Timeline 1901

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1901        Jan 1, The 1st annual Mummers parade was held in Philadelphia.
    (SFC, 12/31/00, p.A10)
1901        Jan 1, The Commonwealth of Australia was proclaimed. Although independent it still recognized Britain’s royalty as its head of state. The governor-general, the representative of the queen, is nominated by the prime minister and appointed by the British monarch.
    (AP, 1/1/98)(SFC, 2/3/98, p.A7)

1901         Jan 3, Ngo Dinh Diem, South Vietnamese president (1955-63), was born.
    (HN, 1/3/99)(MC, 1/3/02)

1901        Jan 7, New York stock exchange trading exceeded two million shares for the first time in history.
    (HN, 1/7/99)

1901        Jan 10, The Automobile Club of America installed signs on major highways.
    (HN, 1/10/99)
1901        Jan 10, In Corsicana the Lucas Gusher flowing at the rate of 80,000 to 100,000 barrels per day, blew in. Pattillo Higgins, a self-taught geologist, became interested in Spindletop Hill, just south of Beaumont, Texas in 1889. Believing that Spindletop covered a vast pool of oil, Higgins joined two other men in 1892 to form the Gladys City Oil, Gas, and Manufacturing Company--one of the first oil companies in Texas. Higgins, lacking proper drilling equipment, failed in his efforts, and the Gladys City Company leased land to a team led by Austrian mining engineer Captain Anthony Lucas in 1899. By 1902, 285 wells were operating on Spindletop Hill and over 600 oil companies had been chartered, but overproduction ruined the field. By 1903 the boom was over and within 10 years Spindletop Hill was practically a ghost town. Spindletop enjoyed a resurgence in 1926 when technology made possible the recovery of more oil through deeper drilling.
    (HNPD, 1/10/99)(WSJ, 6/29/99, p.A12)

1901        Jan 15, Charles Aycock (1859-1912) began serving as the 50th governor of North Carolina and continued to 1905. He was a strong proponent of the white supremacy campaigns of that period. Aycock was one of the leading perpetrators of the Wilmington insurrection of 1898, in which whites took over the city government by force, the only coup d'état in US history.

1901        Jan 16, Fulgencio Batista (d.1973), later president and dictator of Cuba (1933-44, 1952-59), was born. He was overthrown by Fidel Castro and died in Spain.

1901        Jan 22, Britain's Queen Victoria died at age 82. She was the monarch of Great Britain and Ireland and Empress of India, and died after presiding over her vast empire for nearly 64 years--the longest reign in British history. Born in 1819, the only child of George III's fourth son, Victoria became queen in 1837. In 1840, she married Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. Although the match was a political one, the two were devoted to each other, having nine children before Albert's death in 1861. Through dynastic marriages, Victoria's descendants are connected to almost all 20th-century Europe's royal houses. During Victoria's long reign the monarchy lost much of its political power to Parliament, but she was the beloved symbol of the Victorian Era--a golden age of British history. In 2000 Christopher Hibbert authored "Queen Victoria: A Personal History."
    (AP, 1/22/98)(HNPD, 1/22/99)(WSJ, 12/29/00, p.W6)
1901        Jan 22, After 63 years England stopped the sale of Queen Victoria postage stamps series & began the King Edward VII series.
    (MC, 1/22/02)

1901        Jan 23, A great fire ravaged Montreal, resulting in $2.5 million in property lost.
    (HN, 1/23/99)   
1901        Jan 23, First female intern was accepted at a Paris hospital.
    (HN, 1/23/99)

1901        Jan 27, Giuseppe Verdi (b.1813), opera composer, died at the Grand Hotel in Milan, Italy, at age 87. In 1993 Mary Jane Phillips-Matz authored "Verdi."
    (SFEM, 9/10/00, p.20)(AP, 1/27/01)(WSJ, 4/11/03, p.W7)

1901        Jan 28, Byron Bancroft Johnson announced that the American League would play the 1901 baseball season as a major league and would not renew its membership in the National Agreement. The new league would include Baltimore and Washington, DC, recently abandoned by the National League. The league would also invade 4 cities where National League teams existed: Boston, Cleveland, Detroit and Philadelphia. The 8 charter teams included: the Baltimore Orioles, Boston Americans, Chicago White Stockings, Cleveland Blues, Detroit Tigers, Milwaukee Brewers, Philadelphia Athletics, and Washington Senators.
    (ON, 6/09, p.11)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_League)

1901        Jan 30, Women Prohibitionists smashed 12 saloons in Kansas.
    (HN, 1/30/99)

1901        Jan 31, Chekhov's "Three Sisters" opened at Moscow Art Theater.
    (MC, 1/31/02)

1901        Jan, In San Francisco 163 men convened at Pioneer Hall and launched what would become the California Labor Federation.
    (SFC, 1/26/01, p.A7)

1901        Feb 1, Clark Gable, American actor, was born. He is famous for his roles in Mutiny on the Bounty and Gone With the Wind.
    (440 Int'l, 2/1/1999)(HN, 2/1/99)

1901        Feb 2, Jascha Heifetz (d.1987), US violin virtuoso (Carnegie Hall), was born in Vilnius, Lithuania.
1901        Feb 2, Mexican government troops were badly beaten by Yaqui Indians.
    (HN, 2/2/99)

1901        Feb 3, Yukichi Fukuzawa (b.1835), Japanese author, writer, teacher, translator, entrepreneur and journalist, died. He was the founder of Keio University, Jiji-Shinpō (a newspaper) and the Institute for Study of Infectious Diseases.
    (Econ 7/8/17, p.66)

1901        Feb 5, Loop-the-loop centrifugal RR (roller coaster) was patented by Ed Prescot.
    (MC, 2/5/02)
1901        Feb 5, J. Pierpont Morgan formed US Steel Corp. [see Feb 25]
    (MC, 2/5/02)

1901        Feb 10, Stella Adler, actress and teacher, was born.
    (HN, 2/10/01)

1901        Feb 17 Gustav Mahler (1860-1911) conducted the Viennese premiere of his Second Symphony, which also saw the first public performance of his early work Das klagende Lied, in a revised two-part form.
1901        Feb 17, Carles Casagemas (b.1881), Spanish painter and close friend of Picasso, shot himself in front of Germaine Pichot.
    (Econ, 2/16/13, p.84)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carlos_Casagemas)

1901        Feb 20, Rene Dubos, French-US microbiologist who developed the first commercial antibiotic, was born in France. He authored "Health & Disease."
    (HN, 2/20/01)(MC, 2/20/02)
1901        Feb 20, Louis I. Kahn, architect, was born.
    (HN, 2/20/01)

1901        Feb 21, Stephen M. White (b.1853), former US Senator from California (1893-1899), died. He is remembered as the “Father of Los Angeles Harbor."
    (GenIV, Winter 04/05)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stephen_M._White)

1901        Feb 22, The 345-foot steamer City of Rio de Janeiro piled up on rocks at Fort Point at the bay entrance of San Francisco. Only 82 of some 210 people were rescued, mostly by Italian fishing boats. Many of the dead were Chinese immigrants. The ship was being guided by bar pilot Frederick W. Jordan when it hit submerged rock near Lime Point in 320 feet of water. The remains of the ship were reportedly discovered in 1987 and a consortium hoped to salvage an alleged secret cargo of $2 million in silver bars. In November, 2014, a remote submersible discovered the remains of the ship in 287 feet of water.  
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SS_City_of_Rio_de_Janeiro)(SFEC, 2/23/96, Z1 p.5)(SFEC, 12/26/99, p.W2)(SFC, 2/21/01, p.A17)(SSFC, 8/5/12,  DB p.42)(SFC, 6/29/13, p.C2)(SFC, 12/11/14, p.A1)(SFC, 3/23/19, p.C1)

1901        Feb 23, Britain and Germany agreed on a boundary between German East Africa [later Tanganyika, Rwanda and Burundi] and Nyasaland [later Malawi].
    (HN, 2/23/98)(WUD, 1994, p.593,990)

1901        Feb 25, [Herbert] Zeppo Marx, comedian, actor (Marx Brothers), was born in NYC.
    (MC, 2/25/02)
1901        Feb 25, United States Steel Corp. was incorporated by J.P. Morgan Charles Schwab and Andrew Carnegie. Morgan combined Federal Steel and Carnegie Steel to form US Steel. It was the biggest corporate merger of the time. As president of US Steel Schwab acquired the Bethlehem Steel. In 1904 Schwab resigned his position at US Steel to run Bethlehem Steel.
    (AP, 2/25/98)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)(WSJ, 5/12/03, p.A6)(WSJ, 10/5/08, p.A15)

1901        Feb 26, Boxer Rebellion leaders Chi-Hsin (Chi-hsui) and Hsu-Cheng-Yu were publicly executed in Peking.
    (HN, 2/26/98)(SC, 2/26/02)

1901        Feb 28, Linus Pauling, American chemist, was born in Portland, Oregon. He won the Nobel Prize for chemistry (1954) and a Nobel Peace Prize (1962) for his arguments for nuclear disarmament. He also advocated major doses of vitamin C to maintain health.
    (HN, 2/28/99)(http://nobelprize.org/peace/laureates/1962/pauling-bio.html)

1901        Mar 1, At the Pan American Exposition in Buffalo, NY, the electric current was turned on at the Agricultural building by Henry Rustin, chief of the Mechanical and Electricity Bureau, and the 4000 lamps on the exterior of the building blazed into radiant beauty. The Exposition, which opened informally on May 1, was held on a 342 acre site between Delaware Park Lake on the south, the New York Central railroad tracks on the north, Delaware Avenue on the east, and Elmwood Avenue on the west. The fair featured the latest technologies, including electricity and the baby incubator building, and attracted nearly 8 million people. A 400-foot electric tower was the centerpiece.
    (WSJ, 6/5/01, p.A23)(http://panam1901.bfn.org/thisday/marcharchives.html)

1901        Mar 2, US Congress passed the Platt amendment, which limited Cuban autonomy as a condition for withdrawal of US troops. Washington retained the right to intervene militarily in Cuba as a condition of ending the postwar US occupation. The US did in fact intervene several times, and American business and mafia gangs came to dominate many aspects of the island in the run-up to the 1959 revolution.
    (HN, 3/2/99)(AP, 2/15/13)
1901        Mar 2, Hawaii's 1st telegraph company opened.
    (SC, 3/2/02)

1901        Mar 3, Congress created the National Bureau of Standards in Department of Commerce.
    (SC, 3/3/02)

1901        Mar 4, Charles Goren, world expert on the game of bridge, was born.
    (HN, 3/4/01)
1901        Mar 4, 1st advanced copy of an inaugural speech was published by the Jefferson-National Intelligencer.
    (SC, 3/4/02)
1901        Mar 4, William McKinley was inaugurated president for the second time. Theodore Roosevelt was inaugurated as vice president. The team ran on the issue of keeping the Philippines as a colony.
    (HN, 3/4/99)
1901        Mar 4, Term of George H. White, last of post-Reconstruction congressmen, ended.
    (SC, 3/4/02)

1901        Mar 6, A would-be assassin tried to kill Wilhelm II in Bremen, Germany.
    (HN, 3/6/98)

1901        Mar 7, Blacks were found to be still enslaved in certain parts of South Carolina.
    (HN, 3/7/98)

1901        Mar 13, Benjamin Harrison (67), 23rd president of the United States (1889-1893), died in Indianapolis.
    (AP, 3/13/97)(BG, 3/13/16, p.B6)

1901        Mar 14, 1st performance of Anton Bruckner's 6th Symphony in A.
    (MC, 3/14/02)

1901        Mar 17, Eisaku Sato, premier of Japan (Nobel 1974), was born.
    (MC, 3/17/02)

1901        Mar 19, Jo Mielziner, set designer (Carousel, Death of a Salesman), was born in Paris.
    (MC, 3/19/02)

1901        Mar 22, Japan proclaimed that it was determined to keep Russia from encroaching on Korea.
    (HN, 3/22/97)

1901        Mar 23, Dame Nellie Melba revealed secret of her now famous toast.
    (SS, 3/23/02)
1901        Mar 23, The world learned that Boers were starving to death in British concentration camps.
    (HN, 3/23/98)
1901        Mar 23, A group of U.S. Army soldier led by Brig. Gen. Frederick Funston captured Emilio Aguinaldo, the leader of the Philippine Insurrection of 1899.
    (HN, 3/23/99)

1901        Mar, The 2-year old Oldsmobile plant in Detroit was destroyed by fire.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)

1901        Apr 1, US Steel was added to the Dow Jones Industrial Average. Mr. Morgan bought out Andrew Carnegie’s steel business and combined it with Federal Steel, American Steel & Wire and several other companies to form US Steel Corp. Judge Gary became its first chairman.
    (WSJ, 5/28/96, p. R-46)(WSJ, 11/25/96, p.C1)
1901        Apr 1, The American Cotton Oil Company, General Electric, Federal Steel, American Steel & Wire Co. and Pacific Mail Steamship Co. were removed as components of the Dow Jones. Amalgamated Copper, International Paper (preferred), US Steel (common and preferred) and American Smelting & Refining were added.
    (WSJ, 5/28/96, p. R-45,46)

1901        Apr 3, Richard D'Oyly Carte, promoter (Gilbert & Sullivan operas), died.
    (MC, 4/3/02)

1901        Apr 5, Chester Bowles, ambassador, writer (Conscience of a Liberal), was born in Mass.
    (MC, 4/5/02)
1901        Apr 5, Melvyn Douglas, [Hesselberg], actor (Hud, Ghost Story), was born in Macon, Ga.
    (MC, 4/5/02)

1901        Apr 10, The Journal, a Hearst newspaper, printed an editorial that declared "If bad institutions and bad men can be got rid of only by killing, then the killing must be done." Hearst ordered the presses stopped but a number of papers had already hit the streets.
    (AH, 10/01, p.24)

1901        Apr 11, Adriano Olivetti, Italian engineer, manufacturer (typewriter), was born.
    (MC, 4/11/02)
1901        Apr 11, Glenway Wescott, writer, was born.
    (HN, 4/11/01)

1901        Apr 15, The 1st British motorized burial took place.
    (MC, 4/15/02)

1901        Apr 25, Erve Beck hit the 1st home run in the American League.
    (SS, 4/25/02)
1901        Apr 25, In last of 9th, Detroit Tigers, trailing by 13-4, score 10 runs to win one of the greatest comebacks in baseball (1st game in Detroit).
    (SS, 4/25/02)
1901        Apr 25, New York became the first state to require automobile license plates; the fee was one dollar. The first automobile license plates were issued in Paris, France in 1893. The first American city to require drivers to be licensed and register their vehicle was Boston, but the trend quickly spread.
    (AP, 4/25/98)(HNQ, 7/18/00)

1901        Apr 29, Hirohito, emperor of Japan (1926-1989), was born.
    (HN, 4/29/99)(MC, 4/29/02)
1901        Apr 29, In the 27th Kentucky Derby: Jimmy Winkfield on His Eminence won in 2:07.75.
    (MC, 4/29/02)
1901        Apr 29, Anti Semitic riot took place in Budapest.
    (MC, 4/29/02)

1901        May 7, Gary Cooper, film actor (High Noon, Friendly Persuasion), was born.
    (HN, 5/7/02)

1901        May 12, Pres. McKinley visited SF.
    (SC, Internet, 5/12/97)

1901        May 19, John Henry Boalt, an attorney who resided in Oakland, Ca., in the late 19th century, died in Cloverdale, Ca. Boalt had inspired and supported the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882. His widow, Elizabeth Josselyn Boalt, donated funds to the University of California in 1906 to construct the original Boalt Memorial Hall of Law on the Berkeley campus. It was dedicated in 1911. The law school moved out in 1951 and the building became know known as Durant Hall. A wing of the new law school became Boalt Hall.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Henry_Boalt)(SFC, 5/19/17, p.A10)(SFC, 9/12/18, p.D1)

1901        May 23, American forces captured Philippine rebel leader Emilio Aguinaldo.
    (HN, 5/23/98)

1901        May 25, Milenko Zivkovic, composer, was born.
    (SC, 5/25/02)

1901        May 28, Laws against phosphor matches were enacted.
    (MC, 5/28/02)

1901        May 1901, Walter Reed (49) led the Yellow Fever Commission, a 4-man team, to Cuba to search for the cause of the disease. 200 American soldiers had died from the disease over the previous 18 months. Aristides Agramonte, pathologist, James Carroll, bacteriologist, and Jesse W. Lazear, entomologist, were the other team members. Cuban Dr. Carlos Finlay believed that yellow fever was spread by mosquitoes.
    (ON, 10/01, p.7)

1901        Jun 1, John van Druten, English playwright (I am a Camera), was born.
    (HN, 6/1/01)

1901        Jun 2, Michael Todd, producer (Around the World in 80 Days), was born.
    (SC, 6/2/02)

1901        Jun 6, Sukarno (d.1970), Indonesia's 1st president (1949-1966), was born in Surabaya, Java.

1901        Jun 7, M. Wolf discovered asteroid #471, Papagena.
    (SC, 6/7/02)

1901        Jun 9, George Price, cartoonist, was born.
    (HN, 6/9/01)

1901        Jun 10, Frederick Loewe, songwriter, was born.
    (HN, 6/10/01)

1901        Jun 11, Cook Islands were annexed & proclaimed a part of New Zealand.
    (SC, 6/11/02)

1901        Jun 12, Cuba agreed to become an American protectorate by accepting the Platt Amendment.
    (HN, 6/12/98)

1901        Jun 18, Hazen Stuart Pingree (b.1840), a four-term Republican mayor of Detroit (1889–1897) and the 24th Governor of the US state of Michigan (1897–1901), died in London while returning from an African safari.

1901        Jun 24, Harry Partch, composer, was born.
    (HN, 6/24/01)
1901        Jun 24, The 1st exhibition by Pablo Picasso (19) opened in Paris.
    (MC, 6/24/02)

1901        Jun 29, Nelson Eddy, baritone (Met opera, film star, duets with Jeanette MacDonald), was born in Providence, RI.
    (MC, 6/29/02)

1901        Jun, Robert Leroy Parker and Harry Longabaugh, known as Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid, settled in the Cholila Valley of southwestern Argentina after fleeing US Pinkerton agents. They bought a 12,000-acre ranch with stolen loot.
    (SFC, 1/19/98, p.A10)(http://tinyurl.com/p5amt)

1901        Jul 1, Continental Tobacco Co. and International Paper (preferred) were removed as components of the Dow Jones.
    (WSJ, 5/28/96, p.R46)

1901        Jul 3, Members of The Wild Bunch, including Kid Curry, committed their last American robbery near Wagner, Montana, taking $65,000 from a Great Northern train. Butch Cassidy, the Sundance Kid and his lover Etta Place had already fled to New York where a picture of Etta and Sundance was taken. The trio by this time were settled in Argentina.

1901        Jul 4, William H. Taft, later the 27th president of the United States, became the American territorial governor of the Philippines. Taft soon appointed Prof. Bernard Moses secretary of public instruction for the Philippines. Taft, who had been solicitor general of the U.S. under President Benjamin Harrison, was a federal circuit court judge when President William McKinley appointed him to serve as president of the U.S. Philippines Commission in 1900-01. Later in 1901, President Theodore Roosevelt named Taft the first civil governor of the Philippines Islands, a post he held for four years. Roosevelt named Taft secretary of war in 1904. A Republican, Taft was president from 1909 to 1913 and Supreme Court Chief Justice from 1921 to 1930. He was born in 1857 and died on March 8, 1930, shortly after his resignation from the court.
    (HN, 7/4/98)(SFEM, 1/30/00, p.13)(HNQ, 2/18/00)
1901        Jul 4, Julian Scott (b.1846), American artist, died alone and penniless. He had achieved fame for his paintings of Civil War events. His work included “The Death of General Kearny" (1884) and “The Death of General Sedgwick" (1887). In 1997 Robert J. Titterton authored “Julian Scott: Artist of the Civil War and Native America."
    (AH, 2/03, p.40)(http://catalogue.nla.gov.au/Record/2943183)

1901        Jul 13, Santos-Dumont flew his powered dirigible around the Eiffel Tower but failed to make it in an allotted half hour time frame to win a 100,000 franc prize.
    (ON, 3/03, p.11)

1901        Jul 14, Gerald Raphael Finzi, composer, was born.
    (MC, 7/14/02)

1901        Jul 15, Over 74,000 Pittsburgh steel workers went on strike.
    (HN, 7/15/98)

1901        Jun 20, Charlotte M. Manye of South Africa became the first native African to graduate from an American University.
    (HN, 6/20/00)

1901        Jul 25, A fire destroyed the Byron Hot Springs Hotel in Byron, Ca. A new hotel, designed by James and Merritt Reid, was built to replace it. It burned down in 1912 and was replaced in 1914 with a new design by James Reid.
    (SSFC, 11/9/08, p.A7)(www.byronhotsprings.com/TimeTable.html)

1901        Jul 28, Alfred Renton Bryant Bridges (d.1990), aka Harry Bridges, American labor leader who headed the West Coast Longshoremen’s Union, was born in Australia.
    (SFC, 7/27/01, p.A21)(HN, 7/28/98)
1901        Jul 28, Rudy Vallee, singer (Vagabond Dreams, My Time Is Your Time), was born in Vermont.
    (SC, 7/28/02)

1901        Aug, Arthur Conan Doyle published the 1st installment of his book "Hound of the Baskervilles" in The Strand Magazine. It was later reported that he had stolen the idea for the novel from his friend Bertram Fletcher Robinson. A 1st edition copy with dust jacket sold at auction for $131,541 in 1998.
    (WSJ, 10/16/98, p.W14)(WSJ, 9/20/00, p.A24)(ON, 3/06, p.12)

1901        Aug 3, John Stennis, Sen-D-Miss, was born.
    (SC, 8/3/02)

1901        Aug 4, Louis "Satchmo" Armstrong, (Daniel Louis Armstrong, d.1971) jazz trumpet player, was born in New Orleans. He developed a vocal style called "scat singing"; was a band leader, film star and worldwide celebrity; his career spanned five decades. His autobiography “Satchmo" was published in 1954. "I got a simple rule about everybody. If you don't treat me right, shame on you." Laurence Bergreen in 1997 wrote a biography titled: "Louis Armstrong: An Extravagant Life."
    (SFEC, 6/29/97, BR p.4)(AP, 12/1/99)(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_Armstrong)

1901        Aug 8, Ernest Orlando Lawrence (d.1958), winner of the 1939 Nobel Prize for physics, was born.
    (HN, 8/8/98)
1901        Aug 8, Santos-Dumont flew his powered dirigible around the Eiffel Tower a 2nd time but sprang a leak and caught suspension wires in his propeller blades.
    (ON, 3/03, p.11)

1901        Aug 17, Henri Tomasi, composer (Don Juan de Manara), was born in Marseilles, France.
    (SC, 8/17/02)

1901        Aug 19, In Missouri three men were lynched in Pierce City following an attack that occurred when a white woman was slain after she left church walking home alone. Black residents were blamed, and an angry white mob hanged them and then burned the homes of five Black families, sending 30 other families to scatter into the woods.
    (Tribune Publ., 5/29/21)

1901        Aug 20, Fawcett committee visited Mafeking concentration camp in Cape Colony.
    (MC, 8/20/02)

1901        Aug 25, Clara Maass (25), army nurse, sacrificed her life to prove that the mosquito carries yellow fever.
    (MC, 8/25/02)

1901        Aug 26, Maxwell Taylor, U.S. general and diplomat, born. As commanding general of the 8th Army in 1953, he directed U.N. forces during the latter stages of the Korean War.
    (RTH, 8/26/99)

1901        Aug 27, In Havana, Cuba, U.S. Army physician James Carroll allowed an infected mosquito to feed on him in an attempt to isolate the means of transmission of yellow fever. Days later, Carroll developed a severe case of yellow fever, helping his colleague, Army Walter Reed, prove that mosquitoes can transmit the sometimes deadly disease.
    (MC, 8/27/02)(ON, 10/01, p.8)

1901        Aug 30, Hubert Cecil Booth patented the vacuum cleaner. [see 1869]
    (MC, 8/30/01)

1901        Aug, Major Walter Reed, M.D., visited Dr. Carlos Finlay in Havana, who informed him that the mosquito Culex fasciatus was the most likely transmitter of yellow fever.
    (ON, 10/01, p.7)

1901        Sep 2, Adolph Rupp, basketball coach at the University of Kentucky who achieved a record 876 victories, was born.
    (HN, 9/2/98)
1901        Sep 2, Vice President Theodore Roosevelt offered the advice, "Speak softly and carry a big stick," in a speech at the Minnesota State Fair. He also is noted for saying: "If a man’s got to, he’s got to."
    (AP, 9/2/97)(WSJ, 12/18/97, p.A20)

1901        Sep 3, Eduard A. van Beinum, musician and conductor (Amsterdam Concertgebouw), was born.
    (MC, 9/3/01)
1901        Sep 3, Boer General Smuts entered Kiba Drift in Cape Colony.
    (MC, 9/3/01)
1901        Sep 3, Miss Ellen Stone, a Protestant missionary from Haverhill, Mass., was kidnapped in Bulgaria by a Macedonian revolutionary gang, who demanded $110,000 in gold. Katerina Tsilka, her pregnant Bulgarian companion, was also kidnapped and gave birth during her captivity to a baby girl. In 2003 Teresa Carpenter authored "The Miss Stone Affair: America's First Modern Hostage Crisis."
    (SSFC, 6/22/03, p.M4)

1901        Sep 5, Pres. McKinley announced a new policy of reciprocal trade agreements with foreign nations to encourage markets for American goods.
    (AH, 10/01, p.24)

1901        Sep 6, At the Pan-American Exposition in Buffalo, New York, anarchist Leon Czolgosz (28) made his way along a reception line filing past President William McKinley. Concealed within a handkerchief, Czolgosz held a .32-caliber revolver. As he came face to face with the president, he fired two shots through the handkerchief, striking McKinley in the chest and the abdomen. McKinley died eight days after the shooting and became the third American president assassinated. He was succeeded by Vice President Theodore Roosevelt. Czolgosz, explaining that he "thought it would be a good thing for the country to kill the President," was put to death by electrocution 45 days later. Emma Goldman was one of the people blamed for the assassination.
    (AP, 9/6/97)(Hem, Dec. 94, p.70) (WSJ, 5/17/95, p.A-18) (WSJ, 12/11/95, p.A-1)(HNPD, 9/6/98)(HN, 9/6/98)

1901        Sep 7, The Peace of Peking (Beijing) ended the Boxer Rebellion in China.
    (AP, 9/7/97)

1901        Sep 9, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, French painter, died at 36.
    (MC, 9/9/01)

1901        Sep 14, President McKinley died in Buffalo, N.Y., of gunshot wounds inflicted by Leon Czolgosz. Vice President Theodore Roosevelt was sworn in as the 26th President of the United States upon the death of William McKinley, who had been shot eight days earlier.
    (AP, 9/14/97)(HN, 9/14/98)

1901        Sep 15, Sir Howard Bailey, British engineer, was born. He gave his name to a prefabricated bridge used extensively during World War II.
    (HN, 9/15/99)

1901        Sep 17, At the Battle at Elands River Port, Boer Gen. Smuts destroyed the 17th Lancers unit .
    (MC, 9/17/01)

1901        Sep 26, Leon Czolgosz, who murdered President William McKinley, was sentenced to death.
    (HN, 9/26/99)

1901        Sep 28, Ed Sullivan, television host was born. [see Sep 28, 1902]
    (HN, 9/28/00)
1901        Sep 28, At Balangiga on Samar Island, Philippine villagers surprised the US military Company C, 9th Infantry Regiment. Church bells, used to signal the attack, were taken by the Americans. 38 of 74 US soldiers were killed and all the rest but 6 were wounded. Philippine casualties were estimated at 50-250 with 48 American soldiers killed.
    (WSJ, 11/19/97, p.A6)(SFC, 10/18/03, p.A18)

1901        Sep 29, Enrico Fermi, Italian-born U.S. physicist who led the group which created the first man-made nuclear chain reaction, was born.
    (HN, 9/29/98)

1901        Oct 2, Roy Campbell, poet, was born. His work included "The Flaming Terrapin."
    (HN, 10/2/00)
1901        Oct 2, The 1st Royal Naval submarine launched at Barrow.
    (MC, 10/2/01)

1901        Oct 10, Alberto Giacometti (d.1966), sculptor and painter, was born in Borgonovo, Switzerland. He was later quoted saying "there is less reality in the work of contemporary sculptors than in tin soldiers in toy shop windows." His biography was written by David Sylvester and titled: "Looking At Giacometti." Another biography by James Lord was titled: "Giacometti: A Biography."
    (SFC, 5/12/96, p.BR-4)(WSJ, 9/30/96, p.A14)(HN, 10/10/01)(WSJ, 12/19/01, p.A16)

1901        Oct 12, Theodore Roosevelt renamed the "Executive Mansion," to  "The White House."
    (HNQ, 6/28/00)(MC, 10/12/01)

1901        Oct 14, Justin Huntly McCarthy's "If I Were King," premiered in NYC (Francois Villon).
    (MC, 10/14/01)

1901        Oct 15, Bernard von Brentano, German writer (Big Cats), was born.
    (MC, 10/15/01)
1901        Oct 15, Hermann Abs, director (Deutsche Bank) and Hitler's advisor, was born.
    (MC, 10/15/01)

1901        Oct 16, President Theodore Roosevelt incited controversy by inviting black leader Booker T. Washington to the White House.
    (HN, 10/16/98)

1901        Oct 19, Arleigh A. Burke, admiral (WW II, Solomon Islands, Navy Cross), was born in Colorado.
    (MC, 10/19/01)
1901        Oct 19, Edward Elgar's "Pomp and Circumstance" March premiered in Liverpool.
    (MC, 10/19/01)
1901        Oct 19, Alberto Santos-Dumont successfully circled Eiffel Tower in his Santos-Dumont No. 6 dirigible within a half hour and won a 100,000 franc prize. An initial ruling said that he failed by 40 seconds because the race wasn’t finished until he touched ground. A 2nd vote granted him the win. This proved the airship maneuverable.
    (ON, 3/03, p.12)

1901        Oct 20, Adelaide Hall, cabaret singer, was born.
    (HN, 10/20/00)

1901        Oct 22, Charles Huggins, US physician, was born in Canada.
    (MC, 10/22/01)
1901        Oct 22, In Canada the A.J. Goddard, a Yukon River stern-wheeler, sank during a winter storm in Lake Laberge, 40 miles north of Whitehorse. 3 men perished in the sinking, but 2 survived. It had been disassembled and carried it thought the narrow White Pass in the winter of 1897. In 2008 archeologists found evidence of the ship. In 2009 divers found the remains of the vessel.
    (SFC, 11/30/09, p.A13)(www.yukon-news.com/news/15560/)

1901        Oct 23, Georg von Siemens, founder of Deutsche Bank, died.
    (MC, 10/23/01)

1901        Oct 24, Anna Edson Taylor (d.1921), a 43-year-old widow, was the first woman to go safely over Niagara Falls in a barrel. She made the attempt for the cash award offered, which she put toward the loan on her Texas ranch. Taylor died in poverty.
    (AP, 10/24/97)(HN, 10/24/98)

1901        Oct 26, Mahalia Jackson, gospel singer, was born. [see Oct 26, 1911]
    (HN, 10/26/00)
1901        Oct 26, 1st use of "getaway car" occurred after the hold-up of a shop in Paris.
    (MC, 10/26/01)

1901        Oct 28, Race riots, sparked by Booker T. Washington’s visit to the White House, killed 34.
    (HN, 10/28/98)

1901        Oct 29, Leon Czolgosz was electrocuted for the assassination of President McKinley at Auburn Prison in NY state. Czolgosz, an anarchist, shot McKinley on September 6 during a public reception at the Temple of Music in Buffalo, N.Y. Despite early hopes of recovery, McKinley died September 14, in Buffalo.
    (AP, 10/29/97)(HN, 10/29/98)(ON, 4/00, p.5)(AH, 10/01, p.30)

1901        Nov 2, Paul Ford, actor (Phil Silvers Show), was born in Baltimore, Md.
    (MC, 11/2/01)
1901        Nov 2, The Pan American Exposition, held in Buffalo New York, closed.  Though it attracted visitors from throughout the world, bad weather, and the unfortunate assassination of Pres. William McKinley in September, affected attendance.  The Exposition lost money.  The only structure still standing on the site is the Buffalo & Erie County Historical Society, formerly the New York State  Building.

1901        Nov 3, Leopold III, King of Belgium, was born.
    (HN, 11/3/98)
1901        Nov 3, Andre Malraux, French novelist, was born. His work included "Man's Fate."
    (HN, 11/3/00)

1901        Nov 6, Kate Greenaway (b.1846), English children’s book illustrator, died of breast cancer.

1901        Nov 11, Maurice Ravel composition "Jeux d'eau" premiered.
    (MC, 11/11/01)

1901        Nov 17, Dr. Aubre De Lambert Maynard (d.1999 at 97) was born in Georgetown, Guyana. In 1958 he performed a successful operation on Martin Luther King who was attacked and had a knife embedded in his sternum. Maynard authored "Surgeons to the Poor: The Harlem Hospital Story" in 1978.
    (SFC, 3/25/99, p.C3)

1901        Nov 18, George Horatio Gallup, American journalist and statistician, was born in Jefferson, Iowa.
    (HN, 11/18/98)(MC, 11/18/01)
1901        Nov 18, The 2nd Hay-Pauncefote Treaty was signed. The U.S. was given extensive rights by Britain for building and operating a canal through Central America.
    (HN, 11/18/98)

1901        Nov 19, Louis Kahn (d.1974), architect, was born in Saarama, Estonia. His designs included the capital building of Bangladesh, completed in 1983.
    (PBS, Internet)

1901        Nov 21, Richard Strauss' opera "Feuersnot," premiered in Dresden.
    (MC, 11/21/01)

1901        Nov 22, Joaquin Rodrigo, Spanish composer (Juglares), was born in Sagunto, Valencia.
    (MC, 11/22/01)

1901        Nov 24, Andre Victor Tchelistcheff, winemaker, was born.
    (MC, 11/24/01)

1901        Nov 25, Japanese Prince Ito arrived in Russia to seek concessions in Korea.
    (HN, 11/25/98)
1901        Nov 25, Josef Gabriel Rheinberger (62), German composer and music theorist, died.
    (MC, 11/25/01)

1901        Nov 26, The Hope diamond was brought to New York.
    (HN, 11/26/98)

1901        Nov 27, The Army War College was established in Washington, D.C.
    (AP, 11/27/97)

1901        Nov 28, Gustav Mahler's 4th Symphony in G premiered.
    (MC, 11/28/01)

1901        Nov 29, Cixi (1835-1908), China’s empress dowager, received a new wood-bodied Duryea automobile to mark her 66th birthday. She is said to have fortified her driver, Sun Fuling, with a generous bowl of rice wine. Fuling promptly lost control of the car and ran over and killed a palace eunuch.
    (Econ, 8/22/09, p.40)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Empress_Dowager_Cixi)

1901        Nov 30, The ferryboat San Rafael sank in a collision off Alcatraz. The accident served as the setting for the first chapter in "Sea Wolf" by Jack London.
    (SFC, 10/3/97, p.A18)

1901        Nov, Eugene Schmitz, a handsome bandleader, was elected mayor. Schmitz and Abe Ruef, a lawyer, had formed the Union Labor Party and after a while began running a political machine that took payoffs for everything connected with the city.
    (SFC, 8/7/99, p.A8)(SFC, 7/4/15, p.C2)

1901        Dec 2, King Camp Gillette, a former bottle-cap salesman, began selling safety razor blades. The story of Gillette was told in the 1998 book "Cutting Edge" by Gordon McKibben. Gillette went on to become a millionaire and a utopian socialist who believed that competition was wasteful.
    (WSJ, 2/13/98, p.A13)(WSJ, 7/26/99, p.A22)(MC, 12/2/01)

1901        Dec 5, Walter Elias Disney (d.1966), movie producer and animator, was born in Chicago. Walt Disney created a cartoon empire with the character Mickey Mouse.
    (AP, 12/5/97)(SFC, 11/4/98, p.E1)(HN, 12/5/98)(MC, 12/5/01)
1901        Dec 5, Werner Heisenberg (d.1976), German physicist, was born. He discovered the uncertainty principle and won the Nobel Prize in 1932.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.337)(MC, 12/5/01)   
1901        Dec 5, Grace Moore, American soprano (One Night to Live), was born.
    (MC, 12/5/01)

1901        Dec 6, Eliot Porter, nature photographer, was born.
    (HN, 12/6/00)

1901        Dec 11, Marconi sent his 1st transatlantic radio signal from Cornwall to Newfoundland. [see Dec 12]
    (MC, 12/11/01)

1901        Dec 12, Italian scientist and engineer Guglielmo Marconi received the first long-distance radio transmission in St. John's, Newfoundland, 2,232 miles. Electrical engineer John Ambrose Fleming transmitted the Morse code signal for "s" from across the Atlantic Ocean in England and Marconi heard it--three short clicks--through a radio speaker. Marconi had begun experimenting with radiotelegraphy around 1895, and he realized that messages could be transmitted over much greater distances by using grounded antennae on the radio transmitter and receiver. A few years after the successful transmission with Fleming, Marconi opened the first commercial wireless telegraph service.
    (HNPD, 12/12/98)(MC, 12/12/01)

1901        Dec 23, Australia's Immigration Restriction Act 1901 was an Act of Parliament which limited immigration to Australia and formed the basis of the White Australia policy. The term was widely used to encapsulate a set of historical policies that aimed to forbid people of non-European ethnic origin, especially Asians (primarily Chinese) and Pacific Islanders from immigrating to Australia. A dictation requirement was ended in 1958 and the whole policy was ended in 1973. The term "wog" (Westernized Oriental Gentleman) referred to non European immigrants while "skippies" described Anglo-Saxons.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/White_Australia_policy)(SFC, 5/9/00, p.A14)

1901        Dec 24, Clarence King (b.1842), explorer and geologist, died in Arizona. He lived a double life as James Todd, the husband of a black woman named Ada (d.1964 at 103). In 2009 Roger K. Miller authored “Passing Strange: A Gilded Age Tale of Love and Deception Across the Color Line."
    (http://encyclopedia.jrank.org/KHA_KRI/KING_CLARENCE_18421901_.html)(SFC, 2/24/09, p.E3)

1901        Dec 27, Marlene Dietrich (d.1992), German-born singer and actress best known for her roles in "Shanghai Express" and "Witness for the Prosecution," was born. "I’m a realist and so I think regretting is a useless occupation. You help no one with it. But you can’t live without illusions even if you must fight for them, such as ‘love conquers all.’ It isn’t true, but I would like it to be."
    (SFC, 5/8/96, p.D-2)(HN, 12/27/98)(AP, 11/23/00)

1901        Linus Pauling (d.1994) was born in Oregon.
    (SFC, 9/16/98, p.E1)

1901        Henry Brown Fuller created his work "Illusions."
    (SFC, 4/11/01, p.E8)

1901        Paul Gauguin left Tahiti for the Marquesas and arrived at Hiva Oa.
    (SFEC, 8/25/96, p.T1,6)

1901        Matisse painted "The Japanese Woman.
    (SFC, 1/22/98, p.D11)

1901        Pablo Picasso painted "Woman with a Cap." His work "Casagemas in His Coffin" was a tribute to a lovelorn friend who committed suicide. He also painted "The Absinthe Drinker."
    (SFC, 3/29/97, p.E1)(WSJ, 2/16/00, p.A14)

1901        The Vincent van Gogh painting "Sunflowers" was presented by art teacher Claude-Emile Schuffenecker at a Paris exhibition. It sold in 1987 for $40.3 million to the Yasuda Fire and Marine Insurance Co. and was reported in 1997 to be a possible fake. Van Gogh’s letters refer to only 6 paintings of sunflowers, and the Yasuda painting is a seventh.
    (SFC,10/27/97, p.D4)

1901        The play "Three Sisters" by Anton Chekhov had its premiere.
    (WSJ, 2/14/97, p.A12)

1901        Charles Chesnutt (b.1858), African-American writer, authored his novel "The Marrow of Tradition."
    (HN, 6/20/01)(WSJ, 1/22/02, p.A11)

1901        Freud published his “Psychopathology of Everyday Life."
    (WSJ, 5/5/06, p.A16)

1901        Rudyard Kipling (1865-1936) published "Kim," the tale of an Anglo-Irish boy’s journey through British India.
    (WSJ, 7/17/98, p.W11)(Econ, 7/27/19, p.73)

1901        P.M.B. Maurice Maeterlinck (1862-1949), Belgian playwright and essayist, authored “The Life of the Bee."
    (SSFC, 12/16/07, p.M2)

1901        Thomas Mann wrote his novel "Buddenbrooks."
    (WSJ, 12/26/95, p. A-5)

1901        Frank Norris wrote "The Octopus," a depiction of the clash between wheat ranchers and Southern Pacific railroad in California.
    (WSJ, 10/7/97, p.A20)

1901        "The Handbook of American Indians" was published by the Smithsonian Institute.
    (SFC, 1/7/97, p.E8)

1901        Dvorak’s fairy-tale romance opera "Rusalka" was composed.
    (WSJ, 12/26/95, p. A-5)

1901        Johann Strauss II composed a score for the ballet "Cinderella."
    (WSJ, 1/27/98, p.A20)

1901        In Alaska E.T. Barnette opened a trading post on the Chena River. A town formed that came to be called Chenoa City and was later renamed Fairbanks.
    (SFEC, 2/8/98, p.T7)

1901        Edith Wharton purchased 113 acres in Lenox, Mass., and built The Mount. The Berkshire Hills house, modeled on a 17th century design by Christopher Wren, was her first laboratory for experiments in architecture and interior design.
    (WSJ, 9/13/99, p.A42)(WSJ, 9/13/02, p.W11)

1901        Pentecostalism was founded by Reverend Charles F. Parham at the Bethel Bible College in Topeka, Kansas.
    (Econ, 12/24/05, p.44)

1901        The Sheraton Moana Surfrider opened in Waikiki, Hawaii. It looked like a giant wedding cake on a beach.
    (Hem., 4/97, p.25)

1901        Sing Sing, NY, home of Sing Sing prison, changed its name to Ossining.
    (WSJ, 3/29/02, p.A1)

1901        The earliest recorded use for the term “Buggins's turn" is by Admiral Fisher, later First Sea Lord, in a letter dated this year. Buggins' turn is a system by which appointments or awards are made in rotation rather than by merit.

1901        John Jacques, a sporting goods manager in England, registered the table tennis name "Ping-Pong," and soon sold the American rights to Parker Brothers. In 2001 Jerome Charwyn authored "Sizzling Chops and Devilish Spins: Ping-Pong and the Art of Staying Alive."
    (WSJ, 11/23/01, p.W8)
1901        After the 1901 baseball season the Milwaukee Brewers were moved to St. Louis, Mo.
    (ON, 6/09, p.11)

1901        Henry Dunant (1828-1910) won the 1st Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts in establishing the Int’l. Red Cross and the First Geneva Convention covering treatment of those wounded in war. The prize was shared with Frederic Passy (1822-1912), French economist, for his efforts toward international peace.
    (ON, 4/08, p.12)(http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/peace/laureates/1901/passy-bio.html)
1901        Jacobus Henricus van't Hoff won the first Nobel Prize in chemistry for his work on the relationship of volume, pressure and temperature in gases which became known as van't Hoff's Law. The 1st Nobel Banquet was held at the Grand Hotel in Stockholm for 118 male guests.
    (SFC, 6/30/99, p.C2)
1901        Wilhelm Konrad von Röntgen (d.1923) won the Nobel in Physics.
    (MC, 2/10/02)
1901        Sully Prudhomme won the 1st Nobel Prize in literature.
    (SFC, 10/10/01, p.B8)
1901        Emil von Behring (1854-1917), German physiologist, became the first recipient of the Nobel Prize for medicine for discovering how to employ antitoxins.
    (Econ, 11/22/14, p.75)

1901         Congress informally requested Secret Service Presidential protection following the assassination of President William McKinley.

1901        The Platt Amendment cemented US influence in Cuba. It provided for informal control over Cuban affairs and territory for naval facilities.
    (WSJ, 2/23/98, p.A20)

1901        US Brig. Gen’l. Jacob Smith ordered US Marine and Army units to turn the island of Samar in the Philippines into a “howling wilderness" so that "even birds could not live there" in retaliation for the Sep 28 attack at Balangiga. The mission bells of Balangiga were taken as war booty and later placed in the F.E. Warren Air Force Base in Cheyenne, Wyo. A Marine major was court-martialed on murder charges for executing 11 Filipino prisoners but was acquitted after he testified that he was under orders to shoot every Filipino over age 10. Gen’l. Smith was found guilty of misconduct and admonished.
    (http://tinyurl.com/ycdoz8mq)(WSJ, 11/19/97, p.A6)(SFEC, 1/31/99, Z1 p.4)

1901        In the 1st Hawaiian territorial elections native candidates of the pro-monarchy Home Rule Party overwhelmingly defeated the white leaders of the Hawaiian Republic. Robert Wilcox was elected as the 1st territorial delegate to the US Congress.
    (ON, 11/02, p.7)

1901        US Brig. Gen’l. Jacob Smith ordered US Marine and Army units to turn the island of Samar in the Philippines into a "howling wilderness" in retaliation for the Sep 5 attack at Balangiga. The mission bells of Balangiga were taken as war booty and later placed in the F.E. Warren Air Force Base in Cheyenne, Wyo. A Marine major was court-martialed on murder charges for executing 11 Filipino prisoners but was acquitted after he testified that he was under orders to shoot every Filipino over age 10. Gen’l. Smith was found guilty of misconduct and admonished.
    (WSJ, 11/19/97, p.A6)

1901        The US Army did not bother with laundry facilities until this time. The enlisted man was left to take care of his laundry as best as possible. Mobile field laundries were built during WW I. In 1998 a $400,000, 14-ton, mobile washing machine called LADS was unveiled.
    (USAT, 5/4/98, p.3A)

1901        The US tax on a barrel of beer was reduced from $2 a barrel to $1.60.
    (SFC, 8/2/06, p.G7)

1901        The Alabama Department of Archives and History was founded by Marie Bankhead Owen. The Archives and History opened with Owen's husband, Thomas Owen, as its first director. It focused on gathering Confederate records and artifacts and cataloged a version of the past that was favored by many Southern whites and all but excluded Black people.
    (AP, 9/21/20)
1901        The Alabama state constitution was enacted to reverse gains made by blacks after the Civil War. It included a prohibition on marriages between blacks and whites. In 1999 steps were taken to repeal the ban. As of 2020 the white supremacist constitution was still in effect.
    (SFC, 11/7/98, p.A11)(SFC, 4/17/99, p.A4)(WSJ, 4/3/02, p.A1)(AP, 9/21/20)
1901        Confederate Memorial Day was made a state holiday in Alabama.
    (AP, 4/26/21)

1901        The Griffin House in Los Altos, Ca., was designed by Frank Delos Wolfe and Charles MacKenzie for Willard Griffin, owner of Del Monte Packing Co. Griffin later donated the property to Foothill College, which in 2004 scheduled destruction of the Nationally Registered home.
    (SSFC, 10/17/04, p.A23)
1901        A California state Pauper Act was approved.
    (SFC, 12/27/99, p.A10)
1901        Battista Bianco, the mother Giuseppe and Mike Gallo’s father, founded the Bianco Winery Company in California.
    (SFC, 12/19/02, p.D1)
1901        California set a duck hunting bag limit of 50 birds per day.
    (Ind, 2/23/02, 5A)
1901        In San Francisco a great teamsters and waterfront strike culminated years of tension between unions and employers over the issue of closed-shop. 15,000 strikers paralyzed the city, but lost the strike after mayor James Phelan provided strike breakers with police protection. This led attorney Abe Ruef and Eugene Schmitz, head of the Musician’s Union, to form the Union Labor Party.
    (SFC, 7/4/15, p.C2)
1901        SF Mayor James D. Phelan, as a private citizen, filed for water rights in Yosemite’s Hetch Hetchy Valley and at nearby Lake Eleanor.
    (SFC, 9/15/02, p.A20)
1901        San Francisco banned burials and cremations.
    (SFC, 4/14/18, p.C1)
1901        In Los Angeles the short Angels Flight railway opened to commuters to negotiate a steep hillside. It was rebuilt in 1966 and closed in 2001 after a raid car crashed into another car killing an man (83). The downtown landmark reopened in 2010.
    (SFC, 3/15/10, p.A7)
1901        Arizona ranchers Walter L. Vail (d.1906) and J.V. Vickers bought the 84-square-mile Santa Rosa Island, one of the Channel Islands 26 miles off Santa Barbara, Ca. The Vail & Vickers group sold the island to the US government for $30 million in 1986 and it became part of Channel Islands National Park.
    (SFC, 12/2/11, p.C10)
1901        The Southern Pacific Railroad imported lettuce seeds from France and introduced them to coastal valley farmers.
    (SFEC, 7/2/00, Z1 p.2)
1901        The Livermore Power and Water Company produced a carbide filament incandescent light bulb that proceeded to give light to the Livermore Fire Station # 6 for at least 100 years.
    (SSFC, 1/21/01, p.A19)
1901        Colorado River water first flowed to California's arid southeast on the Alamo Canal, which dipped into Mexico. California farmers soon decided they needed a canal completely within the United States, leading to completion of the All-American Canal in 1942.
    (AP, 3/18/06)(Econ, 8/1/09, p.71)
1901        A fire burned down downtown Calistoga, Ca.
    (SFCM, 2/3/02, p.32)
1901        The Serbian Cemetery, the Eternal Home Cemetery (Jewish) and the Japanese Cemetery were established in Lawndale (Colma), Ca.
1901        Standard Oil set up shop and established Richmond, Ca., as a company town. Its Richmond refinery opened in 1902.
    (SFC, 8/8/05, p.B6)(SSFC, 8/12/12, p.A10)

1901        Artus Van Briggle (d.1904) and wife Anne opened their Van Briggle art pottery business in Colorado Springs, Colo. Their vases were used for flowers and lamp bases. His best known vases depicted a woman leaning on a lily, a man curled around the top, and a woman curled around an entire vase. Their Persian Rose glaze was produced from 1946-1968.
    (SFC, 9/7/05, p.G9)(www.collectics.com/education_vanbriggle.html)

1901        Gustave Whitehead, a German-born aviator and resident of Bridgeport, Conn., reportedly made the first powered airplane flight, two years before the Wright brothers. In 2013 Connecticut went on record acknowledging Whitehead’s flight. Ohio and North Carolina both disputed the Connecticut claim.
    (SFC, 10/25/13, p.A8)

1901        Charles R. Walgreen opened his first pharmacy on Chicago’s South side and made his mark by diversifying into housewares and hot food.
    (WSJ, 2/17/07, p.A4)
1901        In Lanark, Illinois, Charles Cotta built the Cottamobile, a steam-powered car with individual chains driving each of 4 wheels.
    (WSJ, 9/16/05, p.W12)

1901        George B. Dorr organized a group of people into the Hancock County Trustees of Public Reservations to promote the establishment of what would become Acadia Nat’l. Park in Maine.
    (SFC, 7/21/96, p.T6)

1901        Louisiana adopted state rules that held a "first class" prisoner liable for loading 4 tons of coal a day to avoid being whipped. A "4th class" prisoner was required to load 1 ton.
    (WSJ, 7/16/01, p.A10)
1901        Natural gas was discovered in coastal Louisiana. This led to the sinking of thousands of oil wells in the state’s wetlands.
    (Econ, 1/26/17, p.24)

1901        A writer for a newspaper in Springfield, Mass., proposed “Ms." to guard against missteps in the use of Miss or Mrs. The honorific was later promoted by right’s activist Sheila Michaels (1939-2007).
    (SSFC, 7/9/17, p.C11)
1901        The Indian Motorcycle Manufacturing Co. of Springfield, Mass., produced the first commercially marketed gasoline-powered bike in the US. The last Indian motorcycle was made in 1953. A 2nd generation of the company started up in 1998 but folded in 2002.
    (WSJ, 4/16/99, p.W14)(SFC, 7/27/04, p.D1)

1901        Henry Ford founded the Henry Ford Co. but soon left. In 1902 the remaining owners dissolved operations and formed the Cadillac Co.
1901        Henry Joy became chairman of the Packard Motor Car Company.
    (MT, Win. ‘96, p.4)
1901        Ransom E. Olds (1864-1950) assembled 425 curved-dash Oldsmobiles and thus became the first mass producer of gas automobiles. He founded Olds Motor Works that later became part of General Motors.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)

1901        The Monsanto Chemical Works was founded in St. Louis, Mo., by John F. Queeny (1859–1933), a purchasing agent for a wholesale drug company, to manufacture the synthetic sweetener saccharin, then produced only in Germany.

1901        The Victor Talking Machine Co. was founded in Camden, NJ. It introduced the Victrola with an internal horn, rather than an external one, in 1906. The company was sold to RCA in 1929.
    (SFC, 1/21/09, p.G4)

1901        The Buffalo Pottery Co. was founded in Buffalo, NY., by the Larkin Soap Co. to make pottery used as premiums for customers who bought Larkin soap.
    (SFC, 1/10/07, p.G2)
1901        New York State issued the first license plate.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)

1901        The Dixie Furniture Co. was organized in Lexington, NC.
    (SFC, 7/25/07, p.G2)

1901        The Cambridge Glass Co. began making glass in Cambridge, Ohio. It closed in 1954. It reopened for a short time but closed again in 1958. The company produced the "Bashful Charlotte" and "Draped Lady" flower frogs.
    (SFC, 12/30/96, z-1 p.2)
1901        The Cleveland Cap Screw Company was established and manufactured cap screws, bolts and studs. It was the predecessor of the TRW Corp.
    (F, 10/7/96, p.66)
1901        The Wright Brothers constructed new wings for a large glider using existing aerodynamics tables. The flight was marginal so they tested the tables by analyzing model wings in a wind tunnel. The tables proved to be wrong and they painstakingly computer new ones.
    (NPub, 2002, p.6)

1901        The Pittsburgh Lamp, Brass & Glass Co. (Pilabrasgo) began operations and continued to 1926.
    (SFC, 2/21/07, p.G3)

1901        Johan Nordstrom (1871-1963) and Carl Wallin opened Wallin & Nordstrom, a shoe store, at Fourth Avenue and Pike Street in 1901. This grew to become the Nordstrom retail empire.

1901        In Virginia the Sweet Briar Institute was founded. It opened its doors in 1906. Sweet Briar was chartered as Sweet Briar Institute for the education of white girls and young women as indicated in the will of Indiana Fletcher Williams (1828-1900).
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sweet_Briar_College)(SSFC, 6/21/15, p.A7)

1901        Hiram Stevens Maxim, inventor of the first true machine gun, was knighted by Queen Victoria.

1901        House & Garden magazine began publishing in the US. In 1911 it was acquired by Conde Nast. In 2007 Conde Nast said it would cease publication following the December issue.
    (WSJ, 11/6/07, p.B1)

1901        The first disc format 10-inch 78 rpm record were introduced. 78s were recorded and played back "acoustically", without any electric amplifiers or microphones until about 1925. They became obsolete by about 1960.

1901        Joshua Lionel Cowen (22) set up a battery-powered toy train to draw customer attention to goods in a store display window. This marked the beginning of Lionel Trains.
    (SFEC, 8/15/99, Z1 p.8)

1901        Ferdinand Porsche built an electric-drive hybrid, the Lohner-Porsche.
    (AAM, 3/96, p.93)

1901        In an automobile race on New York’s Coney Island, S.T. Davis finished in his steam-powered car in 1 min. and 39 sec. Mr. Riker in an electric car finished in 63 sec. A.C. Bostwick in a gasoline powered car finished in 56 sec.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)

1901        Wilhelm Maybach, a German engineer and industrialist was the chief designer of the first Mercedes and later went on to build power plants for Zeppelin airships with his son. Maybach had worked with Gottlieb Daimler since 1883 on developing efficient internal-combustion engines. The two formed the Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft in 1890 to build automobiles. In 1909, he organized a company with his son Carl to build aircraft engines, including power plants for the Zeppelin airships.
    (HNQ, 8/28/00)

1901        John W. Nordstrom founded a shoe store that grew to become Nordstrom Inc., a national apparel chain.
    (SFEC, 6/4/00, p.C15)(WSJ, 9/8/00, p.B1)

1901        The first espresso coffee machine was invented.
    (WSJ, 6/4/99, p.W9)

1901        E.P. Valentine, antiquarian, removed hundreds of Monacan remains from a burial site in Virginia later known as the Hayes Creek Mound. The remains were reburied in 1998.
    (Arch, 9/00, p.56)

1901        Afghan Amir Abdur Rahman died and his son Habibullah succeeded him.

1901        Robert Falcon Scott made an expedition to the Antarctic. He noted the phenomena called "Earth shadows," where long dark arrows would project into the sky early in the morning. They were later realized by explorer Ernest Shackleton [1914] to be shadows from the peaks of Mt. Erebus cast across the western mountains.
    (WSJ, 7/1/97, p.A6)(WSJ, 4/2/98, p.B1)

1901        Arnold Bocklin (b.1827), German painter who worked in Italy, died.
    (SSFC, 1/27/02, p.C7)

1901        In Britain Winston Churchill prophetically warned: "The wars of peoples will be more terrible than those of kings."
    (SFEC, 1/4/98, Par. p.6)
1901        A fingerprint system, developed by Inspector Edward R. Henry of the London Police, was introduced.
    (ON, 4/04, p.11)
1901        English millionaire William Knox D’Arcy arranged to pay £40,000 in cash and company stock to the Shah of Tehran, Muzaffar al-Din, for the right to drill for oil in western Persia. The deal included a pledge, should commercial production begin, to pay the Persian government 16% of annual profits until 1961.
    (ON, 8/08, p.1)
1901        Edmund Dene Morel (28) quit his London shipping line job and began a full time campaign to expose the barbarities in the Congo under Leopold II. He started his own publication, "The West African Mail," an illustrated weekly journal in 1903 as a forum on West and Central African Questions.
    (SFEM, 8/16/98, p.4)(SFEM, 8/16/98, p.7)
1901        Mixed bathing was permitted on British beaches.
    (Econ 7/15/17, p.73)

1901        Pieces of an ancient Greek calculating machine, called the Antikythera Mechanism, were discovered by sponge divers exploring the remains of a shipwreck off the tiny island of Antikythera. Radiocarbon dating suggested it was built around 65 BC, but in 2006 newly revealed lettering on the machine indicate a slightly older construction date of 150 to 100 BC. In 2008 researchers said the device, which originally contained 37 gears, included the cycle of the Greek Olympics.
    (http://tinyurl.com/y255xr)(SFC, 7/31/08, p.A15)

1901        A martial arts teacher in Tellicherry, Kerala, India, opened a training school for circus performers giving rise to one of India’s first modern circuses.
    (NG, 5/88, p.598)

1901        Three German Jewish businessmen founded a wholesale drug business in Jerusalem. The operation grew and in 1976 following mergers became Teva Pharmaceuticals.
    (WSJ, 10/28/04, p.A8)

1901        The first western style steel mill was built at Kitakyushu City on Kyushu Island in Japan. It led to the local slogan "Smoke is the symbol of prosperity."
    (NG, Jan. 94, p.100)

1901        A silver refinery was established in Torreon in Coahuila state. Land for housing was sold next to the area in the 1970’s and in 1998 a pediatrician began noticing high levels of lead among the children. The Met Mex Penoles plant had created a mountain of slag over the years and poisonous lead seeped into the blood of thousands of children in the area. In 1999 a plan was announced to evacuate a 20-block area. 393 homes were to be bulldozed for a 15-acre buffer zone in a $36 million cleanup program, the largest ever by a Mexican company.
    (SFC, 5/6/99, p.C2)(Econ, 9/3/11, p.37)

1901        The Jewish National Fund was founded to buy and develop land in Palestine (later Israel) for Jewish settlement.

1901        Ignacy Jan Paderewski (1860-1941), Polish composer, built Warsaw’s Hotel Bristol.

1901        In Portugal, the Santa Justa Elevador, one of the world’s great cast-iron structures, was built in Lisbon.
    (SFEC, 2/1/98, p.T6)

1901        Anton Chekhov (d.1904), Russian playwright, married German actress Olga Knipper. In 2004 Antony Beevor authored “The Mystery of Olga Chekhova," the story of Olga Knipper’s niece and nephew.
    (SSFC, 9/11/04, p.M3)
1901        The Russian Orthodox Church excommunicated writer Leo Tolstoy, a self-described Christian Anarchist, for blasphemy.
    (WSJ, 1/18/08, p.W10)

1901-1902.     The so called baseball "war" years occurred when the upstart American League-formerly the Western League-challenged the dominance of the National League on the East Coast. The American League wooed National League stars and became firmly established as a major league. In January 1903, peace was achieved in an agreement that gave each of the two leagues equal importance, established rules regarding two teams in one city, shifting teams from cities and transfers of players between leagues.
    (HNQ, 4/10/99)                   

1901-1905     Discovery of oil in the nearby villages of Red Fork and Glenn Pool in 1901 and 1905 launched the Oklahoma city of Tulsa’s modern era. The city’s population of 1,400 in 1900 reached 18,200 by 1910 and 72,000 by 1920. Tulsa long called itself "The Oil Capital of the World."
    (HNQ, 10/2/98)

1901-1907    William A. Clark (1839-1925), copper entrepreneur, served as a US Senator from Montana. In 1899 state legislature selected Clark for a US Senate seat. Political foes in and out of his party charged that the election had been won by bribery. Although Clark freely admitted spending several hundred thousand dollars to elect legislators favorable to his political ambitions, he stubbornly denied any involvement in corrupt electoral practices.
1901-1907    Oldsmobile built 7,000 Curved-Dash Olds vehicles. The cars cost $650 and advertisements bragged that "It will do the work of six horses."
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)

1901-1909    Theodore Roosevelt (b. Oct 27, 1858) served as the 26th President of the US. He had been elected Vice-President under McKinley’s 2nd term. His "Gunboat Diplomacy" was used to exert US influence and deter Europeans from the Americas.
    (AP, 10/27/97)(WSJ, 12/18/97, p.A20)(WSJ, 2/3/04, p.A12)

1901-1910    The Edwardian period named after Britain’s Edward VII (r.1902-1910).
    (SSFM, 4/1/01, p.44)

1901-1912    George Armistead (1847-1912), a British citizen, served as mayor of Riga, Latvia.

1901-1915    In New Orleans the "Blue Book" was a directory of some 2,000 prostitutes working in Storyville. It was printed annually and carried ads.
    (SFEC, 3/1/98, Z1 p.8)

1901-1953    Jan Struther, nee Joyce Anstruther, English poet: "Private opinion creates public opinion... . That is why private opinion, and private behavior, and private conversation are so terrifyingly important."
    (AP, 11/12/99)

1901-1958    Ernest Orlando Lawrence. UC-Berkeley physics professor. He developed the cyclotron for which he won a Nobel Prize in 1939.
    (LHS, 2/12/1998)

1901-1963    Gustav Machaty, Czech filmmaker, was known for his combination of romance and eroticism.
    (SFC, 4/24/99, p.E8)

1901-1966    Rafael Larco Hoyle, founder of the Museo Arqueologico Rafael Larco Herrera in Lima, Peru.
    (SFC, 5/16/97, p.C5)

1901-1969    This period is covered in the 1998 book "A Thread of Years" by John Lukacs.
    (WSJ, 4/13/98, p.A20)

1901-1974    Vittorio De Sica (1901-1974), Italian movie director: "Moral indignation is in most cases two percent moral, forty-eight percent indignation, and fifty percent envy."
    (AP, 10/24/00)

1901-1976    Andre Malraux, French author. His work included "Man’s Fate" (La Condition Humaine), "The Conquerors" (about a 1925 uprising in Canton), and "The Royal Way." He worked as a journalist in Indochina against a corrupt French colonial regime. In 1997 Curtis Cate wrote the biography "Andre Malraux."
    (WSJ, 5/5/97, p.A16)

1901-1978     Margaret Mead, American anthropologist: "We must have ... a place where children can have a whole group of adults they can trust." "It may be necessary temporarily to accept a lesser evil, but one must never label a necessary evil as good."
    (AP, 5/20/97)(AP, 10/30/97)

1901-1979    Cornelia Otis Skinner, American actress and author: "One learns in life to keep silent and draw one’s own confusions."
    (AP, 10//98)

1901-1984     George H. Gallup, American pollster: "I could prove God statistically. Take the human body alone—the chances that all the functions of an individual would just happen is a statistical monstrosity."
    (AP, 11/9/97)

1901-1985    A history of the Southern Pacific Railroad titled: "The Southern Pacific 1901-1985" was written by Donald Hofsummer.
    (SFC, 7/8/96, p.D2)

1901-1986     Chester Bowles, American diplomat, businessman, author and politician: "Government is too big and important to be left to the politicians."
    (AP, 7/26/97)

1901-1987     Jascha Heifetz, Russian-born American violinist: "No matter what side of an argument you’re on, you always find some people on your side that you wish were on the other side."
    (AP, 7/24/97)

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