Timeline 1900

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1900        At the turn of the century 51% of the world’s oil came from Azerbaijan.
    (SFC, 8/12/98, p.A10)

1900        Jan 1, Xavier Cugat (d.1990), bandleader (married Abbe Lane, Charo), was born in Barcelona, Spain.
1900        Jan 1, A New York editorialist wrote that the 20th century began in the United States with “a sense of euphoria and self-satisfaction, a sure feeling that America is the envy of the world."
    (Hem, Dec. 94, p.70)
1900        Jan 1, The Royal Niger Company sold all its possessions and concessions in Africa to the British government for £865,000, considered to be a very low price.

1900         Jan 2, US Secretary of State John Hay announced the Open Door Policy to prompt trade with China. This policy rejected efforts to carve up China or restrict its ports.
    (AP, 1/2/98)(WSJ, 2/3/04, p.A12)
1900        Jan 2, The cargo steamship Australia arrived in San Francisco at the end of a voyage from Hawaii. Plague was known to have already hit Honolulu and rats aboard the ship carried the disease. Wong Chut King became the city’s first victim when he was found dead at the Globe Hotel at Jackson and DuPont (later Grant Ave.). A short term rope quarantine was created around the 6-by-2 block area of Chinatown.
    (SFC, 9/20/14, p.C2)

1900        Jan 5, Dennis Gabor, Hungarian-British physicist, inventor of 3D laser photography, was born. He was awarded a Nobel Prize in 1971. [see Jan 5]
    (HN, 6/5/98)(MC, 1/5/02)

1900        Jan 8, The Boers attacked Ladysmith, but were turned back by General White in South Africa.
    (HN, 1/8/99)

1900        Jan 13, To combat Czech nationalism, Emperor Franz Joseph of Austria-Hungary decreed that German would be the language of the imperial army.
    (HN, 1/13/99)

1900        Jan 14, The Puccini opera “Tosca" received a mixed reception at its Rome world premiere.
    (AP, 1/14/98)

1900        Jan 16, The U.S. Senate consented to the Anglo-German treaty of 1899 by which the UK renounced its rights to the Samoan Islands.
    (HN, 1/16/99)

1900        Jan 19, In Australia Arthur Paine (33), a delivery man whose daily work brought him into contact with Sidney’s Central Wharf, died of Bubonic plague. A population of black rats had been likely introduced to Australia on the first fleet of ships carrying white settlers.

1900        Jan 25, the US 56th Congress refused to seat Brigham H. Roberts, Mormon Democrat from Utah, because of his polygamy.
    (AH, 2/05, p.16)

1900        Jan 27, Hyman Rickover (d.1986), American admiral, was born. He is considered the "father" of America's nuclear navy and the "Father of the Atomic Submarine."  "Great minds discuss ideas, average minds discuss events, small minds discuss people."
    (HN, 1/27/99)(AP, 5/5/00)
1900        Jan 27, Foreign diplomats in Peking fear revolt and demanded that the Imperial Government discipline the Boxer Rebels.
    (HN, 1/27/99)

1900        Jan 30, John P. Parker (b.1827), Ohio-based inventor and conductor on the Underground Railway, died. His autobiography “His Promised Land: The Autobiography of John P. Parker, Former Slave and Conductor on the Underground Railway" was recounted in a series of interviews and later edited by Stuart Seely Sprague and published in 1996.
    (ON, 12/11, p.5)(www.ohiohistorycentral.org/entry.php?rec=2466&nm=John-P-Parker)

1900        Jan 31, Scottish peer Sir John Sholto Douglas (56), 8th Marquis of Queensberry, died. He supervised the formulation by John Graham chambers of the rules of boxing, which became known as the Queensberry Rules. In 1895 Irish writer Oscar Wilde had unsuccessfully sued the Marquis for libel following allegations of a homosexual relationship with Queensberry’s son Lord Alfred Douglas, allegations which ultimately led to Wilde’s imprisonment in Reading Gaol, England.
    (HC, 2003, p.64)

1900        Feb 1, In Chicago Ada and Minna Everleigh opened their Everleigh Club, a high-end brothel. They closed operations in 1911.
    (WSJ, 1/7/07, p.P8)

1900        Feb 2, Gustave Charpentier's opera "Louise" premiered in Paris.

1900        Feb 4, Jacques Prevert, French poet, screenwriter, was born. His work included “The Visitors of the Evening" and “The Children of Paradise."
    (HN, 2/4/01)

1900        Feb 5, Adlai E. Stevenson II, Illinois governor and American diplomat, was born. He twice lost to Dwight Eisenhower for presidency of the United States. "All progress has resulted from people who took unpopular positions."
    (HN, 2/5/99)(AP, 7/4/99)   
1900        Feb 5, The United States and Great Britain signed the Hay-Pauncefote Treaty, giving the United States the right to build a canal in Nicaragua but not to fortify it.
    (HN, 2/5/99)

1900        Feb 6, President McKinley appointed W.H. Taft commissioner to report on the Philippines.
    (HN, 2/6/99)
1900        Feb 6, Battle at Vaalkrans, South Africa (Boers vs. British army).
    (MC, 2/6/02)

1900        Feb 8, British General Buller was beaten at Ladysmith, South Africa as the British fled over the Tugela River.
    (HN, 2/8/99)

1900        Feb 14, General Roberts invaded South Africa’s Orange Free State with 20,000 British troops.
    (HN, 2/14/98)

1900        Feb 15, The British threatened to use natives in the Boer War fight.
    (HN, 2/15/98)

1900        Feb 18, Battle at Paardeberg (Boer War), 1,270 British killed or injured.
    (MC, 2/18/02)

1900        Feb 20, J.F. Pickering patented his airship.
    (HN, 2/20/99)

1900        Feb 22, Sean O’Faolain, Irish short story writer, was born.
    (HN, 2/22/01)
1900        Feb 22, Hawaii became a US territory. [see Apr 30]
    (MC, 2/22/02)

1900        Feb 23, William Butterfield, architect of the Gothic revival, died.
    (MC, 2/23/02)

1900        Feb 28, After a 119-day siege by the Boers, the English defenders of Ladysmith, under General Sir George White were relieved.
    (HN, 2/28/98)

1900        Feb, In London, England, 129 socialists and union members gathered to secure parliamentary representation for the labor movement. Automatic donations to Labour by union members dates back to this founding event.
    (Econ, 7/13/13, p.50)

1900        Mar 2, Kurt Weill, composer (The Threepenny Opera), Brecht collaborator, was born in Dessau, Germany.
    (HN, 3/2/01)(SC, 3/2/02)

1900        Mar 3, US Steel Corporation organized.
    (SC, 3/3/02)

1900        Mar 6, Gottlieb Daimler (65), designer of the 1st motorcycle, died.
    (MC, 3/6/02)

1900        Mar 9, Aimone, duke of Spoleta-Aosta, Italian king of Croatia (1941-43), was born.
    (MC, 3/9/02)

1900        Mar 11, British Prime Minister Lord Salisbury (1830-1903) rejected the peace overtures offered from Boer leader Paul Kruger.
    (HN, 3/11/98)(WUD, 1994, p.1262)

1900        Mar 13, George Seferis (d.1991), Greek poet, was born.
    (HN, 3/13/01)

1900        Mar 14, Congress ratified the Gold Standard Act for U.S. currency.
    (AP, 3/14/97)(HN, 3/14/98)

1900        Mar 19, [Jean] Frederic Joliot-Curie, French physicist (Nobel 1935), was born.
    (MC, 3/19/02)
1900        Mar 19, President McKinley asserted the need for free trade with Puerto Rico.
    (HN, 3/19/98)

1900        Mar 21, Paul Kletzki, Polish violinist, composer, conductor, was born.
    (MC, 3/21/02)

1900        Mar 23, Erich Fromm (d.1980), German-American psychologist (Sane Society), was born in Frankfurt, Germany. He wrote "The Sane Society." “Modern man thinks he loses something, time, when he does not do things quickly. Yet he does not know what to do with the time he gains, except kill it."
    (AP, 4/21/97)(HN, 3/23/99)(SS, 3/23/02)

1900        Mar 24, Mayor Van Wyck of New York broke ground for the New York subway tunnel that would link Manhattan and Brooklyn.
    (HN, 3/24/98)

1900        Mar 27, The London Parliament passed the War Loan Act which gave 35 million pounds to the Boer War cause.
    (HN, 3/27/98)

1900        Apr 2, Heinrich Besseler, German musicologist, was born.
    (MC, 4/2/02)

1900        Apr 4, California pioneer John Bidwell (b.1819), founder of Chico, Ca. died. In 2003 Michael Jerome Gillis and Michael Magliari authored “John Bidwell and California: The Life and Writings of a Pioneer, (1841-1900)."
    (SFC, 4/21/07, p.B5)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Bidwell)
1900        Apr 4, There was an assassination attempt on Prince of Wales, King Edward VII.
    (MC, 4/4/02)

1900        Apr 5, Spencer Tracy (d.1967), film actor (Adam's Rib, Guess Who's Coming to Dinner), was born.
    (SFEC, 4/2/00, DB p.56,58)(HN, 4/5/01)
1900        Apr 5, An assassination attempt of Prince of Wales in Brussels failed.
    (MC, 4/5/02)

1900        Apr 9, British forces routed the Boers at Kroonstadt, South Africa.
    (HN, 4/9/98)

1900        Apr 11, US Navy's 1st submarine made its debut.
    (MC, 4/11/02)

1900        Apr 14, Salvatore Baccaloni, basso buffo (Barber of Seville, l'Eosir d'Amore) actor (Merry Andrew, Rock-a-Bye Baby), was born in Rome.
    (MC, 4/14/02)
1900        Apr 14, Gates opened to the World Fair, the Great Exposition in Paris. For a few months 210 temporary pavilions from different countries and architectural styles lined the Seine. The Exposition Universale included the Exposition Decennale, an art show of painting and sculpture from the previous decade. The first working escalator (patented in 1859), was manufactured by the Otis Elevator Company for the Paris Exposition. During the expo Rudolf Diesel demonstrated an engine that ran on peanut oil.
    (http://tinyurl.com/hbldt)(WSJ, 2/16/00, p.A14)(HN, 8/9/00)(Econ, 5/14/05, p.71)

1900        Apr 16, US Post Office issued its 1st books of postage stamps.
    (MC, 4/16/02)

1900        Apr 21, Heinrich Vogl (55), composer, died.
    (MC, 4/21/02)

1900        Apr 23, The 1st published use of word "hillbilly" was in the NY Journal.
    (MC, 4/23/02)

1900        Apr 24, Elizabeth Goudge, English author, was born.
    (HN, 4/24/01)

1900        Apr 25, Wolfgang Pauli, physicist (Nobel 1945), was born in Austria.
    (SS, 4/25/02)

1900        Apr 26, Charles Richter (1985), seismologist, was born in Hamilton, Ohio. He developed the Richter Scale for measuring the amplitude of earthquakes.
    (AP, 4/26/98)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Francis_Richter)
1900        Apr 26, Douglas Sirk (Detlef Sierck), film director, was born. His work included: “Imitation of Life," “A Time to Love & a Time to Die," “Tarnished Angels," “Written on the Wind," “Magnificent Obsession," and “First Legion."
    (440 Int’l. Internet, 4/26/97, p.1)

1900        Apr 27, Walter Lantz, cartoonist, creator of Woody Woodpecker, was born.
    (HN, 4/27/98)

1900        Apr 30, Hawaii was organized as a U.S. territory. [see Feb 22]
    (AP, 4/30/97)
1900        Apr 30, Engineer John Luther "Casey" Jones of the Illinois Central Railroad was killed in a Cannonball Express wreck near Vaughan, Miss., after staying at the controls in an effort to save the passengers.
    (AP, 4/30/99)

1900        Apr, Swami Vivekananda started the Vedanta Society of Northern California.
    (SFC, 8/6/21, p.C2)

1900        May 5, Hans Schmidt-Isserstedt, German composer, conductor (Hassan gewinnt), was born.
    (MC, 5/5/02)
1900        May 5, "The Billboard" began weekly publication.
    (MC, 5/5/02)

1900        May 12, Mostly Black fighters in Mafikeng repelled a Boer assault. Col. Robert Baden-Powell, commander of the British troops in Mafikeng, armed black fighters and many died during the 7-month siege.
    (SFC, 10/8/99, p.D3)

1900        May 13, Jos Panhuysen, author (Pornographer), was born.
    (MC, 5/13/02)

1900        May 14, The Olympic games opened in Paris, held as part of the 1900 World's Fair.
    (AP, 5/14/07)

1900        May 17, Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini (d.1989), Iran's spiritual and revolutionary leader (1979-89), was born.
    (HN, 5/17/98)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ruhollah_Khomeini)

1900        May 18, Sarah Miriam Peale, US portrait painter (General Lafayette-1825), was born.
    (SC, 5/18/02)
1900        May 18, Andrew Putnam Hill, encamped at Slippery Rock with a Subcommittee in the Big Basin of the Santa Cruz Mountains, proposed the formation of an organization to save the Big Basin redwoods. The next day he passed a hat and collected $32. This was the birth of the Sempervirens Club of California. "Save the Redwoods" became its official slogan.
    (Ind, 4/24/99, p.5A)(SSFC, 10/19/03, p.C1)
1900        May 18, Britain proclaimed a protectorate over kingdom of Tonga.
    (SC, 5/18/02)

1900        May 19, Simplon Tunnel opened as the world’s longest railroad tunnel at 12 miles; it linked Italy & Switzerland through the Alps.
    (DTnet, 5/19/97)

1900        May 22, The Associated Press (founded in 1848) was incorporated in New York as a non-profit news cooperative.
    (AP, 5/22/00)

1900        May 23, Civil War hero Sgt. William H. Carney became the first African American to receive the Medal of Honor, thirty-seven years after the Battle of Fort Wagner.
    (HN, 5/23/99)

1900        May 25, President William McKinley signed the Lacey Act, 16 U.S.C. § 3371–3378, to defend fauna from poachers. It banned the illegal commercial transportation of wildlife. The conservation law was introduced by Iowa Rep. John F. Lacey. It has been amended several times. The most significant times were in 1969, 1981, and in 1989.
    (Econ, 9/12/09, p.14)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lacey_Act)

1900        May 28, Britain annexed the Orange Free State in South Africa.
    (HN, 5/28/98)

1900        May 29, Trademark "Escalator" was registered by Otis Elevator Co.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1900        May 30, It was reported that 9 deaths in Chinatown were caused by Bubonic plague and that 159 policemen had set up a quarantine. In 2003 Marilyn Chase authored “The Barbary Plague: The Black Death in Victorian San Francisco."
    (SFEC, 12/26/99, p.W2)(SSFC, 1/12/03, p.M2)

1900        May 31, U.S. troops arrived in Peking to help put down Boxer Rebellion.
    (HN, 5/31/98)
1900        May 31, Chicago’s Northwestern Elevated began operations, and Charles T. Yerkes, its chief visionary was present to see his project come to fruition.

1900        Jun 5, Dennis Gabor, Hungarian-British physicist, inventor of 3D laser photography, was born. He was awarded a Nobel Prize in 1971. [see Jan 5]
    (HN, 6/5/98)(MC, 1/5/02)
1900        Jun 5, Stephen Crane (28), author (Red Badge of Courage), died.
    (MC, 6/5/02)
1900        Jun 5, In South Africa, British troops under Lord Roberts seized Pretoria from the Boers.
    (HN, 6/5/98)

1900        Jun 7, Boxer rebels cut the rail links between Peking and Tientsin in China.
    (HN, 6/7/98)

1900        Jun 11, Lawrence E Spivak, news panelist (Meet the Press), was born in Brooklyn, NY.
    (SC, 6/11/02)
1900        Jun 11, Belle Boyd (b.1844), former Confederate spy, died in Wisconsin. Her 1865 autobiography was titled “Belle Boyd in Camp and Prison." In 1944 Louis Sigaud authored “Belle Boyd: Confederate Spy."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Belle_Boyd)(ON, 4/10, p.3)(http://tinyurl.com/27holn6)

1900        Jun 12, German Navy Law called for a massive increase in sea power.
    (MC, 6/12/02)

1900        Jun 13, China's Boxer Rebellion against foreigners and Chinese Christians erupted into violence. The Boxer Rebellion was a violent, anti-foreign uprising that broke out in reaction to years of foreign interference with Chinese affairs. Led by a Chinese secret society called Yi He Tuan--"the Righteous, Harmonious Fists"--the Boxers were aided by the Empress Dowager Ci Xi and pillaged the countryside, murdering foreigners and Chinese Christians. 200-300 foreigners died in the uprising but they were far outnumbered by Chinese victims.
    (AP,  6/13/97)(HNPD, 6/20/98)(Econ, 12/18/10, p.78)

1900        Jun 14, US Congress passed a law granting citizenship to all persons who had been citizens of the Republic of Hawaii at the time of annexation.
    (ON, 11/02, p.7)

1900        Jun 17, Martin Bormann, deputy Führer to Hitler, was born.
    (MC, 6/17/02)

1900        Jun 18, Empress Douairisre ordered I-Ho-Chuan (the Boxers) to kill all foreigners. [see Jun 21]
    (MC, 6/18/02)

1900        Jun 19, Laura Hobson, novelist (Gentleman's Agreement), was born.
    (HN, 6/19/01)

1900        Jun 21, General Arthur MacArthur offered amnesty to Filipinos rebelling against American rule.
    (HN, 6/21/98)
1900        Jun 21, After the Empress declared war on all foreign powers, the Boxers began a two-month assault on the legations in Beijing. An international force of Japanese, Russian, German, American, British, Italian and Austro-Hungarian troops put down the uprising by August 14. The Boxer Rebellion was a violent, anti-foreign uprising that broke out in reaction to years of foreign interference with Chinese affairs. Led by a Chinese secret society called Yi He Tuan--"the Righteous, Harmonious Fists"--the Boxers were aided by the Empress Dowager Ci Xi and pillaged the countryside, murdering foreigners and Chinese Christians. In 2000 Diana Preston authored “The Boxer Rebellion: The Dramatic Story of China’s War on foreigners That Shook the World in the Summer of 1900."
    (HNPD, 6/21/99)(WSJ, 6/20/00, p.A24)

1900        Jun 25, Lord Louis Mountbatten of Burma, the last British viceroy of India, was born. He survived World War II only to be killed by an IRA bomb.
    (HN, 6/25/99)

1900        Jun 26, The United States announced it would send troops to fight against the Boxer rebellion in China.
    (HN, 6/26/98)
1900        Jun 26, A commission that included Dr. Walter Reed began the fight against the deadly disease yellow fever. Walter Reed (1851-1902), U.S. Army doctor, went to Cuba and verified that yellow fever was caused by a mosquito.
    (HN, 9/13/98)(WSJ, 10/22/99, p.B1)(AP, 6/26/97)

1900        Jun 27, Otto E. Passman (Rep-D-La, 1947-77), was born.
    (SC, 6/27/02)

1900         Jun 29, Antoine de Saint-Exupery (d.1944), French aviator and writer, was born. In 1970 Curtis Cate published the biography: “Antoine de Saint-Exupery."
    (WUD, 1994, p.1261)(SFEC, 6/15/97, p.A2)(SFEC, 5/28/00, p.A15)(HN, 6/29/01)

1900        Jul 2, Tyrone Guthrie, English theater director, was born.
    (HN, 7/2/01)
1900        Jul 2, Count Ferdinand Adolf Heinrich August von Zeppelin (1838-1917) made the 1st successful flight of his lighter-than-air ship LZ-1 in Friedrichshafen, Germany. The 400 foot craft stayed aloft 17 minutes before it crashed.
    (AHM, 1/97)(WSJ, 2/120/00, p.A1)(ON, 3/03, p.11)

1900        Jul 9, Queen Victoria signed The Commonwealth of Australia Constitution Act, uniting 6 separate colonies under a federal government, effective Jan 1, 1901.
    (HN, 7/9/98)(www.servat.unibe.ch/icl/as__indx.html)

1900        Jul 14, European Allies retook Tientsin, China, from the rebelling Boxers.
    (HN, 7/14/98)

1900        Jul 24, Zelda Sayre, writer (Save me the Waltz) was born.
    (HN, 7/24/02)

1900        Jul 28, The hamburger was created by Louis Lassing in Connecticut.
    (SC, 7/28/02)

1900        Jul 29, Owen Lattimore, writer, was born.
    (HN, 7/29/01)
1900        Jul 29, Italian King Humbert I (b.1844) was assassinated by Gaetano Bresci, an Italian-born anarchist who had resided in America before returning to Italy to murder the king. The murder was believed to be due to the king’s decision to fire cannon rounds into a crowd of starving peasants and workers that had assembled asking the king for assistance; 100s were killed; Bresci was arrested, found guilty, and sentenced to a life of hard labor at Santo Stefano Prison on Ventotene Island. Humbert was succeeded by his son, Victor Emmanuel III.
    (AP, 7/29/00)(WSJ, 1/28/07, p.P10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Umberto_I_of_Italy)

1900        Jul, Mount Adatara erupted and left 72 people dead.
    (SFEC, 4/2/00, p.A17)

1900        Aug 3, Ernie Pyle (d.1945), World War II correspondent who wrote about the common soldier, was born. "One of the paradoxes of war is that those in the rear want to get up into the fight, while those in the lines want to get out."
    (HN, 8/3/98)(AP, 4/18/99)
1900        Aug 3, John T. Scopes, Tennessee teacher convicted for teaching evolution, was born.
    (SC, 8/3/02)

1900        Aug 4, Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon (d.2002), later known as the Queen Mum (mother of Queen Elizabeth II), was born in Scotland as the daughter of Lord Glamis, who became the 14th Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne. She later became the wife of King George VI.
    (SFC, 8/4/00, p.A18)(SFC, 8/5/00, p.A12)(WSJ, 8/10/00, p.A16)(MC, 8/4/02)

1900        Aug 12, Wilhelm Steinitz, Chess champion (1866-1894), died in Prague.
    (SC, 8/12/02)

1900        Aug 14, International forces from 8 nations, including 2,000 US Marines and Japanese troops, entered Beijing to put down the Boxer Rebellion, which was aimed at purging China of foreigners and foreign influence.
    (AP, 8/14/01)(Econ, 12/18/10, p.75)

1900        Aug 17, Quincy Howe, newscaster (CBS Weekend News), was born in Boston, Mass.
    (SC, 8/17/02)

1900        Aug 22, Gabriel Fauré’s opera "Promethee," premiered in Beziers.
    (MC, 8/22/02)

1900        Aug 23, Booker T. Washington formed the National Negro Business League in Boston, Massachusetts.
    (HN, 8/23/98)

1900        Aug 25, Philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche (55) died in Weimar, Germany. In 1999 Ronald Taylor translated into English the book "Nietzsche and Wagner" by Joachim Köhler. In 2002 Taylor translated Joachim Kohler’s "Zarathustra’s Secret: The Interior Life of Friedrich Nietzsche." In 2004 Georges Liebert authored "Nietzsche and Music."
    (WSJ, 2/4/99, p.A20)(AP, 8/25/00)(SSFC, 6/9/02, p.M5)(WSJ, 1/28/04, p.D6)

1900        Aug 31, British troops overran Johannesburg.
    (MC, 8/31/01)

1900         Aug, David Hilbert, a German mathematician, presented a challenge list of 23 equations at a meeting of the Int’l. Congress of Mathematicians in Paris. In 2000 three of the equations still remained unsolved.
    (SFC, 5/25/00, p.A2)(SFEC, 8/27/00, BR p.1)

1900        Sep 1, Richard Arlen, actor (Alice in Wonderland) was born.
    (SC, 9/1/02)
1900        Sep 1, Andrei Vlasov, Russian general (Red Army, Wehrmacht), was born.
    (MC, 9/1/02)

1900        Sep 7, Taylor Caldwell, novelist, was born.
    (HN, 9/7/00)

1900        Sep 8, Claude Pepper, Democratic senator and congressman from Florida, champion of senior citizens rights, was born.
    (HN, 9/8/98)
1900        Sep 8, Some 6,000-8,000 people were killed in Galveston by flying debris, collapsing buildings and drowning. The storm let up around midnight, leaving in its wake $30 million in damage and thousands of bodies. Many of the dead had to be hastily dumped in the ocean for fear of spreading disease. Bishop's Palace in Galveston, Texas, remained standing amid piles of rubble after the island city suffered the greatest natural disaster in U.S. history. By nightfall, winds reached 125 mph and the city was under 15 feet of water. The storm battered Galveston for 18 hours and some 3,600 buildings were destroyed. Reports of the storm failed to reach Galveston because the US Weather Service had temporarily banned the cable transmission of Cuban weather reports. In 1999 Erik Larson published "Isaac's Storm."
    (AP, 9/8/97)(HNPD, 9/8/98)(SFC, 11/30/98, p.A2)(WSJ, 9/3/99, p.W8)(SFC, 9/22/05, p.A17)

1900        Sep 9, James Hilton, British novelist who authored "Lost Horizon" and "Goodbye Mr. Chips," was born. In Lost Horizon he created the imaginary world of "Shangri-La."
    (HN, 9/9/98)

1900        Sep 19, President Loubet of France pardoned Jewish army captain Alfred Dreyfus, twice court-martialed and wrongly convicted of spying for Germany.
    (HN, 9/19/98)

1900        Sep, The Spreckels Temple of Music was dedicated in San Francisco’s Golden Gate Park. Adolph B. Spreckels convinced his father, sugar king Claus Spreckels, to contribute $60,000 to transform the Grand Court of the 1884 fair into a music concourse. The bandshell, damaged by the 1989 earthquake, was put up for a $2 million restoration in 1991 and set to reopen in 1993.
    (SFC, 5/19/96,City Guide, p.5)(SFC, 7/29/97, p.A6)(SSFC, 7/31/16, DB p.50)

1900        Oct 1, Oldham, England, announced that Winston Churchill had won the election as the town's second MP, beginning Churchill's long career in the House of Commons.

1900        Oct 2, William A. ‘Bud’ Abbot, comedian, was born. He was the straight man to Lou Costello.
    (HN, 10/2/00)

1900        Oct 3, Thomas Wolfe (d.1938), American author (Look Homeward Angel), was born in Ashville, NC. "All youth is bound to be 'misspent'; there is something in its very nature that makes it so, and that is why all men regret it." "Loneliness ... is and always has been the central and inevitable experience of every man."--From "You Can't Go Home Again."
    (AP, 7/28/97)(AP, 9/18/98)(HN, 10/3/98)
1900        Oct 3, Edward Elgar, Cardinal John Henry Newman's oratorium, premiered in Birmingham.
    (MC, 10/3/01)

1900        Oct 7, Heinrich Himmler, chicken farmer who became the head of the German Gestapo in Hitler's Germany, was born. [see Oct 20, 1900]
    (HN, 10/7/98)

1900        Oct 8, Maximilian Harden was sentenced to six months in prison for publishing an article critical of the German Kaiser.
    (HN, 10/8/98)

1900        Oct 10, Helen Brown (later Helen Hayes, d.1993), American actress, was born in Washington, D.C. Her Tony Awards include: Best Dramatic Actress in 1947 for "Happy Birthday", and again in 1958 for "Time Remembered". Her talents were recognized on movie screens (Hayes appeared in films as early as 1927) as she received an Academy Award for Best Actress for her first major role: "The Sin of Madelon Claudet" in 1931, and forty years later for Best Supporting Actress in "Airport." “The truth (is) that there is only one terminal dignity— love. And the story of a love is not important—what is important is that one is capable of love. It is perhaps the only glimpse we are permitted of eternity."
    (HN, 10/10/98)(AP, 10/10/00)(MC, 10/10/01)
1900        Oct 10, Fred Holland Day exhibited his work at the London Exhibition under the auspices of the Royal Photographic Society.
    (Civilization, July-Aug. 1995, p.40-47)

1900        Oct 15, Boston’s Symphony Hall, one of the world's most highly regarded concert halls, was inaugurated. It was the 1st to be built in known conformity with acoustical laws described by Harvard physicist Wallace Sabine.
    (www.bach-cantatas.com/Bio/BSO.htm)(WSJ, 4/24/02, p.D9)

1900        Oct 20, Wayne Morse, (Sen-R/D-Ore), was born.
    (MC, 10/20/01)
1900        Oct 20, Heinrich Himmler, head of SS, was born. [see Oct 7, 1900]
    (MC, 10/20/01)

1900        Oct 26, After 4 years of work the 1st section of NY subway opened. [see Feb 26, 1870]
    (MC, 10/26/01)

1900        Oct, The Wright Brothers began active flying experiments at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. Their first glider was a biplane that soared for 300 feet.
    (SSFC, 12/14/03, p.D3)(NPub, 2002, p.5)

1900         Nov 3, The first automobile show in the United States opened at Madison Square Garden in New York under the auspices of the Automobile Club of America.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)(AP, 11/3/97)

1900        Nov 6, President McKinley was re-elected, beating Democrat William Jennings Bryan.
    (AP, 11/6/97)(HN, 11/6/98)

1900        Nov 7, Heinrich Himmler, Head of the Nazi SS and organizer of extermination camps in Eastern Europe, was born.
    (HN, 11/7/98)
1900        Nov 7, Efrem Kurtz, conductor (Houston Symph 1948-54), was born in St Petersburg, Russia.
    (MC, 11/7/01)

1900        Nov 8, Margaret Mitchell (d.1949), American writer, was born. She found success in her first and only novel, “Gone With the Wind."
    (HN, 11/8/00)
1900        Nov 8, Albert Friedrich Frey-Wyssling, Swiss botanist and molecular biology pioneer, was born.
    (HN, 11/8/00)
1900        Nov 8, Theodore Dreiser’s first novel “Sister Carrie" was published by Doubleday, but was recalled from stores shortly due to public sentiment.
    (HN, 11/8/00)

1900        Nov 9, Russia completed its occupation of Manchuria.
    (HN, 11/9/98)

1900            Nov 12, A World Fair, the Great Exposition in Paris, closed. 50 million visitors attended the fair, which included Art Nouveau architecture, furniture, jewelry, ceramics, posters, glass, textiles, and metalwork. Jewelry by René Lalique was also exhibited at the fair. [see Apr 14]

1900        Nov 14, Aaron Copeland (d.1990), American composer, was born. His  works included "Billy the Kidd," "Appalachian Spring" and "Fanfare for the Common Man."
    (DrEE, 9/28/96, p.1)(HN, 11/14/99)

1900        Nov 18, Dr. Howard Thurman, theologian and first African American to hold a full time position at Boston University, was born.
    (HN, 11/18/98)

1900        Nov 19, Anna Seghers, [Netty Radvanyi-Reiling], German author (7th Cross), was born.
    (MC, 11/19/01)

1900        Nov 22, Sir Arthur Sullivan (b.1842), English composer, died. His operas included “H.M.S. Pinafore," “Iolanthe," “Patience," “The Pirates of Penzance," “Princess Ida," “The Mikado," “Trial by Jury," and “The Yeoman of the Guard."
    (WSJ, 11/22/00, p.A20)

1900        Nov 25, Helen Gahagan Douglas, Nixon's 1st opponent, (Rep-D-Ca), was born.
    (MC, 11/25/01)

1900        Nov 29, Mildred Elizabeth Sisk, the infamous American-born Axis Sally, was born. She broadcast propaganda for Radio Berlin from Nazi Germany to Allied troops during the Second World War.
    (HN, 11/29/98)

1900        Nov 30, The French government denounced the British government and declared sympathy for the Boers.
    (HN, 11/30/98)
1900        Nov 30, A German engineer patented front-wheel drive for automobiles.
    (MC, 11/30/01)
1900        Nov 30, Irish author Oscar Wilde (b.1856) died in a Paris hotel room after saying of the room's wallpaper: "One of us had to go." In 2000 “the Complete Letters of Oscar Wilde," edited by Merlin Holland, Wilde’s grandson, was published
    (V.D.-H.K.p.279)(AP, 11/30/97)(HN, 11/30/00)(SFC, 12/1/00, p.C12)

1900        Nov, Henry Ford’s Detroit Automobile Company failed. It was revived in 1901 as the Henry Ford Co.

1900        Dec 1, Kaiser Wilhelm II refused to meet with Boer leader Paul Kruger in Berlin.
    (HN, 12/1/98)

1900        Dec 2, John Hossack (b.1841), an Iowa farmer and a prosperous citizen of Warren County, was killed in his bed from two blows with an ax. His wife was accused of the murder. In 1927 Susan Gaspell (1876-1948), American novelist and playwright, authored “A Jury of Her Peers," a short story based on his murder trial.
    (Econ, 2/21/09, p.83)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A_Jury_of_Her_Peers)

1900        Dec 4, The French National Assembly, successor to the States-General, rejected Nationalist General Mercier’s proposal to plan an invasion of England.
    (HN, 12/4/98)

1900        Dec 9, The Russian Czar rejected Paul Kruger’s pleas for aid to the Boers in South Africa against the British.
    (HN, 12/9/01)

1900        Dec 14, Max Planck (1858-1947), German physicist, presented the quantum theory at the Physics Society in Berlin. Planck,  demonstrated that energy, in certain situations, can exhibit characteristics of physical matter. Planck was rewarded the Nobel Prize (1918) in Physics for his work on blackbody radiation.
    (HN, 12/14/98)(MC, 12/14/01)

1900        Dec 16, V.S. Pritchett (d.1997), English writer, was born in Ipswich. The first volume of his autobiography was called “A Cab at the Door."
    (SFC, 3/22/97, p.A21)

1900        Dec 17, Ellis Island immigration center re-opened following an 1897 fire.
    (SFEC, 6/20/99, p.T10)

1900        Dec 23, The Federal Party, which recognized American sovereignty, was formed in the Philippines.
    (HN, 12/23/98)

1900        Dec 27, Militant prohibitionist and temperance agitator Carry Nation, (Carrie Nation), first used a hatchet to carry out her public smashings of a bar, at the Carey Hotel in Wichita, Kan. As a result, the hatchet soon became the symbol of her crusade against alcohol. Born in Kentucky, Nation‘s first husband died of alcoholism and her second marriage ended in divorce. She was often arrested, fined and jailed for her actions. She published the Smasher in Topeka. Advertisers boycotted and the paper failed.
    (AP, 12/27/97)(SFEC, 3/8/98, BR p.6)(HNQ, 10/17/99)

1900        Dec 31, In Mexico it was rumored in San Jose de Gracia, Michoacan state, that the world would come to an end on this date. A 1968 biography of this was recorded in "Pueblo en Vilo" (Town on Edge) by Luis Gonzalez y Gonzales, considered to be the founder of microhistory in Mexico.
    (Econ., 10/3/20, p.71)

1900        Aaron Copland (d.1990), composer, was born. In 1999 Howard Pollack published Aaron Copland: The Life and Work of an Uncommon Man."
    (WSJ, 3/10/99, p.A20)

1900        Elmo Roper, polster, was born. He was the first to apply market research skills to measure public opinion.
    (SFC, 12/27/99, p.E3)

1900        Pierre Bonnard (1867-1947), French artist, painted "Siesta."
    (WSJ, 6/24/98, p.A16)(www.abcgallery.com/B/bonnard/bonnardbio.html)
1900        Edouard Vuillard, French artist, painted a portrait of painter “Felix Valloton."
    (SFC, 9/24/10, p.F5)

1900        Childe Hassan painted his “Late Afternoon, New York, Winter."
    (WSJ, 6/6/95, p.A-14)

1900        Picasso painted "Moilin de la Galette."
    (WSJ, 2/16/00, p.A14)

1900        In Russia Apollinarius Vaznetsov painted a view of workmen building the 12th century wooden ramparts of the Kremlin.
    (AM, Jul/Aug ‘97 p.31)

1900        Vlaminck painted “The Bar."
    (WSJ, 5/30/00, p.A24)

1900        Mary Austin (d.1934) wrote her classic “The Land of Little Rain" in the town of Independence in Inyo County, Ca. Her work included 30 published books
    (SFEC, 5/7/00, p.T6)

1900        Frank Baum published “The Wonderful Wizard of Oz." Baum, a playwright and former chicken farmer wrote his Oz book in 1899.
    (WSJ, 5/22/97, p.A13)(SFEC, 11/8/98, DB p.5)

1900        Willa Cather published “Eric Hermannson’s Soul" in Cosmopolitan. In 1998 an opera based on the story was composed by Libby Larson with libretto by Chas Rader-Shieber. It was commissioned to celebrate the 40th anniversary of the Omaha Opera.
    (WSJ, 11/30/98, p.A20)

1900        Charles Chesnutt (b.1858), African-American writer, authored his novel “The House Behind the Cedars."
    (HN, 6/20/01)(WSJ, 1/22/02, p.A11)

1900        Edith Wharton wrote seven successful stories and her novel, “The Valley of Decision."
    (Hem, Dec. 94, p.71)

1900        Freud published his “Interpretation of Dreams."

1900         Cecil B. DeMille began working on plays with his older brother William, enjoying moderate success for 12 years.
    (HNPD, 8/12/98)

1900        The opera "Louise" by Gustave Charpentier, about a Parisien seamstress,  was the first new opera of the century.
    (SFC, 9/15/99, p.B1)

1900        Edward Elgar put music to the poem “The Dream of Gerontius" by Cardinal John Henry Newman, the English convert to Catholicism.
    (SFEC, 10/7/96, A20)

1900        The first Santas of the Salvation Army stepped into the streets and were initially arrested as public nuisances.
    (SFC, 6/19/99, p.B7)

1900        Paul P. Harris met attorney Bob Frank for dinner in a well-off neighborhood on the North Side of Chicago. They took a walk around the area and stopped at shops along the way. Harris was impressed by how Frank had made friends with many of the shopkeepers. Eventually, Harris persuaded other local businessmen to meet and discuss forming a club for commercial trade, community, and fellowship. His vision laid the foundation for the Rotary of today.
1900        Charles Comiskey, manager of the National League’s Cincinnati Reds, bought the Western League’s St. Paul team and moved it to Chicago as the White Stockings.
    (ON, 6/09, p.11)

1900        At the Olympics in Paris a Belgian sharpshooter killed 21 live pigeons. The event was abolished shortly thereafter. Separately the game of croquet was featured for the first and last time.
    (WSJ, 7/23/96, p.A6)
1900        Belgian horse rider Constant van Langhendonck (1870-1944) won an Olympic gold medal in Paris with a 6.1 meter jump in the equestrian long jump.
    (Econ., 7/25/20, p.12)
1900        The sport of Cricket was included at the Paris Olympics. France was the runner up to Britain.
    (Econ, 5/9/15, p.16)

1900        At the turn of the 20th century, small-town photographers in the Midwest and West turned out thousands of "larger than life" postcards. Produced by piecing together parts from several photographs, shooting the whole and printing it on postcard paper, the cards were early efforts at trick photography. The postcards humorously promoted the fruitfulness of rural life.
    (HNPD, 6/24/99)

1900        The US Navy commissioned its first submarine, the USS Holland, for $150,000. It was named after the Irish inventor John Holland. His first sub was the Fenian Ram, paid for by Irish rebels hoping to challenge British control of the seas.
    (SFEC, 8/11/96, zone 1, p.6)(WSJ, 4/28/00, p.W17)

c1900        James J. Hill, a turn of the century robber baron, planned to consolidate the Great Northern and the Northern Pacific Railroads. His efforts were blocked by anti-trust regulation and gave Teddy Roosevelt his reputation as a trust buster. In 1996 Dr. Michael Malone authored “James J. Hill: Empire Builder of the Northwest."
    (WSJ, 10/1/98, p.B6)

1900        The 110-mile White Pass & Yukon narrow-gauge railroad from Skagway to Whitehorse, the Alaska-British Columbia border, was completed.
    (SFEC,11/16/97, p.T5)(SFEC, 2/8/98, p.T3)

1900        In San Francisco a two storey home was built at 145 Buena Vista Ave. East. In 2015 the upper condo 3-bedroom unit was listed for $2.75 million.
    (SFC, 5/1/15, p.C4)
1900        San Francisco Mayor James Phelan spoke against Japanese immigration in the state’s first large-scale public protest against the Japanese.
    (SFC, 8/23/14, p.C2)
1900        California’s first car race was held at the Ingleside Race Track in San Francisco.
    (SFC, 8/28/00, p.A2)
c1900        The Ordonez cannon was brought back from the Philippines to the Presidio in SF as a trophy of war. It had been manufactured in Spain and was initially captured by the Filipinos from the Spanish army. It suffered a direct hit from US forces in an engagement near Subic Bay.
    (SFC, 6/9/97, p.A15,16)
1900        Frenchman Georges de Latour founded Beaulieu Vineyard near Rutherford in Napa Valley Ca.
    (SFC, 10/10/08, p.F3)
1900        The Auto Club of California was spawned by a meeting of 11 "automobilists" at the SF Cliff House.
    (SFC, 3/21/00, p.A17,20)
1900        Rose Hill cemetery closed on Mount Diablo, Ca., as the nearby coal mining town closed down. The oldest grave there dated to 1865. The area later became part of the Black Diamond Mines Regional Park in Antioch.
    (SFC, 9/8/09, p.C5)
c1900        San Clemente, Ca., was built and the 1st mayor, Ole Hanson, planned to make it look like a Greek fishing village.
    (SFEC, 8/1/99, p.T6)
c1900        Abbot Kinney bought some marshland outside of Los Angeles and created a Venice of the West with dredged canals, boardwalks and piers.
    (SFEM, 6/18/00, p.8)
1900        Around this time San Francisco Bay Area oil companies began using the copper ore and later pyrite from Iron Mountain to produce sulfuric acid for use in the oil refining process.
    (SFEC,11/2/97, p.A13)
1900        About 16,000 Indians remained in all of California.
    (SFEC, 9/20/98, Z1 p.4)
1900        William L. Murphy of Stockton, Ca., designed a folding bed for his SF apartment and applied for a patent. [see 1909]
    (SFC, 8/19/98, Z1 p.7)

c1900        Florida’s wineries were wiped out by Pierce’s disease. Growers then switched to orange trees.
    (SFC,11/22/97, p.D4)

1900          Efforts to eradiate plague in Honolulu led to planned fires, one of which got out of control and burned Chinatown. In 2004 James C. Mohr authored “Plague and Fire: Battling Black Death and the 1900 Burning of Honolulu’s Chinatown."
    (SSFC, 12/19/04, p.E2)
1900        The Hawaiian language was officially banned from government offices in Hawaii, and was only allowed to be taught in schools as a foreign language.
    (Wired, 8/95, p.90)

1900        Chicago reversed the water flow of the Chicago River so that it would flow in from Lake Michigan and carry pollution out to drain into the Mississippi.
    (SSFC, 8/18/02, p.C12)(Econ, 11/19/11, p.43)

1900        A group of hobos from Chicago began convening on an annual basis in Britt, Iowa. They called themselves Tourists Union No. 63. In 1933 the Britt Chamber of Commerce began sponsoring their annual National Hobo Convention.
    (SFC, 1/26/04, p.B4)

1900        Edward S. Curtis (1868-1952) Seattle-based photographer, accompanied ethnographer George bird Grinnell to a reservation Montana took photographs of Blood, Blackfeet and Algonquin Indians gathered there for their annual sun dance. In 1906 he announced plans for 20-volume work documenting Western Indians, The North American Indian. His first volume was published in 1907. The last two volumes appeared in 1930.
    (ON, 6/12, p.9)(http://curtis.library.northwestern.edu/curtis/timeline.html)

1900        Major silver and gold deposits were found at Tonopoh, Nevada.
    (SFEC, 7/9/00, DB p.67)

1900        The Victory Theater was built on 42nd St between 7th and 8th, i.e. Broadway in NYC by Oscar Hammerstein, the grandfather of the well-known lyricist. In the 1930s it became Minskys, the famous burlesque house. It was restored in the 1990s and used for children’s theater productions.
    (WSJ, 12/15/95, p.A-16)(SFC, 5/17/97, p.E1)
1900        Joshua Lionel Cowen (1877-1965), inventor, along with some partners founded Lionel Corp in NYC. Operation were later based outside Detroit and Lionel grew to become the world’s largest toy maker in the 1950s. [see 1901]
    (WSJ, 11/17/04, p.B1)(www.fact-index.com/j/jo/joshua_lionel_cowen.html)
1900        New York ornithologist Frank Chapman launched his Christmas Bird Count as a bold new alternative to what had been a longtime Christmas tradition of hunting birds.
    (AP, 12/16/19)

1900        In Greensboro, NC, the cotton processing Revolution Mill was established. By 1938 it was the world’s largest factory exclusively making flannel. The mill ceased production in 1982.
    (Econ, 10/1/16, SR p.3)

1900        Frank Doernbecher (d.1921) founded Doernbecher Manufacturing in Portland, Oregon. The company was eventually taken over by Barker Furniture.
    (SFC, 11/1/06, p.G2)

1900        The construction of the rococo City Hall in Philadelphia was completed. The architect was John McArthur Jr.
    (SFEC, 8/16/98, p.T1)
1900        In Philadelphia, Pa., the 8-million, 110-room Lynnewood Hall, home to the uber-wealthy Widener family, was completed. It came to be called "the last of the American Versailles." French landscape architect Jacques Greber designed the formal French gardens, which were graced by his brother Henri-Louis Greber's fountain of bronze and marble statuary. P.A.B. Widener's son, Joseph, died there in 1943 and the younger generation deemed the property too large to maintain. Much of the acreage was sold to developers and the opulent furnishings were auctioned. In 1952, the Rev. Carl McIntire of Collingswood, N.J., a controversial fundamentalist preacher, bought the property for $190,000 and established a Christian seminary. In 1993 New York physician Richard Sei-Oung Yoon, a former student of McIntire and one-time chancellor of the cash-strapped seminary, bought its mortgage for $1.6 million with plans of establishing his own church there.
    (AP, 7/26/10)

1900        Robert LeRoy Parker and Harry Alonzo Longabaugh (aka Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid) and their Wild Bunch went to Fort Worth after their last holdup of the First National Bank at Winnemucca, Nevada. They posed for pictures at John Swartz’s photo studio.
    (HT, 4/97, p.45)(SFC, 1/19/98, p.A10)
1900        In Texas the Goodall Wooten mansion was built in Austin. It was transformed into a hotel in 2003.
    (SSFC, 9/8/13, p.N3)
1900        The Dallas Symphony Orchestra was founded.
    (WSJ, 2/4/99, p.A20)

1900        Forestry student Benton MacKaye dreamed up the idea of an Appalacian Trail during a hike in Green Mountains of Vermont.
    (Econ, 8/6/16, p.69)

1900        Harvey Firestone founded the Firestone Tire & Rubber Co.
    (SFC, 12/25/96, p.A22)

1900        Frank Brownell, creator of Eastman’s Kodak camera, designed the Brownie camera.
    (ON, 3/05, p.12)

1900        Ellsworth M. Statler, hotel man, advertised “A room with a bath for a dollar and a half."
    (SFC, 3/21/98, p.E3)

1900        Louis Bachelier (1870-1946), financial economist, wrote a  dissertation in Paris, "Theorie de la Spéculation." This and his subsequent work (esp. 1906, 1913) anticipated much of what was to become standard fare in financial theory: efficient market hypothesis, random walk of financial market prices, Brownian motion and martingales. He was a student of French mathematician Henri Poincare. Bachelier’s insights later underpinned the Black-Scholes option pricing model.
    (WSJ, 7/16/03, p.D8)(Econ, 12/19/09, p.130)

1900        Frederick Weyerhaeuser, a German immigrant, and 15 partners purchased 900,000 acres of land from a railway company in Washington state.
    (Econ, 6/10/06, p.30)

1900        Max Planck suggested that energy is not exchanged in a continuous flow but by individual packets, or quanta; energy moved not like a river but like raindrops. Planck promulgated his Planck’s constant h, to solve problems in quantum mechanics.
    (NG, May 1985, p.642)(NH, 11/1/04, p.24)

1900        Johan Vaaler, a Norwegian living in Germany, invented the paper clip.
    (SFEC, 5/23/99, p.B7)

1900        Nickel-cadmium battery cells were developed about this time.
    (Econ, 3/8/08, TQ p.23)

1900        Einstein graduated with a degree in mathematics.

1900        America had some 500 carmakers at this time. By 1908 the number fell to 200.
    (Econ, 5/19/12, p.83)

1900        The population of the world again doubled from what it was in 1800 to more than 1600 million.

1900        In the US tuberculosis killed 150,000 people.
    (WSJ, 4/14/99, p.A1)
1900        Global life expectancy at birth was about 32 years.
    (Econ, 4/29/17, p.45)

1900        Clarence Warner and “Tarantula Jack" Smith staked a claim for copper in Alaska. They later sold it to Stephen Birch, who found financial backing for a company that eventually became Kennecott Copper.
    (AH, 10/01, HT p.30)

1900        Sir Arthur Evans excavated at the Minoan palace of Cnossos [Knossos] and discovered Greek writings known as Linear B dated to 1400 BC. In 1956 Michael Ventris (d.1956) and John Chadwick (d.1998 at 78) published a translation of the script as “Documents in Mycenaean Greek."
    (SFC, 12/8/98, p.B6)

1900        Stephen Crane, American writer, died of tuberculosis at age 28. He authored 5 novels. In 1998 Linda H. Davis published the biography “Badge of Courage." In the early 1890s Crane lived in the Bowery area of New York City and, resulting from his firsthand observation of poverty in the slums, he wrote Maggie: A Girl of the Streets (1893), a book considered shocking at the time. Crane covered the Greco-Turkish War in 1897 and the Spanish-American War in 1898 as a news correspondent. His later short-story collections, such as “The Open Boat and Other Tales of Adventure" (1898), are recognized as masterpieces of the form.
    (WSJ, 8/6/98, p.A13)(HNQ, 11/16/98)

1900        In Australia Helena Rubinstein (b.1871 in Cracow) opened a beauty shop and sold a cold cream developed by a Hungarian chemist and relative, Jacob Lykusky.
    (SFEM, 8/23/98, p.29)
1900        In Australia residents of Roma, Queensland, struck natural gas while drilling deep for water.
    (Econ, 6/2/12, p.50)

1900        Kensal Rise library in the London borough of Brent was opened by Mark Twain. In 2011 it faced closure due to government cuts.
    (AFP, 12/12/11)
c1900        Sir Arthur Conan Doyle wrote numerous articles and pamphlets in defense of British concentration camps during the Boer War, for which he was knighted.
    (SFC, 9/5/98, p.E3)
1900        In Britain employees of the Taff Vale Railway Co. in South Wales greased the tracks and cut telegraph wires during a bitter strike. In 1901 the House of Lords ruled that their union could be sued for damaging the company. The shock to the union movement inspired the Labour Party and a 1906 Trade Disputes Act.
    (Econ, 5/22/10, p.60)
c1900        Charles Spearman, an English psychologist, hypothesized the g factor as a measure of smartness based on correlations on how people performed on tests of different mental abilities. He invented a mathematical technique called factor analysis to measure the factor dubbed g, for general. In 1998 Arthur R. Jenson published “The g Factor: The Science of Mental Ability."
    (WSJ, 6/2/98, p.A20)
1900        John Ruskin (b.1819), Victorian art critic and social commentator, died. He was considered in his time a colossus of esthetic, moral and social wisdom. In 1985 Tim Hilton authored “John Ruskin: The Early Years." In 2000 Tim Hilton authored “John Ruskin: The Later Years."
    (WSJ, 5/12/00, p.A24)
1900        Britain had 188 banks and Canada had 35. Within 25 years half the banks in both countries had disappeared.
    (Econ, 11/10/12, p.78)
1900        American businessman Charles Tyson Yerkes arrived in London, the world’s largest city with 6.5 million inhabitants. Over the next five years he was intrumental in expanding the London underground. 
    (Econ, 12/20/14, p.72)
1900        In London an estimated 300,000 horses pulled cabs and omnibuses as well as a variety of transport wagons. NYC counted some 100,000 horses.
    (Econ, 11/26/16, SR p.3)

c1900        Wang Yuanlu, a Chinese monk, discovered a set of manuscripts in the Mogao caves near Dunhuang in Gansu province. The “Library Cave" contained as many as 50,000 items, mostly Buddhist documents, from 400-1000AD.
    (AM, 7/00, p.72)
1900        As artillery shells crashed around their house during the siege of Tientsin, Lou Hoover played solitaire. She and new husband Herbert Hoover had moved there after their wedding in 1899. Herbert had been engaged as the Director General of the Department of Mines of the Chinese Government. News from China during the Boxer Rebellion was bleak, and one New York newspaper had reported their deaths and printed obituaries.
    (HNQ, 11/27/02)

1900        The Lohner-Porsche was introduced at the World’s Fair in Paris. The hybrid car relied on batteries and a generator to produce electricity for its motors. Ferdinand Porsche working for Jacob Lohner in Vienna put electric motors into the hubs of the wheels of the Lohner-Porsche.
    (Econ, 4/24/10, p.78)

1900        Greeks from the island of Kefalonia began to migrate to Manchuria after 1900 and flourished in the liquor and property business. Their world collapsed in 12949 when the Communists took power.
    (Econ, 8/23/08, p.52)

1900        In India the Maharajah of Patiala, Sir Bhupinder Singh, ascended the throne of Patiala at the age of 8. Patiala was a prominent Sikh state in northwestern India. He was known for his jeweled sarpech, a turban ornament.
    (WSJ, 11/5/99, p.W16)

1900        Silvio Scandalli started to produce accordions with the help of his family. In a few years between 1915 and 1921, out of a small workshop in Camerano a small company was created which was to become an industrial force, that in 1941 employed over 700 workers. After the end of the second world war, the accordion became hugely popular in the USA and the factory of the Scandalli brothers was amongst the most well known and prestigious. Thanks to the genius of Silvio and his many inventions and patents which were applied to his accordions, the Scandalli brand became synonymous with quality and a bench mark for other instruments. In 1946 to meet the challenges and opportunities of new markets, F.lli Scandalli of Camerano and Settimio Soprani of Castelfidardo combined to form Farfisa (from Fabbriche Riunite di Fisarmoniche). This company in turn was to become one of the worlds' biggest musical instrument factories and at this time was producing 180 accordions a day. The impetus of this new company led to the formation of the CDMI (Centro Didattico Musicale Italiano ) and many famous composers wrote pieces for the accordion and teaching methods for the Edizioni Musicali Farfisa.

1900        Nepalese were recruited into Bhutan as loggers.
    (WSJ, 3/6/97, p.A8)

1900        Jose Eca de Queiroz, Portuguese novelist, died. His novels included an 1875 satire about a priest struggling with his vows of celibacy. It was made into a Mexican film  "El Crimen del Padre Amaro" (The Crime of Father Amaro) in 2002.
    (AP, 8/9/02)

1900        The Nobel Foundation was established in Sweden in accord with the will of Alfred Nobel.
    (ON, 4/07, p.7)

1900s        The Blue Rider movement of expressionist painting centered in Munich in the early 1900s.
    (HNQ, 1/26/00)

1900-1901    Sai Jinhua (c1872-1936), Chinese courtesan and the acquaintance of German field marshal Alfred von Waldersee, was credited with influencing Waldersee to moderate the harsh treatment of Beijing residents during the Boxer Rebellion. Jinhua used her knowledge of German to save the Qing emperor from German troops.

1900-1902    US Colonel Leonard Wood served as governor of Cuba. He cleaned up unsanitary conditions and supported medical investigations that tied yellow fever and malaria to mosquitoes.
    (WSJ, 12/7/05, p.D12)
1900-1902    Lord Herbert Horatio Kitchener created concentration camps in South Africa where hundreds of thousands of Boer women, children and old men were herded. An estimated 16,000 died in the camps.
    (WSJ, 2/27/00, p.A24)

1900-1903     San Francisco’s Union Square was redesigned with the Dewey Memorial at its center. It was designed by sculptor Robert J. Aitken and architect Newton J. Tharp. [see May 14, 1903]
    (SSFC, 7/21/02, p.F2)

1900-1910    In the early 1900s A.C. Williams Co. of Ravenna, Ohio, became the world’s largest producer of toys and still banks. The company had started out manufacturing stoves and tools.
    (SFC, 3/1/06, p.G7)

1900-1914    Vincent Cronin, historian, depicts this period in Paris, France, in his book: “Paris on the Eve, 1900-1914."
    (WSJ, 11/21/95, p.A-12)
1900-1914    In 2008 Phillip Blom authored “The Vertigo Years: Europe 1900-1914."
    (Econ, 11/8/08, p.102)

1900-1920    Eugene V. Debs (d.1926) ran for president five separate times on the Socialist ticket, twice earning close to a million votes. [see 1926]
    (HNQ, 11/1/00)

1900-1933    The first volume of “A History of the Twentieth Century" by Sir Martin Gilbert was published in 1997.
    (SFEC, 1/4/98, Par. p.6)

1900-1947    This period of India’s history is covered in the 2007 book “Indian summer: The Secret History of the End of an Empire," by Alex von Tunzelmann.
    (SSFC, 8/12/07, p.M3)

1900-1948    Zelda Sayre Fitzgerald, American writer: "Nobody has ever measured, even poets, how much a heart can hold." "By the time a person has achieved years adequate for choosing a direction, the die is cast and the moment has long passed which determined the future."
    (AP, 11/24/97)(AP, 1/25/99)
1900-1948    H.L. Mencken, Baltimore newspaperman, chronicled the meetings of both US political parties over this period.
    (Hem, 8/96, p.84)

1900-1949    The “Letters of Heirich and Thomas Mann" of this period were translated to English and published in 1998.
    (SFEC, 4/5/98, BR p.6)

1900-1950    “American Popular Song: The Great Innovators," 1900-1950, was written by Alec Wilder.
    (WSJ, 6/28/96, p.A7)

1900-1950    In 1999 Barbara Haskell, a curator at the Whitney Museum, authored "The American Century Art and Culture 1900-1950."
    (WSJ, 4/23/99, W9C)

1900-1959    George Antheil, composer, was born in New Jersey.
    (WSJ, 4/23/98, p.A16)

1900-1969    John Mason Brown, American essayist: “Reasoning with a child is fine, if you can reach the child’s reason without destroying your own."
    (AP, 2/27/01)

1900-1973    Maria Martins, Brazilian sculptor. She was portrayed in a 1934 painting by Marcel Duchamp “Given: 1. The Waterfall, 2. The Illuminating Gas."
    (SFC, 5/2/00, p.D1)

1900-1976     Richard Hughes, Welsh author and dramatist: “Middle age snuffs out more talent than ever wars or sudden deaths do."
    (AP, 8/1/98)

1900-1977    Edward Dahlberg, American author and critic: "The people who think they are happy should rummage through their dreams." "It takes a long time to understand nothing."
    (AP, 12/10/98)(AP, 4/28/99)

1900-1980     Helen Gahagan Douglas, U.S. representative: “In trying to make something new, half the undertaking lies in discovering whether it can be done. Once it has been established that it can, duplication is inevitable."
    (AP, 6/15/98)

1900-1986    The history of Jerusalem over this period is covered by Martin Gilbert in his book: “Jerusalem in the Twentieth Century."
    (SFC, 10/18/96, C8)

1900-1988     Louise Nevelson, Russian-American artist: “I never liked the middle ground—the most boring place in the world." "What we call reality is an agreement that people have arrived at to make life more livable."
    (AP, 7/25/97)(AP, 5/5/99)

1900-1989    Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, Iranian leader.

1900-1993    Marion “Joe" Carstairs, cross-dressing heiress of the Standard Oil fortune, bought and settled on the Caribbean island of Whale Cay in 1933. In 1998 Kate Summerscale published her biography: “The Queen of Whale Cay."
    (SFEC, 6/28/98, BR p.9)

1900-2000    This period in French history was covered by British Historian Rod Kedward in his 2005 work: “La Vie en Bleu: France and the French Since 1900."
    (Econ, 8/13/05, p.73)

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