Timeline 1895 - 1897

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1895        Jan 1, J. Edgar Hoover, director of the Federal Bureau of Investigations (FBI), was born.
    (HN, 1/1/99)

1895        Jan 2, Count Folke Bernadotte (d.1948), statesman (Red Cross, UN), was born in Sweden.

1895        Jan 5, French Capt. Alfred Dreyfus, convicted of treason, was publicly stripped of his rank. He was ultimately vindicated. Dreyfus, a Jew falsely accused of spying for the Germans, was imprisoned alone on Devil’s Island until 1899.
    (AP, 1/5/98)(SSFC, 12/15/02, p.L5)

1895        Jan 7, The new government of Hawaii placed the country under martial law following news of a planned revolt. Queen Lili’uokalani was convicted of treason and sentenced to 5 years in prison. She was released after serving 2 years under house arrest.
    (ON, 11/02, p.7)

1895        Jan 10, Benjamin Louis Paul Godard (45), composer, died.
    (MC, 1/10/02)

1895        Jan 13, J.R. Seeley (b.1834), English essayist and historian, died. His essay Ecce Homo, published anonymously in 1866, and afterwards acknowledged by him, was widely read, and prompted many replies, being deemed an attack on Christianity.
    (WSJ, 12/8/08, p.A17)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Robert_Seeley)

1895        Jan 24, Hawaii’s Queen Lili’uokalani formally abdicated her throne and swore allegiance to the Republic of Hawaii.
    (AH, 2/05, p.16)

1895        Jan 29, The Jameson Raid began against the South African Republic (commonly known as the Transvaal). It was carried out by British colonial administrator Leander Starr Jameson and his Company troops and Bechuanaland policemen over the New Year weekend. On Jan. 2 the raiders surrendered after losing 30 men. They were taken to Pretoria and jailed. Cecil Rhodes supported the Jameson Raid to help rebellious British settlers in the Dutch Transvaal. The raid was a contributory cause of the Anglo-Boer War (1899–1902).
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jameson_Raid)(WSJ, 7/11/03, p.W19)
1895        Jan 29, A massacre occurred in Nembe over palm oil. Koko Mingi VIII (1853-1898), king of the Nembe people, led a pre-dawn raid on the headquarters of the Royal Niger Company, a British firm that had monopolized the palm-oil trade in the Niger delta. The British sent gunboats in response and kept their monopoly intact.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frederick_William_Koko_Mingi_VIII_of_Nembe)(SFC, 9/30/98, p.A10)(Econ., 10/3/20, p.37)

1895        Jan 31, Jose Marti and others left NYC for invasion of Spanish Cuba.
    (MC, 1/31/02)

1895        Feb 1, John Ford was born. (Sean O’Feeney) (Academy Award-winning director: The Informer [1935], The Grapes of Wrath [1940], How Green Was My Valley [1941], The Quiet Man [1952].
    (440 Int'l, 2/1/1999)

1895        Feb 2, George Halas, National Football League co-founder, was born.
    (HN, 2/2/99)

1895        Feb 4, The 1st rolling lift bridge opened in Chicago.
    (MC, 2/4/02)

1895        Feb 6, George Herman "Babe" Ruth, baseball's most dominant player, was born in Baltimore. He played with the Boston Red Sox, the New York Yankees and the Boston Braves and was the first player to hit 60 home runs in one season.
    (USAT, 1/29/97, p.1D)(AP, 2/6/97)(HN, 2/6/99)
1895        cFeb 6, Silas Burroughs (b.1846), American-born co-founder of the British pharmaceutical firm Burroughs Wellcome (1880), died in Monte Carlo. His sudden death made Henry Wellcome the sole owner of the company.

1895        Feb 8, Tchaikovsky's "Swan Lake," premiered in Petersburg.
    (MC, 2/8/02)

1895        Feb 9, Volleyball was invented by W.G. Morgan in Massachusetts. A game called "mintonette" was created by William George Morgan, physical director at the YMCA in Holyoke, Mass., to accommodate players who thought basketball was too strenuous. The objective was to hit a basketball over a rope. It was the predecessor to volleyball.
    (SFC,11/15/97, p.C4)(HNQ, 11/26/99)(MC, 2/9/02)

1895        Feb 11, Georgetown became part of Wash, DC.
    (MC, 2/11/02)

1895        Feb 13, A moving picture projector was patented.
    (MC, 2/13/02)

1895        Feb 14, Nigel Bruce, actor (Dr Watson in Sherlock Holmes movies), was born in Baja, Mexico.
    (MC, 2/14/02)
1895        Feb 14, Oscar Wilde’s final play, "The Importance of Being Earnest," opened at the St. James’ Theatre in London.
    (AP, 2/14/98)

1895        Feb 15, 23 cm (9") of snow fell on New Orleans.
    (440 Int’l., 2/15/99)

1895        Feb 18, Semjon Timoshenko, Russian marshal, inspector-general (WW II), was born.
    (MC, 2/18/02)

1895        Feb 20, Frederick Douglass (77), Abolitionist and escaped slave, died in Washington, D.C. In 1881 Douglass authored "The Life and Times of Frederick Douglass."
    (AP, 2/19/98)(MC, 2/20/02)(ON, 7/02, p.8)

1895        Feb 21, The NC Legislature adjourned for the day to mark the death of Frederick Douglass.
    (MC, 2/21/02)

1895        Feb 24, The Cuban War of Independence began. [see Oct 10, 1868]
    (HN, 2/24/98)

1895        Feb 26, Michael Owens of Toledo, OH., patented a glass-blowing machine.
    (SC, 2/26/02)

1895        Feb 27, Rudolf von Eschwege, German fighter pilot with 20 victories in World War I, was born. He was the only German fighter pilot on the Macedonian Front.

1895        Feb 28, Guiomar Novaes, pianist (Brazilian Order of Merit), was born in Brazil.
    (MC, 2/28/02)
1895        Feb 28, Marcel Pagnol, French playwright, director (Marchands de Gloire), was born.
    (MC, 2/28/02)

1895        Mar 2, Berthe Morisot (b.1841) French impressionist painter, died of pneumonia.
    (NMWA, 12/04, p.10)

1895        Mar 3, General Matthew Ridgeway, U.S. Army leader in World War II and Korea, was born.
    (HN, 3/3/99)
1895        Mar 3, Ragnar Frisch, economist (1st Nobel prize in economy-1969), was born in Norway.
    (SC, 3/3/02)

1895        Mar 4, Gustav Mahler's 2nd Symphony, premiered in Berlin.
    (SC, 3/4/02)

1895        Mar 5, Henry Creswicke Rawlinson (85), soldier and scholar, died in England. In 1835 he had begun examining the ancient inscriptions on the rock of Behistun in the Kurdish foothills of the Zagros mountain range and found that they had been made to honor Darius the Great, Persian ruler in the 5th century BCE. He deciphered text from Old Akkadian cuneiform. In 2004 Lesley Adkins authored “Empires of the Plain: Henry Rawlinson and the Lost Languages of Babylon."
    (www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/information/biography/pqrst/rawlinson_henry.html)(ON, 4/04, p.9)(WSJ, 12/21/04, p.D8)
1895        Mar 5, Nikolai Leskov (b.1831), Russian writer, died. His major works included Lady Macbeth of Mtsensk (1865), which was later made into an opera by Shostakovich. In 2013 new translations of 17 of his stories were published by Richard Pevear and Larissa Volokhonsky.
    (SSFC, 3/31/13, p.F4)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nikolai_Leskov)
1895        Mar 9, Leopold von Sacher-Masoch, Austrian writer (Masochism), died.
    (MC, 3/9/02)

1895        Mar 15, Bone Mizell, the famed cowboy of Florida, appeared before a judge for altering cattle brands.
    (HN, 3/15/00)
1895        Mar 15, Fridtjof Nansen and Hjalmar Johansen left their ship Fram in an attempt to reach the North Pole by dogsled. [see Jun 17, 1896]
    (ON, 7/05, p.5)

1895        Mar 17, Shemp Howard, comedian (3 Stooges, Bank Dick), was born in Brooklyn.
    (MC, 3/17/02)

1895        Mar 18, Some 200 blacks left Savannah, Ga., for Liberia.
    (MC, 3/18/02)

1895        Mar 19, Los Angeles Railway was established to provide streetcar service.
    (MC, 3/19/02)

1895         Mar 22, Auguste and Louis Lumiere showed their first movie to an invited audience in Paris; this is generally regarded as the first-ever public display of a movie projected onto a screen. [see Dec 28] One of their first films was "L'Arrivee d'un Train en Gare."
    (AP, 3/22/97)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R40)

1895        Mar 24, Arthur Murray, American dancer, was born.
    (HN, 3/24/98)

1895        Mar 26, King Alfonso planted a pine sapling in Madrid and started Spain's Arbor Day.
    (SS, 3/26/02)

1895        Mar 28, Spencer W. Kimball, 12th Prophet of the Mormon Church, was born.
    (HN, 3/28/98)

1895        Mar 31, Vardis A. Fisher, US author (Darkness & Deep), was born.
    (MC, 3/31/02)
1895        Mar 31, John Jay McCloy, lawyer, banker (Sec of War 1941-45, High Commissioner for Germany, pres Chase Manhattan), was born.
    (MC, 3/31/02)

1895        Mar, In Ireland Bridget Cleary (26) disappeared from her home in County Tipperary. Her burned body was found several days later. Her husband, father and several relatives and friends were charged with murder. Prosecutors maintained that she was burned because her husband believed her to be a changeling. In 2000 Angela Bourke authored "The Burning of Bridget Cleary: A True Story," and Joan Hoff and Marion Yeates authored ""The Cooper’s Wife Is Missing: The Trials of Bridget Cleary."
    (SFEC, 9/10/00, BR p.5)

1895        Apr 1, Alberta Hunter, blues singer, was born.
    (HN, 4/1/01)

1895        Apr 3, Mario Castelnuovo-Tedesco, composer, was born in Firenze (Florence), Italy.
    (MC, 4/3/02)

1895        Apr 5, Start of Sherlock Holmes' "Adventure of 3 Students."
    (MC, 4/5/02)
1895        Apr 5, Playwright Oscar Wilde lost his criminal libel case against the Marquess of Queensberry, who’d accused the writer of homosexual practices.
    (AP, 4/5/97)

1895        Apr 10, The San Francisco Chronicle reported that Blanche Dumont (21), a student living in the Mission District, had disappeared a week earlier. She had last been seen with Theodore Durrant (23), a medical student who lived on Fair Oaks St.
    (SFC, 10/18/12, p.D1)

1895        Apr 11, Anaheim, Ca., completed its new electric light system.
    (MC, 4/11/02)

1895        Apr 13, In San Francisco a woman at the Emmanuel Baptist Church, on Bartlett St. between 22nd and 23rd, discovered the stabbed and raped body of Minnie Williams (21). Minnie was last seen with medical student Theodore Durrant the night before. Police then found the body of Blanche Dumont in the church belfry. Investigators said she had been strangled 10 days earlier. Durrant was later convicted and hanged at San Quentin in 1898. The church was demolished in 1915.
    (SFC, 10/18/12, p.C4)
1895        Apr 13, Start of Sherlock Holmes "Adventure of Solitary Cyclist."
    (MC, 4/13/02)

1895        Apr 14, 1st performance of Gustav Mahler's (incomplete) 2nd Symphony.
    (MC, 4/14/02)

1895        Apr 15, Josephine Blatt of the US made a record hip-and-harness lift of 3564 lb.
    (MC, 4/15/02)

1895        Apr 17, China and Japan signed the peace treaty of Shimonoseki. This followed a war over control of the Korean peninsula.
    (HN, 4/17/98)(Econ, 1/15/05, Survey p.4)

1895        Apr 23, Russia, France, and Germany forced Japan to return the Liaodong peninsula to China.
    (HN, 4/23/99)

1895        Apr 24, Joshua Slocum (1844-1909), a Canadian-American sailor, began a voyage around the world from Boston in a 37-foot rebuilt fishing boat called the Spray. He ended on Jun 27, 1898, at Newport, Rhode Island. His record was not beaten until 1938. In 1899 Slocum authored "Sailing Alone Around the World."
    (www.millicentlibrary.org/slocum.htm)(WSJ, 3/9/00, p.A27)(WSJ, 6/21/08, p.W8)
1895        Apr 24, S. Constantine Timoshenko, Russian marshal, people's commissioner, was born.
    (MC, 4/24/02)

1895        Apr 29, Malcolm Sargent, English conductor (Promenade Concerts), was born.
    (MC, 4/29/02)

1895        Apr, Donaldina Cameron (1869-1968) began working at the Mission Home in San Francisco beginning decades of work crusading against sex slavery in Chinatown. In 1977 Mildred Crowl Martin authored “Chinatown’s Angry Angel: The Story of Donaldina Cameron."
    (http://tinyurl.com/y7o5otm8)(SFC, 2/3/18, p.C1)

1895        May 1, In San Francisco Gelett Burgess (1866-1951), along with a group of like-minded associates, began publishing an irreverent literary magazine called the Lark. His poems, "The Purple Cow" appeared in the first issue. Burgess was the leader of group of artists living in the Montgomery Block. A final issue, number 25 entitled The Epi-Lark, was published May 1, 1897.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gelett_Burgess)(SFC, 10/27/18, p.C2)

1895        May 2, Lorenz Milton Hart, lyricist, collaborator with Richard Rodgers.
    (HN, 5/2/02)

1895        May 6, Legendary silent-screen star Rudolph Valentino was born in Castellaneta, Italy.
    (AP, 5/6/97)

1895        May 8, Edmund Wilson, American critic and essayist, was born.
    (HN, 5/7/02)
1895        May 8, China ceded Taiwan to Japan under the Apr 17 Treaty of Shimonoseki. This followed a war over control of the Korean peninsula. Japan began administering the Senkaku Islands between Okinawa and Taiwan following the Treaty of Shimonoseki. Japanese occupation ended in 1945. The US took over after WW II but returned them to Japan in 1972. China later disputed Japanese control of the islands.
    (SFEC, 10/8/96, A8)(Econ, 1/15/05, Survey p.4)(SSFC, 2/18/07, p.G5)(Econ, 9/25/10, p.54)

1895        May 11, William Grant Still was born. He is considered the Dean of black African composers.
    (HN, 5/11/99)

1895        May 19, Johns Hopkins, merchant and philanthropist, was born.
    (HN, 5/19/01)

1895        May 20, The 1st commercial movie performance was at 153 Broadway in NYC.
    (MC, 5/20/02)
1895        May 20, The US income tax was declared unconstitutional.
    (SFEC, 1/25/98, Z1 p.8)

1895        May 23, The New York Public Library had its origins with an agreement combining the city’s existing Astor and Lenox libraries.
    (HFA, ‘96, p.30)(AP, 5/23/97)

1895        May 24, Samuel I. Newhouse, US millionaire publisher (Parade, Vogue, Glamour), was born.
    (HN, 5/24/98)(MC, 5/24/02)

1895        May 25, Playwright Oscar Wilde was convicted of a morals charge in London; he was sentenced to two years in prison.
    (AP, 5/25/08)
1895        May 25, Ahmed Djevdet Pasja (73), Turkish minister of Justice, died.
    (SC, 5/25/02)

1895        May 26, Dorothea Lange, documentary photographer, was born.
    (HN, 5/26/01)
1895        May 26, Paul Lukas, actor (Watch on the Rhine, Sphynx), was born in Budapest, Hungary.
    (MC, 5/26/02)

1895        May, Newspaper cartoonist Richard Felton Outcault introduced a new and "distinctly different" cartoon to the readers of Joseph Pulitzer's New York World. "At the Circus in Hogan's Alley" set the standard for modern newspaper comic strips with a zany cast of recurring characters in boisterous plots printed in a color supplement. Americans loved the cartoon, especially the character Mickey Dugan, the goofy-looking boy described as having big ears, a gap-toothed grin and a long yellow nightshirt. By the summer of 1896, "The Yellow Kid" was so closely identified with Pulitzer's newspaper that the term "yellow journalism" was coined to describe the new style of sensationalistic reporting that characterized the World and many of its competitors.
    (HN, 5/18/99)(Econ, 12/22/12, p.129)

1895        Jun 4, Dino Conte Grandi, Italy’s delegate to League of Nations, was born.
    (HN, 6/4/98)

1895        Jun 10, Hattie McDaniel was born in Wichita, Kansas. She was the first African-American actress to win an Oscar which she won for her role as a maid in Gone With the Wind.

1895        Jun 11, Nikolai A. Bulganin, premier of the Soviet Union from 1955 to 1958, was born.
    (HN, 6/11/99)
1895        Jun 11, Charles E. Duryea received the first U.S. patent granted to an American inventor for a gasoline-driven automobile.
    (HN, 6/11/98)

1895        Jun 24, Jack Dempsey, American boxer, was born. He later became world heavyweight champion with a record of 62-1-0 and 49knockouts.
    (HN, 6/24/99)

1895        Jul 4, The words to "America the Beautiful" appeared for the first time in "The Congregationalist", a Boston magazine; the author was Katherine Lee Bates (1819-1910), a Wellesley professor, who penned it in 1893. It has often been suggested that this song be adopted as the national anthem of the US since it is easier to sing than the "The Star Spangled Banner." In 1904 Clarence Barbour adapted it to the melody of Samuel Ward’s “Materna" (1890). Bates’ final version was completed in 1911. In 2001 Lynn Sherr authored "America the Beautiful."
    (WSJ, 9/28/01, p.W13)(SSFC, 10/21/01, Par p.8)(AH, 10/04, p.26)

1895        Jul 5, Gordon Jacob, composer (William Byrd Suite), was born.
    (MC, 7/5/02)

1895        Jul 10, Carl Orff, composer (Carmina Burana/Antigonae; Mozart prize 1969), was born in Munich, Germany.
    (MC, 7/10/02)

1895        Jul 12, Kirsten Flagstad, Norwegian opera singer, was born.
    (HN, 7/12/01)
1895        Jul 12, R. Buckminster Fuller (d.1983), architect and engineer, was born. "The more we learn the more we realize how little we know."
    (AP, 7/1/97)(HN, 7/12/01)
1895        Jul 12, Oscar Hammerstein II, lyricist who worked with Richard Rodgers, was born in NYC.
    (MC, 7/12/02)

1895        Jul 14, William Leefe Robinson, the first man to win the Victoria Cross for shooting down a German Zeppelin, was born.
    (HN, 7/14/98)

1895        Jul 15, Stephen Stambulov, ex-prime minister of Bulgaria was murdered by Macedonian rebels.
    (HN, 7/15/98)

1895        Jul 24, Robert Graves (d.1985), British poet and novelist (Goodbye to All That, I Claudius), was born.
    (HN, 7/24/02)(Econ, 8/17/13, p.71)

1895        Jul 26, Gracie Allen, vaudeville, screen, radio and television personality, wife and foil of George Burns, was born.
    (HN, 7/26/01)

1895        Aug 5, Friedrich Engels (b.1820), English socialist who collaborated with Karl Marx on “The Communist Manifesto" (1848) and “Das Kapital" (1867), died. Engels had edited the second and third volumes of Das Kapital after Marx's death (1883). In 2009 Tristram Hunt authored “Marx’s General: The Revolutionary Life of Friedrich Engels."

1895        Aug 10, The 1st Queen's Hall Promenade Concert featured Wagner's "Rienzi."
    (MC, 8/10/02)

1895        Aug 19, John Wesley Hardin was gunned down.

1895        Aug 20, Start of Sherlock Holmes "Adventure of Norwood Builder."
    (MC, 8/20/02)

1895        Aug 24, Richard Cushing, the director of the Society for the Propagation of the Faith, was born.
    (HN, 8/24/98)

1895        Sep 3, The first professional American football game was played in Latrobe, Pennsylvania between the Latrobe Young Men’s Christian Association and the Jeannette Athletic Club. Latrobe wins 12-0.
    (HN, 9/3/00)

1895        Sep 8, Adam Opel (58), German manufacturer of sewing machines and bicycles, died. In 1899 the firm acquired a car factory.
    (MC, 9/8/01)(www.histomobile.com)

1895        Sep 17, Ethiopia’s Emperor Menelik II issued a mobilization proclamation calling on men to gather to resist the Italian army.
    (ON, 2/11, p.7)

1895        Sep 18, John G. Diefenbaker, conservative prime minister (13th) of Canada from 1957 to 1963, was born in Neustadt, Ontario.
    (HN, 9/18/98)(MC, 9/18/01)
1895        Sep 18, D.D. Palmer of Davenport, Iowa, founded the 1st "college" of chiropractic near a duck farm in Iowa.
    (MC, 9/18/01)
1895        Sep 18, The Montana State Capital Site Commission received the four property deeds from developer Peter Winne for the new seat of government in Helena.
    (HIR, 9/11/97, p.5A)

1895        Sep 21, Juan de la Cierva, aeronautical engineer who invented the autogyro, was born.
    (HN, 9/21/98)
1895        Sep 21, The Duryea Motor Wagon Company, the 1st auto manufacturer, opened.
    (MC, 9/21/01)

1895        Sep 22, Paul Muni, actor (Academy Award 1936-Angel on My Shoulder), was born in Juarez.
    (MC, 9/22/01)

1895        Sep 28, Louis Pasteur (b.1822), French chemist (Pasteurization), died at 72. In 1995 Gerald Geison (d.2001) authored "The Private Science of Louis Pasteur.
    (SFC, 7/13/01, p.D6)(MC, 9/28/01)

1895        Oct 1, Romanians in Constantinople were massacred.
    (MC, 10/1/01)

1895        Oct 2, The 1st cartoon comic strip was printed in a newspaper. [see May, 1895]
    (MC, 10/2/01)

1895        Oct 4, Buster Keaton (Joseph F. Keaton), star of silent film comedies including Sherlock, Jr. and The General, was born in Piqua, Kan. He is considered a legendary presence in the history of cinema. Nicknamed 'The Great Stone Face', he graduated to full-length films in the 1920s, which featured his amazing stunts rivaled only by Chaplin.
    (AP, 10/4/97)(HN, 10/4/98)(MC, 10/4/01)
1895        Oct 4, Hattie McDaniel, actress (Gone With the Wind, Academy Award), was born.
    (MC, 10/4/01)
1895        Oct 4, Richard Sorge, German spy for USSR in Tokyo (WW II), was born.
    (MC, 10/4/01)
1895        Oct 4, The first U.S. Open golf tournament was held, at the Newport Country Club in Rhode Island. At the US Amateur Golf Championship at Newport, R.I., officials ruled against the prone position use of a pool cue to sink a put.
    (AP, 10/4/97)(SFC, 11/29/97, p.C3)

1895        Oct 6, Caroline Gordon, writer, was born. Her work included "The Strange Children."
    (HN, 10/6/00)

1895        Oct 8, Juan Peron, Argentinean dictator, was born. He served as President from  1946-55 and 1973-74.
    (HN, 10/8/98)(MC, 10/8/01)

1895        Oct 17, Doris Humphrey, modern dance choreographer, was born.
    (HN, 10/17/00)

1895        Oct 19, Lewis Mumford, American social critic who wrote "The City in History," was born.
    (HN, 10/19/98)

1895        Oct 22, David Belasco's "Heart of Maryland," premiered in NYC.
    (MC, 10/22/01)

1895        Oct 31, Basil H. Liddell Hart, English military historian and publicist, was born.
    (MC, 10/31/01)

1895        Nov 2, In San Francisco the Chutes amusement park first opened on Haight Street, featuring the shoot-the-chutes water slide. It relocated to Fulton Street and 10th Avenue in 1902 and was extremely popular right after the 1906 earthquake and fire, because it was the only amusement park and theater that survived. In the post-quake years, Fillmore Street became the entertainment area, with numerous nickelodeons and other attractions. The Chutes on Fulton Street closed after New Year’s Eve, 1908, and reopened on Fillmore and Turk Streets on July 14, 1909, but without the shoot-the-chutes. The New Chutes offered a host of other amusement attractions and soon built a first class vaudeville Theater, where in 1910, Sophie Tucker revived her career after being black-balled by Flo Ziegfeld back in New York. The New Chutes would burn on the Memorial Day weekend of the opening of the Summer season, on May 29, 1911, the same weekend that Dreamland at Coney Island would be destroyed on the other side of the continent. The theater was saved, but the entire wooden Chutes amusement park was destroyed and never reopened.
    (AJSF, Vol. 14. No. 2, Winter, 2003)(SFC, 12/24/16, p.C2)

1895        Nov 5, Walter Gieseking, German pianist and composer, was born.
    (MC, 11/5/01)
1895        Nov 5, US state of Utah accepted female suffrage.
    (MC, 11/5/01)
1895        Nov 5, George B. Selden of Rochester, N.Y., received the first U.S. patent for an "improved Road Engine."
    (AP, 11/5/07)
1895        Nov 5, King Edward VII said "We are all Socialists nowadays."
    (MC, 11/5/01)

1895        Nov 8, Wilhelm Konrad von Röntgen (50), German physicist, discovered X-rays.
    (ON, 11/04, p.6)(www.slac.stanford.edu/pubs/beamline/25/2/25-2-assmus.pdf)

1895        Nov 9, In San Francisco some 20 police officers marched down Sixth Street to the shantytown known as Dumpville. All the crude dwelling were raised and all that was combustible was burned.
    (SFC, 10/24/15, p.C2)

1895        Nov 10, John Knudsen Northrop, aircraft designer (Northrop Air), was born.
    (MC, 11/10/01)

1895        Nov 13, 1st shipment of canned pineapple from Hawaii.
    (MC, 11/13/01)

1895        Nov 16, Paul Hindemith (d.1963), composer and violinist, was born in Hanau, Germany. His work included "Cardillac."
    (WUD, 1994, p.672)(WSJ, 8/20/96, p.A8)(MC, 11/16/01)

1895        Nov 17, Grace Carolyn Swanson, the mother of future Playboy Magazine publisher Hugh Hefner, was born in Holdrege, Nebraska.
    (SFC, 3/22/97, p.A21)

1895        Nov 19, Frederick E. Blaisdell patented the pencil.
    (MC, 11/19/01)

1895        Nov 25, Wilhelm Kempff, pianist (Unter dem Zimbelstern), was born in Juterbog, Germany.
    (MC, 11/25/01)

1895        Nov 26, Bertil Lindblad, Swedish astronomer (Milky Way system), was born.
    (MC, 11/26/01)
1895        Nov 26, Hawaiian Sugar Planters Assn. formed.
    (MC, 11/26/01)

1895        Nov 27, Alfred Nobel, explosives magnate, signed his last will and testament at the Swedish-Norwegian Club in Paris, setting aside his estate to establish the Nobel Prize after his death (see Dec 10, 1896). He named Ragnar Sohlman (25), his favorite lab assistant, as his executor and Rudolf Lilljequist as co-executor.
    (http://nobelprize.org/alfred_nobel/will/will-full.html)(ON, 4/07, p.6)

1895        Nov 28, Jose Iturbi, pianist (Pequena danza Espanola), was born in Valencia, Spain.
    (MC, 11/28/01)
1895        Nov 28, The Ingleside Race Track opened on Thanksgiving Day with at least 7,000 spectators. Semper Lex won the feature Palace Hotel Stakes. Gambler Ed Corrigan led a group of investors that formed the Pacific Jockey Club and bought 148 acres for the track.
    (SFC, 8/28/00, p.A2)(SFC, 7/10/21, p.B4)
1895        Nov 28, America's first auto race between gasoline-powered automobiles was staged on Thanksgiving Day. The race, sponsored by the Chicago Times Herald, was to be run along a 52-mile course of muddy, frozen streets from Jackson Park to Waukegan, Illinois. The race attracted 80 entries but only six starters. James Franklin Duryea drove his brother’s car (Charles Edgar Duryea) in the first automobile race from Chicago to Waukegan over 52 miles of snowy roads at an average 7.5 mph. He collected $2,000 from the Chicago Times-Herald. It took him 7 hours and 53 minutes to complete the round trip. The average speed was 7 mph. 80 cars entered the race, 6 started and 2 finished. J. Frank Duryea, driving the Duryea at an average speed of 5 mph, crossed the finish line 10 hours and 23 minutes after the start. One other participant was forced to drop out of the race, suffering from hypothermia.
    (SFC, 5/17/97, p.E3)(AP, 11/28/97)(DTnet, 11/28/97)(HNPD, 11/28/98)

1895        Nov 29, Busby Berkeley, director, was born. His work included "42nd Street."
    (HN, 11/29/00)

1895        Nov, A group of 98 Italian families arrived in New Orleans on the steamship Chateau Yquem. Each family had a contract for land bought on credit and to be repaid in cotton crops from work at the Sunnyside plantation in Arkansas owned by Austin Corbin (1827-1896), a founding member of the American Society for the Suppression of Jews.
    (Econ 5/27/17, p.27)

1895        Dec 7, Sir Milton Margay, first Prime Minister of Sierra Leone, was born.
    (HN, 12/7/98)

1895        Dec 14, Britain’s King George VI (d.1952), was born.  He rule from 1936-1952.
    (HN, 12/14/98)(MC, 12/14/01)

1895        Dec 17, Anti-Saloon League of America was formed in Washington, DC.
    (MC, 12/17/01)

1895        Dec 28, The French Lumiere Brothers showed the first commercial moving pictures in Paris to a small audience of around 40 people. This event is considered to mark the birth of the movie industry.
    (NPR, 12/28/95)

1895        Dec 31, Ogden Bolton Jr. of Canton, Ohio, was awarded US patent 552,271 for an "electrical bicycle."
    (https://tinyurl.com/cgn6qfp)(SFC, 3/5/21, p.B2)

1895        Frank Raymond Leavis, English literary critic, was born. He edited the journal "Scrutiny." In 1997 Ian McKillop published his biography: "F.R. Leavis: A Life in Criticism."
    (WSJ, 6/10/97, p.A16)

1895        English landscape painter Francis Barraud painted "His Master’s Voice." The work featured his dog, Nipper, listening to a gramophone. It was commissioned by the Gramophone Co. The Philadelphia Victor Talking machine Co. acquired rights to use it as a trademark and it first appeared in the US in 1903.
    (SFC, 2/19/96, zz-1 p.2)

c1895         Degas painted "Jockeys."
    (SFEC, 6/21/98, BR p.8)

c1895        Elizabeth Jane Gardner, American artist, painted “The Shepherd David" and exhibited it at the Paris Salon of 1895. She was the 1st American woman to exhibit in the Paris Salon.
    (NMWA, 12/04, p.28)

1895        Ethel Reed, graphic artist, designed the cover for the Arabella & Araminta Stories.
    (Smith., 5/95, p.36, illus.)

1895        John Singer Sargent painted "Mrs. Carl Meyer and Her Children."
    (WSJ, 2/16/00, p.A14)

1895        Kate Sowerby painted "A Portrait of a Bulldog."
    (SFEM, 10/18/98, p.15)

1895        A Parisian artist and 5 assistants completed a 15,400-sq.-foot circular painting of Jerusalem at the moment of Christ’s crucifixion after 4 years of work. It went on display at the St. Anne Museum in St. Anne de Beaupre, Quebec.
    (SSFC, 1/21/01, p.T10)

1895        The American best seller book list 1st appeared. Fiction by George du Maurier and Arthur Conan Doyle appeared on the list.
    (WSJ, 12/20/01, p.A1)

1895        Stephen Crane (b.1871) published "The Red Badge of Courage."
    (SFEC, 8/23/98, BR p.3)

1895        Theodore Fontane (1819-1898), German novelist and poet, authored Effi Briest, the last of the great 19th-century novels of adultery.

1895        Thomas Hardy published "Jude the Obscure." "The bold sexual content of Jude caused a Victorian outcry that prompted Hardy to abandon narrative writing for verse."
    (V.D.-H.K.p.279)(SFC, 11/1/96, p.C3)

1895        H.G. Wells wrote "The Time Machine." In 1960 it was made into a film.
    (NH, 4/97, p.6)(NH, 4/97, p.7)

1895        George Whitefield Chadwick, composer and long time director of the New England Conservatory of Music, began work on the first of 4 "Symphonic Sketches," completed in 1904.
    (SFC, 2/3/97, p.D3)

1895        A.A.B. Peterson, aka Banjo Paterson, (1864-1941) wrote his poem Waltzing Matilda while on holiday in Queensland, Australia. The name referred to a slang term for drifting around the outback with a bedroll (your matilda) slung over the shoulder. Christina Macpherson adopted the poem to the Scottish tune “Thou Bonnie Wood o’ Craigielea." He later had his image pictured on Australia's $10 bill.
    (SFEC, 5/30/99, Z1 p.8)(NG, 8/04, p.24)

1895        Oscar Wilde wrote his play "An Ideal Husband."
    (WSJ, 5/9/96, p.A-16)(WSJ, 9/16/98, p.A20)

1895        Henry James was hissed by a theater audience at the presentation of his first and only play. Cynthia Ozick described the event in an essay in her 1996 book: "Fame & Folly."
    (WSJ, 5/22/96, p.A-18)

1895        John Philip Sousa composed his march "El Capitan."
    (SI-WPC, 12/6/96)

1895        In San Francisco the Haight Street Grounds, used for nine seasons of baseball and football, was demolished and subdivided into 64 buildable lots.
    (SSFC, 4/2/17, p.A10)
1895        In San Francisco a 3-story, Queen Anne style home was built at 573 S. Van Ness. It became the home of brewer Pet Windler. Next door stood the palatial home of Claus Spreckles, which was later replaced by a paint store.
    (SSFC, 8/26/12, p.C2)
1895        In San Francisco a 3-story, Queen Anne style home was built at 900 Guerrero St. It was designed by Charles Havens for John Daly, the dairy farmer after whom Daly City is named.
    (SSFC, 6/15/14, p.C2)
1895        San Francisco’s Carville community began about this time on the dunes south of GG Park as Col. Dailey rented an abandoned horse car from Adolph Sutro and turned it into a coffee shop called the Annex. The Market St. Railway Co. began offering horse-drawn trolleys for $20 with seats and $10 without seats. These formed the framework for many beachside houses and by 1908 Carville’s population was estimated at 2,000. In 1913 the Oceanside Improvement Club ceremonially set fire to four cars. By the 1920s Carville was mostly gone.
    (SFEC, 11/15/98, p.A15)(SFC, 1/14/99, p.D10)(SFC, 7/20/13, p.C2)
1895        A San Francisco judge issued an injunction against quarrymen George and Harry Gray after a shoemaker’s house was blasted off its foundation at Union St and Calhoun. The Grays shifted operations to a quarry near 26th and Douglass streets in Noe Valley.
    (SFC, 2/22/14, p.C3)

1895        The National Trust started in the Lake District of NY state to "hold places of national interest and natural beauty for the benefit of the nation."
    (SFCM, 3/17/02, p.18)

1895        The first Mormon missionaries went to Russia.
    (SFC, 3/21/98, p.A12)

1895        The Biltmore House in Asheville N.C. boasted all the new electrical conveniences.
    (WSJ, 10/25/96, p.B10)

1895        Charles Crittenton, a businessman and philanthropist, and Dr. Kate Waller Barrett founded the Florence Crittenton mission for young women in Washington, DC. It was named in memory of Crittenton’s daughter. The Florence Crittenton Mission sought to support and empower unwed mothers and provide for the health of their infant children.

1895        Cornelius Vanderbilt built his 70-room mansion, the Breakers, in Newport, Rhode Island. [Cornelius died in 1877, it must have been William]
    (USAT, 5/8/98, p.3D)

1895        Booker T. Washington addressed a crowd at an exposition in Atlanta and expounded on the need for self-reliance among Blacks.
    (WSJ, 11/16/98, p.A36)

1895        The first pizza joint in Manhattan opened for business.
    (Hem., Nov.’95, p.129)

1895        Emile Levassor won the Paris to Bordeaux auto race. Later in auto racing a yellow flag with a red stripe came to mean oil on the track.
    (SFC, 8/24/96, p.E1)(SFC, 7/3/97, p.D4)

1895         US Congress passed corrective legislation for the counterfeiting or possession of counterfeit stamps.

1895        Captain Michael A. Healy (b.1839) was stripped of his command in the US Revenue Cutter Service and his position with the Arctic Patrol, in which he served for 21 years. During his service he ferried reindeer across the Bering Strait to Alaska provide a food source for the Inuit.
    (SFC, 4/15/05, p.E15)

1895        The New York Stock Exchange first proposed that companies distribute an annual statement of earnings to shareholders.
    (WSJ, 1/8/96, p.C-1)

c1895    Capital flows between Europe and America reversed with a net credit to America. In 2003 Thomas Kessner authored "Capital City," the story of New York’s rise to a world financial center.
    (WSJ, 4/2/03, p.D8)

1895        Marian Sarah Parker became the 1st woman to acquire a Michigan degree in engineering as she graduated from the Univ. of Michigan’s dept. of civil engineering.
    (MT, Summer/04, p.6)
1895        In Detroit, Mi., an explosion destroyed the former Detroit Journal building and killed dozens of people.
    (SFC, 10/30/13, p.A9)

1895        George Henderson founded Dorchester Pottery outside Boston. Charles A. Hill, his brother-in-law, was the plant manager and decorator. It went out of business in 1979.
    (SFC, 6/17/98, Z1 p.3)(SFC, 12/26/07, p.G3)

1895        Diebold Co. introduced its Tisco time lock and safe. It was advertised as “anti-dynamite" and production continued to 1900.
    (WSJ, 12/2/06, p.P9)

1895        William Randolph Hearst (1863-1951) bought the New York Morning Journal for $180,000 and moved from SF to NYC. He soon renamed it the New York Journal. In 2008 Kenneth Whyte authored “The Uncrowned King: The Sensational Rise of William Randolph Hearst," an account of Heart’s first three years in NYC.
    (SFEM, 11/8/98, p.16)(SFC, 8/7/99, p.A9)(WSJ, 12/27/08, p.W8)

1895        Sears Roebuck issued its 1st catalog. Within 2 years it was advertising 6,000 items.
    (WSJ, 12/17/03, p.B1)

c1895    John E. Wells was editor and publisher of the Caldwell (Kansas) Weekly Advance.
    (SFEC, 3/8/98, BR p.1)

1895        King Camp Gilette imagined an inexpensive double-edged razor that could be discarded after a few shaves.
    (WSJ, 2/13/98, p.A13)

1895        Charlie Fey, a German immigrant, sold the first Liberty Bell nickel slot machine, to a San Francisco saloon keeper.
    (SFEC, 5/30/99, Z1 p.8)

1895        By this year the US produced more steel than did Great Britain.
    (WSJ, 5/28/96, p. R-26)

1895        Bastian Brothers was founded in Rochester, NY, as a jewelry store. It later expanded to manufacture custom award pins, medals and similar items.
    (SFC, 5/21/08, p.G7)

c1895        In Chicago the Fairbank’s Company introduced “Fairbank’s Fairy Soap." The brand disappeared in the 1930’s when the company was bought out. Nathaniel Kellogg Fairbank had begun producing soap following his involvement in the lard-rending business in the 1880s.
    (SFC, 5/4/05, p.G5)

1895        The Montgomery Ward catalog offered the game of Tiddledy Winks for 20 cents.
    (WSJ, 12/17/03, p.B1)
1895        The J&E Stevens Co. began making Rival toy stoves. The mass-produced cast-iron toys were sold with a coal bucket, a tea kettle, frying pan and cooking pot. The company was in business until the 1930s.
    (SFC, 3/19/97, z1 p.3)
1895        The US Bowling Congress began keeping league records.
    (WSJ, 5/24/08, p.A7)

1895        US Cordage failed and was again reorganized. Standard Rope & Twine eventually became successor to its operations.
    (WSJ, 5/28/96, R46)

1895        In Wisconsin Frank Grove, James Clark, J. Howard Jenkins and George Jones co-founded OshKosh B’Gosh.
    (SSFC, 8/20/06, p.M4)

1895        Philosopher John Dewey founded the Dept. of Education at the Univ. of Chicago. Closure of the dept. was announced in 1997.
    (MT, Fall. ‘97, p.19)

1895        Prof. Emile Pierre van Ermengem of Belgium identified the bacterium Bacillus botulinus.
    (NW, 5/13/02, p.54)

1895        While searching for gold in Montana’s Yogo Gulch, Jake Hoover found sapphires. Hoover found little gold in the Yogo Creek and Gulch, however, the small, translucent blue pebbles that frequently cluttered the riffles of his sluice box turned out to be gem-quality sapphires. From 1898 to 1923, the Yogo Dike yielded 16 million carats of sapphire-2.4 million carats of gem quality.
    (HNQ, 5/13/98)

1895        Richard Wetherill, a young cowboy and amateur archeologist, discovered the Keet Seel Anasazi ruins in northern Arizona. Shards of broken pottery marked the site and some say that Keet Seel in Navajo means "place of broken pottery."
    (Hem., 5/97, p.80)

1895        John Hardin (b1853), gunslinger, was shot in the back of the head by gunslinger, John Selman. Hardin used a .38 caliber Colt six-shooter and killed 44 men during his life. The book "The last Gunslinger" by Richard C. Marohn tells his story.
    (SFC, 10/12/96, p.E1,3)

1895        Etienne Leopold Trouvelot (b.1827), French artist, amateur entomologist and immigrant to the US, died. In 1869 he imported gypsy-moth eggs to set up a silk production project in the backyard of his Medford, Mass., home. The moth became a national pest.
    (WSJ, 5/1/01, p.A24)(SSFC, 5/22/05, Par p.4)

1895         Afghanistan's northern border was fixed and guaranteed by Russia.

1895        Paul Otlet (1868-1944), Belgian librarian, met future Nobel Prize winner Henri La Fontaine, who joined him in planning to create the Mundaneum, a master bibliography of all the world’s published knowledge. Otlet and LaFontaine eventually persuaded the Belgian government to support their project, proposing to build a “city of knowledge" that would bolster the government’s bid to become host of the League of Nations.

1895        The burghers of Bristol, England, erected a statue of Edward Colston, a 17th-century merchant who had endowed local charities. Colston had made his money largely through the Royal African Company, which shipped slaves from Africa to the West Indies. His statue weas toppled in 2020.
    (Econ., 7/6/20, p.8)

1895        Chinese government officials asked industrialist Zhang Jian to launch his business as a guandu shangban, a government-supervised, merchant-managed enterprise.
    (Econ., 11/28/20, p.37)
1895        Chinese authorities discovered a consignment of some 1000 revolvers hidden in casks of cement that had been shipped by the Scientific Agricultural Society, a group organized by Sun Yat-sen aiming to overthrow the Qing emperor.
    (ON, 10/08, p.6)
1895        In China a student-led protest erupted in Beijing against the humiliating terms of the peace treaty that followed China’s defeat in a war with Japan.
    (Econ, 10/11/14, p.50)

1895        Winston Churchill was garrisoned in Havana, Cuba, and began smoking cigars at age 22. On leave for several months from his unit, the 4th Hussars, he reported on the events for the Daily Graphic.
    (SFEM, 12/15/96, p.15)(HNQ, 1/25/01)

1895        The French union Confederation Generale du Travail (CGT) was founded.
    (Econ, 9/30/17, SR p.7)
1895        In Paris, France, the Castel Beranger at 14 Rue la Fontaine, designed by Hector Guimard (1867-1942), was completed. The Art Nouveau building was nicknamed “Castel Derange" (Mad Castle).
    (WSJ, 1/6/06, p.P16)

1895        French Guinea was made a dependent colony, and its Governor then became a Lieutenant Governor to a Governor-General in Dakar.

1895        The Central Market Hall was built in Budapest, Hungary.
    (Sm, 3/06, p.82)

1895        Bank Rakyat (BRI) was founded by the Dutch in Indonesia as an institution for the elite. In 1983 the state bank reorganized and began lending successfully to poor people.
    (Econ, 11/5/05, Survey p.10)

1895        The Venice Biennale was launched as a display for decorative arts and to champion living Italian artists.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Venice_Biennale)(Econ 5/20/17, p.75)

1895        The Heian Shrine was built in Kyoto, Japan as a 2/3 replica of the Imperial Palace. It was built to commemorate the 1,100th anniversary of Kyoto and exhibits regal Heian architecture.
    (Hem., 2/96, p.57)
1895        Japan’s Nara National Museum was established.
    (Hem, 9/04, p.46)

1895        Modern-day Kenya became part of the British East African Protectorate.
    (WSJ, 1/30/08, p.A18)

1895        Work began on a rail line between Nairobi and Mombasa, Kenya, and became the Lunatic Express from media speculation that the planners were insane. [see 1905]
    (SSFC, 12/22/02, p.C4)(AP, 10/19/05)

1895        In Nigeria a massacre occurred in Nembe over palm oil.
    (SFC, 9/30/98, p.A10)

1895        In Senegal French authorities, fearing his growing influence, exiled religious leader Sheikh Ahmadou Bamba to their other colonial holdings in West Africa.
    (AP, 4/22/03)

1895        Abdullah Hassan, the “Mad Mullah" of Somaliland, returned from a pilgrimage to Mecca with inspiration to defy the British in emulation of the Mahdi in Sudan.
    (Econ, 8/26/06, p.20)

1895        In South Africa Barney Barnato, a mining magnate, bought a block of land at the corner of Eloff and Commissioner streets in Johannesburg to develop a world-class hotel. His untimely death and the Boer War delayed the opening of the Carlton Hotel to 1906.
    (SFEC, 5/31/98, p.A22)
1895        South African Breweries (SAB) was founded to quench the thirst of gold prospectors around Johannesburg. In 1999 the firm moved its main stock market listing to London.
    (Econ, 3/24/12, p.67)(Econ, 5/31/14, p.55)

1895-1896    Prince Henri d’Orleans encountered the dwarf T’rung people of Burma during a journey to the sources of the Irrawaddy River.
    (CW, Fall ‘03, p.9)
1895-1896    The Dungan Revolt of this period was a rebellion of various Chinese Muslim ethnic groups in Qinghai and Gansu against the Qing dynasty, that originated because of a violent dispute between two Sufi orders of the same sect. The Wahhabi inspired Yihewani organization then joined in and encouraged the revolt, which was crushed by loyalist Muslims.

1895-1905    The Central Station of Antwerp, Belgium, was built. It looks like a Baroque church and is often referred to as the Railway Cathedral.

1895-1935    The C.A. Lehmann & son Co. ran a porcelain factory in Kuhla, Thuringia.
    (SFC, 8/19/98, Z1 p.6)

1895-1937    Ninety-three men were hanged at California’s Folsom Prison.
    (SFEC, 1/26/97, p.B4)

1895-1946    Laszlo Moholy-Nagy, Bauhaus member, founds new Bauhaus in Chicago.

1895-1956    Michael Arlen, English novelist: "Any man should be happy who is allowed the patience of his wife, the tolerance of his children and the affection of waiters."
    (AP, 9/27/98)

1895-1972    Edmund Wilson, American literary critic, becomes a major literary figure for his analysis of writers such as Hemingway, Eliot, Joyce, Lawrence, James, Fitzgerald, and other modernists.
    (WSJ, 4/26/95, p.A-14)

1895-1978    William Grant Still, the first important black symphonic composer.
    (WSJ, 12/9/98, p.A20)

1895-1979    Bishop Fulton J. Sheen, American religious leader: "Freedom is the right to do what you ought to do."
    (AP, 5/22/00)

1895-1982     Anna Freud, Austrian-born psychoanalyst: "Creative minds always have been known to survive any kind of bad training."
    (AP, 5/12/98)

1895-1986     Jiddu Krishnamurti, Indian author and philosopher: "To seek fulfillment is to invite frustration."
    (AP, 6/19/98)

1895-1991    Martha Graham, founder of the Graham Modern Dance Company.
    (WSJ, 11/21/95, p.A-12)

1896         Jan 4, Utah was admitted to the Union as the 45th state.
    (AP, 1/4/98)

1896         Jan 5, An Austrian newspaper (Wiener Presse) reported the discovery by German physicist Wilhelm Roentgen of a type of radiation that came to be known as "X-rays."
    (AP, 1/5/98)

1896        Jan 7, Fanny Farmer published her 1st cookbook.
    (MC, 1/7/02)

1896        Jan 8, Jaromir Weinberger, composer (Bird's Opera, Schwanda der Duddelsacpfeifer), was born in Prague, Czechoslovakia.
    (MC, 1/8/02)

1896        Jan 12, The 1st X-ray photo on record in the US was made by Dr. Henry Louis Smith at Davidson, NC. Dr. Henry Smith shot a bullet into the hand of a dead human body and made a 15 minute x-ray exposure to reveal the bullet.
    (SFEC, 6/14/98, Z1 p.8)(MC, 1/12/02)

1896        Jan 15, Matthew B. Brady (73), US Civil War photographer, died in the charity ward of a New York hospital at age 73. His project "Gallery of Illustrious Americans" included many leading figures of his time. In 1955 James D. Horan authored "Matthew Brady, Historian with a Camera." In 1946 Roy Meredith authored "Mr. Lincoln’s Camera man, Matthew B. Brady."
    (ON, 1/00, p.12)(ON, 12/06, p.10)

1896        Jan 20, George Burns (d.3/9/96), vaudeville comedian and actor, was born Nathan Birnbaum in New York City. He hosted radio and television show with his wife Gracie Allen before going into movies like The Sunshine Boys. "By the time you're 80 years old, you've learned everything. You only have to remember it."
    (WSJ, 3/11/96, p. A1)(AP, 1/20/98)(HN, 1/20/99)

1896        Feb 1, The first production of Puccini’s opera "La Boheme" was performed in Turin.
    (SFC, 5/26/96, SFEM p.4)(AP, 2/1/97)

1896        Feb 8, Georges Feydeau's "Le Dindon," premiered in Paris.
    (MC, 2/8/02)

1896        Feb 11, Oscar Wilde's "Salome," premiered in Paris.
    (MC, 2/11/02)

1896        Feb 14, Theodor Herzl published "Der Judenstaat."
    (MC, 2/14/02)

1896        Feb 18, Andre Breton (d.1966), French writer, founder and principal provocateur of the surrealist movement, was born. An exhaustive biography was published in 1995 by Mark Polizzotti titled: Revolution of the Mind: The Life of Andre Breton.
    (WSJ, 8/1/95, p.A-9)(MC, 2/18/02)

1896        Feb 28, Philip Showalter Hench, physician (cortisone-Nobel), was born in Pittsburgh.
    (MC, 2/28/02)

1896        Feb 29, A person born on this day would have celebrated their first birthday in 1904. The year 1896 was a leap year, thus February had 29 days. The next leap year was not until 1904. Leap years, which have 366 days instead of the common 365, are those years divisible by four, except centesimal (those ending in 00) years unless they are divisible by 400. Therefore, three of every four centesimal years are common years, including 1900.
    (HN, 2/29/00)

1896        Feb, Teddy Roosevelt, Police Commissioner of NYC, closed all the police lodging houses on the advice of Jacob A. Riis (1849-1914), Danish-born author and photographer.
    (WSJ, 8/25/08, p.A11)
1896        Feb, Georges Melies, a French professional magician, purchased a film projector from Robert Paul, an English camera maker. He then designed his own camera based on the projector and began making movies in March.
    (ON, 1/00, p.8)

1896        Mar 1, The Battle of Adowa (Adwa, Adua) began in Ethiopia between the 80,000 forces of Negus Menelik, Emperor Menelik II, and 18-20,000 Italian troops. The Italians suffered a crushing defeat with some 6,000 killed. Menalik II and his wife Taitu led Ethiopia to independence from Italy. In 2000 Haile Gerima made a 90 minute documentary of the event, "Adwa: An African Victory."
    (WSJ, 5/16/96, p.A-12)(AP, 3/1/98)(SFC, 5/15/00, p.D3)(Econ, 2/26/11, p.89)(ON, 2/11, p.9)

1896        Mar 2, Bone Mizell, the famed cowboy of Florida, was sentenced to two years of hard labor in the state pen for cattle rustling. He would only serve a small portion of the sentence.
    (HN, 3/2/00)

1896        Mar 6, Charles B. King rode his "Horseless Carriage," the 1st auto in Detroit.
    (MC, 3/6/02)

1896        Mar 7, Gilbert and Sullivan's last operetta "Grand Duke," premiered in London.
    (MC, 3/7/02)

1896        Mar 10, Bob Fitzsimmons KO’d much larger Jim Corbett to win world Heavy Weight championship and said, "The bigger they are, the harder they fall."
    (MC, 3/10/02)

1896          Mar 13, The 1st telephone station in Vilnius began operating.
    (LHC, 3/13/03)

1896        Mar 17, Adolph Ochs in Tennessee received a telegram from Harry Alloway that the New York Times available for acquisition.
    (SFEM, 1/16/00, p.17)

1896        Mar 20, U.S. Marines landed in Nicaragua to protect U.S. citizens in the wake of a revolution.
    (AP, 3/20/97)

1896        Mar 23, Umberto Giordano's opera "Andrea Chénier" premiered in Milan.
    (SS, 3/23/02)

1896        Mar 25, The 1st modern Olympic Games officially opened in Athens. Greece was on the old Julian calendar at this time. The revival was masterminded by Baron Pierre de Coubertin of France. [see Apr 6]
    (Econ, 5/29/04, p.81)(www.forthnet.gr/olympics)

1896        Mar 28, The opera "Andrea Chenier," by Umberto Giordano, premiered in Milan, Italy.
    (AP, 3/28/97)

1896        Mar, Brahms spent time in Vienna with the Norwegian composer Edvard Grieg.
    (BLW, Geiringer, 1963 ed.p.193)

1896        Apr 2, Theodore Robinson (b.1852), American Impressionist painter, died in NYC.
    (WSJ, 10/1/04, p.W2)(http://97.1911encyclopedia.org)

1896        Apr 4, Arthur Murray, ballroom dance instructor, was born.
    (HN, 4/4/01)
1896        Apr 4, Robert Sherwood, playwright, was born.
    (HN, 4/4/01)
1896        Apr 4, Tristan Tzara, [Samuel Rosenfeld] French poet (Approximate Man), was born.
    (MC, 4/4/02)

1896        Apr 6, Edgar "Yip" Harburg (d.1981), lyricist, was born in NYC as Isidore Hochberg. His songs included "Brother, Can You Spare a Dime?" and "Over the Rainbow."
1896        Apr 6, The first modern Olympic Games formally opened in Athens, Greece, after a lapse of 1,500 years. 13 countries besides Greece participated. [see Mar 25] Pierre de Coubertin (d.1937) administered the Games and subsequent ones until 1924.
    (SFC, 7/14/96, p.T1)(AP, 4/6/97)(ON, 8/07, p.5)
1896        Apr 6, James Connolly, a self-educated 27-year-old American, won the first gold medal at the 1896 Olympic games in Athens. Connolly‘s event, the triple jump, which was then called the hop, step, and jump, was the first final of the games. The U.S. Olympic team hadn’t realized that the Greeks followed the Hellenic calendar, so they arrived not days in advance but just a few hours before the opening ceremonies. Despite being hastily prepared, Connolly competed last and beat his opponents‘ distances by more than three feet. He went on to become a successful author of 25 novels. [see Mar 25]
    (HNQ, 4/8/00)

1896        Apr 14, John Philip Sousa's opera, "El Capitan," premiered in NYC.
    (MC, 4/14/02)

1896        Apr 15, The first modern Olympic Games closed in Athens. 164 of the 241 competitors were from Greece. The remaining represented 13 countries, the largest international participation of any sporting event up to that time.
    (ON, 8/07, p.5)

1896        Apr 20, 1st public film showing in US John Philip Sousa's "El Capitan," premiered in NYC.
    (MC, 4/20/02)

1896        Apr 23, The Vitascope system for projecting movies onto a screen was demonstrated in New York City. Motion pictures premiered in New York City. It was developed by Thomas Armat and C. Francis Jenkins and marketed by Thomas Edison.
    (AP, 4/23/97)(HN, 4/23/99)(Sm, 3/06, p.105)

1896        Apr 25, Fight in Central Dance Hall started a fire in Cripple Creek, Colorado.
    (SS, 4/25/02)
1896        Apr 25, In Kansas a tornado swept through several counties killing at least 9 people in Clay County. 27 farms were destroyed.
    (SFC, 4/25/09, p.D12)

1896        Apr 27, Wallace Hume Carothers (d.1937), American chemist, was born. Carothers became a brilliant organic chemist who, in addition to first developing nylon, also helped lay the groundwork for Neoprene.
1896        Apr 27, Rogers Hornsby (d.1963), among the greatest hitters in baseball history, was born in Texas.

1896        Apr 28, Heinrich von Treitschke, German historian, died.
    (MC, 4/28/02)

1896        Apr, Svante Arrhenius, Swedish chemist, explained the "greenhouse effect" in an article of the April issue of the London, Edinburgh, and Dublin Philosophical Magazine. This article included a table of predictions as to how warming the planet could expect latitude by latitude. Arrhenius predicted a warming effect due to an increase in heat-trapping atmospheric gases due mainly to the burning of fossil fuels. He was the first to posit a link between surface temperatures and the concentration of carbon dioxide.
    (NOHY, Weiner, 3/90, p.29,58)(Econ, 6/16/12, SR p.4)(Econ 7/8/17, p.46)

1896        May 1, Mark Clark, American general, was born. He commanded the Fifth Army in Italy during World War II.
    (HN, 5/1/99)
1896        May 1, Nasr-ed-Din (65), shah of Persia, was murdered.
    (MC, 5/1/02)

1896        May 6, Samuel P. Langley (1834-1906), American physicist and aviation pioneer, launched the first reasonably large, steam-powered model aircraft.
    (NPub, 2002, p.5)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samuel_Pierpont_Langley)

1896        May 7, Dr. Henry Howard Holmes (b.1860), serial killer, was hanged to death in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Born as Herman Webster Mudgett in Gilmantown, New Hampshire, to a devout Methodist family, Holmes spent much of his childhood torturing animals. He later graduated from the University of Michigan with a medical degree. Holmes financed his education with a series of insurance scams whereby he requested coverage for nonexistent people and then presented corpses as the insured. In 1886, Holmes moved to Chicago to work as a pharmacist. A few months later, he killed the elderly owner of the store but told everyone that the man had left him in charge. With a new series of cons, Holmes raised enough money to build a giant, elaborate home across from the store. The home, which Holmes called "The Castle," had secret passageways, fake walls, and trapdoors. Young women in the area, along with tourists who had come to see the 1893 World's Fair in Chicago, and had rented out rooms in Holmes' castle, suddenly began disappearing. Medical schools purchased many human skeletons from Dr. Holmes during this period but never asked how he obtained the anatomy specimens. Holmes was finally caught after attempting to use another corpse, his assistant Benjamin Pitezel, in an insurance scam. He confessed, saying, "I was born with the devil in me. I could not help the fact that I was a murderer, no more than a poet can help the inspiration to sing." Reportedly, authorities discovered the remains of over 200 victims on his property.

1896        May 9, The 1st horseless carriage show in London featured 10 models.
    (MC, 5/9/02)

1896        May 15, A tornado killed 78 in Texas.
    (MC, 5/15/02)

1896        May 18, The US Supreme Court upheld the State of Louisiana Separate Car Act in Plessy vs. Ferguson. The Plessy v. Ferguson decision allowed that as long as accommodation existed, segregation did not constitute discrimination, establishing the doctrine of "separate but equal." The decision gave legitimacy to the segregationist policies known as Jim Crow laws. The ruling that was overturned in the 1954 Brown case, which involved elementary education. The Court ruled unanimously that segregation in public education was a denial of the equal protection of the laws.
    (www.ferris.edu/jimcrow/links/misclink/plessy/)(SFC, 5/12/96, p.A-6) (Econ, 4/2/11, p.24)(AP, 5/18/03)

1896        May 20, Clara Schumann, composer and wife of Robert Schumann, died in Frankfort, Germany.
    (BLW, Geiringer, 1963 ed. p. 191)

1896        May 25, Jan N. Bakhuizen van den Brink, theologist, church historian, was born.
    (SC, 5/25/02)

1896        May 26, The Dow Jones Industrial Average [DJIA] was first published. Charles H. Dow set up an index of 12 industrial companies that began at 40.94. Of the current 30 stocks in the Dow Jones, only General Electric was in the original group. The 12 companies included: The American Cotton Oil Company, American Sugar Refining Company, American Tobacco, Chicago Gas, General Electric Co., Laclede Gas Light Co., National Lead, North American Co., Tennessee Coal, Iron and Railroad Co., U.S. Leather, U.S. Rubber Co.
    (WSJ, 1/8/96, p.C-1)(WSJ, 5/28/96, p.R45)
1896        May 26, Nicholas II, the last Czar of Russia, was crowned.
    (HN, 5/26/98)

1896        May 27, 255 people were killed when a tornado struck St. Louis, Mo., and East St. Louis, Ill.
    (AP, 5/27/97)

1896        May 29, George L. Funke, botanist (Flower Physiology), was born.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1896        May 30, The 1st car accident in NYC occurred when Henry Wells hit cyclist Ebeling Thomas on the "Western Boulevard" (Broadway).

1896        Jun 4, Henry Ford made a successful pre-dawn test run of his horseless carriage, called a quadricycle, through the streets of Detroit. The quadricycle consisted of a simple motor mounted on a buggy frame. Before Ford began to produce the automobiles that made him famous, he had been an unimpressive student from a Michigan farming family. But he began to demonstrate skill and interest in mechanical work, and left farming and business school behind to work with machines. He learned about steam engines at his job with Westinghouse, and later worked as an engineer for Edison Electric Illuminating Company. As Ford Motors developed, he hoped to emulate Edison. Ford died in 1947 a fabulously wealthy and influential businessman.
    (AP, 6/4/97)(HNQ, 6/4/98)
1896        Jun 4, Austin Corbin (b.1827),  American railroad executive, robber baron and a founding member of the American Society for the Suppression of Jews, died in a carriage accident near his country home in New Hampshire.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Austin_Corbin)(Econ 5/27/17, p.27)

1896        Jun 7, Vivien Kellems, TV hostess (The Power of Women), was born.
    (SC, 6/7/02)
1896        Jun 7, Robert Mulliken, US chemist, physicist (Nobel 1966), was born.
    (SC, 6/7/02)
1896        Jun 7, G. Harpo & F. Samuelson left NY to row the Atlantic. The trip took 54 days.
    (SC, 6/7/02)

1896        Jun 11, US Assay Office in Deadwood, South Dakota, was authorized.
    (SC, 6/11/02)

1896        Jun 15, An 8.5 magnitude earthquake occurred approximately 166 km (103 mi) off the coast of Iwate Prefecture, Honshu, Japan. This was followed by two tsunamis. The Meiji Sanriku tsunami struck Japan and caused at least 22,000 deaths.

1896        Jun 16, Jean Peugeot, French auto manufacturer, was born.
    (MC, 6/16/02)

1896        Jun 18, Blanche Sweet, film actress, was born.
    (HN, 6/18/01)

1896        Jun 19, Bessie Wallis Warfield Simpson, Duchess of Windsor, divorcee, was born.
    (MC, 6/19/02)

1896        Summer, W.B. Yeats and Arthur Symons make a trip to the Aram Islands off the west coast of Ireland.
    (WSJ, 12/6/95, p.A-18)

1896        Jun 24, Booker T. Washington became the first African American to receive an honorary MA degree from Howard University.
    (HN, 6/24/98)

1896        Jun 26, The 1st movie theater in US opened and charged 10 cents for admission.
    (MC, 6/26/02)

1896        Jun 30, W.S. Hadaway patented an electric stove.
    (MC, 6/30/02)

1896        Jun, Marconi filed patent papers in England for his wireless invention.
    (ON, 11/99, p.10)

1896        Jul 1, Harriet Beecher Stowe (85), US author (Uncle Tom's Cabin), died.
    (MC, 7/1/02)

1896        Jul 7, The Democratic National Convention opened in Chicago. The National Democratic Party formed to run a slate of candidates in 1896 because the Democratic Party had been taken over by the free-silver faction, which called for the free and unlimited coinage of silver at the 16 to 1 ratio. They also condemned trusts, monopolies, high protective tariffs and the use of injunctions against labor. The "sound money" or gold Democrats withdrew from the party convention, organized the National Democratic Party and nominated John M.  Palmer of Illinois its presidential candidate. The gold plank in the Republican Party caused a similar split, with free-silver Republicans bolting the party and forming the National Silver Republicans, who endorsed the Democratic Party candidate for president, William Jennings Bryan. Republican William McKinley won the presidential election.
    (AP, 7/7/97)(HNQ, 8/23/99)

1896        Jul 9, William Jennings Bryan propelled himself to presidential candidacy when he stood before the Democratic Convention in Chicago and made his famous "Cross of Gold" speech. The paramount issue in the 1896 presidential election was one of economics—the U.S. government promised to pay the holder of one dollar bill one dollar in gold. Democrats, farmers and westerners demanded that the government redeem paper money in silver as well, while Republicans and easterners protested that this policy would destroy the economy. It was on this dull, technical issue that 36-year-old William Jennings Bryan, a former congressman from Nebraska, launched his national political career. When he made his "Cross of Gold" speech, the Democrats had no strong presidential candidate. His dramatic words—"You shall not press down upon the brow of labor this crown of thorns; you shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of gold!"—electrified his audience and resulted in his nomination for president in 1896.

1896        Jul 14, The Pacific Mail $680,000 Steamship Colombia was destroyed on rocks near Pescadero, Ca.
    (Ind, 7/20/02, 5A)(Ind, 8/10/02, 5A)

1896        Jul 16, Trygve Lie, first secretary-general of the United Nations, was born.
    (HN, 7/16/98)
1896        Jul 16, William Hamilton Gibson, illustrator, author, novelist, died.
    (MC, 7/16/02)

1896        Jun 17, Fridtjof Nansen and Hjalmar Johansen met up with English explorer Frederick Jackson at Franz Joseph Land in the Arctic.
    (ON, 7/05, p.5)

1896        Jul 19, A.J. Cronin, Scottish novelist (The Citadel, The Keys of the Kingdom), was born.
    (HN, 7/19/01)

1896        Jul 21, Mary Church Terrell founded the National Association of Colored Women in Washington, D.C.
    (HN, 7/21/98)

1896        Jul 25, A bicycle craze peaked in the US. In San Francisco an estimated 5,000 "wheelmen" and women held a great Bicycle Protest, riding down Market Street to demand better roads. The bicycle parade ended in a riot with bonfires in front of City Hall.
    (Ind, 8/2/03, p.5A)(SFC, 10/4/16, p.C3)(SFC, 10/19/19, p.C2)

1896        Jul 28, The city of Miami, Fla., was incorporated.
    (AP, 7/28/97)

1896        Aug 7, Ernesto Lecuona, composer (Malaguena), was born in Havana, Cuba.
    (MC, 8/7/02)

1896        Aug 8, Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings (d.1953), author of "The Yearling," was born.
    (HN, 8/8/00)

1896        Aug 9, Leonide Massine, Russian-born US choreographer (Diaghilev Ballet Russe 1914-20), was born.
    (WUD, 1994, p.882)(MC, 8/9/02)
1896        Aug 9, Jean Piaget, psychologist who did pioneering work on the development of children's intellectual faculties, was born.
    (HN, 8/9/98)
1896        Aug 9, Otto Lilienthal, German aerodynamic engineer, made his last glide when his glider No. 11 was upset by a sudden gust of wind and he was unable to regain control. Lilienthal broke his back in the crash and died the next day in a Berlin clinic. He had made more than 2,000 test flights in gliders and convinced many people that flight was possible and set the stage for early aviation. He once wrote that "we must fly and fall, fly and fall until we can fly without falling." He also influenced flight theory by using bird flight as a model for the basis of aviation.
    (HNPD, 8/9/98)

1896        Aug 11, Harvey Hubbell patented an electric light bulb socket with a pull chain.
    (MC, 8/11/02)

1896        Aug 12, Gold was discovered near Dawson City, Yukon Territory, Canada. [see Aug 16,17] After word reached the United States in June of 1897, thousands of Americans headed to the Klondike to seek their fortunes.
    (HN, 8/12/01)

1896        Aug 13, The New-York Times Company under Adolph Ochs purchased the New-York Times Publishing Company. The control of the New York Times has rested with the Sulzberger and Ochs clans since this year. Adolph S. Ochs purchased a failing newspaper and turned it into the prestigious New York Times. Natives of Chattanooga, Adolph and Milton Ochs later assembled over 2,700 acres along the slopes of Lookout Mountain, site of the Civil War Battle of Chattanooga, and donated the land for a Nat’l. Park.
    (WSJ, 1/22/96, p.A-1)(NH, 8/96, p.78)(HT, 4/97, p.59) (SFEM, 1/16/00, p.20)

1896        Aug, 16, A white man from California named George Carmack, a fellow not employed at anything in particular, was hiking around northwest Canada’s Yukon River area with his two Indian brothers-in-law "Skookum Jim" Mason and "Tagish Charley." The three found gold on Rabbit Creek, a stream that feeds the Yukon River near Dawson, Alaska. [see Aug 12,17] 
    (CFA, '96, p.88)(HN, 8/19/01)

1896        Aug 17, A prospecting party discovered gold in Alaska, a finding that touched off the Klondike gold rush. [see Aug 12,16]
    (AP, 8/17/97)

1896         Aug 18, Adolph Ochs (39) took over the New York Times. He served as publisher until 1935.
    (HN, 8/18/00)(SFC, 4/6/01, p.D3)
1896        Aug 18, The northern California Mount Tamalpais and Muir Woods railroad was completed. It was 8 ½ miles long. The Mount Tamalpais Scenic Railroad attracted visitors to what later became known as Stinson Beach. The railway continued operating to 1930.
    (SFC, 8/17/96, p.A17)(SFC, 11/27/07, p.A13)(SFC, 2/24/09, p.B1)

1896        Aug 19, Adolph Oaks proclaimed the journalistic principles for the New-York Times: "to give the news impartially, without fear of favor, regardless of party, sect or interests involved." He soon launched the "Review of Books and Arts" and a new "Illustrated Sunday Magazine."
    (SFEM, 1/16/00, p.22,23)

1896        Aug 20, Dial telephone was patented.
    (MC, 8/20/02)
1896        Aug 20, Fridtjof Nansen and Hjalmar Johansen arrived back in Norway following a 3 year Arctic venture. In 1898 Nansen published “Farthest North," a best-selling account of his adventure. In 1922 Nansen was awarded the Nobel Prize for Peace.
    (ON, 7/05, p.5)

1896        Aug 21, Roark Bradford, writer, humorist (Ol' Man Adan an' His Chillun), was born.
    (SC, 8/21/02)

1896        Aug 24, Thomas Brooks was shot and killed by an unknown assailant, beginning a six year feud with the McFarland family.
    (HN, 8/24/98)

1896        Aug 26, North American Co. was removed the Dow Jones and US Cordage was added.
    (WSJ, 5/28/96, p.R45,46)(WSJ, 5/28/96, R45)

1896        Aug 29, The Chinese-American dish chop suey was invented in New York City by the chef to visiting Chinese Ambassador Li Hung-chang. [see 1878]
    (SFC, 6/9/96, Zone 1 p.2)(SFEC, 1/12/97, zone 3 p.4)(AP, 8/29/97)

1896        Aug, The New York Tribune reported that excessive heat and lack of rainfall in the southern states had hurt the cotton crop; and that elsewhere grain in shock and stack had been injured by excessive rain. A help wanted ad requested a skilled dressmaker for one dollar and fifty cents per day.
    (HFA, ‘96, p.37)
1896        Aug, The new chief of French military intelligence, Lt Colonel Picquart, reported to his superiors that he had found evidence to the effect that the real traitor in the Dreyfus case was a Major Ferdinand Walsin Esterhazy. Picquart was silenced by being transferred, in November 1896, to the southern desert of Tunisia.

1896        Sep 10, Elsa Schiaparelli, French fashion designer, was born.
    (MC, 9/10/01)

1896        Sep 21, General Horatio Kitchener's army occupied Dongola, Sudan. Gen’l. Herbert Kitchener led the British conquest of the Sudan. The "kit bag," another name for a knapsack, was named after him.
    (SFEC, 3/29/98, Z1 p.8)(WSJ, 8/25/98, p.A14)(MC, 9/21/01)

1896        Sep 23, Louis-Gilbert Duprez, composer, died at 89.
    (MC, 9/23/01)

1896        Sep 24, American author F. Scott Fitzgerald (d.1940) was born in St. Paul, Minnesota. He wrote about the "Jazz Age" between World War I and World War II. He published his first novel in 1920, "This Side of Paradise," and gained instant acclaim and celebrity, marrying Zelda Sayre shortly afterward. In 1924, Fitzgerald wrote what has become his best-known novel, "The Great Gatsby." Although it was not especially popular at the time, as more readers began to appreciate the novel for its perspective of how materialism drives people, it became an American classic. As years passed, Fitzgerald battled alcoholism and his wife sought treatment for her mental illness. He died in Hollywood at age 45 in 1940. "If you're strong enough, there are no precedents."
    (HFA, ‘96, p.38)(AP, 9/24/97)(HNPD, 9/24/98)(HN, 9/24/98)(AP, 8/16/99)

1896        Sep 27, Sam Ervin, (Sen-D-NC), Watergate committee chairman, was born.
    (MC, 9/27/01)

1896        Oct 1, The U.S. Post Office established Rural Free Delivery, with the first routes in West Virginia.
    (AP, 10/1/97)

1896        Oct 3, William Morris (b.1834), English artist and writer, died. “Have nothing in your house that you do not know to be useful of believe to be beautiful." In 1995 Fiona MacCarthy authored the biography: “William Morris."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Morris)(Econ, 1/4/14, p.50)(WSJ, 1/21/07, p.P9)

1896        Oct 7, Elijah Muhammad, US, leader of Nation of Islam, was born.
    (MC, 10/7/01)
1896        Oct 7, Nicholas and Alexandra of Russia made a state visit to France and with Pres. Felix Faure laid the cornerstone for the Pont Alexandre III.
    (WSJ, 6/26/96, p.A16)

1896        Oct 10, The New York Times Book Review started as the “Saturday Review of Books and Art." The 9-page first issue, established by Adolph S. Ochs as a standalone supplement, included an article about Oscar Wilde’s experience in prison and another about department stores posing a threat to independent booksellers.
    (NY Times, 1/26/21)

1896        Oct 11, Richard Etheridge (d.1900) and his life-saving team rescued the hurricane survivors of the E.S. Newman on Pea Island, North Carolina. Pea Island later became part of Hatteras Island.
    (ON, 1/02, p.2)
1896        Oct 11, Anton Bruckner (b.1824), Austrian composer (Te Deum, Wagner Symphony), died at 72.

1896        Oct 14, Lilian Gish, American actress, was born.
    (HN, 10/14/98)

1896        Oct 18, H.L. Davis, novelist and poet, was born.
    (HN, 10/18/00)

1896        Oct 22, Charles Glenn King, biochemist, was born. He later discovered vitamin C.
    (MC, 10/22/01)

1896        Oct 28, Howard Hansen, composer, was born in Wahoo, Nebraska. He became the director of the Eastman School of music.
    (HN, 10/28/00)(MC, 10/28/01)

1896        Oct 30, Ruth Gordon, actress (Rosemary's Baby, Harold & Maude), was born in Mass.
    (MC, 10/30/01)
1896        Oct 30, Kaspar Wicki, Swiss inventor, received Swiss patent Nr. 13329 for a key configuration for the concertina, that made fingering identical in any key.
    (WSJ, 12/7/07, p.W4)(www.concertina.com/gaskins/wicki/)

1896        Oct 31, Ethel Waters, actress and blues singer, was born.
    (HN, 10/31/00)

1896        Nov 1, The 1st bare women breast (Zulu) appeared in National Geographic Mag.
    (MC, 11/1/01)

1896        Nov 3, Republican William McKinley was elected 25th president. He defeated Democrat William Jennings Bryan for the presidency. McKinley and Garret Hobart supported the gold standard while The Democrats supported the free coinage of silver. Marcus Hanna, an Ohio industrialist, led the fund-raising for McKinley and personally underwrote the cost of winning this 1st modern presidential campaign. In 1929 Thomas Beer authored a biography of Hanna.
    (AP, 11/3/97)(SFC, 10/28/98, Z1 p.7)(HN, 11/3/98)(WSJ, 3/24/04, p.B1)
1896        Nov 3, J.H. Hunter patented portable weighing scales.
    (MC, 11/3/01)

1896        Nov 6, Jim Jordan, radio comedian (Fibber McGee), was born in Peoria, Il.
    (MC, 11/6/01)

1896        Nov 10, U.S. Rubber Co. was removed from the Dow Jones and Pacific Mail Steamship Co. was added.
    (WSJ, 5/28/96, p.R45,46)

1896        Nov 11, Charles "Lucky" Luciano, NYC Mafia gangster, was born in Sicily.
    (MC, 11/11/01)

1896            Nov 14, Mamie G. Doud Eisenhower (d.1969), 1st lady (1953-61) of Pres. Dwight D. Eisenhower (1890-1969), was born in Boone, Iowa.

1896        Nov 16, Lawrence Tibbett, baritone (Metropolitan Opera 1923-50), was born in Bakersfield Calif.
    (MC, 11/16/01)
1896        Nov 16, Oswald Mosley, baron and British Nazi, was born.
    (MC, 11/16/01)

1896        Nov 19, Start of Sherlock Holmes "Adventure of Sussex Vampire."
    (MC, 11/19/01)

1896        Nov 22, George Washington Gale Ferris, inventor (Ferris wheel), died.
    (MC, 11/22/01)

1896        Nov 25, Virgil Thompson, American composer, was born. His work included "Four Saints in Three Acts" and "The Mother of Us All."
    (HN, 11/25/00)

1896        Nov 26, Coach Amos Alonzo Stagg of Univ. of Chicago created the football huddle.
    (SFEC, 12/5/99, Z1 p.5)(MC, 11/26/01)
1896        Nov 26, Russia disclosed a plan to seize Constantinople if Britain intervenes in Crete.
    (AP, 11/26/02)

1896        Nov 27, Richard Strauss' "Also Sprach Zarathustra" (Thus Spake Zarathustra) debuted in Frankfurt.
    (MC, 11/27/01)

1896        Dec 1, 1st certified public accountants received certificates in NY.
    (MC, 12/1/01)

1896        Dec 2, Georgi Zukov, Soviet general during World War II who captured Berlin, was born.
    (HN, 12/2/98)

1896        Dec 6, Ira Gershwin (d.1983), lyricist ('S Wonderful, I Got Rhythm), was born. Together with his brother, George, he wrote 14 Broadway musicals. Many of his 700 songs were written with other composers.
    (SFC, 12/4/96, p.E1)(SFC, 5/10/97, p.E1)

1896        Dec 7, Stuart Davis, painter, was born.
    (HN, 12/7/00)

1896        Dec 10, Alfred Nobel (63), Swedish Nobel Prize ceremony on this date, died. By the time of his death Nobel had acquired a massive fortune. In his will, he left instructions that the bulk of his estate should endow the annual Nobel prizes for those who had most contributed to the areas of physics, chemistry, medicine, literature and peace. In 1968, a sixth award for economics was established  [see Nov 27, 1895]. The Nobel Peace Prize is therefore awarded on December 10. The first of the Nobel Prizes was presented in 1901 according to instructions in his will. At his death he was one of the richest men in the world, he also felt it would be wrong to leave his fortune to relatives. "Inherited wealth is a misfortune which merely serves to dull man's faculties." Nobel wished the Peace Prize to be administered in Norway.
    (HNPD, 10/21/98)(AP, 12/10/06)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nobel_Peace_Prize)

1896        Dec 14, James H. Doolittle, American Air Force general, was born. He commanded the first bombing mission over Japan. His Tokyo raid was a great boost for American war morale.
    (HN, 12/14/99)

1896        Dec 23, US Cordage was removed from the Dow Jones and replaced by its successor Standard Rope & Twine Co.
    (WSJ, 5/28/96, p.R45,46)
1896        Dec 23, Giuseppe Tomasi di Lampedusa, Sicilian writer (The Leopard), was born.
    (MC, 12/23/01)

1896        Dec 25, "Stars & Stripes Forever" was written by John Philip Sousa.
    (MC, 12/25/01)

1896        Dec 31, The Teatro Amazonas opened in Manaus, Brazil. It was built by the rubber barons over 15 years with everything imported from Europe.
    (SFEC, 7/16/00, p.T12)

1896        Henry Doelger (d.1978), SF and Daly City home builder, was born in SF.

1896        Roger Huntington Sessions, composer, was born. His work included the opera "The Trial of Lucullus."
    (WUD, 1994, p.1395)(SFC, 1/27/98, p.A20)

1896        Peter Carl Faberge, master jeweler and goldsmith, began work on the Imperial Coronation Easter Egg (1896-1908), an enameled, diamond-studded golden egg about 5 inches long that opens to reveal a three-inch-long replica of the carriage that took the czarina to her coronation in1896.
    (SFC, 5/234/96, p.D1,10)

1896        Paul Gauguin made his sculpture "Tahitian Girl."
    (SFEM, 11/24/96, p.62)

1896        American writer William Sydney Porter, aka O. Henry (1862-1910), authored his short story “Cabbages and Kings," in which he coined the term “banana republic." Porter wrote the story while in Trujillo, Honduras, where he had fled to avoid embezzlement charges in Houston.
    (Econ, 12/10/11, p.67)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/O._Henry)

1896        George Bernard Shaw wrote his comedy play "You Can Never Tell."
    (WSJ, 6/24/98, p.A16)

1896        Brooks Adams wrote "The Law of Civilization and Decay."
    (WSJ, 8/11/97, p.A12)

1896        Colonel C.E. Caldwell authored “Small Wars: Their Principles and Practice.

1896        "Might Is Right or Survival of the Fittest" was first published in the US under the pseudonym Ragnar Redbeard. The author heavily advocates egoist anarchism, amorality, consequentialism and psychological hedonism. Arthur Desmond (1859-1929) is believed to be the English author of the book Might Is Right, written under the pen name Ragnar Redbeard. Desmond first conceived of and began writing Might Is Right as an essay in 1890 and submitted to the magazine Zealandia, and published in the June issue with the title of "Christ as a Social Reformer." Desmond had moved to the US in 1895.

1896        In Germany Magnus Hirschfeld under a pseudonym published the pamphlet "Sappho und Sokrates," that examined same sex love.
    (SFEC, 6/15/97, DB p.47)

1896        English poet A.E. Housman (1859-1936) published "A Shropshire Lad," a collection of 63 poems. He paid £30 towards the publication. By 1918 16,000 copies a year were being sold in England and America. The 1997 play "The Invention of Love," by Tom Stoppard was based on Housman’s life. In 2016 Peter Parker authored “Housman Country: Into the Heart of England."
    (SFC, 7/7/96, Par, p.10)(WSJ, 10/27/97, p.A20)(Econ, 7/9/16, p.72)

1896        Rev. Charles Shelton authored the novel "In His Steps," which included the phrase "What would Jesus Do?" (WWJD).
    (SFC, 9/15/00, p.A4)

1896        The Ida Tarbell biography of Madame Roland, a republican sympathizer during the French Revolution, was published.
    (WSJ, 3/28/08, p.W5)

1896        H.G. Wells wrote "The Island of Dr. Moreau."
    (WSJ, 8/23/96, p.A8)

1896        Andrew Dickson White, scientist and the 1st president of Cornell Univ., authored "History of the Warfare of Science With Theology in Christendom." He argued that his fellow Protestants kept mankind in darkness and tried to prevent him from establishing Cornell as a secular Univ.
    (WSJ, 10/8/99, p.W15)

1896        "Yellow journalism" was named after the color comic featuring the Yellow Kid that ran in the Hearst New York Journal and the Pulitzer New York World.
    (SFEM, 1/16/00, p.21)

1896        Henry Flagler built the Palm Beach Inn, later called the Breakers, in Palm Beach, Florida, as he developed the area.
    (WSJ, 6/24/08, p.D7)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Flagler)

1896        In San Francisco construction began on the Ferry Building at the foot of Market St. and its 235-foot clock tower. It was completed in 1898.
    (SFC, 1/3/97, p.A1,4)(SSFC, 4/25/10, p.A2)
1896        San Francisco's Golden Gate Park Casino, opened in 1882 next to the Conservatory of Flowers, was purchased and moved 20 blocks to the corner of 24th Avenue and Fulton St. The spot was demolished for housing in 1922.
    (SFC, 2/24/21, p.B5)
1896        San Francisco authorities cleaned up Morton Street, a well-known brothel alley. It was renamed Union Square Avenue in 1899 and renamed Manila Avenue in 1909. In 1922 it became Maiden’s Lane.
    (SFC, 1/9/16, p.C4)
1896        Col. Griffith J. Griffith donated over 3,000 acres to California. In 2008 efforts began to formally preserve the 4,218-acre Griffith Park as a Los Angeles historic cultural monument.
    (SFC, 7/23/08, p.B12)
1896        In SF the Anchor Brewing Co. was founded and brewed beer at Pacific Ave. and Larkin St. It later moved to 8th and Bryant and then to Kansas and 17th before settling on Mariposa St. by Potrero Hill.
    (SFC, 10/8/97, Z1 p.4)
1896        Brooks Brothers introduced button down collars after observing polo players button down their collar points to keep them from flapping during play.
    (WSJ, 6/23/03, p.B1)
1896        Floodwaters swept coffins from the California Folsom Prison cemetery into the American River.
    (SFEC, 1/26/97, p.B4)
1896        The Olivet Memorial Park non-denominational cemetery was established in Lawndale (Colma), Ca.
1896        Giovanni Foppiano founded Foppiano Vineyards in Sonoma, Ca.
    (SFC, 12/19/02, p.D4)(SSFC, 5/23/10, p.L3)
1896        In San Francisco Fr. John P. Frieden, SJ (1844-1911) succeeded Fr. Allan as president of St. Ignatius College. Frieden continued for the next 12 years.
    (GenIV, Winter 04/05)
1896        The Molinari family began making air dried salami in San Francisco’s North Beach.
    (SSFC, 10/30/11, p.G3)

1896        Cody, Wyoming, was founded. It was named after William "Buffalo Bill" Cody in the hopes that his reputation would bring settlers. Cody guards the eastern gate to Yellowstone, the country’s first official national park, accessed through the Wapiti Valley of the Shoshone National Forest, the first such forest. Buffalo Bill guided hunting parties, and even Yale paleontologist O.C. Marsh, through the Yellowstone and Big Horn Basin area as early as 1871. Although he played a limited role in the founding of the town that would eventually bear his name (at his suggestion), he contributed much to its development.
    (HNQ, 5/19/01)

1896        William Ashley "Billy" Sunday (1863-1935) was well known in America as a professional baseball player prior to becoming an evangelist in 1896. Sunday, who was born in Ames, Iowa, was among the top professional baseball players from 1883 to 1890, playing for National League teams in Chicago, Philadelphia and Pittsburgh. Sometimes called a sensationalist, the unconventional Sunday became a traveling evangelist in 1896, was ordained a Presbyterian minister in 1903 and went on to have a great following.
    (HNQ, 8/27/99)

1896        The Minneapolis Millers won the Western League baseball pennant. All the stars of the team were soon drafted by the National League and the following year it became one of the worst teams in the Western League.
    (ON, 6/09, p.10)

1896         Wyatt Earp spent some time refereeing boxing matches, including the 1896 heavyweight title fight between Bob Fitzsimmons and Tom Sharkey. In a controversial and highly-disputed decision, Earp charged Fitzsimmons with a foul and awarded the fight to Sharkey. The two famed western lawmen, Bat Masterson and Wyatt Earp became known for their involvement in sporting events years after the 1881 gunfight at the O.K. Corral. Former Dodge City lawman William Barclay "Bat" Masterson went on to become a sports writer. He died at his desk in 1921.
    (HNQ, 9/20/98)

1896        Jane Addams visited Russia. Tolstoy berated her as an absentee landlord.
    (WSJ, 1/2/02, p.A16)

1896        Dr. Herman Hollerith, inventor of a tabulating machine (1889), founded the Tabulating Machine Company. In 1911 it became part of CTR. In 1924 CTR was renamed IBM.

1896        F.W. Rueckheim & Brother of Chicago received a trademark for "Cracker Jack." The popcorn and peanuts covered with molasses syrup sold for a nickel a box in 1899.
    (HFA, ‘96, p.67)(SFC, 7/29/98, p.)(SFC, 7/29/98, Z1 p.23)(AH, 10/01, p.34)

1896        The US Army took over the operation of Yellowstone National Park.
    (SFEC, 10/18/98, p.T5)

1896        Students at the Univ. of Michigan demanded a new and more representative yearbook than the one controlled by the administrators and faculty. Thus began the Ensian.
    (MT, Fall ‘96, p.9)
1896        Orville H. Gibson founded his Kalamazoo musical instrument manufacturing company. In 1904 it was incorporated as the Gibson Mandolin Guitar Co.
    (SFC, 10/5/05, p.G3)
1896        The Luce Furniture Co. began operations in Grand Rapids, Mich., and continued to 1930. In 1912 it claimed to be the largest shipper of Mission dining room furniture in the country. The company reorganized and reopened from 1935 to 1938.
    (SFC, 1/28/09, p.G2)
1896        Fred Macey opened his own furniture factory in Grand Rapids, Mich. His company made rolltop desks and other furniture. In 1905 he merged with Wernicke Furniture to form Macey-Wernicke Co., which name was simplified in 1908 to Macey Co. It went out of business in 1940.
    (SFC, 5/24/06, p.G3)

1896        In Pennsylvania American Rabbi Joseph Krauskopf bought 118 acres of land about 25 miles north of Philadelphia. The National Farm School (later Delaware Valley College), open to all faiths, began the following year with 10 students. Krauskopf had met Leo Tolstoy on an 1894 trip to Russia, during which the author of "War and Peace" said US immigrants would be better off tilling soil than living in cramped industrial cities. In 2010 the Warwick Foundation of Bucks County gave the school an estimated $30 million in property and cash.
    (AP, 11/7/10)

1896        Budweiser introduced Michelob beer as "draught beer for connoisseurs."
    (WSJ, 5/27/08, p.A18)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michelob)

1896        J. Frank and Charles Duryea launched the American automobile industry after being the first to produce more than one vehicle off the same model, the Duryea Motor Wagon. They built 13 gasoline powered autos and put them on sale in Springfield, Mass.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)(F, 10/7/96, p.66)

1896        An ad in Horseless Age, the first automotive trade journal, posted an ad for the Duryea Motor Wagon Company.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)

1896        Samuel Langley, the first Secretary of the Smithsonian Museum, launched a pilotless plane from a floating platform and saw it fly nearly 4,00 feet.
    (WSJ, 6/12/96, p.A14)

1896        A. Belopolsky, Russian astronomer, discovered that the fainter component of the star Castor is itself a double star with a period of three days.
    (SCTS, p.162)

1896        Henri Becquerel discovered radioactivity. The work was elaborated upon by Marie and Pierre Curie. Becquerel found that minerals containing the element uranium emit a peculiar type of radiation that is invisible to the eye but which darkens photographic plates even when they are wrapped in black paper.
    (NG, May 1985, , p.642)(SCTS, p.117)

1896        Franz Pfaff, American physician, discovered that the oily residue in poison oak was responsible for the painful rash.
    (PacDis, Fall/’96, p.32)

1896        NYC selected William Temple Hornaday to head a new zoo. It opened in 1899 and Hornaday bred there a herd of bison.
    (ON, 3/02, p.9)

1896        Charles Field Haviland, US-born porcelain manufacturer, died. In 1876 he took over the Alluaud factory, one of the oldest porcelain factories in Limoges, France.
    (SFC, 8/2/06, p.G7)

1896        In Afghanistan Emir Abdul Rachman converted the eastern kafirs to Islam by force.
    (WSJ, 11/16/01, p.W12)

1896        Argentina became the first nation to adopt fingerprint identification.
    (SFC, 6/30/96, Zone 1 p.5)

c1896        In Brazil police were sent to Canudos but were repelled by the settlement in what came to be call the First Military Expedition to Canudos. The government feared a threat to the national order and sent the Second Military Expedition of 550 soldiers, who were also repelled by the settlement. In the Third Military Expedition 1,500 troops under Colonel Antonio Moreira Cesar, aka The Ground Trembler" and "The Beheader," were defeated at Canudos and the colonel was killed.
    (SFC, 10/7/97, p.A14)

1896        A Catholic Chaplaincy was established at Britain’s Oxford University.
    (Econ, 9/4/10, p.57)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oxford_University_Newman_Society)

1896        Sir Charles Tupper, Conservative Party, served as the 6th Prime Minister of Canada.
    (CFA, ‘96, p.81)

1896        Erland Nordenskiold, a Swedish scientist, explored the Milodon Cave in Patagonia, Chile. He found a large piece of leather with gray-red hair and declared it to have been the hide of a Milodon, a giant sloth, extinct for 8,000 years. The site was later made famous in the Bruce Chitin book: In Patagonia.
    (SFEC, 11/24/96, p.T6)

1896        Chinese cinema was born a year after it was invented in France.
    (Econ, 4/29/06, p.69)

1896        In Egypt Solomon Schechter, a Romanian-born reader in rabinics at England’s Cambridge Univ., discovered a cache of hundreds of thousands of documents collected by the Jews of Fustat (Old Cairo). In 2011 Adina Hoffman and Peter Cole authored “Sacred Trash: The Lost and Found World of the Cairo Geniza."
    (SSFC, 5/29/11, p.G4)

1896        Chinese agents tricked Sun Yat-sen (1866-1925), Chinese revolutionary, into entering the Chinese Legation in London. They planned to ship him secretly back to China where a reward for his arrest amounted to half a million dollars. The story was made public by the London press and the Legation was forced to release him. In 1911 Sun Yat-sen played an important role in the overthrow of the Qing dynasty and came to be revered as the “Father of Modern China." 
    (ON, 10/08, p.7)
1896        In England Alfred Harmsworth, later Lord Northcliffe, launched the Daily Mail newspaper.
    (SFC, 9/3/98, p.C6)

1896        A French cinematic society held a screening in Turin, Italy.
    (SFC, 2/11/06, p.E10)
1896        Irish poet W.B. Yeats met Irish playwright John Millington Synge in Paris and suggested Synge go and live on the Aran Islands. Synge took his advice and spent years there developing a whole new language for his plays. Synge also spent time on Great Blasket. In 2012 Robert Kanigel authored “On an Irish Island."
    (SSFC, 3/11/12, p.F5)

1896        The Schafer & Vater porcelain factory began operating about this time in Rudolstadt, Germany, and continued operations to 1962.
    (SFC, 5/24/06, p.G3)

1896        Hungary celebrated the 1,000 the anniversary of the arrival of the Magyars.
    (SSFC, 10/11/15, p.M3)
1896        In Hungary the first subway in Europe was installed under Andrassy Ut in downtown Pest.
    (WSJ, 12/26/96, p.A4)

1896        Bewley’s Oriental Cafes opened a shop on Westmoreland Street in Dublin, Ireland. It later became a hangout for James Joyce. It was scheduled to close in 2004.
    (SSFC, 11/14/04, p.F2)

1896        Vilfredo Pareto (1848-1923), Italian economist, observed that 20% of the people in Italy held 80% of the wealth.
    (Econ., 11/7/20, p.79)
1896        Maria Montessori (22) graduated from the Univ. of Rome’s school of medicine, the 1st woman to earn a medical degree in Italy.
    (ON, 3/07, p.3)

1896        Amado Nervo (1870-1919), Mexican poet, journalist and educator. published "The Elysian Fields of Tabasco." Here he noted how families in Tabasco used classical names for newborns rather than saints' names.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amado_Nervo)(Econ., 10/3/20, p.28)

1896        Numico was founded by Martinus van der Hagen, a Dutch inventor, after he won the exclusive right to make infant formula out of cow’s milk.
    (Econ, 9/2/06, p.59)

1896        Henrik Ibsen, Norwegian playwright, authored “John Gabriel Borkman." This was Ibsen’s penultimate play.
    (Econ, 1/22/11, p.100)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Gabriel_Borkman)

1896        Theodore Herzl called for a Jewish homeland in Palestine.
    (SFC, 4/30/02, p.A8)

1896        Swedish scientist Svante Arrhenius predicted a warming effect due to an increase in heat-trapping atmospheric gases due mainly to the burning of fossil fuels.
    (Econ, 6/16/12, SR p.4)

1896        F. Hoffman-La Roche & Co. was founded in Switzerland.
    (SFC, 3/13/09, p.A10)

1896        Moises Saba Amigo arrived in Mexico from Aleppo, Syria. He was part of a large migration of Jews known as "Turcos" from Syria and Palestine whose passports were issued by Ottoman Turkey. He started peddling dry goods and moved up to a chain of stores, then textiles. The family savings were put into real estate. The Saba family were billionaires by 1997.
    (WSJ, 8/22/97, p.A10)

1896        Cecil Rhodes rode unarmed into the Matopos Hills [later Zimbabwe] in the midst of an Ndebele uprising to negotiate peace. He told the Ndebele chiefs that he wanted to be buried there and asked them to guard his grave.
    (WSJ, 12/9/98, p.A13)

1896-1897    The Barbour Gymnasium, dedicated exclusively for women’s use, was built at the Univ. of Mich. in Ann Arbor. It was designed by Detroit architect John Scott and was built for $50,000. It was demolished in the spring of 1977 to make way for an addition to the chemistry buildings.
    (LSA., Fall 1995, p.10,15,16)

1896-1911    Sir Wilfrid Laurier, Liberal Party, served as the 7th Prime Minister of Canada.
    (CFA, ‘96, p.81)

1896-1936    The SS Tahoe, a 169-foot steamer, carried passengers and cargo to the California and Nevada towns around Lake Tahoe. The ship was scuttled in Glenbrook Cove in 1940.
    (SFEC, 4/2/00, p.B1)

1896-1940    Francis Scott Key Fitzgerald, American author of novels and short stories. "It is in the 30s that we want friends. In the 40s we know they won’t save us any more than love did."
    (HFA, ‘96, p.38)(AHD, 1971, p.497)(AP, 4/27/97)

1896-1951    Peter Cheyney, English author: "The line of least resistance was always the most difficult line in the long run."
    (AP, 11/4/98)

1896-1965    Dawn Powell, American writer, was the author of 15 novels.
    (SFEC, 2/14/99, BR p.5)

1896-1969     Gorham Munson, American author and editor: "We are all more average than we think."
    (AP, 4/18/97)

1896-1985     Ruth Gordon, American actress and playwright: "I think there is one smashing rule: ‘Never face the facts."
    (AP, 2/6/97)

1896-1989     Virgil Thomson, American composer and critic. He wrote his autobiography in 1966. "The clearest statement of principle goes bad if it is repeated too often. It ceases to be a statement and becomes a slogan."
    (WUD, 1994, p.1477)(AP, 1/22/98)

1896-1990    Dodie Smith, English playwright: "Noble deeds and hot baths are the best cures for depression."
    (AP, 3/8/01)

1896-1974    David Alfaro Siqueiros, Mexican painter, muralist.
    (SFC, 4/18/96, E-1)

1896-1978    Harry Winston, jeweler to the stars. He purchased the Hope diamond in 1949 and later donated it to the Smithsonian Institute.
    (WSJ, 2/14/96, p.A-1)

1896-1981    E.Y. "Yip" Harburg, Broadway songwriter, wrote the lyrics of over 500 songs by 48 composers including such hits as "Brother, Can You Spare a Dime," "April in Paris," "Only a Paper Moon," "Old Devil Moon," and "Over the Rainbow."
    (MT, 10/94, P. Ephross, p.15)

1896-1982     Helen Merrell Lynd, American sociologist and author: "Our whole life is an attempt to discover when our spontaneity is whimsical, sentimental irresponsibility and when it is a valid expression of our deepest desires and values." "One of the sources of pride in being a human being is the ability to bear present frustrations in the interests of longer purposes."
    (AP, 3/25/98)(AP, 6/29/98)

1896-1992    The Olympiad’s Greatest Moments was a 16-hr video package that featured highlights of all the summer games since 1896 in eight 2-hr videotapes.
    (SFC, 6/9/96, Par, p.9)

1897        Jan 1, Brooklyn merged with NY to form the present NYC. [see Jan 1, 1898]
    (MC, 1/1/02)

1897        Jan 2, The S.S. Commodore, a small American ship used to smuggle weapons to Cuba, sank off the coast of Florida. Writer Stephen Crane was aboard, along with a crew of 11 and 16 Cuban rebel soldiers. Crane based his 1897 short story, “The Open Boat," on his survival experience in a lifeboat.
    (ON, 4/10, p.9)

1897        Jan 3, Marion (Cecilia Douras) Davies actress: Runaway Romany, When Knighthood Was in Flower, The Patsy, Show People, Going Hollywood, was born.
    (440 Int'l. 1/3/99)

1897        Jan 14, The 6,960-m (22,834') Cerro Aconcagua in Argentina was 1st climbed.
    (MC, 1/14/02)

1897        Jan 22, Rosa Ponselle, opera diva (Norma, La Forza del Destino), was born.
    (MC, 1/22/02)
1897        Jan 22, Eighty-two British soldiers held off attacks by 4,000 Zulu warriors at the Battle of Rorke's Drift in South Africa.
    (HN, 1/22/99)

1897        Jan 23, In San Francisco Fong Ching (aka Fung Jing Toy), was killed by two gunmen at the Wong Lung barbershop at 817 Washington St. Nobody was ever convicted. “Little Pete" (b.1864) was known as the king of Chinatown and had led the Sam Yup Tong. He was rumored to have killed 50 men and spent 5 years at Folsom Prison.
    (SFC, 2/17/09, p.A10)(SFC, 7/13/13, p.C2)

1897        Jan, In Nigeria seven British trade delegates were killed as a small party approached Edo. Britain soon retaliated with a over 5,000 men  from the British Royal Marines and the Niger Coast Protectorate. They packed up the oba's vast collection of ivory and brass objects and razed his palace. The 16th century brass plaques were looted from the royal palace and sold to the British Museum. In 2014 a fabled ibis bird and the traditional monarch's bell -- were given back to the Oba (King) of Benin City, Uku Akpolokpolo Erediauwa I, at a ceremony attended by royal officials and local dignitaries. As of 2020 most of the Benin Bronzes were in Western museums and private collections.
    (SFC, 3/29/02, p.D8)(AFP, 6/22/14)(Econ., 8/8/20, p.67)(AP, 9/12/20)

1897        Feb 2, Fire destroyed the Pennsylvania state capitol in Harrisburg. A new statehouse was dedicated on the same site nine years later.
    (AP, 2/2/97)

1897        Feb 5, The Indiana House of Representatives unanimously passed a measure redefining the area of a circle and the value of pi. The bill died in the state Senate.
    (AP, 2/5/97)

1897        Feb 6, Ebenezer C. Brewer, British writer (Dictionary of Phrase & Fable), died.
    (MC, 2/6/02)

1897        Feb 10, John F. Enders, virologist, was born.
    (HN, 2/10/01)

1897        Feb 17, The US National Congress of Mothers was founded in Washington, D.C. It later became the National congress of Parents and Teachers known as the PTA (Parent Teachers Association).
    (USAT, 2/14/97, p.13D)(SFC, 2/22/96, p.A20)(AP, 2/17/98)

1897        Feb 27, Miriam Anderson, was born. She became a world renown opera singer and civil rights pioneer, and is best remembered for singing "My Country Tis of Thee" in front of the Lincoln Memorial.
    (HN, 2/27/02)

1897        Feb, Adolph Ochs of the New-York Times published for the 1st time his slogan "All the News That's Fit to Print."
    (SFEM, 1/16/00, p.23)

1897         Mar 2, President Cleveland vetoed legislation that would have required a literacy test for immigrants.
    (AP, 3/2/98)

1897        Mar 4, Lefty O’Doul (d.1969), baseball star, was born in SF in the old Butchertown neighborhood south of Market. He played for the SF Seals, and spent 11 years in the major leagues with the Phillies, Dodgers, Yankees and Giants before returning to manage the Seals and the Pacific Coast League. He was the National League batting champ in 1929 with the Phillies and again in 1932 with the Brooklyn Dodgers.
    (SFC, 3/5/96, p.C1)(SFC, 7/18/97, p.A9)

1897        Mar 4, William McKinley was sworn in as the 25th president.
    (AP, 3/4/98)

1897        Mar 5, Mei-ling Soong (d.2003, Madame Chiang Kai-shek, was born on Hainan Island, China. As wife of Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek she was instrumental in enlisting U.S. sympathy and relief for China in World war II.
    (www.nndb.com/people/978/000086720/)(HN, 6/5/99)

1897        Mar 9, Premiere of (parts of) Gustav Mahler's 3rd Symphony in Berlin.
    (MC, 3/9/02)
1897        Mar 9, Jamal al-Din al-Afghani (b.1838), itinerant Islamic activist and British intelligence agent, died in Istanbul. He is considered as one of the founders of Islamic modernism and an advocate of pan-Islamic unity.
    (Econ, 7/28/12, p.73)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jamal-al-Din_al-Afghani)

1897        Mar 18, Fr. Anthony Maraschi (b.1820), founder of the University of San Francisco and Saint Ignatius College Preparatory as well as the first pastor of Saint Ignatius Church in San Francisco, California., died.
    (GenIV, Winter 04/05)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anthony_Maraschi)

1897        Mar 24, Wilhelm Reich (d.1957), Austrian-US psychoanalyst (character analysis), was born. In 1999 Farrar, Straus & Giroux published: "American Odyssey: Letters and Journals 1940-1947."
    (WUD, 1994, p.1209)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wilhelm_Reich)

1897        Apr 3, The Vienna Secession was founded by artists Gustav Klimt (1862-1918), Koloman Moser, Josef Hoffmann, Joseph Maria Olbrich, Max Kurzweil, and others. Klimt was chosen as its 1st president. Although Otto Wagner is widely recognized as a fundamental member of the Vienna Secession he was not a founding member. The movement rebelled against the sentimental academic painting of the 19th century.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vienna_Secession)(WSJ, 10/22/99, p.W14)(WSJ, 7/11/01, p.A15)
1897        Apr 3,    Johannes Brahms (63), German composer, conductor (Hungarian Dances), died.
    (SFEC, 1/5/97, p.B11)(MC, 4/3/02)

1897        Apr 6 & 16, Frank M. Chapman, ornithologist with the American Museum of Natural History, observed large numbers of flying hawks over Veracruz, Mexico.
    (NH, 10/96, p.37)

1897        Apr 7,  Walter Winchell, American newscaster and newspaper columnist, was born in Harlem, NYC.
    (HN, 4/7/97)(MC, 4/7/02)

1897        Apr 8, Austrian populist Karl Lueger (1844-1910) became mayor of Vienna and ruled until 1910. He had won a majority of the city council to serve as mayor in 1895, but Emp. Franz Joseph had refused to appoint him because of his anti-Semitism.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Karl_Lueger)(Econ, 12/24/16, p.29)

1897        Apr 12, Prof. Edward Drinker Cope (b.1840), paleontologist, died in Pennsylvania. He had discovered many hitherto unknown dinosaur species. He willed his bones to science and by 1994 was settled in the Univ. of Pennsylvania’s Museum of Archeology and Anthropology and proposed as a type specimen for Homo sapiens. In 1999 David Rains Wallace authored "The Bonehunter's Revenge: Dinosaurs, Greed, and the Greatest Scientific Feud of the Gilded Age," which covered the feud between Cope and Othniel Charles Marsh.
    (WSJ, 11/1/94, p.1)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_Drinker_Cope)

1897        Apr 17, Thornton Wilder (d.1975), novelist and playwright, was born. His work included "Our Town" and "The Bridge of San Luis Rey."
    (HN, 4/17/99)(WSJ, 10/4/08, p.W8)

1897        Apr 19, 1st performance of Debussy's "Pelleas et Melisande."
    (MC, 4/19/02)
1897        Apr 19, The first Boston Marathon was run from Ashland, Mass., to Boston. Winner John J. McDermott ran the course in 2 hours, 55 minutes and 10 seconds.
    (AP, 4/19/97)

1897        Apr 22, NYC Jewish newspaper "Forward" began publishing.
    (MC, 4/22/02)

1897        Apr 23, Lucius du Bignon Clay, was born. He was the U.S. military governor of occupied Berlin following WW II, who promoted German self government.
    (HN, 4/23/99)(MC, 4/23/02)

1897        Apr 27, Grant's Tomb was dedicated.
    (MC, 4/27/02)

1897        Apr 30, Physicist Joseph John Thomson described the electron as a particle of negative charge whose motion constitutes electricity at a meeting of the Royal Institution in London. J.J. Thomson worked on cathode rays and identified electrons, charged particles smaller than the hydrogen atom.
    (SFC, 5/1/97, p.A7)s(NG, May 1985, , p.642)

1897        Apr, The Jewish Daily Forward began publishing. It was a socialist and secular paper in Yiddish founded by Russian immigrant Abraham Cahan.
    (WSJ, 4/25/97, p.A16)

1897        May 14, Sidney Bechet (d.1951), jazz clarinetist and soprano saxophone player, was born.
    (HN, 5/14/01)
1897        May 14, "Stars and Stripes Forever" by John Phillip Sousa was performed for the first time in Philadelphia.
    (HN, 5/14/01)
1897        May 14, Guglielmo Marconi made the first communication by wireless telegraph.
    (HN, 5/14/98)

1897        May 18, Frank Capra, movie director, was born. He is best remembered for "It's A Wonderful Life."
    (HN, 5/18/99)
1897        May 18, A public reading of Bram Stoker’s new novel, "Dracula, or, The Un-dead," was staged at the Royal Lyceum Theatre in London, an event that roughly coincided with the book’s publication.
    (WUD, 1994 p.432)(AP, 5/18/97)
1897        May 18, Paul Dukas "L'Apprenti Sorcier Pruimtabak on the Market" premiered.
    (SC, 5/18/02)
1897        May 18, An Irish Music Festival was 1st held in Dublin.
    (SC, 5/18/02)

1897        May 29, Erich Wolfgang Korngold, movie composer (Violanta), was born in Brno, Austria.
    (SC, 5/29/02)
1897        May 29, Ignace Lilien, composer, was born.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1897        Jun 2, Responding to rumors that he was dying or perhaps even dead, humorist Mark Twain, 61, was quoted by the New York Journal in London as saying that "the report of my death was an exaggeration."
    (AP, 6/2/97)

1897        Jun 7, George Szell, conductor (Metropolitan 1942-45), was born in Budapest, Hungary.
    (SC, 6/7/02)

1897        Jun 12, Anthony Eden, British prime minister (1955-1957), was born. He helped establish the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO).
    (HN, 6/12/99)
1897        Jun 12, Possibly the most severe quake in history struck Assam, India. Shock waves were felt over an area size of Europe.
    (MC, 6/12/02)

1897        Jun 14, Dr. Karl Wolfert and his mechanic were killed in Germany when their dirigible, powered by a Daimler car engine, crashed on its 4th flight.
    (ON, 3/03, p.10)

1897        Jun 15, May Belle Elsas (d.2003), opera singer and actress, was born in NYC. She changed her name to Mary Ellis when she joined the Metropolitan Opera at age 18.
    (SFC, 2/3/03, p.B4)

1897        Jun 16, The US government signed a treaty of annexation with Hawaii. The US Congress annexed Hawaii--without a vote from the Hawaiian people. Nearly 22,000 native Hawaiians had signed a petition opposing the annexation.
    (AP, 6/16/98)(HNPD, 1/25/99)(SSFC, 8/30/09, p.M1)

1897        Jun 19, Moe Howard, comic actor, one of the Three Stooges, was born.
    (HN, 6/19/98)
1897        Jun 19, Charles Cunningham Boycott (b.Mar 12, 1832) English land agent in Ireland, died in England. He was a faulty estate manager whose tenants "boycotted" him into poverty; when the crops failed and the farmers went broke, he unsympathetically gave them the choice of paying immediately or being evicted. The farmers retaliated and his staff quit. His family was isolated. This tactic gave us the word whose last name became part of the English language.

1897        Jun 21, In Austria a giant Ferris wheel, designed by Walter Bassett of England, opened in Vienna. It was built in the Wurstelprater amusement park to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the accession of Emperor Franz Joseph to the Habsburg throne.
    (Econ, 5/31/08, p.71)(http://tinyurl.com/3tawph)

1897        Jun 23, Winifred Wagner-William, German organizer (Bayreuth Wagner Festival), was born.
    (MC, 6/23/02)

1897        Jul 14, Swede Saloman Andrée (43) and 2 accomplices, Knute Fraenkle and Nils Strindberg, in the Ornen balloon were forced down after 64 hours in the first expedition to fly by balloon across the North Pole. Their attempt to return ended on White Island. Their fate was only discovered Aug 5-6, 1930, by Norwegian whalers.
    (HNQ, 5/22/01)(ON, 11/01, p.11)

1897        Jul 15, The gold-laden ship Excelsior from Alaska landed in San Francisco. Seattle mayor W.D. Wood was visiting and immediately resigned his job, hired a ship, and organized an expedition from SF to the Yukon territory.
    (WSJ, 7/17/97, p.A20)
1897        Jul 15, W. Sheldon of NY patented a seed counter for retail seed sales.
    (SFC, 4/13/05, p.G4)

1897        Jul 17, The Steamer Portland arrived into Seattle from Alaska with 68 prospectors carrying more than a ton of gold. The Seattle Post-Intelligencer announced that men with gold from Alaska were landing. This unleashed the Klondike gold rush and tens of thousands headed for the Yukon. The Klondike gold rush gave America and Canada a psychological boost in getting the economy moving again after the terrible depression that followed the 1893 crash.
    (CFA, ‘96, p.88)(Hem., 7/95, p.79)(CFA, ‘96, p.89)(WSJ, 5/1/97, p.A16)(WSJ, 7/17/97, p.A20)

1897        Jul 21, The Tate Gallery opened in England.
    (MC, 7/21/02)

1897        Jul 24, Amelia Earhart was born in Kansas. She was the first woman to fly solo across the Atlantic and disappeared in the South Pacific while trying to fly around the world. Her sister Muriel (d.1998 at 98) wrote a biography of Amelia titled: "Courage Is the Price."
    (SFC, 3/6/98, p.E2)(HN, 7/24/02)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amelia_Earhart)
1897        Jul 24, African-American soldiers of the 25th Infantry Bicycle Corps arrived in St. Louis,  Mo., after completing a 40-day bike ride from Missoula, Montana.
    (HN, 7/24/99)

1897        Jul 31, The commercial treaty between Britain and the German zollverein (established in 1865) was denounced by Britain and pronounced to end in one year.
    (G&M, 7/31/97, p.A2)

1897        Aug 8, Anarchist Miguel Angiolillo assassinated Spanish PM Antonio Canovas del Castillo at Santa Agueda, Spain. Práxides Mateo Sagasta became prime minister of Spain.
    (NG, 11/04, p.76)(www.loc.gov/rr/hispanic/1898/chronpr.html)

1897        Aug 10, Felix Hoffmann, a German worker for Bayer, rediscovered aspirin (acetyl salicyclic acid), the active ingredient of the willow plant’s (salicin). In 1832 a French chemist named Charles Gergardt had experiments with salicin and created salicylic acid. On March 6, 1899, Bayer registered Aspirin as a trademark.
    (http://didyouknow.org/aspirin/)(Econ, 12/11/10, p.100)

1897        Aug 16, Robert Ringling, circus master, was born.
    (MC, 8/16/02)

1897        Aug 28, Charles Boyer (d.1978), French actor of film and stage, was born. Films included "Algiers,'' “Fanny," and "Gaslight.''
    (RTH, 8/28/99)

1897        Aug 31, Thomas Edison patented his movie camera (Kinetograph).
    (MC, 8/31/01)
1897        Aug 31, General Kitchener occupied Berber, North of Khartoum.
    (MC, 8/31/01)

1897        Sep 1, The first section of Boston’s subway system was opened. The Park St. Station in Boston was the nation’s first subway station. The Boylston Street subway opened in 1897.
    (AP, 9/1/97)(BS, 5/3/98, p.5R)(HNQ, 5/17/99)

1897        Sep 2, "McCall's" magazine was 1st published.
    (MC, 9/2/01)

1897        Sep 5, A.C. Nielson, founder of the Nielson Ratings, was born.
    (HN, 9/5/00)

1897        Sep 10, Police shot at striking mine workers in Pennsylvania and 20 people were killed.
    (MC, 9/10/01)

1897        Sep 11, A strike by some 75,000  coal miners in Pennsylvania, Ohio and West Virginia ended after 10 weeks. Concessions included an eight-hour work day, semi-monthly pay, and the abolition of company stores (which were famous for over charging workers). The day before, about 20 miners were killed when sheriff's deputies opened fire on them in Pennsylvania.
    (AP, 9/11/97)(MC, 9/11/01)

1897        Sep 12, Irene Joliot-Curie, French physicist (neutron, Nobel 1935), was born.
    (MC, 9/12/01)

1897        Sep 18, Alberto Santos-Dumont crashed his 1st dirigible into trees at the Zoological Gardens in Paris.
    (ON, 3/03, p.10)

1897        Sep 20, Alberto Santos-Dumont successfully flew his repaired motorized dirigible around the Zoological Gardens in Paris.
    (ON, 3/03, p.10)

1897        Sep 21, The New York Sun ran its famous editorial that answered a question from 8-year-old Virginia O’Hanlon: "Is there a Santa Claus?" Francis P. Church wrote, in part: "Yes, Virginia, there is a Santa Claus. He exists as certainly as love and generosity and devotion exist, and you know that they abound and give to your life its highest beauty and joy."
    (AP, 9/21/97)

1897        Sep 23, The 1st frontier days rodeo celebration in Cheyenne, Wyoming, was held. By 1998 it had become the world’s largest outdoor rodeo.
    (SFEC, 6/28/98, p.T3)(MC, 9/23/01)

1897        Sep 25, William Faulkner (d.1962), American author, was born in New Albany, Miss. "The poet’s voice need not merely be the record of man; it can be one of the props, the pillars to help him endure and prevail."
    (AP, 9/25/97)

1897        Sep 26, Pope Paul VI (Giovanni Battista Montini), the 262nd pope of the Roman Catholic Church, was born.
    (MC, 9/26/01)

1897        Sep, Eight whaling ships with 273 men became trapped in ice off Point Barrow, Alaska, in an early freeze. Lt. David Henry Jarvis of the Revenue Cutter Service, the forerunner of the US Coast Guard, led a 1500-mile expedition overland from Nelson Island Point Barrow with a herd of reindeer to the stranded men.
    (ON, 1/01, p.1)
1897        Sep, In San Francisco the cornerstone of the Sacred Heart Catholic Church was laid. It was built in the Lombardi style on Fillmore Street. In 1910 three altars of Carrera marble, designed by Attilio Moretti, were installed. In 2004 plans were made to close it due to $8 million in costs for repairs from the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. In 2014 it opened up for disco roller skating.
    (SFC, 9/25/04, p.B1)(SFC, 5/13/05, p.F5)(SFC, 4/4/14, p.A1)
1897        Sep, In Brazil Antonio Conselheiro, the founding leader of Canudos, died of dysentery.
    (SFC, 10/7/97, p.A14)

1897        Oct 4, George Bernard Shaw's "The Devil's Disciple," premiered in NYC.
    (MC, 10/4/01)

1897        Oct 5, In Brazil after a 4-month battle government forces defeated the settlement of Canudos. Pres. Prudente de Morais sent 8,000 soldiers with Krupp cannons, dynamite and machine guns in the Fourth Military Expedition to overcome the settlement led by Antonio Conselheiro.
    (SFC, 10/7/97, p.A14)

1897        Oct 8, Journalist Charles Henry Dow, founder of the Wall Street Journal, began charting trends of stocks and bonds.
    (HN, 10/8/00)
1897        Oct 8, Emperor Karl Joseph I named Gustav Mahler director of Vienna Opera.
    (MC, 10/8/01)

1897        Oct 15, Aaron and Samuel Bloch carried the 1st US Mail Pouch.
    (MC, 10/15/01)

1897        Oct 22, The world's 1st car dealer began business in London.
    (MC, 10/22/01)

1897        Oct 24, The first comic strip appeared in the Sunday color supplement of the New York Journal called the 'Yellow Kid.' [see May 1895,1896]
    (HN, 10/24/00)

1897        Oct 28, Hans Speidel, Nazi chief-staff and NATO-supreme commander, was born.
    (MC, 10/28/01)

1897        Oct 29, Joseph G. Goebbels, German Nazi Propaganda Minister who died of suicide in Hitler’s bunker, was born.
    (HN, 10/29/98)

1897        Nov 3, David Schwarz of Austria crashed his 156-foot aluminum powered airship with 2 propellers on its maiden flight.
    (ON, 3/03, p.11)

1897        Nov 13, The first metal dirigible was flown from Tempelhof Field in Berlin.
    (HN, 11/13/98)

1897        Nov 15, Sacheverell Sitwell, English poet and author (People's Palace), was born.
    (MC, 11/15/01)

1897        Nov 19, The Great "City Fire" in London.
    (HN, 11/19/98)

1897        Nov 23, Willie "The Lion" Smith, jazz and ragtime pianist, was born.
    (HN, 11/23/00)
1897        Nov 23, A pencil sharpener was patented by J.L. Love.
    (MC, 11/23/01)

1897        Nov 25, Spain granted Puerto Rico autonomy.
    (MC, 11/25/01)

1897        Dec 1, Stephen J. Field (1816-1899), US Supreme Court Justice, left office after serving on the court for 34 years.

1897        Dec 3, Kate O'Brien, Irish writer (Without My Cloak), was born.
    (MC, 12/3/01)

1897        Dec 12, Lillian Smith, Southern writer and civil rights activist, was born.
    (HN, 12/12/00)
1897        Dec 12, "The Katzenjammer Kids," the pioneering comic strip created by Rudolph Dirks, made its debut in the New York Journal.
    (AP, 12/12/97)

1897        Dec 16, The 1st submarine with an internal combustion engine was demonstrated.
    (MC, 12/16/01)

1897        Dec 26, Peter French shot and killed sodbuster, Ed Oliver, after Oliver drew a gun on him. French confessed to the murder but was acquitted.
    (SFEC, 7/6/97, p.T5)

1897        Dec 28, Edmond Rostand’s play on Cyrano de Bergerac (1619-1655), French poet, was unveiled at the Theatre de la Porte-Saint-Martin in Paris. Cyrano’s noted nose was an invention of the poet Theophile Gautier introduced in an 1844 book.
    (SFEC, 4/27/97, DB p.3)(AP, 12/28/97)

1897        Dec 31, Brooklyn, N.Y., spent its last day as a separate entity before becoming part of New York City.
    (AP, 12/31/97)

1897        The 1890 Vincent van Gogh painting "Portrait of Dr. Gachet" was sold to Alice Ruben, a Danish art collector, for $58. In 1990 Japanese businessman Ryoei Saito paid $82.5 million for the painting.
    (BS, 5/3/98, Par p.26)

1897        Claude Monet     painted "The Cliffs of Dieppe." In 1998 it was stolen from the French Fine Arts Museum of Nice.
    (SFC, 9/22/98, p.B7)

1897        Giovanni Segantini painted "Primavera sulle alpi," a Divisionist landscape. It was valued at $4-6 million in 1999.
    (SFC, 11/6/99, p.B8)

1897        Bert Corgan published his autobiography "Mining Camp Lawyer."
    (WW, 12/96)

1897        Mark Twain published "Following the Equator: A Journey Around the World, " his last travelogue.
    (SFC, 8/25/99, p.C3)

1897        Edith Wharton wrote "The Decoration of Houses."
    (WSJ, 12/9/97, p.A20)

1897        Arthur Schnitzler wrote his play "Reigen." The name meant round dance and represented a circle of sexual encounters. It was premiered in Vienna in 1920 and was promptly closed down by police. A 1998 adaptation by David Hare featured Nicole Kidman and AIain Glen in "The Blue Room."
    (WSJ, 12/16/98, p.A21)

1897        Alfred Stieglitz invited Fred Holland Day to contribute to Camera Notes.
    (Civilization, July-Aug. 1995, p.40-47)

1897        West Point military academy adopted the motto: "Duty, Honor, Country."
    (SFEC, 5/7/00, Par p.7)

1897        US Marine Band Conductor Francesco Fanciulli was arrested and charged for insubordination after refusing to play any more Sousa marches.
    (WSJ, 7/11/96, p.A12)

1897        The recording giant EMI was founded.
    (Sky, 9/97, p.54)

1897        Anson Phelps Stokes, an eccentric business man in the Reese River Valley, built his 3-story Stokes Castle in Austin, Nevada. He built the 92-mile Nevada Central Railroad from Battle Mountain to Austin.
    (SFCM, 3/28/04, p.43)(ACC, 2004)(SSFC, 6/22/14, p.N13)

1897        The yellow brick King’s County Courthouse in Hanford, Ca., was built in neo-classical revival style.
    (SFEC, 1/4/98, p.T3)
1897        In San Francisco the 4-unit building at 425-431 Buchanan St., designed by William T. Cummins, was built. The roofline was enhanced by 4 round towers.
    (SSFC, 9/6/09, p.C2)

1897        The US Army began building Fort Michie on Great Gull Island to protect the eastern approaches to Long Island Sound.
    (NH, 10/02, p.12)

1897        In Le Roy, New York, Pearle Wait, a carpenter, and his wife May, made a concoction of gelatin and fruit flavor that they named Jell-O.
    (SFEC, 7/27/97, p.A2)

1897        The American Cat Association was founded to promote the welfare of cats and their owners.
    (Smith., 4/1995, p.136)

1897        The American Negro Academy was founded by W.E.B. Du Bois and other black intellectuals.
    (Civilization, July-Aug, 1995, p. 37)

1897        Old Del Monte golf course in Monterey, Ca., opened.
    (Hem, 6/96, p.137)

1897        James J. Corbett lost his boxing title to Robert Fitzsimmons.
    (HNQ, 6/20/00)

1897        In Wyoming the first annual Cheyenne Frontier Days Rodeo was held. By 1998 it had become the world’s largest outdoor rodeo.
    (SFEC, 6/28/98, p.T3)

1897        Pres. Grover Cleveland established a forest reserve in the Olympic Peninsula of Washington state with sharp restrictions on commercial logging. 3 years later McKinley remanded a third of the reserve back to open logging.
    (NG, 7/04, p.66)

1897        The US Library of Congress’s Jefferson Building opened to the public.
    (SFEC, 2/16/97, p.A6)

1897        The US Supreme Court ruled that "Seamen are... deficient in that full and intelligent responsibility for their acts that is accredited to ordinary adults." The court added that sailors "had to be protected from themselves and therefore were not subject to the Constitution’s Thirteenth Amendment that prohibited involuntary servitude." This in essence condoned the practice of "shanghaiing." The practice was later described by Bill Picklehaupt in his 1997 book "Shanghaied in San Francisco."
    (SFC,1/22/97, p.E5)

1897        The USS Constitution (aka Old Ironsides) was put into dry-dock.
    (SFC, 7/22/97, p.A11)

1897        The American Federation of Labor backed literacy requirements for immigrants.
    (WSJ, 3/29/04, p.A8)

1897        The suffragette movement started in England as a peaceful protest. The movement turned militant in 1903. Women in England won the right to vote in 1918.
    (SFC, 8/23/06, p.G7)

1897        The Chicago Teachers Club met to protest the sale of cigarettes as "poison laden and corrupting."
    (Hem., 7/96, p.28)

1897        Teddy Roosevelt, the police commissioner of NYC, was appointed assistant secretary of war under Pres. William McKinley, after Col. Frederick Grant, son of Ulysses S. Grant, turned down the position. In 2012 Richard Zacks authored “Island of Vice: Theodore Roosevelt’s Doomed Quest to Clean Up Sin-Loving New York."
    (SSFC, 4/8/12, p.F3)
1897        In NYC Col. Fred Grant withdrew from the Board of Police Commissioners as a protest against the methods employed by the NY police to gain evidence.
    (G&M, 7/31/97, p.A2)

1897        In California a Polish prince opened the Sierra Railroad. For years it was run by descendants of Charles Crocker. The Sierra RR in Jamestown, Tuolumne County, was built to carry lumber and ore to other parts of California.
    (SFC, 12/19/03, p.A25)(SSFC, 3/23/14, p.P2)
1897        In northern California Lime Point Military Reservation was renamed Fort Baker in honor of Col. Edward D. Baker, who was killed leading a regiment of Union troops in the Civil War. The former US Senator from Oregon was active in California politics in the 1850s.
    (The Park, Summer "95)(SFEC, 8/1/99, p.B4)
1897        In the SF Bay Area Stauffer Chemical Co. built a plant on property in Richmond. The company dumped iron pyrite cinders into a marsh and later manufactured fertilizers, herbicides and pesticides there. Zeneca Corp. later bought the plant and then closed it in 1997. In 1998 the California water board named the site a toxic "hot spot." Zeneca Corp. (later AstraZeneca) spent $20 million in 2002 cleanup the site. In 2020 the site was proposed for residential development.
    (SFC, 12/11/20, p.A9)

1897        Marcus Hanna was elected to the US Senate. Hanna, an Ohio industrialist, led the 1896 fund-raising for Pres. McKinley and personally underwrote the cost of winning the 1st modern presidential campaign. In 1929 Thomas Beer authored a biography of Hanna.
     (WSJ, 3/24/04, p.B1)

1897        American Telephone & Telegraph Co. began to use wooden poles when it put up a communication line from Washington DC to Norfolk, Va.
    (WSJ, 3/2/00, p.A1)

1897        BD was founded in 1897 in New York City by Maxwell Becton and Farleigh S. Dickinson, Sr. The company sold glass hypodermic syringes for $2.50. "It was Maxwell Becton’s kind gesture in closing a shade to block the glare of the sun in Dickinson’s eyes that brought the two men together."
    (Horizon, Fall ‘95, p.12)(EIH, BDID, SLC, 1981)(cc: mail 3/3/97)(SFC, 4/13/98, p.A6)

1897        Chicago Gas was one of a host of utilities absorbed by Peoples Gas Light & Coke Co. as part of a massive industry consolidation.
    (WSJ, 5/28/96, p. R-45)

1897        Olds Motor Vehicle Co. was the first auto maker to organize in Lansing, Michigan. R.E. Olds called his first car the Oldsmobile.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)

1897        The Sears Roebuck catalog offered a gun for 68 cents.
    (WSJ, 12/17/03, p.B1)

1897        The Singer sewing machine company built a huge factory in Russia.
    (SFC, 5/16/01, p.D4)

1897        The Stanley Rule & Level Co. of in New Britain, Conn., began making 6-inch folding rulers. They introduced a 4-inch one in 1907.
    (SFC, 11/1/03, p.E4)

1897        The Sterling China Co. started working in Sebring, Ohio. In 1904 it changed its name to Limoges China and in the 1940s added "American" to its name. It experimented with some unusual glazes in the 1930s, including a green one called "Emerald Glow."
    (SFC, 1/29/97, z-1 p.2)

1897        Orison Swett Marden founded Success magazine. The magazine began as a nonfiction monthly featuring biographical sketches and articles espousing the virtue of success, and contributions by such notables as Theodore Dreiser, Booker T. Washington, Edward Everett Hale, Mary A. Livermore, and Julia Ward Howe. In 1911 it merged with the National Post.

1897        Alexander Winton organized the Winton Motor Carriage Co. in Cleveland.
    (F, 10/7/96, p.66)

1897        Victor Durand Jr., French-born glassmaker, started the Vineland Glass Manufacturing Co. in Vineland, NJ.
    (SFC, 3/31/99, Z1 p.6)

1897        Ransom E. Olds started the Olds Motor Vehicle Co. In 2004 the last Oldsmobile Alero rolled of a GM assembly line in Lansing, Mich.
    (SFC, 4/28/04, p.C1)

1897        Gilbert Loomis was the first car-owner to purchase auto insurance for his vehicle. The premium was $7.50 for $1,000 worth of liability insurance.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)

1897        In Grand Rapids the male only Diamond Hall club was formed for Polish immigrants. In 2004 the club voted to allow women full membership.
    (USAT, 5/18/04, p.17A)
1897        Michigan passed a law prohibiting the use of obscenities in front of women and children. The law was challenged in 1999 after a canoeist, Timothy J. Boomer, hit a rock on the Rifle River and was cited for swearing in 1998. A state appeals court struck down the law in 2002
    (SFC, 6/3/99, p.A8)(SFC, 4/2/02, p.A3)
1897        In Midland, Michigan, Herbert Dow, founder of Dow Chemical, first tapped the local brine wells for his pioneering electrolysis process.
    (Econ, 7/9/11, p.62)
1897        Otto H.L. Wernicke moved his Wernicke Furniture Co. from Minneapolis, Minn., to Grand Rapids, Mich.
    (SFC, 8/9/06, p.G3)

1897        Thaddeus Cahill (1867-1934) patented (pat no. 580,035) what was to become the "Telharmonium" or "Dynamophone." It can be considered the first significant electronic musical instrument. The 1st fully completed model was presented to the public (1906) in Holyoke, Mass.
    (www.obsolete.com/120_years/machines/telharmonium/)(Econ, 9/3/05, p.77)

1897        Adolphe Chaillet, French inventor and US immigrant, developed a coiled filament carbon lamp that burned brighter than existing models. He met John C. Fish of Shelby, Ohio and began an association that was to be the start of the Shelby Electric Company. In 1901 a Shelby bulb was installed in a Livermore, Ca., firehouse. Though it was moved a few times, as of 2011 it was still working.
    (www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~ohscogs/shelbymuseum/ShelbyMuseum3.html)(SSFC, 2/6/11, p.C1)

1897        Lord Kelvin calculated the age of the earth on the assumption that it had cooled from an initial molten state. His work indicated an age of between 200 and 400 million years for the earth.
    (DD-EVTT, p.32)

1897        R.D. Oldham, English seismologist, recognized the three main kinds of seismic waves recorded by his instruments. They are the primary waves (P waves) of the push-pull kind, like sound waves, secondary waves (s-waves) in which the vibrations are at right angles to the direction in which the shock wave is moving, and longitudinal waves (l-waves) which move over the earth’s surface.
    (DD-EVTT, p.77)

1897        The world’s first offshore oil well was drilled just east of Santa Barbara, Ca.
    (SSFC, 10/29/06, p.F6)

1897        Robert Peary, Arctic explorer, took 6 Eskimos from Greenland back to NYC as living museum specimens. In 2000 Kenn Harper authored "Give Me My Father’s Body," the story of Minik, one of the 6 Eskimos, who died in 1918 in a New Hampshire lumber camp at age 28.
    (SFEC, 7/16/00, Par p.8)

1897        The Red River in Fargo North Dakota crested at 39.1 feet. The record was broken in 1997.
    (SFC, 4/16/97, p.A3)

1897        The Ellis Island immigration center was destroyed by fire.
    (SFEC, 6/20/99, p.T10)

1897        Algeria's National Museum of Antiquities and Islamic Arts was founded in Algiers.
    (AFP, 3/9/19)

1897        Belgium established the Tervuren Royal Museum for Central Africa following the World Fair of this year. It was a result of the country’s colonial venture in the Belgian Congo, later Zaire, later Democratic Republic of Congo. The museum was founded as a showcase for business opportunities on the Congo.
    (SFC, 2/21/98, p.E1)(www.africamuseum.be/museum/about)

1897        Belo Horizonte was founded in the state of Minas Gerais as the first modern planned city of Brazil.
    (USA Today, OW, 4/22/96, p.9)

1897        British officer Capt. H. Deasy encountered migrating chirus in Tibet and named the local Antelope Plain.
    (NH, 5/96, p.50)
1897        The Royal Pigeon Racing Association formed in England. In 2004 it began drug testing among its members for the use of steroids in their pigeons.
    (WSJ, 11/11/04, p.A1)
1897        Isaac Pitman (b.1813), inventor of Pitman shorthand, died in Britain.
    (WSJ, 8/20/04, p.A1)

1897        In China John Calvin Ferguson, the American head of what later became Jiao Tong Univ., built Shanghai’s Wukang Road in the city’s French concession so students could get to class.
    (Econ, 9/12/15, SR p.3)

1897        Camille Pissarro (1830-1903) created his painting “Rue St.-Honore, Apres-Midi, Effet de Pluie." In 1939 the family of Lilly Cassirer gave it up in exchange for visas allowing them safe passage to England ahead of the Holocaust. It was later acquired by Spain’s Thyssen-Bornemisza Museum and was appraised at more than $30 million.
    (SFC, 12/5/16, p.A4)
1897        "The Theater of the Great Puppet" - known as the Grand Guignol – opened as a theater in the Pigalle area of Paris (at 20 bis, rue Chaptal). From its opening until its closing in 1962, it specialised in naturalistic horror shows.
1897        A French scientist at the Pasteur Institute made the crucial connection between rats and fleas as carriers of bubonic plague.
    (SFC, 9/20/14, p.C2)
1897        Alphonse Daudet (b.1840), French novelist, died. In 2002 Julian Barnes translated writings from his last 12 years, "In the Land of Pain," in which he conveyed his thoughts on pain from his tertiary-stage syphilis.
    (WUD, 1994 p.369)(WSJ, 1/24/03, p.W9)
1897        St. Theresa of Lisiex, known to her followers as The Little Flower, died.
    (SFC, 1/11/00, p.A15)

1897        In Germany Dr. Magnus Hirschfeld founded the Scientific-Humanitarian Committee (SHC) to study homosexuality and help win support for gay rights.
    (SSFC, 11/16/14, p.P2)

1897        Ragnar Sohlman, executor of Alfred Nobel’s will, moved Nobel’s stock certificates and papers out of France to Sweden, and thus beyond the jurisdiction of French courts.
    (ON, 4/07, p.7)

1897        The Greeks were defeated by Turkey at Velestino in their war over the independence of Crete.
    (WSJ, 8/6/98, p.A13)

1897        Japan’s Kyoto National Museum was established.
    (Hem, 9/04, p.46)

1897        Wolves disappeared from the Netherlands. In 2011 a wolf was again spotted in the country.
    (Econ, 12/22/12, p.125)

1897         Ottoman authorities disbanded a reactivated League of Prizren, executed its leader and banned Albanian language books.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1897        The first Zionist Congress was held in Basel, Switzerland.
    (SFEC, 4/26/98, BR p.1)

1897        Albert Ruskin Cook (1870-1951), British born medical missionary in Uganda, became the first person to describe buruli ulcers. The disease is primarily an infection of subcutaneous fat, resulting in a focus of necrotic (dead) fat containing myriads of the mycobacteria in characteristic spherules formed within the dead fat cells. Skin ulceration is a secondary event.

1897        Mbuya Nehanda, a spirit medium of the Zezuru Shona people, was executed for the killing of administrator Henry Pollard, known for his brutality toward blacks. She provided inspiration to the Hwata Dynasty for their revolt against the British South Africa Company colonization of Mashonaland and Matabeleland (later Zimbabwe). She is believed to have had immense powers was later remembered as the ancestral grandmother of the Zimbabwe nation.
    (AP, 12/8/11)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nehanda_Nyakasikana)

1897-1898    Paul Gauguin created his painting "D'ou venons-nous? Que sommmes-nous? Ou allons-nous?" (Where do we come from? What Are We? Where are we going?)
    (WSJ, 4/12/04, p.D8)

1897-1901    James D. Phelan (d.1930) served as mayor of SF.
    (SFC, 11/7/00, p.A15)

1897-1902    The Jesup North Pacific Expedition was made to study the biological and cultural connections between peoples on each side of the Bering Strait. It was one of the first instances where a camera was used in such a study.
    (WSJ, 12/30/97, p.A8)

1897-1904    Henry-Louis de La Grange, French writer, focused on these years in Vienna in writing his multivolume biography of Gustav Mahler titled: Vienna: The Years of Challenge. Vol. 1 in English was released in 1973. A 3-volume French edition came out between 1979-1984. A new 4-volume English was launched in 1995.
    (WSJ, 6/9/95, p.A-12)(SFEC, 6/7/98, DB p.37)

1897-1946    John Steuart Curry, American painter, was known as a regionalist for his paintings of Kansas. Many of his best works were actually done in Westport, Conn. He became artist in residence at the Univ. of Wisconsin, the first to hold such an academic position in the US.
    (SFC, 6/13/98, p.E1)

1897-1955     Bernard De Voto, American author, journalist and critic: "History abhors determinism, but cannot tolerate chance." Determinism refers to the notion that a cause precedes every event.
    (AP, 8/20/97)(SSFC, 4/6/03, p.M5)

1897-1957    Erich Wolfgang Korngold, composer. He went into exile in 1938 and wrote film music in Hollywood.
    (WSJ, 3/5/99, p.W10)

1897-1957    The Griswold Manufacturing Co. of Erie, Pa., made cast-iron skillets, pans and other kitchen items over this time.
    (SFEC, 10/9/96, z1 p.8)

1897-1966     Lillian Smith, American writer and social critic: "Education is a private matter between the person and the world of knowledge and experience, and has little to do with school or college." "The human heart dares not stay away too long from that which hurt it most. There is a return journey to anguish that few of us are released from making."
    (AP, 11/13/97)(AP, 8/8/99)

1895-1972     L.P. Hartley, British author: "The past is a foreign country; they do things differently there."
    (AP, 7/1/00)

1897-1973     Catherine Drinker Bowen, American author: "I speak the truth, not so much as I would, but as much as I dare; and I dare a little more, as I grow older."
    (AP, 3/23/98)

1897-1980     Dorothy Day, American activist and founder of the Catholic worker newspaper: "How much did I hear of religion as a child? Very little, and yet my heart leaped when I heard the name of God. I do believe every soul has a tendency toward God." "The best thing to do with the best things in life is to give them up."
    (AP, 6/8/97)(AP, 8/18/99)(WSJ, 3/26/03, p.D8)

1897-1988    George Sakier, designer. He designed the Myriad pattern of Fostoria Glass. he also designed packaging, furniture, bath fixtures, and painted abstract landscapes.
    (SFC, 6/12/96, Z1 p.5)

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