Timeline 1914 - 1915

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1914        Jan 1, A Pacific coast storm swept away the entire Ocean Beach of San Francisco from the Cliff House to the life saving station.
    (SSFC, 12/29/13, DB p.42)

1914        Jan 4, Jane Wyman, U.S. film actress who was the first wife of President Ronald Reagan, was born.
    (HN, 1/4/99)
1914        Jan 4, In San Francisco pilot Lincoln Beachey looped the loop a record seven times in his biplane in an aerial show before a crowd of some 25,000 people. Motion pictures were taken from tethered balloon.
    (SSFC, 1/5/14, p.42)

1914        Jan 5, Henry Ford astounded the world as he announced that he would pay a minimum wage of $5 a day and share with employees $10 million in last year’s profits. The wage increase counter-balanced the increased demand on the workers from the new assembly line production methods.
    (HFA, ‘96, p.22)(HN, 1/5/99)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R28)

1914        Jan 6, Stock brokerage firm of Merrill Lynch was founded. Charles E. Merrill & Co. opened with “Operations Department" painted on a door and no assets beyond ambition.
    (MC, 1/6/02)(Econ, 1/4/14, p.68)

1914        Jan 10, In Utah John Morrison, a Salt Lake City grocer and father of six, was shot dead along with his son (17) after two men entered his shop. Labor leader Joe Hill (1879-1915) was soon treated for a fresh gunshot wound and was later tried and convicted for murder.
    (Econ, 8/6/11, p.73)

1914        Jan 14, Ford Motor Company greatly improved its assembly-line operation by employing a chain to pull each chassis along.
    (AP, 1/14/01)

1914        Jan 16, Maxim Gorky was authorized to return to Russia after an eight year exile for political dissidence.
    (HN, 1/16/99)

1914        Jan 19, Lester Flatt, country musician (Flatt & Scruggs), was born.
    (MC, 1/19/02)

1914        Jan 28, Beverly Hills, Ca, was incorporated.

1914        Jan, In San Francisco new residences were erected west of Fourteenth Ave. and south of Geary St. Westerly winds contunued to cover the new pavement with sand.
    (SSFC, 1/26/14, p.42)
1914        Jan, The St. Petersburg-Tampa Airboat Line became the world’s first regularly scheduled airline service. Scheduled service on the first winged airline, the St. Petersburg-Tampa Airboat Line, treated a passenger or two to a wooden seat, fresh Florida air, and salt spray in the face.
    (HN, 6/1/98)(NPub, 2002, p.9)
1914        Jan, In Japan Mount Sakurajima erupted and left 58 people dead.
    (SFEC, 4/2/00, p.A17)
1914        Jan, Gen. Smuts began negotiations with Mohandas Gandhi to eradicate many of the racist laws imposed on South African Indians.
    (ON, 9/03, p.5)

1914        Feb 2, James Michael Curley (1874-1958) began serving his first term as mayor of Boston and continued to 1918. He was elected three more times: 1922-1926, 1930-1934 and 1946-1950.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Michael_Curley)(SFC, 2/24/21, p.A6)

1914        Feb 5, Sir Alan Hodgin, English physiologist and biophysicist, was born.
    (HN, 2/5/01)

1914        Feb 6, In San Francisco the State Board of Pharmacy burned in Marshall Square, at Hyde and Market, some $25,000 worth of opium pipes and outfits, “hop," morphine and cocaine.
    (http://foundsf.org/index.php?title=Marshall_Square)(SSFC, 2/2/14, DB p.42)

1914        Feb 7, Charlie Chaplin debuted "The Tramp" in "Kid Auto Races at Venice."
    (MC, 2/7/02)
1914        Feb 7, Steel work was completed on Exposition (Civic) Auditorium, SF.
    (MC, 2/7/02)

1914        Feb 9, Gypsy Rose Lee, stripper, was born in Seattle Wash.
    (MC, 2/9/02)
1914        Feb 9, Bill "Rhymes with Wreck" Veeck, baseball club owner, was born.
    (MC, 2/9/02)

1914        Feb 10, Larry Adler, harmonica virtuoso, was born.
    (HN, 2/10/01)

1914        Feb 13, The American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers, known as ASCAP, was founded in New York City.
    (HN, 2/13/98)(AP, 2/13/98)

1914        Feb 19, Riccardo Zandonai's opera "Francesco da Rimini," premiered in Turin.
    (MC, 2/19/02)

1914        Feb 21, White Wolf troops attacked Zhanjiang, China.
    (MC, 2/21/02)

1914        Feb, In Brazil a 22-man party, that included former Pres. Theodore Roosevelt, started down the Rio da Duvida (River of Doubt) in the Amazon Basin for a 2-month adventure. In 2005 Candice Millard authored “The River of Doubt" Theodore Roosevelt’s Darkest Journey."
    (SSFC, 10/23/05, p.M3)

1914        Feb 24, Joshua Chamberlain (85) died. He was the Bowdoin College Maine professor whose incredible defense of Little Round Top at Gettysburg and other heroics earned him promotion to Major General and the Congressional Medal of Honor.
    (HN, 2/24/98)(MC, 2/24/02)

1914        Feb 25, John Tenniel (b.1820), English illustrator, died. He is best remembered for his illustrations in Lewis Carroll's “Alice's Adventures in Wonderland" and “Through the Looking-Glass."

1914        Feb 26, New York Museum of Science and Industry was incorporated.
    (SC, 2/26/02)
1914        Feb 26, Russian aviator Igor Sikorsky carried 17 passengers in a twin engine plane in St. Petersburg. Igor Sikorsky, founder of Sikorsky Aircraft, produced a film in 1942 that promoted the capabilities of his VS-300 helicopter, highlighting its possible rescue and military applications.
    (HN, 2/26/98)

1914        Mar 1, Ralph Waldo Ellison, renown African-American author who wrote "Invisible Man," was born.
    (HN, 3/1/99)
1914        Mar 1, H. Colijn, Dutch Minister of war, was named director of British Petroleum.
    (SC, 3/1/02)

1914        Mar 4, Doctor Fillatre of Paris, France successfully separated Siamese twins.
    (HN, 3/4/98)

1914        Mar 6, Kirill P. Kondrashin, conductor (Hollywood Bowl 1981), was born in Moscow, Russia.
    (MC, 3/6/02)
1914        Mar 6, German Prince Wilhelm de Wied was crowned as King of Albania. He was installed as head of the Albanian state by the International Control Commission. His rule ended within six months, with the outbreak of World War I.
    (HN, 3/6/98)(www, Albania, 1998)

1914        Mar 9, US Sen Albert Fall (Teapot Dome) demanded the "Cubanisation of Mexico."
    (MC, 3/9/02)

1914        Mar 10, Suffragettes in London damaged painter Rokeby's Venus of Velasquez.
    (MC, 3/10/02)

1914        Mar 12, George Westinghouse (67), US engineer (Westinghouse Electric), died.
    (MC, 3/12/02)

1914        Mar 17, Russia increased the number of active duty military from 460,000 to 1,700,000.
    (HN, 3/17/98)

1914        Mar 20, Svyatoslav Richter, pianist (Stalin Prize-1945), was born in Zhitomir, Ukraine.
    (MC, 3/20/02)

1914        Mar 25, Norman Borlaug (d.2009), later agricultural scientist and Nobel Prize winner (1970), was born on a farm near Cresco, Iowa.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Norman_Borlaug)(WSJ, 9/5/06, p.D8)(SFC, 9/14/09, p.A7)
1914        Mar 25, Frederic Mistral, French poet (Nobel-1904), died.
    (MC, 3/25/02)

1914        Mar 27, Budd Schulberg, journalist, novelist and screenwriter (What Makes Sammy Run), was born.
    (HN, 3/27/01)

1914        Mar 26, The birthday of (Thomas Lanier) Tennessee Williams (1914-1983), American dramatist. His play "The Glass Menagerie" was inspired by a pre-frontal lobotomy performed on his sister to cure a case of schizophrenia. The operation failed and his sister, Rose (1909-1996), was institutionalized. He left a $10 million estate to support her and directed that anything left go to support aspiring writers at the Univ. of the South of Sewanee. [see Mar 11 & 26, 1911]
    (AHD, p.1466)(WUD, 1994, p.1634)
1914         Mar 26, William Westmoreland, U.S. army general and head of all ground forces in South Vietnam during the Vietnam War, was born in Saxon, SC.
    (HN, 3/26/99)(SS, 3/26/02)

1914        Mar 27, Budd Schulberg, journalist, novelist and screenwriter (What Makes Sammy Run, On the Waterfront), was born in NYC.
    (HN, 3/27/01)(MC, 3/27/02)
1914        Mar 27, 1st successful blood transfusion took place in Brussels.
    (MC, 3/27/02)

1914        Mar 28, Edmund Sixtus Muskie, (Sen-D-Me), US Sec of State (1980), was born.
    (MC, 3/28/02)

1914        Mar 31, Octavio Paz, Mexican diplomat and Nobel Prize-winning writer, was born.
    (HN, 3/31/01)

1914        Apr 2, Alec Guinness, English stage and film actor, was born illegitimate and spent his early years in penury.
    (WSJ, 8/15/00, p.A26)
1914        Apr 2, Federal Reserve Board announced plans to divide country into 12 districts. [see Nov 16, 1914]
    (HN, 4/2/98)

1914        Apr 4, Marguerite Duras, French author (The Lover), was born.
    (HN, 4/4/01)
1914        Apr 4, "Perils of Pauline" was shown for 1st time in LA.
    (MC, 4/4/02)

1914        Apr 7, British House of Commons passed the Irish Home Rule Bill.
    (HN, 4/7/97)

1914        Apr 8, U.S. and Colombia signed a treaty concerning Panama Canal Zone.
    (HN, 4/8/98)

1914        Apr 9, The 1st full color film: "World, Flesh & Devil" was shown in London.
    (MC, 4/9/02)
1914        Apr 9, In the Tampico incident a US ship crew was arrested in Mexico.
    (MC, 4/9/02)

1914        Apr 11, George Bernard Shaw's "Pygmalion," premiered.
    (MC, 4/11/02)

1914        Apr 14, Stacy G. Carkhuff patented a non-skid tire pattern.
    (MC, 4/14/02)

1914        Apr 19, Charles Sanders Peirce (b.1839), American polymath, philosopher and scientist, died in Milford, Pa. In 1883 he used randomization in a psychological experiment at Johns Hopkins Univ.
    (www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Charles_Peirce)(Econ, 5/5/12, p.17)

1914        Apr 20, Soldiers killed 33 during mine strike in Ludlow, Colo. In the Ludlow Massacre 2 women and 11 children perished in a mining camp torched by Colorado militiamen called in by John D. Rockefeller Jr. to settle a strike.
    (SFEC, 5/31/98, BR p.3)(MC, 4/20/02)

1914        Apr 21, U.S. marines occupied Veracruz, Mexico. They stayed for six months.
    (HN, 4/21/98)

1914        Apr 22, Babe Ruth's 1st professional game as a pitcher was a 6-hit 6-0 win.
    (MC, 4/22/02)

1914        Apr 25, Ross Lockridge, Jr., novelist (Raintree Country), was born.
    (HN, 4/25/01)

1914        Apr 26, Bernard Malamud (d.1986), American novelist and short story writer (The Natural), was born. "Life is a tragedy full of joy." He won a Pulitzer Prize in 1967. In 1997 "The Complete Stories" by Bernard Malamud was published.
    (AP, 5/26/97)(WSJ, 9/17/97, p.A12)(HN, 4/26/01)(MC, 4/26/02)
1914        Apr 26, James William Rouse, US builder of shopping malls, was born.
    (MC, 4/26/02)

1914        Apr 28, W.H. Carrier was issued a patent for a method of “dew point control," crucial to the development of automatic air cooling systems. In 1923 he invented an air-conditioning system powerful enough for installation at movie theaters.
    (http://dealscape.thedealblogs.com/2006/04/this_date_in_deal_history_firs.php)(ON, 8/07, p.11)
1914        Apr 28,  At Eccles, WV, 181 died in coal mine collapse.
    (MC, 4/28/02)

1914        May 1, Yuan Shikai, China's 1st president, won dictatorial qualification.
    (MC, 5/1/02)

1914        May 6, British House of Lords rejected women suffrage.
    (MC, 5/6/02)

1914        May 7, Woodrow Wilson's daughter Eleanor married in the White House.
    (MC, 5/7/02)

1914        May 8, William Wadsworth Hodkinson (1881-1971) merged 11 film rental bureaus to create the first US-wide distributor of feature films, Paramount Pictures.

1914        May 9, Carlo Maria Giulini, conductor, was born.
    (MC, 5/9/02)
1914        May 9, Clarence Eugene Snow (d.1999), later known as singer Hank Snow (I Went to Your Wedding), was born in Brooklyn, Nova Scotia. His songs included the 1950 hit "I'm Moving On."
    (SFC, 12/21/99, p.A27)(MC, 5/9/02)
1914        May 9, Pres. Wilson proclaimed Mother's Day.
    (MC, 5/9/02)

1915        May 12, In South Africa Naspers was founded as Die Nasionale Pers (The National Press) with the aim of furthering the cause of the Afrikaner people.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Naspers)(Econ, 7/10/10, p.61)

1914        May 13, Joe Louis, world heavyweight boxing champion from 1937 to 1949, was born in Lafayette, Ala. His boxing record was 63-3 with 49 knock-outs.
    (AP, 5/13/97)(HN, 5/13/99)

1914        May 15, In San Francisco the new Ewing Field ballpark opened. Cal Ewing, owner of the Pacific Coast league Seals, erected the 18,000 seat Ewing Field on Masonic Ave south of Geary Blvd., now the site of Wallenberg High School. It was used for a half-season by the SF Seals and they fled back to Rec. Park because of the fog.
    (SFEC,12/797, Z1 p.4)(SSFC, 5/11/14, DB p.50)

1914        May 25, Paolo Giorza (81), composer, died.
    (SC, 5/25/02)
1914        May 25, British House of Commons passed Irish Home Rule.
    (HN, 5/25/98)

1914        May 26, Jacob A. Riis (b.1849), Denmark-born author and photographer, died in Barre, Mass. His books included “How the Other Half Lives: Studies Among the Tenements of New York" (1890) and his autobiography “The Making of an American" (1901). In 2008 Tom Buk-Swienty’s “The Other Half: The Life of Jacob Riis and the World of Immigrant America" was published. The original Danish version was translated by his wife, Annette.
    (www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAriis.htm)(SSFC, 9/21/08, Books p.4)

1914        May 29, The Canadian ship Empress of Ireland sank while enroute to Quebec City to Liverpool after colliding with the Norwegian coal freighter Storstad. 1,012 (1,024) of the 1,500 passengers and crew were killed. The site of the tragedy was proclaimed a protected historic and archeological site by Quebec in 1999.
    (SFC, 4/23/99, p.D3)(SC, 5/29/02)

1914        May, President Woodrow Wilson issued a proclamation designating the second Sunday in May 1914 the first national Mother’s Day. In 1907 Anna Jarvis of Philadelphia suggested the idea of wearing carnations on the second Sunday in May to honor mothers.
    (HNPD, 5/9/00)

1914        Jun 2, Glenn Curtiss flew his Langley Aerodrome.
    (SC, 6/2/02)

1914        Jun 6, Three big movie companies in Los Angeles and San Francisco merged to form the Paramount Picture Corp. They included the Famous Players Co., the Master Film Co. and the Bosworth Co.
    (SSFC, 6/1/14, DB p.46)
1914        Jun 6, The 1st air flight out of sight of land was made from Scotland to Norway.
    (MC, 6/6/02)

1914        Jun 7, The first vessel passed through the Panama Canal. [see Aug]
    (HN, 6/7/98)

1914        Jun 11, Gerald Mohr, actor (Christopher-Foreign Intrigue), was born in NYC.
    (SC, 6/11/02)

1914        Jun 15, Yuri Andropov, Russian KGB chief, 1st secretary, was born.
    (MC, 6/15/02)
1914        Jun 15, Saul Steinberg, American cartoonist (New Yorker), was born in Romania.
    (HN, 6/15/01)

1914        Jun 17, John Hersey, novelist and journalist (Men of Bataan, Hiroshima), poet, was born.
    (HN, 6/17/01)

1914        Jun 19, Alan Cranston, former Sen., D-Calif., was born.
    (DT, 6/19/97)
1914        Jun 19, Harry Lauter, actor (Waterfront), was born in White Plains, NY.
    (MC, 6/19/02)
1914        Jun 19, The comic strip "Captain and the Kids" debut in newspapers.
    (DTnet, 6/19/97)

1914        Jun 26, Laurie Lee, British writer (Cider with Rosie) , was born.
    (HN, 6/26/01)
1914        Jun 26, Babe (Mildred) Didrikson Zaharias (International Women's Sports Hall of Famer, Olympic Hall of Famer, World Golf Hall of Famer, LPGA Hall of Famer, National Track and Field Hall of Famer), was born in Port Arthur, Texas.

1914        Jun 27, Giorgio Almirante, Italian fascist (member of parliament (1948-87), was born.
    (SC, 6/27/02)
1914        Jun 27, US signed a treaty of commerce with Ethiopia.
    (SC, 6/27/02)

1914        Jun 28, Austrian Archduke Francis Ferdinand, heir to Austria-Hungary, and his wife, Sofia, were assassinated in Sarajevo, Bosnia, by a Serb nationalist. As the royal couple rode through the streets of Sarajevo in an open touring car, seven young radicals from an obscure Serbian-Bosnian nationalist group, called the Black Hand, lay in wait. An initial assassination attempt failed, but a wrong turn brought the car near Gavrilo Princip, who fired two shots at point-blank range into the couple's bodies. Within minutes, both the Archduke and Sophia were dead. Princip was arrested, but political tensions were so high between Austria-Hungary and Serbia that war broke out as a result. Like falling dominoes, international alliances brought one country after another into the conflict. The event triggered World War I. In 2011 Adam Hochschild authored “To End All Wars: A Story of Loyalty and Rebellion."
    (V.D.-H.K.p.252, 284-285,290)(AP, 6/28/97)(HNPD, 6/28/98)(Econ, 6/4/11, p.93)
1914        Jun 28, World War I (WW I) began in 1914 and ended on this date in 1919. [see Jul 28] In 1999 Niall Ferguson published "The Pity of War," in which he blames the British government for having turned a European war into a world war.
    (HFA, ‘96, p.32)(WSJ, 4/14/99, p.A24)

1914        Jun, In San Francisco the film version of “The Valley of the Moon" a 1913 novel by Jack London (1876-1916), premiered at Grauman’s Imperial Theater, 1077 Market St.
    (SSFC, 6/22/14, DB p.45)
1914        Jun, Mt. Lassen in northern California began erupting and continued to spew volcanic debris through 1921.
    (SFEC, 8/3/97, p.T5)(SSFC, 6/15/14, DB p.46)

1914        Jul 1, A US Navy order went into effect prohibiting liquor on warships. US Navy Secretary Josephus Daniels substituted grape juice for the daily rum ration.
    (SFEC, 4/20/97, Z1 p.5)(SSFC, 6/29/14, DB p.42)

1914        Jul 2, Frederick Fennell, conductor (Time & the Winds), was born in Cleveland, Ohio.
    (SC, 7/2/02)

1914        Jul 4, 1st US motorcycle race (300 miles, Dodge City Ks).
    (Maggio, 98)

1914        Jul 10, The Boston Red Sox purchased Babe Ruth (19) from the Baltimore Orioles for 30 pieces of gold.
    (Hem., 4/97, p.105)(MC, 7/10/02)

1914        Jul 11, Babe Ruth debuted in the major leagues with the Boston Red Sox. He earned $2,900 in his rookie season.
    (MC, 7/11/02)

1914        Jul 14, 1st patent for liquid-fueled rocket design was granted to Dr. R. Goddard.
    (MC, 7/14/02)

1914        Jul 15, Gavin Maxwell, Scottish writer and naturalist (Ring of Bright Water), was born.
    (HN, 7/15/01)
1914        Jul 15, Mexican president Huerta fled with 2 million pesos to Europe.
    (MC, 7/15/02)

1914        Jul 16, A Socialist conference in Brussels was attended by Kautsky, Trotsky & Rosa Luxemburg.
    (MC, 7/16/02)

1914        Jul 18, US army air service 1st came into being as part of the Signal Corps.
    (MC, 7/18/02)

1914        Jul 20, Armed resistance against British rule began in Ulster.
    (MC, 7/20/02)

1914        Jul 23, Austria and Hungary issued an ultimatum to Serbia after the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand; the dispute led to World War I.
    (AP, 7/23/98)

1914        Jul 25, Russia declared that it would act to protect Serbian sovereignty.
    (HN, 7/25/98)

1914        Jul 26, Erskine Hawkins, trumpeter, was born.
    (HN, 7/26/01)
1914        Jul 26, Austrian-Hungary condemned a Serbian ultimatum.
    (MC, 7/26/02)

1914        July 27, Germany informed Belgium and Luxembourg of its intention to pass its troops through their countries. German Chancellor Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg reportedly called the 1839 London Treaty, in which all the European powers had guaranteed Belgian neutrality, "a scrap of paper" not worth fighting over. Bethmann-Hollweg was trying to persuade Britain not to declare war based on the treaty. Unsuccessful in his efforts, Britain and Belgium declared war when German troops entered Belgium on August 4.
    (HNQ, 7/24/98)
1914        Jul 27, British troops invaded the streets of Dublin, Ireland, and began to disarm Irish rebels.
    (HN, 7/27/98)

1914        Jul 28, Foxtrot was 1st danced at New Amsterdam Roof Garden in NYC by Harry Fox.
    (SC, 7/28/02)
1914        Jul 28, The New York Stock Exchange closed for 4 ½ months.
    (CFA, ‘96, p.50)(HN, 7/28/98)
1914        Jul 28, The SMS Bodrog was one of two Austro-Hungarian heavy gunboats that sailed into the confluence of the rivers Sava and Danube around midnight. Its two canons hurled shells at Serbian positions in Belgrade, marking the start of the four-year war in which around 20 million people died. In 2021 Serbia recalled the ship to service as a floating museum.
    (Reuters, 11/12/21)
1914        Jul 28, World War I. Van Doren described the world of this time in four economic zones:
    1) Where the industrial force exceeds the number of people engaged in agriculture. This included Great Britain, the US, Germany, Belgium and Japan.
    2) The agricultural population continues to be about twice as large as the industrial force. This included Sweden, Italy and Austria.
    3) Those countries that had begun to industrialize but were still primarily preindustrial. This included Russia.
    4) Countries that still depended almost exclusively on handicrafts, artisanal work, and unskilled labor. This included most of the Third World.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.252, 284-285,290)

1914        Jul 29, Transcontinental telephone service began with the first phone conversation between New York and San Francisco.
    (AP, 7/29/97)

1914        Jul 31, Jean Jaures (b.1859), French Socialist leader, was assassinated by French nationalist Raoul Villain (29).
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jean_Jaur%C3%A8s)(Econ., 3/7/15, p.52)d
1914        Jul 31, German Kaiser Wilhelm II threatened war and ordered Russia to demobilize.
    (MC, 7/31/02)

1914        Aug 1, France and Germany mobilized.
    (MC, 8/1/02)
1914        Aug 1, Germany declared war on Russia at the onset of World War I.
    (AP, 8/1/07)

1914        Aug 2, In Joncherey, northeastern France, French corporal Jules-Andre Peugeot and German lieutenant Albert Mayer died in a firefight, the first official casualties of World War I.
    (AFP, 2/7/14)
1914        Aug 2, Germany invaded Luxembourg.
    (HN, 8/2/98)
1914        Aug 2, German press falsely reported that French bombed Nuremberg.
    (MC, 8/2/02)
1914        Aug 2, Great Britain mobilized.
    (MC, 8/2/02)
1914        Aug 2, Russian troops invade Eastern Prussia.
    (MC, 8/2/02)

1914        Aug 3, Germany invaded Belgium and declared war on France at the onset of World War I. The German plan for victory in France was known as the Schlieffen Plan, and was based on a quick strike and the capture of Paris.
    (HN, 8/3/98)(AP, 8/3/08)(ON, 8/08, p.5)
1914        Aug 3, German Admiral Souchon, commander of the battle cruisers Goeben and Breslau, received an unexpected change in his orders. After attacking the Algerian coast he was no longer to sail west to the Atlantic Ocean. Instead, he was now ordered to turn around and sail east to Turkey. His new mission was to persuade the neutral Turkish government to enter the war on the side of Germany. The 2 ships were sold to Turkey and Souchon was made commander of the Turkish navy. He took the ships into the Black Sea, where he bombarded the Russian cities of Odessa, Sebastopol and Novorossiysk without the knowledge or consent of the Turkish government.
    (http://www.worldwar1.com/sfgb.htm)(ON, Dec, 1995)

1914        Aug 4, Britain and Belgium declared war after German troops entered Belgium. The United States proclaimed its neutrality. Britain’s entry also committed its dominions of Australia, Canada, Newfoundland, New Zealand and South Africa. AS WWI started the financial press helped to cover up news of a run on the Bank of England.
    (HNQ, 7/24/98)(AP, 8/4/97)(Econ, 8/2/14, p.45)(Econ, 9/27/14, p.70)

1914        Aug 5, One of the first, if not the first, electric traffic light systems were installed in Cleveland, Ohio.
    (AP, 8/5/07)
1914        Aug 5, The British Expeditionary Force mobilized for World War I.
    (HN, 8/5/98)

1914        Aug 6, Ellen Louise Wilson, the first wife of the twenty-eighth president, Woodrow Wilson, died of Barite’s disease.
    (HN, 8/6/98)
1914        Aug 6, Austria-Hungary declared war against Russia and Serbia declared war against Germany.
    (AP, 8/6/00)
1914        Aug 6, A German Zeppelin bombed Liege City and killed 9 people.
    (MC, 8/6/02)

1914        Aug 10, At Luik, German 12"/16.5" guns reached Belgian boundary.
    (MC, 8/10/02)

1914        Aug 11, Jews were expelled from Mitchenick, Poland.
    (MC, 8/11/02)

1914        Aug 12, Great Britain declared war on Austria-Hungary.
    (MC, 8/12/02)

1914        Aug 13, Carl Wickman began Greyhound, the 1st US bus line, in Minnesota.
    (MC, 8/13/02)
1914        Aug 13, The British purchased 3 fast cross-channel packets: Empress, Riviera and Engadine. The ships were converted into seaplane tenders for reconnaissance.
    (AHM, 1/97)

1914        Aug 15, Mamah Borthwick Cheney, the mistress of Frank Lloyd Wright, was axed to death along with her 2 children and 4 others by a crazed servant at Wright’s rural Taliesin home. Wright restored the house, which was set aflame in the rampage. The house was ravaged by fire again in 1925 and again restored by Wright.
    (SFEC, 11/8/98, DB p.48)(Econ, 3/5/11, p.92)(http://tinyurl.com/4w943ss)
1914        Aug 15, The Panama Canal opened to traffic. The Panama Canal, a 52-mile waterway, was completed. Some 5,000 workers, just 350 of them white, perished in the American effort. In 1977 David McCullough authored "The Path Between the Seas," a definitive account of the building of the Panama Canal. In 2009 Julie Greene authored “The Canal Builders: Making America’s Empire at the Panama Canal."
    (WSJ, 7/22/96, p.A11)(SFEC, 11/3/96, p.A16)(HN, 8/15/98)(WSJ, 10/17/02, p.A18)(SFC, 3/3/09, p.E10)
1914        Aug 15, German assault at Dinant: Lt. Charles de Gaulle (24) was injured.
    (MC, 8/15/02)
1914        Aug 15, Anatol K. Liadov (59), Russian composer (Baba Yaga), died.
    (MC, 8/15/02)

1914        Aug 16, Liege, Belgium, fell to the German army.
    (HN, 8/16/98)
1914        Aug 16, Zapata and Pancho Villa over ran Mexico.
    (MC, 8/16/02)

1914        Aug 17, Franklin D. Roosevelt Jr., son of FDR, (Rep-D-NY, 1949-55), was born.
    (SC, 8/17/02)

1914        Aug 18, President Wilson issued his Proclamation of Neutrality, aimed at keeping the United States out of World War I.
    (AP, 8/18/97)
1914        Aug 18, Germany declared war on Russia.
    (HN, 8/18/00)

1914        Aug 19, Elmer Rice' "On Trial," premiered in NYC.
    (MC, 8/19/02)
1914        Aug 19, The British Expeditionary Force (BEF) landed in France.
    (HN, 8/19/98)

1914        Aug 20, Battle at Morhange: German troops chased French, killing 1000s.
    (MC, 8/20/02)
1914        Aug 20, German forces occupied Brussels, Belgium, during World War I.
    (AP, 8/20/07)
1914        Aug 20, Russia won an early victory over Germany at Gumbinnen.
    (HN, 8/20/98)
1914        Aug 20-24, Battle of Boundaries: Lorraine, Ardennen, Sambre & Meuse, Mons.
    (MC, 8/20/02)

1914        Aug 22, In France some 27,000 soldiers died in the bloodiest battle of French history.
    (SFEC, 9/28/97, Z1 p.2)
1914        Aug 22, Von Ludendorff and von Hindenburg moved into East Prussia enroute to Russia.
    (MC, 8/22/02)

1914        Aug 23, Gen. von Hausen executed 612 inhabitants of Dinant, Belgium. Felix Fivet (3 weeks old), Belgian baby, was among those executed by German troops.
    (MC, 8/23/02)
1914        Aug 23, The Emperor of Japan sided with the Allies and declared war on Germany in World War I.
    (Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 215)(AP, 8/23/97)(HN, 8/23/98)

1914        Aug 24, German Zeppelins bombed Antwerp.
    (AHM, 1/97)

1914        Aug 25, German army began 6 week plundering of Leuven, Belgium. German Zeppelins bombed Antwerp, Belgium, and 10 died.
    (MC, 8/25/02)
1914        Aug 25, German troops marched into France and pushed the French army to the Sedan.
    (MC, 8/25/02)

1914        Aug 26, The French government appointed Gen. Joseph Simon Gallieni (65) as military governor of Paris. He had been called out of retirement at the onset of war to serve in the Ministry of War in Paris.
    (ON, 8/08, p.4)

1914        Aug 27, 2nd day of battle at Tannenberg: Germany bombed Usdau.
    (MC, 8/27/01)

1914        Aug 28, Three German cruisers were sunk by ships of the Royal Navy in the Battle of Heligoland Bight, the first major naval battle of World War I. The Germans lost four ships and 1,000 sailors; British casualties were 33 killed.
    (HN, 8/28/98)(RTH, 8/28/99)
1914        Aug 28, Anatoli Liadov (59), composer, died.
    (MC, 8/28/01)

1914        Aug 29, 4th day of Tannenberg: Russian Narev-army panics, Gen Martos caught.
    (MC, 8/29/01)

1914        Aug 30, The 1st German plane bombed Paris and 2 people were killed.
    (SFC, 8/24/96, p.E3)(MC, 8/30/01)

1914        Aug, Alberto Santos-Dumont (1873-1932), Brazilian aviation pioneer, burned his aeronautical papers after French neighbors labeled him a German spy.
    (SSFC, 6/28/03, p.M1)
1914        Aug, Sir Ernest Shackleton (40) left England on a voyage to Antarctica with a 27 man crew on the HMS Endurance. He planned to lead the "Imperial Trans-Continental Expedition," a dog-sled party across the continent.
    (WSJ, 4/2/98, p.B15)(ON, 5/00, p.9)
1914        Aug, The British Flying Corps (RFC) was sent to France to support the British Expeditionary Corps.
    (AHM, 1/97)
1914        Aug, Berlin stockyards were slaughtering 25,000 pigs a week. By September, 1916, the number dropped to 350 a week.
    (Econ, 1/10/04, p.73)

1914        Sep 1, Russia renamed St. Petersburg to Petrograd.
    (MC, 9/1/02)
1914        Sep 1, Martha, the last known passenger pigeon, died at the Cincinnati Zoo.
    (AH, 10/04, p.14)

1914        Sep 2, German Zeppelins again bombed Antwerp.
    (AHM, 1/97)

1914        Sep 3, Dixie Lee Ray, Chairperson of the Atomic Energy Commission who received the U.N. Peace Prize in 1977, was born.
    (HN, 9/3/98)
1914        Sep 3, The French capital was moved from Paris to Bordeaux as the Battle of the Marne began. The British expeditionary army under general Lanrezacs army attacked the Marne. French troops vacated Reims.
    (HN, 9/3/98)(MC, 9/3/01)
1914        Sep 3, The air defense of Great Britain was assigned to Royal Naval Air Service (RNAS). Winston Churchill, the new first lord of the Admiralty, and the RNAS were assigned the task of stopping the Zeppelins.
    (AHM, 1/97)

1914        Sep 4, General von Moltke ceased German advance in France.
    (MC, 9/4/01)

1914        Sep 5, The First Battle of the Marne began during World War I. The German First Army was led by Gen. Alexander von Kluck.
    (AP, 9/5/97)(WSJ, 12/31/99, p.A10)
1914         Sep 5, Charles Peguy (d.1914), French poet and writer, died. "It is impossible to write ancient history because we lack source materials, and impossible to write modern history because we have far too many."
    (AP, 7/28/98)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_P%C3%A9guy)

1914        Sep 6, In the Battle of Marne German forces bypassed Paris to chase retreating allied forces. French Gen. Gallieni orchestrated an attack using the British Expeditionary Force along with the French 3rd, 5th and 6th armies.
    (ON, 8/08, p.5)

1914        Sep 7, James Alfred Van Allen (d.2006), physicist, was born in Mt. Pleasant, Iowa. In 1958 he discovered the two radiation belts surrounding the Earth, which were named after him.
    (HN, 9/7/98)(SFC, 8/10/06, p.B7)
1914        Sep 7, In the Battle of Marne French Gen. Gallieni commandeered some 600 hundred Paris taxicabs to deliver overnight 6,000 men of the 3rd army to reinforce the 6th Army at the Battle of the Marne, which allowed the French army to hold.
    (ON, 8/08, p.5)

1914        Sep 8, Pvt. Thomas Highgate (18) was the first British soldier in the war to be shot for desertion. He had become separated from his unit, but said he was trying to rejoin it when he was detained. In 2006 the British government prepared to pardon 305 men who were hauled before firing squads in World War I for desertion or cowardice after summary trials.
    (AP, 8/16/06)

1914        Sep 9, In the Battle of Marne the German advance stalled and a retreat began back to the Aisne River.
    (ON, 8/08, p.5)

1914        Sep 11, W.C. Handy published: "The Saint Louis Blues."
    (SI-WPC, 12/6/96)(MC, 9/11/01)

1914        Sep 12, The First Battle of the Marne ended in an Allied victory against Germany. The German advance into France was stopped. 20th century history turned on this pivotal event.
    (WSJ, 12/31/99, p.A10)(AP, 9/12/06)

1914        Sep 17, In California some 35,000 people viewed the collision of two trains at the State Fair in Sacramento.
    (SSFC, 9/14/14, SF p.42)

1914        Sep 15, President Woodrow Wilson ordered the Punitive Expedition out of Mexico. The Expedition, headed by General John Pershing, had been searching for Pancho Villa, a Mexican revolutionary.
    (HN, 9/15/99)
1914        Sep 15, The Battle of Aisne began between Germans and French during WW I.
    (MC, 9/15/01)

1914        Sep 18, Battle of Aisne ended with Germans beating the French during WW I.
    (MC, 9/18/01)
1914        Sep 18, Gen. von Hindenburg was named commander of German armies on the Eastern Front.
    (MC, 9/18/01)
1914        Sep 18, The Irish Home Rule Bill became law, but was delayed until after World War I. The Government of Ireland Act became law. It was an act by the British government to take effect at the end of World War I.
    (WSJ,3/13/95, p.A-15)(HN, 9/18/98)

1914        Sep 20, Kenneth More, English actor (39 Steps, Doctor in the House), was born.
    (MC, 9/20/01)

1914        Sep 22, The German cruiser Emden shelled Madras, India, destroying 346,000 gallons of fuel and killing only five civilians.
    (HN, 9/22/99)
1914        Sep 22, A German submarine sank 3 British ironclads, 1,459 died. The Aboukir, the Hogue, and the Cressy, were all sunk  in just over one hour.  This loss alerted the British  to the deadly effectiveness of the submarine, which had  been generally unrecognized up to that time.
    (MC, 9/22/01)
1914        Sep 22, The RNAS attempted their first air attack on the Zeppelins at Dusseldorf and Cologne. There was little damage done.
    (AHM, 1/97)

1914        Sep 24, In the Alsace-Lorraine area between France and Germany, the German Army captured St. Mihiel.
    (HN, 9/24/98)

1914        Sep 26, Jack LaLanne, fitness guru, was born.
    (MC, 9/26/01)
1914        Sep 26, The Federal Trade Commission was established to foster competition by preventing monopolies in business.
    (AP, 9/26/97)(HN, 9/26/99)

1914        Sep 28, San Francisco city engineer M.M. O’Shaughnessy presented the completed Stockton Street tunnel to the city through Andrew Gallagher, chairman of the Tunnel Committee of the Board of Supervisors.
    (SSFC, 12/28/14, DB p.38)

1914        Dec 29, In San Francisco the Stockton Street Tunnel opened with fanfare by Mayor James Rolph. It had first been proposed by Dr. Hartland Law in 1910.
    (SSFC, 11/2/14, p.A2)(SSFC, 12/21/14, p.D2)

1914        Sep, Francis H. Leggett, a steam cruiser bound for San Francisco, sank in heavy seas off the Oregon coast. 74 people died and 2 survived.
    (SFEC, 12/26/99, p.W4)

1914        Sep, The Government of Ireland Act became law. It was an act by the British government to take effect at the end of World War I.
    (WSJ,3/13/95, p.A-15)

1914        Oct 1, Daniel Joseph Boorstin, author (Empire of Czar), was born in Atlanta, Georgia. He won a Pulitzer Prize in 1974.

1914        Oct 4, The first German Zeppelin raided London.
    (HN, 10/4/98)

1914        Oct 6, Thor Heyerdahl, Norwegian entomologist and adventurer whose Kon-Tiki expedition established the possibility that Polynesians may have originated in South America, was born.
    (HN, 10/6/98)

1914        Oct 8, The RNAS attempted another air attack on the Zeppelins at Dusseldorf and Cologne. The dirigible shed at Dusseldorf was destroyed.
    (AHM, 1/97)

1914        Oct 9, German troops took Antwerp after a 12-day siege in WW I crushing the resistance of over 100,000 Belgian troops and violating Belgian neutrality. 
    (HN, 10/9/98)(MC, 10/9/01)

1914        Oct 12, The 1st battle at Ypres, France, began.
    (MC, 10/12/01)

1914        Oct 13, Garrett Morgan invented and patented the gas mask.
    (MC, 10/13/01)

1914        Oct 14, The Health Dept. of San Francisco’s reported on the petition of the Jones Draying Co. that its stable at 847 Harrison, where 35 horses are kept, should be cleaned and whitewashed. The manager maintained that cobwebs helped control flies much better than whitewash.
    (SSFC, 10/12/14, p.42)

1914        Oct 15, ASCAP (American Society of Composers, Authors & Publishers) founded.
    (MC, 10/15/01)
1914        Oct 15, Congress passed President Wilson signed the Clayton Anti-Trust Act, which labor leader Samuel Gompers called "labor's charter of freedom." It strengthened previous anti-monopoly legislation. The act exempted unions from anti-trust laws; strikes, picketing and boycotting became legal; corporate interlocking directorates became illegal, as did setting prices which would effect a monopoly.
    (SFC, 7/8/96, p.D2)(HN, 10/15/98)(AP, 10/15/08)
1914        Oct 15, Aleksander Rozycki, composer, died at 69.
    (MC, 10/15/01)

1914        Oct 16, In San Francisco the last spike of the Overfair Railway was driven for the 1915 Panama-Pacific Exposition. The miniature rail project to carry visitors around the fair was led by Oakland millionaire Louis Mac Dermot (d.1948). In 1979 Albert Smith, railroad buff and graduate of Cal Poly, acquired the Overfair steam locomotives, after inheriting Orchard Supply Hardware, and set them up on his Swanton Pacific Ranch. The ranch and railroad were left to Cal Poly following Smith’s death in 1993. 
    (SFC, 12/29/14, p.C2)

1914        Oct 17, John Mosely, recording expert and entrepreneur, was born.
    (MC, 10/17/01)

1914        Oct 19, The German cruiser Emden captures her thirteenth Allied merchant ship in 24 days.
    (HN, 10/19/99)

1914        Oct 21, Battle of Warsaw ended with a German defeat.
    (MC, 10/21/01)

1914        Oct 22, The U.S. placed economic support behind Allies.
    (HN, 10/22/98)

1914        Oct 25, John Berryman, poet, was born.
    (HN, 10/25/00)

1914        Oct 27, Dylan Thomas, British poet and author whose works included "Portrait of the Artist as a Young Dog," was born in Swansea, Wales.
    (AP, 10/27/97)(HN, 10/27/98)
1914        Oct 27, The British battleship Audacious was sunk by a mine.
    (MC, 10/27/01)

1914        Oct 28, Jonas Salk, US physician and virologist, was born in NYC. He developed the first safe and effective vaccine against polio.
    (HN, 10/28/98)(AH, 10/04, p.15)
1914        Oct 28, George Eastman announced the invention of the color photographic process.
    (HN, 10/28/00)
1914        Oct 28, The German cruiser Emden, disguised as a British ship, steamed into Penang Harbor near Malaya and sank the Russian light cruiser Zhemchug.
    (HN, 10/28/99)

1914        Oct 29, A Turkish fleet including 2 German cruisers stormed the Black Sea and bombarded Odessa, Sevastopol and Theodosia. [see Aug 3] This marked Turkey’s full entry into WWI.
    (PC, 1992, p.706)(ON, Dec, 1995)(Econ., 3/7/15, p.85)

1914        Oct 30, The Allied offensive at Ypres, Belgium, began.
    (MC, 10/30/01)

1914        Fall, Armenian volunteer bands organized themselves and fought against the Turks. "The Protestant missionaries distributed... propaganda in favor of England and stirred the Armenians to desire autonomy under British protection."
    (History of Armenia, Horen Ashikian)

1914        Nov 1, Von Hindenburg was named marshal of Eastern front.
    (MC, 11/1/01)
1914        Nov 1, A German squadron engaged the British fleet under Adm. Craddock near Coronel Bay, Chile. The ships Good Hope and Monmouth were sunk and 1,600 men were lost including Adm. Craddock.
    (MC, 11/1/01)(ON, 3/02, p.11)

1914        Nov 2, Ray Walston, actor (My Favorite Martian, Damn Yankees, Picket Fences), was born in New Orleans, La.
    (MC, 11/2/01)
1914        Nov 2, Victor Herbert's  "Only Girl," premiered in NYC.
    (MC, 11/2/01)
1914        Nov 2, Great Britain annexed Cyprus.
    (MC, 11/2/01)
1914        Nov 2, Russia declared war with Turkey. [see Oct 29]
    (HN, 11/2/98)

1914        Nov 5, The Great Britain and France declared war on Turkey.
    (HN, 11/5/98)

1914        Nov 7, Japan attacked a German concession on Chinese peninsula of Shanghai.
    (MC, 11/7/01)

1914        Nov 9, Lt. Captain Hellmuth Karl von Mucke (1892-1957) led a squad of men in 3 small boats from the German cruiser Emden to destroy the British telegraph station at Direction Island in the Cocos archipelago. Separated from the Emden von Mucke commandeered the old schooner Ayesha and led his men to Padang, where he sunk the Ayesha and took command of the German merchant SS Choising. They reached Yemen on Jan 8, 1915.
    (ON, 4/05, p.4)
1914        Nov 9, The Australian light cruiser HMAS Sydney wrecked the German cruiser Emden, forcing her to beach on a reef on North Keeling Island in the Indian Ocean.
    (HN, 11/9/99)

1914        Nov 10, George Gray, San Francisco cement magnate, was shot to death by a quarry worker at 29th and Castro who was owed $17.50 in back wages. Joseph Lococo was acquitted by reason of temporary insantiy. The Gray brothers’ rock quarries had already cut into the east side of Telegraph Hill. Harry Gray lived to 1937.
    (SFC, 11/27/00, p.A18)(SFC, 2/22/14, p.C3)

1914        Nov 11, Howard Fast, screenwriter (Rachel & the Stranger, Spartacus), was born in NYC.
    (MC, 11/11/01)

1914        Nov 13, The brassiere, invented by Caresse Crosby, was patented by Mary Phelps Jacob.
    (HN, 11/13/00)(MC, 11/13/01)

1914        Nov 15, Italian socialist Benito Mussolini founded the newspaper Il Populo d’Italia.
    (MC, 11/15/01)

1914        Nov 16, Federal Reserve System formally opened. [see Apr 2, 1914]
    (MC, 11/16/01)

1914        Nov 17, US declared Panama Canal Zone neutral.
    (MC, 11/17/01)

1914        Nov 20, Emilio Pucci, fashion designer (Neiman-Marcus Award-1954), was born in Naples.
    (MC, 11/20/01)
1914        Nov 20, US State Department began requiring photographs for passports.
    (MC, 11/20/01)
1914        Nov 20, Bulgaria proclaimed its neutrality in the First World War.
    (HN, 11/20/98)

1914        Nov 21, The RNAS attempted an air attack on the Zeppelins at Friedrichshafen. They succeeded in doing considerable damage.
    (AHM, 1/97)

1914        Nov 22, Peter Woolridge Townsend, war hero, courtier, writer, was born.
    (MC, 11/22/01)

1914        Nov 24, Benito Mussolini left Italy's socialist party.
    (MC, 11/24/01)

1914        Nov 25, Joe DiMaggio, baseball star, was born in Martinez, Ca.
    (SFC, 10/15/04, p.F13)
1914        Nov 25, German Field Marshal Fredrich von Hindenburg called off Lodz offensive 40 miles from Warsaw, Poland. The Russians lost 90,000 to the Germans’ 35,000 in two weeks of fighting.
    (HN, 11/25/98)

1914        Nov 26, Battleship HMS Bulwark exploded at Sheerness Harbor, England, 788 died.
    (MC, 11/26/01)

1914        Nov 30, The SF Chronicle reported that police officers were being forced to trade in their helmets for new caps. The caps were being sold by George E. Gallagher, president of the Board of Education. Chief of police White had apparently slipped Gallagher information about the hats allowing him to place an advanced order from New York.
    (SSFC, 11/23/14, Par p.42)

1914        Dec 1, Alfred Thayer Mahan (b.1840), American naval strategist and historian, died. His concept of "sea power" was based on the idea that countries with greater naval power will have greater worldwide impact. His books included “The Influence of Sea Power Upon History, 1660–1783" (1890).
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alfred_Thayer_Mahan)(Econ, 4/22/17, SR p.7)

1914        Dec 2, Ray Walston, actor (My Favorite Martian), was born.
    (MC, 12/2/01)
1914        Dec 2, Austrian troops occupied Belgrade, Serbia.
    (HN, 12/2/98)

1914        Dec 4, The first Seaplane Unit formed by the German Navy officially came into existence and began operations from Zeebrugge, Belgium.
    (HN, 12/4/98)

1914        Dec 5, Sir Ernest Shackleton left South Georgia Island on the HMS Endurance in the Weddell Sea in Antarctica.
    (Hem. 1/95, p. 28)(WSJ, 4/2/98, p.B1)

1914        Dec 6, German troops over ran Lodz.
    (MC, 12/6/01)

1914        Dec 8, "Watch Your Step," the first musical revue to feature a score composed entirely by Irving Berlin, opened in New York.
    (AP, 12/8/99)
1914        Dec 8, The German cruisers Scharnhorst, Gneisenau, Nurnberg, and Leipzig were sunk by a British force under Adm. Sturdee in the Battle of the Falkland Islands. 1,800 German sailors were killed including Adm. Von Spee and his 2 sons. Over 2,500 lives were lost in a single day.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SMS_Leipzig)(ON, 3/02, p.11)(SSFC, 10/6/02, p.C12)

1914        Dec 15, The New York Stock Exchange reopened under restrictions that specified minimum prices. It had closed for 4 1/2 months due to the war.
    (WSJ, 7/8/96, p.C1)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)

1914        Dec 17, Jews were expelled from Tel Aviv by Turkish authorities.
    (MC, 12/17/01)

1914        Dec 21, The first feature-length silent film comedy, "Tillie's Punctured Romance," was released.
    (AP, 12/21/04)

1914        Dec 23, San Bruno, Ca., was incorporated following a campaign by the local newspaper, the San Bruno Herald, mainly so the streets could be paved.

1914        Dec 24, 577,875 Allied soldiers spent Christmas as prisoners in Germany. World War I was only months old on Christmas Eve 1914 when an extraordinary unofficial truce occurred in many places along the Western Front. "We were all moved and felt quite melancholy," wrote one German soldier, "each of us taken up with his own thoughts of home." German and English troops, often less than one hundred yards from each other, set aside warfare to trade Christmas greetings and sing familiar carols in two languages. The truce, probably observed by two-thirds of the British and German troops, ended with the holiday, but reasserted the basic decency of ordinary men like these British and German soldiers caught up in war. In 2001 Stanley Weintraub authored "Silent Night: The Remarkable 1914 Christmas Truce."
    (HN, 12/24/98)(HNPD, 12/24/98)(WSJ, 12/17/01, p.A16)
1914        Dec 24, John Muir (76), naturalist, died in Martinez, Ca. He was born in Dunbar, Scotland, in 1838.
    (SFEC, 1/2/00, DB p.23)(SFC, 2/2/00, p.A21)(ON, 7/03, p.3)

1914        Dec 25, German and British troops declared an unofficial truce to celebrate Christmas during World War I.
    (HN, 12/25/98)
1914        Dec 25, The British Royal Navy Air Force attempted to bomb the German Zeppelin shed at Cuxhaven. Fog obscured the mission and the bombs were dropped on other sites, i.e. a seaplane base on Langeoog Island, the light cruisers Stralsund and Graudenz and the city of Wilhemshaven. An audacious British air attack on a Zeppelin base in northern Germany caught the Germans with their defenses down. In 1985 R.D. Layman (d.1999) published "The Cuxhaven Raid: The World's First Carrier Air Strike."
    (AHM, 1/97)(HN, 3/22/97)(SFC, 6/25/99, p.D6)

1914        Dec 26, Richard Widmark, actor, was born: Judgment at Nuremberg, Murder on the Orient Express, The Halls of Montezuma, How the West was Won, The Alamo, Against All Odds, True Colors.

1914        Dec 28, in San Francisco Swami Trigunatita was injured during a Sunday service at the Vedanta Temple when a mentally ill former student hurled a homemade bomb at his pulpit. The student, named Varvara, was killed. Trigunatita died on Jan. 10.
    (SFC, 8/6/21, p.C2)

1914        Dec 29, In San Francisco the Stockton Street Tunnel opened with fanfare by Mayor James Rolph. It had first been proposed by Dr. Hartland Law in 1910.
    (SSFC, 11/2/14, p.A2)(SSFC, 12/21/14, p.D2)
1914        Dec 29, The production of Belgian newspapers was halted to protest German censorship.
    (HN, 12/29/98)

1914        Dec 30, Bert Parks, [Jacobson], TV host (Miss America), was born in Atlanta, Ga.
    (MC, 12/30/01)

1914        Dec, Arthur Conan Doyle planted a fossil elephant femur in the gravel pit near Piltdown that was believed to be a genuine Paleolithic tool. It was shaped like a cricket bat and appears to be part of Doyle’s Piltdown Ape-man playing cricket hoax.
    (PacDisc. Spring/’96, p.33)

1914        Hans J, Wegner, designer of Danish Modern style wooden furniture, was born. His 3 most famous chair designs were the "Classic," the "Chinese," and the "Peacock," all made during the late ‘40s and early ‘50s.
    (SFC, 3/11/98, Z1 p.5)

1914        Marc Chagall returned to Vitebsk and a year later married his muse, Bella Rosenfeld. He founded a fine arts academy in his birthplace and later moved to Moscow where he painted decorative murals for the Yiddish theater. He later moved to Berlin.
    (WSJ, 5/11/95, p. A-14)

1914        The sculpture "Large Horse" was made by Duchamp-Villon.
    (WSJ, 1/9/97, p.A8)

1914        Henri Gaudier-Brzeska (1891-1915) made the sculpture "Hieratic Head of Ezra Pound."
    (WSJ, 1/9/97, p.A8)

1914        Raymond Duchamp-Villon made his sculpture: "Large Horse," an abstract vision of horsepower.
    (SFC, 10/26/96, p.B6)

1914        Andre Favory painted his cubist "Woman with a Fan."
    (WSJ, 2/8/96, p.A-12)

1914        Gustav Klimt, Austrian modernist, painted "The Villa at Attersee." In 2003 Sotheby's auctioned it for $29.1 million.
    (SFC, 11/12/03, p.D4)
1914        Ludwig Meidner (1884-1966), German expressionist artist, published his sequence of drawings titled “Krieg," a grotesque taste of the ghastliness of war to come.
    (Econ, 1/5/08, p.80)

1914        Jean Metzinger created his cubist tabletop Still Life in muted shades of brown, blue and yellow.
    (WSJ, 2/8/96, p.A-12)   

1914        Stanley Spencer painted "The Centurion’s Servant."
    (SFC, 6/5/98, p.C1)

1914        Egon Schiele (b.1990), Viennese artist, made his "Reclining Woman With Raised Chemise."
    (WSJ, 11/19/97, p.A20)

1914        Canadian photographer Margaret Watkins came to New York to study at the White School of Photography, the only school in the US devoted to that art.
    (WSJ, 12/31/96, p.5)

1914        S. Ansky wrote "Dybbuk," a classic tale of love and ghostly possession. A Talmudic student starves himself to death and inhabits the body of his beloved who was wed to a rich nerd.
    (SFEC,11/9/97, DB p.17)(WSJ, 11/26/97, p.A12)
1914        Theodore Dreiser (1871-1945) authored “The Titan," a sequel to his 1912 novel “the Financier."
    (Econ, 1/3/15, p.56)
1914        Chris Evans, San Joaquin Ca. farmer and political idealist published his utopian novel: "Eurasia." He had been imprisoned for the first-degree murder of professional man-hunter Vic Wilson and was suspected of robbing the Southern Pacific Railroad. He was released on parole by Gov. Johnson in 1911.
    (Smith., 5/95, p.94)
1914        E.M. Forster authored his novel "Maurice," a story of cross-class, homosexual love.  A 1987 film version was directed by Merchant Ivory. The novel was not published until after Forster’s death.
    (SFEC, 8/22/99, DB p.37)(SSFC, 11/26/00, DB p.55)
1914        Journalist Walter Lippmann (1889-1974)) authored “Drift and Mastery," in which he said Americans need to adjust their thinking to a new world situation.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drift_and_Mastery)(Econ, 7/4/15, p.73)
1914        H.G. Wells authored "The World Set Free," which included references to an atomic bomb.
    (SFEC, 6/11/00, Z1 p.2)
c1914        Edith Wharton authored "French Ways and Their Meaning." She argue in the book for American Intervention in WW I.
    (SFEM, 3/12/00, p.50)

1914        Eugene O’Neill wrote his first full-length play "Bread and Butter." It was rejected and he disavowed the work. it was never produced in his lifetime.
    (WSJ, 9/3/98, p.A16)

1914        Cecil B. DeMille (b.1881) made his first film "The Squaw Man," for a new movie company headed by Samuel Goldwyn. It established him as one of America’s top directors. He went on to direct films of all types, making stars out of protégés such as Gloria Swanson and Thomas Meighan in the silent era and Charlton Heston and Paulette Goddard in the talkies.
    (HNPD, 8/12/98)

1914        A memorial tower was erected on the Berkeley, Ca., campus with a design adopted from the Campanile San Marco in Venice. It was financed by a $200,000 donation from a banker's widow.
    (SFEM, 1/30/00, p.13)
1914        The Beaux Arts Oakland, Ca., City Hall was the first government high-rise (19 stories) office building in the US. It was lauded by Mayor Frank K. Mott. The original cost was under $2 million.
    (SFEM, 1/4/98, p.5)
1914        In Oakland, Ca., the Cathedral Building at 1615 Broadway and Telegraph was completed. It was designed by Benjamin McDougall.
    (SFC, 3/1/08, p.B4)(SSFC, 7/4/10, p.C2)
1914        Mother’s Cake & Cookie Co. was founded in Oakland, Ca., by N.M. Wheatley, a newspaper vendor. After a series of owners the firm was sold in 2005 to Catterton Partners, a private equity firm. In 2006 Catterton announced the closure of the Oakland bakery and distribution sites. In 2008 Catterton sought bankruptcy protection for Mother’s Cookies.
    (SFC, 2/28/98, p.D1)(SFC, 4/4/06, p.C3)(SFC, 10/9/08, p.C1)
1914        The town of Walnut Creek, Ca., population 500, incorporated.
    (SFC, 7/17/06, p.B5)
1914        The South San Francisco Scavengers garbage company established itself in South San Francisco, Ca.
    (SFC, 2/12/99, p.A22)
1914        In the San Francisco, Ca., peninsula some 2,000 acacia trees were planted along El Camino Real following the 1,500 planted in 1911.
    (Ind, 4/17/99, p.5A)
1914        In San Francisco the Pier 35 ship terminal was built.
    (SFC, 5/3/12, p.C5)
1914        The 315-mile Northwestern Pacific Railroad reached Eureka, Ca.
    (SFEC, 9/7/97, Z1 p.1)
1914        Robert Burgess, a local real estate developer, advertised that the grandest view of planet could be had from the top of Mount Diablo, where he had just built a toll road to the top. The myth was later debunked. 72,000 square miles are visible from Mt. McKinley in Alaska, as compared to the 18,000 square miles visible from the top of Mt. Diablo. The world’s grandest view was from the summit of Mount Kilimanjaro in Tanzania.
    (SSFC, 11/23/08, p.E7)
1914        San Francisco’s new St. Ignatius Church opened at the 5th site of  St. Ignatius College at 650 Parker Ave, on the block bordered by Fulton, Masonic, Stanyon and Turk, the site of the old Masonic Cemetery Association. The faculty residence opened there in 1920, the college in 1927 and the high school in 1929.
    (SFCM, 3/29/02, p.48)(GenIV, Winter 04/05)(SSFC, 10/27/13, p.C2)
1914        San Franciscans voted to leave the city cemeteries undisturbed, despite efforts to have them removed.
    (SFC, 3/31/18, p.C2)
1914        In California Ishi, the "Stone Age" Indian, led scientists back to the his native canyons and demonstrated his old ways of life.
    (CAS, 1996, p.7)

1914        Florida’s Jacksonville Zoo began with a single red deer fawn.
    (LP, Spring 2006, p.61)

1914         In Jackson, Michigan, George Todoroff founded the Jackson Coney Island restaurant and created his Coney Island chili sauce recipe. In the 1910s drenched German frankfurters with Mexican chili to make chili dogs.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michigan_dog)(Econ, 7/12/14, p.28)

1914        Union Station in Kansas City, Mo., opened.
    (SSFC, 11/12/06, p.G6)

1914        May Pierstorff was mailed by her parents to her grandmother’s house at a parcel post rate from Grangeville, Idaho, to Lewiston, Idaho, for 53 cents. She weighed less than the 50 pound parcel post limit.
    (SFEC, 4/20/97, Z1 p.5)

1914        The Belle of Louisville sternwheeler was built and began service as a freighter. It became a landmark of Louisville, Ky., in 1962, and almost sank in 1997.
    (SFC, 8/25/97, p.A8)

1914        Chicago’s Wrigley Field baseball stadium was built.
    (SFC, 7/21/96, Z1 p.6)

1914        Detroit got its first stop sign.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)

1914        Edwin Perkins of Hendley, Nebraska, began selling bottles of a flavored syrup called "Fruit Smack." In 1927 he removed the water due to shipping expense and offered the beverage powder in envelopes under the name "Kool-Aid." In 1953 the Perkins Products Co. became part of the General Foods Corp.
    (SFC, 4/9/96, Z1 p.5)

1914        The Krebs-Peterson House was built in Carson City, Nev. It was featured in actor John Wayne's last movie, “The Shootist" (1976).
    (SSFC, 11/19/06, p.F10)

1914        The American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee, a humanitarian relief organization, was founded.
    (WSJ, 3/8/99, p.A16)

1914        Harry Fox introduced the foxtrot dance in the Ziegfeld Follies.
    (SFC, 10/30/99, p.B3)

1914        The Harrison Anti-Narcotics Act was put forth but not signed until 1916. It mandated that transporters, sellers and possessors of narcotics pay a tax and keep records for the Internal Revenue Service of the Treasury Dept. This was the first US restriction by taxation act.
    (SFC, 10/4/97, p.E3)(SSFC, 1/11/15, p.E6)

1914        No Nobel Prizes were given. The prizes won in 1914 were awarded in 1915.
    (SFC, 10/10/01, p.B8)
1914        The Nobel Prize for Physics for the year 1914 went to Professor Max von Laue, for his discovery of the diffraction of X-rays in crystals. The Nobel Prize in Physics 1914 was announced on November 11, 1915.
1914        The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1914 was awarded to Robert Barany "for his work on the physiology and pathology of the vestibular apparatus."  Barany received his Nobel Prize one year later, in 1915.
1914        Theodore William Richards (1868-1928), chemist, won the Nobel Prize. He was the first American scientist to receive the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, earning the award "in recognition of his exact determinations of the atomic weights of a large number of the chemical elements.

1914        The US Supreme Court announced a strong version of the exclusionary rule. The legal principle under constitutional law holds that evidence collected or analyzed in violation of the defendant's constitutional rights is sometimes admissible for a criminal prosecution in a court of law. It was not until Mapp v. Ohio in 1961 that the exclusionary rule was also held to be binding on the states through the Fourteenth Amendment, which guarantees due process.

1914        In Washington D.C. houses of prostitution were banned.
    (SFEC, 4/18/99, p.A24)

1914        The White House Correspondents Association was formed following rumors that their congressional counterparts would be asked to pick questioners at presidential news conferences. In 1920 the group initiated an annual dinner.
    (WSJ, 4/30/01, p.A16)

1914        The US banned the import of Mexican avocados. The ban stayed in force until Nov 1,1997.
    (WSJ, 10/31/97, p.A20)

1914        When WW I broke out the US military took all the relevant patents for wireless communications and put them into a mandatory licensing pool.
    (Wired, 10/96, p.133)

1914        The US Forest Service created the Center for Wood Anatomy Research as a branch of the Forest Products Laboratory. The service provided free wood analysis to the public.
    (WSJ, 10/22/97, p.B1)

1914        The non-profit 4-H your organization (head, heart, hands, and health) went national. It was administered by the National Institute of Food and Agriculture of the US Department of Agriculture (USDA). The foundations of 4-H began around the start of the 20th century, with the work of several people in different parts of the United States.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/4-H)(Econ, 9/7/13, p.34)

1914        All the black families in Prince George County, Alabama, were brutally driven out. The event became known as the "Trouble." The 1996 novel "Sacred Dust" by David Hill tells the story.
    (SFC, 9/1/96, BR p.6)

1914        Believing that every woman should have the right to plan the size of her family, Margaret Sanger published a magazine with information about birth control methods. Sanger was charged under the Comstock Law of 1873 with mailing obscene literature, but the charges were dropped. Two years later, Sanger spent 30 days in jail when she opened America’s first birth control clinic in Brooklyn.
    (HNPD, 9/14/98)

1914        The Toy Tinkers Company of Evanston, Ill., made the Tinkertoy Wonder Builder construction set out of wood as its first product. It sold for 50 cents. Toy Tinkers was sold in 1952 to A.G. Spalding. It was later acquired by Hasbro who made its parts out of plastic. Hasbro was named after the Hassenfeld Brothers.
    (SFC, 2/5/97, z-1 p.7)(SFC, 4/8/98, Z1 p.6)(SFC, 8/15/98, p.E4)

1914        Oregon narrowly repealed its death penalty after having executed 24 men.
    (SFC, 9/6.96, p.A11)

1914        John Wanamaker (1838-1922), Philadelphia retailer and former US Postmaster General (188901893), dispatched 2,000 tons of food aid to Belgium.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Wanamaker)(Econ., 5/9/20, p.21)

1914        The German ambassador arrived in the US with $150 million to spend on behalf of his country’s war effort. Enterprising San Franciscans made business in shipping deals and supplies. Coal from Mayor James Rolph’s coal company was sold to supply a German cruiser squadron off of South America.
    (SFEC, 10/9/96, E3)
1914        SF bought 125 streetcars from the Jewett Car Co. in Ohio and put them to work hauling passengers for the Panama Pacific Int’l. Exposition.
    (SFC, 6/10/08, p.B1)

1914        The Int’l. Association of Policewomen was formed. 25 US cities had policewomen.
    (SFC, 6/25/04, p.F6)

1914        Citibank, USA, opened a branch in Buenos Aires, Arg. The history of Citibank was written by Phillip L. Zweig in 1996 and titled: "Wriston: Walter Wriston, Citibank, and the Rise and Fall of American Financial Supremacy."
    (WSJ, 3/28/96,p.A-12)

c1914        When WW I began Helena Rubinstein relocated her Paris beauty salon business to NYC off 5th Ave.
    (SFEM, 8/23/98, p.29)

1914        Henry Ford (1863-1947) introduced his $5 a day pay that made it possible for the average worker to buy a car. 231,000 "Tin Lizzies" were built this year. Assembly time for the Model T over the last year was reduced to one hour and 33 minutes.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)(Econ, 4/20/13, SR p.3)

1914        Dodge cars were introduced.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)

1914        Becton Dickinson Corp. introduced its all-cotton elastic bandage. A naming contest offered a $200 prize to the physician who thought up the best name. After reviewing 3,000 suggestions, the acronym ACE was selected.
    (Horizon, 8/96, p.8)

1914        DuPont of Wilmington, Del., ordered 61 prefabricated houses from Aladdin Homes for a new town called Hopewell Farm, Va., being built for workers in its dynamite factory.
    (WSJ, 10/31/05, p.B1)

1914        The Napanee Line of Dutch Kitchenet cabinets was introduced by Coppes Brothers and Zook of Nappanee, Indiana, about this time.
    (SFC, 7/26/06, p.G2)

1914        Thomas J. Watson Sr. (1874-1956) began running the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Co. (CTR), which he would rename International Business Machines in 1924. He instituted the Hundred Percent Club in 1916 to glorify employees who met their sales quotas; started an internal media machine, including a weekly broadsheet and a monthly magazine; published a company songbook; and founded the IBM symphony in 1936. He converted the financially ailing manufacturing business into the international giant IBM.
    (WSJ, 5/15/03, p.A1)(http://tinyurl.com/tk3psra)(http://tinyurl.com/r8pfe6f)

1914        Two-way radio contact was accomplished between pilot and ground control.
    (NPub, 2002, p.9)

1914        James Chadwick, British scientist, discovered that beta particles showed a wide spread of energy distribution from zero to a few million electron volts.
    (SCTS, p.130)

1914        Harlow Shapley, American astronomer, suggested that the periodic luminosity changes of cepheids are due to the pulsations of their giant gaseous bodies.
    (SCTS, p.1171)

1914        The bones of a Neanderthal baby were found in southwestern France and shipped to Paris for analysis. The 40,000 year-old "Le Moustier 2" bones were put away and re-discovered in 1996.
    (SFC, 9/5/02, p.A16)

1914        Beno Gutenberg, German geophysicist, located the top of the earth’s core at 1,800 miles below the surface, which means that the core has a radius of 2,200 miles. To this day the top of the core is called the Gutenberg discontinuity.
    (DD-EVTT, p.78)

1914        Ambrose Bierce (b.1842), American writer, died. His books included “The Devil's Dictionary" (originally published as The Cynic’s Word Book in 1906) and “An Occurrence Owl Creek Bridge." He vanished in Mexico after a letter sent from Chihuahua on Dec 26, 1913.

1914        Australia's Section 70 of the Crimes Act prohibited a government employee from sharing information without a supervisor’s permission.
    (AP, 6/29/21)

1914        British retailer Harrods opened its first overseas emporium in Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    (Econ, 2/15/14, p.9)
1914        The British Royal Navy's Grand Fleet moved to a new base in Scapa Flow, in Scotland’s Orkney Islands. They needed a safe place to take on a German Fleet based in the Baltic.

1914        The Burma Companies Act, which set the rules for corporate activity, was enacted by the British. It was left untouched until 2014 when the Asian Development Bank began helping the Myanmar government to update it.
    (Econ, 10/18/14, p.70)

1914        The Egyptian Treasures of Harageh, a collection of 37 items dating back to about 1900BC, were given to donors in St. Louis who helped underwrite their excavation from a tomb near Fayum. In 2014 the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York purchased the collection.
    (SFC, 10/5/14, p.A5)

1914        The German warship Magdeburg ran aground near Finland. The Russians found a copy of their naval code book and gave copies to the British.
    (SFEC, 2/16/97, BR p.7)
1914        In 2002 "German Atrocities, 1914: A History of Denial" was published.
    (NW, 9/30/02, p.72)

1914        An 840km stretch of frontier between China and India (Arunachal Pradesh state), in effect independent at this time, was settled by the governments of India and Tibet and named the McMahon Line after Sir Henry McMahon, creator of the border line. The conference in Simla placed Tawang inside the borders of India.
    (Econ, 8/21/10, p.18)(Econ, 10/20/12, p.37)

1914        In Indonesia by this time some 340 principalities ruled by Hindu rajas and Muslim sultans had become protectorates within the Dutch East Indies.
    (Econ., 1/16/21, p.25)

1914        Japan sided with the Allies in the war against Germany.
    (Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 215)
1914        A Japanese settler introduced rice farming to the Murray Region of Australia.
    (Hem., 12/96, p.82)
1914        In western Japan the Takarazuka Revue, a female musical theater troupe, was founded.
    (SFEC, 9/8/96, DB p.55)
1914        Japan occupied the Caroline Islands and received a League of Nations mandate over them in 1920.

1914        The Sindicato Mexicano Electricistas (SME) was founded.
    (WSJ, 12/3/99, p.A1)
1914        Mexico defaulted on its debt. It was shut out of capital markets for most of the next three decades.
    (Econ, 5/2/15, p.63)
1914        In Mexico Elmer Jones, a Wells Fargo vice-president, was summoned by Pancho Villa and ordered to continue doing business on the northern railroads seized by Villa. Jones and another official refused and were imprisoned and ordered to be executed. The execution order was not completed and the Wells Fargo officials were rescued. The incident is contained in the book: "Wells Fargo: Advancing the American Frontier."
    (SFC, 5/5/99, p.A2)

c1914    When WW I began New Zealand pried Western Samoa from the Germans.
    (SFCM, 10/14/01, p.45)

1914        Nigeria was cobbled together by British colonialists. Over 200 ethnic groups were brought together into one country.
    (SFEC, 7/19/98, p.A20)

1914        In Northern Rhodesia (later Zambia) British officer Captain Kelsey was killed by a leopard.
    (Econ., 2/28/15, p.39)

1914        The Swedish firm Kreuger & Toll, a construction and engineering firm co-founded by Ivar Kreuger (1880-1932) and a partner, went public.
    (Econ, 12/22/07, p.116)

1914        King Rama VI of Thailand published a short book on the overseas Chinese in which he called them the “Jews of the Orient."
    (Econ, 10/10/15, p.42)

1914        Venezuela’s 1st oil gusher was drilled near Lake Maracibo.
    (WSJ, 4/18/02, p.A9)

1914-1915    The Cracker Jack prizes of baseball cards of this time later became the most valued prizes. The shoeless Joe Jackson card sold for $8,500 in 1998.
    (SFC, 2/11/98, Z1 p.6)

1914-1916    George Washington Goethals served as the governor of the Canal Zone.
    (WUD, 1994, p.606)
1914-1916    Margot Asquith, the wife of British PM Herbert Asquith, kept a war diary. In 2014 a version edited by Michael and Eleanor Brock was published as “Margot Asquith’s Great War Diary: 1914-1916: The View from Downing Street."
    (Econ, 7/26/14, p.70)

1914-1917    Piet Mondrian painted his abstracts called "Composition," that reflected his plus-minus ideas of masculine and feminine lines. He later moved on to the style he translated as "neo-plasticism," his attempt to reduce painting to its pure essence.
    (WSJ, 9/10/97, p.A20)

1914-1918    Marc Chagall painted the celebrated Above Town, where a reclining couple hover in a celestial daze above Vitebsk. In the lower left, a tiny figure defecates.
    (WSJ, 5/11/95, p. A-14)
1914-1918    In 2002 Winston Groom authored "A Storm in Flanders: The Ypres Salient: 1914-1918: Tragedy and Triumph on the Western Front."
    (SSFC, 6/30/02, p.M4)
1914-1918    The German campaign in East Africa was directed by General Paul Emil von Lettow-Vorbeck. German looting and raiding caused at least 300,000 civilian deaths. By attacking Northern Rhodesia they invaded British territory. Of 1 million porters recruited by the British, 95,000 died. In 2007 Edward Paice authored “Tip and Run: The Untold Tragedy of the Great War in Africa. In 2008 Edward Paice authored “World War I: The African Front.
    (Econ, 2/17/07, p.87)(WSJ, 8/9/08, p.W8)

1914-1919    During WW I nine million people died; 2 million Frenchmen, 2 million Germans, 1 million Britons, .5 million Italians, 1.7 million Austro-Hungarians, and about .5 million Turks. In 1996 PBS aired an 8-hour documentary on the war. 116,516 Americans died. The Titanic’s sister ship, the Britannic, was sunk during WW I by either a bomb or torpedo in the Aegean. In 1997 Stephen O’Shea, a Canadian journalist, wrote "Back to the Front," a book based on a walking tour in which he revisited the front lines of the war. In 1999 John Keegan published "The First World War," written mostly from a British perspective. In 1999 Byron Farwell published "Over There," an account of American participation in the war.
    (SFC, 11/7/96, p.E1)(SFEM, 11/10/96, p.12)(AM, May/Jun 97 p.80)(SFEC, 10/5/97, Par p.5)(WSJ, 5/21/99, p.W5)(WSJ, 6/17/99, p.A24)
1914-1919     The Mack truck became a favorite of the American Expeditionary Force during World War I.
    (HNQ, 11/11/00)
1914-1919    The Texas Rangers killed some 5,000 Hispanics over this period.
    (SFC, 4/12/04, p.E8)

c1914-1919    Ludwig Wittgenstein (1889-1951), Viennese-born philosopher, wrote his "Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus" while serving in the Austrian army during WW I. He had "set out to chart the logical limits of language and ended with poetic gestures toward what words could not capture." In 1996 Marjorie Perloff wrote "Wittgenstein’s Ladder: Poetic Language and the Strangeness of the Ordinary."
    (SFEC, 10/27/96, BR p.4)

1914-1928    German and Austrian Jews born in this period collided with the Third Reich. In 2001 Walter Laqueur authored "Generation Exodus," a study of what happened to many of them.
    (WSJ, 8/13/01, p.A11)

1914-1931    Karen Blixen, Danish author, lived on a farm near Nairobi, Kenya. Her lover was Denys Finch-Hatton. She wrote under the name Isak Dinesen. The two were featured in the 1985 film "Out of Africa" that starred Robert Redford and Meryl Streep. The country was then called British East Africa.
    (SFC, 6/17/98, p.E1)(SFEC, 7/26/98, p.T10)

1914-1933    Sebastion Haffner (d.1999) covered this period of the Weimar in a memoir that was cut short by his death. The English version was published in 2002 as "Defying Hitler."
    (WSJ, 9/19/02, p.D12)

1914-1940    In 2014 Frederick Brown authored “The Embrace of Unreason: France 1914-1940."
    (Econ, 4/26/14, p.83)

1914-1945    Stanley Payne wrote "A History of Fascism, 1914-1945," publ. in 1996.
    (WSJ, 4/25/96, p.A-16)

1914-1949    This period in Europe was covered by Ian Kershaw in his 2015 book “To Hell and Back: Europe 1914-1949."   
    (Econ, 11/14/15, p.82)

1914-1979    Fred Coe was considered the greatest producer in television’s Golden Age in the 1950s. John Krampner wrote "The Man in the Shadows: Fred Coe and the Golden Age of Television" in 1996.
    (MT, Spg. ‘97, p.18)

1914-1996    Masao Maruyama, prof. of political science at the Univ. of Tokyo (1950-1971). He formed the pillar of postwar anti-establishment thought.
    (SFC, 8/20/96, p.A18)

1914-200    In 2003 Harold Jones authored "Europe Reborn: A History, 1914-2000."
    (Econ, 11/15/03, p.79)

1915        Jan 1, German submarine U-24 sank the British battleship Formidable in the English Channel whilst on patrol and exercise with the 5th Battle Squadron. She sank rapidly with the loss of 547 crew. The 5BS had been steaming slowly (10knots), not zigzagging and were without destroyer escort. Admiral in charge Lewis Bayly was dismissed from his position over the loss.

1915        Jan 2, Karl Goldmark (b.1830), Hungarian composer (Queen of Saba), died in Vienna.

1915        Jan 3, Jack Levine, artist, was born in Boston, Mass. His social realist and expressionist art included political and satirical undertones.
    (SFC, 7/24/04, p.E1)

1915        Jan 6, John Cunningham Lilly (d.2001), was born in Saint Paul, Minn. He later became a medical doctor and dolphin and counter culture researcher
    (SFC, 10/6/01, p.A18)

1915        Jan 7, In North Waziristan British Capt. Eustace Jotham (31) of the VC. 51st Sikhs and North Waziristan Militia, was killed while trying to rescue an Indian comrade at Khaisora.
    (Econ, 11/9/13, p.63)

1915        Jan 9, Les Paul, guitarist inventor (Les Paul), was born.
    (MC, 1/9/02)
1915        Jan 9, Pancho Villa signed a treaty with U.S. General Scott, halting border conflicts.
    (HN, 1/9/98)

1915        Jan 12, The U.S. House of Representatives rejected a proposal to give women the right to vote.
    (AP, 1/12/98)

1915        Jan 13, An earthquake in Avezzano, Italy, killed 29,800.
    (MC, 1/13/02)

1915        Jan 14, The French abandoned five miles of trenches to the Germans near Soissons.
    (HN, 1/14/99)

1915        Jan 15, Fannie Farmer (b.1857), American culinary expert, died. Her “Boston Cooking-School Cook Book" (1896) became a widely used culinary text.
    (WSJ, 12/29/07, p.W8)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fannie_Merritt_Farmer)
1915        Jan 15, Japan claimed economic control of China.
    (MC, 1/15/02)

1915        Jan 18, The HMS Endurance, under Sir Ernest Shackleton and his 27 man crew, froze into the ice of Antarctica. In 1999 Caroline Alexander published "The Endurance: Shackleton's Legendary Antarctic Expedition."
    (Hem. 1/95, p. 28)(WSJ, 4/2/98, p.B1)(SFEC, 1/24/99, BR p.1)
1915        Jan 18, A train crashed at Colima-Guadalajara Mexico and some 600 people were killed.
    (MC, 1/18/02)

1915        Jan 19, The neon tube sign was patented by George Claude.
    (MC, 1/19/02)
1915        Jan 19, The first German air raids on Britain inflicted minor casualties. A Zeppelin attack over Great Britain killed 4 people.
    (HN, 1/19/99)(MC, 1/19/02)

1915        Jan 21, The first Kiwanis Club was formally founded, in Detroit, Mich. Allen Browne in Dec, 1914, had proposed a fraternal club for business and professional men. Kiwanis was established as an organization devoted to the principle of service and to the advancement of individual, community, and national welfare, and to the strengthening of international goodwill.
    (AP, 1/21/98)(www.tcfn.org/kiwanistci/about.html)

1915        Jan 23, Potter Stewart, 94th Supreme Court justice (1958-81), was born in Mich.
    (MC, 1/23/02)
1915        Jan 23, John Chilembwe (1871-1915) staged an uprising in Malawi. He and 200 followers attacked local plantations that they considered to be oppressing African workers. They killed three white plantation staff, including plantation owner William Jervis Livingstone, whom they beheaded in front of his wife and small daughter.

1915        Jan 24, The German cruiser Blücher was sunk by a British squadron in the Battle of Dogger Bank.
    (HN, 1/24/99)

1915        Jan 25, Umberto Giordano, Sardou & Moreau's opera "Madame Sans Gene" premiered in NYC.
    (MC, 1/25/02)
1915        Jan 25, The inventor of the telephone, Alexander Graham Bell, inaugurated transcontinental telephone service in the United States. Bell placed the first ceremonial cross-continental call from New York to his old colleague Thomas Watson in San Francisco.
    (SFC, 2/3/97, p.D1)(AP, 1/25/98)(HN, 1/25/99)

1915        Jan 26, President Woodrow Wilson signed the Rocky Mountain National Park Act. The 415 square miles park, northwest of Denver, was created following a decade of lobbying by photographer and naturalist Enos Mills. During its first year the park drew some 31,000 visitors.
    (http://home.nps.gov/romo/historyculture/upload/chapter2.pdf)(SFC, 7/19/97, p.A2)(SFC, 1/26/15, p.A5)

1915        Jan 28, Pres. Wilson refused to prohibit the immigration of illiterates.
    (MC, 1/28/02)
1915        Jan 28, The U.S. Coast Guard was founded by an Act of Congress to fight contraband trade and aid distressed vessels at sea.
    (AP, 1/28/98)(HN, 1/28/99)
1915        Jan 28, 1st US ship, the William P. Frye, was lost in WW I while carrying wheat to UK.
    (MC, 1/28/02)
1915        Jan 28, The German navy attacked the U.S. freighter William P. Frye, loaded with wheat for Britain.
    (HN, 1/28/99)

1915        Jan 31, Thomas Merton (d.1968), French Trappist monk, poet, essayist, was born. "A happiness that is sought for ourselves alone can never be found; for a happiness that is diminished by being shared is not big enough to make us happy."
    (AP, 4/17/01)(MC, 1/31/02)
1915      Jan 31, Germans used poison gas for the 1st time on the Russians at Bolimov.
     (HN, 1/31/99)(MC, 1/31/02)
1915        Jan 31, German U-boats sank two British steamers in the English Channel.
    (HN, 1/31/99)

1915        Jan, French and German soldiers faced off at the Hartmannswillerkopf peak in eastern France. Over the next year some 25,000 soldiers from both sides perished in the fighting there. In 2017 a museum was inaugurated at the peak.
    (AP, 11/7/17)

1915        Feb 1, San Francisco’s Police Commission appointed Mrs. Blanche Payson as the city’s first special police woman, following her request and letter of introduction from William Pinkerton.
    (SSFC, 2/1/15, DB p.42)

1915        Feb 2, Abba Eban (d.2002), Israeli statesman, was born in South Africa. He grew up in England, attaining honors at Cambridge University, where he honed his oratory as a leader of the university debating society.
    (AP, 11/17/02)

1915        Feb 3, In Malawi John Chilembwe, a preacher and anticolonialist rebel, was slain. His picture was later put on every Malawi banknote.
    (SSFC, 1/15/12, p.H3)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Chilembwe)

1915        Feb 4, Germans decreed British waters part of war zone; all ships were to be sunk without warning.
    (HN, 2/4/99)

1915        Feb 5, Robert Hofstadter, US atomic physicist, was born.
    (MC, 2/5/02)

1915        Feb 7, 1st wireless message sent from a moving train to a station was received.
    (MC, 2/7/02)
1915        Feb 7, Field marshal Paul von Hindenburg moved on Russians at Masurian Lakes.
    (HN, 2/7/99)

1915        Feb 8, D.W. Griffith's silent movie epic about the Civil War, "The Birth of a Nation," premiered at Clune's Auditorium in Los Angeles. It was based Thomas Dixon’s novel “The Clansman."
    (AP, 2/8/99)(SSFC, 10/25/15, DB p.50)

1915        Feb 10, President Wilson blasted the British for using the U.S. flag on merchant ships to deceive the Germans. He also warned the Kaiser that he would hold Germany "to a strict accountability" for U.S. lives and property endangered. In Europe [Lithuania], the Germans encircled and captured 100,000 Russians near Nieman River. When the United States entered World War I, propagandist George Creel set out to stifle anti-war sentiment.
    (HN, 2/10/97)

1915        Feb 12, Andrew J. Goodpaster, US general, supreme commander (NATO-Europe), was born.
    (MC, 2/12/02)
1915        Feb 12, Lorne Greene, actor (Bonanza, Battlestar Galactica), was born in Ottawa, Canada.
    (MC, 2/12/02)
1915        Feb 12, The cornerstone for the Lincoln Memorial was laid in Washington, D.C., a year to the day after groundbreaking.
    (AP, 2/12/08)

1915        Feb 14, The Kaiser invited the U.S. Ambassador Gerard to Berlin in order to confer on the war.
    (HN, 2/14/98)

1915        Feb 16, Mrs. Arabella Huntington signified her intention of presenting to San Francisco for park purposes the half-block adjoining the Pacific Union Club which was formerly the site of the Colton mansion on Nob Hill.
    (SSFC, 2/15/15, DB p.42)
1915        Feb 16, Emil Waldteufel, [Charles Levy], French composer (Estudiantina), died.
    (MC, 2/16/02)

1915        Feb 18, Germany began a blockade of England.
    (MC, 2/18/02)

1915        Feb 19, British and French warships began their attacks on the Turkish forts at the mouth of the Dardenelles, in an abortive expedition to force the straits of Gallipoli. Winston Churchill was the architect of the disastrous campaign. Allied forces were evacuated at the end of the year after both sides had suffered appalling hardships and losses. In 2011 Peter Hart authored “Gallipoli."
    (HN, 2/19/99)(NW, 12/24/01, p.64)(Econ, 10/8/11, p.103)

1915        Feb 20, President Wilson opened the Panama-Pacific Expo in San Francisco to celebrate the opening of the Panama Canal. A 20-acre salt marsh was paved over at Crissey Field for the Expo. It was held on what later became the Marina District and 300,000 people attended opening day. The fair was crowned by a 43-story Tower of Jewels decorated with cut glass. Herb Caen later claimed to have been conceived during the expo. A 40-ton organ with 7,000 pipes played the "Hallelujah Chorus." It was made by the Austin Organs Co. of Hartford, Conn. After the fair it was moved to the Civic Auditorium and used for 7 decades until the 1989 earthquake damaged it.
    (SFC, 6/14/96, p.A1)(SFC, 10/4/96, p.A22)(SFC, 4/27/98, p.A20)(SFEC, 12/26/99, p.W4)(SSFC, 2/15/15, p.p4)
1915        Feb 20, In San Francisco a 49-foot-long mural by William de Leftwich Dodge, title Atlantic and Pacific," graced the 43-story Tower of Jewels for the Panama-Pacific Expo. After the expo it was put into storage until 2015 when the de Young Museum unrolled it for public viewing.
    (SSFC, 7/26/15, p.C1)

1915        Feb 21, The 20th Russian Army corps surrendered.
    (MC, 2/21/02)

1915        Feb 22, The San Francisco Chronicle reported that Negroes from plantations in Alabama, Georgia and Louisiana are now performing under the name Dixie Land in a theater near the Van Ness end of the Joy Zone.
    (SSFC, 1/22/15, DB p.38)
1915        Feb 22, Germany began "unrestricted" submarine warfare.
    (MC, 2/22/02)

1915        Feb 23, Germany sank US ships Carib & Evelyn and torpedoed the Norwegian ship Regin.
    (MC, 2/23/02)

1915        Feb 26, The 1st flame-thrower was used by the Germans at Malancourt, Argonnen.
    (SC, 2/26/02)

1915        Feb 28, Peter Medawar, zoologist, immunologist (Nobel 1953), was born in England.
    (MC, 2/28/02)
1915        Feb 28, Zero "Samuel" Mostel (d.1977), actor (Fiddler on the Roof), was born in Brooklyn.

1915         Mar 1, The Allies announced their aim to cut off all German supplies, and assured the safety of the neutrals.
    (HN, 3/1/98)

1915        Mar 2, British Vice Admiral Carden began bombing of Dardanelles forts.
    (SC, 3/2/02)
1915        Mar 2, Vladmir Jabotinsky formed a Jewish military force to fight in Palestine.
    (SC, 3/2/02)

1915        Mar 3, The film "The Birth of a Nation" debuted in New York City. The motion picture brought Lillian Gish, Mae Marsh and Wallace Reid to the silver screen in what has frequently been called the greatest silent film ever produced.
    (SFEC,11/9/97, DB p.44)(HC, Internet, 3/3/98)
1915        Mar 3, The National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA), a NASA forerunner, was created. It was the first US government sponsored organization in support of aviation research and development.
    (SC, 3/3/02)(NPub, 2002, p.9)

1915        Mar 4, Petrus de Jong, Dutch premier (KVP, 1967-71), was born.
    (SC, 3/4/02)

1915        Mar 9, The Germans took Grodno on the Eastern Front.
    (HN, 3/9/98)

1915        Mar 13, Dodgers manager Wilbert Robinson tried to catch a baseball dropped from an airplane, but the pilot substituted a grapefruit.
    (MC, 3/13/02)
1915        Mar 13, The Germans repelled a British Expeditionary Force attack at the battle of Neuve Chapelle in France.
    (HN, 3/13/99)

1915        Mar 14, Stunt pilot Lincoln Beachey (b.1887) plunged into the shallows of SF Bay and was killed as some 50,000 fans watched his performance during the Panama-Pacific Expo. The battleship USS Oregon recovered the plane and body.
    (SSFC, 3/15/15, p.C2)
1915        Mar 14, The British Navy sank the German battleship Dresden off the Chilean coast.
    (HN, 3/14/98)

1915        Mar 15, Thomas Robert Bard (b.1841), US Republican Senator from Ventura, California (1900-1905), died. In 1871 he laid out the town of Hueneme and built a wharf there. Bard was born in Chambersburg, Pa., and came to California in 1864.

1915        Mar 16, The US Federal Trade Commission was organized.
    (AP, 3/16/97)
1915        Mar 16, British battle cruisers Inflexible and Irresistible hit mines in Dardanelle (Turkey).
    (MC, 3/16/02)

1915        Mar 20, The French called off the Champagne offensive on the Western Front.
    (HN, 3/20/98)

1915        Mar 21, Frederick Winslow Taylor (b.1856), inventor and engineer, died in Philadelphia. He had developed industrial management processes that have influenced nearly every modern industrial country. The son of a lawyer, Taylor first developed his theories while working at Midvale Steel Company. He noted that production efficiency could be greatly improved by observing an individual worker and eliminating wasted time by creating economy of movement. Taylor's interest soon led to a career as a consulting engineer in this new field of "scientific management." Although Taylor's systems evoked resentment from labor for the extremes some factories took the new ideas to, Taylor saw himself as a reformer. After retiring at age 45, he continued to lecture about the principles of scientific management until his death.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frederick_Winslow_Taylor)(HNQ, 5/18/01)

1915        Mar 22, A German Zeppelin made a night raid on Paris railway stations.
    (HN, 3/22/97)

1915        Mar 23, Zion Mule Corp. formed.
    (SS, 3/23/02)

1915        Mar 25, The first submarine disaster occurred when a U.S. F-4 sank off the Hawaiian coast. 21 people were killed.
    (HN, 3/24/98)(MC, 3/25/02)

1915        Mar 31, Henry Morgan, comedian, radio performer, was born.
    (HN, 3/31/01)

1915        Apr 1, Roland Garros (d.1918), French aviator, shot down 2 German aviators over Belgium, with bullets shot through his propellers. Corp. August Spachholz and Lt. Walter Grosskopf became the 1st to be killed by an enemy pilot flying alone.
    (ON, 10/02, p.8)

1915        Apr 3, Paul Touvier, war criminal, was born.
    (MC, 4/3/02)

1915        Apr 4, Muddy Waters, American blues musician, was born as McKinley Morganfield.
    (HN, 4/4/01)(MC, 4/4/02)

1915        Apr 5, Jack Johnson (1878-1946), African-American heavyweight champion boxer since 1908, lost the heavyweight championship in Cuba to Jess Willard in the 26th round.
    (SFC, 1/17/05, p.D6)(www.hickoksports.com/biograph/johnsonjack.shtml)

1915        Apr 6, Big Bill Thompson (b.1869) won the general election to become mayor of Chicago. Thompson served 3 terms: 1915-1919, 1919-1923, and 1927-1931.
1915        Apr 6, Tadeusz Kantor (d.1990), Polish director and theorist, was born in Galicia, a part of Austria-Hungary.
    (SFC, 1/14/15, p.E5)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tadeusz_Kantor)

1915        Apr 7, Billie Holliday (Holiday, d.1949, jazz and blues legend, was born. She sang "God Bless the Child."
    (HN, 4/7/99)

1915        Apr 10, Harry Morgan, actor (December Bride, M*A*S*H, Dragnet), was born in Detroit, Mich.
    (MC, 4/10/02)

1915        Apr 11, The Armenians of Van began a general revolt, massacring all the Turks in the vicinity so as to make possible its quick and easy conquest by the Russians.

1915        Apr 15, Manuel de Falla's ballet "El Amor Brujo," premiered in Madrid.
    (MC, 4/15/02)

1915        Apr 21, Anthony Quinn (d.2001), film star, was born in Chihuahua, Mexico, to Frank Quinn and Manuella Oaxaca.
    (HN, 4/21/98)(SFC, 6/4/01, p.A17)

1915        Apr 22, The Australian ship Success, billed as a convict museum, docked in SF, Ca., for the Panama–Pacific International Exposition. While there a short film made by the Keystone Film Company called “Mabel and Fatty Viewing the World's Fair at San Francisco."
1915        Apr 22, Germans made the first use of poison gas in World War I. Chlorine gas was used along 4 miles of the French line at Ypres.
    (HN, 4/22/98)(NH, 10/98, p.18)

1915        Apr 23, ACA becomes National Advisory Council on Aeronautics (NACA), the forerunner of NASA.
    (HN, 4/23/99)

1915        Apr 24, Istanbul’s Haydarpasa railway station was used as the start point for the deportation of the first convoy of Armenians rounded up in Istanbul.
    (AFP, 2/15/18)

1915        Apr 24-May 14, Turkey said Armenians had sided with Russia and issued a deportation order for the mass deportation of Armenians. Armenian organizations in Istanbul were closed and 235 members were arrested for treason. Turkish police arrested some 800 of the most prominent Armenians in Constantinople, took them into the hinterlands and shot them. With that the terror spread through "Turkish Armenia" spearheaded by the "Special Organization" of soldiers of the Turkish leader Enver. In 2006 Taner Akcam authored “A Shameful Act: The Armenian Genocide and the Question of Turkish Responsibility."
    (AP, 4/24/97)(SFC, 4/27/99, p.A10)(HNQ, 5/30/99)(Econ, 10/21/06, p.95)(AP, 4/24/10)

1915        Apr 25, Australian and New Zealand troops landed at Gallipoli in Turkey in hopes of attacking the Central Powers from below. Allied soldiers, ANZAC, invaded the Gallipoli Peninsula in Turkey in an unsuccessful attempt to take the Ottoman Turkish Empire out of the war. The allies were defeated in one of the deadliest battles of the war. In 1965 Sir Robert Rhodes James authored "Gallipoli," a definitive account of the Allied expedition.
    (AP, 4/25/97)(SFC, 2/18/98, p.A18)(HN, 4/25/99)

1915        Apr 26, Second Lieutenant Rhodes-Moorhouse became the first airman to win the Victoria Cross after conducting a successful bombing raid.
    (HN, 4/26/99)

1915        Apr 27, Alexander N. Scriabin (43), Russian pianist, composer (Prometheus), died.
    (SFC, 2/16/99, p.B1)(MC, 4/27/02)

1915        Apr, The New York Stock Exchange ended restricted trading imposed in 1914.
    (WSJ, 7/8/96, p.C1)

1915        May 1, The luxury liner Lusitania left New York Harbor for a voyage to Europe. There were warnings by the German government in NYC newspapers that it regarded the refurbished liner a battle target. She was sunk by a German U-boat six days later.
    (HN, 5/1/99)(MC, 5/1/02)
1915        May 1, A German submarine sank the U.S. ship Gulflight I.
    (HN, 5/1/98)

1915        May 5, Alice Jeanne Leppert, known later as the actress Alice Faye, was born in NYC. [some sources give her birth year as 1912] She reigned as the queen of the Fox movie lot from 1935 to 1944.
    (SFEC, 5/10/98, p.C8)
1915        May 5, Richard H. Rovere, journalist (Goldwater Caper), was born in Jersey City.
    (MC, 5/5/02)
1915        May 5, German U-20 sank the Earl of Lathom.
    (MC, 5/5/02)

1915        May 6, Orson Welles (d.1985), actor, director, and writer, was born in Kenosha, Wisc. He is famous for his movie Citizen Kane (1941).
    (HN, 5/6/99)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orson_Welles)
1915        May 6, Theodore H. White, historian, writer (Making of President), was born.
    (MC, 5/6/02)
1915        May 6, Babe Ruth made his pitching debut with the Red Sox hit his 1st HR, but lost to Yanks 4-3 in 15 innings.
    (MC, 5/6/02)
1915        May 6, German U-20 sank Centurion SE of Ireland.
    (MC, 5/6/02)

1915        May 7, In the 2nd year of WWI, the British Cunard ocean liner Lusitania, on a voyage from New York to Liverpool, sank off the coast of Ireland in only 18-21 minutes after being struck by a torpedo fired by the German U-boat U-20. Of 1,962 passengers and crew, 1,198 died. Of the fatalities, 128 were Americans. Even though the Germans maintained the liner was carrying arms purchased in America to Britain, the sinking of a passenger ship aroused intense anger against the German policy of unrestricted submarine warfare and hastened America's entrance into the war. In 2002 Diana Preston authored "Lusitania: An Epic Tragedy" and David Ramsay authored "Lusitania: Saga and Myth."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RMS_Lusitania)(AP, 5/7/97)(WSJ, 5/8/02, p.AD9)
1915        May 7, Alfred G. Vanderbilt, US millionaire, died aboard Lusitania.
    (MC, 5/7/02)
1915        May 7, Elbert Hubbard, American platitudinist, author, educator, died.
    (MC, 5/7/02)

1915        May 9, German and French forces fought the Battle of Artois.
    (HN, 5/9/98)

1915        May 10, A Zeppelin dropped hundreds of bombs on Southend-on-Sea.
    (MC, 5/10/02)

1915        May 12, Mary Kay Ash, chairman of Mary Kay Cosmetics, was born.
    (HN, 5/12/99)
1915        May 12, Croatians plundered Armenia and killed 250.
    (MC, 5/12/02)

1915        May 14, Harry Joseph Chick Daugherty, trombonist (Spike Jones & City Slickers), was born.
    (MC, 5/14/02)

1915        May 15, AT&T became the 1st corporation to have 1 million stockholders.
    (MC, 5/15/02)
1915        May 15, In Germany Clara Immerwahr, chemist and wife of chemist Fritz Haber, shot herself in the heart with her husband’s service weapon in their garden, possibly in response to his having personally overseen the first successful use of chlorine at the Second Battle of Ypres on April 22, 1915. That same morning, Haber left for the Eastern Front to oversee gas release against the Russians.

1915        May 17, The National Baptist Convention was chartered.
    (MC, 5/17/02)

1915        May 20, Moshe Dayan, Israeli general, minister of Defense, was born.
    (MC, 5/20/02)

1915        May 22, At Mt. Lassen in northern California a searing cloud of hot gas and vaporized lava created the Devastated Area, a mile wide and 5 miles long.
    (SFEC, 8/13/00, p.T8)
1915        May 22, Near Gretna, Scotland a passenger train collided with a troop train, killing 227 people.
    (SFC, 6/4/98, p.A15)(AP, 2/18/04)

1915        May 23, Italy declared war on Austria-Hungary in World War I. Italy entered World War I and came up against the Austro-Hungarian forces including many Slovenians in the Julian Alps near Trieste. Over 29 months 12 major battles were fought along the Soca River.
    (AP, 5/23/97)(HN, 5/23/98)(SFEC, 7/9/00, p.T14)

1915        May 24, Thomas Edison invented the telescribe to record telephone conversations.
    (MC, 5/24/02)

1915        May 25, Daniel Wolf, journalist, was born.
    (SC, 5/25/02)
1915        May 25, 2nd Battle of Ypres ended with 105,000 casualties.
    (SC, 5/25/02)

1915        May 27, Mario del Monaco, loud Italian opera tenor (Verdi/Puccini), was born.
    (MC, 5/27/02)

1915        May 27, Herman Wouk, author, was born. His work included "Winds of War" and "The Caine Mutiny."
    (HN, 5/27/99)

1915        May 28, John B. Gruelle patented the Raggedy Ann doll.
    (MC, 5/28/02)

1915        May 29, Igor Buketoff, conductor (Iceland Symphony 1964-65), was born in Hartford, CT.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1915        May 31, A German LZ-38 Zeppelin made an air raid on London. [see Jun 1]
    (HN, 5/31/98)

1915        Jun 1, Germany conducted the first zeppelin air raid over England. [see May 10, 31]
    (DTnet, 6/1/97)(HN, 6/1/98)

1915        Jun 3, In northern California the Mount Lassen volcano erupted.
    (SSFC, 5/31/15, DB p.42)
1915        Jun 3, Leo Gorcey, actor (Mannequin, Road to Zanzibar), was born in NYC.
    (MC, 6/3/02)

1915        Jun 5, Alfred Kazin (d.1998), critic and editor (A Walker in the City), was born.
    (HN, 6/5/01)(SSFC, 10/19/03, p.M2)
1915        Jun 5, Henri Gaudier-Brzeska (23), French sculptor, died on the Western Front. In 1931 H.S. Ede authored “Savage Messiah: Gaudier Brzeska. In 2004 Paul O’Keeffe authored “Gaudier-Brzeska: An Absolute Case of Genius."
    (Econ, 3/6/04, p.76)(www.britannica.com/eb/article-9036204/Henri-Gaudier-Brzeska)

1915        Jun 7, The resignation of William Jennings Bryan as Woodrow Wilson‘s secretary of state, was prompted by the "second Lusitania note." Bryan, who had signed the first Lusitania note demanding that Germany stop unrestricted submarine warfare, disavow the sinking of the Lusitania and make reparations for the loss of U.S. lives, declined to sign a second note out of fear it might involve the U.S. in World War I. The second note, which demanded certain pledges from Germany, was dispatched on June 9 over the signature of Bryan‘s replacement, Robert Lansing. A third note, dispatched on July 21, was a virtual ultimatum warning that repetition of such acts as the sinking of Lusitania would be regarded as "deliberately unfriendly." [see Jun 8]
    (HNQ, 10/21/99)

1915        Jun 8, William Jennings Bryan, Woodrow Wilson's Secretary of State, resigned in a disagreement over U.S. handling of the sinking of the Lusitania. [see Jun 7]
    (AP, 6/8/97)(HN, 6/8/98)

1915        Jun 9, Les Paul (d.2009), American guitarist and electric guitar innovator, was born.

1915        Jun 10, Girl Scouts were founded. [see Mar 12, 1912]
    (MC, 6/10/02)

1915        Jun 11, British troops took Cameroon in Africa.
    (HN, 6/11/98)

1915        Jun 12, David Rockefeller, international banker, was born.
    (HN, 6/12/98)

1915        Jun 20, There was a German offensive in Argonne.
    (MC, 6/20/02)

1915        Jun 21, In San Francisco Al Jolson and the Winter garden show opened “Dancing Around" following a 20 week run in NYC.
    (SSFC, 6/7/15, DB p.50)
1915        Jun 21, Germany used poison gas for the first time in warfare in the Argonne Forest.
    (HN, 6/21/98)

1915        Jun 22, Austro-German forces occupied Lemberg on the Eastern Front as the Russians retreated.
    (HN, 6/22/98)

1915        Jun 24, Fred Hoyle, British mathematician and astronomer, was born.
    (HN, 6/24/01)
1915        Jun 24, More than 800 people died when the excursion steamer "Eastland" capsized at Chicago’s Clark Street dock.
    (AP, 6/24/00)

1915        Jun 26, Charlotte Zolotow, American children’s writer, was born.
    (HN, 6/26/01)

1915        Jun 27, In Fort Yukon, Alaska, a state record 100° F (38° C) was recorded.
    (SC, 6/27/02)

1915        Jun 30, Ina Coolbrith (1841-1928), born as Josephine Donna Smith, became California’s first poet laureate.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ina_Coolbrith)(SSFC, 6/28/15, DB p.50)
1915        Jun 30, The Second Battle Artois ended as the French failed to take Vimy Ridge.
    (HN, 6/30/98)

1915         Jul 1, Willie Dixon, blues musician, was born.
    (HN, 7/1/01)
1915         Jul 1, Jean Stafford, American writer (The Mountain Lion), was born.
    (HN, 7/1/01)

1915        Jul 2, Porfirio Diaz, former president of Mexico, died in Paris, France.
    (SFC, 12/14/00, p.A8)

1915        Jul 8, Charles Hard Townes, physicist (developed lasers), was born in Greenville, SC.
    (MC, 7/8/02)

1915        Jul 9, Germany’s South West Africa surrendered to Gen. Botha of the Union of South Africa.

1915        Jul 10, Saul Bellow, Nobel (1976) and Pulitzer Prize-winning American author and writer of Jewish moral and social alarm (Herzog, Humboldt's Gift), was born in Montreal. "A man is only as good as what he loves." In 2000 James Atlas authored "Bellow: A Biography."
    (AP, 9/30/98)(HN, 7/10/98)(SFEC, 10/15/00, BR p.1)(MC, 7/10/02)

1915        Jul 16, Barnard Hughes, actor (Tron, Where's Poppa, Best Friends), was born in Bedford Hills, NY.
    (MC, 7/16/02)

1915        Jul 24, Excursion ship Eastland capsized in Lake Michigan and 852 die.
    (MC, 7/24/02)

1915        Jul 26, James Murray, lead compiler of the Oxford English Dictionary, died. The final entry to the dictionary was completed in 1928. In 2003 Simon Winchester authored “The Meaning of Everything: The Story of the Oxford English Dictionary."
    (ON, 11/05, p.7)

1915        Jul 28, The United States occupation of Haiti began as 330 US Marines landed at Port-au-Prince on the authority of President Woodrow Wilson to safeguard the interests of US corporations. Roger Gaillard (d.2000 at 77), historian, later wrote a multi-volume chronicle of the US Marine occupation of Haiti from 1915-1934.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_occupation_of_Haiti)(SFC, 5/27/00, p.a26)
1915        Jul 28, 10,000 blacks marched on 5th Ave in NYC to protest lynchings.
    (SC, 7/28/02)

1915        Jul 29, Amalgamated Copper was removed from the Dow Jones. Amalgamated Copper company had been dissolved and its operations taken over by Anaconda Copper mining Co.
    (WSJ, 5/28/96, p. R46)

1915        Jul, A homemade bomb exploded in the Senate Reception Room. It was placed by Erich Muenter, a former Harvard professor, who was upset by the private sales of US munitions to the allies in WW I.
    (SFC, 7/25/98, p.A6)

1915        Sep 1, In the SF Bay Area 2 men were killed when eight tons of dynamite exploded on a train car being unloaded from magazines of the Hercules Powder Works to the steamer Century.
    (SSFC, 8/30/15, DB p.58)

1915        Aug 5, The Austro-German Army took Warsaw, in present-day Poland, on the Eastern Front.
    (HN, 8/5/98)

1915        Aug 7, In the assault up Russell's Top at Gallipoli 232 Australians died.
    (MC, 8/7/02)

1915        Aug 9, Aviator Charles Niles (1888-1916) and his aircraft plunged into the SF Bay. Niles, who had become internationally famous for his work in the aerial war corps of General Carranza in Mexico, survived the crash.
    (SSFC, 8/9/15, DB p.46)(http://earlyaviators.com/eniles.htm)

1915        Aug 11, In San Francisco the Cairo Café on the Joy Zone of the Panama-Pacific Exposition was closed down following complaints some half dozen Oriental maids had been imported from the brothels of the Barbary Coast.
    (SSFC, 8/16/15, DB p.46)

1915        Aug 12, The autobiographical novel "Of Human Bondage," by William Somerset Maugham, was first published.
    (AP, 8/12/97)(SSFC, 1/4/04, p.M2)

1915        Aug 14, British transport Royal Edward was sunk a by German U boat and some 1000 people were killed.
    (MC, 8/14/02)

1915        Aug 16, A hurricane hit Galveston, Texas. It caused 12 deaths and an estimated $5-8 million in property damage in the city.

1915        Aug 17, Leo Frank, a Jewish factory manager, was lynched by a mob of anti-Semites in Cob County, Georgia. He had been convicted in the killing of Mary Phagan, a 13-year-old girl who worked at his pencil factory. The governor believed him innocent and commuted his death sentence in June. The state of Georgia pardoned Frank in 1986. In 2000 Stephen Goldfarb posted the names of some 2 dozen men believed to have participated in the murder.
    (WSJ, 6/9/00, p.A1)(AP, 8/17/02)(AP, 3/11/06)

1915        Aug 19, Ring Lardner Jr., author and screenwriter (A Star Is Born), was born in Chicago.
    (MC, 8/19/02)
1915        Aug 19, The British ocean liner Arabic was sunk by Germany. After the sinking Germany promised that no more merchant ships would be torpedoed without warning. Two Americans were aboard and Germany feared U.S. entry into World War I. Earlier, in May 1915, a German U-boat sank the British liner Lusitania, killing 60 percent of those on board-some 1,198-of whom 128 were Americans. The threat of American intervention receded until the beleaguered Germans believed it was necessary to resume unrestricted submarine warfare to break the British blockade. On January 31, 1917, Berlin’s announcement that its submarines would "sink on sight" brought the United States into the war.
    (HNQ, 4/7/99)

1915        Aug 20, Paul Ehrlich (61), German genealogist (Chemotherapy, Nobel 1908), died.
    (MC, 8/20/02)

1915        Aug 21, Jack Weston [Morris Weinstein], actor (4 Seasons, Rad), was born in Cleveland.
    (SC, 8/21/02)
1915        Aug 21, Italy declared war on Turkey.
    (HN, 8/21/98)

1915        Aug 23, Czar Nicolaas II took control of the Russian Army.
    (MC, 8/23/02)

1915        Aug 24, Alice H.B. Sheldon, science fiction writer, was born. He also worked as an artist, CIA photo-intelligence operative, lecturer at American University and major in the U.S. Army Air Force.
    (HN, 8/24/00)

1915        Aug 26, Gre [Gerarda D] Brouwenstijn, Dutch opera soprano, was born.
    (MC, 8/26/02)

1915        Aug 27, Walter W. Heller (d.1987), economist (Old Myths & New Realities), was born in Buffalo, NY.
1915        Aug 27, In San Francisco a fire in the Presidio killed the wife of Brig. Gen. John J. Pershing and 3 of their 4 children.
    (SFEC, 12/26/99, p.W4)(SSFC, 8/23/15, DB p.46)

1915        Aug 29, Ingrid Bergman (d.1982), Oscar winning actress famous for her role in "Casablanca" and "Anastasia," was born in Stockholm, Sweden. "Happiness is good health and a bad memory."
    (HN, 8/29/98)(AP, 7/21/97)
1915        Aug 29, Syriac Catholic bishop Flavien Michel Melki (b.1858) and his Chaldean counterpart, Monsignor Philippe-Jacques Abraham, were murdered in Cizre by Ottoman forces for refusing to renounce Christianity. In 2015 Melki was officially recognized as a "martyr" of the Catholic church and beatified by Pope Francis.
    (https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flavien_Michel_Melki)(AP, 8/30/15)

1915        Sep 1, In the SF Bay Area 2 men were killed when eight tons of dynamite  exploded  on a train car being unloaded from magazines of the Hercules Powder Works to the steamer Century.
    (SSFC, 8/30/15, DB p.58)

1915        Sep 2, Austro-German armies took Grodno, Poland.
    (HN, 9/2/98)

1915        Sep 4, Rudolf Schock, German opera and operetta tenor, was born.
    (MC, 9/4/01)
1915        Sep 4, The U.S. military placed Haiti under martial law to quell a rebellion in its capital Port-au-Prince.
    (HN, 9/4/98)

1915        Sep 6, Franz Josef Strauss, Germany, Nazi and minister of defense (1956-62), was born.
    (MC, 9/6/01)

1915        Sep 7, John Gruelle patented his Raggedy Ann doll.
    (MC, 9/7/01)

1915        Sep 8, Germany began a new offensive in Argonne on the Western Front.
    (HN, 9/8/98)

1915        Sep 9, Albert G. Spalding (b.1850), baseball star and promoter, died in San Diego, Ca.
1915        Sep 9, A German zeppelin bombed London for the first time, causing little damage.
    (HN, 9/9/98)

1915        Sep 10, Edmond O'Brien (d.1985), film actor, was born in NYC. His films included "Hunchback of Notre Dame" (1939) and "The Wild Bunch" (1969).

1915        Sep 11, Sir William Cornelius Van Horne, former president of the CPR, died in Montreal. His mansion was on Minister’s Island in New Brunswick, Canada. The American-born Van Horne had managed the construction of Canada’s transcontinental railway (1881-1886). Van Horne was buried in Joliet, Ill.
    (SFEC, 5/25/97, p.T7)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Cornelius_Van_Horne)

1915        Sep 13, In San Francisco bank robber Charles Nelson was killed at his lodging on the corner of Oak and Buchanan after holding off some 100 police officers overnight.
    (SSFC, 9/6/15, DB p.50)(SSFC, 9/13/15, DB p.50)

1915        Sep 18, Reverend Sherman Coolidge (1862-1932), an Arapaho minister and one of the founders of the Society of American Indians (SAI), issued a proclamation declaring the second Saturday of each May as “American Indian Day" and appealing for US citizenship for American Indians.

1915        Sep 19, Elizabeth Stern, Canadian pathologist, was born. She first published a case report linking a specific virus to a specific cancer.
    (HN, 9/19/00)

1915        Sep 21, Anthony Comstock (b.1844), former US Postal Inspector and politician dedicated to ideas of Victorian morality, died. The anti-porn campaigner had used his position to seize 50 tons of books and 4 million pictures.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anthony_Comstock)(Econ, 3/15/08, p.44)
1915        Sep 21, Stonehenge was sold by auction for 6,600 pounds sterling ($11,500) to a Mr. Chubb, who bought it as a present for his wife. He presented it to the British nation three years later.
    (HN, 9/21/98)

1915        Sep 22, Southern Methodist University in Dallas, Texas, held its 1st class.
    (MC, 9/22/01)
1915        Sep 22, Xavier University, the first African-American Catholic college, opened in New Orleans, Louisiana.
    (HN, 9/22/98)

1915        Sep 23, Clifford G. Shull, physicist, was born. He improved techniques for exploring the atomic structure of matter.
    (HN, 9//00)

1915        Sep 24, Bulgaria mobilized troops on the Serbian border.
    (HN, 9/24/98)

1915        Sep 25, An allied offensive was launched in France against the German Army.
    (HN, 9/25/98)
1915        Sep 25, At the Battle at Loos: 8,246 British and 0 German casualties.
    (MC, 9/25/01)

1915        Sep 28, Ethel Rosenberg, who, with her husband Julius, became one of the first American civilians executed for espionage, was born.
    (HN, 9/28/98)
1915        Sep 28, At the Battle of Kut-el-Amara the British defeated the Turks in Mesopotamia.
    (MC, 9/28/01)

1915        Sep 30, Lester Garfield Maddox, (Gov-D-Ga) restaurant owner and ax handle wielder segregationist, was born.
    (MC, 9/30/01)

1915        Oct 4, Dinosaur National Monument in Colorado and Utah was established. Pres. Woodrow Wilson established Dinosaur National Monument in Jensen, Utah.
    (SFEC, 3/14/99, p.T8)(MC, 10/4/01)

1915        Oct 5, Germany issued an apology and promises for payment for the 128 American passengers killed in the sinking of the British ship Lusitania.
    (HN, 10/5/98)

1915        Oct 8, The WWI Battle of Loos ended with virtually no gains for either side. There was loss of over one hundred thousand French, British, and German lives in this battle. It marked the first use of poisonous gas by the British, which drifted back to the British trenches.
    (MC, 10/8/01)

1915        Oct 9, Woodrow Wilson became the 1st president to attend a World Series game.
    (MC, 10/9/01)
1915        Oct 9, Belgrade,  Serbia, surrendered to Central leaders.
    (MC, 10/9/01)

1915        Oct 11, A Bulgarian anti Serbian offensive began.
    (MC, 10/11/01)
1915        Oct 12, Former President Theodore Roosevelt criticized the concept of "hyphenated Americanism," referring to U.S. citizens who identified themselves by dual nationalities.
    (AP, 10/12/05)
1915        Oct 12, Ford Motor Company manufactured its 1 millionth Model T automobile.
    (MC, 10/12/01)
1915        Oct 12, British nurse Edith Cavell (47), despite international protests, was shot as a spy by a German firing squad in Brussels, Belgium. Cavell, the matron of a Brussels training school for nurses, was known for her compassion and sense of duty. As WWI broke out in Europe, Cavell helped 60 British student nurses return home but she remained in Belgium. Even though she knew that helping soldiers escape from German-occupied territory meant the death penalty, Cavell agreed when asked to participate in an escape ring that helped more than 200 fugitive Allied soldiers return home after the British Expeditionary Force's retreat from Mons. Such a large conspiracy could not long remain a secret and in August 1915, Cavell and 35 other members of her organization were arrested. At her hasty trial, she was condemned to death for "conducting soldiers to the enemy." Although their action may have been justified under the rules of war, the Germans seriously blundered when they shot Edith Cavell. Within days of her death, the selfless nurse was elevated to martyr status and the Germans were internationally condemned as "murdering monsters." A statue in St. Martin's Place, just off London's Trafalgar Square, is dedicated to Cavell. In 2010 Diana Souhami authored “Edith Cavell."
    (AP, 10/12/97)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edith_Cavell)(Econ, 10/9/10, p.121)

1915        Oct 16, San Francisco’s Panama-Pacific Expo celebrated “Tobacco Day." A “pipe of peace" festival took place in the Court of the Universe.
    (SSFC, 10/11/15, p.54)
1915        Oct 16, Great Britain declared war on Bulgaria.
    (MC, 10/16/01)

1915        Oct 17, Arthur Miller, Pulitzer Prize-winning playwright, was born. His work included "Death of a Salesman" and "A View from the Bridge." In 2003 Martin Gottfried authored "Arthur Miller: His Life and Work."
    (HN, 10/17/00)(SSFC, 9/28/03, p.M2)

1915        Oct 19, US recognized General Venustiano Carranza (opposing Pancho Villa) as the president of Mexico, and imposed an embargo on the shipment of arms to all Mexican territories except those controlled by Carranza.
    (MC, 10/19/01)
1915        Oct 19, The US Patent Office granted John Van Wormer a patent for his "paper bottle." His patent was later acquired by the American Paper Bottle Company. The first paper milk carton was introduced in 1933.
1915        Oct 19, Russia and Italy declared war on Bulgaria.
    (MC, 10/19/01)

1915        Oct 21, The 1st transatlantic radio-telephone message was transmitted from Arlington, Va., to Paris.
    (MC, 10/21/01)

1915        Oct 23, Tens of thousands of women marched in NYC, demanding the right to vote.
    (AP, 10/23/08)

1915        Oct 24, Tito Gobbi, great Italian baritone (Figaro, Rigoletto, Scarpia), was born.
    (MC, 10/24/01)

1915        Oct 27, Ernest Shackleton and the crew of the Endurance abandoned their ship in the Antarctic ice.
    (WSJ, 4/16/99, p.W14)

1915        Oct 28, Richard Strauss' Alpine Symphony premiered in Berlin.
    (MC, 10/28/01)

1915        Oct 29, Thomas Masaryk claimed independence for Czechoslovakia.
    (MC, 10/29/01)

1915        Oct, The US secret service captured 2 former Oakland policemen in Utah and Ohio after a 12,500 mile chase. The men were charged with counterfeiting $100,000 in bogus $5 gold pieces.
    (SFEC, 12/26/99, p.W4)

1915        Nov 2, San Francisco’s Panama-Pacific Expo celebrated San Francisco day and drew an estimated 348,472 people, equal to about 70% of the city’s population.
    (SFC, 10/31/15, p.C1)

1915        Nov 6, An order from Constantinople reached the local authorities, at any rate in the Cilician plain, directing them to refrain from further [Armenian] deportations.

1915        Nov 7, An Austrian submarine torpedoed the Italian passenger ship Ancona, and 272 were killed.

1915        Nov 11, William Proxmire, US Senator-D-Wi, 1957-88 (Golden Fleece Awards), was born.
    (MC, 11/11/01)

1915        Nov 12, The Chinese liquor Moutai, which originated during the Qing Dynasty (1644-1912), won international fame with a gold medal at the 1915 Panama-Pacific Exposition in San Francisco. Maotai was named a national liquor in 1951, two years after the founding of People's Republic of China.

1915        Nov 14, Booker T. Washington (b.1856), Black American educator, died in Tuskegee, Alabama. The former slave later founded the Tuskegee Institute (1881). Booker Taliaferro Washington later became the 1st black on a US postage stamp. His autobiography "Up From Slavery" was listed in 1999 as the 3rd best work of non-fiction in the English language in the 20th century by the Modern Library. In 2009 Robert J. Norrell authored “Up From History: The Life of Booker T. Washington." 
    (AP, 5/5/97)(HN, 4/5/99)(SFC, 4/29/99, p.C5)(WSJ, 1/23/09, p.W10)

1915        Nov 19, Billy Strayhorn (d.1967), composer, arranger and pianist, was born. He wrote "Take the A Train."
    (HN, 11/19/00)
1915        Nov 19, Joe Hill, Labor leader and songwriter, was executed for murder. Joe Hill (Joseph Hillstrom) was executed after being convicted of killing two men in a holdup in Salt Lake City in 1914. He claimed the charges against him were trumped up and won worldwide support, including that of President Woodrow Wilson. Nevertheless, Hill was tried, convicted and executed by firing squad. Hill, born Joel Haggelund in Sweden in 1879, went to the United States in 1902 and soon joined the revolutionary Industrial Workers of the World (the Wobblies). In 2011 William Adler authored “The Man Who Never Died: The Life, Times, and Legacy of Joe Hill."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joe_Hill)(SSFC, 1/7/01, p.A21)(Econ, 8/6/11, p.73)
1915        Nov 19, The Allies asked China to join the entente against the Central Powers.
    (HN, 11/19/00)

1915        Nov 21, The HMS Endurance, under Sir Ernest Shackleton and his 27 man crew, sank in the Weddell Sea of Antarctica. The whole crew escaped on 3 lifeboats that included the “James Caird." They drifted for 5 months and when the ice broke rowed to Elephant Island. Shackleton then rowed the Caird for 800 miles with 5 men to South Georgia Island and returned to pick up the 21 men left behind. Frank Hurley captured the sinking on 35-mm movie film. In 1933 F.A. Worsely, the captain of the Endurance, authored “Shackleton’s Boat Journey." In 1999 Caroline Alexander authored “The Endurance."
    (WSJ, 4/2/98, p.B1,15)(SFEC, 1/24/99, BR p.6)(WSJ, 4/16/99, p.W14)(ON, 5/00, p.10)(WSJ, 4/28/07, p.P8)

1915        Nov 22, The Anglo-Indian army, led by British General Sir Charles Townshend, attacked a larger Turkish force under General Nur-ud-Din at Ctesiphon, Iraq, but was repulsed.
    (HN, 11/22/98)

1915        Nov 20, In San Francisco a gang of robbers, later dubbed the “jitney bandits" used a Model T Ford to flee a robbery at the Sloat Cafe dance hall.  More robberies followed over the next month with several killings until outlaw Howard Dunnigan (23) was wounded following a Christmas eve attack on the Niagara saloon at 789 Howard. The gang fled to Los Angeles where Dunnigan checked himself into a hospital, where a doctor called police. Dunnigan turned out to be from an old and respected family in  Maryland. Two of his confederates were sentenced to life in prison. Dunnigan was allowed to plead guilty and was sentenced to seven years probation.
    (SFC, 3/2/18, p.C1)

1915        Nov 25, Augusto Pinochet (d.2006), general, coup leader and president of Chile (1974-1990), was born.
1915        Nov 25, Albert Einstein first presented his "General Theory of Relativity" to a group of scientists in Berlin. General Relativity was presented to the Prussian Academy of Sciences over the course of four lectures. In 2000 David Bodanis authored "E=MC²: A Biography of the World’s Most Famous Equation."
    (http://tinyurl.com/hbdgz9h)(SFC, 11/26/96, p.A7)(SFEC, 10/22/00, Par p.23)(Econ, 11/28/15, p.70)

1915        Nov 26, Earl Wild, American pianist and composer, was born. He debuted on Pittsburgh radio at age 12 and was invited to become the station’s staff pianist.
    (WSJ, 11/29/05, p.D8)

1915        Nov 30, Brownie McGhee, singer and guitarist, was born.
    (HN, 11/30/00)

1915        Dec 2, Adolph Green, songwriter (married to Phyllis Newman), was born.
    (MC, 12/2/01)
1915        Dec 2, Millicent Hearst, wife of William Randolph Hearst (d.1951), gave birth to twin sons, David (d.1986) and Randolph (d.2000).
    (SFC, 12/19/00, p.A21)(MC, 12/2/01)

1915        Dec 3, The U.S. expelled German attaches on spy charges.
    (HN, 12/3/98)

1915        Dec 4, San Francisco’s Panama-Pacific Expo closed. Over 450,000 people attended the last day of the fair.
    (SSFC, 2/15/15, p.P4)
1915        Dec 4, Ku Klux Klan received a charter from Fulton County, Ga.
    (MC, 12/4/01)

1915        Dec 7, Eli Wallach (d.2014), American film, TV and stage actor, was born in Brooklyn, NY.
    (SFC, 1/14/15, p.E5)

1915        Dec 8, Jean Sibelius' 5th Symphony in E, premiered.
    (MC, 12/8/01)

1915        Dec 9, Elisabeth Schwarzkopf, soprano (Der Rosenkavalier), was born in Jarotschin, Germany.
    (MC, 12/9/01)

1915        Dec 12, Frank Sinatra, actor and singer, was born in Hoboken New Jersey. He died May 14, 1998. In 1986 Kitty Kelly wrote his biography "His Way."
    (WSJ, 12/14/95, p.A-12)(SFC, 11/11/96, p.D1)(SFC, 12/13/96, p.C10)(SFC, 5/16/98, p.E7)

1915        Dec 18, President Wilson, widowed the year before, married Edith Bolling Galt at her Washington home.
    (AP, 12/18/98)
1915        Dec 18, In a single night, about 20,000 Australian and New Zealand troops slipped away from Gallipoli, undetected by the Turks defending the peninsula.
    (HN, 12/18/98)

1915        Dec 19, Edith Piaf, internationally famous French cabaret singer, was born. She is best remembered for her songs "La Vie en rose" and "Non, je ne regrette rein."
    (HN, 12/19/99)
1915        Dec 19, Alvis Alzheimer (b.1864), German neurologist (Alzheimer Disease), died.

1915        Dec 22, In China Yuan Shikai proclaimed the Empire of China (1915–1916) with himself as Emperor of China.

1915        Dec 23, In San Francisco Henry Doelger (18), who later developed the Sunset and  Daly City’s Westlake district, fired at the escaping “jitney bandits" following a holdup at a saloon at Seventh and Hugo Street.
    (SFC, 3/2/18, p.C2)

1915        Dec 25, At the war front near Laventie, France, British and German soldiers exchanged greetings, cigarettes and engaged in a short game of free-for-all soccer.
    (SFC, 8/3/01, p.D5)

1915        Dec 27, William Howell Masters, sex author and physician, was born.
    (MC, 12/27/01)
1915        Dec 27, In Ohio, iron and steel workers went on strike for an eight hour day and higher wages.
    (HN, 12/27/98)

1915        Dec 28, San Francisco Mayor James Rolph Jr. dedicated the "new" $3.5 million City Hall. The French Renaissance Revival building, was designed by Arthur Brown Jr.
    (www.inetours.com/Pages/SFNbrhds/Civic_Center.html)(SFEM,7/28/96, p.38)(SFEC, 12/26/99, p.W4)

1915        Dec 31, The Germans torpedoed the British liner Persia without any warning; 335 are dead.
    (HN, 12/31/98)

1915        Paul Samuelson, MIT economist, was born. He demonstrated the mathematical structure of economic theory and melded classical and modern economic findings. He also contributed to the theory of consumer behavior, welfare economics, capital and interest and public finance.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R20)

1915        Frankie Yankovic (d.1998), accordionist, was born in Davis, W. Va. He later became the Polka King from Cleveland.
    (SFC, 10/15/98, p.C6)

1915        Marc Chagall painted his "L’Anniversaire" (Birthday).
    (SFC, 5/26/96, BR p.9)

1915        Marcel Duchamp painted "In Advance of the Broken Arm."
    (WSJ, 12/2/96, p.A16)

1915        Kasimir Malevich (1878-1935), Ukraine pioneer of abstract art, painted "Suprematist Cross in Black Square." It featured a dark black square against a white background and was "emblematic of the avant-garde belief that abstraction penetrated to the essence of things, on which basis the world could be reinvented."
    (SFC, 5/28/98, p.E5)(WSJ, 10/5/05, p.D14)(Econ, 10/26/13, p.96)

1915        Egon Schiele made his "Self-portrait With Striped Armlets."
    (WSJ, 11/19/97, p.A20)

1915        William Wendt (1865-1946), called the "Dean of Southern California landscape painters, painted his impressionist work "Summer Sea."
    (SFC, 3/18/99, p.C1)(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Wendt)

1915        Willa Cather published her novel "The Song of the Lark." It was about an opera singer and the birth and development of the artistic spirit.
    (WSJ, 11/30/98, p.A20)

1915        Ford Madox Ford (1873-1939) authored "The Good Soldier."
    (WSJ, 12/3/05, p.P14)

1915        Alfred Wegener, German scientist, published his evidence for the theory of continental drift in his book: "Die Entstehung der Kontinente und Ozeane" (The Origin of Continents and Oceans). This expanded on his theory that continents had drifted to their present positions from the break-up of a single primeval super-continent, Pangaea. He acknowledged the work of F.B. Taylor in 1908.
    (DD-EVTT, p.188)(ON, 9/04, p.8)

1915        The "Best Short Stories of the Year" series was launched by Edward J. O'Brien.
    (WSJ, 3/26/99, p.W10)

1915        The play "Hobson’s Choice" by Harold Brighouse was set in Manchester, England, and opened in NYC. It was made into a film in 1954.
    (WSJ, 1/16/02, p.A14)

1915        The film “A Jitney Elopement" starred Charlie Chaplin. He also directed the film, which was set in San Francisco.
    (SFC, 4/10/09, p.E8)

1915        The song "Hello Frisco" was a musical chart-topper.
    (SFC, 2/3/97, p.D1)

1915        Jelly Roll Morton published "Jelly Roll Blues."
    (SFC, 5/24/03, p.D3)

1915        Richard Strauss composed "An Alpine Symphony."
    (SFC, 12/27/99, p.E1)

1915        Theda Bara, born as Theodosia Goodman, became an overnight sensation in director Frank Powell’s silent film "A Fool There Was." Bara, silent screen sex symbol, was one of the most glamorous and successful movie stars of the 1910s. Theda was a coed from a well-to-do Cincinnati family in 1905 when she dropped out of school to become a New York actress. Stage success eluded her, but By the start of WWI, Theda was the third most popular screen star behind Mary Pickford and Charlie Chaplin, but she chafed under the stereotypical "vamp" roles she usually played. Theda’s 42-film career came to an end in 1919 with the controversial box-office disaster "Kathleen Mavoureen." Bara married director Charles Brabin in 1921 and remained a popular Hollywood hostess until her death on April 7, 1955. Her adopted name was an anagram for Arab death.
    (HNPD, 7/24/98)(SFC, 12/27/99, p.E1)

1915        The 38-storey Equitable Building, located at 120 Broadway in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, was completed. It was designed by Ernest R. Graham.

1915        Geisinger Health Systems was founded in Pennsylvania.
    (Econ, 6/18/11, p.75)
1915        The US science journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) began operations.
    (SFC, 3/24/06, p.B9)

1915        The dance craze of 1915 kicked off Broadway's (NYC) true Golden Age.
    (WSJ, 3/19/04, p.W12)

1915        Twentieth Century Fox was founded.
    (WSJ, 1/2/97, p.1)

1915        Carter G. Woodson launched the Association for the Study of Negro Life and History.
    (Civilization, July-Aug, 1995, p. 37)

1915        This period was the height of the US Progressive Era.
    (WSJ, 7/8/96, p.A8)

1915        Augustus Owsley Stanley began serving as governor of Kentucky and continued to 1919. His grandson, Augustus Owsley Stanley III, became famous in the 1960s for producing LSD, financially backing the Grateful Dead, and working as the group’s sound engineer.
    (SFC, 3/14/11, p.A6)

1915        San Diego hosted a World’s Fair.
    (AWAM, Dec. 94, p.32)

1915        In San Francisco the St. Joseph Catholic Church at 10th and Howard was consecrated. It was red-tagged following the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. In 2019 it re-opened as a semi-private club after restoration of the Romanesque Revival structure was completed.
    (SFC, 1/25/19, p.C1)
1915        The new San Francisco General Hospital (SFGH) opened on Portrero Avenue with two buildings.
    (SFC, 5/22/16, p.N11)
1915        In San Francisco the 2-storey Agriculture Building at 101 Embarcadero was built. It was designed by A.A. Pyle. It began life as a post office so mail ferries could pull right up.
    (SSFC, 1/17/10, p.C2)
1915        In San Francisco a US Treasury Building was built at 301 Pine St. In 1930 it became the home of the Pacific Stock Exchange.
    (SSFC, 3/16/14, p.C3)
1915        The San Francisco Cross City Race was begun as a social event in connection with the Panama-Pacific Expo.
    (SFEM, 5/11/97, p.6)
1915        In SF, Ca., philanthropist Phoebe Apperson Hearst led a fund to save the Palace of Fine Arts building, designed by Bernard Maybeck for the Panama Pacific Fair, from demolition. The building later became the Exploratorium. In 1960 Walter Johnson gave $4 million to rebuild the structure. Another restoration project began in 2004.
    (SFC, 5/2/98, p.E1)(SFC, 9/7/07, p.B12)
1915        The California legislature outlawed boxing and ended Colma’s golden decade of boxing.
    (Ind, 3/22/03, 5A)
1915        California expanded the definition of sodomy to include fellatio and cunnilingus.
    (SSFC, 5/11/08, Books p.4)
1915        The California Dept. of Motor Vehicles was created.
    (SFC, 12/27/99, p.A10)
1915        A new water system was placed into service in Daly City, Ca., and tested in front of the new City Hall on Wellington Ave.
    (DCFD, Centennial, 2007)
1915        The Lagomarsino family of Daly City employed dozens of women to pick violets and fashion them into bouquets and boutonnieres for the World’s Fair in SF. The next generation of the family branched into real estate and built the apartment houses along Hillside Blvd. in Daly City and Colma.
    (GTP, 1973, p.118)
1915        By this year 15 out of 49 businesses in the Daly City area were saloons or businesses that served liquor.
    (GTP, 1973, p.50)
1915        The population of Daly City, Ca., reached 5,000 people.
    (DCFD, Centennial, 2007)
1915        Thomas Edison, Henry Ford and Harvey Firestone rode in a private Pullman car to visit Luther Burbank in Santa Rosa, Ca. From 1915 to 1924 the trio made annual "auto-camping" trips often in the company of naturalist John Burroughs.
    (SFEC, 12/1/96, p.T8)(SSFC, 7/29/18, p.F2)
1915        Edsel Ford (21) drove a Model T from Detroit to San Francisco for the Panama-Pacific Expo and visited Hughson Ford on Van Ness Ave., the world’s first Ford dealership. Edsel was accompanied by a 1915 Cadillac and a Stutz Six Touring Car on the 39-day trip.
    (SFC, 8/20/15, p.D6)
1915        Car maker Henry Ford took a ship of leading business people and peace activists to Europe to try to end WWI.
    (Econ, 4/30/15, p.64)

1915        Freud described people as not very good at heart. "The element of truth behind all this, which people are so ready to disavow, is that men are not gentle creatures who want to be loved, and at most can defend themselves if they are attacked."

1915        The Claremont Hotel on the Berkeley-Oakland border was built by Frank Havens. He won the land in a game of checkers from miner Francis Marion "Borax" Smith. Francis Marion Smith was the visionary behind the Key Route and used money from his Nevada borax mines to fund the line. The hotel was built on the Key Route train line serving San Francisco.
    (SFC, 4/4/98, p.A1)(SFEC, 11/19/00, p.T6)(SFCM, 4/3/05, p.6)(SFC, 3/22/14, p.D2)
1915        In Fort Bragg, Ca., a 14-room, 3-storey hospital was built. It later became the Grey Whale Inn.
    (SSFC, 6/24/01, p.T10)
1915        The McCloud Hotel in McCloud, Siskiyou County, was built.
    (SSFC, 6/17/01, p.T5)
1915        In northern California the Feather River Inn opened just outside Graegle for rail passengers on the new Western Pacific Feather River line.
    (SSFC, 7/7/02, p.C10)
1915        The California legislature outlawed boxing.
    (Ind, 3/22/03, 5A)
1915        California expanded the definition of sodomy to include fellatio and cunnilingus.
    (SSFC, 5/11/08, Books p.4)
1915        Alcatraz island in the SF Bay was converted into a military prison.
    (SFEC, 3/8/98, p.W38)
1915        Los Angeles, Ca., annexed the San Fernando Valley, and thus more than doubled its own size.
    (Econ, 11/9/13, p.35)
1915        The California Dept. of Motor Vehicles was created.
    (SFC, 12/27/99, p.A10)
1915        Lockeport, Ca., was founded by Chung Shan Chinese merchants who left Walnut Grove when the town’s Chinatown burned down. The Sacramento delta town was later renamed Locke. In 2001 the Sacramento Ct. Housing and Redevelopment Agency planned to buy the 10-acre town for $250,000 and then arrange for its sale to the townspeople.
    (SFC, 10/11/00, p.A15)(SFC, 5/23/01, p.A2)
1915        In California the old stagecoach road in San Luis Obispo County was paved and used as Highway 101 until 1931.
    (SB, 3/28/02)
1915        Dr. Forrest Shaklee (1894-1985), an Oakland, Ca., chiropractor, invented his Vitalized Minerals. In 1956 he founded Shaklee Products, a nutritional supplement company.
    (SSFC, 8/13/06, p.F1)(www.shaklee.com/main/aboutPhiloStory)

1915         The 4-storey Colorado National Bank was built in Denver. In 2014 it was converted into the 8-storey 230-room Renaissance Denver Downtown City Center Hotel.
    (SSFC, 6/8/14, p.P3)
1915        In Colorado the Rocky Mountain National Park, northwest of Denver, was created.
    (SFC, 7/19/97, p.A2)

1915        Gutzon Borglum (1867-1941) signed on about this time with the United Daughter of the Confederacy to carve a memorial at Stone Mountain in Georgia and soon rose to the high ranks of the newly resurgent KKK. The project started in 1918 but was postponed by WWI and resumed in 1922. He was fired from the project in 1925. His carving was later removed and replaced by sculptor Augustus Lukeman. In 1927 Borglum began the Mount Rushmore presidential memorial.
    (SSFC, 9/9/07, p.C4)(ON, 2/11, p.10)
1915        The Knights of Mary Phagan set fire to a cross atop a granite mountain 16 miles east of Atlanta. The event became a rallying cry for the KKK.
    (WSJ, 6/9/00, p.A12)
1915        In Georgia Ku Klux Klansmen held a formative assembly at the town of Stone Mountain.
    (SFC, 11/28/97, p.B6)
1915        The US state of Georgia lynched 22 people this year.
    (Econ, 12/19/15, p.32)

1915        Aubrey Robinson banned tourists from Niihau, Hawaii, and severely restricted visits.
    (SSFC, 3/20/05, p.D11)

1915        Cleveland's baseball team proposed the term "Indians" to honor Louis Sockalexis, a Native American of the Penobscot nation. He was a star player for the Cleveland Spiders in the later nineteenth century.
    (Econ., 8/8/20, p.16)

1915        Charles Thompson acquired the Electric Welding Company from Alexander Winton. It was the nation’s leading producer of engine valves.
    (F, 10/7/96, p.67)

1915        The Frigerator electric food cooler was introduced by Guardian.
    (SFC, 12/29/99, Z1 p.1)

1915        The Hearst Corp. formed King Features Syndicate to consolidate its pioneering efforts in comic syndication.
    (SFC, 8/7/99, p.A9)

1915        Dr. Harry Heiselden of Chicago was dubbed the "Black Stork" for withholding treatment from defective newborns. The story is told by Martin S. Pernick in his 1996 work "The Black Stork: Eugenics and the Death of "Defective" Babies in American medicine and Motion Pictures Since 1915."
    (MT, 6/96, p.13)

1915        American financier and bus manufacturer Roland Conklin unveiled his luxurious, 8-ton "Conklin Family Gypsy Van."
    (SSFC, 7/29/18, p.F2)

1915        There were some 450 automotive and auto parts makers in the US by the end of this year.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)

1915        Louis Chevrolet sold his interest in the Chevrolet Motor Company and focused his interest on auto racing.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)(SFEC, 1/9/00, Z1 p.2)

1915        Orville Wright (1871-1948) sold his interest in the Wright Company and retired.
    (NPub, 2002, p.9)

1915        August Freuhauf, a Detroit blacksmith, invented the semi-trailer.
    (SFEC, 7/27/97, Z1 p.7)

1915        N.L. Bowen, scientist at Geophysical Laboratory in Washington, showed that in a pool of molten rock (magma) early-formed dense crystals may sink, leaving the upper reaches of the body different in composition from the lower part where the crystals settle.
    (DD-EVTT, p.29)

1915        Dr. Joseph Goldberger traced the disease pellagra among poor, corn-dependent people of the American South to a dietary deficiency. The specific component, vitamin B3, was not identified until 1938.
    (MT, Fall ‘96, p.4)

1915        The coldest summer on record in the US with temp. averaging 69.53 degrees.
    (NOHY, Weiner, 3/90, p.272)

1915        Miners near Oatman, Az., struck a vein of gold that led to a $10 million haul.
    (SSFC, 6/17/01, p.T8)

1915        In Argentina the Retiro railway station was completed in Buenos Aires.
    (Econ, 2/15/14, p.20)

1915        In 2003 Peter Balakian, Prof. at Colgate Univ., authored "The Burning Tigris: The Armenian Genocide and America's Response," a one-sided account of the 1915 Armenian genocide and the Turkish massacres of Armenians in the 1890s.
    (SSFC, 10/11/03, p.M4)
1915        Kurdish tribes took part in the mass slaughter by the Ottomans of around 1 million Armenians.
    (Econ, 12/4/10, p.64)

1915        The British Women’s Institute movement was formed with two clear aims: to revitalise rural communities and to encourage women to become more involved in producing food during the First World War. In 2013 Julie summers authored “Jambusters: The Story of Women’s Institute in the Second World War.
    (Econ, 3/9/13, p.85)
1915        In England A.G. Richardson and Co. Ltd. used Crown Ducal Ware as a trade name for its earthenware. The name was later acquired by Enoch Wedgewood & Co.
    (SFC, 3/5/97, Z1 p.2)
1915        In London, a Bow Street magistrate declared “The Rainbow", a novel by D.H. Lawrence, to be obscene.
    (SFC, 7/14/06, p.A2)

1915        In France Le Canard Enchaine, a satirical newspaper, was founded.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Le_Canard_encha%C3%AEn%C3%A9)(Econ, 12/4/10, p.64)
1915        The French government banned absinthe, the "Green Goddess," which had become renowned for causing convulsions, hallucinations and psychosis. In 1988 the European Union lifted the ban on making absinthe.
    (WSJ, 1/22/99, p.W8)(http://tinyurl.com/5mqxvs)

1915        The short story “The Metamorphosis" by Franz Kafka (1883-1924), a civil servant working in Prague, was first published in a small German magazine.
    (Econ, 7/27/13, p.67)
1915        Germany lost control of South West Africa (later Namibia) to the British after brutally suppressing the indigenous people.
    (SFEC, 4/30/00, p.T4)
1915        Germany banned commercial baking on Sunday to limit bread sales due to WW I.
    (SFC, 7/5/96, p.A12)

1915        The last king of Loloda died. The Indonesian area is part of the West Halmahera Regency of North Malukku.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Loloda_language)(Econ., 1/16/21, p.25)
1915        The explosion of Tambora in Indonesia was estimated to be of the magnitude of 40,000 H-bombs.
    (NH, 5/96, p.3)

1915        Ingush and Chechen regiments led "the Brusilov breakthrough" on the Russian-German front. Their horse cavalry attacked an enemy force armed with heavy artillery.

1915        Japan demanded major concessions from China.
    (Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 215)
1915        In Japan Tokuji Hayakawa developed an improved mechanical pencil. His company became known as the Sharp Corp.
    (Econ, 3/5/11, p.71)(http://tinyurl.com/4thh7ke)

1915        Under British law Africans were declared “tenants at will of the Crown" and kicked off their ancestral land. In Kenya’s Rift Valley the Kalenjins became squatters.
    (WSJ, 1/30/08, p.A18)

1915        In Kuwait Sheikh Mubarak died. Kuwait’s rule later alternated between the 2 branches of the al-Sabah family, the al-Salem and the al-Jaber lines, after the 2 sons of Mubarak.
    (Econ, 1/21/06, p.47)

1915        The Latvian rifleman regiments were originally formed to defend Riga from the Germans and liberate rest of the Latvian land.

1915        In Libya during the war against the Italian colonial rulers, a Misratan rebel commander named Ramadan al-Sweihy was betrayed and then killed by the tribesmen of Bani Walid, who were taking money from the Italians.
    (AP, 9/2/11)

1915        By this year Malay plantations produced 107,860 tons of rubber compared with 37,200 tons in Brazil.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R50)

1915        In Mexico the government freed all prisoners at the fortress of San Juan de Ulua after they defended the fortress during a brief US occupation of Veracruz. The government declared the dungeon closed to prisoners for at least one hundred years.
    (SFEC, 5/17/98, p.T12)

1915        Hans Leip, in training for the Prussian Guard, authored the poem “Song of a Young Sentry." It reflected his recent meetings with two women named Lili and Marlene. In 1938 Norbert Schultze of Berlin put it to music. The composition was recorded in 1939 by cabaret chanteuse Lale Anderson and became hugely popular as the song “Lili Marlene." In 2008 Liel Leibovitz and Matthew Miller authored “Lili Marlene: The Soldier’s Song of World War II."
    (WSJ, 11/8/08, p.W8)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lili_Marleen)

1915        Marie, the queen of Romania, visited San Francisco.
    (SFC, 3/8/08, p.F2)

1915-1916    The 10-part silent serial "Les Vampires" by Louis Feuillade was produced.
    (SFC, 8/8/97, p.D3)
1915-1916    A number of skirmishes took place between the Texas Rangers and Mexican Americans rebelling under the "Plan de San Diego" and numerous people were killed. Participants included the anarchist Magon brothers, and rebel leader Aniceto Pizana. In 2003 Benjamin Heber Johnson authored "Revolution in Texas: How a Forgotten Revolution and Its Bloody suppression Turned Mexicans into Americans."
    (SSFC, 1/4/04, p.M3)

1915-1917    Mina Loy wrote her poetry: "Love Songs."
    (SFEC, 12/22/96, BR p.6)
1915-1917    Of the 1.75 million Armenians in Turkey at the outset of World War I, 250,000 fled into Russia. Some 600,000 starved to death in the Mesopotamian desert. Henry Morgenthau, US ambassador to the Ottoman Empire, alerted Pres. Wilson of a massacre of Armenians by the Turks. Evidence and photographs of the camps were provided to Morgenthau by Armin Wegner, German Red Cross official and Johannes Lepsius, a German missionary. British diplomat Lord Bryce hired Arnold Toynbee to document the slaughter. In 2004 Turkey's Culture Ministry allowed the film "Ararat" by Atom Egoyan, which recalled the plight of Armenians in Ottoman Turkey during this time, to be shown in Turkey with one rape scene cut. In 2004 Armenian descendants of some of the dead, who held 2,400 insurance policies, reached a $20 million settlement with New York Life Insurance Co.
    (AP, 4/24/97)(HN, 4/24/98)(SFC, 4/27/99, p.A10)(HNQ, 5/30/99)(PC, 1992, p.711)(SFC, 1/2/04, p.D15)(SFC, 1/29/04, p.A3)
1915-1917    As many as 1 million lives were lost along the Isonza Front in northern Slovenia.
    (SFEC, 7/9/00, p.T14)

1915-1919    More than 50,000 Lithuanian-Americans fought for the USA in World War I. This remarkable number was later leveraged to lobby US President Woodrow Wilson to recognize the newly independent Lithuanian state that emerged from the War’s aftermath.

1915-1920    The US Army bookkeepers began jotting down G.I. on their ledgers for items made of galvanized iron. By 1935 the term expanded to anything issued to soldiers and stood for government issue or general issue. During WW II the acronym was extended to anything associated with Army life and soldiers themselves.
    (SFC, 9/30/98, Z1 p.3)

1915-1920    In Mexico Venustiano Carranza (1859-1920), revolutionary and political leader, served as president. The army was led by Alvaro Obregon (1880-1928).
    (WUD, 1994, p.226,994)

1915-1923    Marcel Duchamp made his signature work: "The Bride Stripped Bare by Her Bachelors, Even," an allegorical depiction of the orgiastic deflowering of a virgin.
    (WSJ, 12/18/96, p.A18)

1915-1929    San Francisco constructed the 4,600 foot-long O’Shaughnessy Seawall at the north end of Ocean Beach to protect the Great Highway and make a boardwalk amusement tourist area. Economic conditions halted the project.

1915-1934    US Marines occupy and run Haiti. Haitian-American history is covered in an early 1993 Smithsonian article.
    (Smith., 4/95, p.44)

1915-1939    The book "W.B. Yeats: A Life, Vol. 2: The Arch Poet," by R.F. Foster covered this period of Yeats’ life.
    (WSJ, 11/13/03, p.D8)

1915-1959     Billie Holiday, American singer: "Sometimes it's worse to win a fight than to lose."
    (AP, 3/15/99)

1915-1965    Robert Ruark, American author: "A man can build a staunch reputation for honesty by admitting he was in error, especially when he gets caught at it."
    (AP, 5/13/99)

1915-1977    Bill Vaughan, American journalist: "America is a land where a citizen will cross the ocean to fight for democracy -- and won't cross the street to vote in a national election."
    (AP, 6/6/99)

1915-1986     Theodore H. White, American political writer: "To go against the dominant thinking of your friends, of most of the people you see every day, is perhaps the most difficult act of heroism you can have."
    (AP, 2/13/98)

1915-1991    Robert Motherwell, painter of the New York School. In 1997 Daiv Rosand edited: "Robert Motherwell on Paper: Drawings, Prints, Collages."
    (SFEC, 3/16/97, BR p.8)

1915-1996    Robert Adams, aka Robert Martin Krapp, writer, translator, editor and teacher. His work included "Ikon: John Milton and the Modern Critics" (1955), "Stendhal: Notes on a Novelist" (1959), "Surface and Symbol: the Consistency of James Joyce’s ‘Ulysses’" (1962), "Proteus, His Lies, His Truth: Discussions of Literary Translation" (1973), and "The Roman Stamp: Frame and Facade in Some Forms of Neo-Classicism" (1974). He was also a founding editor of the "Norton Anthology of English Literature," and an editor of the Hudson Review.
    (SFC, 12/19/96, p.C10)

1915-1998    Margaret Walker Alexander, black author, was born in Birmingham. She died Nov 30, 1998 at age 83. Her work included the 1942 poem "For My People," and the 1966 novel "Jubilee."
    (SFC, 12/1/98, p.B2)

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