Timeline 1887-1890

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1887        Jan 11, At Fort Smith, Ark., hang man deluxe George Maledon dispatched four more victims in a multiple hanging.
    (HN, 1/11/99)

1887        Jan 15, In San Francisco the schooner Parallel carrying 42 tons of dynamite exploded near the Cliff House. The US Life Saving Service rescued a dog stranded on ship, which was abandoned after running aground near Point Bonita. The sails were still set and the ship set off by itself landing on the rocks near the Cliff House.
    (SFC, 2/28/09, p.B3)(SSFC, 3/24/19, DB p.39)

1887        Jan 20, The U.S. Senate approved an agreement to lease Pearl Harbor in Hawaii as a naval base. [see Nov 29]
    (AP, 1/20/98)

1887        Feb 2, People began gathering at Gobbler's Knob in Punxsutawney, Pa., to witness the groundhog's search for its shadow.
    (WSJ, 2/2/99, p.B1)

1887        Feb 3, Congress created the Electoral Count Act to avoid disputed natl. elections.
    (MC, 2/3/02)

1887        Feb 4, The US federal Interstate Commerce Commission Act was passed. It was enacted to restrict monopolies but did not have much power of enforcement. It regulated railroads and protected farmers from fees that it judged excessive. The US Congress designated rail a common-carrier service.
    (www.classbrain.com/artteenst/publish/article_85.shtml)(SFC, 7/8/96, p.D2)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R48)(Econ, 5/15/10, p.86)

1887        Feb 5, Verdi’s opera "Otello," based on the play by Shakespeare, premiered at La Scala.
    (AP, 2/5/97)(WSJ, 8/1/01, p.A12)
1887        Feb 5, Peder Balke (b.1804), Norwegian painter, died. He was known for portraying the nature of Norway in a positive manner and influenced a dramatic and romantic view of Norwegian landscape.

1887        Feb 8, US Senator Henry Dawes sponsored the Dawes Severalty Act that authorized the survey of Indian territories in the West, in order that the commonly held tribal lands might be broken up into property allotments of 40 to 160 acres. The Dawes Act gave citizenship to Indians living apart from their tribe. Section Six stated that upon completion of a Land Patent process, the allotment holder will become a United States citizen and "be entitled to all the rights, privileges, and immunities of such citizens." Native Americans in general did not become citizens until the Snyder Act of 1924.
    (NG, 5/95, p.91)(HN, 2/7/97)(AP, 6/2/97)
1887        Feb 8, The Allotment Act (Dawes Act) tried to break up tribal land ownership and awarded individual allotments. Trust accounts were established for both Indian tribes and individual American Indians. The lands were then held in trust, managed by the government and leased out to gas, oil and timber companies. The status of the accounts brought to question in 1996 when the Bureau of Indian Affairs could not account for about 15% of an estimated $450 million held for some 300,000 Indians. In 1999 a federal judge cited Sec. Bruce Babbitt and Robert Rubin in contempt for official deceit in accounting for the trusts that involved some 500,000 Indians.
    (SFC, 6/11/96, p.A12)(SFC, 2/23/99, p.A1)(WSJ, 5/3/99, p.A24)
1887        Feb 8, Luke Short, owner of the classy Fort Worth White Elephant saloon, engaged in a gunfight with Longhair Jim Courtright, gunfighter extraordinaire. Short won.
    (HT, 4/97, p.51)
1887        Feb 8, Aurora Ski Club of Red Wing, Minn., became the 1st US ski club.
    (MC, 2/8/02)

1887        Feb 11, Ernst "Putzi" Hanfstangl, German politician and confidante of Hitler, NSDAP & American school chum of Roosevelt ), was born.
    (MC, 2/11/02)

1887        Feb 13, Alvin York, famed US soldier with 25 kills in WW I, was born.
    (MC, 2/13/02)

1887        Feb 15, Alexander Borodin (b.1833), Russian composer, died. He had worked on his epic opera "Prince Igor" for 18 years. It was completed in 1888 by Glazunov and Rimsky-Korsakov. [see Feb 27]
    (WSJ, 9/19/96, p.A18)(WSJ, 5/7/98, p.A21)(WSJ, 2/6/00, p.A16)(MC, 2/15/02)

1887        Feb 18, Nikos Kazantzakis, Greek writer, was born. [see Dec 2, 1885]
    (MC, 2/18/02)

1887        Feb 19, The 49th US Congress passed the Edmunds-Tucker Act. It abolished women's suffrage, forced wives to testify against their husbands, disincorporated the LDS Church, dismantled the Perpetual Emigrating Fund Company, abolished the Nauvoo Legion, and provided that LDS Church property in excess of $50,000 would be forfeited to the United States.

1887        Feb 21, The 1st US bacteriology laboratory opened in Brooklyn.
    (MC, 2/21/02)

1887        Feb 24, Mary Ellen Chase (d.1973), New England writer, was born. "Suffering without understanding in this life is a heap worse than suffering when you have at least the grain of an idea what it’s all for."
    (AP, 6/23/97)(HN, 2/24/01)

1887        Feb 26, Sir Benegal Narsing Rau, president of UN Security Council (1950), was born in India.
    (SC, 2/26/02)

1887        Feb 27, Alexander Porfiryevich Borodin (53), Russian physician, composer (Prince Igor), died. [see Feb 15]
    (MC, 2/27/02)   

1887         Mar 2, The American Trotting Association was organized in Detroit, Mi., on this day.
    (HC, Internet, 2/3/98)

1887        Mar 3, Anne Mansfield Sullivan arrived at the Alabama home of Capt. and Mrs. Arthur H. Keller to become the teacher of Helen, their blind and deaf 6-year-old daughter.
    (AP, 3/3/00)
1887        Mar 3, The anti-Catholic American Protective Association formed in Clinton, IA.
    (SC, 3/3/02)

1887        Mar 4, William Randolph Hearst (23) became "Proprietor" of the SF Examiner newspaper.
    (SFC, 8/7/99, p.A9)

1887        Mar 5, Heitor Villa-Lobos, composer, was born in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    (HN, 3/5/01)(MC, 3/5/02)

1887        Mar 7, Helen Parkhurst, educator, was born. She developed a technique later known as the Dalton Plan.
    (HN, 3/7/01)

1887        Mar 8, Everett Horton of Connecticut patented a fishing rod of telescoping steel tubes.
    (MC, 3/8/02)
1887        Mar 8, Henry Ward Beecher (b.1813), American clergyman and brother of Harriet Beecher Stowe, died. His books included the “Summer in the Soul" (1858), “Life of Jesus Christ" (1871), Yale Lectures on Preaching (1872) and Evolution and Religion (1885).  In 2006 Debby Applegate authored “The Most Famous Man in America: The Biography of Henry Ward Beecher. "
    (www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USASbeecher.htm)(SSFC, 7/2/06, p.M3)

1887        Mar 13, Chester Greenwood of Maine patented earmuffs.
    (MC, 3/13/02)

1887        Mar 22, Chico Marx, [Leonard Martin], comedian (Marx Brothers), was born in NYC.
    (MC, 3/22/02)

1887        Mar 23, Juan Gris, cubist painter (Still Life Before an Open Window), was born in Spain.
    (SS, 3/23/02)
1887        Mar 23, Felix Felixovitch Yussupov (Youssoupoff), Russian prince, murderer of Rasputin, was born.
    (SS, 3/23/02)

1887        Mar 24, Ivan Kramskoy (b.1837), Russian portrait painter, died.

1887        Mar 31, John Godfrey Saxe (b.1816), American poet, died. In 1969 he was quoted saying: “Laws, like sausages, cease to inspire respect in proportion as we know how they are made." His poems included “The Blind Men and the Elephant" (1862).

1887        Apr 4, Susanna Medora Salter became the first woman elected mayor of an American community—Argonia, Kan.
    (AP, 4/4/97)

1887        Apr 5, In Tuscumbia, Ala., teacher Anne Sullivan taught her blind and deaf pupil, Helen Keller, the meaning of the word "water" as spelled out in the manual alphabet.
    (AP, 4/5/97)
1887        Apr 5, British historian Lord Acton wrote, "Power tends to corrupt and absolute power corrupts absolutely. Great men are almost always bad men."
    (AP, 5/5/08)

1887        Apr 10, President Abraham Lincoln was re-buried with his wife in Springfield, Il.
    (MC, 4/10/02)

1887        Apr 14, Start of Sherlock Holmes adventure "Reigate Squires."
    (MC, 4/14/02)

1887        Apr 26, Huntsville Electric Co. was formed to sell electricity.
    (MC, 4/26/02)

1887        Apr 28, Carl Ferdinand Pohl (67), composer, died.
    (MC, 4/28/02)

1887        May 2, Hannibal W. Goodwin patented celluloid photographic film.
    (MC, 5/2/02)
1887        May 2, The remains of composer Gioachino Rossini (1792-1868), were transferred from Paris to Santa Croce, Florence.
    (MC, 5/2/02)

1887        May 18, Emmanuel Chabrier’s opera "Le Roi Malgré Luis" premiered in Paris, France.
    (SC, 5/18/02)

1887        May 20, Alexander Ulyanov (b.1866), the older brother of Lenin, the older brother of Lenin, was executed for a conspiracy to assassinate Czar Alexander III.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aleksandr_Ulyanov)(WSJ, 10/5/00, p.A24)

1887        May 23, The 1st transcontinental train arrived in Vancouver, BC.
    (MC, 5/23/02)

1887        May 25, Gas lamp at Paris Opera caught fire and 200 died.
    (SC, 5/25/02)

1887        Jun 7, Monotype type-casting machine was patented by Tolbert Lanston in Wash., DC.
    (SC, 6/7/02)

1887        Jun 20, Kurt Schwitters (d.1948), German artist, was born. He spent a year and a half in an internment camp on the Isle of Man during WW II where he managed to create some 200 works of art from salvaged scraps.
    (WSJ, 8/19/97, p.A17)(HN, 6/20/01)

1887        Jun 21, Britain celebrated the golden jubilee of Queen Victoria.
    (HN, 6/21/98)

1887        Jun 22, Sir Julian Huxley was born in London. He became a biologist and philosopher and served as Darwin’s Bulldog.
    (YarraNet, 6/22/00)

1887        Jun 25, George Abbott, American playwright, director and producer, was born. His plays included "Three Men on a Horse" and "Damn Yankees."
    (AP, 2/2/99)(HN, 6/25/99)

1887        Jul 7, Marc Chagall (d.1985), French painter and designer, was born in Vitebsk, Belarus, Russia, as Moishe Shagal. He left there in 1907 to attend art school in St. Petersburg. He was sent to Paris by a benefactor and befriended Chaim Soutine and Alexander Archipenko and stayed until 1914. "From late cubism he adopted a manner of making forms and space interpenetrate." His work included "Les Amoureux" (The Lovers - 1916), a portrait of himself and his wife. In 1996 it sold for $4.2 mil. In 1997 Mikhail Guerman published "Marc Chagall: The Land of My Heart - Russia."
    (SFC,7/2/96,p.E3)(WSJ,10/8/96,p.A20)(SFEC,12/797,Par p.6)(HN, 7/7/01)

1887        Jul 9, Samuel Eliot Morison (d.1976), American biographer and historian (Admiral of the Ocean Sea), was born. "If the American Revolution had produced nothing but the Declaration of Independence, it would have been worthwhile."
    (AP, 7/4/97)(HN, 7/9/01)(MC, 7/9/02)

1887        Jul 16, "Shoeless" Joe Jackson, black sox player (Say it ain’t so, Joe), was born.
    (MC, 7/16/02)

1887        Jul 18, Vidkum Quisling, Norwegian minister of Defense, premier (1942-45), was born. He was considered a traitor to his country for allowing an easy takeover by Nazi Germany.
    (HN, 7/18/98)(MC, 7/18/02)

1887        Jul 22, Gustav Hertz, German physicist, was born.
    (HN, 7/22/02)

1887        Jul 28, Marcel Duchamp (d.1968), French artist, was born. He is known best for "Nude Descending a Staircase," (1912) featured in the 1913 Armory Show in New York. Arturo Schwarz published his complete works in 1969 with a new edition in 1997. In 1996 Calvin Tompkins wrote "Duchamp: A Biography."
    (V.D.-H.K.p.361)(WSJ, 12/18/96, p.A18)(HN, 7/28/01)

1887        Jul 29, Sigmund Romberg, composer, was born.
    (HN, 7/29/01)

1887        Aug 2, Rowell Hodge patented barbed wire.
    (MC, 8/2/02)

1887        Aug 3, Rupert Brooke (d.1915), English poet who mainly wrote about World War I, was born: "Cities, like cats, will reveal themselves at night."
    (AP, 2/20/98)(HN, 8/3/98)

1887        Aug 10, A train from Peoria, Ill., bound for Niagara ran across a burning bridge near Chatsworth. Only the lead locomotive made it and 82 people were killed near Chatsworth.
    (THC, 12/2/97)

1887        Aug 12, Erwin Schrodinger, physicist, was born in Austria.
    (SC, 8/12/02)

1887        Aug 15, Edna Ferber (d.1968), American novelist, short-story writer and playwright (American Beauty, Cimarron), was born. The "Ice Palace" is a 1950s Ferber novel inspired by the Northward Building in Fairbanks, Alaska. "There are only two kinds of people in the world that really count. One kind’s wheat and the other kind’s emeralds."
     (WUD, 1994, p.523)(AP, 3/14/98)(MC, 8/15/02)

1887        Aug 17, Marcus [Garvey] Garvy (d.1940), Black Nationalist and Jamaican leader who promoted the departure of African-Americans back Africa, was born. In 1914, after two years of study in London, Garvey formed the Universal Negro Improvement and Conservation Association (U.N.I.A.) in Jamaica, a group that worked for black emigration to Africa and promoted racial pride, education and black business activity. In 1916 Garvey went to New York and began organizing U.N.I.A. branches in America from 1916-1925. At his height of popularity, Garvey had several million followers. He advocated racial separation and emigration of American Negroes to Africa. He was deported in 1925. The organization waned in the 1920s with Garvey’s arrest and conviction and imprisonment on mail fraud charges. He was the founder of the Universal Negro Improvement Association. He also founded the Black Star Line, a steamship company owned and operated by blacks to link black communities around the world. Marcus Garvey died in London on June 10, 1940.
    (AHD, p.544)(Civilization, July-Aug, 1995, p. 36)(WSJ, 2/7/96, p.A-12)(HN, 8/17/98)(HNQ, 6/18/99)

1887        Aug 21, Mighty (Dan) Casey Struck-out in a game with the NY Giants.
    (SC, 8/21/02)
1887        Aug 31, Inventor Thomas A. Edison received a patent for his Kinetoscope," a device which produced moving pictures. [see Apr 14, 1894]
    (AP, 8/31/97)

1887        Sep 5, A gas lamp at Theater Royal in Exeter started a fire killing about 200.
    (MC, 9/5/01)

1887        Sep 7, Dame Edith Sitwell (d.1964), English poet, was born.

1887        Sep 9, Alfred M. Landon, Republican governor of Kansas who carried only two states in his overwhelming defeat for the presidency by Franklin Roosevelt in 1936, was born. He ran as a presidential candidate in 1932 and 1936.
    (HN, 9/9/98)(MC, 9/9/01)

1887        Sep 14, Karl Taylor Compton, physicist and atomic bomb scientist, was born in Wooster, Ohio.

1887        Sep 16, Nadia Boulanger (d.1979), conductor, was born in Paris, France. She became the 1st woman to conduct Boston Symphony (1939).

1887        Sep 25, Elizabeth Cochran (1864-1922), under the pen name of Nellie Bly, managed to get herself sent to the New York Women’s Lunatic Asylum on Blackwell’s Island to do an undercover story of conditions there. She spent 10 days there a lawyer from the New York World obtained her release. Her 2-part story for the recounted her experiences and led to changes at the asylum.
    (ON, 6/20/11, p.12)

1887        Sep 26, Barnes Wallis, British aeronautical engineer, was born. He invented the "Bouncing Bombs" that destroyed German dams during World War II.
    (HN, 9/26/99)

1887        Oct 4, The first issue of the International Herald Tribune was published as the Paris Herald Tribune.
    (AP, 10/4/99)

1887        Oct 6, Charles-Edouard Jeanneret (d.1965), aka Le Corbusier, Swiss-born French architect and city planner, was born. He became known for trenchantly stated principles, such as "a house is a machine for living in" and "a curved street is a donkey track, a straight street, a road for men."
    (HN, 10/6/00)(V.D.-H.K.p.363)
1887        Oct 6, Maria Jeritza, [Jedlicka], singer (Vienna Opera, Met Opera), was born in Austria.
    (MC, 10/6/01)

1887        Oct 11, Willie Hoppe, billiards champion, was born.
    (HN, 10/11/00)
1887        Oct 11, A. Miles patented the elevator.
    (MC, 10/11/01)

1887        Oct 22, John Reed, American journalist, poet and revolutionary who witnessed the Russian Revolution of 1917 and wrote about it in "Ten Days That Shook the World," was born.
    (HN, 10/22/98)

1887        Oct 31, Chiang Kai-shek, Chinese Nationalist, was born.
    (HN, 10/31/98)
1887        Oct 31, Rimsky-Korsakov's "Capricio Espagnol," premiered in St Petersburg.
    (MC, 10/31/01)

1887          Nov 2, Jenny Lind (b.1820), known as the Swedish Nightingale, soprano, died in London, England.

1887        Nov 4,  Alfred Loomis (d.1975), financier and amateur physicist, was born. In 2002 Jennet Conant authored "Tuxedo Park," an account of how Loomis led research that enhanced radar and led to the atom bomb.
    (NAS-BM, V.51, 1980)

1887        Nov 5, Oscar Bossaert, chocolate manufacturer, was born in Belgium.
    (MC, 11/5/01)
1887        Nov 5, Paul Wittgenstein, left hand specialist pianist, was born in Vienna, Austria.
    (MC, 11/5/01)

1887        Nov 6, Walter Johnson, baseball pitcher, "The Big Train," was born.
    (HN, 11/6/00)

1887        Nov 8, Emile Berliner, a German immigrant working in Washington D.C., patented his gramophone, a successful system of sound recording. Berliner was the first inventor to stop recording on cylinders and start recording on flat disks or records.
1887        Nov 8, Doc Holliday, who fought on the side of the Earp brothers during the Gunfight at the O.K. Corral sixty years earlier, died of tuberculosis after waking from a 57 day delirium in Glenwood Springs, Colo. He downed a glass of whiskey and said: "I’ll be damned!" and died. In 2001 Bruce Olds authored the novel "Bucking the Tiger," based on the life of Holliday.
    (HN, 11/6/98)(MesWP)(SFC, 7/29/00, p.E3)(SSFC, 9/9/01, DB p.70)

1887        Nov 10, Arnold Zweig, German antifascist and author (Erziehung vor Verdun), was born.
    (MC, 11/10/01)

1887        Nov 11, Albert Parsons, August Spies, Adolph Fisher and George Engel were hanged for their participation in the May 4, 1886, Chicago Haymarket riot. As the noose was placed around his neck, Spies shouted out: "There will be a time when our silence will be more powerful than the voices you strangle today."

1887        Nov 14, Bernhard Paumgartner, musicologist, conductor, composer, was born in Austria.
    (MC, 11/14/01)

1887        Nov 15, Marianne Moore, poet (Pulitzer 1951, Collected Poems), was born in St. Louis.
    (MC, 11/15/01)
1887        Nov 15, Georgia O’Keeffe (d.1986), American painter, was born in Wisconsin. An introduction to her work was published in 1997 ed. by Peter H. Hassrick: "The Georgia O’Keeffe Museum."
    (WUD, 1994, p.1002)(HFA, ‘96, p.42)(SFC, 7/16/97, p.E3)(SFEC, 9/7/97, BR p.9)

1887        Nov 16, Philip Frohman, US architect, was born.
    (MC, 11/16/01)

1887        Nov 17, Bernard Law Montgomery, British Field Marshall who defeated Rommel in North Africa and lead allied troops from D-day to the end of World War II, was born.
    (HN, 11/17/98)

1887        Nov 19, Start of Sherlock Holmes "Adventure of Dying Detective."
    (MC, 11/19/01)
1887        Nov 19, Emma Lazarus (38), US poet ("Give us your tired & poor"), died in NYC.

1887        Nov 23, Boris Karloff (d.1969), English actor most famous for his role as the monster in the movie Frankenstein, was born in Dulwich, England.
    (HN, 11/23/98)(MC, 11/23/01)

1887        Nov 24, Victorien Sardou's "La Tosca," premiered in Paris.
    (MC, 11/24/01)

1887        Nov 27, U.S. Deputy Marshall Frank Dalton, brother of the three famous outlaws, was killed in the line of duty near Fort Smith, Ark.
    (HN, 11/27/98)

1887        Nov 28, Ernst Roehm, early Nazi and German staff member, later Bolivian leader, was born.
    (MC, 11/28/01)

1887        Nov 29, US received rights to Pearl Harbor on Oahu, Hawaii. [see Jan 20]
    (MC, 11/29/01)

1887        Nov, Baseball players from the St. Louis Browns, the NY Giants, a Chicago team and a Philadelphia team arrived in San Francisco for the winter season. Their first game was played on Thanksgiving Day.
    (SSFC, 4/2/17, p.A10)

1887        Dec 1, Sherlock Holmes 1st appeared in print: "Study in Scarlet." Sir Arthur Conan Doyle’s first story about the detective he named Sherlock Holmes was published in Beeton’s Christmas Annual. It wasn’t until a London magazine called the Strand  began publishing Doyle’s shorter Holmes adventures in 1891 that the detective became a phenomenon. Today hundreds of books, articles and movies have been devoted to the great detective and his biographer, Dr. John Watson, at 221b Baker Street, London.
    (HNQ, 4/7/01)(ON, 3/06, p.11)

1887        Dec 9, Isaac Kalloch (b.1832), former mayor of San Francisco (1879-1881), died in Bellingham, Wa. In 1880 he had shot and killed Charles de Young in SF Chronicle offices.

1887        Dec 13, Corporal Alvin C. York of Wolf River Valley, Tennessee, was born. York was awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor and the Distinguished Service Cross for heroism during World War I Argonne Offensive. York was a reluctant soldier, but his frontier upbringing had made him an outstanding marksman. [see Oct 8, 1918]
    (HN, 12/13/98)

1887        Dec 27, Start of Sherlock Holmes "Adventure of Blue Carbuncle."
    (MC, 12/27/01)

1887        Robinson Jeffers (d.1962), poet, was born.
    (SFC, 4/22/01, BR p.1)

1887        Paul Gauguin painted "Still Life With Carafe and Lemons."
    (SFC, 1/18/99, p.B1)

1887        Van Gogh painted "The Courtesan." It was inspired by an 1820 work by the Japanese artist Keisai Eisen who pictured an intricately coifed woman that later appeared on the cover of a French magazine
    (SFC, 11/16/98, p.E3)(WSJ, 12/1/98, p.A20)

1887        Claude Monet painted "The Seine With the Pont de la Grande Jatte."
    (SFC, 1/18/99, p.B2)

1887        Camille Pissaro painted "Boulevard de Clichy."
    (SFC, 1/18/99, p.B1)

1887        Odilon Redon (1840-1916), French painter and etcher, made his "Spider" lithograph.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1203)(SFEM, 6/29/97, p.4)

1887        Chekhov’s first completed play, "Ivanov," was a technical and critical disaster. A revised version faired better in 1889.
    (WSJ, 11/21/97, p.A20)

1887        August Strindberg, Swedish playwright, wrote "The Father."
    (WSJ, 1/17/96, p.A-16)

1887        The bible of eclipses is the "Canon der Finsternisse," published by the Austrian astronomer Theodor Ritter von Oppolzer. It tracked all the eclipses from 1207 BC to 2162 AD.
    (SCTS, p.27)

1887        Edward Bellamy authored the utopian novel "Looking Backward, 2000-1887," which forecast what America might look like if people worked together for the common good.
    (WSJ, 12/10/99, p.W17)

1887        H. Rider Haggard (1856-1925), English author and poet, wrote his novel "She."

1887        UC Berkeley Prof. Edward J. Wickson published a colorful volume that advertised and promoted the quality of life and agricultural opportunities in California.
    (SFC, 5/26/96, SFEM p.4)

1887        Elizabeth Cochrane, journalist, faked insanity to investigate insane asylums and was admitted to Bellevue. She wrote under the pen name of Nellie Bly and was summarily diagnosed as "positively demented… a hopeless case."
    (SFEC, 2/13/00, BR p.8)

1887        Henry Lee published "The Vegetable Lamb of Tartary - a curious fable of the cotton plant."
    (Econ, 12/20/03, p.44)

1887        In Washington DC Gen. Montgomery C. Meigs, architect, oversaw the completion of his Pension Building. The Pension Bureau oversaw the benefits of the nation’s ex-soldiers.
    (AH, 10/01, HT p.28)

1887        The Grand Hotel was built on Michigan’s Mackinac Island. Its front porch was 880 feet long. The 1980 film "Somewhere in Time," starring Christopher Reeve and Jane Seymour, was filmed at here.
    (SFC, 3/7/98, p.E3)(SSFC, 7/27/03, p.C1)

1887        Cardinal Gibbons and the American hierarchy convinced Rome to back off of a papal condemnation of the Knights of Labor.
    (WSJ, 8/31/01, p.W17)

1887        Louis Keller founded the Social Register with an initial list of 5,000 people, mostly descendants of English or Dutch settlers who had built New York City.
    (WSJ, 5/7/96, p.A-16)

1887        Lord Francis Henry Hope, heir to the Hope Diamond, married the stage singer May Hoy.
    (THC, 12/3/97)

1887        Alabama businessman Henry Bessemer founded Bessemer city in the hope that it would become a steel-industry center.
    (NY Times, 4/12/21)

1887        In Hawaii American businessmen forced King Kalakaua to sign a new constitution that took away his power to appoint legislators to the House of Nobles. Members would hence be elected by property owners.
    (ON, 11/02, p.5)

1887        In Alaska William Moore, a former steamboat captain, homesteaded 160 acres with his son in a settlement he called Mooresville, where the Taiya River meets the Skagway. He anticipated a gold rush that arrived in 1897. His settlement was overrun and became Skagway.
    (SSFC, 9/18/05, p.E13)

1887        In San Francisco the Mount Zion Hospital opened. It was funded in large part by the city’s Jewish philanthropists and later became part of the UCSF Medical Center.
    (SSFC, 10/18/15, p.N4)
1887        In San Francisco the Haight Street Grounds baseball park was built on the eastern edge of Golden Gate Park.
    (SFC, 9/21/13, p.C3)
1887        In San Francisco a 30-foot stone pedestal was built on Mount Olympus to support the Goddess of Liberty statue. SF removed the statue in 1954.
    (SFC, 5/15/13, p.D1)
1887        The Mansions Hotel, a Victorian hotel in Pacific Heights was constructed. It is allegedly haunted by a dark-haired mechante named Claudia, the shapely niece of the original owner, Utah Senator Charles Chambers.
    (SFE Mag, 5/5/96, p.A-7)
1887        The Orpheum Theater opened on O’Farrell St.
    (SFEC, 4/5/98, DB p.44)
1887        In San Francisco the 3-story Sharon Building was built next to the children’s playground in Golden Gate Park. It was designed by Percy & Hamilton.
    (SSFC, 1/24/10, p.C2)
1887        St. Boniface Church was founded as a parish for German Catholics.
    (SFC, 11/28/98, p.A19)
1887        John McLaren, a Scottish-born landscape gardener, was hired by William Hammond Hall as assistant park superintendent of Golden Gate Park. Hall was a surveyor who gave the Park its initial design under plans pushed by Governor Haight and Mayor McCoppin.
    (SFC, 5/19/96,City Guide, p.4)(Ind, 10/28/00, 5A)
1887        The land at Stern Grove was officially granted to the Greene family.
    (SFC, 5/19/96,City Guide, p.6)
1887        John Tadich acquired the New World Market Coffee Stand at 221 Leidesdorff.
    (SFC, 6/19/96, zz1, p.1)
1887        Fr. Imoda took over as president of St. Ignatius College in San Francisco and continued to 1893. During his tenure a fire destroyed the old school and church on Market St., which had become a cheap lodging house and furniture warehouse. 3 people died in the fire.
    (GenIV, Winter 04/05)
1887        The Stony Ridge winery was founded in Pleasanton, Ca. In 1975 the operation moved to Livermore.
    (SSFC, 7/1/12, p.N3)

1887        In Chicago some 63 hobos gathered at a hobo jungle and formed Tourist Union #63. An ethical code was created by Tourist Union #63 during its 1889 National Hobo Convention in St. Louis Missouri. This code was voted upon as a concrete set of laws to govern the Nation-wide Hobo Body and set forth guidelines of honesty and chivalry.
    (http://tinyurl.com/knx3t85)(Econ, 8/17/13, p.30)
1887        The first softball game on record was held indoors at the Farragus Boat Club in Chicago.
    (SFC, 11/7/98, p.E5)

1887        Ford City, Pa., was founded by John B. Ford, head of the Pittsburgh Plate Glass Co. on the shore of the Allegheny River. Later some 47 acres of the factory grounds were fenced off due to contamination from arsenic left behind by decades of industrial glassmaking.
    (WSJ, 8/12/97, p.B1)
1887        The Pennsylvania Railroad train station at Harrisburg opened.
    (SSFC, 4/13/03, p.D6)
1887        Pennsylvania House was founded in Lewisburg, Pa., to make high-quality case furniture. In 2000 La-Z-Boy bought the company and in 2004 moved production to China.
    (SFC, 6/4/08, p.G3)
1887        The Lanston Monotype Machine Company was founded by Tolbert Lanston in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Lanston had a patented mechanical method of punching out metal types from cold strips of metal which were set (hence typesetting) into a matrix for the printing press.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monotype_Imaging)(Econ, 6/28/14, p.52)

1887        The American Graphaphone Co. was founded in Washington DC. They made a sound producing machine that was peddle operated and based on work by Alexander Bell that used a cardboard cylinder coated with a waxy material to hold sounds.
    (SFC,11/19/97, Z1 p.7)

1887        A time capsule was hidden beneath a statue of Robert E. Lee in Richmond, Va. A lead box was found and opened in 2021. Inside was found an 1875 almanac, a waterlogged book of fiction, a British coin, a catalog, one letter and a photograph of James Netherwood, a master stonemason who worked on the Robert E. Lee pedestal. A 2nd box, matching historical records, was soon found by crews removing the pedestal. It contained books, coins and buttons.  
    (NY Times, 12/23/21)(SFC, 12/28/21, p.A4)

1887        Warwick China Co. was incorporated in Wheeling, West Virginia. The company closed operations in 1951.
    (SFC, 1/4/06, p.G2)

1887        Frank Brownell, the maker of George Eastman’s roll holder, created for Eastman a simple box camera. Eastman named it “Kodak" and patented the name with the camera. [see 1888]
    (ON, 3/05, p.12)

1887        James William Cannon founded Cannon Mills in Concord, NC. It was bought by Fieldcrest Mills in 1986, which in turn was bought by Pillowtex in 1997. In 2003 Pillotex went bankrupt.
    (WSJ, 8/1/03, p.B1)

1887        William D. Gates founded the American Terra Cotta and Ceramic Co. (Gates Potteries) in Terra Cotta, Ill. The company was sold in 1930 and renamed American Terra Cotta Co. It closed in 1966.
    (SFC, 5/9/07, p.G7)

1887        The Hearst Corporation was founded by William Randolph Hearst with help from his father, California Senator Hearst. The elder Hearst had amassed wealth from the Comstock mines of Nevada.
    (SFC, 4/14/99, p.A19)

1887        Hart Schaffner & Marx, a haberdashery, was founded and became a key military supplier. It was later renamed Hartmarx.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R40)

1887        The egg topper or egg opener was patented. It was a scissor type tool to cut the top of the shell from soft boiled eggs.
    (SFC, 8/25/99, Z1 p.6)

1887        The inflatable bicycle tire was invented and spawned, along with the car tire, a worldwide rubber boom.
    (SFEM, 5/7/00, p.9)

1887        William Cooper Proctor (1862-1934), a pioneering Episcopalian, introduced profit sharing and eventually share ownership for workers of Proctor & Gamble, a consumer goods firm.  William Procter and James Gamble had cofounded the company in 1837.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Cooper_Procter)(Econ, 6/8/19, p.64)

1887        A. Eugen Fick, a Swiss physician, published the results of experiments with glass lenses that fit over the entire eye, the first contact lenses.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R21)

1887        Albert Michelson and Edward Morley compared the speed of light in the direction of earth’s orbit with the speed of light at right angles to earth’s motion and found it is the same.
    (BHT, Hawking, p.20)

1887        An electric-powered car in Richmond got its power from a four-wheeled carriage trolled along wires overhead, hence the name trolley car.
    (SFC,10/18/97, p.E4)

1887        In western Ohio Newton S. Conway discovered the skeleton of a 10,000 year old mastodon on his farm on the Clark-Champaign County line. The skeleton, about 70% intact, became known as the Conway Mastodon.
    (SSFC, 1/9/11, p.A10)(http://tinyurl.com/2ecv34t)

1887        Aloys Zötl (b.1831), Austrian naïve artist, died. Zotl’s paintings included "The Rhinoceros."
    (WSJ, 4/9/03, p.D10)

1887        Charles Lux died. His firm, Miller and Lux, by this time owned some 700,000 head of cattle in Arizona, Nevada and Oregon. Over 700 miles of private telegraph lines connected their ranches.
    (SSF, 1976, p.2)

1887        Geographers of the Austro-Hungarian Empire set fixed points to measure altitude in connection with the European measurement of meridional and parallel degrees. One marker at Rakhiv, Ukraine, was later mis-interpreted to mark the center of Europe.
    (WSJ, 7/14/04, p.A1)

1887        Spitalfields opened as a fruit and vegetable market in London. It was built over the site of a medieval hospital and construction c2000 revealed some 6,000 bodies buried 30 feet deep.
    (SSFC, 10/21/01, p.T7)
1887        British paleontologist Harry Seeley divided dinosaurs into two groups naming them Saurischia (lizard-hipped) and Ornithischia (bird-hipped).
    (Econ, 3/25/17, p.72)

1887        In Canada a mining blast in Nanaimo killed 148 miners.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.27)

1887        China’s Huang Ho (Huang He, Yellow River) flooded and killed about 900,000 people. Up to 2.5 million people are thought to have drowned or died from disease and starvation.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death_toll)(Econ, 9/10/16, p.69)

1887        In France Sadi Carnot (1837-1994) became president.
    (WUD, 1994 p.225)
1887        The legendary 19-carat "Le Grand Mazarin" diamond was auctioned at a sale of French crown jewels. Originally from the Golconda mines in India, the stone was set in the crowns of almost all kings and emperors of France since the early 18th century. In 2017 the Christie’s auction house put a pre-sale estimate at $6 million to $9 million on the diamond and said the current owner selling the gem is remaining anonymous.
    (AP,  10/18/17)

1887        In Mumbai, India, the Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (aka Victoria Terminus) was completed in Gothic Revival style, designed by British architect F.W. Stevens.
    (SSFC, 5/23/10, p.N4)
1887        Swami Sivananda (d.1963) was born as Kuppuswami in India. He became a doctor but opted for a spiritual path with 6 commands: Serve, Love, Give, Purify, Meditate, Realize."
    (SSFC, 10/3/04, p.D5)(www.yogamag.net/yogas/inspY.shtml)

1887        A severe earthquake hit the Ligurian village of Perinaldo, Italy.
    (SFCM, 3/17/02, p.29)

1887        In Japan Saigo Takamori, a samurai statesman from Kyushu, led a bloody rebellion against the national government which he helped create.
    (NG, Jan. 94, p.96)

1887        A Lebanese villager discovered a well near Sidon that led to two underground chambers, which turned out to be a royal tomb containing 18 marble sarcophagi dating back the 5th century BC. The largest was believed to contain the remains of Alexander the Great. Ottoman Sultan Abdul Hamid II ordered them shipped to Istanbul.
    (Econ, 5/19/12, p.89)

1887        Sophus Lie (1842-1899), Norwegian mathematician, recognized a mathematical structure called E8, which contained 248 dimensions. It took 120 years to solve. In 2007 Dr. Garrett Lisi proposed that this structure could be used to describe fully the laws of physics.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sophus_Lie)(Econ, 11/24/07, p.87)

1887        The artificial international language called Esperanto was introduced in a pamphlet published by Polish ophthalmologist Dr. Lazarus Ludwig Zamenhof. Zamenhof (1859-1917), invented the artificial language known as Esperanto in 1885.  Zamenhof used the pen name "Esperanto," which means "the hoper" in the new language. Esperanto vocabulary is comprised primarily of words with Latin roots and words common to several languages. Esperanto is less complicated than an earlier attempt at artificial language called Volapuk. While Esperanto associations formed around the world, it never became widely accepted.
    (Wired, 8/96, p.84)(HNQ, 6/15/98)

1887        Rabbi Joel Teitelbaum (1887-1979) founder of the Satmar Hassids in Satu Mare, Romania, was born. The ultra-orthodox sect of Judaism later established itself in NYC.
    (Econ, 4/29/06, p.37)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joel_Teitelbaum)

1887        In Russia Alexander Ulyanov, the older brother of Lenin, was executed for a conspiracy to assassinate Czar Alexander III.
    (WSJ, 10/5/00, p.A24)

1887        In Scotland the Earl of Lovelace built a shooting lodge that was later converted to the Loch Torridon Hotel.
    (SFEC,12/797, p.T5)

1887        The Marxist Hunchakian Revolutionary Party, called the Hunchaks, was founded in Geneva, Switzerland by Armenians from Russia.

1887-1888    Van Gogh painted "Self-Portrait with Felt Hat."
    (WSJ, 10/30
    (AP, 2/4/03)/98, p.W11)

1887-1891    German colonial administrators made Bagamoyo, Tanzania, their capital.
    (SSFC, 7/13/03, p.C9)

1887-1918    Amadeo de Souza Cardoso, Portuguese futurist artist. He moved to Paris in 1906 befriended Modigliani, Brancusi, Gris and others. 8 of his works were exhibited at the 1913 Armory Show in New York.
    (WSJ, 2/1/00, p.A24)

1887-1943    Alexander Woollcott, American author and critic: "Many of us spend half our time wishing for things we could have if we didn't spend half our time wishing."
    (AP, 2/29/00)

1887-1948     Ruth Benedict, American anthropologist: "The passionate belief in the superior worthwhileness of our children—it is stored up in us as a great battery charged by the accumulated instincts of uncounted generations."
    (AP, 7/3/98)

1887-1953    Roland Young, English actor: "I’m a self-made man, but I think if I had it to do over again, I’d call in someone else."
    (AP, 7/23/01)

1887-1954     Ernest Albert Hooton, American anthropologist. "History is principally the inaccurate narration of events which ought not to have happened."
    (AP, 3/19/97)

1887-1956    Diego Rivera, Mexican mural painter. His murals included the "History of Medicine."
    (SFC, 4/18/96, E-1)(NH, 7/96, p.6)

1887-1959    Theresa Helburn, American theatrical producer: "One's lifework, I have learned, grows with the working and the living. Do it as if your life depended on it, and first thing you know, you'll have made a life out of it. A good life, too."
    (AP, 1/9/99)

1887-1964    Hesketh Pearson, British biographer: "Misquotations are the only quotations that are never misquoted."
    (AP, 1/29/00)

1887-1966    A bench in Boston at the intersection of Arlington St. and the Public Garden is dedicated to Charles Pagelson Howard: "Lawyer, soldier, public servant and defender of the Artistic Integrity of Commonwealth Avenue."
    (SFC, 12/10/95, p.T-5)

1887-1972     Marianne Moore, American poet: "The passion for setting people right is in itself an afflictive disease." "Psychology, which explains everything, explains nothing, and we are still in doubt."
    (AP, 2/17/98)(AP, 11/15/98)

1887-1973    Marjorie Merriweather Post, one of the richest women of her day. Her Hillwood mansion in Washington DC was restored for $9 million in 2000. She had one daughter by financier E.F. Hutton.
    (WSJ, 9/22/00, p.W14)

1887-1979     Nadia Boulanger, French music composer teacher. "Life is denied by lack of attention, whether it be to cleaning windows or trying to write a masterpiece." "Loving a child doesn't mean giving in to all his whims; to love him is to bring out the best in him, to teach him to love what is difficult."
    (AP, 3/26/97)(AP, 2/23/99)

1887-1982    Arthur Rubinstein, pianist. A biography of Rubinstein, written in 1995 by Harvey Sachs, is titled Rubinstein: A Life. A review of the book is written by Harold C. Schonberg, author of The Great Pianists.
    (WSJ, 11/15/95, p.A-20)

1887-1986    Georgia O’Keeffe, American painter. [see 1887 Nov 15]
    (SFEC, 9/7/97, BR p.9)

1888        Jan 3, Marvin C. Stone of Washington, DC, patented the drinking straw. Slurp.
    (440 Int'l. 1/3/99)

1888        Jan 12, A major blizzard hit South Dakota and left hundreds of children and adults dead. In 2004 David Laskin authored “The Children’s Blizzard."
    (WSJ, 11/24/04, p.D10)

1888        Jan 24, Ernst Heinrich Heinkel, German inventor (1st rocket-powered aircraft), was born.
    (MC, 1/24/02)
1888        Jan 24, Henry King, US director (Jesse James, 12 O'Clock High), was born.
    (MC, 1/24/02)

1888        Jan 27, National Geographic Society was founded in Washington, DC. It 1st magazine was published Oct 1, 1888. In 2004 Robert M. Poole authored “Explorers House: National Geographic and the World it Made."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Geographic_Society)(Econ, 10/16/04, p.81)

1888        Jan 29, Edward Lear (b.1812), English artist, illustrator, musician, author and poet, died in Italy. He is known mostly for his literary nonsense in poetry and prose and especially his limericks.

1888        Jan 30, Asa Gray (b.1810), American botanist, died. He made great contributions to the descriptive botany of North America. He was the chief American exponent of Darwin's concepts, defending them against the attacks of zoologist Louis Agassiz.
    (HNQ, 3/14/99)

1888        Feb 11, In Brazil volunteer police commissioner Joaquin Firmino de Araujo Cunha was murdered in Rio do Peixe, a town which later changed its name to Itapira. The man responsible for the murder was reported to be James Warne, a British-born American doctor and slave owner.  
    (Econ, 12/21/13, p.48)

1888        Feb 13, Georgios Papandreou, Greek prefect of Lesbos, minister, premier, was born.
    (MC, 2/13/02)

1888        Feb 20, Marie Rambert, ballet dancer and director, was born.
    (HN, 2/20/01)

1888        Feb 22, John Reid of Scotland demonstrated golf to Americans at Yonkers, NY. Reid converted his lawn to six hole for golf in Yonkers N.Y., the first golf course in the US.
    (SFEC, 7/18/99, Z1 p.8)(MC, 2/22/02)

1888        Feb 25, John Foster Dulles was born. He served as Secretary of State to President Eisenhower (1953-1959).
    (HN, 2/25/98)(MC, 2/25/02)

1888        Feb 27, Lotte Lehmann, German opera singer, was born.
    (HN, 2/27/01)

1888        Feb 28, Vincent d'Indy's Wallenstein trilogy, premiered.
    (MC, 2/28/02)

1888        Mar 4, Knute Rockne, Norwegian-US football player, coach for Notre Dame, was born.
    (HN, 3/4/98)(SC, 3/4/02)

1888        Mar 5, Friedrich Schnack, German journalist, writer (Rosewood), was born.
    (MC, 3/5/02)

1888        Mar 6, William Bonwill of Philadelphia patented revolving-hammer mechanical dental pluggers, by which the plugging-tool is hit a rapid series I 5 of blows to impact the gold in the teeth.
1888        Mar 6, Louisa May Alcott (b.1832) died in Boston just hours after the burial of her father. Her novels included "Little Women" (1868). In 1998 "Little Women" premiered in Houston as an opera by Mark Adomo. In 2010 Susan Cheever authored “Louisa May Alcott: A Personal Biography."
    (WSJ, 8/29/01, p.A12)(SSFC, 12/5/10, p.F3)

1888        Mar 10, Barry Fitzgerald, actor (Academy Award - Going My Way), was born in Dublin, Ireland.
    (MC, 3/10/02)
1888        Mar 10, The 1st performance of Cesar Franck's "Psyche."
    (MC, 3/10/02)

1888        Mar 11-1888 Mar 14, The famous "Blizzard of ‘88" struck the northeastern United States and Canada, resulting in some 400 deaths. New York, Boston, Philadelphia and Washington were cut off for days. The blizzard left snow drifts as high as 40 feet in NYC and forced the NYSE to close for two consecutive days..
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Blizzard_of_1888)(AP, 3/11/98)(Econ., 12/19/20, p.122)

1888        Mar 20, Start of the Sherlock Holmes Adventure, "A Scandal in Bohemia."
    (MC, 3/20/02)

1888        Mar 21, Arthur Pinero's "Sweet Lavender," premiered in London.
    (MC, 3/21/02)

1888        Mar 23, Morrison R. Waite (b.1816), US Supreme Court Chief Justice (1874-1888), died after serving for 14 years. He interpreted constitutional amendments after the Civil War.
    (SFC, 9/6/05, p.A4)(www.oyez.org/oyez/resource/legal_entity/43/)

1888        Mar 29, James E. Casey, founder of the United Parcel Service, was born.
    (HN, 3/29/98)

1888        Apr 3, Gertrude Bridget "Ma" Rainey, American singer, "the mother of the blues," was born. [see Apr 26, 1886]
    (HN, 4/3/01)

1888        Apr 7, Start of Sherlock Holmes adventure "Yellow Face."
    (MC, 4/7/02)

1888        Apr 15, Matthew Arnold (65), English poet, died.
    (MC, 4/15/02)

1888        Apr 16, Russian Orthodox Bishop Vladimir (Vasily Sokolovsky) arrived in San Francisco from Russia with an entourage of eight clerics and 11 boys.
    (SFC, 4/19/14, p.C2)
1888        Apr 16, Drentse and Friese peat cutters went on strike.
    (MC, 4/16/02)

1888        Apr 20, 246 people were reported killed by hail in Moradabad, India.
    (MC, 4/20/02)

1888        Apr 24, Eastman Kodak was formed. The company produced the Kodak Camera: “You press the button – we do the rest."
    (HN, 4/24/98)(WSJ, 1/22/04, p.A1)(WSJ, 8/2/06, p.B10)

1888        Apr 26, Aleksandr Mikhailov, astronomer, was born in USSR.
    (MC, 4/26/02)

1888        Apr 30, John Crowe Ransom, poet and critic, was born.
    (HN, 4/30/98)

1888        May 6, Russell Stover, candy manufacturer, was born.
    (HN, 5/6/01)

1888        May 7, Edouard Lalo's opera "Le roi d'Ys," premiered in Paris.
    (MC, 5/7/02)
1888        May 7, George Eastman patented his Kodak box camera.
    (MC, 5/7/02)

1888        May 10, Maximilian Raoul Walter Steiner (Max Steiner), composer (Gone With Wind), was born in Vienna.
    (MC, 5/10/02)

1888        May 11, Songwriter Irving Berlin (d.1989), Jewish composer of White Christmas, was born Israel Isadore Baline in Temun, Russia. He arrived in the US with his family at age 5.
    (AP, 5/11/97)(HN, 5/11/98)(SFC, 12/28/12, p.E1)

1888        May 13, DeWolf Hopper 1st recited "Casey at the Bat."
    (SS, Internet, 5/13/97)
1888        May 13, Slavery was abolished in Brazil. Some 4 million slaves had been imported, the most of any nation in the western hemisphere.
    (WSJ, 8/6/96, p.A1)(SS, Internet, 5/13/97)(HN, 5/13/98)

1888        May 25, Miles Malleson, writer, actor (Phantom of Opera, Postman's Knock), was born.
    (SC, 5/25/02)

1888        May 28, James Francis Thorpe, American athlete, was born in Shawnee, OK. Jim Thorpe won an Olympic gold medal in 1912, and played for professional football and baseball teams.
    (HN, 5/28/99)(MC, 5/28/02)

1888         Jun 1, California got its first seismographs as three of the devices were installed at the Lick Observatory at Mount Hamilton, Ca.
    (DTnet, 6/1/97)

1888        Jun 3, The poem “Casey at the Bat" by Ernest Lawrence Thayer was 1st published in the SF Daily Examiner. The poem was based on a game played in Stockton, Ca.
    (SFC, 4/28/05, p.A1)(www.aaronshep.com/rt/RTE23.html)

1888        Jun 13, The US Congress created the Department of Labor.
    (AP, 6/13/97)

1888        Jun 15, Wilhelm II became emperor of Germany.
    (MC, 6/15/02)

1888        Jun 16, Bobby Clark, comedian and actor, was born.
    (HN, 6/16/01)

1888        Jun 23, Abolitionist Frederick Douglass received one vote from the Kentucky delegation at the Republican convention in Chicago, effectively making him the first black candidate nominated for US president. The nomination went to Benjamin Harrison.
    (AP, 6/23/00)
1888        Jun 23, Emil Naumann (60), composer, died.
    (MC, 6/23/02)

1888        Jun 27, Antoinette Perry, actress and director, namesake of the "Tony" Awards, was born.
    (HN, 6/27/01)

1888        Jun 29, Professor Frederick Treves performed the first appendectomy in England.
    (HN, 6/29/98)

1888        Jul 4, Many believe that the first rodeo in America was held in Prescott, Arizona, on this day. Before this, informal competitions were frequently held among ranch hands from a single ranch or from neighboring spreads, but they were not full-scale rodeos. The Prescott event went on to become an annual contest.
    (IB, Internet, 12/7/98)

1888        Jul 11, Bartomeo Vanzetti, executed with Nicola Sacco for several murders during a robbery, the trial created an international storm of protest, was born.
    (HN, 7/11/98)

1888        Jul 17, S.Y. Agnon, Israeli writer (The Day Before Yesterday), was born.
    (HN, 7/17/01)

1888        Jul 22, Selman Abraham Waksman, biochemist, was born.
    (HN, 7/22/02)

1888        Jul 23, Raymond Chandler (d.1959), writer of detective stories, creator of the character Philip Marlow, was born in Chicago.
    (HN, 7/23/98)(SSFC, 12/21/14, p.N3)
1888        Jul 27, Philip Pratt unveiled the 1st electric automobile.
    (MC, 7/27/02)

1888        Jul, Harold P. Brown, on behalf of Thomas Edison, zapped dogs at Columbia College to demonstrate the supposed danger of alternating current, a mode of power favored by Edison’s rival George Westinghouse. The NY state legislature had recently designated electrocution as the official means for capital punishment.
    (SFEC, 3/22/98, p.A26)(ON, 10/04, p.7)

1888        Jul, In Japan Mount Bandai erupted and left 461 people dead.
    (SFEC, 4/2/00, p.A17)

1888        Aug 6, Martha Turner was murdered by an unknown assailant, believed to be Jack the Ripper, in London, England. Between August and November 506 women were murdered in London’s Whitechapel district. In 1994 Philip Sugden authored “The Complete History of Jack the Ripper."
    (HN, 8/6/98)(WSJ, 1/31/09, p.W8)   

1888        Aug 7, The revolving door, the brainchild of Philadelphia inventor Theophilus Van Kannel (1841-1919), was patented. In 1889 he founded the Van Kannel Revolving Door Company.

1888        Aug 12, Bertha, wife of inventor Karl Benz, made the 1st motor tour.
    (SC, 8/12/02)

1888        Aug 13, John Logie Baird, inventor (father of TV), was born in Scotland.
    (MC, 8/13/02)

1888        Aug 15, The British soldier T.E. Lawrence, better known as Lawrence of Arabia for his military exploits against the Turks in World War I, was born in Tremadoc, Wales. "There could be no honor in a sure success, but much might be wrested from a sure defeat."
    (AP, 8/15/97)(HN, 8/15/98)(AP, 5/19/01)

1888        Aug 17, Monty Wooley, actor (Pied Piper, Man Who Came to Dinner), was born in NYC.
    (SC, 8/17/02)

1888        Aug 22, The City of Chester, a 202-foot passenger steamship, sank as it left the San Francisco Bay after colliding with the incoming ocean line Oceanic. 16 people died including 3 crew members and 13 men, women and children. Wreckage of the Chester was found in May, 2013, in 217 feet of water near the Golden Gate Bridge.
    (SFC, 4/24/14, p.A10)(http://tinyurl.com/m2fdxwe)

1888        Aug 31, Mary Ann Nicholls, a 42-year-old prostitute, was found murdered in London's East End. She is generally regarded as the first of at least five murder victims of "Jack the Ripper." [see Aug 6]
    (AP, 8/31/99)(YN, 8/31/99)

1888        Sep 4, George Eastman received patent #388,850 for his roll-film camera and registered his trademark: "Kodak." George Eastman introduced the box camera.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.273)(AP, 9/4/97)(MC, 9/4/01)

1888        Sep 6, Joseph P. Kennedy, Boston Mass, diplomat, father of JFK, RFK & Teddy, was born.
    (MC, 9/6/01)

1888        Sep 7, The 1st US incubator was used on a premature infant, Edith Eleanor McLean. It was built by Dr. William Champion Deming at the State Emigrant Hospital, Ward's Island, NY.
    (HN, 9/7/98)(www.medterms.com)

1888        Sep 12, Maurice Chevalier (d.1972), actor, was born in Paris, France.
    (HN, 9/12/00)(www.jimpoz.com)

1888        Sep 18, Start of Sherlock Holmes adventure "Sign of Four."
    (MC, 9/18/01)

1888        Sep 25, Start of Sherlock Holmes "Hound of Baskervilles."
    (MC, 9/25/01)
1888        Sep 25, The Royal Court Theatre, London, opened.
    (MC, 9/25/01)

1888        Sep 26, T.S. Eliot (d.1976), American-Anglo poet, critic, and dramatist, was born. His poetry included "The Waste Land" and "Ash Wednesday." "Those who say they give the public what it wants begin by underestimating public taste and end by debauching it."
    (AP, 3/28/99)(HN, 9/26/99)

1888        Sep 30, "Jack the Ripper" butchered 2 more women, Elizabeth Stride (45), aka Long Liz, on Berner St. and Kate Eddowes (45). Donald Rumbelow later authored "The Complete Jack the Ripper."
    (SSFC, 10/21/01, p.T7)
1888        Sep 30, Catherine Eddowes became Jack the Ripper's fourth victim. In 2014 sleuth Russell Edwards said that Jack has identified through DNA traces found on a bloodied shawl from Eddowes. Edwards identified the killer as Aaron Kosminski (1865-1919), a Jewish emigre from Poland, who worked as a barber.
    (AFP, 9/7/14)

1888        Oct 1, National Geographic magazine published for 1st time. The National Geographic Society was founded by Gardiner Hubbard, the father-in-law of Alexander Graham Bell. In 1997 Charles McCarry edited: "From the Field: A Collection of Writing from National Geographic."
    (NG, Nov. 1985, p. 657)(SFEC, 9/14/97, p.T13)(SFEC, 7/18/99, Z1 p.8)(MC, 10/1/01)

1888        Oct 7, Henry A. Wallace, (D/P) 33rd VP (1941-45) and founder Progressive Party, was born.
    (MC, 10/7/01)

1888        Oct 8, Melville W. Fuller (1833-1910) was sworn in as US Supreme Court Chief Justice.
    (SFC, 9/6/05, p.A4)(www.oyez.org/oyez/resource/legal_entity/50/)

1888         Oct 9, The Washington Monument, designed by Robert Mills, was completed and the public was first admitted. Steam powered elevators carried visitors to the top in 12 minutes. It underwent a $1.5 million renovation in 1998. In 1903 Frederick L. Harvey authored "History of the Washington National Monument and Washington National Monument Association." In 1995 Craig and Katherine Doherty authored "The Washington Monument."
    (SFC, 5/23/98, p.A3)(ON, 3/00, p.10)(HN, 10/9/00)

1888        Oct 14, Katherine Mansfield, short story writer, was born.
    (HN, 10/14/00)

1888        Oct 16, Eugene O'Neill (d.1953), Nobel Prize-winning playwright (1936), was born in NYC. His work includes "A Long Day's Journey Into Night" and "The Iceman Cometh."
    (AP, 11/27/97)(HN, 10/16/00)(MC, 10/16/01)

1888        Oct 25, Richard E. Byrd, U.S. aviator and explorer who made the first flight over the North Pole, was born.
    (HN, 10/25/98)

1888        Oct 29, Lord Salisbury granted Cecil Rhodes a charter for the BSA Company.
    (MC, 10/29/01)

1888        Oct 30, John J. Loud patented a ballpoint pen.
    (MC, 10/30/01)
1888        Oct 30, In London Jack the Ripper murdered his last victim. [see Nov 3]
    (MC, 10/30/01)

1888        Oct-1888 Dec, Vincent van Gogh shared a 4-room house in Arles, France, with Paul Gauguin. During this period Van Gogh painted his portrait “l’Arlesienne, Madame Ginoux" based on a drawing by Gauguin. In December Van Gogh cut off his ear with a razor during a quarrel with painter Paul Gauguin, who then fled to Paris. They never saw each other again. In 2006 martin Gayford authored “The Yellow House: Van Gogh, Gauguin and Nine Turbulent Weeks in Arles."
    (Econ, 4/29/06, p.89)
1888        Vincent van Gogh painted the "Portrait of a Young Man in a Cap." The painting later went up for auction for as much as $8 mil. Van Gogh also painted his "Boats at Saintes-Maries," "The Bedroom," "Self Portrait as an Artist," "Postman Joseph Roulin," and "Le Pont de Trinquetaille" in this year. In 1990 Robert Altman directed a film titled "Vincent and Theo" about Van Gogh and his brother.
    (WSJ, 4/27/95, p.C-18)(WSJ, 11/10/95, p. A-10)(SFC, 4/13/96, p.E3)(SFC, 1/14/98, p.D3)(SFEC, 10/25/98, Z1 p.12)(WSJ, 9/3/99, p.W10)(WSJ, 9/24/99, p.W9)

1888        Nov 3, In London Jack the Ripper murdered his last victim. In 2002 Patricia Cornwell, crime writer, reported that Walter Richard Sickert (1860-1942), English Impressionist painter, was Jack the Ripper. [see Oct 30]
    (WSJ, 9/27/01, p.A16)(MC, 11/3/01)(SSFC, 2/24/02, Par p.2)

1888        Nov 6, Benjamin Harrison of Indiana won the presidential election, beating incumbent Grover Cleveland on electoral votes, 233-168, although Cleveland led in the popular vote. Tammany Hall helped carry new York for the GOP. In 2008 Charles W. Calhoun authored “Minority Victory: Gilded Age Politics and the Front Porch Campaign of 1888.
    (AP, 11/6/97)(WSJ, 11/9/00, p.A26)(WSJ, 12/3/08, p.A15)

1888        Nov 10, Andrej N. Tupelov, Russian aircraft builder, was born.
    (MC, 11/10/01)

1888        Nov 17, Peter Tchaikovsky's 5th Symphony premiered in St. Petersburg.
    (MC, 11/17/01)

1888        Nov 20, William Bundy patented a timecard clock.
    (MC, 11/20/01)

1888        Nov 21, Adolph Arthur "Harpo" Marx, American comedian, one of the Marx brothers, was born. The inventive American pantomimist never spoke a line in his many movies, which he starred in alongside his brothers.
    (HN, 11/23/00)

1888        Nov 24, Dale Carnegie (d.1955), public speaker, was born in Missouri. He authored "How to Win Friends and Influence People" (1937).
    (HN, 11/24/00)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dale_Carnegie)

1888        Nov, In San Francisco a new cable car line opened in the Mission District.
    (SFC, 2/1/14, p.C3)

1888        Dec 2, Mehmed N. Kemal Bey (47), Turkish writer and journalist (Vatan), died.
    (MC, 12/2/01)

1888        Dec 7, Joyce Cary (d.1957), Irish-born novelist (The Horse's Mouth), was born. "It is the tragedy of the world that no one knows what he doesn't know -- and the less a man knows, the more sure he is that he knows everything."
    (HN, 12/7/00)(AP, 1/30/99)
1888        Dec 7, Ernst Toch, composer and pianist, was born.
    (HN, 12/7/00)
1888        Dec 7, John Boyd Dunlop (1840-1921), Scotland-born inventor, patented a pneumatic tire. Two years after he was granted the patent Dunlop was officially informed that it was invalid as Scottish inventor Robert William Thomson (1822–1873), had patented the idea in France in 1846 and in the US in 1847. Dunlop's patent was later declared invalid on the basis of Thomson's prior art.

1888        Dec 18, Robert Moses, power broker, was born. He built Long Island and NYC parks & roads.
    (MC, 12/18/01)

1888        Dec 19, Fritz Reiner, US conductor (Chicago Symphony Orch), was born in Budapest, Hungary.
    (MC, 12/19/01)

1888        Dec 27, Tito Schipa (d.1965), tenor (La Rondine), was born in Italy. His birthday was recorded as January 2, 1889 for military conscription purposes.

1888        McKendree Robbins Long (d.1976), Southern gothic painter and evangelical preacher, was born in Statesville, NC.
    (SFC, 7/6/02, p.D6)

1888        James Ensor, Belgian artist, painted "Christ's Entry into Brussels in 1889." It was later acquired by the Getty Museum.
    (WSJ, 4/9/99, p.W16)(SFEM, 10/17/99, p.11)

1888        Vincent van Gogh painted the "Portrait of a Young Man in a Cap." The painting later went up for auction for as much as $8 mil. Van Gogh also painted his "Boats at Saintes-Maries," "The Bedroom," "Self Portrait as an Artist," "Postman Joseph Roulin," and "Le Pont de Trinquetaille" in this year. In 1990 Robert Altman directed a film titled "Vincent and Theo" about Van Gogh and his brother.
    (WSJ, 4/27/95, p.C-18)(WSJ, 11/10/95, p. A-10)(SFC, 4/13/96, p.E3)(SFC, 1/14/98, p.D3)(SFEC, 10/25/98, Z1 p.12)(WSJ, 9/3/99, p.W10)(WSJ, 9/24/99, p.W9)

1888        John Singer Sargent painted the portrait of Isabella Stewart Gardner titled "Mrs. Jack."
    (WSJ, 8/5/99, p.A16)

1888        Rudolph Swoboda painted "The Munshi Abdul Karim," a portrait of Queen Victoria's favorite servant after the death of Hohn Brown.
    (WSJ, 11/26/03, p.D10)

1888        Edward Bellamy published his novel "Looking Backward 2000-1887." In the book he foresaw the credit card, the radio, and the women’s movement.
    (SFEC, 4/19/98, Par p.10)

1888        Madame Blavatsky, co-founder of Theosophy, authored "The Secret Doctrine," in which she outlined the principles of all religion.
    (SFC, 5/17/02, p.W15)

1888        David Goodman Croly, a newspaper columnist known as "Sir Oracle," compiled a set of predictions in a volume titled "Glimpses of the Future." Passages were later paraphrased in the 1981 book "The Book of Predictions" by David Wallechinsky, Amy Wallace and Irving Wallace.
    (WSJ, 1/1/00, p.R8)

1888        Webster Edgerley, head of the Ralston health Club of America, authored “Lessons in the Mechanics of Personal Magnetism."
    (Arch, 5/04, p.33)

1888        August Strindberg wrote his drama "Miss Julie," about the sex war and class war.
    (SFC, 5/28/96, p.D1)(WSJ, 4/29/98, p.A20)

1888        Gen’l. Lew Wallace wrote "The Boyhood of Christ."
    (HT, 3/97, p.66)

1888        Debussy composed "Ariettes oubliees" to symbolist poems by Paul Verlaine.
    (WSJ, 8/16/01, p.A12)

1888        In New York City the 13-story Tower building was constructed at 50 Broadway.
    (HT, 5/97, p.24)

1888        In San Francisco a 2-story Victorian home at 50 Liberty St., designed by Absalom J. Barnett, was completed.
    (SSFC, 5/23/10, p.C2)
1888        The Hotel del Coronado was built in San Diego by 2 retired midwesterners who helped lure the railroad to San Diego.
    (WSJ, 10/25/96, p.B9)
1888        In San Francisco the Bayview Opera House was built at 4705 3rd Street. In 2007 a 3-year $4 million renovation program was begun.
    (SFC, 10/19/07, p.B1)
1888        The Lick Observatory was built atop Mt. Hamilton near San Jose, California with its 36-inch telescope, the largest in the world.
    (SFC, 3/5/97, p.C1)
1888        Black Bart, aka Charles Earl Bowles, was released after serving five years in San Quentin. He had held up 28 stages in Northern California from 1875 to 1883.
    (SFC, 3/1/14, p.A8)

1888        In Massachusetts the Searles Castle was built in Great Barrington on commission by Mary Hopkins (d.1891), the widow of railroad tycoon Mark Hopkins. Its seven turrets and blue dolomite exterior created a 60,000-square-foot fortress at the end of Main Street. Mary Hopkins hired noted interior decorator Edward Searles for the project, and the two married a year before it was finished. In 2007 it sold for $15 million.
    (AP, 5/19/07)

1888        The Blagen Block building was built in Portland, Oregon, at a cost of $50,000. Its decorations were made of cast iron.
    (Exc, 6/96, p.70)
1888        For the dedication of Skidmore Fountain in Portland, Oregon, brewer Harvey Weinhard offered to pump his beer through the fountain. The city fathers declined the offer.
    (Hem, 4/96, p.129)

1888        The fraternal order of the Moose Lodge was founded.
    (WSJ, 11/8/96, p.A1)

1888        The Geological Society of America was founded.
    (NG, May 1988, Mem For)

1888        The US Patent and Trademark Office changed its requirements due to space problems and allowed the submission of blueprints of devices to be patented instead of models.
    (Cont, 12/97, p.22)

1888        Massachusetts introduced the secret ballot. Most US states had moved to secret ballots soon after the presidential election of 1884.
1888        Blanche Kelso Bruce (1841-1898), former US Senator from Mississippi, was named recorder of deeds in Washington DC under Pres. Benjamin Harrison.
    (WSJ, 7/12/06, p.D12)

1888        In Cleveland a statue was commissioned and constructed to honor Moses Cleaveland by the city fathers. The resulting likeness seemed a little too porky so the artist simply cut a part of the midriff out and closed the gap.
    (SFC, 6/2/96, T10)

1888        Edward Katzinger founded a commercial baking-pan company in Chicago. It later became known as Ecko Housewares Co. By the 1960s it was the country’s largest manufacturer of non-electric kitchen items.
    (SFC, 4/16/08, p.G3)
1888        In Chicago Louis Glunz set up shop as a wine, beer and spirits merchant at Wells and Division streets. By 2009 the Louis Glunz Beer company represented  Chicago-land consumers with the largest portfolio of Micro, Specialty and Import Beers with 665 brands and 172 breweries worldwide.

1888        In NYC Katz’s Delicatessen was founded on the lower East Side. The Jewish deli was still operating in 2015.
    (Econ, 12/12/15, p.79)
1888        Thomas Adams installed the 1st Tutti Frutti machines on the platforms of the elevated trains of NYC. They dispensed gumballs for a penny.
    (WSJ, 7/28/00, p.W13)

1888        William Henry Belk founded a dry goods store in Monroe, NC. By 1960 the partnerships produced a chain of 362  Belk Inc. department stores under the leadership of his son, John Montgomery Belk (1920-2007).
    (WSJ, 8/25/07, p.A8)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Belk)

1888        In South Dakota Jesuits founded Red Cloud, a private Catholic school, at the request of Oglala Lakota chief Red Cloud.
    (Econ, 4/29/17, p.22)

1888        Abolitionist John Langston (1829-1897) became the first Black person to be elected to Congress from Virginia. He was the first dean of the law school at Howard University (1868) and helped create the department. He was the first president of what is now Virginia State University, a historically black college.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Mercer_Langston)(AP, 6/12/21)

1888        In Wisconsin the Theresa diamond, weighing 21.5 carats, was found on or near the Green Lake Moraine near Kohlsville, Washington county.

1888        Asa Candler purchased the Coca Cola formula. In 2004 Constance L. Hays authored "The Real thing: Truth and Power at the Coca-Cola Company."
    (SSFC, 2/22/04, p.M3)

1888        Wells Fargo introduced Ocean-to-Ocean express services, the first transcontinental express that shipped all kinds of valuables.
    (SFC, 6/9/98, p.A10)

1888        In Hawaii Benjamin Franklin Dillingham, a seaman from Mass., founded the Oahu Railway and Land Co.
    (SFC, 10/28/98, p.A19)

1888        W.W. Mayo and his sons, Charles and William, established their family practice. It later grew to become the Mayo Clinic.
    (SFC, 7/5/96, PM, p.5)

1888        John Gregg introduced his system of shorthand.
    (SFEC, 7/18/99, Z1 p.8)

1888        George Parker began selling fountain pens.
    (SFEC, 7/18/99, Z1 p.8)

1888        In Colorado Richard Wetherill and Charles Mason, cowboys looking for lost cattle, came upon the abandoned 150-room Cliff Palace of the Puebloan people, who had lived in the area from about 400-1300. In 1906 the area became Mesa Verde National Park.
    (SSFC, 4/2/06, p.F10)

1888        Olaf and Edward Ohman, a Swedish immigrant farmer, while digging up tree stumps in Kensington, Minn., came upon a 202-pound stone with runic inscriptions. Dated to 1363 (1362) the inscriptions seemed to describe how a party of Vikings had returned to this spot after an exploratory survey, and found ten men left behind "red with blood and dead." Ever since the discovery, scholars have debated the stone's authenticity.
    (SFEM, 11/15/98, p.25)(HNQ, 6/4/01)

1888        Nikola Tesla (1856-1943), Serbian-American inventor, patented his rugged alternating current induction motor.
    (Econ, 6/4/11, TQ p.13)

1888        Willi Posselt, an American hunter and trader, reported on his search for treasure in the ruins of the Great Zimbabwe in East Africa.
    (ATC, p.145-146)

1888        In Afghanistan a royal decree granted Pashtun Sunnis rights to graze their herds in the central highlands, land occupied by the Hazara people.
    (SFC, 10/21/08, p.A12)

1888        The Queen Victoria Building was built in Sydney, Australia.
    (Hem, 6/96, p.64)

1888        In Belgium the first beauty contest was held.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)

1888        In Brazil Joao Batista, Baron of Drummond, opened a zoo in Rio de Janeiro. To pull in business he printed animals on tickets and displayed a winning animal on a flag at the end of the day and paying 20 times the cost of the ticket. Side betting soon developed.
    (Econ, 5/5/12, p.38)

1888        The Lever brothers, William Hesketh Lever (1851-1925) and James Darcy Lever (1854–1916), began work on Port Sunlight in north-west England to accommodate, socialize and Christianize workers for their soap factory.
    (Econ, 2/27/15, p.56)
1888        A gastrointestinal disorder, later known as celiac disease, was formally described by and English pediatrician. The disease was later understood as an auto-immune attack on the small intestine lining triggered by gluten proteins in grains. An effective treatment emerged in 1950 when Willem Dicke, a Dutch doctoral student, noticed that celiac children had improved after WW II disrupted flour supplies.
    (WSJ, 12/8/05, p.A1,9)

1888        The sewer system of Yangon, Burma (later Myanmar), was built.
    (Econ, 1/31/15, p.35)

1888        Chile annexed Easter Island. The official native name of Easter Island, known for its stunning gigantic stone heads known as Moais, is Rapa Nui, and that's what many natives call themselves, refusing to identify with Chile.
    (AP, 12/3/10)
1888        An Egyptian farmer discovered thousands of cat mummies.
    (SFEC, 12/15/96, BR p.7)

1888        Etienne Henri Dumaige (b.1830), French sculptor, died. He worked in marble, plaster and bronze. His subjects included Rabelais, Sappho, Perseus and other classical figures.
    (SSFC, 2/10/02, p.G5)

1888        Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900), German philosopher, authored “Twilight of the Idols." It included the phrase: "What does not destroy me makes me stronger," which unwittingly inspired 21st century musicians.
1888        German scientists discovered that small amounts of poison might actually do an organism good. The paradoxical effect was called hormesis.
    (WSJ, 12/19/03, p.B1)

1888        In Jerusalem the Mary Magdalene convent was consecrated. Its decoration was overseen by Grand Duchess Elizabeth Feodorovna, consort to Russia’s Grand Duke Sergei Alexandrovich, the brother of Tsar Alexander III.
    (Econ, 12/19/09, p.82)

1888        Fridtjof Nansen of Norway led a 5-man team across Greenland on skis.
    (ON, 7/05, p.1)

1888        In Mexico the Santo Tomas Winery was founded near Ensenada.
    (SFC, 9/27/96, p.E3)

1888        In  Spain the fishing company Grupo Viera SA was founded.
    (WSJ, 1/18/07, p.A13)

1888        In Switzerland Dr. Eugen Frick made the first set of contact lenses.
    (SFEC, 1/24/99, Z1 p.8)

1888-1889    Albert G. Spalding (1850-1915), American baseball star and promoter, led a 6-month world tour to promote baseball. In 2006 Mark Lamster authored “Spalding’s World Tour," an account of Spalding’s 6-month world tour to promote baseball.
    (http://tinyurl.com/na793)(WSJ, 3/29/06, p.D10)
1888-1889    This period was covered by Frederic Morton (b.1924), Jewish-American writer, in his “A Nervous Splendor: Vienna 1888-1889" (1979).
    (SSFC, 2/15/15, p.N7)(www.literaturhaus.at/index.php?id=5660)

1888-1912    A bottle-nosed dolphin escorted ships for 6 miles through the narrow channel into New Zealand’s Pelores Sound. Sailors named the dolphin Pelores Jack.
    (SFEC, 9/7/97, Z1 p.5)

1888-1923     Katherine Mansfield, New Zealander author: New Zealander author: I do believe one ought to face facts. If you don’t they get behind you and may become terrors, nightmares, giants, horrors. As long as one faces them one is top dog. "To be wildly enthusiastic, or deadly serious—both are wrong. Both pass. One must keep ever present a sense of humour."
    (AP, 6/3/97)(AP, 9/26/98)

1888-1924    Vincente Greco, Argentine composer, best know for his tango composition "Ojos Negros," or Black Eyes. He was the son of poor Italian immigrants and turned to music early on. He learned several instruments, among them the bandoneon.
    (E-mail, [email protected], 9/15/95, Eckart Haerter)

1888-1935     T.E. Lawrence, English soldier and author: "There could be no honor in a sure success, but much might be wrested from a sure defeat."
    (AP, 5/19/97)

1888-1939    Heywood Broun, American journalist: "I see no wisdom in saving up indignation for a rainy day."
    (AP, 12/11/00)

1888-1941    Aline Kilmer, American poet: "Many excellent words are ruined by too definite a knowledge of their meaning."
    (AP, 2/5/99)

1888-1957    Richard Evelyn Byrd, American polar explorer. He flew over the north pole on May 9, 1926 with Floyd Bennett. Admiral Byrd flew over the South Pole on Nov. 29, 1929.
    (HFA, ‘96, p.42)(HFA, ‘96, p.30)(TMC, 1994, p.1926)

1888-1960    Vicki Baum, Austrian-born author: "Marriage always demands the finest arts of insincerity possible between two human beings."
    (AP, 2/1/01)

1888-1965     Mary Day Winn, American writer: "Sex is the tabasco sauce which an adolescent national palate sprinkles on every course in the menu."
    (AP, 1/10/01)

1888-1969    Boris Karloff, born to an upper-class British family as William Henry Pratt, renowned actor and star in the 1931 feature film: Frankenstein.
    (WSJ, 10/19/95, A-18)

1888-1973    Frances Marion, Hollywood screenwriter. Her films included "The Big House" (1930) and "The Champ" (1931) for which she won Oscars.
    (WSJ, 7/28/00, p.W6)

1888-1978    Giorgio de Chirico, Italian painter. In 1998 Paolo Baldacci published a collection his work: "De Chirico: The Metaphysical Period 1888-1919."
    (WUD, 1994, p.258)(WSJ, 12/3/98, p.W4)

1889        Jan 8, Dr. Herman Hollerith (1860-1929), statistician for the US Census Bureau, received the 1st US patent for a tabulating machine. It resembled Charles Babagge’s Analytical Engine, but used electromagnetic relays instead of metal gears.
    (www.answers.com/topic/herman-hollerith)(ON, 5/05, p.7)

1889        Jan 9, A tornado struck Brooklyn, NY, when Flatbush was farmland. A twister blew through what are now the neighborhoods of Carroll Gardens, Boerum Hill, Downtown, Fort Greene and Williamsburg, blowing roofs off houses and uprooting trees, but killing no one. 14 people were killed by the tornado in Pittsburg, Pa.

1889        Jan 14, The 1st issue of the Lithuanian "Varpas" (Bell) newspaper was published.
    (LHC, 1/14/03)

1889        Jan 16, An Australian record temperature of 128.5F, or 53.1C, was recorded in Cloncurry, Queensland. Later investigations revealed that this temperature was measured in an improvised screen made from a beer crate and that it equated to 47–49 °C under standard conditions.

1889        Jan 30, Rudolf (b.1858), Archduke of Austria, and his mistress, Marie Vetschera, were found dead having committed a double suicide overnight. Their story was later depicted by Hungarian filmmaker Miklos Jancso in his film "Vices and Pleasures" (1976).
    (http://tinyurl.com/kkskjkd)(AP, 1/31/14)

1889        Feb 4, Harry Longabaugh was released from Sundance Prison in Wyoming, thereby acquiring the famous nickname, "the Sundance Kid."
    (HN, 2/4/99)
1889        Feb 4, The Panama Canal project under Ferdinand de Lesseps (d.1894) went bankrupt. Over 5,000 French people died working on the project. In all over 25,000 people died during 8 years of work, mostly from malaria and yellow fever.
    (Econ, 2/24/07, p.97)(www.archives.gov/research/guide-fed-records/groups/185.html)

1889        Feb 17, H[aroldson] L. Hunt, Texas oil multi-millionaire, was born.
    (MC, 2/17/02)

1889        Feb 22, President Cleveland signed a bill to admit the Dakotas, Montana and Washington state to the Union.
    (AP, 2/22/99)

1889        Mar 2, Congress passed the Indian Appropriations Bill, proclaiming unassigned lands in the public domain; the first step toward the famous Oklahoma Land Rush.
    (HN, 3/2/99)
1889        Mar 2, Kansas passed 1st US antitrust legislation.
    (SC, 3/2/02)

1889        Mar 4, Benjamin Harrison was inaugurated as 23rd President.
    (SC, 3/4/02)

1889        Mar 8, Jens/John Ericsson (85), Swedish-US, engineer (fire extinguisher), died.
    (MC, 3/8/02)

1889        Mar 10, In Ethiopia Emperor Yohannes was killed in a war against the dervishes during the Battle of Gallabat (Matemma). With his dying breaths, Yohannes declared his natural son, Dejazmach Mengesha Yohannes, as his heir. On 25 March, upon hearing of the death of Yohannes, Negus Menelik immediately proclaimed himself as Nəgusä Nägäst.

1889        Mar 14, "MIss Julie," a play by Swedish dramatist Johan August Strindberg (1849-1912), premiered. Strindberg wrote the play in 1888 and preceded it with a preface which discusses his ideas of naturalism and how they apply to the play.
    (SFC, 9/27/19, p.E3)(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Miss_Julie)

1889        Mar 19, Sarah Gertrude Millina, South African writer (The Dark River, God's Stepchildren).
    (HN, 3/19/01)

1889        Mar 23, President Harrison opened Oklahoma for white colonization.
    (SS, 3/23/02)

1889        Mar 27, John Bright (b.1811), Quaker and British Radical and Liberal statesman, died. He was associated with Richard Cobden in the formation of the Anti-Corn Law League. In 2011 Bill Cash authored “John Bright: Statesman, Orator, Agitator."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Bright)(Econ, 12/31/11, p.68)

1889        Mar 31, French engineer Gustave Eiffel unfurled the French tricolor from atop the Eiffel Tower, officially marking its completion. Constructed of 7,000 tons of iron and steel, the 984-foot structure was designed by Alexandre Gustave Eiffel for the Paris Exhibition of 1889, commemorating the centennial of the French Revolution. The price for the Eiffel Tower was more than $1 million, but fees for the year 1889 alone nearly recouped the cost. Fifty-five years later, plans by Hitler to leave the tower and much of Paris a smoking ruin were foiled by an unlikely hero. After the Paris World Fair a church designed by Alexandre Gustave Eiffel was dismantled and shipped to Santa Rosalia in Baja, Mexico.
    (SFEC, 10/20/96, Par, p.23)(SFEC, 11/10/96, p.T11)(HNPD, 3/31/99)(AP, 3/31/08)

1889        Mar, Friedrich Nietzsche entered an asylum 2 months after a mental collapse at age 44. Nietzsche's sister Elizabeth edited his writings from this time on.
    (WSJ, 2/4/99, p.A20)

1889               Apr 1,  The first dishwashing machine was marketed (in Chicago).

1889        Apr 5, Start of Sherlock Holmes' "Adventure of Copper Beeches."
    (MC, 4/5/02)

1889        Apr 6, George Eastman placed the Kodak Camera on sale for 1st time.
    (MC, 4/6/02)

1889        Apr 8, Adrian Boult, conductor, composer (BBC Sym Orch), was born in Chester, England.
    (MC, 4/8/02)

1889        Apr 11, Nick La Rocca, US cornetist, composer (Tiger Rag), was born.
    (MC, 4/11/02)

1889        Apr 14, Arnold Toynbee (d.1975), English historian, was born. He wrote the 12-volume "A Study of History." "The history of almost every civilization furnishes examples of geographical expansion coinciding with deterioration in quality." "Of the 20 or so civilizations known to modern Western historians, all except our own appear to be dead or moribund, and, when we diagnose each case ... we invariably find that the cause of death has been either War or Class or some combination of the two."
    (AP, 3/24/98)(AP, 8/24/98)(HN, 4/14/99)

1889        Apr 15, Thomas Hart Benton (d.1975), painter, muralist, was born in Missouri.
    (HN, 4/15/98)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Hart_Benton_%28painter%29)
1889        Apr 15, Asa Philip Randolph, American labor leader, was born.
    (HN, 4/15/98)
1889        Apr 15, A marshal's posse killed and captured a group of Sooners, settlers who stole onto the Public Domain territory in Oklahoma in hopes of claiming it legally, just nine days before the official start of the land rush.
    (HN, 4/15/99)
1889        Apr 15, Rev. Damien de Veuster (b.1840), Belgian priest who ministered to leprosy patients in Hawaii, died of leprosy. In 2009 Pope Benedict XVI set his canonization date for Oct 11, 2009. He was beatified in 1995 after the Vatican declared that the 1987 recovery of a nun of the Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary was a miracle. Audrey Toguchi recovered from lung cancer in 1999 after praying to Damien.
    (AP, 2/21/09)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Father_Damien)

1889        Apr 16, Charlie Chaplin (d.1977), actor, director, composer and silent movie comedian, was born in London into a family of music hall performers. He is best remembered for his character "Little Tramp." He was a British motion-picture actor, producer, writer, director and composer and worked in America from 1913-1952. In 1997 his biography "Charlie Chaplin and His Times" by Kenneth S. Lynn was published.
    (HFA, '96, p.28)(AHD, p.225)(WUB, 1994, p.247)(WSJ, 3/7/97, p.A12)(HN, 4/16/99)(AP, 4/16/00)

1889        Apr 20, Adolf Hitler, leader of National Socialist Party (1921-1945), was born in Braunau, Austria. He was the dictator of Nazi Germany from 1933-1945 and started World War II by invading Poland. He committed suicide in his Berlin bunker. The German Fascist leader, promised to bring Germany to the promised land on one condition: that the state would have total control over all the organs, organizations, and citizens of the nation. Brigitte Hammann later authored "Hitler in Vienna: A Dictator’s Apprenticeship." In 1998 Ron Rosenbaum published "Explaining Hitler," a look at the various agendas and needs of different scholars in their examination of Hitler. In 1999 Ian Kershaw published "Hitler 1889-1936: Hubris."
    (V.D.-H.K.p.309)(HN, 4/20/98)(SFEC, 10/18/98, BR p.5)(WSJ, 1/21/98, p.A16) (AP, 4/20/99)(HN, 4/20/99)(WSJ, 4/4/01, p.A6)

1889        Apr 22, The US federal government opened up the Unassigned Lands of Indian Territory to the country’s first land run. The Oklahoma land rush officially started at noon as thousands of homesteaders staked claims.
    (WSJ, 1/4/96, p.A-8)(AP, 4/22/97)(HN, 4/22/98)

1889        Apr 26, Ludwig Wittgenstein (d.1951), philosopher (Tractatus), was born in Vienna, Austria. He pondered the nature of knowledge and the limits of language. He argued that the criteria for the correct use of any language must be social. "The human body is the best picture of the human soul."
    (SFEC, 10/27/96, BR p.4)(SFC, 1/31/98, p.E1)(WSJ, 8/21/98, p.W13)(AP, 1/3/01)(MC, 4/26/02)

1889        Apr 28, Antonio de Oliveira Salazar, premier, dictator of Portugal (1932-68), was born.
    (MC, 4/28/02)

1889        Apr 30, Washington’s inauguration became the first U.S. national holiday. Washington’s inauguration was later depicted in a painting by Ramon de Elorriaga.
    (HN, 4/30/98)(SSFC, 1/21/01, p.A12)

1889        May 1, Bayer in  Germany introduced aspirin in powder form.
    (MC, 5/1/02)   

1889        May 6, The Paris Exposition formally opened, featuring the just-completed Eiffel Tower.
    (AP, 5/6/97)

1889        May 11, Major Joseph Washington Wham took charge of $28,000 in gold and silver to pay troops at various points in the Arizona Territory. The money was soon stolen in a train robbery.
    (HN, 5/11/99)

1889        May 18, Jules Massenet’s opera "Esclarmonde" premiered in Paris, France.
    (SC, 5/18/02)

1889        May 20, Felix Arndt, composer, was born.
    (MC, 5/20/02)

1889        May 24, George Henry Calvert (b.1803), American author and great grandson of Lord Baltimore, died. His writing covered historical subjects. In 1854 Calvert was sworn in as mayor of Newport, Rhode Island.

1889        May 25, Gilardo Gilardi, composer, was born.
    (SC, 5/25/02)
1889        May 25, Sverre Jordan, composer, was born.
    (SC, 5/25/02)
1889        May 25, Igor Sikorsky, aviation engineer, was born in Russia. He moved to America in 1919 and developed the first successful helicopter.
    (HN, 5/25/99)(ON, 3/06, p.5)

1889        May 29, August Strindberg's "Hemsoborna" premiered in Copenhagen.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1889        May 30, The brassiere was invented in Paris. [see 1902]
    (HN, 5/30/98)(WSJ, 2/3/99, p.A1)

1889        May 31, Johnstown, Pennsylvania was destroyed by a massive flood. The South Fork Dam across a tributary of the Little Conemaugh River collapsed under pressure from the rain-swollen Lake Conemaugh. Water slammed into Johnstown, Pa., 55 miles southeast of Pittsburgh and killed 2,209 people in a flood and related fire. Torrential rains had weakened the poorly constructed dam, located 14 miles upstream from the city. By the afternoon of May 31, after desperate efforts to shore up the earthen dam had failed, it broke and unleashed a 40-foot-high wave of water and debris into Johnstown with the force of Niagara Falls. Buildings and trees, along with animals and people--both dead and alive--piled up against the Pennsylvania Railroad Company's Stone Bridge. The mountain of debris then caught fire, trapping hundreds. More than 2,000 people lost their lives in the devastating Johnstown Flood. The South Fork Dam had been constructed to create Lake Conemaugh, a playground for the wealthy members of the South Fork Fishing and Hunting Club. In 1959 Richard O'Connor published "Johnstown, the Day the Dam Broke." In 1968 David McCullough authored “The Johnstown Flood."
    (SFC, 3/24/97, p.C2)(AP, 5/31/97)(HN, 5/31/98)(WSJ, 1/27/06, p.P8)

1889        May, A flu epidemic was reported in Bukhara, Russian Empire. By November the epidemic had reached Saint Petersburg. The 1889-1890 flu pandemic, better known as the "Asiatic flu" or "Russian flu", killed about 1 million people worldwide. It was the last great pandemic of the 19th century. Virologists in 2002 attempted to gather viral tissue from frozen grave sites in Siberia.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1889%E2%80%931890_flu_pandemic)(SFCM, 2/17/02, p.27)

1889        Jun 1, The first non-stop train to Istanbul left Paris (Gare de l'Est). The train's eastern terminus became Varna in Bulgaria, where passengers could take a ship to Constantinople.
    (Econ, 12/19/15, p.67)

1889        Jun 4, Beno Gutenberg, seismologist, was born.
    (HN, 6/4/01)

1889        Jun 15, Mihai Eminescu, born in 1850 as Mihail Eminovici, died in Bucharest. He was a Romantic poet, novelist and journalist, and often regarded as the most famous and influential Romanian poet.

1889        Jun 19, Start of Sherlock Holmes adventure "The Man with the Twisted Lip."
    (DTnet, 6/19/97)

1889        Jun 28, Maria Mitchell (b.1818), American astronomer, died in Lynn, Mass.
    (ON, 2/07, p.10)

1889        Jul 4, North Dakota founders began drafting a constitution but left out a key requirement that the governor and other top officials take an oath of office, putting the state constitution in conflict with the federal one. In 2011 State Senator Tim Mathern introduced a bill fixing the mistake that will be put to voters.
1889        Jul 4, Washington state constitutional convention held 1st meeting.
    (Maggio, 98)

1889        Jul 5, Jean Cocteau (d.1963), French artist, writer and actor, was born. "History is a combination of reality of History becomes a lie. The unreality of the fable becomes the truth."
    (AP, 11/16/00)(HN, 7/5/01)

1889        Jul 8, In Mississippi Jake Kilrain (1859-1937) fought boxing champion John L. Sullivan in the last world heavyweight championship prizefight decided with bare knuckles under London Prize Ring rules in history. Sullivan defeated Kilrain in a match that went to 75 rounds.
    (AH, 2/06, p.29)(http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Sullivan_-_Kilrain_Fight)
1889        Jul 8, Dow Jones & Co. turned its “Customer’s Afternoon Letter" into a full-fledged newspaper and co-founder Charles Bergstresser dubbed it the Wall Street Journal.
    (AP, 7/8/97)(WSJ, 5/2/07, p.C1)
1889        Jun 8, Gerard Manley Hopkins (54), poet, died.
    (MC, 6/8/02)

1889        Jul 13, Vincent van Gogh painted "Moonrise." The exact date was determined in 2003 by a physicist using a computer and moon data from the painting.
    (SFC, 7/16/03, p.D2)

1889        Jul 17, Erle Stanley Gardner, writer of detective stories and creator of Perry Mason, was born.
    (HN, 7/17/98)

1889        Jul 30, Vladimir Zworykin, called the "Father of Television" for inventing the iconoscope, was born in Russia.
    (AP, 7/30/97)

1889        Jul, Bare-knuckle boxer John Lawrence Sullivan reigned as America’s first sports hero at the end of the 19th century. In July 1889, when challenged by Jake Kilrain of Baltimore, Sullivan was still unbeaten despite his heavy drinking. About 3,000 fans gathered in the blazing sun of Richburg, Mississippi, for what was to be the last championship bare-knuckle fight. The marathon match went 75 rounds and lasted 2 hours and 16 minutes before the battered Kilrain’s handlers threw in the towel. Sullivan remained the champ until September 1892, when he was knocked out for the first time in his career by "Gentleman Jim" Corbett. The mighty Sullivan died in 1918.
    (HNPD, 7/8/98)

1889        Aug 1, John F. Mahoney, developed penicillin treatment of syphilis, was born.
    (MC, 8/1/02)

1889        Aug 6, Major General George Kenney, commander of the U.S. Fifth Air Force in New Guinea and the Solomons during World War II, was born.
    (HN, 8/6/98)

1889        Aug 10, Dan Rylands patented a screw cap.
    (MC, 8/10/02)

1889        Aug 12, Zerna Sharp, creator of the "Dick and Jane" reading books, was born.
    (HN, 8/12/00)

1889        Aug 13, The first coin-operated telephone was patented by William Gray of Hartford, Conn. A foreman had refused to let Gray call his sick wife from the company phone.
    (SFEC, 10/22/00, Z1 p.2)(AP, 8/13/08)

1889        Aug 14, David S. Terry, former Chief Justice of the California Supreme Court (1857-1859), was shot by a bodyguard of Stephen Field, an associate justice of the US Supreme Court, after Terry slapped Field in the face at a railroad restaurant in Lathrop, Ca.
    (SFC, 9/7/09, p.C6)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_S._Terry)

1889        Aug 16, Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show star Annie Oakley, using a Colt .45, shot the ash off the end of a cigarette held in the mouth by a young German Kaiser Wilhelm II. Appearing at Berlin's Charlottenburg Race Course, Oakley asked in jest for a volunteer from the audience and, to her horror, the young ruler of the Reich stepped forward. A nervous Oakley successfully performed the trick shot. Years later, after the start of WWI, Oakley reportedly wrote to the Kaiser, asking for a second shot.
    (HNPD, 8/16/99)

1889        Aug 20, Leonide Lacroix of France was granted a US patent for a machine to cut and wind strips of paper for cigarettes. Rizla became a brand name for rolling papers.
    (https://tinyurl.com/sxyd3hnf)(Econ., 1/16/21, p.54)

1889        Aug 23, The 1st ship-to-shore wireless message was received in US in SF.
    (MC, 8/23/02)

1889        Aug 24, Jan E. Matzeliger, Suriname inventor (shoe lacing machine), died.
    (MC, 8/24/02)
1889        Aug 24, Auguste Neal, a convicted murderer, was executed in Saint-Pierre et Miquelon, becoming the first and only person to be executed by guillotine in North America. The device was specially shipped from Martinique for the execution.
    (SSFC, 11/16/08, p.E5)

1889        Aug 31, Start of Sherlock Holmes adventure "Cardboard Box."
    (MC, 8/31/01)
1889        Sep 8, Robert A. Taft, U.S. Republican Senator from Ohio,  was born. He unsuccessfully sought the presidential nomination in 1952 and helped pass the 1947 Taft-Hartley Act. He was the son of the 27th president of the U.S. William Howard Taft. Robert was known as "Mr. Republican" because of his steadfast espousal of traditional conservative values. Taft was a candidate for the Republican presidential nomination three times and served in the Senate from 1938 until his death in 1953. Taft consistently opposed the New Deal program, led the Congressional isolationist bloc and fought the Lend-Lease bill.
    (HN, 9/8/98)(HNQ, 7/8/99)(MC, 9/8/01)

1889        Sep 15, Robert Benchley, humorist, was born.
    (HN, 9/15/00)

1889        Sep 16, Robert Younger, in Minnesota’s Stillwater Penitentiary for life, died of tuberculosis. Brothers Cole and Bob remained in that prison.
    (HN, 9/16/98)

1889        Sep 23, Wilkie Collins (b.1824), English novelist and playwright, died. He wrote some 30 novels including are “The Woman in White" (1860), “No Name" (1862), “Armadale" (1866) and “The Moonstone" (1868). In 2012 Peter Ackroyd authored “Wilkie Collins."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wilkie_Collins)(Econ, 2/25/12, p.98)
1889        Sep 23, Walter Lippmann, journalist, was born in NYC. He was one of the founders of The New Republic Magazine in 1914. His political writings included "Men of Destiny."
    (HN, 9/23/00)
1889        Sep 23, Louise Nevelson, sculptor, was born.
    (HN, 9/23/00)

1889        Sep 26, Martin Heidegger, existentialist philosopher and writer, was born in Germany. He wrote "Being and Time," and criticized the tyranny of modern technology over man.
    (WUD, 1994, p.657)(WSJ, 8/28/97, p.A12)(MC, 9/26/01)

1889        Oct 6, The Moulin Rouge in Paris first opened its doors to the public. Women who made a living washing linen by day transformed themselves into dancers at night.
    (AP, 10/6/97)(Reuters, 10/7/19)
1889        Oct 6, Thomas Edison showed his 1st motion picture.
    (MC, 10/6/01)

1889        Oct 18, Fannie Hurst, novelist (Anatomy of Me), was born.
    (MC, 10/18/01)

1889        Oct 25, Abel Gance, French film director (Napoleon), was born.
    (HN, 10/25/00)(MC, 10/25/01)

1889        Nov 2, North Dakota was made the 39th state.
    (AP, 11/2/97)(HN, 11/2/98)
1889        Nov 2, South Dakota was made the 40th state.
    (AP, 11/2/97)(HN, 11/2/98)

1889        Nov 3, In Ethiopia Emperor Menelik II (1844-1913) began ruling as emperor, fending off the encroachments of European powers.

1889        Nov 8, Montana became the 41st state.
    (HFA, '96, p.18)(AP, 11/8/97)(HN, 11/6/98)

1889        Nov 11, Washington became the 42nd state of the US.
    (HFA, ‘96, p.18)(AP, 11/11/97)

1889        Nov 12, DeWitt Wallace, founder of Reader’s Digest (1921), was born in St Paul, Minn.
    (HN, 11/12/00)(MC, 11/12/01)

1889        Nov 14, Jawaharlal Nehru (d.1964), Indian nationalist leader (1947-1964), was born. "A man who is afraid will do anything."
    (AP, 9/27/97)(HN, 11/14/00)(MC, 11/14/01)
1889        Nov 14, Nellie Bly, the pen name of journalist Elizabeth Cochran, sailed from New York to begin her record-breaking 24,899-mile trip around the world--a journey that would end on January 25, 1890. Cochran had become a reporter for the Pittsburgh Dispatch at age 18 and adopted the pen name "Nellie Bly" from a popular song by Stephen Foster. Her six-month series of stories from Mexico attracted the attention of Joseph Pulitzer and, in 1887, she went to work for Pulitzer's New York World. Feigning insanity, Nellie once had herself committed to the Blackwell's Island mental hospital and then wrote an expose that brought about needed reforms. The around-the-world trip originated in an attempt to beat the Jules Verne's fictional hero Phineas Fogg's 80-day journey. Millions of people followed the adventures of the plucky reporter through stories posted back to the World at every stop. Tremendous celebrations greeted Nellie when she arrived in New York. Her trip lasted 72 days, six hours and eleven minutes--a record that would stand until the Graf Zeppelin circled the globe in 20 days, four hours and fourteen minutes in 1929.
    (AP, 11/14/97)(HNPD, 11/14/98)

1889        Nov 15, In Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Emperor Dom Pedro II was overthrown and military officers established a republic.
    (AP, 11/15/97)(WSJ, 4/6/06, p.D8)

1889        Nov 16, George S. Kaufman, American playwright and screenwriter, was born in Pittsburgh, Pa. His plays included "Dinner at Eight," "You Can't Take it With You" and "The Man Who Came to Dinner."
    (HN, 11/16/99)(MC, 11/16/01)

1889        Nov 17, The Union Pacific Railroad Co. began direct, daily railroad service between Chicago and Portland, Ore., as well as Chicago and San Francisco.
    (AP, 11/17/97)

1889        Nov 20, Edwin Hubble (d.1953), American astronomer, was born. He proved that there are other galaxies far from our own.
    (HN, 11/20/98)(WSJ, 7/25/00, p.A20)
1889        Nov 20, Gustav Mahler's 1st Symphony premiered.
    (MC, 11/20/01)

1889        Nov 23, The first jukebox made its debut in San Francisco, at the Palais Royale Saloon. The contraption consisted of an Edison tinfoil phonograph with four listening tubes and a coin slot for each tube.
    (AP, 11/23/97)

1889        Nov 27, 1st permit issued to drive a car through Central Park, NYC, was issued to Curtis P. Brady.
    (MC, 11/27/01)

1889        Dec 6, Jefferson Davis (81), the first and only president of the Confederate States of America (1861-1865), died in New Orleans. In 2001 William J. Cooper Jr. authored "Jefferson Davis, American."
    (AP, 12/6/97)(SSFC, 1/28/01, Par p.12)(MC, 12/6/01)

1889        Dec 7, Gilbert and Sullivan’s "Gondoliers," premiered in London.
    (MC, 12/7/01)

1889        Dec 12, Robert Browning (77), English poet (Ring & Book), died.
    (MC, 12/12/01)

1889        Dec 23, Vincent van Gogh sliced his left ear in reaction to Gauguin’s announcement that he was leaving Arles for Paris.
    (Econ, 11/5/11, p.103)

1889        Dec 24, Daniel Stover and William Hance patented a bicycle with back pedal brake.
    (MC, 12/24/01)

1889        Dec, The poem Clancy of the Overflow by Banjo Paterson 1st appeared in the Christmas edition of Australia’s Bulletin magazine.
    (NG, 8/04, p.10)

1889        Roger Adams, American chemist, was born. Adamsite, a yellow crystalline compound used dispersed in air as a poisonous gas, is named after him.
    (WUD, 1994 p.16)

1889        Marc Chagall, painter, was born in Vitebsk, Belarus. He grew up here in a traditional Jewish family and studied for two years in St. Petersburg after showing a good gift for draftsmanship. He left for Paris with the help of a wealthy benefactor in 1910. [see 1887-1985]
    (WSJ, 5/11/95, p. A-14)

1889        Van Gogh painted "The Gardener," while a patient in St. Remy-de-Provence as well as “Starry Night." He also did "Wheatfield with a Reaper" and "Crab on Its Back" in this year.
    (SFC, 5/21/98, p.A14)(SFC, 1/18/99, p.B1)(WSJ, 8/14/01, p.A12)(WSJ, 10/18/08, p.W12)

1889        Pierre Bonnard created his 3-panel screen "Marabout and Four Frogs."
    (WSJ, 3/27/00, p.A20)

1889        Joaquin Maria Machado de Assis (1839-1908), mulatto writer wrote "Dom Casmurro." The Oxford Library of Latin America published a new edition in 1998.
    (WSJ, 2/3/98, p.A20)

1889        Andrew Carnegie, Scottish-born American industrialist, authored his essay “Gospel of Wealth," a primer on why some people had so much money and how to give it away.
    (SSFC, 10/22/06, p.M3)

1889        William Heath Davis (1822-1909) authored" Sixty Years in California." It included a description of life in Yerba Buena (San Francisco). In 1929 it was enlarged and renamed “Seventy-five Years in California."
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Heath_Davis)(SFC, 7/6/13, p.C2)

1889        Norwegian Knut Hamsun wrote "From the Cultural Life in Modern America."
    (SFEC, 4/20/97, DB p.47-49)

1889        William Temple Hornaday published "The Extermination of the American Bison."
    (ON, 3/02, p.9)

1889        J.J. Thomas (1840-1889) authored “Froudacity," an attack on the writings about the West Indies of English historian J. Anthony Froude. The Trinidad-born, self-educated black intellectual, wrote the work during a visit to London where he died of TB.
    (www.wwnorton.com/nael/victorian/topic_4/thomas.htm)(WSJ, 10/4/05, p.D8)

1889        Oscar Wilde wrote his novella “The Portrait of Mr. W.H."
    (WSJ, 7/8/06, p.P8)

1889        The American Dialect Society was founded. It was dedicated to the study of the English language in North America and started selecting its "Word of the Year" in 1991. Since then it has picked only two "Word of the Decade" winners. Top choices were "web" for the 1990s and "Google" as a verb for the 2000s.
    (Reuters, 1/3/20)

1889        National Geographic depicted the area of Ashville, N.C. and inaugurated its famed map series. In 1998 a complete set of NG maps was made available on CD-ROM by Mindscape.
    (SFC, 11/3/98, p.D3)

1889        Hull House, a Chicago social services organization for immigrants and the poor, was founded by the Nobel Peace Prize winner Jane Addams. It closed in 2012 after running out of money.
    (AP, 1/27/12)

1889        Chris L. Rutt, a newspaperman in St. Joseph, Missouri, began working on creating a self-rising pancake mix. Within a year, he and two associates developed the first pancake mix ever made. While seeking a name and package design for the world's first self-rising pancake mix, Rutt saw a vaudeville team known as Baker and Farrell whose act included Baker singing the catchy song "Aunt Jemima" dressed as a Southern mammy. Inspired by the wholesome name and image, Rutt appropriated them both to market his new pancake mix. The song “Old Aunt Jemima," was written in 1875 by Billy Kersands, a Black comedian, and performed, often by white men, in minstrel shows. 
    (www.auntjemima.com/aj_history/)(NY Times, 7/19/20)

1889        The modern pizza was reportedly invented by a Neopolitan named Raffaele Esposito. [see 1830]
    (SFEC,11/16/97, Z1 p.5)

1889        The federal government passed stricter game laws when only 551 buffalo remained. By 1902, federal efforts to prevent the extinction of the American buffalo were beginning to pay off, with more than 1,000 head thriving in protected herds. While the buffalo, often 10 feet long and weighing about 2,000 pounds, were hunted by the Plains Indians as their main source of food, clothing, weapons and shelter, massive herds continued to roam the Plains until European settlers began hunting them almost to extinction.
    (HNPD, 8/21/98)(HNQ, 10/29/98)

1889        The Great Sioux Reservation of the Dakotas was dismembered into 6 parts.
    (Econ, 10/15/05, p.34)
1889        In South Dakota alcohol was banned on the Pine Ridge Indian reservation. The ban continued except for a few months in the 1970s. As of 2017 two-thirds adults on the reservation were alcoholics as many purchased alcohol in Whiteclay, a short walk across the state line in Nebraska.
    (Econ, 4/29/17, p.22)

1889        New York first used paper ballots. Victoria, Australia, had begun using paper ballots in 1856.
    (WSJ, 11/9/00, p.A1)

1889        The San Jose, Ca., City Hall, an ornate Victorian style building, was constructed.
    (SFC, 7/14/97, p.A15)
1889        Juana Briones (b.1802), SF businesswoman and Santa Clara County rancho owner, died.
    (SFC, 11/14/03, p.I24)(SFC, 2/25/11, p.C3)
1889        The Greystone Cellars were completed in the Napa Valley. The Christian Brothers later sold the Cellars to Heublein.
    (WCG, 7/95, p.22)
1889        In San Francisco the Russian Orthodox Church and episcopal complex at 1713-15 Powell burned down. Some parishioners suspected that Bishop Vladimir had burned it down for insurance money. The bishop accused nihilists that included Dr. Russel, vice-president of the Greco-Russian-Slavonian Benevolent Society. Russel accused the bishop of being a pederast but prosecutors refused to pursue the case. In 1997 Terence Emmons authored “Alleged Sex and Threatened Violence: Doctor Russel, Bishop Vladimir, and the Russians in San Francisco, 1887-1892."
    (SFC, 4/19/14, p.C2)
1889        A 5,300 pound bell was commissioned for $17,000 from a Baltimore foundry to hang in the St. Mary’s Cathedral at Van Ness and O’Farrell, San Francisco. It hung in the church until 1962 when an arsonist destroyed the cathedral. The bell was moved to new cathedral grounds near Gough and Geary and sat for some 40 years until it was stolen in 2011 as the metal value of its 80% copper reached $75,000. The bell was recovered at a salvage yard in West Oakland.
    (SFC, 10/25/11, p.A8)(SFC, 10/27/11, p.C1)
1889        In San Francisco compensation was made to the owners of bisected and trisected lots of the 1847 Lagoon Survey. In a few years the Lagoon Survey vanished with two exceptions: Blackstone Court, part of lot 17, and Grenard Terrace on Lot 22.
    (SFC, 12/10/16, p.C3)
1889        The San Francisco Examiner sent out reporter Allen Kelly to dispel the myth that grizzlies were extinct in California. After 3 months he saw only one and failed to capture it and was fired by Citizen Hearst via Western Union. Kelly later wrote "Bears I Have Met—and Others." He later found a bear captured on Gleason Mountain by a Mexican known as Mateo. The bear, named Monarch, was brought back to SF and housed in a "pleasure garden near Dolores and Market streets."
    (Pac. Disc., summer, ‘96, p.16,17)
1889        The North Pacific Coast Railroad established a train station in Marin County called Manzanita atop a shell mound site previously settled by coastal Miwok Indians. In 1906 a liquor license was granted for an establishment there called Manzanita Villa and in 1916 a building was erected for a hotel and dance hall by Thomas, James and George Moore, SF liquor and cigar dealers. In 1947 new owners built a motel behind the building and renamed it “The Fireside." In 1957 2 skeletons of American Indians were found during renovation. In 2008 the site was re-developed as a new affordable housing complex.  
    (SFC, 4/21/08, p.B2)
1889        The Hills of Peace (Home of Peace) and Hills of Eternity Jewish cemeteries were established in Lawndale (Colma), Ca.
    (GTP, 1973, p.45)(www.colmahistory.org/History.htm)

1889        Seattle-based Washington Mutual Inc., was founded. During the economic crises in 2008 it became the largest ever US bank to fail.
    (AP, 9/26/08)

1889        The dexterity game "Pigs in Clover" was built by Charles Crandall. It dared a player to move little balls into a center pen.
    (SFC, 9/10/02, p.A15)

1889        The American Cotton Oil Company succeeded the American Cotton Oil Trust.
    (WSJ, 5/28/96, p. R-45)

1889        The first commercial transparent roll film, perfected by George Eastman and his research chemist, was put on the market. This flexible film made possible the development of Thomas Edison's motion picture camera in 1891. A new corporation, The Eastman Company, was formed, taking over the assets of the Eastman Dry Plate and Film Company.

1889        Louis Frederick Nonnast (41), a German immigrant (1865), had his own Chicago furniture factory by this time. In 1914 the firm was renamed Louis F. Nonnast & Sons.
    (SFC, 8/31/05, p.G3)

1889        The Tifflin Glass Co. was founded in Tifflin, Ohio. It became part of U.S. Glass in the 1920s and started making figural lamps.
    (SFC, 12/23/96, z-1 p.5)

1889        In Toledo, Ohio, the W.I. Libbey & Son Co. made a pattern of milk glass that resembled ears of corn.
    (SFC,11/19/97, Z1 p.7)

1889        Harry David Lee started H.D. Lee Mercantile in Kansas.
    (SSFC, 8/20/06, p.M4)

1889        The steam elevator began to be supplanted by electric power.
    (HT, 5/97, p.23)

1889        John Alexander MacWilliam, Scottish physiologist, discovered that he could restore heart rhythms in cats using a metronome and a needle electrode. His work went unrecognized until his paper on the subject resurfaced in 1972.
    (Econ, 3/7/09, TQ p.25)

1889        W.K. Brooks published a technical article on the "Lucayans," the original inhabitants of the Bahamas.
    (NH, 11/96, p.26)

1889        Seattle, Wa., burned to the ground.
    (WSJ, 9/19/95, p.A-1)(ST, 5/20/04, p.A1)

1889        Five people were shot dead in Dodge City, Kansas, this year.
    (SFEC, 1/4/98, Z1p.8)

1889        Ella Watson of Sweetwater, Wyo., was hanged for rustling cattle.
    (SFEC, 1/19/97, Z-1 p.6)

1889        Fr. James Chrysostom Bouchard, SJ, (b.1823), died. His French mother was adopted by the Delaware Lenni-Lenappi tribe after her parents were killed by members of the Comanche tribe. His father was Kistalwa, the Delaware tribe’s chief. After he moved to California his sermons attracted great crowds to the local Jesuit church. He traveled to many Western states, preaching in cities, towns, and mining camps. When he died, a New York newspaper called him "the Father Damen of the West." In 1949 John Bernard McGloin authored “Eloquent Indian."
    (GenIV, Winter 04/05)(www.companymagazine.org/v154/preachers.html)

1889        Argentina established a reputation for having a troubled currency. After a few years Finance Minister Ernesto Tornquist put the country on a gold standard and limited the issue of money to the holdings in the treasury. The economy expanded to become one of the leading economies in the world.
    (WSJ, 2/28/97, p.A15)

1889        Hendrik Baekeland (b.1863), Belgian professor of natural science, sailed for America.
    (ON, 9/05, p.10)

1889        British Lord Baden Powell authored “Pigsticking: or Hoghunting: a Complete Account for Sportsmen; and others."
    (Econ, 5/18/13, p.18)(http://tinyurl.com/nod8ams)
1889        The British Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB) was founded.

1889        In New Brunswick, Canada, the Algonquin Hotel was built at the seaside resort of St. Andrews.
    (SFEC, 7/30/00, p.T5)
1889        In Canada a dispute with Manitoba on territory in northwest Ontario was settled on behalf of Ontario.
1889        In Canada a telegraph line connected Victoria to India by way of an undersea cable from Bamfield.
    (SSFC, 3/3/02, p.C8)
1889        Canada’s Bank of Nova Scotia opened a branch in Jamaica.
    (Econ, 3/29/08, p.50)

1889        In Chile the Falabella company was founded as a tailor shop by Salvatore Falabella, an Italian Chilean immigrant. By 2015 it was the largest South America department store.

1889        In Cuba Friar Jose Olallo Valdes (b.1829), a member of the Hospitaller Order of St. John of God, died. He earned the nickname, "father of the poor," by caring for the needy and chronically ill. In 2008 he was beatified in the first ceremony of its kind on Cuban soil.
    (AP, 11/30/08)

1889        In Egypt the double statue of Amenhotep III and Queen Tiye was discovered. An Italian team restored the statue after it was first unearthed, filling in the missing pieces with modern stonework. In 2011 six missing pieces from the 3,400-year-old colossal double statue were discovered on the west bank of the Nile in the southern city of Luxor.
    (AP, 1/9/11)

1889        The Ahmadiyah sect of Islam was established in India and considered its founder Mirza Ghulam Ahmad (1835-1908) to be a savior and messiah, counter to traditional Islamic teaching. By 2011 it had tens of millions of members worldwide and around 200,000 in Indonesia. Ahmadi Muslims believe in the separation of religion and the state.
    (AP, 8/9/11)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mirza_Ghulam_Ahmad)(Econ, 8/8/15, p.34)

1889        The first real constitution was promulgated for Japan.
    (Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 215)
1889        Nintendo of Japan was founded by the great-grandfather of President Hiroshi Yamauchi to produce hand-painted hanafuda playing cards decorated with flowers. A book about Nintendo was later written by David Sheff.
    (SFC, 10/11/97, p.A19)(Econ, 10/1/16, p.62)

1889        Prussia under Chancellor Otto von Bismarck adopted old-age and invalidity pensions. Prussian average life expectancy was about 45.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R25)(Econ, 6/27/09, p.18)

1889        In Russia construction began on the Metropol Hotel in Moscow. It took 6½  years to comp0leted 362-room hotel. In 2012 it was sold to Alexander Klyachin, owner of the Azimut Hotel chain, for $275.6 million.
    (SFC, 9/27/12, p.7)

1889        In southern Africa [later Rhodesia, then Zimbabwe] Cecil Rhodes and his cronies conned King Lobengula into signing away his powers over the Ndebele kingdom. Lobengula’s father, Mzilikazi, founded the Ndebele nation and was buried in the Matopos Hills.
    (WSJ, 12/9/98, p.A13)

1889        The young Ottoman army and navy officers who revolted against the despotic sultan Abdulhamid, known as the Young Turks, belonged to a secret society formed in 1889 called the Committee of Union and Progress (CUP). Members of the committee worked for the union of all the various nationalities of the Ottoman Empire into a community of citizens with equal rights and duties and progress toward constitutional government along European lines.
    (HNQ, 5/28/99)

1889-1890    Nellie Bly (1867-1922), famed muckraking reporter for the New York World, was sent on a trip around the world by Joseph Pulitzer’s New York World and completed the trip in 72 days.
    (WSJ,2/11/97, p.A20)(SFC, 4/28/97, p.B1)

1889-1890    In South Dakota, Sioux warrior Kicking Bear became the leading spokesman for the new Indian religion, the "Ghost Dance," which promised a return to ancient ways for a people disheartened by reservation life. Kicking Bear continued to resist the U.S. Army for several weeks after many of his fellow Sioux were killed in the Massacre at Wounded Knee on December 29, 1990. Kicking Bird was a Kiowa Chief. Bear’s Head was a Crow chief.
    (HNQ, 12/24/99)

1889-1893    Benjamin Harrison became the 23rd President of the US. He was quoted to say: "We Americans have no commission from God to police the world."
    (A&IP, ESM, p.96b, photo)(SFC, 7/14/96, Z1 p.2)
1889-1893    John Wanamaker, Philadelphia merchant, served as the US Postmaster-General in recognition of his services during the election campaign of 1888. He introduced the Parcel Post system.
    {Pennsylvania, USA, Postage}
1889-1893    Over a period of 42 months a string of train robberies hit the Southern Pacific Railroad in the San Joaquin Valley of California near the vicinity of Mussel Slough.
    (Smith., 5/95, p.72)

1889-1937    Prof. John Wirth (d.2002) of Stanford covered this period of Brazil in his book "Minas Gerais in the Brazilian Federation."
    (SSFC, 6/30/02, p.A29)

1889-1914    A series of small wars of position occurred in various parts of Africa and Asia minor. These little conflicts served to define frontiers and to exert pressure.

1889-1933    Gao Qifeng, artist. He was a founder of the Lingnan School, a group of artists and social activists bent on modernizing Chinese painting.
    (SFC, 4/22/97, p.D2)

1889-1944    Philip Guedalla, British writer: "History repeats itself; historians repeat each other."
    (AP, 7/24/99)

1889-1944    Thomas Midgely, Jr., chemist for General Motors. He invented the chloro-fluorocarbons and the anti-knock gasoline agent tetraethyl lead. He caught polio in early middle age and invented a harness to help himself out of bed in the morning. Early in November of 1944 he got tangled in the harness and strangled to death.
    (NOHY, Weiner, 3/90, p.47)

1889-1945     Robert Benchley, American humorist: "For a nation which has an almost evil reputation for bustle, bustle, bustle, and rush, rush, rush, we spend an enormous amount of time standing around in line in front of windows, just waiting."
    (AP, 9/18/97)

1889-1945    Emmy Esther Scheyer was a promoter and collector of the Weimar artists known as the Blue Four. In 1998 the book "The Blue Four: Feininger, Jawlensky, Kandinsky, Paul Klee" was edited by Vivian Endicott Barnett and Josef Helfenstein" to accompany an exhibition.
    (SFEC, 8/23/98, BR p.12)

1889-1950    Vaslav Nijinsky was born in Kiev, Ukraine, and died in London. He was the pre-eminent ballet artist of his day and at 20 became the protege and lover of Sergei Diaghilev. He spent some time in psychotherapy during which he made a number of abstract drawings. He went mad at age 29 and wrote a diary of his experiences.
    (SFC, 9/29/97, p.E5)

1889-1953    Edwin P. Hubble, astronomer, discovered that the more distant a galaxy seemed to be, the more its light was shifted toward the lower frequencies. This is know as the Doppler redshift, named after C.J. Doppler (1803-1853), an Austrian Physicist.
    (WUB, 1995, p.426)

1889-1961    Soetsu Yanagi, Japanese artist. The philosophically inclined aesthete and writer created the concept of folk art and promoted its taste among the Japanese.
    (SFC, 4/28/96, B-7)

1889-1964     Jawaharlal Nehru, Indian statesman: "A man who is afraid will do anything." "Our chief defect is that we are more given to talking about things than to doing them."
    (AP, 9/27/97)(AP, 12/28/97)

1889-1973    Conrad Potter Aiken, American poet, was born (Aug 5) and died (Aug 17) in Savannah, and was buried in the Boneventure Cemetery.
    (SFEC,11/30/97, p.T5)

1889-1989    In 1998 Harold Evans published "The American Century," which recounts these 100 years with illustrations.
    (SFEC, 10/11/98, Par p.19)(SFEC, 10/11/98, BR p.2)

1890        Jan 1, In Pasadena a parade of flower-decorated horse and buggies was staged. It was followed by an afternoon of public games on the "town lot" east of Los Robles between Colorado and Santa Fe. The parade was intended to resemble a version of the festival of roses in Nice, France.

1890        Jan 4, Alfred G. Jodl, German Wehrmacht general and chief of staff, was born.
    (MC, 1/4/02)

1890        Jan 7, William B. Puris patented a fountain pen.
    (MC, 1/7/02)

1890        Jan 9, Karel Capek (d.1938), Czech writer and playwright, was born. He is best remembered for his 1921 play R.U.R. which contained the first use of the word "robot."
    (Econ, 4/2/11, p.65)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Karel_%C4%8Capek)

1890        Jan 11, William Morris (1834-1896), English artist, designer and socialist pioneer, began presenting his novel “News From Nowhere." It was first published in serial form in the Commonweal journal beginning on this date.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Morris)(Econ 5/20/17, p.78)

1890        Jan 22, Fred Vinson, Thirteenth Chief Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court, was born.
    (HN, 1/22/99)
1890        Jan 22, Jose Marti formed La Liga (Union of Cuban exiles) in NYC.
    (MC, 1/22/02)

1890        Jan 25, The United Mine Workers of America was founded.
    (AP, 1/25/98)
1890        Jan 25, Reporter Nellie Bly (Elizabeth Cochrane) of the New York World received a tumultuous welcome home after she completed a round-the-world journey in 72 days, 6 hours, 11 minutes.
    (AP, 1/25/00)

1890        Feb 2, Charles Correl, "Andy" of the "Amos and Andy" radio program, was born.
    (HN, 2/2/99)

1890        Feb 10, Boris Pasternak (d.1960), Russian novelist and author, was born. His greatest novel, Dr. Zhivago, was rejected for publication in the USSR "No single man makes history. History cannot be seen, just as one cannot see grass growing." [OS][see Feb 18]
    (AP, 10/6/98)(HN, 2/10/99)
1890        Feb 10, Around 11 million acres, ceded to US by Sioux Indians, opened for settlement.
    (MC, 2/10/02)

1890        Feb 15, Robert Ley, German chemist, MP (NSDAP), was born.
    (MC, 2/15/02)

1890        Feb 18, Boris L. Pasternak, Russian poet, writer (Dr. Zhivago), was born. [ NS][see Feb 10]
    (MC, 2/18/02)

1890        Feb 28, Vaslav Nijinsky, ballet dancer (3/12 NS), was born in Kiev, Ukraine. He was the pre-eminent ballet artist of his day and at 20 became the protégé and lover of Sergei Diaghilev. He spent some time in psychotherapy during which he made a number of abstract drawings. Nijinsky died in 1950 in London. [see Mar 12]
    (SFC, 9/29/97, p.E5)(MC, 2/28/02)

1890        Feb, Charles E. Kincaid, correspondent for the Louisville Times, shot former Representative William Taulbee, a democrat from Kentucky, at the Capital during an argument over a scandal involving the lawmaker. Taulbee died ten days later.
    (SFC, 7/25/98, p.A6)

1890        Mar 1, 1st US edition of Sherlock Holmes (Study in Scarlet) was published.
    (SC, 3/1/02)

1890        Mar 9, Vyacheslav Molotov, former Soviet Prime Minister and signer of a non-aggression pact with Nazi Germany, was born.
    (HN, 3/9/99)

1890        Mar 11, Vannevar Bush was born. He developed the 1st electronic analogue computer.
    (MC, 3/12/02)

1890        Mar 12, Vasav Nijinsky (d.1950), Russian dancer, was born. He was considered the world's greatest ballet dancer. [see Feb 28]
    (HN, 3/12/99)

1890        Mar 18, The 1st US state naval militia was organized in Massachusetts.
    (MC, 3/18/02)

1890        Mar 20, Lauritz Melchior, baritone, tenor (Met Opera), was born in Copenhagen, Denmark.
    (MC, 3/20/02)
1890        Mar 20, Germany’s Kaiser Wilhelm II fired republic chancellor Otto Von Bismarck.
    (MC, 3/20/02)

1890        Mar 21, Austrian Jewish communities were defined by law.
    (MC, 3/21/02)

1890        Mar 28, Paul Whiteman, orchestra leader (Paul Whiteman's TV Teen Club), was born in Denver, Co.
    (MC, 3/28/02)

1890        Mar, In Virginia the city of Richmond signed a deed accepting a pedestal and statue of Robert E. Lee and the ground they sit on and agreed to faithfully guard and affectionately protect them. This was the first of five Confederate monuments to be erected on Richmond’s Monument Avenue, at a time when the Civil War and Reconstruction were long over, and Jim Crow racial segregation laws were on the rise. Elsewhere on the broad avenue statues to Confederate President Jefferson Davis, generals J.E.B. Stuart and Thomas “Stonewall" Jackson, and Confederate naval officer Matthew Maury were later erected.
    (AP, 6/7/20)(SFC, 6/10/20, p.A4)

1890        Apr 6, Anthony Herman Gerard Fokker (d.1939), aircraft pioneer, was born in Java.

1890        Apr 7, Marjory Stoneman Douglas, environmentalist (1st Lady of Everglades), was born.
    (MC, 4/7/02)

1890        Apr 11, Ellis Island was designated as an immigration station.
    (MC, 4/11/02)

1890        Apr 14, The First International Conference of American States met in Washington, where delegates agreed to form the International Union of American Republics, a forerunner of the Organization of American States.
    (AP, 4/14/08)

1890        Apr 25, J. Palisa discovered asteroids #291 Alice & #292 Ludovica.
    (SS, 4/25/02)

1890        May 2, The Oklahoma Territory was organized.
    (AP, 5/2/97)(HN, 5/2/98)

1890        May 5, Christopher Morley (d.1957), author-journalist (Kitty Foyle), was born. "Religion is an attempt, a noble attempt, to suggest in human terms more-than-human realities." "My theology, briefly, is that the universe was dictated but not signed." "Truth is not a diet but a condiment."
    (HN, 5/5/01)(AP, 11/1697)(AP, 11/25/98)(AP, 1/19/99)

1890        May 12, Louisiana legalized prize fighting.
    (SC, Internet, 5/12/97)

1890        May 19, Ho Chi Minh, revolutionist and leader of North Vietnam (1946-1969), was born. He fought the Japanese, French and United States to gain independence for his country.
    (HN, 5/19/99)(MC, 5/19/02)

1890        May 20, Beniamino Gigli, tenor (Enzo-La Gioconda), was born in Italy.
    (MC, 5/20/02)

1890        May 22, George Washington Steele, on appointment by Pres. Benjamin Harrison, took the oath of office as the 1st territorial governor (1890-1891) of Oklahoma.

1890        May 29, Francis de Bourguignon, composer, was born.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1890        May, Vincent van Gogh arrived in the French village of Auvers-sur-Oise, seeking a new life after a year in a mental asylum. He embarked on an explosion of creativity, producing more than 70 paintings within two months.
    (AP, 6/12/07)
1890        May, Russian writer Anton Chekov (30) traveled to Sakhalin Island, a penal colony, to survey the prisoners and publicize their conditions. The experience crystallized his political awareness. "Sakhalin Island," his account of the expedition, was published in 1893.
    (SFEC, 5/31/98, p.8)(Econ., 7/4/20, p.78)

1890         Jun 1, The US census stood at 62,622,250. The US government used the Jean Baptiste Pacard card punch to tabulate the results of the census. Herman Hollerith designed a system that used a machine with a sorter. Hollerith formed a firm that eventually became IBM.
    (DTnet, 6/1/97)(SFC, 8/5/97, p.A20)(WSJ, 10/15/01, p.R23)(WSJ, 11/12/04, p.W10)

1890        Jun 2, Hedda Hopper, gossip columnist (From Under My Hat), was born.
    (SC, 6/2/02)

1890        Jun 10, Sessue Hayakawa, Japanese actor (Bridge on River Kwai, Hell to Eternity), was born.
    (MC, 6/10/02)

1890        Jun 16, Stan Laurel (d.1965), entertainer, was born in England. He teamed up with Oliver Hardy (Laurel & Hardy) to make over 100 comedy films.
    (WUD, 1994 p.811)(HN, 6/16/01)(MC, 6/16/02)

1890        Jun 22, The SF Chronicle trumpeted its new 10-story building at Kearny and Market, the first steel-framed building in the West. It was designed by Burnham & Root of Chicago. In 1924 the Chronicle moved to its new building at Fifth and Mission. In 1962-1963 Home Mutual Savings and Loan draped the De Young Building at 690 Market in metal. In 2004 planned renovations included conversion to residential and hotel use.
    (SFC, 3/17/04, p.C4)(SFC, 8/15/05, p.C5)(SFC, 1/17/09, p.E1)

1890        cJun, Vincent Van Gogh painted his Portrait of Dr. Gachet. He described the painting in detail to his brother and sister. A 2nd portrait of Dr. Gachet, held by the Musee d'Orsay is a variant of the first and is suspected to be unfinished by Van Gogh and completed by someone else.
    (WSJ, 2/16/99, p.A20)

1890        Jul 2, Congress passed the Sherman Antitrust Act. It put some teeth into earlier antitrust law. It was initially used against labor unions and then came to be used against businesses engaged in monopolistic practices.
    (SFC, 7/8/96, p.D2)(AP, 7/2/97)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R48)

1890        Jul 3,     Idaho became the 43rd state of the US.
    (HFA, ‘96, p.32)(AP, 7/3/97)

1890        Jul 7, In Switzerland Henri Nestlé (b.1814), German-born Swiss confectioner and the founder of Nestlé, died in Montreux.

1890        Jul 10, Wyoming became the 44th state.
    (AP, 7/10/97)(HN, 7/10/98)

1890        Jul 13, John C. "Pathfinder" Fremont (76), US explorer, governor (Arizona, California), died. He was buried in obscurity in Sparkill, NY. Fremont (b.1830) was the 1st Republican presidential candidate in 1856. In 1999 David Roberts authored "A Newer World: Kit Carson, John C. Freemont and the Claiming of the American West." In 2002 Tom Chaffin authored “Pathfinder: John Charles Fremont and the Course of American Empire." In 2007 Sally Denton authored “Passion and Principle: John and Jessie Fremont, the Couple Whose Power, Politics and Love Shaped Nineteenth-Century America."
    (WUD, 1994, p.567)(SFEC, 2/13/00, BR p.5)(SSFC, 12/22/02, p.M1)(SSFC, 7/1/07, p.M1)

1890        Jul 18, Charles Wilson, Pres. of General Motors (1940-53), Sec. of Defense (1953-57), was born.
    (MC, 7/18/02)

1890        Jul 20, Theda Bara, actress (Love Goddesses), was born as Theodosia Goodman in Cincinnati.
    (MC, 7/20/02)

1890        Jul 22, Rose Kennedy, mother of President John F. Kennedy and senators Robert and Edward Kennedy, was born.
    (HN, 7/22/98)

1890        Jul 27, Artist Vincent van Gogh shot himself in Auvers-sur-Oise, France. He survived the impact, but not realizing that his injuries were to be fatal, he walked back to the Ravoux Inn. He died 2 days later.
    (Econ, 10/31/09, p.95)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vincent_van_Gogh)

1890        Jul 29, Artist Vincent van Gogh died 2 days following a self-inflicted gunshot wound in Auvers-sur-Oise, France, while painting "Wheatfield with Crows." He spent his last 70 days in the care of Dr. Gachet and 78 paintings have been attributed to this period. Earlier in the year he painted his "Garden at Auvers." In 2009 his letters were published in a 6-volume edition titled: Vincent Van Gogh: The Letters." Earlier editions had appeared in 1914 and 1958. In 2011 Steven Naifeh and Gregory White Smith authored “Van Gogh: The Life."
    (WSJ, 2/8/96, p.A-12)(SFC, 5/26/96, Z1 p.2)(WSJ, 2/16/99, p.A20)(AP, 7/29/07)(Econ, 10/31/09, p.95)(Econ, 11/5/11, p.102)

1890        Aug 5, Erich Kleiber, conductor (NBC Symphony 1945-46), was born in Vienna, Austria.
    (MC, 8/5/02)

1890        Aug 6, Cy Young gained the first of his 511 major league victories as he pitched the Cleveland Spiders to a win over the Chicago Colts. However, the score is a matter of dispute, with some sources saying 6-1, and others saying 8-1.
    (AP, 8/6/07)
1890        Aug 6, Convicted murderer William Kemmler became the 1st person to be executed in the electric chair. He was put to death at Auburn State Prison in New York for murdering his lover, Matilda Ziegler, with an axe. In 2003 Jill Jonnes authored "Empires of Light," and account of how Edison, Tesla and Westinghouse brought electric power to public use. In 2003 Mark Essig authored "Edison and the Electric Chair: A Story of Light and Death."
    (AP, 8/6/97)(HN, 8/6/98)(MC, 8/6/02)(WSJ, 8/19/03, p.D5)(Econ, 9/20/03, p.81)

1890        Aug 8, Daughters of American Revolution (DAR) organized. [see Oct 11]
    (MC, 8/8/02)

1890        Aug 11, Cardinal John Henry Newman (b.1801), a prominent Anglican convert, died in England.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Henry_Newman)(AP, 2/13/19)

1890        Aug 12, Al Goodman Nikopol, orchestra leader (NBC Comedy Hour), was born in Russia.
    (SC, 8/12/02)

1890        Aug 14, Rev. Michael McGivney (b.1852), founder of the Knights of Columbus, died in Connecticut of pneumonia. In 2020 he was beatified in a step to possible sainthood.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Knights_of_Columbus)    (SFC, 11/2/20, p.A)

1890        Aug 15, Jacques Ibert, composer (Escales), was born in Paris, France.
    (MC, 8/15/02)

1890        Aug 17, Harry Hopkins, organized the Works Projects Administration (WPA) under President Roosevelt, was born.
    (HN, 8/17/98)

1890        Aug 20, H.P. Lovecraft (d.1937), author of horror tales, was born in Providence, RI.
    (HN, 8/20/98)(SSFC, 2/27/05, p.B1)

1890        Aug 21, Bill Henry, newscaster (Who Said That?), was born in SF, Calif.
    (SC, 8/21/02)

1890        Aug 24, Jean Rhys, author of "Wild Sargasso Sea," was born.
    (HN, 8/24/00)

1890        Aug 27, Man Ray (d.1976) was born as Emmanuel Radinski in Philadelphia, Pa. A painter and photographer, he and Marcel Duchamp founded the Dadaism movement.
    (Reuters, 8/28/01)

1890        Sep 1, The 1st baseball tripleheader was between Boston and Pittsburgh.
    (SC, 9/1/02)

1890        Sep 9, Colonel Harland Sanders (d.1980), originator of Kentucky Fried Chicken fast-food restaurants, was born in Henryville, Ind.
    (HN, 9/9/98)(www.born-today.com/Today/09-09.htm)

1890        Sep 10, Franz Werfel, author (40 Days of Musa Dagh), was born in Austria.
    (MC, 9/10/01)

1890        Sep 13, Cecil Rhodes' colonies hoisted the Union Jack in Mashonaland and Salisbury.
    (MC, 9/13/01)

1890        Sep 15, Agatha Christie, English writer of mystery novels, was born. Her books included "Death on the Nile" and "And Then There Were None."
    (HN, 9/15/99)
1890        Sep 15, Claude McKay, poet and novelist, was born. He was part of the Harlem Renaissance.
    (HN, 9/15/00)

1890        Sep 25, President Benjamin Harrison signed a measure establishing Sequoia National Park. Sequoia National Park, the nation’s 2nd oldest, was created by Congress. The army was assigned park patrol duty.
    (AP, 9/25/99)(SFC, 7/21/96, p.T3)(SFC, 2/1/03, p.A15)
1890        Sep 25, Congress established California’s Yosemite National Park.
    (MC, 9/25/01)
1890        Sep 25, Wilford Woodruff, president of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, issued a Manifesto formally renouncing the practice of polygamy. The Mormons renounced the practice of polygamy after six decades in exchange for statehood for Utah. Smith’s revelation that God authorized polygamy remained in Article 132 of the church’s Doctrine and Covenants.
    (SFC, 8/6/98, p.A11)(NW, 9/10/01, p.48)(SSFC, 2/25/07, p.A4)(AP, 9/25/07)

1890        Oct 1, Congress created the Weather Bureau.
    (MC, 10/1/01)
1890        Oct 1, Congress passed the McKinley Tariff Act, which raised tariffs to a record level.
    (AP, 10/1/97)
1890        Oct 1, Yosemite National Park, created by Congress, was dedicated in California.
    (SFEC, 5/18/97, Z1 p.4)(HN, 10/1/98)

1890        Oct 2, Julius Henry "Groucho" Marx (d.1977), American comedian, was born. Although there is some discrepancy about the exact date, Groucho was most likely born on this date in New York. He later went on to host the television quiz show "You Bet Your Life." He began singing as a boy and then performed wisecracking comedy on stage and screen with his brothers (Chico, Harpo, Zeppo and Gummo). Groucho also had radio shows, wrote books and screenplays, and became the most famous Marx Brother for his mustached, cigar-smoking persona and lines like, "I sent the club a wire stating, ‘please accept my resignation. I don’t want to belong to any club that will accept me as a member.’" "There’s one way to find out if a man is honest—ask him. If he says ‘yes,’ you know he is crooked." Groucho Marx died in 1977.
    (SFEC, 5/25/97, p.C15)(HNPD, 10/2/98)(AP, 10/2/97)

1890         Oct 8, Edward Vernon Rickenbacker (d.1973) was born in Columbus, Ohio. He became America’s "Ace of Aces" in World War I with more than 20 kills. Rickenbacker was already a famous race car driver when he entered World War I at age 28. Although he was considered too old to become an aviator, "Rick," ultimately won the Medal of Honor for his wartime exploits. "If a thing is old, it is a sign that it was fit to live. ... The guarantee of continuity is quality."
    (HNPD, 10/7/98)(AP, 10/8/98)(HN, 10/8/98)

1890        Oct 11, The Daughters of the American Revolution (DAR) was founded in Washington, D.C.
    (AP, 10/11/97)

1890        Oct 13, Conrad Richter, novelist and short story writer, was born.
    (HN, 10/13/00)

1890        Oct 14, Dwight D. Eisenhower, 34th president of the United States, was born in Denison, Texas.
    (AP, 10/14/97)(HN, 10/14/98)

1890        Oct 16, Michael Collins (d.1922), Irish revolutionist, was born.
    (MC, 10/16/01)

1890        Oct 19, Richard Francis Burton (b.1821), explorer, British consul, translator, died. In 1893 Lady Burton published a biography of her late husband.

1890        Oct 23, Borodin's Opera "Prince Igor" was produced posthumously in St. Petersburg.
    (MC, 10/23/01)

1890        Oct 26, Collodi, [Carlo Lorenzini], Italian writer (Pinocchio), died.
    (MC, 10/26/01)

1890        Oct 30, Japan’s Emperor Meiji issued the Imperial Rescript on Education to illustrate the moral principles that each citizen was to follow. It was revoked in 1948.
    (www.danzan.com/HTML/ESSAYS/meiji.html)(Econ, 1/22/05, p.39)(Econ, 4/15/17, p.36)

1890        Oct, Dr. William Penny Brookes (81) met Baron Pierre de Coubertin (27) of France, widely regarded as the founder of the modern Olympics, over several hours at the Raven Hotel in Much Wenlock, England. The two spoke about de Coubertin's wish to stage an international Olympic festival in Athens.
    (AP, 7/1/11)
1890        Oct, Ludovic Napoleon Lepic (b.1839), French Impressionist painter, died. His work included “Boats on the Beach at Berck" (1876).
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ludovic-Napol%C3%A9on_Lepic)(SFC, 6/1/13, p.E2)   

1890        Nov 8, Cesar-Auguste Franck (67), Belgian organist and composer (Symphony in D), died.
    (MC, 11/8/01)

1890        Nov 11, D. McCree patented a portable fire escape.
    (MC, 11/11/01)

1890        Nov 22, Charles de Gaulle (d.1970), French general and president (1958-1969), was born in Lille, France. "Nothing great will ever be achieved without great men, and men are great only if they are determined to be so."
    (AP, 11/22/97)(AP, 11/22/98)(HN, 11/22/98)

1890        Nov 23, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg separated from the Netherlands.
    (AP, 11/23/02)

1890        Nov 29, The first Army-Navy football game was played, at West Point, New York. Navy defeated Army by a score of 24-to-nothing.
    (AP, 11/29/00)
1890        Nov 29, The Imperial Diet, forerunner of Japan's national legislature, opened its first session, four days after its members were summoned by Emperor Meiji.
    (AP, 11/29/99)

1890        Dec 4, Ben Tillman (1847-1918) began serving as the 84th governor of South Carolina and continued to 1894. From 1895 he served as a United States Senator until his death. Tillman led a paramilitary group of Red Shirts during South Carolina's violent 1876 election. On the floor of the US Senate, he frequently ridiculed blacks, and boasted of having helped to kill them during that campaign.

1890        Dec 5, Fritz Lang (d.1976), film director, was born. His work included "Metropolis," "M," and "The Big Heat."
    (WSJ, 4/3/00, p.A46)(HN, 12/5/00)
1890        Dec 5, Berlioz' opera "Les Troyens," premiered in Karlsruhe.
    (MC, 12/5/01)

1890        Dec 10, The New York World Building, also known as the Pulitzer Building, was completed in NYC. It was designed by early skyscraper specialist George Browne Post and built to house the now-defunct newspaper, The New York World. It was razed in 1955 for the expanded car ramp entrance to the Brooklyn Bridge.
    (Econ., 3/28/15, p.80)
1890        Dec 10, Spencer M. Clark (b.1811) died. He was the first Superintendent of the US National Currency Bureau, today known as the Bureau of Printing and Engraving, from 1862 to 1868.

1890        Dec 13, Marc Connelly, playwright, actor, director and journalist (The Green Pastures), was born.
    (HN, 12/13/00)   

1890        Dec 15, Sioux Indian Chief Sitting Bull and 11 other tribe members were killed in Grand River, S.D., during a fracas with Indian police [US troops]. In an attempt to arrest Sitting Bull at his Standing Rock, South Dakota, cabin, shooting broke out and Lt. Bullhead shot the great Sioux leader. The killing of Indian leader Sitting Bull was one factor that led to the Wounded Knee Massacre on the Pine Ridge Reservation in South Dakota. The reservation was left in disarray when Sioux leader Sitting Bull was killed by Indian police.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1680)(AP, 12/15/97)(HN, 12/15/98)(HNQ, 1/5/99)

1890        Dec 18, Edwin Howard Armstrong, radio pioneer and inventor of FM, was born in NYC.
    (MC, 12/18/01)

1890        Dec 19, Start of Sherlock Holmes "Adventure of Beryl Coronet."
    (MC, 12/19/01)

1890        Dec 26, Heinrich Schliemann (86), German businessman and archaeologist, died. He excavated the site of ancient Troy in 1870-1871.
    (NH, 4/96, p.48)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heinrich_Schliemann)

1890        Dec 28, As Big Foot, another Sioux leader, led his tribe away from the reservation they were surrounded by 7th Cavalry troops at Wounded Knee Creek. The next morning, when the cavalry tried to disarm the Sioux, shots rang out and during the next 6 hours, 146 Sioux men, women and children, including Big Foot, were killed. The 7th Cavalry lost 30 killed.
    (HNQ, 1/5/99)

1890        Dec 29, The last major conflict of the Indian wars took place at Wounded Knee Creek in South Dakota after Colonel James W. Forsyth of the 7th Cavalry tried to disarm Chief Big Foot and his followers. Seventy-year-old Sioux chief Big Foot was killed by the 7th U.S. Cavalry during the massacre at Wounded Knee on December 29, 1890. Three days later his body was found frozen where he had been killed. The South Dakota reservation had been left in disarray when Sioux leader Sitting Bull was killed by Indian police on December 15, and as Big Foot led his tribe away from the reservation on December 28, they were surrounded by 7th Cavalry troops. The next morning, when the cavalry tried to disarm the Sioux, shots broke out and during the next 6 hours, 146 Sioux men, women and children were killed. The 7th Cavalry lost 30 killed. The Wounded Knee massacre took place in South Dakota as some 300 Sioux Indians were killed by U.S. troops sent to disarm them.
    (HFA, '96, p.44)(AP, 12/29/97)(HN, 12/29/98)(HNPD, 12/29/98)

1890        Dec 31, Ellis Island, NYC, opened as a US immigration depot.
    (MC, 12/31/01)

1890        Leon Frederic, Belgian painter, began his work "The Stream," a vast triptych of thousands of naked babies frolicking in water. He completed it in 1899.
    (WSJ, 2/16/00, p.A14)

1890        French artist Cezanne began his still-life painting "Still Life with a Ginger jar and Eggplants." He also created his watercolor "Tree Study."
    (WSJ, 6/4/97, p.A16)(WSJ, 2/6/00, p.A16)
1890        Claude Monet painted his celebrated "Meules" (Haystacks) series. In 2019 one of four from this series fetched $110.7 million in a Sotheby’s auction, a record for the French Impressionist master.
    (AFP, 5/15/19)(SFC, 6/12/19, p.A6)
1890        French artist Claude Monet painted "Field of Poppies."
    (SFC, 7/11/01, p.D1)
1890        French artist Henri Rousseau (1844-1910) brought to the Salon of the Independents his full-length self-portrait entitled: Myself, Portrait-Landscape.
    (ON, 8/08, p.8)
1890        Paul Signac (1863-1935), French neo-impressionist pointillist painter, began his work "Portrait of Felix Feneon, Opus 217" (1890-1891).
    (WSJ, 11/6/01, p.A24)
1890        Van Gogh painted "A Woman from Arles" shortly before his suicide. He also painted "Thatched Huts of Cordeville."
    (SFC, 5/21/98, p.A14)(SFC, 5/25/99, p.C1)

1890        Alfred Sisley painted "The Alley of the Poplars." In 1998 it was stolen from the French Fine Arts Museum of Nice.
    (SFC, 9/22/98, p.B7)

1890        Daisy Ashford (9) wrote a novel for her ailing mother titled “The Young Visiters." Discovered 29 years later, it was turned into a real book and became a British classic.
    (SFC, 11/1/04, p.E1)

1890        L. Frank Baum (1856-1919) campaigned for an American Indian genocide. In an article for the Aberdeen Saturday Pioneer of South Dakota He wrote: “Why not annihilation? Their glory has fled, their spirit broken, their manhood effaced; it’s better that they should die than live the miserable wretches that they are." In 1919 Baum authored “The Wonderful World of Oz."
    (SFC, 2/7/15, p.A7)

1890        Agnes M. Clerke published "System of the Stars," a popular work on astronomy.
    (NH, 10/98, p.87)

1890        Joseph Conrad published "Lord Jim."
    (WSJ, 4/24/98, p.W1)

1890        Arthur Conan Doyle’s 2nd Sherlock Holmes novel, “The Sign of Four," was published.
    (ON, 3/06, p.11)

1890        George Grove published a 4-volume compilation of musical knowledge.
    (SSFC, 3/18/01, DB p.49)

1890        William James authored his 2-volume work: “The Principles of Psychology."
    (WSJ, 2/23/08, p.W8)

1890        Alfred Thayer Mahan (1840-1914), American Navy officer, authored “The Influence of Sea Power Upon History: 1660-1783."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alfred_Thayer_Mahan)(Econ, 6/13/09, p.48)

1890        Alfred Marshall, English economist, published his "Principles of Economics," considered the bible of British economics. He stressed that the output and price of a good are determined by supply as well as demand.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R20)

1890        Jacob A. Riis (1849-1914), Danish-born author and photographer, published “How the Other Half Lives: Studies Among the Tenements of New York."
    (ON, 3/03, p.7)(www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAriis.htm)

1890        Leo Tolstoy wrote his novel "The Kreutzer Sonata."
    (WUD, 1994, p.795)

1890        P.I. Tchaikovsky composed his opera "Queen of Spades." It was first performed in St. Petersburg at the Marinsky theater.
    (BFST, 1937, p.473)

1890        The first production of "Sleeping Beauty" was made.
    (SFEC, 8/17/97, DB p.48)

1890        The gospel railroad song: "Life’s a Railway to Heaven," was first published.
    (WSJ, 8/21/97, p.A12)

1890        The Literary Digest, a US general-interest weekly, was founded.
    (WSJ, 10/2/06, p.B1)

1890        The Michigan Daily, a campus newspaper at U of M, began publishing.
    (MT, Fall. ‘97, p.18)

1890        William Sheppard (b.1865 in Virginia) left the US for missionary work in Congo. In 2002 Pagan Kennedy authored "Black Livingstone: A True Tale of African Adventure."
    (SSFC, 2/3/02, p.M1)

1890        The Century Magazine published "Ranch and Mission Days in Alta California" by Guadalupe Vallejo, niece of Gen. Mariano Vallejo.
    (SFC, 11/21/03, p.I14)
1890        In San Francisco the James Lick Baths were completed at 165 10th St. Its walls and tower were ravaged by the 1906 earthqauke and it was rebuilt in a smaller style. In 1920 it became a laundry and in 1978 was converted to office space.
    (SSFC, 3/1/15, p.C2)
1890        The Thatcher Hotel, later the Hopland Inn, was built in Hopland, Ca.
    (SSFC, 8/18/02, p.C1)
1890        In California Katherine Layne Curran and Townshend S. Brandegee founded the botanical journal, Zoe.
    (PacDis, Winter ’97, p.26)
1890        The Native Sons of the Golden West dedicated the John [James Wilson] Marshall (d.1885) Monument on a hill overlooking Coloma, for the man who discovered gold in California.
    (SFEC, 7/6/97, p.T3)
1890        The Dominican College of San Rafael was founded. It was associated with women’s education until 1971, when a transition to accept males was completed under Sister M. Samuel Conlan (d.2004).
    (SFEC, 3/15/98, p.W21)(SFC, 7/14/04, p.B7)
1890        Lincoln, a railhead in the Sierra foothills, was incorporated.
    (SFC, 4/25/03, A22)
1890        The town of Rodeo, just south of the Carquinez Strait, was named.
    (SFC, 10/22/03, p.A23)
1890        The California state Supreme Court ruled that Hong Yen Chang (1859-1926), a lawyer licensed in New York state, was ineligible for the California bar because he was “a person of Mongolian ancestry." In 2015 the state Senate passed a unanimous resolution calling for Chang’s admission to the bar and the State Bar granted Chang honorary membership.
    (SFC, 3/17/15, p.A7)
1890        The Sunset oil field in Kern County, California, and the Coalinga field in Fresno County were discovered.
    (SSFC, 10/29/06, p.F6)
1890        In California the first opossums were released by humans in Los Angeles County about this time. Tow more releases were documented in 1910 and 1924.
    (SFC, 11/26/08, p.G3)
1890        In San Francisco the State Belt Railroad began operating in the warehouse district along the northeast waterfront. In 1914 the line was extended several miles west through a tunnel under Fort Mason. In 1917 track was laid into the Presidio. The railroad was taken over by a private investor in 1973 and closed for good in 1993.
    (SFC, 10/25/14, p.C1)

1890        Unable to raise the money to promote Aunt Jemima pancake mix, Chris L. Rutt and his associates sold their company to R.T. Davis Mill and Manufacturing Company, which promoted the new product at the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago in 1893. The company hired Nancy Green (1834-1923), a famous African-American cook born in Montgomery County, Kentucky, to play the part of Aunt Jemima and demonstrate the pancake mix. Green was killed in an auto accident in 1923. In 1917, Aunt Jemima was redrawn as a smiling, heavy-set black housekeeper with a bandanna wrapped around her head.  The company brought on a black woman, Anna Robinson, to portray Aunt Jemima starting in 1933. The character was later portrayed by actress Aylene Lewis in the 1950s and 60s. PepsiCo acquired the Quaker Oats Company and the Aunt Jemima brand in 2001.
    (www.toptags.com/aama/bio/women/ngreen.htm)(Good Morning America, 6/17/20)(NY Times, 7/19/20)
1890        In Chicago Henry C. Niemann organized the H.C. Niemann & Co. to make tables. In 1909 the company moved to the 1800 block of Rockwell Street. It closed in 1929.
    (SFC, 5/14/08, p.G6)

1890        The Louisiana state Legislature passed the Louisiana Separate Car Act, which called for railroad companies to provide equal but separate accommodations for white and colored races.
    (SFC, 5/12/96, p.A-6)(ON, 11/03, p.5)

1890        Mississippi passed a new racist constitution and set the pattern for Black disenfranchisement “based on the perception of blacks as by nature inferior and ignorant and hence unfit to vote." An arsenal of Jim Crow-style measures -- from literacy tests to poll taxes -- ultimately erased recently gained Black political power.
    (SFCM, 2/11/01, p.12)(Econ 7/15/17, p.28)(Good Morning America, 9/27/20)

1890        Frank and Charles Menches included a recipe for the first known chopped-beef sandwich called a "hamburger." They named it after the town of Hamburg, N.Y.
    (SFC, 6/6/98, p.E3)

1890        Kenton Hardware Manufacturing Co. was founded in Kenton, Ohio, to make locks. Within a few year the company began making toys.
    (SFC, 5/28/08, p.G2)

c1890        Golf balls began to be made of a rubber thread wound around a solid rubber core.
    (SFEC, 6/14/98, p.A12)

1890        John Montgomery Ward led baseball player to form the Players League in opposition to the National League. The league lasted a year. In 1999 Bryan Di Salvatore authored "A Clever Base-Ballist: The Life and Times of John Montgomery Ward."
    (SFEC, 10/3/99, BR p.4)

1890        The US census categorized the population as "White, Black, Mulatto, Quadroon, Octoroon, Chinese, Japanese, and Indian."
    (SFC,12/26/97, p.A21)

1890        The US government sold its buildings at Fort Laramie and the site fell into disrepair until rescued by the National Park Service.
    (HT, 3/97, p.43)

1890        The US Bureau of Census declared that there was no longer any difference between "frontier" and "settlements."
    (SFC, 6/12/99, p.B3)

1890        A tradition of rivalry began between the Army and Navy Academies.
    (WSJ, 12/9/96, p.A12)

1890        The US Board of Geographic Names began a primitive database of US place names.
    (SFEC, 8/11/96, p.A20)

1890        Mary Harris Jones (aka Mother Jones) helped organize the United Mine Workers with the slogan "Join the union, boys."
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R25)

1890        A Congress of world Socialist parties selected May 1 as Int'l. Workers Day to support the US labor struggle.
    (SFEC, 5/2/99, p.C7)

1890        Israel C. Russell, sponsored by the National Geographic Society, returned from an expedition to Mt. St. Elias, Alaska, with fossil bearing rocks.
    (NG, 12/97, p.1)

1890        The railroad arrived to St. Michaels on the Chesapeake Bay.
    (SMBA, 1996)

1890        The Canton Art Metal Co. was founded [may be 1880] and specialized in institutional furniture designed to last longer than wood furniture.
    (SFC, 4/1/98, Z1 p.7)

1890        American Tobacco was formed by James B. Duke as a consolidation of the principal cigarette factories in the US.
    (WSJ, 5/28/96, p. R-45)

1890        Distilling and Cattle Feeding company was formed as a successor to the Distillers and Cattle Feeders Trust. It was broken up in the late 1890s and a handful of operations continued under the umbrella of American Spirits Manufacturing Co.
    (WSJ, 5/28/96, p. R-45)

1890        North American Co. was formed and controlled street railways, natural gas and electricity businesses up to 1955.
    (WSJ, 5/28/96, R45)

1890        The Orinoco Furniture Company was started by the Rohminger brothers in Columbus, Indiana. It was sold in 2 years to a group headed by Harvey Lincoln. The Lincoln Chair Co. went out of business in the 1930s.
    (SFC, 1/29/97, Z1 p.2)

1890        The Pacific Coast Borax Company, a United States mining company, was founded by the American borax magnate Francis Marion Smith.

1890        Cook, Baker & Co was founded in Allegan, Mich., to make wood architectural products. The name changed to Baker & Co. in 1903 and later to Baker Furniture Inc. In 1986 it became part of Kohler Co. of Kohler, Wis.
    (SFC, 12/5/07, p.G2)

1890        Parker Brothers introduced its board game Across the Continent. The game was re-released a number of times until 1952.
    (SFC, 6/25/08, p.G3)

1890        Roseville Pottery did business in Roseville and Zanesville, Ohio, from 1890 to 1954.
    (SFC, 9/20/06, p.G3)

1890        The Royal Dutch Petroleum Co. was founded.
    (WSJ, 11/2/04, p.A14)

1890        The Westmoreland Glass Co. began making glass containers in Grapeville, Pa. Operations continued to 1984.
    (SFC, 7/11/07, p.G4)

1890        The tuberculin skin test (TST or Mantoux) was developed.
    (SFC, 3/24/04, p.B9)

1890        The star T Pyxidis flared up as a recurrent novae. It recurred in 1902 and 1960.
    (SCTS, p.1182)

1890        The population of Chicago was nearly one million people.
    (Hem., 7/95, p.77)
1890        The population of NYC at this time was about 1.2 million with some 37,000 living in tenements.
    (WSJ, 8/25/08, p.A11)
1890        The population of US buffalo was reduced to 1,000.
    (NH, 12/96, p.10)

1890        Eugene Schieffelin, a German immigrant, released 40 pairs of European starlings in NYC’s Central Park. By 1959 the birds reached the Pacific coast. To honor his new homeland he had attempted to release every species of bird mentioned in the plays of Shakespeare. In 2002 the starling population in North America exceeded 200 million.
    (HNQ, 5/1/02)(AH, 6/02, p.42)

1890        Mt. Logan, Canada’s highest peak, was discovered by I.C. Russell on the first expedition sponsored by the National Geographic Society.
    (NG, Nov. 1985, B.C. Bishop, p.657)

1890        Woodsmen marched west to Minnesota clearing forests of white pine, yellow birch, hemlock, maple, and oak.
    (NOHY, Weiner, 3/90, p.51)

1890        Junius Morgan, father of J. Pierpont Morgan, died and left his son in charge of both the London and New York Morgan firms.
    (WSJ, 3/30/99, p.A24)

1890        John T. Wood, archeologist, died at age 69. In 1869 he discovered the Temple of Artemis in Ephesus, Turkey, built in 323BC. He authored "Discoveries at Ephesus" in 1877.
    (ON, 11/00, p.5)

1890        Argentina defaulted on its foreign debt and caused a near-collapse to Barings Bank.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R48)

1890        A conference in Brussels gave Rwanda and Burundi to the German Empire as colonial spheres of interest in exchange for renouncing all claims on Uganda.

1890        James F. Wiltshaw and brothers J.A. Robinson and W.H. Robinson founded their Wiltshaw & Robinson pottery in Staffordshire, England. Their pieces were marked “Carlton Ware," which became the company’s name in 1958. In 1973 it began producing “Walking Ware." In 1989 the company went into receivership.
    (SFC, 3/21/07, p.G2)
1890        Britain ceded the island of Heligoland to Germany in exchange for a free hand in the former slave-trading sultanate of Zanzibar.
    (Econ, 2/18/17, p.69)
1890        In England Jenny Pipes, convicted of being a scold, was sentenced to public humiliation and underwent ducking in the Kenwater river by order of the Magistrates. This was the last recorded use of the ducking stool, in which the victim was strapped to a stool and plunged into water.
    (WSJ, 1/18/08, p.W10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tumbrel)
1890        Use of the brand name Royal Enfield was licensed by the Crown. The Enfield Cycle Company made motorcycles, bicycles, lawnmowers and stationary engines under the name Royal Enfield out of its works based at Redditch, Worcestershire. The legacy of weapons manufacture is reflected in the logo comprising the cannon, and the motto "Made like a gun." The first Royal Enfield motorcycle was built in 1901. The Redditch factory ceased production in 1967 and the Bradford-on-Avon factory closed in 1970, which meant the end of the British Royal Enfield.
    (https://tinyurl.com/yczjtpe3)(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Royal_Enfield)(Econ., 11/14/20, p.60)
1890        China’s city of Peking (later Beijing) experienced another major flood.
    (Econ, 7/28/12, p.37)

1890        French artist Cezanne began his still-life painting "Still Life with a Ginger jar and Eggplants." He also created his watercolor "Tree Study."
    (WSJ, 6/4/97, p.A16)(WSJ, 2/6/00, p.A16)
1890        Claude Monet painted his celebrated "Meules" (Haystacks) series. In 2019 one of four from this series fetched $110.7 million in a Sotheby’s auction, a record for the French Impressionist master.
    (AFP, 5/15/19)(SFC, 6/12/19, p.A6)
1890        French artist Claude Monet painted "Field of Poppies."
    (SFC, 7/11/01, p.D1)
1890        French artist Henri Rousseau (1844-1910) brought to the Salon of the Independents his full-length self-portrait entitled: Myself, Portrait-Landscape.
    (ON, 8/08, p.8)
1890        Paul Signac (1863-1935), French neo-impressionist pointillist painter, began his work "Portrait of Felix Feneon, Opus 217" (1890-1891).
    (WSJ, 11/6/01, p.A24)
1890        French foreign legionnaires massacred the amazonian army of Dahomey (Benin).
    (Econ, 12/18/04, p.62)
1890        The French restaurant Tour d’Argent began numbering its servings of Caneton Tour d’Argent, a meal of pressed duck.
    (WSJ, 5/15/96, p.A-12)

1890        August Kuehne and Friedrich Nagel founded the forwarding and commissioning business in 1890 in Bremen, northern Germany, concentrating on cotton and consolidated freight. By 2006 the company was a world leader in arranging seaborne cargo.
    (www.kn-portal.com/about/)(Econ, 6/17/06, Survey p.12)
1890        German Kaiser Wilhelm II ended Bismarck’s secret Reinsurance treaty with Russia. This helped drive Russia into the arms of France.
    (Econ, 10/25/14, p.84)

1890        The Home Rule movement of the Irish Nationalist Party led by Charles Stewart Parnell was set back when his love affair with Katherine O’Shea was revealed in the London Times.
    (WSJ, 9/3/96, p.A14)

1890        The Ecole Biblique of Jerusalem, a research center for Biblical and archeological studies, was founded.
    (WSJ, 8/28/01, p.A12)
1890        In Jerusalem a small tract known as Sergei's Courtyard, named for Grand Duke Sergei Alexandrovich, a son of Czar Alexander III, was built. It became part of the larger Russian Compound, most of which Israel purchased in 1964, when Israel paid $3.5 million in oranges because it lacked hard currency. In 2008 Israel approved handing back Sergei's Courtyard to Russia. The actual transfer took place in 2011.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russian_Compound)(AP, 10/7/08)(AP, 3/21/11)

1890        An agreement between colonial powers stipulated the border between Malawi and Tanzania as lying along the Tanzanian shore of the waters of Lake Malawi.
    (AFP, 7/31/12)

1890        Philippine brewer San Miguel began making beer.
    (WSJ, 4/9/09, p.B1)

1890        A metalic likeness of Catherine the Great was erected in Simferepol, the capital of Crimea, to commemorate the century of Catherine's capture of the peninsula. It was torn down after the Russian revolution.
    (Econ, 6/8/19, p.48)
1890         The Shigir Idol, a nine-foot-tall totem pole, was dug out of a peat bog by gold miners near Kirovgrad, Russia. In 2014 advanced technology yielded a remarkably early origin: roughly 11,600 years ago, a time when Eurasia was still transitioning out of the last ice age.
    (NY Times, 3/23/21)
1890        The Marxist Armenian Revolutionary Federation, called the Dashnaks, was founded in the Russian Empire, in Tiflis (Georgia).

1890        Bobsled racing was introduced at St. Moritz, Switz.
    (SSFC, 1/23/05, p.E14)

1890s    William Vanderbilt spent some $3-11 million on his Marble House in Newport, R.I.
    (WSJ, 10/25/96, p.B10)

1890s    The US federal government purchase Plum Island, located off the tip of Long Island. It was used as a fort during both world wars. An Army project for conversion to a biological warfare lab was later halted and the island was turned over to the Agriculture Dept.
    (WSJ, 1/8/02, p.A8)

1890s    The great land runs in the US continued.
    (SFC, 4/14/96, T-6)

1890s    A rash of violent mining strikes began in the West. Strikes in Colorado and Idaho were led by the ultra-militant Western Federation of Miners.
    (SFC, 10/7/97, p.A20)

1890s    A $5 silver note called "Electricity" that showed a scantily clad female holding a light bulb was taken out of circulation due to the drapery falling so low below her waist.
    (SFC, 4/30/97, p.B3)

1890s    Beeman’s Chewing Gum came out as a heartburn remedy.
    (SFC, 6/30/96, Zone 1 p.5)

1890s    Peanut Butter was invented for people with missing teeth.
    (SFEC, 4/25/99, Z1 p.8)

1890s    In New Bern N.C., Pharmacist Caleb Bradham produced Brad’s drink, a mixture of syrup and soda water, as a digestive aid and energy booster. It became a hit and was renamed in 1898 to Pepsi-Cola. The story of Pepsi, "Pepsi, 100 Years" was later written by Bob Stoddard of Upland, Ca.
    (SFC, 2/18/98, p.B2)

1890s    Turquoise Mountain, a sacred place for native Americans in Arizona, was rediscovered by Anglo prospectors, who then mined the semi-precious stone for over the next 50 years.
    (SFC, 7/20/96, p.A7)

1890s    Pierce's disease, spread by the glassy-winged sharpshooter, destroyed the Southern California grape industry.
    (SFC, 9/1/99, Z1 p.4)(SFC, 5/20/00, p.A3)

1890s    In Africa a great rinderpest, a virus-caused distemper in cattle, occurred. Millions of animals died including nearly 80% of all livestock. It raged across Africa till the 1930s.
    (NH, 6/96, p.16)

1890s    Cultured pearls were developed in Japan.
    (WSJ, 5/14/96, p.A-17)

1890s    In Malaysia a tin rush was on and the elite gathered at the Royal Selangor Club in Kuala Lumpur.
    (SFEC, 8/3/97, p.T3)

1890s    British settlers led by Cecil Rhodes marched north from South Africa and appropriated vast stretches of arable land. The Shangaani people, a hunting tribe, were gradually forced to become poachers after the British took control.
    (SFC, 3/28/98, p.A12)(SFC, 8/10/98, p.A14)

1890s    A rail line was established between Nairobi and Mombasa, Kenya, and became the Lunatic Express from media speculation that the planners were insane.
    (SSFC, 12/22/02, p.C4)

1890-1891    Paul Gauguin created his painting "Loss of Virginity."
    (WSJ, 4/12/04, p.D8)

1890-1892    Cezanne painted his oil on canvas: "Card Players." It is part of the Dr. Barnes collection and on the Corbis CD. [see 1972-1951, Barnes]
    (Civil., Jul-Aug., ‘95, p.85)

1890-1895    George Washington Vanderbilt built his Biltmore Estate, a 250-room mansion on 125,000 acres overlooking the Blue Ridge Mountains. Richard Morris Hunt designed the home.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R37)

1890-1899    Two conspiratorial traditions crystallized into their current form in Russia in the 1890s. Two publications had a key role: On the right, the czar’s secret police forged "The Protocols of the Elders of Zion," the standard text of anti-Semitism; on the left, Lenin produced his main theoretical writings on imperialism.
    (WSJ, 4/26/95, p.A-16)

1890-1900    Black River Falls, Wisc., was plagued by a series of suicides, murders, financial ruin and bizarre eruptions of violence. These events were described in the 1973 book "Wisconsin Death Trip" by Michael Lesy. In 2000 a documentary film was completed based on the book and this period.
    (SFC, 1/2/02, p.D1)

1890-1900    Australia experienced a big drought that caused a major retreat and reassessment by farmers.
    (AP, 5/24/05)

c1890-1910     Jim Crow, the regime of legalized segregation, exclusion and disenfranchisement of black people in the US, hardened into place.
    (WSJ, 6/12/01, p.A20)

1890-1912    In France a 151-km. private railroad was constructed from Nice to Digne above the River Var. It was brought under state control in 1933 and again privatized in 1972.
    (Hem., 1/97, p.116)

1890-1917    Some 2-3 black southerners were hanged, burned at the stake, or quietly murdered every week to enforce deference and submission to whites.
    (SFEC, 4/19/98, BR p.4)

1890-1930    The California Plein Air movement in art was based in outdoor scenes that captured the state’s colors and light. Later Ruth Lilly Westphall edited "Plein Air Painters of California."
    (SFEC, 8/9/98, p.B6)

1890-1930    This period marks the 3rd Great Awakening in America according to Robert Fogel of the Univ. of Chicago, who argued that America is undergoing its fourth religious revival and that it started about 1960. This is from his Bradley lecture at the American Enterprise Institute.
    (WSJ, 10/6/95, p.A-10)

1890-1954    Edwin Howard Armstrong, engineer and inventor, was known as the "Father of FM" or frequency modulation. In 1939 Armstrong perfected his system of static-free radio, which was widely adopted in the U.S. and Europe.  Born in New York in 1890, Armstrong developed the superheterodyne circuit, basic to radio receivers, in 1918. His super-regenerative circuit, devised in 1920, was used in 2-way police and aircraft radio systems.
    (HN, 5/12/99)

1890-1958    Elmer Davis, American news commentator: "The first and great commandment is: Don't let them scare you."
    (AP, 5/29/99)

1890-1960     Gene Fowler, American journalist and author: "Men are not against you; they are merely for themselves."
    (AP, 5/6/97)

1890-1964    Idwal Jones, California writer. His work included the classic novel "The Vineyard," set in Napa Valley with a foreword by Robert Mondavi, and the non-fiction work "Vines in the Sun."
    (SFEM,10/26/97, p.36)

1890-1969    Dwight D. Eisenhower, the 34th president of the US, was born on Oct 14. He was a general through World War II and president from 1953-1961.
    (HFA, ‘96, p.40)(AHD, 1971, p.418)

1890-1972    Gabriel Heatter, American radio commentator: "Life is never so bad at its worst that it is impossible to live; it is never so good at its best that it is easy to live."
    (AP, 5/19/00)

1890-1976    Paul Strand, American photographer. He documented the streets of New York City from 1915-1917 and did early experiments in photographic abstraction.
    (SFEM, 5/31/98, p.13)

1890-1980    Gerald W. Johnson, American journalist: "What makes a leader—intelligence, integrity, imagination, skill: in brief, statecraft? Not at all. It is the fact that the man has a following."
    (AP, 9/28/97)

1890-1980     Katherine Anne Porter, American author: "Love is purely a creation of the human imagination ... the most important example of how the imagination continually outruns the creature it inhabits."
    (AP, 7/30/97)

1890-1995    Rose Kennedy: "I have always believed that God never gives a cross to bear larger than we can carry. ... No matter what, God wants us to be happy. He doesn’t want us to be sad. Birds sing after a storm. Why shouldn’t we?"
    (AP, 7/25/98)

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