.1902)
became the 1st woman to graduate from the Univ. of Alaska.
(SFC, 10/24/03, p.A16)
1924 Edwin Hubble demonstrated
the existence of other galaxies.
(BHT, Hawking, p.36)
1924 E.M. Antoniadi of France
described planet-wide dust storms on Mars.
(SFC, 11/29/96, p.A17)
1924 The Tuang child,
Australopithecus africanus, "southern ape of Africa," was
discovered. The discovery was documented by R.A. Dart in his paper
"The First South African Manlike Ape."
1924 E.G. Zeis published the
results of his study of the Katmai volcano, which erupted in 1912.
(WSJ, 1/12/95, A-14)
1924 The Ku Klux Klan numbered
(TMC, 1994, p.1924)
1924 A murder took place on
Randolph Hearst’s yacht Oneida. It remained unsolved in 1996 when
his granddaughter, Patricia, co-wrote "Mystery at San Simeon" with
Cordelia Frances Biddle.
(SFEC, 9/29/96, BR p.8)
1924 West Virginia Congressman
Samuel Brashear was killed by lightning.
(SFEC, 4/20/97, Z1 p.5)
1924 Isabella Stewart Gardner,
founder of the Gardner Museum, died. She decreed that no changes be
made to her museum.
(WSJ, 2/5/97, p.A16)
1924 Samuel Gompers, president
of the American Federation of Labor (AFL), died.
(WSJ, 12/4/96, p.A16)
1924 Frances Hodgson Burnett
(b.1849), English author, died. In 2004 Gretchen Holbrook Gerzina
authored “Frances Hodgson Burnett: The Unexpected Life of the Author
of The Secret Garden."
(Econ, 5/15/04, p.82)
1924 Brazil’s finance ministry
set up a body to hear appeals by firms that feel wronged by tax
collectors. It became known as CARF, the Administrative Council for
(Econ., 4/4/15, p.68)
1924 In Britain Labor MP
Herbert Dunnico voted against Trident, a program to build fast,
(Econ, 3/17/07, p.62)
1924 Edward Dene Morel, Congo
activist, was elected to the British Parliament. He soon died of a
heart attack at age 51.
(SFEM, 8/16/98, p.12)
1924 The Saskatchewan Wheat
Pool was established as a grain handling, agri-food processing and
marketing company based in Regina, Saskatchewan. In 2007 it became
known as Viterra. In 2012 it was taken over by Swiss-based Glencore.
1924 China’s Chairman Mao
created the Organization Department. It grew to become the world’s
largest human resources department.
(Econ, 1/21/12, SR p.9)
1924 The last emperor, Xuantong
(Aisingyoro Henry Puyi), went to the puppet state of Manchukuo in
northeast China after he was evicted from the Forbidden City by a
(SFC, 12/20/96, p.B6)(SFC, 6/11/97, p.C16)
1924 In Cuba the La Sonora
Matancara band was founded in Matanzas by Valentin Cane. Celia Cruz
joined the band in the late 1940s when it was under the direction of
(SFEM,10/19/97, DB p.40)
1924 Roland Petit, French
premier choreographer, was born.
(SFC, 12/28/99, p.C4)
1924 French Count Etienne de
Beaumont commissioned the ballet “Mercure" from painter Picasso,
composer Eric Satie and choreographer Leonide Massine.
1924 French writer Andre Breton
authored the first “Surrealist Manifesto."
1924 In France the Ile
St.-Louis made an unsuccessful attempt to secede from Paris and
France and issued its own passports.
(SFEC, 6/22/97, p.T8)
1924 French fashion designer
Coco Chanel sold control of her Chanel No. 5 perfume to the
Wertheimer family for a fortune.
(SSFC, 8/21/11, p.F5)
1924 The first traffic light in
Europe was set up on the Potsdamer Platz in Berlin.
(SFEC, 6/20/99, p.T4)
1924 The German economy began
to recover following the stabilization of its re-invented currency.
(Econ, 9/22/07, p.100)
1924 Vinayak Damodar Savarkar,
an Indian lawyer, authored "Hindutva," an attempt to unite disparate
Hindus in a political project.
(Econ, 12/20/14, p.57)
1924 The Gateway of India
monument in Bombay was completed. It commemorated the 1st visit of a
British monarch to India, King George V and Queen Mary in 1911.
1924 In India Gandhi undertook
a fast to end Hindu-Muslim rioting. The rioting stopped after 21
(SFC, 12/1/00, p.A12)
1924 In India a treaty
underlined the principle of dividing the waters of the Cauvery River
with farmers downstream. In 1974 Karnataka declared this treaty void
arguing that it had been imposed by imperialist Britain.
(Econ, 9/17/16, p.40)
1924 In Japan Matsutaro
Shoriki, chief of Tokyo’s Metropolitan Police, acquired the Yomiuri
Shimbun newspaper. By 1937 its circulation rose from 58,000 to
800,000 becoming the largest newspaper in Tokyo.
(Econ, 12/22/12, p.60)
1924 H. Pander & Son, a
Netherlands’ furniture company, bought an aircraft manufacturing
firm and started making small airplanes. They continued to make
furniture through the mid 1930s.
(SFC, 11/7/07, p.G6)
1924 Ibn Saud, king of the
Nejd, and allied Bedouin tribes conquered Hussein's kingdom of Hijaz
and launched Wahhabi rule over Saudi Arabia. The campaign of
territorial and spiritual unification was called tawhid.
(Econ, 7/19/03, p.69)(Econ, 3/4/17, p.38)
1924 Stalin divided remnants of
Turkestan into the current Central Asian republics.
(SFC, 1/2/97, p.A10)
1924 The Bolsheviks formed the
Moldovan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (ASSR), aka
Transdniestria, as a basis for later taking over a chunk of Romania.
(WSJ, 7/8/97, p.A1,8)(http://tinyurl.com/b7m4b)
1924 In Turkey the Presidency
of Religious Affairs, normally referred as Diyanet, was founded by
the Grand National Assembly as a successor to Sheikh ul-Islam. Its
duties were to execute the works concerning the beliefs, worship,
and ethics of Islam. Its budget in 2014 was $2.3 billion.
c1924 Vehbi Koç (d.1996)
started what later became the Koc Group in Ankara, Turkey. In 2004
it had grown to employ 54,000 people.
(WSJ, 9/7/04, p.A10)
1924-1928 In Mexico Plutarco Elias Calles served
(WUD, 1994, p.211)
1924-1930 Germany sold bond in the US during this
period. The Dawes bonds raised $110 million and the Young bonds
raised over 98 million. Hitler later defaulted on the bonds and
ordered that none be repaid. Germany began buying them for pennies
on the dollar before the start of WWII and stashed thousands in bank
vaults and resold others. In 2010 a half dozen US bondholders filed
suit to force Germany to make good on the debts.
(SFC, 9/7/10, p.D6)
1924-1968 Robert Moses (1888-1981), master
builder, shaped New York City during this period.
(WSJ, 5/1/02, p.D7)(SSFC, 5/5/02, p.M2)
1925 Jan 3, Benito Mussolini
dissolved the Italian parliament and became dictator.
1925 Jan 5, Nellie Tayloe Ross
(1876-1977) of Wyoming was sworn in as the first woman governor in
the United States. She succeeded Frank E. Lucas, who had served as
acting governor after the death of Ross' husband, William B. Ross.
Ross took office as governor of Wyoming, just 16 days before Miriam
A. Ferguson became governor of Texas.
1925 Jan 10, France-Saarland
1925 Jan 16, Leon Trotsky was
dismissed as CEO of Russian Revolution Military Council. Stalin took
power over Trotsky.
(TMC, 1994, p.1925)(MC, 1/16/02)
1925 Jan 18, The museum at
Panevezys, Lithuania, opened.
1925 Jan 26, Paul Newman, actor
(Hud, Hombre, Hustler), was born in Cleveland.
1925 Jan 27, Anchorage, Alaska,
delivered a diphtheria antitoxin to Nenana. Dr. Curtis Welch in Nome
had begun diagnosing cases of diphtheria. An emergency delivery of
serum against the disease was arranged by dogsled. 20 mushers rushed
the serum 674 miles from Nenana to Nome in 5 days. The last leg of
the journey was run by Gunnar Kaasen (1882-1964) and his lead dog
Balto (d.1933). An animated film on Balto was made in 1995 by
Stephen Spielberg. The longest segment of the journey, 260 miles,
was run by Leonhard Seppala and his lead dog Togo. The events were
later described by Bill Sherwonit in his book: "Iditarod: the Great
Race to Nome."
(SFC, 3/16/98, p.A3)(ON, 11/06, p.1)
1925 Jan 30, Turkish government
threw out Constantine VI, the Orthodox Patriarch of Constantinople.
1925 Jan 31, Benjamin Hooks,
civil rights leader, was born.
1925 Feb 4, Russell Hoban,
artist and writer, was born. His work included "Bedtime for Frances"
and "The Mouse and His Child."
1925 Feb 6, Pramoedya Ananta
Toer (d.2006), writer, was born in Indonesia.
1925 Feb 8, Jack Lemmon, actor
(Days of Wine & Roses, Missing), was born in Boston, Mass.
1925 Feb 8, Kaufman's &
Berlin's "Cocoanuts," premiered in NYC.
1925 Feb 8, Marcus Garvey
entered federal prison in Atlanta.
1925 Feb 8, During the height
of anti-Black hysteria in Jacksonville, Fla. and the Southeast
region of the United States, a Black man was accused of assaulting a
white woman. In March 1925, the Urban League reported the death of
“a colored man" who had been lynched.
1925 Feb 11, Virginia E.
Johnson, doctor, sexologist (Masters & Johnson), was born.
1925 Feb 13, US Congress made a
Supreme Court appeal more difficult.
1925 Feb 15, The London Zoo
announced it would install lights to cheer up fogged in animals.
1925 Feb 17, Hal Holbrook,
actor (All the President's Men, Mark Twain), was born in Cleveland.
1925 Feb 19, President Coolidge
proposed the phasing out of inheritance tax.
1925 Feb 20, Robert Altman,
film director (Nashville, The Player), was born.
1925 Feb 21, Sam Peckinpah,
film director (Wild Bunch, Straw Dogs), was born in Fresno, CA.
1925 Feb 21, The first issue of
the New Yorker magazine, founded by Harold Ross, hit the newsstands,
selling for 15 cents a copy. Raoul Fleischmann provided the
financial backing. The top hatted character Eustace Tilley appeared
on the cover of the first issue and every anniversary issue. In 1999
Mary F. Corey published "The World Through a Monocle: The New Yorker
at Midcentury." In 2000 Ben Yagoda authored "About Town: The New
Yorker and the World It Made." In 2000 Ranata Adler authored "Gone:
The Last Days of the New Yorker."
(AP, 2/21/98)(SFEC, 6/27/99, BR p.4)(SFEC,
2/20/00, BR p.5)(SSFC, 6/20/04, p.M1)
1925 Feb 22, Edward Gorey,
American writer and illustrator, was born.
1925 Feb 22, Gerard Hoffnung,
artist, humorist, musician (Hoffnung Music Festival), was born in
1925 Feb 15, Michael de Young
(b.1849), co-founder of the SF Chronicle, died. Son-in-law George T.
Cameron took over as publisher of the paper.
(SFEC, 3/8/98, BR
1925 Feb 26, James Moody, US
jazz saxophonist, orchestra leader, was born.
1925 Feb 26, Jihad-Saint war
against Turkish government.
1925 Feb 27, Glacier Bay
National Monument was dedicated in Alaska.
1925 Feb 27, Hitler resurrected
the NSDAP (Nazi) political party in Munich.
1925 Feb 28, "Tea For Two" by
Marion Harris hit #1.
1925 Mar 2, State and federal
highway officials developed a nationwide route numbering system and
adopted the familiar U.S. shield-shaped, numbered marker. For
instance, in the east, there is U.S. 1 that runs from New England to
Florida and in the west, the corresponding highway, U.S. 101, from
Tacoma, WA to San Diego, CA.
(HC, Internet, 2/3/98)
1925 Mar 2, Harlan Fiske Stone
(1872-1946) was sworn in as associate Justice on the US Supreme
Court. In 1941 he became Chief Justice.
1925 Mar 2, Japan's House of
Representatives recognized male suffrage.
1925 Mar 2, SDAP-Second-Faction
(Dutch Socialists) of parliament demanded drastic disarmament.
1925 Mar 4, President Calvin
Coolidge's inauguration was broadcast live on 21 radio stations
1925 Mar 4, Swain's Island
(near American Samoa) was annexed by US.
1925 Mar 7, The Soviet Red Army
occupied Outer Mongolia.
1925 Mar 9, Egyptian Ministry
of Public Works announced the discovery of the 5,000-year-old tomb
of King Sneferu.
1925 Mar 12, Chinese
revolutionary leader Sun Yat-sen (b.1866) died. Soong Ching-ling was
the wife of Sun Yat-sen. Morris Abraham Cohen (d.1970 at 83) had
been the right-hand man to Dr. Sen and the story was told in 1998 by
Daniel S. Levy in his book "Two-Gun Cohen." Chiang Kai-shek, head of
the Nationalist's Party military academy, took command of the
Nationalist Army after the death of Yat-sen. Chiang married Soong
Mayling the sister of Ching-ling in 1926.
(AP, 3/12/98)(SFEC, 4/12/98, Par p.20)(SFC,
1925 Mar 12, Leo Esaki, [Esaki
Reona], physicist (Tunnel effect-Nobel 1973), was born in Japan.
1925 Mar 13, The Tennessee
legislature passed the Butler Bill which prohibited the teaching of
evolution in the public schools. [see Mar 21,23]
(Nat. Hist., 4/96, p.74-76)(AP, 3/13/97)
1925 Mar 18, The great
Tri-State Tornado killed 695 people in Illinois, Indiana and
Missouri and injured some 13,000 people, and causing $17 million in
property damage. Several other destructive tornadoes in Tennessee,
Kentucky, and Indiana, as well as tornadoes in Alabama and Kansas
brought the total to at least 747 dead.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tri-State_Tornado)(SSFC, 5/11/03, Par
1925 Mar 19, Brent Scrowcroft,
Lt. Gen. (USAF), National Security Advisor to President George Bush,
1925 Mar 19, Angelo G. Roncalli
(Pope John XXIII) became a bishop.
1925 Mar 20, John Ehrlichman,
Watergate conspirator, was born in Tacoma, Wa. He served Pres. Nixon
as White House counsel and then domestic advisor and played a key
role in creating the Environmental Protection Agency, passing the
Clean Water Act, the Clean Air Act, the Endangered Species Act and
the National Environmental Policy Act.
(HN, 3/20/98)(SFC, 2/16/99, p.A18)
1925 Mar 21, Peter Brook,
director, was born in west London. In 2005 Michael Kustow authored
“Peter Brook: A Biography."
(Econ, 3/19/05, p.89)
1925 Mar 21, Tennessee passed
an anti-evolution law, which prohibited the teaching of evolution.
[see Mar 13,23]
1925 Mar 23, Tennessee became
the 1st state to outlaw teaching the theory of evolution.
Tennessee’s Governor Austin Peay said, "the very integrity of the
Bible in its statement of man’s divine creation is denied by any
theory that man descended or has ascended from any lower order of
animals." [see Mar 13,21]
(SS, 3/23/02)(MC, 3/23/02)
1925 Mar 23, Aleksei Kuropatkin
(76), Russian General, minister of War, died.
1925 Mar 25, Flannery O'Connor
(d.1964), novelist and short story writer, was born in Savannah,
1925 Mar 26, Pierre Boulez,
composer, conductor (Visage Nuptial), was born in Montbrison,
1925 Mar 30, Stalin supported
rights of non-Serbian Yugoslavians.
1925 Mar, In Florida "young
white ruffians" drove through Black neighborhoods shooting into
homes after a white man reported that a Black man had beaten his
girlfriend unconscious with a brick while they were walking together
(The Florida Times-Union, 2/18/22)
1925 Apr 2, George MacDonald
Fraser, poet, author (Flashman at the Charge), was born.
1925 Apr 3, Tony Benn, British
minister of technology (1968), was born.
1925 Apr 5, A few people
gathered in Robinson’s drugstore in Dayton, Tennessee, agree that
the Butler Bill, opposing the teaching of evolution, might provide a
grand opportunity for profit if they can arrange for the trial to
happen in their town.
(Nat. Hist., 4/96, p.74-76)
1925 Apr 6, A Deutsche
Lufthansa flight debuted an in-flight movie, a silent-reel short.
(SSFC, 12/14/03, p.D2)
1925 Apr 10, The novel "The
Great Gatsby," by F. Scott Fitzgerald, was first published by
Scribner's of New York. A film version was made in 1974.
(TMC, 1994, p.1925)(SFEC, 2/16/97, Par. p.18)(AP,
1925 Apr 11, Ethel Kennedy,
wife of assassinated Senator Robert F. Kennedy, was born.
1925 Apr 12, Tiny Tim, [Herbert
Khaury], singer (Tiptoe Through the Tulips), was born.
1925 Apr 14, Rod Steiger, film
actor (Illustrated Man, Pawnbroker), was born in West Hampton, NY.
(SFC, 7/10/02, p.A6)(MC, 4/14/02)
1925 Apr 15, John Singer
Sargent (b.1856), US portrait painter, died in London.
1925 Aug 18, In California the
Hetch Hetchy power plant at Moccasin Creek began operating. PG&E
distributed the power and profits went to SF. The $50 million Hetch
Hetchy dam and powerhouse provided water and power to San Francisco.
(SFC, 12/6/02, p.E16)(SFEC, 5/11/97, BR p.5)
1925 Apr 19, Hugh O'Brian,
[Krampke], actor (Wyatt Earp), was born in Rochester, NY.
1925 Apr 23, The 1st London
performance of operetta "Fasquita" was staged.
1925 Apr 25, General Paul von
Hindenburg took office as president of Germany.
1925 Apr 28, Kurd rebels
surrendered to Turkish army.
1925 Apr, In Paris Hippolyte
Jamet opened his hotel Le Bristol, named after the 4th Earl of
Bristol in tribute to the Englishman’s taste for comfort.
1925 May 1, Malcolm Scott
Carpenter, astronaut (Mercury 7-Aurora 7), was born in Boulder,
1925 May 1, Cyprus became a
British Crown Colony.
1925 May 5, John T. Scopes was
arrested in Tennessee for teaching Darwin’s theory of evolution.
1925 May 9, Cornerstone for
Hebrew University in Jerusalem was laid. It was founded in Jerusalem
in part by Aharon and Yocheved Shulov.
(SFC, 6/3/96, p.A19)(MC, 5/9/02)
1925 May 12, Lawrence "Yogi"
Berra, baseball star, was born. He played as a catcher for the New
York Yankees and worked as a coach and manager for the Mets and
(SC, Internet, 5/12/97)(HN, 5/12/98)
1925 May 12, John Simon,
theater critic, was born.
1925 May 14, Patrice Munsel,
soprano (Met Opera, Patrice Munsel Show), was born in Spokane, Wash.
1925 May 14, Henry Rider
Haggard, English writer (Dawn, She), died.
1925 May 17, French nun Therese
of Lisieux (1873-1897) was raised to sainthood by Pope Pius XI. In
1997 she made a doctor of the Church by John Paul II, a rare honor
signifying that her writings and preachings are useful to
1925 May 19, Malcolm X,
(Malcolm Little) militant black Muslim leader, was born in Omaha,
Neb. He spoke of racial pride and black nationalism and was
assassinated in 1965. "You can't separate peace from freedom because
no one can be at peace unless he has his freedom."
(AP, 2/21/99)(HN, 5/19/99)(SFC, 9/8/99, p.A7)
1925 May 19, Pol Pot (d.1998),
Cambodian dictator and mass murderer, was born in Prek Sbauv,
1925 May 25, Aldo Clementi,
composer, was born.
1925 May 25, Jeanne Crain,
actress (Man Without a Star), was born in Barstow, CA.
1925 May 25, John Scopes was
indicted for teaching Darwinian theory in school.
1925 May 27, Tony Hillerman,
mystery novelist (The Blessing Way, Sacred Clowns), was born.
1925 May 30, In San Francisco
the Beach Chalet, designed by architect Willis Polk (d.1924),
opened. It became a popular roadhouse known as the "Villa by the
Sea" on the Great Highway. In 1936 the WPA commissioned murals on
its walls by Lucien Labaudt. In 1947 it was leased to the Veterans
of Foreign Wars, who ran it until about 1979. It fell into disrepair
and closed in 1981. In 1996 it began to be renovated for re-opening.
1925 May 31, Julian Beck,
theater manager, was born.
1925 May, Lee Morse
(1897-1954), US jazz and blues singer and songwriter, recorded her
hit song Ukulele Lady. Her most popular years were in the 1920s and
early 1930s, although her career began around 1917 and continued
until her death.
1925 Jun 2, NY Yankee Lou
Gehrig began his 2,130 consecutive game streak.
1925 Jun 6, Maxine Kumin, poet
novelist and children's author, was born.
1925 Jun 6, Walter Percy
Chrysler founded the Chrysler Corporation.
1925 Jun 8, Barbara Pierce
Bush, first lady to President George Bush, was born. She co-wrote
1925 Jun 10, Nat Hentoff,
journalist, was born.
1925 Jun 10, Tennessee adopted
a new biology text book denying the theory of evolution.
1925 Jun 11, William Styron,
American novelist (The Confessions of Nat Turner, Sophie's Choice),
was born in Va.
1925 Jun 14, Pierre Salinger,
Press Secretary for John F. Kennedy, was born.
1925 Jun 16, France accepted a
German proposal for a security pact.
1925 Jun 25, Robert Venturi,
architect (Levittown NY, Las Vegas), was born in Phila.
1925 Jun 26, Charlie Chaplin’s
classic comedy, "The Gold Rush," premiered at Grauman’s Egyptian
Theatre in Hollywood.
1925 Jun 29, An earthquake
ravaged Santa Barbara, California, causing millions in property
1925 Jul 1, Eric Satie
(b.1866), French composer, died. Satie was introduced as a
"gymnopedist" in 1887, shortly before writing his most famous
compositions, the Gymnopédies.
1925 Jul 2, Patrice Lumumba,
revolutionary, was born in Congo.
1925 Jul 2, Marvin Rainwater,
country singer (Ozark Jubilee), was born in Wichita, Ks.
1925 Jul 4, 44 died when
Dreyfus Hotel in Boston collapsed.
1925 Jul 6, Merv Griffin,
singer (I've Got a Lovely Bunch of Coconuts The Merv Griffin Show,
Wheel of Fortune, Jeopardy, hotel owner), was born.
1925 Jul 7, Afrikaans was
recognized as one of the official languages of South Africa, along
with English and Dutch.
1925 Jul 10, The Scopes "Monkey
Trial," started. It was the result of a conspiracy hatched at
Robinson’s Drug Store in Dayton, Tenn. John Scopes, a young
high-school teacher, was to become the test case on the legality of
Tennessee’s anti-evolution law. An aging William Jennings Bryan,
Nebraska fundamentalist and politician, was the prosecutor and
Clarence Darrow was Scopes’ defense attorney. Earlier in 1925, the
Tennessee State legislature had passed a law making it illegal to
teach the theory of evolution in schools. Many people believed that
Darwin’s theory contradicted the idea of biblical creation. The
trial, complete with the spectacle of a cynical Darrow interrogating
Bryan on the witness stand as "an expert on the Bible," aroused
national interest and caused heated controversy over Darwin’s
evolution theory. Scopes was judged guilty and fined $100, but later
let off on a technicality. The trial coverage dealt a blow to
American anti-evolution forces. It was the first trial to be
broadcast by radio. Bryan died six days later.
(Nat. Hist., 4/96, p.74-76)(TMC, 1994,
1925 Jul 10, The official news
agency of the Soviet Union, TASS, was established.
1925 Jul 12, Roger Smith, CEO
(General Motors) ("Roger and Me" movie), was born.
1925 Jul 13, Will Rogers, an
Oklahoma cowboy, who had been standing in for W.C. Fields in the
"Ziegfeld Follies," impressed the critics.
1925 Jul 17, Laszlo Nagy,
Hungarian poet, was born.
1925 Jul 18, Hitler published
his first volume of "Mein Kampf" (My Struggle).Vol 2 was published
in 1926. It became the bible for the Nazi Party. The book is filled
with anti-Semitic writings, a disdain for morality, worship of
power, and the blueprints for world domination.
1925 Jun 22, France and Spain
agreed to join forces against Abd el Krim in Morocco.
1925 Jul 21, The so-called
"Monkey Trial" ended in Dayton, Tenn., with John T. Scopes convicted
of violating state law for teaching Darwin's theory of evolution.
Scopes was found guilty and was fined $100. The conviction was later
overturned on a technicality.
(HN, 7/21/99)(AP, 7/21/08)
1925 Jul 23, Gloria De Haven,
U.S. actress, was born.
1925 Jul 25, Jerry Paris,
director, actor (Jerry-Dick Van Dyke Show), was born in SF, Calif.
1925 Jul 26, William Jennings
Bryan (b.1860), lawyer, died 5 days after assisting the prosecution
in the Scopes-monkey trial. In 2006 Michael Kazin authored “A Godly
Hero: The Life of William Jennings Bryan."
1925 Jul 27, Charlie Poole
(1892-1931) and His North Carolina Ramblers recorded “Don’t Let Your
Deal Go Down Blues" at the NYC studios of Columbia Records.
1925 Jul 29, Mikos Michael
George Theodorakis, composer (Raven), was born in Chios, Greece.
1925 Jul 30, A blast in Walnut
Creek, Ca., reportedly killed Charles Henry Schwartz (36) of
Berkeley. He was a chemical engineer and inventor of an alleged
valuable formula for artificial silk. He had also recently figured
in a sensational breach of promise suit. Police soon called the case
a murder and issued an arrest warrant for Schwartz. The victim was
soon identified as Gilbert W. Barbe, an itinerant preacher, veteran
and hobo. On Aug. 8 Schwartz shot himself in the head as police
rushed an apartment in Berkeley where he was staying.
(SFC, 1/8/22, p.C1)(SFC, 1/22/22, p.C2)
1925 Jul 31, An Unemployment
Insurance Act was passed in England.
1925 Aug 8, The Ku Klux Klan
held its first national march, in Washington, D.C. Between 25,000
and 40,000 marchers took to the streets.
1925 Aug 8, Alija Izetbegovic
(d.2003) was born in Bosanski Samac. He later led Bosnia's Muslims
during the 1992-95 war for independence and became one of the
republic's first postwar presidents.
(AP, 10/19/03)(SFC, 10/20/03, p.A18)
1925 Aug 11, Carl Rowan,
gun-toting newspaper columnist (Wash Post), was born.
1925 Aug 12, Norris McWhirter,
author (Guinness Book of World Records), was born.
1925 Aug 12, Ross McWhirter,
author (Guinness Book of World Records), was born.
1925 Aug 12, KMA-AM in
Shenandoah, IA, began radio transmissions.
1925 Aug 14, Russell Baker,
author and columnist for The New York Times, was born.
1925 Aug 14, The Mount Rushmore
monument was 1st proposed.
1925 Aug 24, The Svalbarg
Treaty took effect, at the same time as the Svalbard Act regulated
the archipelago and the first governor, Johannes Gerckens Bassøe,
took office. The Svalbard Act made Svalbard a full part of the
Kingdom of Norway.
1925 Aug 25, Asa Philip
Randolph (36) began to organize the Pullman Sleeping Car Porters’
(PCh, 1992, p.768)(HN, 8/25/98)(SFC, 12/3/98,
1925 Aug 25, Last Belgian
troops vacated Duisburg.
1925 Aug 25, Uruguay became
(HFA, ‘96, p.36)
1925 Aug 28, Donald O’Connor
(d.2003), dancer, actor (Singing in the Rain, Anything Goes), was
born in Chicago, Ill.
(HN, 8/28/00)(SSFC, 9/28/03, p.A33)
1925 Aug, The first Fastnet
race, with seven entries, was won by the Jolie Brise. The race
starts off Cowes on the Isle of Wight in England, rounds the Fastnet
Rock off the southwest coast of Ireland and then finishes at
Plymouth in the South of England.
1925 Sep 3, The dirigible
"Shenandoah" crashed near Caldwell Ohio, 13 die. The 682-foot
Shenandoah, a dirigible built by the U.S. Navy in 1923, broke apart
in mid-air, killing 14 persons aboard.
(HNQ, 1/2/00)(MC, 9/3/01)
1925 Sep 8, Peter Sellers,
English comic actor, was born in Southsea, Hampshire, England. He
became famous for his role as Inspector Clouseau.
1925 Sep 8, Germany was
admitted into the League of Nations. Joseph Avenol,
secretary-general of the League of Nations, sold out the
organization he had sworn to uphold.
1925 Sep 16, Charlie Byrd, jazz
guitarist, was born.
1925 Sep 16, Blues musician
B.B. King ("Blues Boy") was born in Mississippi. In the mid-1950s,
while King was performing in Twist, Arkansas, some audience members
got into a fight over a woman named Lucille. They knocked over a
kerosene stove and set the place on fire. Everybody ran
outside...but when King realized he left his guitar inside, he
rushed back to retrieve it. From then on, King named all his guitars
1925 Sep 26, The Italian
submarine "Sebastiano Veniero" was lost off Sicily with 54 dead.
1925 Sep 28, Seymour Cray
(d1996), computer expert, was born. His computers were all designed
along RISC lines (Reduced Instruction Set Computing), for which
credit is often given to IBM design work in the 1970s. He invented
"vector processing" which involved chaining together long series of
calculations in specialized hardware to expedite solutions.
(SFEC, 10/6/96, C12)
1925 Sep 28, William Schlich
b.1840), German-born forester, died in Oxford. He worked extensively
in India and for the British administration. His 5-volume “Manual of
Forestry" (1889-1996) became the standard and enduring textbook for
1925 Oct 3, Gore Vidal, writer
(Myra Breckinridge, Lincoln, DC, Burr), was born in West Point, NY.
He was named Eugen Luther Gore Vidal. His first book at age 20 was
titled "Williwaw." A memoir of his 1st 39 years was titled
"Palimpsest." In 1999 some collected essays were published under the
title "Sexually Speaking: Collected Sex Writings." In 1993 a
collection of essays was titled "United States: 1952-1992".
(SFEC, 11/7/99, BR p.5)(HN, 10/3/00)
1925 Oct 10, James Buchanon
Duke, the founder of the American Tobacco Company (Lucky Strikes),
died leaving Doris Duke (1924-1993), his only daughter, to inherit
his $125 million tobacco estate.
1925 Oct 11, Elmore Leonard, US
writer (Glitz, Mr. Majestyk, Touch, 52 Pick-Up), was born.
1925 Oct 13, Frank D. Gilroy,
American writer (Subject Was Roses), was born.
1925 Oct 13, Lenny Bruce,
[Leonard Schneider], comedian, was born. He was later arrested on
1925 Oct 13, Margaret Thatcher,
Great Britain’s first female Prime Minister (1979-90), was born in
(HN, 10/13/98)(MC, 10/13/01)
1925 Oct 16, Angela Lansbury,
actress (Jessica-Murder She Wrote), was born in London, England.
1925 Oct 16, The Texas School
Board prohibited the teaching of evolution.
1925 Oct 20, Art Buchwald,
humorist, was born in Mt. Vernon, NY.
(HN, 10/20/00)(MC, 10/20/01)
1925 Oct 22, Robert
Rauschenberg, pop artist, was born.
1925 Oct 23, Johnny Carson
(d.2005), American television personality who hosted the "Tonight
Show," was born in Corning, Iowa.
(HN, 10/23/98)(SFC, 1/24/05, p.A7)
1925 Oct 23, Manos Hadjidakis,
Greek composer and conductor (Never on Sunday), was born.
1925 Oct 6, San Francisco’s
M-Ocean View streetcar line began service with the outbound terminal
at Broad and Plymouth. It was discontinued prior to World War II, on
August 6, 1939, and then reestablished back to full service on
December 17, 1944.
(METNA News, Aug 2015, p.1)
1925 Oct 27, Warren M.
Christopher, US, lawyer and minister of Foreign affairs (1993-2001),
1925 Oct 27, Water skis were
patented by Fred Waller.
1925 Oct 28, Leonard Starr,
comic strip cartoonist (Little Orphan Annie), was born.
1925 Oct 30, Scotsman John L.
Baird performed first TV broadcast of moving objects.
1925 Oct 31, Charles Moore,
influential post-modern architect, was born.
1925 Oct 31, Contract bridge
was introduced by Harold Stirling Vanderbilt on board the S.S.
Finland in the Panama Canal.
1925 Nov 10, Richard Burton,
Welsh actor famous for his roles in "The Spy who Came in From the
Cold" and "Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf," was born in Glamorgan as
1925 Nov 11, Jonathan Winters,
comedian, was born.
1925 Nov 16, American
Association for Advancement of Atheism was formed in NY.
1925 Nov 5, Mussolini disbanded
Italian socialist parties.
1925 Nov 9, German Nazis formed
the SS (Schutzstaffel- elite special forces).
1925 Nov 11, Jonathan Winters,
comedian, was born.
1925 Nov 11, Louis Armstrong
recorded 1st of Hot Five & Hot Seven recordings. [see Nov 12]
1925 Nov 11, Robert Milliken
announced the discovery of cosmic rays.
1925 Nov 12, The first
recording of Louis Armstrong's "Hot Fives" was made. [see Nov 11]
(WSJ, 1/14/00, p.W2)
1925 Nov 17, Actor Rock Hudson
was born in Winnetka, Ill.
1925 Nov 17, Charles Mackerras,
Australian conductor, was born in Schenectady, NY.
1925 Nov 20, Robert F. Kennedy,
U.S. Attorney General and Senator, was born in Brookline, Mass.
While at Harvard during World War II, Robert F. Kennedy joined the
U.S. Naval Reserve and served as a seaman on the destroyer Joseph P.
Kennedy, Jr. The ship was named for Kennedy’s eldest brother, who
had been killed in battle during World War II. Kennedy died from an
assassin’s bullet June 6, 1968, in Los Angeles after proclaiming
victory in California’s Democratic Party primary election.
(AP, 11/20/97)(HNQ, 7/14/98)(HN, 11/20/98)
1925 Nov 21, Three-time
All-American Harold "Red" Grange played his last football game for
the University of Illinois and joined the Chicago Bears less than a
week later on Thanksgiving Day. Grange was the most glamorous and
well-known football player of the 1920s. In one collegiate game
against Michigan in 1924, Grange ran for 402 yards and five
touchdowns. Known as the "Galloping Ghost" for his spectacular
broken-field running, the Wheaton, Illinois, native drew huge crowds
during a 17-game barnstorming tour with the Bears in late 1925. He
is credited with establishing professional football as a popular
spectator sport. Red Grange died at the age of 87 on January 28,
1925 Nov 22, Gunther Schuller,
composer and French Horn player, was born.
1925 Nov 24, William F.
Buckley, Jr. (d.2008), journalist who founded the conservative
magazine National Review, was born in Manhattan, as the 6th of 10
children. His father had made a fortune in the oil fields of Mexico.
(HN, 11/24/98)(SFC, 2/28/08, p.A2)
1925 Nov 26, Linda Hunt,
actress (Bostonians, Eleni, Silverado), was born in Morristown, NJ.
1925 Nov 26, Rama VI,
Thailand’s King Vajiravudh (b.1881), died. Vajiravudh succeeded his
father as Rama VI and formed a private army, the Wild Tiger Corps,
on his accession. Vajiravudh's reign was characterized by the
creation and promotion of Siamese nationalism. He modernized the
military and sent troops to join Allied forces in World War One. He
quashed an attempted coup in 1912 by disgruntled military officers
who accused the king of financial extravagances and sought to
establish democratic rule.
1925 Nov 28, The "WSM Barn
Dance", later known as "The Grand Ole Opry" (1927), Nashville’s
famed home of country music, made its radio debut on station WSM.
The call letters came from the slogan "We Shield Millions" of
sponsor National Life and Accident Insurance Co. Edwin Craig, a
wireless buff with a stake in the insurance company, had recently
sold the radio idea to the insurance board. In 1999 Charles K. Wolfe
published "A Good Natured Riot: The Birth of the Grand Ole Opry." In
2007 Craig Havighurst authored “Air Castle of the South."
(SFC, 7/20/96, p.E4)(AP, 11/28/97)(WSJ, 7/23/99,
p.W7)(WSJ, 10/17/07, p.D9)
1925 Nov, Khai Dinh, emperor of
Annam, died. Annam was a kingdom of what is now Vietnam that was
incorporated into French Indochina. His son Vinh Thuy assumed the
throne in January under the title Bao Dai
(SFC, 8/2/97, p.A21)
1925 Nov, In Turkey Ataturk
outlawed the tasseled fez headwear for men. He also outlawed the
wearing of veils by women but the tradition continued.
(WSJ, 3/27/96, p.A-16)(WSJ, 11/6/97, p.B1)(EWH,
4th ed, p.1087)
1925 Dec 1, Martin Rodbell,
Nobel Prize-winning biochemist, poet, was born.
1925 Dec 1, After a seven year
occupation, 7,000 British troops evacuated Cologne, Germany.
1925 Dec 2, Alexander Haig,
American army general and Secretary of State for President Ronald
Reagan, was born.
1925 Dec 3, "Concerto in F," by
George Gershwin, had its world premiere at New York's Carnegie Hall,
with Gershwin himself at the piano.
1925 Dec 3, Jean-Luc Godard,
French film director, was born. In 2004 Colin MacCabe authored the
biography "Godard: A Portrait of the Artist at Seventy."
(HN, 12/3/98)(SSFC, 1/18/04, p.M1)
1925 Dec 3, The League of
Nations ordered Greece to pay an indemnity for the October invasion
1925 Dec 8, Sammy Davis Jr,
singer, dancer and actor (Ocean's 11, Candy Man), was born in NYC.
(SFC, 9/9/00, p.A21)(MC, 12/8/01)
1925 Dec 12, Arthur Heinman
opened the first motel, the "Motel Inn," in San Luis Obispo, Calif.
1925 Dec 13, Dick Van Dyke,
actor (Rob Petrie-Dick Van Dyke Show), was born in West Plains, Mo.
1925 Dec 17, Col. William
"Billy" Mitchell (d.1936) was convicted of insubordination at his
court-martial. He was found guilty of conduct prejudicial to the
good of the armed services and was suspended from active duty. His
recently published book “Winged Defense," had poked fun at the Sec.
of War. Mitchell was awarded the Medal of Honor 20 years after his
death. In 2004 Douglas Waller authored “A Question of Loyalty."
(WSJ, 9/7/04, p.D8)(AP, 12/17/08)
1925 Dec 18, Soviet leaders Lev
Kamenev and Grigori Zinoviev broke with Stalin.
1925 Dec 20, Edward S. Morse
(b.1838), American architect and zoologist, died. Morse had found
that covering a masonry wall with a sheet of glass would increase
its rate of heat gain and reduce that rate of heat loss. In the
1960s Felix Trombe improved on the idea, which became named the
Trombe wall. In 1886 Morse had published “Japanese Homes and Their
Surroundings," the first Western treatise on Japanese residential
architecture of the Meiji period (1615-1868).
(http://tinyurl.com/2nyjlt)(SFC, 3/29/08, p.F1)
1925 Dec 25, Carlos Castaneda,
author of "The Teachings of Don Juan," was born in Sao Paulo, Brazil
or Cajamarca, Peru. He lied about the statistical details of his
(SFC, 6/19/98, p.A2)
1925 Dec 25, U.S. Admiral
Latimer disarmed Nicaraguan insurgents in support of the Diaz
1925 Dec 26, Six U.S.
destroyers were ordered from Manila to China to protect interests in
the civil war that was being waged there.
1925 Dec 27, In Los Angeles
Hilario Camino Moncado founded the Filipino Federation of America
(FFA), one of the country’s first and largest Filipino
1925 Dec 28, George and Ira
Gershwin's musical "Tip-Toes," premiered in NYC.
1925 William F. Buckley,
[conservative news commentator], was born.
(SFC, 7/20/96, p.E4)
1925 Poet Kenneth Koch was born
in Cincinnati. In 1998 David Lehman published "The Last Avant-Garde:
The Making of the New York School of Poets."
(WSJ, 9/18/98, p.W8)
1925 Pierre Bonnard painted
"After the Meal."
(SFEC, 8/2/98, BR p.9)
1925 Charles Burchfield painted
"The Song of the Telegraph."
1925 Arthur Dove painted "Goin
1925 Matisse began his
sculpture "Large Seated Nude," and finished in 1929.
(SFEM, 11/24/96, p.46)
1925 Chiura Obata (1885-1975),
Japanese American artist, created his scroll painting “Setting Sun:
Sacramento Valley." He was a faculty member in the Art Department at
the University of California at Berkeley from 1932 to 1953,
interrupted by World War II, when he spent over a year in internment
1925 Georgia O’Keeffe painted
"Large Dark Red Leaves on White."
(SFC, 2/19/00, p.B1)
1925 Vaclav Zapadlik painted
Andre Boillot racing his Peugeot in Italy.
(SFC, 8/24/96, p.E1)
1925 Dr. Albert C. Barnes
(1872-1951) built a mansion to house his collection of French
impressionist and post-impressionist masterpieces in Merion,
Pennsylvania. The collection grew to some 2,500 objects and their
setup and access was highly restricted by Dr. Barnes’ trust
indenture. Barnes had made his fortune with a pediatric antibiotic
called Argyrol. By 2000 his foundation was broke. In 2003 John
Anderson authored ""Art Held Hostage," an account of the Barnes
(WSJ, 11/28/95, p.A-12)(WSJ, 7/18/03, p.W18)
1925 Gerald Murphy as an
American painter in Paris painted the "Watch."
SFC, 6/4/96, p.E5)
1925 Chaim Soutine painted "The
(WSJ, 5/14/98, p.A20)
1925 The art-deco style was
formally introduced by Jacques-Emile Ruhlmann at the Paris Design
Exposition. The expo was called Exposition Internationale des Arts
Decoratifs et Industriels Modernes and introduced the profession of
interior decorators. Le Corbusier designed the Pavilion de L’Esprit
(WSJ, 10/24/97, p.B18)(SFC, 4/18/98, p.C3)(WSJ,
1925 Bruce Barton (d.1967), US
advertising king turned evangelist, authored “The Man Nobody Knows,"
in which he argued that Jesus was a pre-eminent business executive.
(WSJ, 10/25/05, p.D8)(Econ, 12/24/05, p.44)
1925 Earl Derr Biggers
(1884-1933), Ohio-born novelist, published “The House Without a
Key." The novel included the fictional Chinese-American detective
Charlie Chan, who became immortalized in 6 novels and 47 movies. In
2010 Yunte Huang authored “Charlie Chan: The Untold Story of the
Honorable Detective and His Rendezvous With American History."
1925 “The White Guard," a novel
by Mikhail Bulgakov (1891-1940) of Kiev during the Russian civil
war, first appeared in part in serial form. A stage version titled
“The Days of the Turbins" ran from 1926-1941. The novel was not
reprinted in Russia until 1966.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_White_Guard)(Econ, 8/9/14, p.67)
1925 Fragments of Ivan Bunin’s
“Cursed Days," compiled of diaries and notes he made while in Moscow
and Odessa in 1918-1920, were first published by the Paris-based
Vozrozhdenye newspaper. A full version appeared in 1936. It was
banned in the USSR until the 1980s. Bunin (1870-1953) was the first
Russian writer to win the Nobel Prize for Literature (1933).
1925 Hector Bywater authored
“The Great Pacific War," a novel that included a surprise Japanese
attack on the American fleet, eerily prescient of 1941.
(Econ, 6/27/15, p.71)
1925 Jean Cocteau, French
playwright, wrote "Orphee."
(WSJ, 6/5/96, p.A12)
1925 Le Corbusier published his
1925 Theodore Dreiser authored
his novel “An American Tragedy," a portrayal of the rapidly changing
(WSJ, 6/16/07, p.P10)
1925 Jose Ortega y Gasset
authored "The Dehumanization of Art," in which he pointed to the
"grave dissociation of past and present."
(WSJ, 1/28/02, p.A13)
1925 J.B.S. Haldane published
"Callinicus: A Defense of Chemical Warfare."
(NH, 10/98, p.24)
1925 DuBose Heyward wrote the
novel "Porgy and Bess."
(SFEM, 10/5/97, p.4)(MT, Fall. ‘97, p.12)
1925 Jepson’s "Manual of the
Flowering Plants of California" was 1st published.
(SFC, 7/4/01, p.D4)
1925 John Maynard Keynes
(1883-1946), British economist, authored a pamphlet titled: “The
Economic Consqeuences of Mr. Churchill.“ The American edition was
titled “The economic consequences of sterling parity." It was a
devastating critique of Winston Churchill’s defense of the gold
(Econ, 7/10/10, p.81)(http://tinyurl.com/2c7cfbn)
1925 Sinclair Lewis (1865-1951)
(WSJ, 1/18/02, p.W8)
1925 Marcel Mauss, French
anthropologist, published “"Essai sur le Don" (The Gift), which
argued that in small-scale societies gifts are “total social facts."
(NH, 11/1/04, p.28)
1925 Virginia Woolf wrote her
novel "Mrs. Dalloway. The 1997 film "Mrs. Dalloway" was set in 1923
and starred Vanessa Redgrave and was directed by Marleen Gorris.
(SFC, 9/5/97, p.C3)(SFC, 3/6/98, p.D5)
1925 The musical "Cocoanuts"
with music by Irving Berlin was produced. The book was by George S.
Kaufman. In 1929 it was made into a film with the Marx Brothers.
(WSJ, 6/5/96, p.A12)
1925 The musical "No, No,
Nanette" opened on Broadway. It featured the songs "Tea for Two" and
"I Want To Be Happy" by Irwing Caesar (1895-1996).
(SFC, 12/18/96, p.C6)
1925 Ernst Krenek composed his
opera "Jonny spielt auf."
(SFC, 4/20/02, p.A23)
1925 Bing Crosby cut his first
(SSFC, 1/21/01, DB p.34)
1925 George Gershwin composed
his Piano Concerto.
(WSJ, 10/5/98, p.A21)
1925 Sergei Prokofiev composed
his opera "The Gambler."
(WSJ, 4/16/01, p.A14)
1925 Rachmaninoff composed his
Third Piano Concerto.
(SFEC, 6/29/97, p.D5)
1925 Bessy Smith recorded "The
Empress" with Louis Armstrong.
(SFC, 7/4/97, p.D9)
1925 Harvard-trained historian
Carter G. Woodson, known as the "Father of Black History," had a
bold idea. He announced "Negro History Week" -- a celebration of a
people that many in this country at the time believed had no place
in history. The event was first celebrated in February 1926, a month
that included the birthdays of Abraham Lincoln and Frederick
Douglass, and the response was overwhelming.
(Good Morning America, 2/8/20)
1925 Chicago's Soldier Field,
designed by Holabird & Root, was dedicated. It was built largely
for track and field and had over 100,000 seats. In 2003 a new
football stadium was completed within the colonnades of the original
(WSJ, 10/8/03, p.D6)
1925 The pleasure yacht USS
Sequoia was built in New Jersey by John Trumpey. It served 8 US
presidents over the next 44 years.
(BS, 5/3/98, p.4B)
1925 A perfumer’s trade journal
asked, "Is there anywhere in the world in an elegant woman’s boudoir
where the perfume atomizer doesn’t occupy the place of honor."
(Hem., 7/95, p.124)
1925 Floyd Collins, a Kentucky
farmer, discovered Sand Cave and was trapped for 2 weeks as he
crawled back to the surface. The story made national headlines and
was made into the 1950 Billy Wilder film "The Big Carnival" starring
Kirk Douglas. In 1995 the story was made into a chamber opera:
"Floyd Collins" with music by Adam Guettel.
(WSJ, 5/17/99, p.A24)
1925 Whittaker Chambers joined
the US Communist Party. A biography by Sam Tanenhaus, was published
(SFEC, 2/23/97, BR p.3)
1925 Walt Disney (1901-1966)
married Lillian Bounds (d.1997 at 98). She met him after landing
$15-a-week job as an "inker" at his studio.
1925 A joint US and Canadian
team under the auspices of the Alpine Club of Canada climbed 19,524
ft Mt. Logan, Canada’s highest peak in the St. Elias mountains of
the Kluane National Park Reserve.
(N.G., Nov. 1985, p.655)
1925 The 106-foot sailing
schooner "Mariner" raced from SF to Tahiti in a record 20 days.
Robert Helen was one of the crew members. Helen oversaw many major
harbor clearing operations for the US Navy during WW II.
(SFC, 8/1/98, p.A19)
1925 The Pottsville Maroons
beat the Chicago Cardinals for the NFL championship, but lost it on
a technicality after they played a college all-star team in
(Econ, 11/1/03, p.30)
1925 American vice president
Charles Gates Dawes (d.1951) was awarded the 1925 Nobel Peace Prize
along with Sir Austen Chamberlin. Dawes, vice president to Calvin
Coolidge from 1925-1929, was the chief author of the 1923 Dawes Plan
for German financial reconstruction after the First World War.
Dawes, who was born in 1885 in Marietta, Ohio, was named the first
director of the U.S. Bureau of the Budget in 1921 and was ambassador
to Great Britain from 1929-32.
1925 George Bernard Shaw
(1856-1850), Irish-born, English dramatist, critic and social
reformer, won the Nobel Prize in Literature.
(V.D.-H.K.p.237)(HN, 7/26/98)(AP, 3/15/00)(MC,
1925 The US Federal Corrupt
Practices Act required campaign contribution disclosures in federal
(SFEC, 10/5/97, p.D9)
1925 The US Congress passed a
bill making arbitration agreements as enforceable as any other
(SSFC, 10/7/01, p.A20)
1925 The US Mail Special
Delivery increased to $.15 for the guaranteed immediate delivery.
(SFC, 6/7/97, p.A6)
1925 America created a Helium
Reserve to supply the gas to inflate airships. The reserve was
closed in the 1990s and the helium was sold off to pay debts of $1.4
(Econ, 9/28/13, p.68)
1925 In San Francisco the two,
twin, commercial buildings at 1118 and 1122 Howard St. were built.
Solid land here had been created with sand over marshland. By 2013
images showed the buildings sagging against each other for
(SSFC, 4/21/13, p.C2)
1925 In Vallejo, Ca., the
Improved Order of the Red Men, a fraternal organization dating back
to the Revolutionary War, built their Red Men’s Hall.
(SFC, 1/2/12, p.C1)
1925 The 94-unit Glen-Donald
apartment building opened in the Westlake district of Los Angeles,
(SFC, 8/20/10, p.C4)
1925 In Hollywood Jack’s
Steakhouse opened at the corner of Santa Monica Boulevard and
Formosa street. It was renamed the Formosa Cafe in 1939 and became a
hangout for gangsters.
(SFC, 10/7/97, p.A14)
1925 Sumitomo Bank was founded
in California to service the Japanese immigrant population. By 1996
it was California’s 5th largest bank.
(WSJ, 12/30/96, p.A1)
1925 In San Francisco the
26-storey Pacific Telephone building was built at 140 New Montgomery
St. The 435-foot building was designed by Timothy Pflueger, J.R.
Miller and Alexander Cantin. In 2014 the revamped structure opened
after being empty since 2008.
(SSFC, 9/13/09, p.C2)(SFC, 3/20/14, p.A11)
1925 In San Francisco the
17-storey Pacific Gas & Electric Co. building was built at 245
Market. It was designed by architects Bakewell and Brown.
(SSFC, 1/15/12, p.C10)
1925 In San Francisco Harding
Park Golf Course opened next to Lake Merced. Construction costs were
(SFCM, 10/2/05, p.25)
1925 In San Francisco a west
wing was added to the de Young Museum.
(SSFC, 12/24/00, DB p.8)
1925 In San Francisco the
Central Jewish School at Grove and Buchanon was constructed. It
later became a Korean church.
(SFCM, 7/18/04, p.8)
1925 In San Francisco the
Mother’s Building was built at Sloat Blvd and the Great Highway as a
respite for nursing mothers. In 1934 the WPA sponsored murals inside
by local artist Helen K. Forbes and Dorothy W. Pucinelli. In 2002 it
was closed to the public as seismically unsafe.
(SFC, 4/230/16, p.E1)
1925 In San Francisco Herbert
Fleishhacker Sr. built the Fleishhacker Pool near Ocean Beach. The
pool was the world's biggest outdoor saltwater swimming pool. It
measured 1000 feet by 150 feet. It closed down in 1971. The
Fleishhacker Playfield acquired a train called the Little Puffer
after it was purchased by a local car dealer for 3 cases of gin and
an old Oldsmobile. The train had carried ore in a Colorado mine and
hauled freight in Santa Cruz. The SF Zoo (1929) used it for kids
until 1978 when it was retired for a new gorilla exhibit. In 1997
there was a push to bring it back to service. The train was
refurbished and started up again in 1998. [see 1929]
(SFC,10/21/97, p.A20) (SFEC, 3/1/98, p.W38) (SFC,
8/26/98, p.A13) (SFC, 1/4/99, p.D2)(SFC, 7/30/04, p.E15)
1925 SF bought the lodge at
Camp Mather and 22 cabins from the Curry Company for $12,500. Later
28 cabins, converted election booths from SF, were added.
(SFEC, 7/4/99, Z1 p.5)
1925 Old Kezar Stadium opened
with a footrace. It closed in 1988 and re-opened in 1991 as a high
school-sized stadium for 10,000.
(SFCM, 8/10/03, p.7)
1925 Frank Geiss began to help
organize the Cross City Race (begun in 1915 [see 1912]). He later
became full-time manager of the event that became the "Bay to
(SFEM, 5/11/97, p.8)(SFEM, 5/10/98, p.10)
1925 In San Francisco the
Schlage Lock and Key company located a new factory near the rail
tracks in Visitacion Valley. The factory closed in 1999.
(SFC, 8/26/00, p.A13)
1925 In San Francisco the Soko
Hardware Co. was opened by the father of Masao Ashizawa at Buchanan
(SFEC, 3/21/99, p.D1)
1925 The SF Stock Exchange was
first connected to the NY Stock Exchange when a ticker tape was
installed by Western Union.
(SFC, 7/24/98, p.B1)
1925 A.P. Giannini of SF bought
the Bowery National Bank in NYC.
(SFC, 4/14/98, p.B1)
1925 Emporium acquired the
Fairfax property in Marin, Ca., for an employee retreat.
(SFC, 5/29/98, p.A19)
1924 In San Francisco William
O’Connor (1884-1933), jewel thief, staged a $100,000 robbery at the
Houston-Gillmore jewelry store. He was captured, convicted and
sentenced to 25 years in prison, but was later paroled for
hospitalization in Idaho for his tuberculosis. In 1933 he requested
to be returned to San Quentin, where he died in 1935.
(SSFC, 7/11/10, DB p.42)
1925 The Copco 2 dam was
constructed on the Klamath River in northern California just a
quarter-mile downstream of the original dam. [see 1918]
1925 San Francisco held its
last slave-girl raid.
(SFC, 7/13/13, p.C2)
1925 The Los Angeles city
charter was drawn up creating a weak mayor and a strong city
(Econ, 3/2/13, p.29)
1925 The Chicago Board of Trade
Clearing Corp. became the legal counter-party to buyers and sellers
of derivative contracts.
(Econ, 11/14/09, p.94)
1925 The 1st Sears retail store
opened on Chicago’s west side.
(WSJ, 11/18/04, p.B1)
1925 Al Capone took over power
in Chicago’s underworld, where 400 gang murders per year were
(TMC, 1994, p.1925)
1925 In Massachusetts the
elegant Miles Standish Hotel was built steps from the Charles River
and Fenway Park, home of the Boston Red Sox. It was purchased by
Boston University in 1949 and converted into dorms.
1925 New York City surpassed
London in size.
(Econ., 7/6/20, p.14)
1925 Hugo Gernsback, publisher
and inventor, founded radio station WRNY in NYC.
(ON, 11/05, p.11)
1925 Howard Deering Johnson
started his food empire with an ice-cream shop outside Boston. By
the 1960s a new HoJo restaurant was opening every nine days. In 1979
the Johnsons sold the company. By 2017 only one HoJo restaurant was
left in Lake George, NY. The motel-lodge arm still existed owned by
(Econ, 2/18/17, p.25)
1925 Ossian Sweet, a black
doctor who had moved into a white neighborhood of Detroit, was
indicted on murder charges after defending his property and life
against a mob attack. In 2004 Phyllis Vine authored "One Man's
Castle: Clarence Darrow in Defense of the American Dream."
(SSFC, 4/18/04, p.M4)
1925 AT&T founded Bell Labs
as its research and development subsidiary at 463 West Street, New
York. By this year the company had achieved a virtual monopoly on
local telephone service. Frank B. Jewett was the first president of
Bell Labs and continued to 1940. In 2012 Jon Gertner authored “The
Idea Factory: Bell Labs and the Great Age of American Innovation."
1925 Horace Liveright,
American-Jewish publisher, sold his chief asset, the Modern Library,
to Bennet Cerf. This marked the birth of Random House Publ.
(WSJ, 8/8/95, p. B-1)
1925 Ford opened a plant in
(WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)
1925 The Hearst Corp. acquired
Town & Country magazine.
(SFC, 8/7/99, p.A9)
1925 The Rockford Silver Plate
Co. was sold to Raymond Sheets and was re-named to Sheets-Rockford
Silver Plate Co.
(SFC,11/26/97, Z1 p.7)
1925 Aaron Streit, an Austrian
immigrant, founded Streit’s kosher matzo factory in Manhattan’s
lower East Side.
(SSFC, 4/17/11, Par p.4)
1925 Enclosed cars outsold open
cars for the first time and created a big demand for windows.
(WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)
1925 The Warner Brothers became
a public corporation.
(WSJ, 1/11/00, p.B1)
1925 The Int’l. Opium
Convention placed controls on the int’l. trade in hashish and
marijuana. Use of marijuana was still legal in the US and many other
(WSJ, 2/8/05, p.D7)
1925 Wolfgang Pauli, Austrian
physicist, discovered his exclusion principle. This says that two
similar particles cannot exist in the same state, that is they
cannot have both the same position and the same velocity, within the
limits given by the uncertainty principle. Pauli postulated the
existence of neutrinos in the 1930s.
(BHT, Hawking, p.67)(SFC, 7/21/00, p.B2)
1925 Bill Peterson, a
blacksmith, invented locking pliers later known as vice-grips.
(SFEC, 11/14/99, Z1 p.2)
1925 2,000 people died of
liquor poisoning in the US and the government seized 173,000 illegal
(TMC, 1994, p.1925)
1925 Ernest Van Tassel leases
75 acres on Round Top in Honolulu (Nut Ridge) and began a macadamia
nut orchard, Hawaii's first macadamia nut farm.
1925 The Kentucky statewide
spelling bee went national after 9 newspapers accepted an invitation
from the Louisville Courier-Journal to send students to compete for
a national spelling crown. Frank Neuhauser (1914-2011) won the first
national spelling bee with the word “gladiolus." In 1941 the Scripps
Howard media group took over sponsorship over the annual event.
(WSJ, 5/28/99, p.W11)(SFC, 3/23/11, p.A4)
1925 The US unemployment rate
(SFEC, 5/2/99, Z1 p.1)
1925 Rudolf Steiner (b.1861),
Austrian philosopher and educator and founder of the Waldorf School,
died. He was the founder of the spiritual view called anthroposophy
which included a complicated theory of child development that formed
the basis of the Waldorf method for teaching children.
(SFC, 10/29/00, p.A7)
1925 Ahmed Zogu, a conservative
northern tribal chief of Albania, seized power.
(Compuserve Online, Grolier’s Amer. Acad. Enc./
1925 The Ghazir rug, created by
orphans of the Armenian genocide (1915-1917), was donated to US
Pres. Calvin Coolidge.
(SFC, 10/16/14, p.A10)
1925 Franz Colruyt, Belgian
baker, set up a wholesale business importing coffee and spices from
overseas. In 2002 the 160th Colruyt store opened in Belgium.
(WSJ, 9/22/03, p.R3)
1925 Mr. Roberto Marinho
(1904-2003) inherited the Rio newspaper O Globo 23 days after it was
founded by his father who suddenly died. He learned the business as
a reporter and editor and took over as editor in chief in 1931. The
operation later expanded to dominate the television market.
(WSJ, 12/4/95, p.A-9)(WSJ, 9/29/99, p.A1)(SFC,
1925 Percy Harrison Fawcett,
former British cricketer and soldier, vanished along with his son
Jack in the Mato Grosso region of Brazil. In 2009 David Grann
authored “The Lost City of Z: A Tale of Deadly Obsession in the
1925 The Locarno Treaty was
signed between Britain, Belgium, Germany, Italy and France. It was a
treaty of non-aggression by Germany, France and Belgium and a mutual
guarantee and promise of assistance by Britain, France, Belgium,
Germany and Italy to maintain the demilitarization of the Rhineland.
It was not a true guarantee against a German invasion, only a
promise by Britain to send troops after an invasion.
(WSJ, 10/28/97, p.A22)
1925 In debates over the Geneva
Protocol opponents touted poison gas as a "decisive offensive
weapon." A ban on chemical and biological weapons was signed by most
nations, but not the US until much later. The Geneva Convention
outlawed the use of biological warfare, but did not prohibit nations
from continuing the production of biological agents.
(SFC,11/12/97, p.C2)(NH, 10/98, p.18)(AH, 6/03,
1925 Britain set a deposit
limit for parliamentary candidates at £150, and it remained fixed to
1985. As of 2017 it was £500.
(Econ 7/1/17, p.35)
1925 The British coal-mining
industry suffered an economic crisis.
1925 The sale of British titles
was prohibited by the Honours (Prevention of Abuses) Act.
1925 Britain set its retirement
age at 65.
(Econ, 11/26/05, p.16)
1925 Winston Churchill returned
the British pound to a gold standard.
(Econ, 12/1/07, p.31)
1925 Tomkins Corp. (TKS-NYSE)
was originally founded as F. H. Tomkins Buckle Company, a small
British manufacturer of buckles and fasteners. By 2006 the Company
had grown to become an international engineering business with sales
of £3 billion and some 40,000 employees throughout the world.
1925 Lord George Curzon
(b.1859), British former Viceroy over India, died. In 2003 David
Gilmour authored the biography "Curzon: Imperial Statesman."
(WUD, 1994, p.357)(WSJ, 6/11/03, p.D10)(SSFC,
1925 In China a palace museum
was established in the former imperial precincts and opened to
(SFEC, 10/6/96, DB p.37)
1925 The All-China Federation
of Trade Unions was founded. In 1927 it was crushed by the
nationalist government and then rose with the ascension of the
Communist Party in 1949. It was crushed again in the Cultural
Revolution and then revived following Mao’s death.
(Econ, 8/2/08, p.66)
1925 CongoDRC’s Virunga
National Park, a 7,800-square-km (3,011-square-mile) park, was
created. It was classified a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1979.
1925 In Cuba Gerardo Machado
was elected as president.
(AH, 4/07, p.17)
1925 In Cuba a monument to the
battleship Maine was inaugurated bearing the names of all 266
sailors who died in the ship’s 1898 explosion in Havana Harbor. Two
statues standing shoulder-to-shoulder at the base represented a
maternal America guiding the maiden Cuba into independence.
1925 Walter Gropius and the
Bauhaus fled Weimar, Germany, for Dessau after conservative city
officials halted financing.
(SFC, 8/3/99, p.A10)(Econ, 8/16/08, p.54)
1925 In Germany Fritz Haarmann,
known as the "Butcher of Hannover," was beheaded with a guillotine
after being found guilty of murdering more than two dozen young men
between 1918 and 1924. The case is said to have served as one of the
inspirations for Fritz Lang's 1931 thriller "M." Haarmann’s body was
cremated in 2015.
1925 Lovis Corinth (b.1858),
German Expressionist painter, died.
(SSFC, 1/27/02, p.C7)(SFC, 3/26/02, p.D6)
1925 In India the National
Volunteer Corps, Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS), was founded by
Dr. K.B. Hedgewar. The Hindu revival group was highly disciplined
and led its members in military style physical training. The corps
spawned a political movement that coalesced as the BJP in 1980. By
2007 it was the world’s largest voluntary movement dedicated to
5/16/96, p.A-10)(WSJ, 2/27/98, p.A1)
1925 The golden dome of the
Askariya shrine in Samarra, Iraq, was completed.
1925 Japan’s election law this
year, inspired by Britain, set a deposit limit for parliamentary
candidates. The limit gradually rose to keep up with inflation.
(Econ 7/1/17, p.35)
1925 Kenya’s population was
about 2.6 million.
(Econ, 9/23/06, p.94)
1925 Khuzestan, an autonomous
Arab emirate once known as Arabistan, was annexed by the
British-backed shah of Iran. The area, inhabited by the Ahwazi
Arabs, was rich in oil and by 2006 produced about 90% of Iran’s oil.
(SSFC, 11/5/06, p.A16)
1925 Korea’s first communist
party was founded.
(Econ, 10/3/15, p.42)
1925 The YIVO Institute,
devoted to Jewish and Yiddish culture and scholarship, was founded
in Vilnius, Lithuania. It promoted the Yiddish language as the
linchpin of European Jewish culture. By 1933 under Max Weinreich it
succeeded in raising $10,000 re renovate a building beyond the
crowded streets of the Jewish quarter.
(SFEC, 11/24/96, p.A15)(SSFC, 6/3/12, p.F4)
1925 A young Chinese woman
walked into a welfare office in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, and tried to
blow up two British functionaries.
(Econ., 11/28/20, p.76)
1925 Miron Cristea (1868-1939)
was enthroned as the first Patriarch of the Romanian Orthodox
1925 In Rwanda’s Virunga
Mountains the Volcanoes National Park was formed to protect gorillas
(SSFC, 6/23/13, p.M3)
1925 The Soviets shut down
Caspian oil from the West.
(SFC, 10/12/97, Par p.14)
1925 The Great Syrian Revolt,
aka the Great Druze Revolt, was aimed against the French occupation
in place since 1918. It was put down by the French by 1927.
1925 Goat races began in Tobago
as a working-class alternative to horse racing. In 20011 the Buccoo
Goat Race Festival, scheduled for April 25-26, sought support on
1925 Turkey’s Pres. Kemal
Ataturk divorced his wife, Latife Ussaki, following a 2-year
marriage. In 2006 Ipek Calislar authored a biography of Ussaki.
(Econ, 6/24/06, p.60)
1925 An unsuccessful student
strike took place in Hanoi, Vietnam.
(SFC, 5/3/00, p.A24)
1925-1926 Edward Christopher Williams (1871-1929),
black playwright, teacher and librarian, published "When Washington
Was in Vogue," a serialized novel in The Messenger, a socialist
(WSJ, 1/23/04, p.W5)
1925-1927 The albums "Louis Armstrong, the Hot
Fives and Sevens, Vol. 1-3" were recorded on Columbia Legacy.
(SFC, 7/4/97, p.D9)
1925-1933 Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan, was used by Al
Capone-led mobsters to store liquor for smuggling to the US on the
Soo Line. Underground tunnels, built for steam heating the city,
were converted mob quarters. In 2000 "The Tunnels of Moose Jaw"
opened as a tourist attraction.
(WSJ, 8/19/02, p.B1)
1925-1939 Joseph Roth (1894-1939), an Austrian
Jew, was assigned to Paris by a Frankfurt newspaper. After one year
the job was given to a Nationalist. He stayed in Paris and wrote for
emigre publications and railed against Germany and racism in his
essays and novels. In 2004 his selected essays appeared in English
as "Report From a Parisian Paradise: Essays from France, 1925-1939."
(SSFC, 1/11/04, p.M4)(Econ, 2/2/13, p.74)
1925-1961 In Ireland 796 babies and toddlers were
buried in a septic tank at a home for unmarried mothers in Tuam
County, Galway. This was reported in 2014 and put the government
under pressure to launch an investigation.
(SSFC, 6/8/14, p.A4)(SFC, 6/9/14, p.A2)(Econ,
1925-1965 Malcolm X, writer and a leader of the
Nation of Islam in the US. His original name was Malcolm Little. In
1964 he founded his own movement and was assassinated a year later.
(AHD, p.790)(Civilization, July-Aug, 1995, p. 36)
1925-1968 Robert F. Kennedy: "The free way
of life proposes ends, but it does not prescribe means."
1925-1997 Marianna Pineda, sculptor. She began
sculpting women in the 1950s.
(WSJ, 1/27/98, p.A20)