Timeline 1883-1884

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1883        Jan 3, Clement Attlee Britain’s prime minister [1945-1951; head of Labor Party, was born.
    (440 Int'l. 1/3/99)

1883        Jan 4, Benjamin Butler (1818-1893) began serving as the 33rd governor of Massachusetts and continued until January 3, 1884.

1883        Jan 10, Fire at uninsured Newhall Hotel in Milwaukee, Wisconsin killed 71. General Tom Thumb of P.T. Barnum fame escaped unhurt.
    (MC, 1/10/02)

1883        Jan 13, Fire in circus Ferroni in Berditschoft, Poland, killed 430.
    (MC, 1/13/02)

1883        Jan 16, The U.S. Civil Service Commission was established. The US Civil Service Reform Act prohibited federal employees from contributing to political campaigns.
    (AP, 1/16/98)(SFEC, 10/5/97, p.D9)

1883        Jan 30, James Ritty and John Birch received a U.S. patent for the first cash register.
    (AP, 1/30/07)

1883        Feb 7, Eubie Blake, ragtime composer, pianist (Memories of You), was born.
    (MC, 2/7/02)

1883        Feb 8, Louis Waterman began experiments to invent fountain pen. His invention held ink in the pen’s barrel.
    (MC, 2/8/02)(SFC, 7/26/04, p.F4)

1883        Feb 13, Richard Wagner (b.1813), revolutionary German composer, died in Venice. Composer Leon Stein (d.2002 at 92) later authored "The Racial Thinking of Richard Wagner." In 2007 Jonathan Carr authored “The Wagner Clan," The Saga of Germany's Most Illustrious and Infamous Family. In 2020 Alex Ross authored "Wagnerism: Art and Politics in the Shadow of Music."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Wagner)(WSJ, 2/4/99, p.A20)(Econ., 9/8/07, p.85)(Econ., 9/19/20, p.81)

1883        Feb 16, "Ladies Home Journal" began publishing.
    (MC, 2/16/02)

1883        Feb 17, A. Ashwell patented a free toilet in London.
    (MC, 2/17/02)

1883        Feb 23, Victor Fleming, director of the movie classics "The Wizard of Oz" and "Gone With the Wind", was born.
    (HN, 2/23/98)
1883        Feb 23, Karl Jaspers, existentialist philosopher, was born in Oldenburg, Germany.
    (MC, 2/23/02)
1883        Feb 23, American Anti-Vivisection Society was organized in Philadelphia.
    (MC, 2/23/02)

1883        Feb 27, Oscar Hammerstein patented the 1st cigar-rolling machine.
    (MC, 2/27/02)

1883        Feb 28, 1st US vaudeville theater opened in Boston.
    (MC, 2/28/02)

1883        Mar 3, Congress authorized the 1st steel vessels in US navy.
    (SC, 3/3/02)

1883        Mar 4, John Gordon Cashmans began "Vicksburg Evening Post" in Mississippi.
    (SC, 3/4/02)
1883        Mar 4, Alexander H. Stephens (71), Vice President Confederate States, died.
    (SC, 3/4/02)

1883        Mar 13, Sergei Degaev (26) shot and killed Lt. Col. Georgii Sudeikin, security chief of Czar Alexander III. The 2 men had conspired to undermine both the government and the Revolutionary People’s Will. Degaev fled Russia to the US where he earned a Ph.D. in mathematics at Johns Hopkins and became the 1st math prof. At the new Univ. of South Dakota, where he taught until he died in 1921. In 2003 Richard Pipes authored "The Degaev Affair."
    (WSJ, 4/17/03, p.D8)

1883        Mar 14, Karl Marx (64), German political philosopher (Communist Manifesto, Das Kapital), died in London.
    (AP, 3/14/97)(MC, 3/14/02)

1883        Mar 19, Joseph W. Stilwell, US general (China), was born.
    (MC, 3/19/02)
1883        Mar 19, Jan Matzeliger invented the 1st machine to manufacture entire shoes.
    (MC, 3/19/02)

1883        Mar 23, Faisal I ibn Hussein ibn Ali, 1st king of Iraq-Syria, was born.
    (SS, 3/23/02)

1883        Mar 24, Long-distance telephone service was inaugurated between Chicago and New York. [see Mar 27, 1884]    
    (AP, 3/23/97)

1883        Mar 30, Jo Davidson, American sculptor, was born.
    (HN, 3/30/98)

1883        Mar 31, 1st performance of Cesar Franck's "Le Chasseur Maudit."
    (MC, 3/31/02)

1883        Apr 1, Aleksander V. Aleksandrov, Russian composer, conductor, was born.
    (MC, 4/1/02)
1883        Apr 1, Lon Chaney (d.1973), actor know as "man of a thousand faces," (High Noon, Phantom of Opera), was born.
    (HN, 4/1/98)

1883        Apr 12, Imogen Cunningham, photographer (1965 ASMP award), was born.
    (MC, 4/12/02)

1883        Apr 13, Alfred Packer was convicted of cannibalism. [see Aug, 1873]
    (MC, 4/13/02)

1883        Apr 14, Leo Delibes' opera "Lakme," premiered in Paris.
    (MC, 4/14/02)

1883        Apr 15, Vladimir Kovalevsky (b.1842), paleontologist, committed suicide. His work had focused on the evolution of odd-toed and even-toed ungulates. He also was the first translator of Darwin’s works into Russian.
    (NH, 6/96, p.23)

1883        Apr 16, Paul Kruger was chosen president of Transvaal.
    (MC, 4/16/02)

1883        Apr 24, Jaroslav Hasek, Czech writer (Brave soldier Schweik), was born.
    (MC, 4/24/02)

1883        Apr 25, Elsa Maxwell, writer (Jack Paar Show), was born in Keokuk, Iowa.
    (SS, 4/25/02)

1883        Apr 29, Franz Hermann Schulze-Delitzsch (b.1808), German economist, died. He was responsible for organizing of the world's first credit unions.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Franz_Hermann_Schulze-Delitzsch)(Econ, 5/24/14, p.79)

1883        May 1, "Buffalo Bill" Cody put on his 1st Wild West Show.
    (MC, 5/1/02)

1883        May 5, Charles Bender, the only Native American in baseball’s Hall of Fame, was born.
    (HN, 5/5/98)

1883        May 9, Spanish philosopher Jose Ortega y Gasset was born in Madrid.
    (AP, 5/9/08)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jos%C3%A9_Ortega_y_Gasset)

1883        May 17, Buffalo Bill Cody's 1st wild west show premiered in Omaha.
    (MC, 5/17/02)
1883        May 17, Lydia Estes Pinkham, patent-medicine manufacturer, died.
    (MC, 5/17/02)

1883        May 18, Walter Gropius (d.1969), architect and founder of the Bauhaus school of design, was born in Berlin, Germany. "The human mind is like an umbrella. It functions best when open."
    (V.D.-H.K.p.363)(AP, 10/7/98)(SC, 5/18/02)

1883        May 23, Douglas Fairbanks, actor, was born in Denver, CO.
    (HN, 5/23/98)(MC, 5/23/02)
1883        May 23, The first baseball game between one-armed and one-legged players was played.
    (HN, 5/23/98)

1883        May 24, The Brooklyn Bridge, hailed as the "eighth wonder of the world," was dedicated by President Chester Arthur and New York Gov. Grover Cleveland, and officially opened to traffic. The suspension bridge linking the boroughs of Manhattan and Brooklyn became a symbol of America's progress and ingenuity. The bridge has a span of 1,595 feet with 16-inch steel wire suspension cables fastened to Gothic-style arches 276 feet tall. Civil engineer John Augustus Roebling, inventor of the steel wire cable and designer of the bridge, was killed in a construction accident at the outset of construction in 1869. His son and partner, Washington A. Roebling, supervised the project to its completion in spite of a debilitating illness. 20 men died during construction and many suffered from caisson disease, later known as the bends, while working in pressurized air chambers under the river. In 2017 Erica Wagner authored “chief Engineer: Washington Roebling, the Man Who Built the Brooklyn Bridge."
    (HNPD, 5/23/99)(ON, 4/01, p.9)(AP, 5/24/08)(Econ 7/1/17, p.75)

1883        May 26, Mamie Smith, blues singer, was born.
    (HN, 5/26/01)

1883        May 29, William Beatton Moonie, composer, was born.
    (SC, 5/29/02)
1883        May 29, Albrecht of Prussia (73), mistress of John van Rossum, died.
    (SC, 5/29/02)
1883        May 29, WFLC Marianne princess of Orange-Nassau, died.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1883        May 30, 12 people were trampled to death in New York City when a rumor that the recently opened Brooklyn Bridge was in danger of collapsing triggered a stampede.
    (AP, 5/30/97)

1883        Jun 2, The first baseball game under electric lights was played in Fort Wayne, Indiana.
    (HN, 6/2/98)
1883        Jun 2, Chicago's "El" opened to traffic.
    (SC, 6/2/02)
1883        Jun 2, Four gentlemen departed London on velocipedes and spent the next 2 weeks bicycling 800 miles to John O’Grouts in Scotland.
    (ON, 1/00, p.5)

1883        Jun 5, Economist John Maynard Keynes (d.1946), economist, was born in Cambridge, England. He developed theories on the causes of prolonged unemployment and advised wide government expenditures as a counter measure to deflation and depression. "I do not know which makes a man more conservative -- to know nothing but the present, or nothing but the past."
    (V.D.-H.K.p.253)(AP, 6/5/97)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R20)(HN, 6/5/99)(AP, 7/29/99)

1883        Jun 9, The 1st commercial electric railway line began operation Chicago.
    (MC, 6/9/02)

1883        Jun 11, Frank O. King, "Gasoline Alley" cartoonist, was born in Cashton, Wisc.
    (SC, 6/11/02)

1883        Jun 16, The New York Gothams admitted both escorted and unescorted ladies to the baseball park free in the 1st ladies’ day game against the Cleveland Spiders. NY won, 5-2. The club was founded by farming magnate John B. Day and manager Jim Mutrie. The franchise name was reportedly changed to the NY Giants in 1885.
    (HNQ, 12/21/01)(AP, 6/16/03)(SSFC, 3/30/14, p.L7)

1883        Jun 24, Victor Francis Hess, physicist, was born.
    (HN, 6/24/01)

1883        Jul 3, Franz Kafka (d.1924), Czech novelist, author of "The Metamorphosis," was born in Prague. "The Castle" and "The Trial," were both published after his death. He died of tuberculosis.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.367-368)(WSJ, 10/10/96, p.A1)(WSJ, 3/14/97, p.A11)(HN, 7/3/98)
1883        Jul 3, SS Daphne sank on Clyde River in Scotland and 195 died.
    (MC, 7/3/02)

1883        Jul 4, Alan Brooke, English general, was born.
    (MC, 7/4/02)
1883        Jul 4, Rube Goldberg (Ruben Lucius Goldberg, 1883-1970) cartoonist, was born in San Francisco. He was known for cartoons featuring absurdly complicated mechanical devices to accomplish absurdly simple tasks.
    (WUD, 1994, p.607)(SFEC, 4/5/98, p.A28)(IB, Internet, 12/7/98)
1883        Jul 4, Maximilian Oseyevich Shteynberg, composer, was born.
    (MC, 7/4/02)
1883        Jul 4, One of the first Wild West shows was performed in North Platte, Nebraska, and was organized by Buffalo Bill (William F. Cody), who took the show on the road the following year.
    (IB, Internet, 12/7/98)

1883        Jul 9, Adrien Louis Victor Boieldieu (67), composer, died.
    (MC, 7/9/02)

1883        Jul 11, In Cincinnati the Reform Jewish Seminary held a dinner for its 1st class of rabbis. The meal gained notoriety for abrogating every rule of kashrut, except the prohibition against pork.
    (WSJ, 7/6/01, p.W11)

1883        Jul 15, Tom Thumb (44), famous small person (40"), died of a stroke.
    (MC, 7/15/02)

1883        Jul 23, Lord Allanbrooke (d.1963), English soldier, was born.
    (AP, 7/23/97)

1883        Jul 24, Matthew Webb (b.1848), the 1st person to swim the English Channel (1875), drowned while trying to swim across the Niagara River just below the falls.
    (ON, 2/05, p.12)(www.telfordlife.com/Capt%20Webb.htm)

1883        Jul 25, Alfredo Casella, composer (La Giara), was born in Turin, Italy.
    (SC, 7/25/02)

1883        Jul 27, Albert Franz Doppler (61), composer, died.
    (MC, 7/27/02)

1883        Jul 28, Shocks, triggered by the volcano Epomeo (Isle of Ischia, Italy), destroyed 1,200 houses at Casamicciola killing 2,000.
    (SC, 7/28/02)

1883        Jul 29, Benito Mussolini, dictator of Fascist Italy (1922-1943), was born.
    (HN, 7/29/98)

1883        Aug 19, Gabrielle "Coco" Chanel (d.1971), French fashion designer, was born: "My friends, there are no friends."
    (HN, 8/19/00)(AP, 7/26/99)

1883        Aug 23, Jonathan Wainwright, U.S. general who fought against the Japanese on Corregidor in the Philippines and was forced to surrender, was born.
    (HN, 8/23/98)

1883        Aug 26, The island volcano Krakatoa in Indonesia began erupting with increasingly large explosions and killed some 36,000 people, both on the island itself and from the resulting 131-foot tidal waves that obliterated 163 villages on the shores of nearby Java and Sumatra. A book by Ian Thornton: "Krakatau: The Destruction and Reassembly of an Island Ecosystem" was published in 1996 [see Aug 27].
    (AP, 8/26/97)(Nat. Hist, 3/96, p.6)(HN, 8/26/02)

1883        Aug 27, The island volcano Krakatoa erupted; the resulting tidal waves in Indonesia's Sunda Strait claimed some 36,417 lives in Java and Sumatra. In 2003 Simon Winchester authored Krakatoa: The Day the World Exploded: Aug 27, 1883" [see Aug 26].
    (AP, 8/27/97)(SSFC, 4/6/03, p.M2)

1883        Aug 28, John Montgomery (b.1858) made the first manned, controlled flight in the US in his "Gull" glider, whose design was inspired by watching birds. The craft weight 38 pounds and flew to 15 feet for at least 300 feet at Otay Mesa near San Diego, Ca. In 1911 Montgomery died in a glider crash.
    (SFC, 6/5/98, p.A23)(SFCM, 2/6/05, p.3)(GenIV, Winter 04/05)

1883        Aug 29, Seismic sea waves, created by Krakatoa eruption, created a rise in the English Channel 32 hrs after explosion.
    (MC, 8/29/01)

1883        Sep 3, Ivan Turgenev (b.1818), Russian  novelist and playwright, died in France. His best play was “A Month in the Country." In 1977 V.S. Pritchett authored the biography “The Gentle Barbarian: The Life and Work of Turgenev." In 2005 Robert Dessaiz authored “Twilight of Love: Travels With Turgenev," an exploration of Turgenev’s work.
    (WSJ, 4/26/95, p.A-14)(www.nndb.com/people/697/000055532/)(SSFC, 9/18/05, p.F2)

1893        Sep 4, Beatrix Potter (1866-1943), English author, first told the story of Peter Rabbit in the form of a "picture letter" to Noel Moore, the son of Potter's former governess. A 2nd illustrated letter the same month later became “The Tale of Jeremy Fisher." The “Tale of Peter Rabbit" was published in 1901.
    (HN, 9/4/00)(AP, 9/4/04)(Econ, 1/6/07, p.67)

1883        Sep 6, Lord Birkett, England, judge (Nuremburg Trials), was born.
    (MC, 9/6/01)

1883        Sep 8, The Northern Pacific Railway celebrated the completion of its east-west line with a Gold Spike at Gold Creek in central Montana. Guests included Frederick Billings, Ulysses S. Grant, and the family of abolitionist William Lloyd Garrison.

1883        Sep 11, James Goold Cutler, architect, patented the postal mail chute. The first one was installed in Rochester N.Y. He later became the mayor of Rochester.
    (SFC, 9/28/96, p.E4)(WSJ, 7/11/01, p.A1)(MC, 9/11/01)

1883        Sep 14, Margaret Higgins Sanger was born. While not the first in the U.S. advocating the use of contraceptives, she coined the term "birth control" in 1914. She was the founder of the birth control movement in the United States and the National Birth Control League. Wife of an affluent architect and mother of three, Sanger worked as a visiting nurse on New York’s Lower East Side, where she witnessed the misery and poverty caused by uncontrolled fertility. Sanger became a nurse and after moving to New York City in 1912 became involved in the bohemian society. She launched Woman Rebel magazine in March 1914. For sending pleas for birth control through the mails, she was indicted in August 1914 under New York’s 1873 Comstock Act, which classified information related to contraception as being obscene. She went on to lead a global movement for birth control and founded the organization that would later become Planned Parenthood. She died on September 6, 1966.
    (HNQ, 6/22/98)(SFEM, 6/28/98, p.39)(HN, 9/14/98)(HNPD, 9/14/98)
1883        Sep 14, A Ukase barred Yiddish theater in Russia.

1883        Sep 15, Joseph Antoine Ferdinand Plateau (b.1801), Belgian mathematician and physicist, died. He was one of the first people to demonstrate the illusion of a moving image.

1883        Sep 17, William Carlos Williams, poet, playwright, essayist and writer who won a Pulitzer prize for "Pictures from Breughel and Other Poems," was born.
    (HN, 9/17/98)

1883        Sep 21, The 1st direct US-Brazil telegraph connection was made.
    (MC, 9/21/01)

1883        Oct 4, Orient Express made its 1st run linking Istanbul, Turkey, to  Paris by rail.
    (MC, 10/4/01)

1883        Oct 17, A.S. Neill, British headmaster (Summerhill), was born.
    (MC, 10/17/01)

1883        Oct 18, The weather station at the top of Ben Nevis, Scotland, the highest mountain in Britain, was declared open.
    (HN, 10/18/98)

1883        Oct 20, Max Bruch's "Kol Nidre," 1st performed.
    (MC, 10/20/01)

1883        Oct 22, The original Metropolitan Opera House in New York held its grand opening with a performance of Gounod's "Faust."
    (AP, 10/22/01)

1883        Nov 3, U.S. Supreme Court declared American Indians to be "dependent aliens."
    (HN, 11/3/98)
1883        Nov 3, Race riots took place in Danville, Virginia, and 4 blacks were killed.
    (MC, 11/3/01)
1883        Nov 3, A poorly trained Egyptian army, led by British General William Hicks, marched toward El Obeid in the Sudan--straight into a Mahdist ambush and massacre.
    (HN, 11/3/98)

1883        Nov 8, Arnold Edward Trevor Bax, composer (Farewell My Youth), was born in London, England.
    (MC, 11/8/01)

1883        Nov 11, Ernest Ansermet, conductor, was born in Vevey, Switzerland.
    (MC, 11/11/01)

1883        Nov 13, J. Marion Sims (b.1883), American physician and a pioneer in the field of surgery, died in NYC. He known as the "father of modern gynecology" for work to develop a surgical technique for the repair of vesicovaginal fistula, a severe complication of obstructed childbirth. Sims used enslaved black women, unanesthetized, as experimental subjects in the development of this surgical breakthrough. In 2018 a statue of Sims in Central Park was removed and relocated to Brooklyn's Greenwood Cemetery.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/J._Marion_Sims)(AP, 4/18/18)

1883        Nov 18, Antonin Dvorak's "Hussite Overture," premiered.
    (MC, 11/18/01)
1883        Nov 18, The United States and Canada adopted a system of Standard Time zones. The railroad companies got together and established standard railroad time to increase safety and surmount complex scheduling on local times. This put an end to “God’s time."
    (HFA, '96, p.18)(NG, March 1990, p.115)(AP, 11/18/97)(WSJ, 3/31/05, p.D8)
1883        Nov 18, Wilhelm Siemens, German-British physicist (steam engine), died.
    (MC, 11/18/01)

1883        Nov 26, Sojourner Truth, former slave and abolitionist, died in Battle Creek, Mich.
    (AP, 11/26/08)

1883        Dec 1, San Francisco’s Park and Ocean Railroad began carrying passengers from Haight and Stanyon out H Street (later Lincoln Way) to 49th Ave. (later la Playa), and then north to the Cliff House. The round trip cost 20 cents. A clerk’s average salary at this time was $12 per week.
    (SFC, 7/20/13, p.C2)(SFC, 5/27/17, p.C1)

1883        Dec 2, Johannes Brahms' 3rd Symphony in F, premiered.
    (MC, 12/2/01)

1883        Dec 10, Andrej J. Vyshinski, Russian lawyer, foreign minister and UN-ambassador, was born.
    (MC, 12/10/01)

1883        Dec 15, William A. Hinton, developer of the "Hinton Test" for diagnosing syphilis, was born.
    (HN, 12/15/98)

1883        Dec 22, Arthur Wergs Mitchell, first African-American to be elected to the U.S. House of Representatives, was born.
    (HN, 12/22/98)

1883        Dec, In San Francisco Cornelius Mooney, Denis Kearney and other squatters began selling coffee, doughnuts and whiskey to the new day trippers visiting Ocean Beach and the Cliff House following the opening of the Park and Ocean Railroad line to the area. The new shantytown became known as Mooneysville.
    (SFC, 6/10/17, p.C1)

1883        Anton Webern (d.1945), Austrian composer, was born.
    (WSJ, 2/14/00, p.A20)

1883        Edward Degas painted "Woman in a Tub."
    (WSJ, 2/29/00, p.B16)

1883        Winslow Homer, painter, moved to the family compound at Prout’s Neck, Maine.
    (WSJ, 9/13/01, p.A18)

1883        Lord Frederick Leighton painted "Kittens."
    (WSJ, 5/29/98, p.W10)

1883        Claude Monet made a trip to Italy with Cezanne and Renoir and painted "The Monte Carlo Road."
    (WSJ, 8/26/97, p.A14)

1883        Tokonami Seisei, self-taught Japanese artist, painted "Volcano."
    (WSJ, 2/5/98, p.A20)

1883        The first Brownie book was published. Palmer Cox (1840-1924), Canadian illustrator and writer, created the stories and drawings, which first appeared in 1879. 12 more books followed and in 1891 Cox registered the illustrations under the new copyright law.
    (SFC, 12/26/07, p.G3)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palmer_Cox)

1883        Arthur Conan Doyle published his short story "The Captain of the Pole-Star."
    (PacDisc. Spring/’96, p.18)

1883        Mary Hallock Foote (b1847), American author and illustrator, published her first novel: “Led-Horse Claim: A Romance of a Mining Camp," written while living in Leadville, Colo.

1883        Frederick Spencer Oliver in Yreka, Ca., authored "Dweller on Two Planets," an occult classic that told the story of the Lemurians, an ancient race who abandoned their Atlantis-like continent, when it sank beneath the Pacific Ocean, and formed a mystical brotherhood inside Mount Shasta.
    (SSFC, 10/12/02, p.C5)

1883        Jean-Paul Richter published a compilation of Leonardo de Vinci’s notebooks.
    (NH, 5/97, p.19)

1883        Robert Lewis Stevenson authored “Silverado Squatters." It covered 2 months of his journey to Mount St. Helena, Ca., with his wife Fanny Van de Grift Osbourne.
    (SSFC, 11/15/09, p.M4)

1883        Anthony Trollope published "An Autobiography." He wrote harshly about his mother and made her out to be a second-rate writer.
    (WSJ, 12/11/98, p.W10)

1883        Bruckner composed his Seventh Symphony.
    (WSJ, 3/5/99, p.W10)

1883        John Philip Sousa premiered his "The Transit of Venus March" on the 5th anniversary of the death of scientist Joseph Henry.
    (WSJ, 12/17/97, p.A20)

1883        The opera "Mazeppa" by Tchaikovsky was completed.
    (WSJ, 5/7/98, p.A21)

1883        The Minneapolis Institute of Arts, originally the Minneapolis Society of Fine Arts, was established. The museum building, designed by the firm of McKim, Mead and White, opened its doors in 1915.  In 1974, the Japanese architect Kenzo Tange was commissioned to design needed additions to McKim, Mead and White’s neoclassical structure. Now in the 1990s, with finds from the Institute’s New Beginnings Campaign, the museum building is being renovated, the collections reinstalled, and state-of-the-art technology introduces to help visitors and members interpret the works of art.
    (MIA, www, 1999)

1883        The Elk Cove Inn in Elk, California, was built.
    (SFC, 9/1/96, T3)
1883        In San Francisco pro-temperance advocate Henry Cogswell donated three water fountains to the city.
1883        In Oakland, Ca. the city engineer, Anthony Chabot, donated the Chabot Observatory and Science Center to the school district. In 1996 it began a $51 million, 3-year expansion and move to the Oakland Hills in Joaquin Miller Park.
    (SFC, 10/19/96, A15)
1883        In San Francisco Commercial High School opened as the business department of Boys High School, which eventually became Lowell. It then split from Lowell, relocated twice and settled on Market Street just in time to go up in flames in the 1906 earthquake.
    (SFC, 4/30/13, p.E4)   
1883        The Salvation Army came to SF. In 1886 they opened a facility in the Tenderloin.
    (SFC, 9/15/98, p.A9)(SFC, 6/28/08, p.B1)
1883        The Brooks and Carey Saloon opened on Mission Road, Colma, Ca. It was later renamed the Brooksville Hotel. Frank Molloy purchased the place from Patrick Brooks in 1929 and renamed it Molloy's. In 2012 the purchase date was said to be 1927.
    (Ind, 1/30/98, p.5A)(SSFC, 3/8/09, p.E8)(SFC, 6/14/12, p.C3)
1883        In San Francisco Army Major W.A. Jones created a plan to transform the Presidio into a forested park-like reserve.  In 1886 the Army began planting blue gum eucalyptus to serve as a windbreak on the ridges of the Presidio.
    (SFC, 7/6/04, p.A1)(SFC, 5/25/09, p.A8)
1883        Fr. Joseph Sasia, SJ (1843-1928) took over as president of St. Ignatius College in San Francisco.
    (GenIV, Winter 04/05)
1883        California railroad tycoon Charles Crocker used Chinese laborers to complete a 23-mile pipeline to deliver Carmel River water to his new Hotel del Monte in Monterrey. Another Chinese crew built the river’s first dam. In 2012 Ray A. March authored “River in Ruin: The Story of the Carmel River."
    (SSFC, 4/15/12, p.F7)

1883         A fire raging in an underground Colorado coal field sent so much smoke pouring from cracks in the ground that the scene was likened to burning volcanoes and the state's first mining inspector deemed the blaze “impossible to extinguish".
    (AP, 1/30/22)

c1883        In Iowa the Roseman Bridge was constructed. It was later featured in the 1995 film "The Bridges of Madison County."
    (SFC, 7/11/03, p.A2)

1883        The Oregon State Hospital was built in Salem. It was used for the 1975 film “One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest." In 2004 legislators discovered the cremated remains of some 3,600 mental patients in corroding copper canisters. In 2008 the main building was scheduled to be torn down and replaced by a new complex.
    (SFC, 7/16/08, p.A8)(www.oregon.gov/DHS/mentalhealth/osh/main.shtml)

1883        Wente Winery was founded in California.
    (SFC, 9/27/96, p.E3)

1883        Alice Claypoole Vanderbilt wore her "Electric Light" gown and stole the show at Alva Vanderbilt’s costume party in Newport, Rhode Island.
    (WSJ, 6/6/95, p.A-14)

1883        The US Supreme Court ruled that the Dakota Territory court had no jurisdiction in a case in which a member of the Lakota nation killed a fellow member on tribal land. The decision overturned a death sentence and effectively gave exclusive jurisdiction for crimes to tribes. In 1885 US Congress passed the Major Crimes Act taking away the tribes’ authority to prosecute serious crimes such as murder, manslaughter and rape.
    (WSJ, 8/13/07, p.A12)

1883         The US Secret Service was officially acknowledged as a distinct organization within the Treasury Department.

1883        The Supreme Court invalidated the Civil Rights Act passed by Congress on Mar 1, 1875.
    (HN, 3/1/98)

1883        US big circus owners P.T. Barnum and Adam Forepaugh engaged in a “White Elephant War" to gain audience share. The press discovered that Forepaugh’s elephant, named Light of Asia, was painted. It died a year later. The story was later told by Michael Daly in “Topsy: The Startling Story of the Crooked-Tailed Elephant, P.T. Barnum, and the American Wizard, Thomas Edison" (2013).
    (SSFC, 8/11/13, p.F7)

1883        Joseph Pulitzer assumed command of the New York World newspaper with a circulation of 15,000. 4 years later it increased to 350,000. Pulitzer purchased the paper from financier Jay Gould.
    (SFEM, 11/8/98, p.14,16)(HNQ, 1/29/02)

1883        Barbed wire that fenced the west at this time was on display at Oracle Junction, Arizona, and includes Baker’s ‘Odd Barb.’
    (NOHY, 3/90, p.173)

1883        Charles E. Boles, known as Black Bart, was caught in SF by a Wells Fargo detective James B. Hume, who tracked him down using a laundry ticket. Bart spent 50 months in San Quentin for his eight-year string of stagecoach robberies.
    (HN, 8/27/01)(CVG, Vol 16, p.23)

1883        The factory of the Racine Silver Plate Co. re-opened in Rockford, Ill and was re-named the Rockford Silver Plate Co. Its factory in Racine had burned down in 1882.
    (SFC,11/26/97, Z1 p.7)

1883        M.H. Lane set up an assembly line to build carts, buggies, wagons and sleighs at his Michigan Buggy Co. in Kalamazoo, Mich.
    (SFC, 9/7/96, p.B4)

1883        The W.S. Reed Co. of Leominster, Mass., produced a couple of cast-iron mechanical banks, that never made it to mass production. One sold at auction in 1998 for $426,000.
    (WSJ, 5/15/98, p.W12)

1883        Benjamin Moore and his brother Robert opened their Moore Brothers paint company in Brooklyn, New York. In 2000 the Benjamin-Moore company was acquired by Berkshire-Hathaway.
    (Econ, 4/26/14, p.75)(http://tinyurl.com/krygbda)

1883        William Kitchen Parker (1823-1890), English anatomist and embryologist, produced an illustrated account of skull development in crocodiles and alligators.
    (NH, 10/96, p.37)

1883        Haverford College was founded in Haverford, Pa., by Quakers.
    (WSJ, 7/24/03, p.A1)
1883        Supply ships failed to arrive at Ellesmere Island in the Canadian Arctic so Lt. Greely and his 24 men retreated south. Only Greely and six others survived.
    (NG, 6/1988, p.764)

1883        Edward Jump (b.1832), French-born painter, committed suicide in Chicago. Jump arrived in California with the 1852 gold rush and later moved to Washington DC and NYC where he became well known for his drawings of political and local issues.
    (SFCM, 10/28/01, p.18)

1883        Lydia Estes Pinkham (b.1819) died. She was in her mid-fifties when economic hardship forced her and her family to begin selling bottles of a homemade health remedy. Mrs. Pinkham's tonic, formulated from herbs and 20% alcohol as a "solvent and preservative," was first sold in 1875 as a cure for "female complaints."
    (HNPD, 6/30/01)(WSJ, 4/23/02, p.D7)

1883        In Australia Charles Rasp, a boundary rider on a remote sheep station in New South Wales, discovered a silver mine that would become one of the biggest in the world. Broken Hill Proprietary’s rich history began in a silver, lead and zinc mine in Broken Hill, Australia. BHP was incorporated in 1885.
    (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F1PTOu1iN2w)(Econ 5/20/17, p.55)
1883        Davenport Bromfield (1862-1954), a surveyor from Australia, ran away with Mary Ware (1851-1935), a married mother of 3. They escaped to New Zealand and then to San Francisco, where Bromfield became an established surveyor in San Mateo County.
    (Ind, 1/5/02, 5A)

1883        In Britain Francis Galton developed the questionnaire.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)
1883         The barque West Ridge vanished while sailing from England to India with 28 sailors. Its iron wreck was believed found on Dec 19, 2015.
    (AP, 5/3/18)

1883        In Chile the Concha y Toro wineries were founded with vines brought from France.
    (SFEC, 10/27/96, p.T9)

1883         Stanleyville (later Kisangani), Congo, was founded by Sir Henry Morton Stanley, the Anglo-American journalist who tracked down the missionary David Livingstone in Africa.
    (AP, 8/18/03)

1883        In England production of Bretby Art Pottery was begun by Tooth & Co. in South Derbyshire.
    (SFC,10/22/97, Z1 p.7)

1883        Haiti made its final payment to France of the 1825 "debt," renegotiated in 1838. In 2004 Haiti demanded nearly 22 billion in restitution.
    (WSJ, 1/2/04, p.A1)

1883        Kamehameha Schools were established under the will of a Hawaiian princess to educate the children of Hawaii. In 2005 a federal appeals court ruled that restricting the schools to only native Hawaiians amounts to unlawful racial discrimination.
    (AP, 8/3/05)

1883        Germany under Chancellor Otto von Bismarck adopted the first compulsory health insurance program on a national scale.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R25)

1883        In Italy the Palazzo Massimo alle Terme was built by the Massimo family in Rome and later converted to an archeological museum.
    (WSJ, 9/24/98, p.A16)

1883        In Venezuela General Joaquin Crespo, a friend of Antonio Guzman Blanco, was declared president, and Guzman-Blanco became ambassador to France, living with great ostentation in Paris. In 1886 he again assumed the presidency.

1883        In Wales the Treorchy Men’s Choir was established in the Rhondda Valley to keep miners out of trouble.
    (SFEC, 5/10/98, p.T5)

1883-1884    In Sudan British officered Egyptian armies were defeated by the forces of El Mahdi, called Dervishes by the British.
    (WSJ, 8/25/98, p.A14)

1883-1888    "Chekhov: The Early Stories 1883-1888" was later translated and published by Patrick Miles and Harvey Pitcher.
    (SFEC, 2/14/99, BR p.5)

1883-1931    Khalil Gibran, American poet and artist: "Forgetfulness is a form of freedom."
    (AP, 6/11/00)

1883-1935    Charles Demuth , American painter and illustrator.
    (WUD, 1994, p.385)

1883-1936    Charles Dana Gibson created the Gibson Girl illustrations that were published in Life magazine during this time.
    (SFEC, 10/9/96, z1 p.8)

1883-1945    Benito Mussolini, Italian Fascist leader.

1883-1849    Jose Clemente Orozco, Mexican painter, muralist.
    (SFC, 4/18/96, E-1)

1883-1950    Joseph Alois Schumpeter, Moravian-born American economist. He developed theories of capitalist development and business cycles. He emphasized the importance of entrepreneurs as the drivers of capitalist development and banks as the providers of credit. He was a leader in econometrics and statistical inquiry that attempted to fortify the scientific center of economics.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R20)

1883-1955    Jose Ortega y Gasset, Spanish philosopher. "I am I plus my circumstances." "Living is a constant process of deciding what we are going to do." "Our firmest convictions are apt to be the most suspect; they mark our limitations and our bounds. Life is a petty thing unless it is moved by the indomitable urge to extend its boundaries."
    (V.D.-H.K.p.370)(AP, 3/20/97)(AP, 7/31/97)(AP, 4/3/98)

1883-1955    Ludwig Lewisohn, German-born novelist-critic: "There are philosophies which are unendurable not because men are cowards, but because they are men."
    (AP, 8/6/99)

1883-1961    Frantisek Drtikol, Czech photographer and painter. He photographed nudes in the 1920s and then took up painting and mystical religious studies.
    (SFC, 5/6/97, p.E4)

1883-1963     Elsa Maxwell, American socialite. "Laugh at yourself first, before anyone else can."
    (AP, 4/4/97)

1883-1963    William Carlos Williams, American poet and doctor. "History must stay open, it is all humanity." William Carlos Williams met Ezra Pound at the Univ. of Pennsylvania in 1907 and they remained friends and wrote many letters. "Pound / Williams: Selected Correspondence" was ed. by Hugh Witemeyer in 1996.
    (AP, 9/20/97)(SFC, 6/3/96, BR p.6)

1883-1964     Roy W. Howard, American newspaper publisher: "No date on the calendar is as important as tomorrow."
    (AP, 4/7/97)

1883-1965    Charles Sheeler, American painter. He also did some experimental photography and the photos were later highly prized. He was among the first to embrace modernism and participated in the NYC salon of Walter Arensberg.
    (SFC, 2/12/99, p.C4)(SFEM, 3/21/99, p.4)

1883-1889    The Bald Knobbers was a group of non-racially motivated vigilantes in the southern part of the state of Missouri, who were active during this period. They initially set out to put an end to post Civil War marauding gangs.

1883-1998    In Canada some 150,000 aboriginal children were removed from their homes and put into residential schools modelled on Victorian poor houses. Half were physically or sexually abused. In 2008 a “truth and reconciliation commission" was set up as part of a settlement of a class-action suit brought by survivors against the government and the churches that operated the schools. Hector-Louis Langevin (1826-1906), Secretary of State for the Provinces, was the architect of the residential school program.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hector-Louis_Langevin)(Econ, 6/6/15, p.28)(Econ 7/1/17, p.29)

1884        Jan 6, Gregor Mendel (b.1822), Austrian botanist and Augustine monk, died at age 61. He is considered to be the father of genetics.
    (NH, 6/01, p.30)(MC, 1/6/02)

1884        Jan 18, General Charles ("Chinese") Gordon departed London for Khartoum.
    (MC, 1/18/02)

1884        Jan 19, Jules Massenet's opera "Manon," premiered in Paris.
    (MC, 1/19/02)

1884        Jan 27, The San Francisco Board of Supervisors called for the removal of the “Ocean Beach nuisance," referring to the recently erected shantytown named Mooneysville.
    (SFC, 6/24/17, p.C2)

1884        Jan 28, Jean Felix Piccard, scientist, explorer (balloonist), was born in Switzerland.
    (MC, 1/28/02)

1884        Jan 31, In San Francisco men under city Park Commissioner Frank Pixley, reinforced by police, demolished the Mooneysville shantytown at Ocean Beach.
    (SFC, 6/24/17, p.C2)

1884        Feb 11, In San Francisco a burlesque called “Mooneysville, or the Fate of a Seal," written by humorist Charley Reed, opened at the Standard theater.
    (SFC, 6/24/17, p.C2)

1884        Feb 14, Theodore Roosevelt’s wife died 2 days after giving birth to Alice Lee Roosevelt. His mother, Martha, had died just a few hours earlier.
    (SFEC, 9/29/96, Par p.8)(SFEC, 1/18/98, Z1 p.8)

1884        Feb 18, Police seized all copies of Tolstoy's "What I Believe In."
    (MC, 2/18/02)
1884        Feb 18, General Charles Gordon arrived in Khartoum to battle the Mahdi and his terrorists.
    (MC, 2/18/02)

1884        Feb 19, A series of tornadoes left an estimated 800 people dead in 7 US states (Miss, Ala, NC, SC, Tenn., Ky & In).
    (WSJ, 9/13/01, p.B11)(MC, 2/19/02)

1884        Mar 6, Over 100 suffragists, led by Susan B. Anthony, presented President Chester A. Arthur with a demand that he voice support for female suffrage.
    (HN, 3/6/99)

1884        Mar 8, The 1st performance of Edward MacDowell's 2nd Piano suite.
    (MC, 3/8/02)

1884        Mar 11, In Sudan Gen. Gordon learned that the telegraph cable to Cairo had been cut. Khartoum soldiers killed 5 Mahdists at Halfaya. Mahdist insurgents in return massacred 150 men from the Khartoum garrison as they were cutting wood.
    (ON, 4/02, p.10)

1884        Mar 12, Mississippi established the first U.S. state college for women.
    (HN, 3/12/98)

1884        Mar 13, US Congress adopted Eastern Standard Time for the District of Columbia.
    (AP, 3/13/07)
1884        Mar 13, Siege of Khartoum, Sudan, began. Gen. Gordon ordered a counter-attack at Halfaya and troops rescued some 500 from a Mahdist assault.
    (ON, 4/02, p.10)(MC, 3/13/02)

1884        Mar 17, John Joseph Montgomery made the first glider flight in Otay, Calif.
    (HN, 3/17/98)

1884        Mar 19, Alfonse Charles Renaud de Vilback (54), composer, died.
    (MC, 3/19/02)

1884        Mar 27, The first long-distance telephone call was made, between Boston and New York City. [see Mar 24, 1883]
    (AP, 3/27/97)(HN, 3/27/98)

1884        Apr 2, The London prison for debtors closed.
    (MC, 4/2/02)

1884        Apr 4, Isoroku Yamamoto, Japanese Naval commander, was born. He masterminded the attack on Pearl Harbor.
    (HN, 4/4/99)

1884        Apr 21, Potters Field reopened as Madison Square Park in NYC.
    (MC, 4/21/02)

1884        Apr 22, Thomas Stevens (b.1853) started the 1st bicycle trip to cross the US from SF. He later continued around world (2 yrs 9 mos). He purchased a bicycle with a 50-inch diameter front wheel from Col. Albert Pope of Hartford, Conn., for $110 the price of a horse and buggy.
    (MC, 4/22/02)(ON, 9/03, p.9)

1884        Apr 24, Otto von Bismarck cabled Cape Town that South Africa had become a German colony.
    (HN, 4/24/98)

1884        May 1, Construction began on the first steel-skeleton skyscraper, a 10-story structure in Chicago, designed by William Le Baron Jenney and built by the Home Insurance Co. of New York. It was completed in 1885. It stood 9 stories and had 2 added in 1891.
    (HT, 5/97, p.23)(SFEC, 11/22/98, Z1 p.8)(AP, 5/1/99)

1884        May 4, Agnes Fay Morgan, American nutritionist and biochemist, was born.
    (HN, 5/4/01)
1884        May 4, Ferdinand Ward came by the NYC home of Pres. Ulysses S. Grant and told him that the Marine National Bank was having temporary difficulties because of a large unexpected withdrawal by one of its clients. He asked Grant if he could come up with $150,000 for only 24 hours and by Monday or Tuesday the situation would be all cleared up. Grant, that same day, limped from his home and went to see his friend William Henry Vanderbilt. He asked Vanderbilt to lend him $150,000, telling him the same story Ward had fabricated. Vanderbilt told Grant he did not care one bit about the Marine National Bank, but that he would be pleased to make a personal loan to Grant for the amount requested.

1884        May 6, Buck Grant told his father, former Pres. Ulysses S. Grant, that a loan to Ferdinand Ward had gone bad and that Ward had absconded with the money. The Grants were wiped out, as were other trusting investors, including friends and family of the Grants. Ward’s Ponzi scheme led to the collapse of major financial institutions on Wall Street and around the country. In 2012 Geoffrey C. Ward, the grandson of Ferdinand Ward, authored “A Disposition to Be Rich: How a Small-Town Pastor’s Son Ruined an American President, Brought on a Wall Street Crash, and Made Himself the Best-Hated man in the United States.
    (http://faculty.css.edu/mkelsey/usgrant/lastyears.html)(SFC, 5/21/12, p.E3)

1884        May 7, Judah P. Benjamin (72), confederate minister of War, died.
    (MC, 5/7/02)

1884        May 8, Harry S. Truman, 33rd President of the United States (1945-1953), was born near Lamar, Mo. A history buff, President Harry Truman penned this description of Franklin Pierce, the 14th president, "Pierce was the best looking President the White House ever had—but as President he ranks with Buchanan and Calvin Coolidge." "If there is one basic element in our Constitution, it is civilian control of the military." He decided to drop the bomb that ended World War II and sent troops to Korea to halt communist aggression.
    (AP, 5/8/97)(AP, 1/17/99)(HN, 5/8/99)

1884        May 12, Bedrich Friedrich Smetana (60), Czech composer (MaVlast, Bartered Bride), died.
    (MC, 5/12/02)

1884        May 13, The Institute for Electrical & Electronics Engineers (IEEE) was founded.
    (SS, Internet, 5/13/97)
1884        May 13, Cyrus Hall McCormick (b.1809), the Reaper King, died. His last words were "work, work work."
    (SFC, 1/11/03, p.D6)(MC, 5/13/02)

1884        May 17, Alaska became a US territory. US Congress did not provide for an Alaskan government until this year. Administration of the territory was done in succession by the War Department, the Treasury and the Navy.
    (SFEM, 10/31/99, p.26)(MC, 5/17/02)

1884        May 18, Heinrich R. Göppert, German paleo-botanist, died.
    (SC, 5/18/02)

1884        May 28, Edvard Benes, premier, president of Czechoslovakia (1921-22, 35-48), was born.
    (MC, 5/28/02)

1884        May 29, 1st steam cable trams started in Highgate.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1884        Jun 5, Dame Ivy Compton-Burnett, British author, was born.
    (HN, 6/5/01)
1884        Jun 5, Civil War hero General William T. Sherman refused the Republican presidential nomination, saying, "I will not accept if nominated and will not serve if elected."
    (AP, 6/5/97)

1884        Jun 10, William E. Eldred of Brooklyn, NY, was granted a US patent for a new way to open and close the legs of a folding table.
    (SFC, 1/30/08, p.G4)
1884        Jun 10, Johann Gustav Droysen (b.1808), German historian, died in Berlin. His books included “Geschichte Alexanders des Grossen" (1833), a study of Alexander the Great.

1884        Jun 14, John McCormack, Irish-US singer (Irish folksongs), was born.
    (MC, 6/14/02)

1884        Jun 16, America's 1st roller coaster began operating at Coney Island, NYC. It hit a top speed of 6 mph.
    (MC, 6/16/02)(Econ, 6/28/03, p.30)

1884        Jun 19, Juan Bautista Alberdi (b.1810), Argentine politician, writer, died in Paris. His writings inspired Argentina’s 1853 constitution.
    (www.taringa.net/posts/21963/Juan-B.-Alberdi---El-Gran-Pensador.html)(Econ, 3/10/07, p.35)

1884        Jun 21, Field Marshal Sir Claude Auchinleck, British general, was born. He revived the flagging Eighth Army to go back on the offensive against the German army under Rommel in the Middle East, but was later replaced.
    (Camelot, 6/21/99)

1884        Jun 23, A Chinese Army defeated the French at Bacle, Indochina.
    (HN, 6/23/98)

1884        Jun 27, J. Palisa discovered asteroid #237, Coelestina.
    (SC, 6/27/02)

1884        Jun 28, Congress declared Labor Day a legal holiday.
    (HN, 6/28/98)

1884        Jun, The steamboat Montana (b.1879) tried to pass under a railroad bridge between the Missouri towns St. Charles and Bridgeton, just a few miles from where the river connects with the Mississippi. The boat struck the bridge and took on water before running aground on the St. Louis County side of the river. No one was hurt, but the Montana split in half.
    (AP, 8/16/05)

1884        Jul 1, Allan Pinkerton (b.1819) founder of the Pinkerton Agency, died in Chicago. In 1996 James Mackay authored “Allan Pinkerton."
    (http://aotw.org/officers.php?officer_id=918)(ON, 7/06, p.12)

1884        Jul 3, The 1st Dow Jones average included 11 stocks: Chicago & North Western, Union Pacific Delaware, Lackawanna & Western, Missouri Pacific, Lake Shore, Louisville & Nashville, New York Central, Pacific Mail, St. Paul, Western Union, and Northern Pacific preferred.
    (SFC, 2/2/06, p.A13)(www.cftech.com/BrainBank/FINANCE/DowJonesAvgsHist.html)

1884        Jul 4, The Statue of Liberty was presented to the United States in ceremonies at Paris, France. The 225-ton, 152-foot statue was a gift from France in commemoration of 100 years of American independence. Created by the French sculptor Frederic Auguste Bartholdi, the statue was installed on Bedloe Island (now Liberty Island) in New York harbor in 1885. It was dedicated on October 28, 1886.
    (IB, Internet, 12/7/98)
1884        Jul 4, 1st US bullfight was held in Dodge City, Ka.
    (Maggio, 98)

1884        Jul 5, US Congress accepted a 2nd Chinese Exclusion Act.
    (MC, 7/5/02)

1884        Jul 7, Lion Feuchtwanger, German philosopher, writer (Jud Suss), was born.
    (MC, 7/7/02)

1884        Jul 12, Amadeo Modigliani, painter and sculptor (Reclining Nude), was born in Italy.
    (HN, 7/12/01)(MC, 7/12/02)

1884        Jul 25, Davidson Black, doctor of anatomy (identified Peking Man), was born in Canada.
    (SC, 7/25/02)

1884        Aug 3, Louis Gruenberg, composer (Daniel Jazz), was born near Brest Litovsk, Poland.
    (SC, 8/3/02)

1884        Aug 4, Thomas Stevens (1853-1935) arrived in Boston after 104 days from SF in the 1st bicycle trip to cross the US. He later continued around world (2 yrs 9 mos) on a trip financed with articles for "Outing and the Wheelman" magazine.
    (MC, 4/22/02)(ON, 9/03, p.12)

1884        Aug 5, The cornerstone for the Statue of Liberty was laid on Bedloe’s Island in New York Harbor.
    (THC, 4/10/97)(AP, 8/5/97)

1884        Aug 7, The German flag was raised in South West Africa. German South West Africa became a colony of the German Empire. This continued to 1915.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/German_South_West_Africa)(BBC, 12/3/20)

1884        Aug 12, Frank Swinnerton, novelist (Summer Storm, Sanctuary), was born in England.
    (SC, 8/12/02)

1884        Aug 16, Hugo Gernsback (d.1967), sci-fi writer, publisher (1960 Hugo), was born in Luxembourg.

1884        Aug 26, Earl Biggers, author ("Charlie Chan" detective series), was born.
    (MC, 8/26/02)

1884        Aug 28, The 1st known photograph of a tornado was made near Howard, SD.
    (MC, 8/28/01)

1864        Sep 15, British explorer John Speke (b.1827) died in England by his gun own during in an alleged hunting accident. In 2006 W.B. Carnochan authored “The Sad Story of Burton, Speke, and the Nile; or Was John Hanning Speke a Cad."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Hanning_Speke)(WSJ, 5/20/06, p.P9)

1884        Sep 17, Charles Tomlinson Griffes, composer (White Peacock), was born in Elmira, NY.
    (MC, 9/17/01)

1884        Sep 20, Maxwell Perkins, editor, was born. He was the first to publish F. Scott Fitzgerald, Ernest Hemingway and Thomas Wolfe.
    (HN, 9/20/00)
1884        Sep 20, The Equal Rights Party was formed during a convention of suffragists in San Francisco. The convention nominated Belva Ann Bennett Lockwood of Washington, D.C., for president and Marietta Snow as her running mate.
    (AP, 9/20/97)(MC, 9/20/01)

1884        Sep, In San Francisco Mamie Tape (8), a Chinese-American girl, was denied admittance to public school.
    (SFC, 4/29/17, p.C1)

1884        Oct 4, Damon Runyon, journalist and short story writer, was born.
    (HN, 10/4/00)

1884        Oct 6, The US Naval War College was established in Newport, R.I.
    (AP, 10/6/97)

1884        Oct 11, Anna Eleanor Roosevelt, the niece of President Theodore Roosevelt and wife of President Franklin Roosevelt, was born in New York City. Orphaned as a child, she grew up shy and insecure. She was 1st lady from 1933-1945.
    (HN, 10/11/98) (HNPD, 10/11/99)(MC, 10/11/01)

1884        Oct 13, Greenwich was established as the universal time meridian of longitude. 41 delegates from 25 nations met in Washington, D.C. for the International Meridian Conference. This conference selected the Greenwich Meridian as the official Prime Meridian due to its popularity. However, France abstained from the vote and French maps continued to use the Paris Meridian for several decades.

1884        Oct 14, Transparent paper-strip photographic film was patented by George Eastman. He had invented a flexible paper-backed film that could be wound on rollers. To encourage amateur photography and film sales, Eastman developed a simple black box camera that cost $25 and came already loaded with a 100-exposure roll of film. When the roll was used up, the entire No. 1 Kodak camera was shipped back to Eastman's factory for developing and reloading, at a cost of only $10. Eastman's photographic improvements proved successful, with 13,000 cameras sold in 1888. The roll holder was designed by William Hall Walker. Eastman renamed his corporation the Eastman Dry Plate and Film Company.
    (HN, 7/12/99)(HN, 10/14/00)(ON, 3/05, p.11)

1884        Oct 22, General Charles Gordon received a letter from Mahdi near Khartoum. British Gen’l. Charles "Chinese" Gordon was sent to Khartoum to evacuate the Egyptian garrison. Gordon decided to hold the city against El Mahdi.
    (WSJ, 8/25/98, p.A14)(MC, 10/22/01)

1884        Nov 1, The Gaelic Athletic Association was founded at the in Liberty Square Thurles, County Tipperary, Ireland, to promote traditional Irish sports.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gaelic_Athletic_Association)(Econ, 8/6/05, p.45)

1884        Nov 4, Democrat Grover Cleveland was elected to his first term as president, defeating Republican James G. Blaine. The reference to the Democratic party as the party of "Rum, Romanism and Rebellion" played a large part in Republican candidate James Blaine‘s defeat in the election of 1884. The indiscreet reference made by one of Blaine's supporters has been credited with causing the Blaine‘s loss of the crucial state of New York. Blaine lost the popular vote by less than 100,000 and lost New York by just 1,149, out of a total vote of 1,125,000 cast, to Grover Cleveland, the first Democrat since Buchanan to win a presidential election. Cleveland won by a margin of 30,000 votes.
    (AP, 11/4/97)(HNQ, 9/13/99)(SFEC, 4/23/00, Z1 p.2)
1884        Prior to his first election to the presidency in 1884, Democrat Grover Cleveland, then a bachelor, admitted that Republican charges accusing him of fathering a child as a young man in Buffalo were true. His honesty helped to calm the issue, despite the popular campaign chant against him:
                   "Ma, Ma, where‘s my Pa? Gone to the White House, Ha, Ha, Ha!" Cleveland married Frances Folsom in the White House in 1886. He lost a reelection bid in 1888 to Benjamin Harrison, even though he won the popular vote, but regained the White House in 1892 to serve a second term as the 24th president.
    (HN, 1/19/00)

1884        Nov 8, Hermann Rorschach, Swiss psychiatrist, was born. He was the inventor of the inkblot test.
    (HN, 11/8/00)

1884        Nov 16, William Wells Brown (b~1814),  African-American abolitionist lecturer, novelist, playwright, and historian, died in Massachusetts. His novel “Clotel" (1853) is considered the first novel written by an African American. In 2014 Ezra Greenspan authored “William Wells Brown: An African American Life."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Wells_Brown)(SSFC, 12/14/14, p.Q7)

1884        Nov 17, Cops arrested boxer John L. Sullivan in 2nd round for being "cruel."
    (MC, 11/17/01)

1884        Nov 20, Norman Thomas, socialist and Pres. Candidate 1928-48, was born in Marion, Ohio, and ran for president in six successive elections beginning in 1928.
    (HNQ, 10/21/98)(MC, 11/20/01)

1884        Nov 25, John B. Meyenberg of St. Louis patented evaporated milk.
    (MC, 11/25/01)

1884        Nov, The novel "Ramona" by Helen Hunt Jackson was published. It was about a love affair between a half-Indian girl and a Luisea Indian in southern California. It also served a covert tract on Indian oppression in America. In 1990 Valerie Sherer Mathes published "Helen Hunt Jackson and Her Indian Reform Legacy." In 1998 Mathes edited: "The Indian Reform Letters of Helen Hunt Jackson."
    (SFEC, 12/20/98, BR p.5)

1884        Dec 2, Ruth Draper, actress and writer, was born.
    (HN, 12/2/00)

1884        Dec 6, Army engineers completed construction of the Washington monument.
    (AP, 12/6/97)

1884        Dec 30, Tojo Hideki, Japanese Prime Minister during WWII, was born.
    (HN, 12/30/98)
1884        Dec 30, Anton Bruckner's 7th Symphony in E, premiered in Leipzig.
    (MC, 12/30/01)

1884        Cassilly Adams (1843-1921), American painter, completed a 9x16 foot painting titled “Custer’s Last Fight." It was purchased by Adolphus Busch, president of Anheuser-Busch, in 1888. Lithographs of a smaller copy of the work began to be reproduced in 1896. In 1895 Busch donated the work to the US Seventh Cavalry. It was destroyed by a fire at Fort Bliss, Texas, in 1946.
    (SFC, 12/28/05, p.G5)

1884        Edgar Degas began painting his series of pastels and oils of dancers. The first was done about this time and titled "Danseuses."
    (SFC, 8/26/97, p.A4)

1884        Stanhope Forbes, English painter, began "A Fish Sale on a Cornish Beach." Completed 1885.
    (SFC, 3/31/97, p.E6)

1884        Chauncy Bradley Ives created his sculpture "Undine."
    (SFC, 4/11/01, p.E8)

1884        Claude Monet painted "Corniche of Monaco."
    (WSJ, 8/26/97, p.A1)

1884        Claude Monet painted "Bordighera." It was done on the French Riviera to which he returned after a visit there with Renoir in late 1883. The paintings were marked by bold, pure color in contrast to his earlier subdued pastels.
    (DPCP 1984)

1884        Berthe Morisot (1841-1895) painted the impressionist work "En Bateau sur le Lac de Boulogne." It was valued in 1998 at $600-800 thousand.
    (SFC, 2/14/98, p.A1)(SFC, 5/23/98, p.A19)

1884        John Singer Sargent painted "Madame X." It was a portrait of Mme. Pierre Gautreau. The painting was initially called monstrous and prompted Sargent to move from Paris to the US.
    (WSJ, 2/23/99, p.A20)(WSJ, 4/9/99, p.W16)

1884        Georges Seurat, French artist, painted "Bathers at Asnieres." He also began his 7x10 foot painting “Study for A Sunday Afternoon on La Grande Jatte." The work was completed in 1886 and heralded as a milestone of art theory.
    (WSJ, 6/19/00, p.A44)(WSJ, 7/20/04, p.A1)(SFC, 9/24/10, p.F5)

1884        The Salon des independents in France had no jury and gave no prizes, but all the entries were exhibited. This salon marked the last formal exhibition of Impressionist paintings.
    (Calg. Glen., 1996)

1884        Charles Eliot, president of Harvard, captured the prevailing impatience with the old-fashioned curriculum: Are our men being educated for the work of the twentieth century of the seventeenth."
    (WSJ, 1/28/02, p.A13)

1884        During a lecture tour together, Southern writer George Washington Cable and Samuel Clemens were billed as the "Twins of Genius." Clemens, who used the pen name Mark Twain, joined the popular Southern local-colorist writer Cable in a 15-week lecture tour of the Northeast. Clemens later wrote of Cable, "With his platform talent he was able to fatigue a corpse."
    (HNQ, 3/9/99)

1884        Helen Hunt Jackson wrote her novel "Ramona."
    (SFEC, 4/12/98, BR p.7)

1884        Henry James (1843-1916) wrote his novella “The Author of Beltraffio."
    (WSJ, 7/8/06, p.P8)

1884        Albert T. Morgan (d.1922), a Union veteran who settled in Yazoo, Miss., authored his memoir “Yazoo: On the Picket Line of Freedom in the South: A Personal Narrative." He later became a Mississippi state senator.
    (WSJ, 2/9/08, p.W10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albert_T._Morgan)

1884        Herbert Spencer (1820-1903), English philosopher, authored his libertarian bible: “The Man versus the State."
    (Econ, 3/19/11, SR p.18)

1884        Mark Twain published his classic “The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn."
    (WSJ, 12/2/06, p.P8)

1884        The Leo Delibe ballet "Coppelia" was revised in St. Petersburg by Marius Petipa, the Franco-Russian genius of ballet.
    (WSJ, 6/10/97, p.A16)

1884        The Grolier Club was founded to promote "enthusiasm for books and the books arts."
    (WSJ, 11/30/99, p.A24)

1884        Hillerich & Bradsby, makers of the Louisville Slugger bats, was founded.
    (SFEC, 7/18/99, p.T8)

1884        Pitcher Charles Radbourn, "Ol Hoss," led his team, the Providence Grays, to baseball’s National League pennant.
    (SSFC, 12/17/00, BR p.11)
1884        Moses Fleetwood Walker, a black man, played 42 games for the Toledo Blue Stockings of the American Association.
    (WSJ, 1/30/04, p.A1)

1884        Barbed wire that fenced the west is on display at Oracle Junction, Arizona, and includes Sunderland ‘Kink.’
    (NOHY, 3/90, p.173)

1884        The first Veteran’s Home in California was built in Yountville (Napa Ct.).
    (SFC, 5/20/96, p.A-15)
1884        Elisha Babcock and H.L. Story decided to build a resort hotel on a flat peninsula in San Diego Bay. They built the Hotel del Coronado in 11 months and the town of Coronado grew up around it.
    (SFEC, 1/10/99, p.T6)
1884        In San Francisco Central Park opened at 8th and Market. It featured a new ball park as the popularity of baseball grew.
    (SFC, 9/21/13, p.C3)
1884        In SF Sts. Peter and Paul Church was built in North Beach at the corner of Grant and Filbert. It was destroyed in the 1906 earthquake and rebuilt in 1924 on Washington Square.
    (SSFC, 5/17/09, DB p.50)
1884        A Victorian mansion was built on the corner of Bush and Jones streets. It perished in the 1906 fire but a replica, the Carter House, was built by the Carter Family in Eureka, Ca.
    (SFEC, 4/13/97, p.T5)
1884        Patrick William Riordan succeeded Archbishop Alemany as Archbishop of SF and served until 1914.
    (SSFC, 7/27/03, p.A22)
1884        A block-long, brick machine shop building was built on Third St. and Illinois.
    (SFEC, 12/12/04, p.10)
1884        Hibernia Bank was founded in SF.
    (SFC, 3/25/05, p.F2)
1884        An amusement area in SF named Ocean Beach Pavilion began.
    (SSFC, 7/3/05, p.F1)
1884        In SF, Ca., Adolph Spreckels, son of sugar-baron Claus Spreckels, attempted to kill Michael de Young due to a Chronicle story that accused his father of swindling shareholders. Spreckles was acquitted.
    (SFC, 8/15/05, p.C5)
1884        In San Francisco the Arctic Oil Works opened at Illinois and 17th streets in Mission Bay. It was one of the largest whale processing factories in the world and the building was one of the very first reinforced concrete structures in the United States. It was built by Ernest Ransome.
    (http://tinyurl.com/2vznaq)(SFC, 8/4/18, p.C1)
1884        British interests purchased half the California operations of Lazar Freres and this led to the establishment of the London, Paris and American Bank. This ultimately became part of Crocker National Bank and then Wells Fargo.
    (SFC, 12/11/96, p.D1)
1884        The population of SF was about 225,000 people.
    (SFEM, 3/2/97, p.10)
1884        John Parrot, SF millionaire banker and merchant, died.
    (Ind, 11/24/01, 5A)

1884        J.P. Newburg built a 500-foot-long greased oak track on a 100-foot cliff above Illinois’ Rock River and launched a flat-bottomed boat down it. The popularity of the ride led Newburg to open a version in Chicago.
    (SFC, 12/24/16, p.C2)

1884        The B&O's passenger-car roundhouse was built in Baltimore. It was the largest circular industrial building in the world. It was later turned into a museum.
    (SFEC, 4/25/99, p.T6)(WSJ, 11/23/04, p.D11)

1884        H.W. Mudgett, alias H.H. Holmes, graduated from the Univ. of Michigan Medical School. He went on to build a large home in Chicago that came to be known as Nightmare Castle for its secret passages, trapdoors, chutes, and underground laboratories. Homes-Mudgett slew 20-30 victims, including several wives, young ladies and their husbands. He sold skeletons to medical schools.
    (MT, 6/95, P.10)
1884        Philosopher John Dewey came to teach at the U of M.
    (MT, Fall. ‘97, p.19)

1884        The New York Metropolitan Opera embarked on its first post-season national train tour, and began playing poker to pass the time.
    (WSJ, 1/5/98, p.A1)

1884        A US Federal Court forbade wives of Chinese laborers from entering America and perpetuated a Chinese bachelor society.
    (SFEC, 9/20/98, Z1 p.4)

1884        A federal judge ruled that hydraulic mining must stop destroying the land.
    (SFEC, 1/11/98, DB p.41)

1884        David King Udall, the Mormon bishop in St. Johns, Arizona, was indicted on charges of unlawful cohabitation. He was never convicted, because his second wife lived in another town, and prosecutors could not locate her to compel testimony against him.

1884        Frederick Douglass, Negro abolitionist, was lambasted when he married a white woman (32) from Germany. In 2000 Maria Diedrich authored "Love Across Color Lines: Ottilie Assing & Frederick Douglass."
    (SFEC, 11/17/96, BR p.5)(SFEC, 1/16/00, Par p.8)

1884        Former Yankee Hill Marshall Willie Kennard worked as the bodyguard of Barney Ford (aka the Black Baron of Colorado), a wealthy Denver businessman and former slave.
    (WW, 12/96)

1884        In Dayton, Ohio, John H. Patterson founded the National Cash Register Company (NCR), maker of the first mechanical cash registers. In 1974 the company changed its name to NCR Corp. From 1991 to 1996 it was part of AT&T.
    (www.ncr.com/history/history.htm)(SFC, 5/21/08, p.G7)

1884        Herman Hollerith, a German-American, found a way to store information through holes on cards.
    (WSJ, 3/21/00, p.A20)

1884        The first pea whistle was dubbed the Acme Thunderer and was made by J. Hudson & Co. (Whistles) Ltd. in Birmingham, England.
    (WSJ, 3/30/00, p.A1)

1884        The colony of Rugby, Tennessee, had 350 residents. Thomas Hughes (1822-96), English novelist, reformer, jurist, and author of "John Brown’s School Days," had purchased 75,000 acres in rural Tennessee and founded the colony of Rugby. It was a school for the younger children of England’s wealthy families who were not eligible to inherit family estates. It was meant to teach farming and other useful skills.
    (WUD, 1994, p.691)

1884        Alexander Winton came to Cleveland from Scotland and became a successful bicycle manufacturer.
    (F, 10/7/96, p.66)

1884        Episcopalian Rev. Endicott Peabody founded the Groton School in Massachusetts. He was backed by affluent figures of the time, such as the Rt. Rev. Phillips Brooks, the Rev. William A. Lawrence, William Crowninshield Endicott, J.P. Morgan, and his father, Samuel Endicott Peabody. Peabody received pledges of $39,000 for the construction of a schoolhouse, if an additional $40,000 could be raised as an endowment.
    (WSJ, 1/6/07, p.P13)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Groton_School)

1884        The color tartrazine yellow, one of the 1st synthetic pigments, was patented. In 2002 Philip Ball authored "Bright Earth," a chronicle of how colors evolved through art and science (history of color).
    (WSJ, 3/15/02, p.W8)

1884        Leland Stanford Jr. (15) died of typhus. His death moved the Stanfords to found Stanford Univ.
    (SFC, 6/20/98, p.A15)

1884        The Crow Indians were confined to a reservation in Montana.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crow_Nation)(Econ, 4/16/15, p.78)
1884        Some 500 Blackfeet Indians in Montana died during the winter from starvation. Reservation agent John Young kept rations on hand for the white people.
    (SSFC, 9/9/01, Par p.7)

1884        Ushuaia was founded in southern Argentina as a remote penal colony.
    (SSFC, 4/30/06, p.G5)

1884        Greenwich, site of the Royal Observatory, was urged by the US and Brittain for international adoption as the site for the Prime Meridian, zero degrees longitude at a meeting in Washington D.C. Jerusalem and Paris were also proposed. The French did not acknowledge Greenwich until 1914. Global time zones were also established.
    (NG, Mar, 1990, p. 113-115)
1884        In England part 1 of the Oxford English Dictionary, compiled under the direction of James Murray, was published. Consecutive volumes in alphabetical order of the OED continued to 1928.
    (ON, 11/05, p.6)(Econ, 10/29/16, p.78)
1884        Peacocks was founded in Warrington, England, as a family-run business selling a wide range of cheap goods. In 2012 the British clothing chain fell into administration putting at risk almost 10,000 jobs.
    (Econ, 1/21/12, p.61)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peacocks_%28clothing%29)
1884        Hiram Stevens Maxim went to London and developed the first true machine gun.
1884        Horatio Phillips of England designed a wing with a curved airfoil shape.
    (NPub, 2002, p.5)

1884         Gustav Nachtigal (1834-1885), a German explorer of Central and West Africa, arrived in Cameroon to establish a German empire. He had served as the German Empire's consul-general for Tunisia and Commissioner for West Africa. His mission as commissioner resulted in Togoland and Kamerun becoming the first colonies of a German colonial empire. Kamerun was an African colony of the German Empire from 1884 to 1916 in the region of today's Republic of Cameroon.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gustav_Nachtigal)(BBC, 7/1/20)

1884        In Canada the Quebec City Armory was built. It was famous for having the largest suspended wood ceiling in Canada. In 2008 it was destroyed by fire.
    (SFC, 4/5/08, p.A2)
1884        Metis leaders in Saskatchewan found Louis Riel in Montana and convinced him to set up another provisional government.
    (Reuters, 11/22/02)
1884        Joseph Burr Tyrell led the first expedition for the Geological Survey of Canada to Alberta, Canada. He found rich coal deposits and dinosaur remains along the Red Deer River.
    (CFA, ‘96, p.62)(SSFC, 5/19/13, p.N5)

1884        Chile established a marital code the included a prohibition of divorce. A divorce law was passed in 2004.
    (WSJ, 10/5/04, p.A1)

1884        Roger Casement of Ulster joined an expedition up the Congo River led by Henry Morton Stanely. After 20 years in Africa he became the leading figure in an int’l. campaign to denounce the abuses committed by the Congo’s Belgian colonizers.
    (Econ, 7/7/12, p.75)

1884        In Denmark the Alexander Nevski church was built in Copenhagen on a request by Czarina Maria Feodorovna, the Danish-born mother of Nicholas II.
    (AP, 1/20/10)
1884        In Denmark the Politiken newspaper was founded.
    (AP, 1/6/19)

1884        French artist Paul Philippoteaux (1846-1923) and team of 20 created in Paris the massive Cyclorama painting titled “The Battle of Gettysburg." It was originally 377 feet in circumference. They then shipped it to the US, where it was first displayed in Boston. The US National Park Service acquired it in 1942. In 2008 a 5-year, $15 million restoration project was completed and it was reopened to the public at the Gettysburg National Military Park in Gettysburg, Pa.
    (SSFC, 9/28/08, p.E2)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paul_Philippoteaux)
1884         Vincent Van Gogh painted the work, "Spring Garden." It depicts the garden of the parsonage where his father lived as pastor.
    (The Week, 3/31/20)

1884        Otto von Bismarck, German Chancellor, called on representatives of 13 nations in Europe as well as the United States to take part in the Berlin Conference to work out joint policy on the African continent.
1884        Germany under Chancellor Otto von Bismarck adopted a national workman's compensation program.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R25)
1884        Germany legislated a dual board system of corporate governance.
    (Econ, 4/14/12, p.30)
1884        Ottmar Mergenthaler (1854-1899) of Germany invented the Linotype machine that produced newspaper type. It was used until it was replaced by computers. In 1886 the Chicago Tribune began using the Linotype.
    (SFC, 2/4/98, p.A21)(ON, 7/00, p.5)
1884        Robert Koch, German microbiologist, rediscovered, isolated and cultured the cholera bacillus, Vibrio cholerae. Italian anatomist Fillipo Pacini discovered the bacillus in 1854, but did not prove that it caused cholera.
    (ON, 5/05, p.10)

1884        In India Dabur India Ltd. was established by a doctor who prescribed mintleaf remedies to cure stomach aches. It later became the largest company in ayurvedic medicine.
    (WSJ, 12/27/99, p.B9D)

1884        Japan reportedly discovered the Senkaku islands. In 1895 it ascertained that the Senkaku islands were “terra nullius," controlled or claimed by no one, and annexed them.
    (Econ, 12/22/12, p.53)
1884        Kanehiro Takaki linked the Japanese sailor’s diet of polished rice to the disease beriberi. He found that the addition of mild and vegetables to their diet eliminated the disease.
    (MT, Fall ‘96, p.4)

1884        In Italy Sotirio Boulgaris, a Greek immigrant, founded Bulgari, a silver-jewelry shop, on Rome’s Via Sistina. He had descended from a family of Greek silversmiths. By 1996 there were 54 stores worldwide.
    (SFEM,7/28/96, p.32)(Econ, 4/14/07, p.81)
1884        Rinaldo Piaggio founded Piaggio, an Italian company that went on to make ships, airplanes and helicopters. After World War II developed the Vespa scooter and transformed itself into a pure scooter-maker.
    (Econ, 7/15/06, p.64)

1884        The Russian book “Way of a Pilgrim," or a copy of it, was present at a Mount Athos monastery in Greece in the 19th century, and was first published in Kazan, Tatarstan, under the Russian title that translates as "Candid Narratives of a Pilgrim to His Spiritual Father." In 1931 it was translated into English by R. M. French. The story recounted the narrator's journey as a mendicant pilgrim across Russia while practicing the Jesus Prayer.
1884        Russia’s Czar Alexander III commissioned jeweler Carl Gustavovich Faberge (1846-1920) to make an Easter egg for the Empress. She received the 1st egg Easter Sunday in 1885 and the tradition continued to 1917. In 2008 Toby Faber authored “Faberge’s Eggs: The Extraordinary Story of the Masterpieces That Outlived and Empire."
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)(SSFC, 3/27/05, p.M2)(WSJ, 10/5/08, p.A17)

1884        Spain annexed the coastal area of Western Sahara.
    (SFC, 11/27/00, p.A12)

1884        Turkey passed a law stating that all antiquities were the property of the state and could not be taken out of the country. The law was updated in 1906.
    (Econ, 5/19/12, p.90)

1884        English explorers Everhard Im Thurn and Harry Perkins became the 1st Westerners to reach the 9,200 summit of Roraima in Venezuela.
    (SSFC, 12/14/03, p.C5)

1884-1933     Sara Teasdale, American author and poet: "I found more joy in sorrow / Than you could find in joy." "No one worth possessing can be quite possessed."
    (AP, 9/21/97)(AP, 12/18/97)

1884-1946    Damon Runyan, American writer: "You can keep the things of bronze and stone and give me one man to remember me just once a year."
    (AP, 12/20/99)

1884-1959    Max Beckmann, artist. He was a European modernist painter of extreme pessimism.
    (SFC, 6/11/99, p.C3)

1884-1962     Eleanor Roosevelt, American first lady: "You gain strength, courage and confidence by every experience in which you really stop to look fear in the face. ... You must do the thing you think you cannot do."
    (AP, 1/6/98)

1884-1963     Phyllis Bottome, English author: "There is nothing final about a mistake, except its being taken as final." "Nothing ever really sets human nature free, but self-control."
    (AP, 5/25/98)(AP, 3/299)

1884-1963    Frank R. Paul, illustrator. His work included a scene from "War of the Worlds" by H. G. Wells.
    (WSJ, 5/30/00, p.A24)

1884-1963    Charles Seymour, American educator and historian: "We shall seek the truth and endure the consequences."
    (AP, 9/8/99)

1884-1966     Georges Duhamel, French author: "If anyone tells you something strange about the world, something you had never heard before, do not laugh but listen attentively; make him repeat it, make him explain it; no doubt there is something there worth taking hold of."
    (AP, 4/20/97)

1884-1979     Florida Scott-Maxwell, American writer and psychologist: "Life is a tragic mystery. We are pierced and driven by laws we only half understand, we find that the lesson we learn again and again is that of accepting heroic helplessness."
    (AP, 9/2/97)

1884-1984    The Fort Rosencrans National Cemetery near San Diego with 65,000 veterans, some from the Mexican War, ran out of room after 100 years.
    (AAM, 3/96, p.53)

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