Timeline 1864-1866

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1864        Jan 1, Alfred Stieglitz (d.1946), American photographer, was born in New Jersey.

1864        Jan 3, John Joseph Hughes (b.1797), Irish-born Archbishop of the Catholic diocese of NY, died.
    (WSJ, 12/5/08, p.A19)(www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/John-Joseph-Hughes)

1864        Jan 8, David O. Dodd (17), an Arkansas teenage spy, was hanged by Union forces the grounds of his former school. He reportedly chose to hang rather than betray the Confederate cause.
    (AP, 10/14/12)

1864        Jan 10, George Washington Carver (d.1943), American botanist and a former slave who became a scientist and inventor, gave the world peanut butter, was born. "Ninety-nine percent of the failures come from people who have the habit of making excuses."
    (AP, 9/20/98)(HN, 1/10/99)

1864        Jan 11, H. George Selfridge, founder of the British store Selfridge and Co., Ltd., was born. He was the first to say "the customer is always right."
    (HN, 1/11/99)
1864        Jan 11, Charing Cross Station opened in London.
    (MC, 1/11/02)

1864        Jan 13, Wilhelm K.W. Wien (d.1928), German physicist (Nobel 1911), was born.
1864        Jan 13, Composer Stephen Foster (37), composer and American song writer, died in a New York City hospital. Ken Emerson later authored his biography.
    (HFA, '96, p.22)(AHD, p. 519)(AP, 1/13/98)(SFC, 4/23/01, p.E4)

1864        Jan 14, Confederate President Jefferson Davis wrote to General Johnson, observing that troops might need to be sent to Alabama or Mississippi.
    (HN, 1/14/99)
1864        Jan 14, General Sherman began his march to the South.
    (MC, 1/14/02)

1864        Jan 16, A celebration was held in San Jose for the completion of the San Francisco and San Jose Railroad.
    (Ind, 4/20/02, 5A)

1864        Jan 24, Eliza Sinclair (d.1892), a widow from New Zealand, paid the Hawaiian monarchy $10,000 in gold for the 70-square-mile Hawaiian island of Niihau. Her son-in-law, Valdemar Knudsen, later paid an additional 1,000 silver dollars for 50 acres that were not included in the original deal.

1864        Feb 5, Federal forces occupied Jackson, Miss.
    (HN, 2/5/99)

1864        Feb 7, Federal troops occupied Jacksonville, Florida.
    (MC, 2/7/02)

1864        Feb 9, After a courtship that began at a party on Thanksgiving Day 1862, Brevet General George Armstrong Custer and Miss Elizabeth Bacon, both of Monroe, Michigan, married. Until Custer died at the Battle of the Little Bighorn a dozen years later, Libbie followed him to postings throughout the West whenever possible. Libbie never remarried, even though she outlived her husband by 50 years, preferring to keep his memory alive by lecturing and writing books about their life together on the Plains. Elizabeth Custer lived comfortably in New York City until her death on April 8, 1933, at the age of 91.
    (HNPD, 2/9/99)
1864        Feb 9, 109 Union prisoners escaped through a tunnel from the Confederate Libby Prison in Richmond, Va., including Lt. James M. Wells of Michigan. In 1904 Wells published an account of the escape in the Jan. issue of McClure’s Magazine.
    (ON, 3/01, p.7)

1864        Feb 10, Konstanty Kalinowski, the last Lithuanian provincial rebel leader, was captured. He was hanged a month later.
    (LHC, 2/10/03)

1864        Feb 13, Miridian Campaign fighting at Chunky Creek and Wyatt, Mississippi.
    (MC, 2/13/02)

1864        Feb 16, Battle of Mobile, Al., operations by Union Army.
    (MC, 2/16/02)

1864        Feb 17, Andrew Barton "Banjo" Paterson (d.1941), Australian poet and journalist, was born. He is best known for his song “Waltzing Matilda."
    (HN, 2/17/01)(NG, 8/04, p.29)
1864        Feb 17, Confederate officer George Dixon used the submarine H.L. Hunley to sink the USS Housatonic in Charleston Harbor, S.C. 5 Union soldiers died on the Housatonic as did the 9-man crew of the Hunley as it soon sank. In 1995 the Hunley was found by Clive Cussler. The event was turned into a TNT cable movie in 1999. On Aug 8, 2000, the Hunley was raised and returned to Charleston.
    (HN, 2/17/98)(SFC, 7/9/99, p.C1)(SFC, 8/9/00, p.A3)(Econ, 4/10/04, p.25)

1864        Feb 20, Confederate troops defeated a Union army sent to bring Florida into the union at the Battle of Olustee, Fla.
    (HN, 2/20/99)

1864        Feb 21, The 1st US Catholic parish church for blacks was dedicated in Baltimore.
    (MC, 2/21/02)
1864        Feb 21-22, Battle at Okolona, Mississippi.
    (MC, 2/21/02)

1864        Feb 22, Nathan Bedford Forrest’s brother, Jeffrey, was killed at Okolona, Miss. Nathan Bedford Forrest (1821-1877) was a Confederate cavalry general.
    (HN, 2/22/98)(WUD, 1994, p.558)
1864        Feb 22-27, Battle at Dalton, Georgia.
    (MC, 2/22/02)

1864        Feb 24-25, Battle of Tunnel Hill, GA (Buzzard's Roost).
    (MC, 2/24/02)

1864        Feb 27, The 6th and last day of battle at Dalton, Georgia, (about 600 casualties).
    (MC, 2/27/02)
1864        Feb 27, First Union prisoners arrived at Camp Sumpter prison near Andersonville, Georgia. It was designed for 6,000 prisoners but by summer’s end held 33,000. After enduring the hardship of being held in the South's Andersonville and Cahaba prison camps, A terrible disaster befell hundreds of Union soldiers who were being shipped home on the steamer Sultana at the end of the Civil War.
    (HN, 2/27/98)(MC, 2/27/02)(AHHT, 10/02, p.20)

1864        Feb 28-Mar 3, A skirmish took place at Albemarle County, Virginia (Burton's Ford).
    (MC, 2/28/02)

1864        Feb 29, Union Brig. Gen. Judson Kilpatrick split his forces at the Rapidan River ordering Col. Ulric Dahlgren to lead 500 men his men to Goochland Court House, while the remainder followed Kilpatrick in his raid on Richmond.
    (HN, 2/29/00)
1864        Feb 29, Lt. William B. Cushing led a landing party from the USS Monticello to Smithville, NC, in an attempt to capture Confederate Brig. Gen. Louis Hebert, only to discover that Hebert and his men had already moved on Wilmington.
    (HN, 2/29/00)

1864        Mar 1, Rebecca Lee (1831-1895) became the first black woman to receive an American medical degree, from the New England Female Medical College in Boston.
    (AP, 3/1/00)(www.nlm.nih.gov/changingthefaceofmedicine/physicians/biography_73.html)
1864        Mar 1, Louis Ducos du Hauron patented a movie machine that was never built.
    (SC, 3/1/02)

1864        Mar 4, Thomas Starr King (b.1824), Unitarian minister, died in SF. During the Civil War, he spoke zealously in favor of the Union and was credited by Abraham Lincoln with saving California from becoming a separate republic. In addition, he organized the Pacific Branch of the United States Sanitary Commission, which cared for wounded soldiers. He led many rallies on behalf of the Union in SF, and the site of the rallies was later renamed Union Square.
    (SSFC, 7/21/02, p.F2)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Starr_King)

1864        Mar 9, 1864, President Abraham Lincoln officially commissioned Ulysses S. Grant lieutenant general in the U.S. Army. After leading Union victories in the West in 1862-63, Lincoln gave Grant supreme command of the Union forces with the revived rank of lieutenant general.
    (HNQ, 3/13/99)

1864        Mar 10, Ulysses S. Grant became commander of the Union armies in the Civil War.
    (AP, 3/10/98)
1864        Mar 10, Red River campaign took place in LA. [see Mar 15]
    (MC, 3/10/02)

1864        Mar 12, Ulysses S. Grant became commander in chief of the Union armies in the American Civil War.
    (AP, 3/12/07)

1864        Mar 14, Casey Jones (John Luther Jones), railroad engineer, was born.
    (HFA, ‘96, p.26)(HN, 3/14/01)(MC, 3/14/02)
1864        Mar 14, Rossini's "Petite Messe Solennelle," premiered in Paris.
    (MC, 3/14/02)
1864        Mar 14, Samuel and Florence Baker arrived at Lake Luta N’Zige and named it Lake Albert. They soon found that the Nile entered the lake at a 130-foot waterfall that they named Murchison Falls (Uganda) after the president of the British Royal Geographical Society. In 2004 Pat shipman authored “To the Heart of the Nile: Lady Florence Baker and the Exploration of Central Africa."
    (ON, 10/01, p.12)(Econ, 4/24/04, p.87)

1864        Mar 15, Red River Campaign began as the Union forces reached Alexandria, La.
    (HN, 3/15/98)

1864        Mar 18, The Dale Dike on Humber River, England, crumbled drowning some 240.
    (MC, 3/18/02)

1864        Mar 19, Montana vigilantes lynched Jack Slade (33), a hell-raising freight hauler. Mark Twain had encountered Slade in 1861 and included him in his book “Roughing It" (1872). In 2008 Dan Rottenberg authored “Death of a Gunfighter: The Quest for Jack Slade, the West’s Most Elusive Legend."
    (WSJ, 11/11/08, p.A15)(www.twainquotes.com/Slade.html)
1864        Mar 19, Charles Gounod's opera "Mireille" premiered in Paris.
    (MC, 3/19/02)
1864        Mar 19, Alexandre Calame (b.1810), Swiss painter, died in Menton, France.

1864        Mar 21, Battle at Henderson's Hill (Bayou Rapids), Louisiana.
    (MC, 3/21/02)

1864        Mar 23, Encounter at Camden, AR.
    (SS, 3/23/02)

1864        Mar 25, Battle of Paducah, KY (Forrest's raid).
    (MC, 3/25/02)

1864        Mar 26, British metalworkers in Scunthorpe charged their first blast furnace. Iron ore mining in the area had begun in July 1860.

1864        Mar 28, A group of Copperheads attacked Federal soldiers in Charleston Ill. Five were killed and twenty wounded.
    (HN, 3/28/99)

1864        Mar 29, Union General Steele's troops reached Arkadelphia,  Arkansas.
    (MC, 3/29/02)

1864        Mar 30, Skirmish at Mount Elba, Arkansas.
    (MC, 3/30/02)

1864        Apr 1, The first travel accident policy was issued to James Batterson by the Travelers Insurance Company.

1864        Apr 2, Skirmish at Crump's Hill (Piney Woods), Louisiana.
    (MC, 4/2/02)
1864        Apr 2, Skirmish at Spoonville-Antoine, Arkansas.
    (MC, 4/2/02)

1864        Apr 8, In the Battle of Mansfield, Louisiana, Federals were routed by Confederate Gen. Richard Taylor. Keatchi girl’s school was taken over as a hospital for the injured soldiers.
    (HN, 4/8/98)(SSFC, 7/7/02, p.C5)

1864        Apr 9, The Battle of Pleasant Hill, LA, left 2,870 casualties.
    (MC, 4/9/02)

1864        Apr 10, Eugene Francis Charles D'Albert, German pianist, composer (Golem), was born.
    (MC, 4/10/02)   
1864        Apr 10, The French crowned Archduke Maximilian, the younger brother of Austria’s Franz Josef, as ruler of Mexico.
    (CLTIH, 4/10/96)(WSJ, 5/5/00, p.W17)

1864        Apr 12, Battle of Blair's Landing in LA.
    (MC, 4/12/02)
1864        Apr 12, Confederate forces under Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest captured Fort Pillow, Tennessee, and killed many black Union troops there. Charged with ruthless killing, Forrest argued that the soldiers had been killed trying to escape; however, racial animosity on the part of his troops was undoubtedly a factor.
    (HN, 4/12/99)( http://www.civilwarweb.com/articles/05-99/ftpillow.htm)

1864        Apr 15, General Steele's Union troops occupied Camden, Arkansas.
    (MC, 4/15/02)

1864        Apr 16, Flora Batson, soprano baritone singer, was born.
    (HN, 4/16/99)

1864        Apr 17, General Grant banned the trading of prisoners.
    (HN, 4/17/98)
1864        Apr 17, There was a bread revolt in Savannah, Georgia.
    (MC, 4/17/02)

1864        Apr 18, Richard Harding Davis, journalist, was born.
    (HN, 4/18/01)

1864        Apr 19, Naval Engagement at Cherbourg, France: USS Kearsarge vs. CSS Alabama. [see Jun 19]
    (MC, 4/19/02)

1864        Apr 21, Max Weber (d.1920), German sociologist and political economist, was born. Weber drew strong connection between Protestantism and the rise of capitalism in "The Protestant and the Spirit of Capitalism" (1904). "He was the first sociologist to grasp that the universe has no true meaning." In 1996 "Max Weber: Politics and the Spirit of Tragedy" by John Patrick Diggins was published.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.167)(WSJ, 9/3/98, p.A1)(HN, 4/21/01)

1864        Apr 22, Congress authorized the use of the phrase "In God We Trust" on for the 1st time on a 2 cent coin.
    (AP, 4/22/97)(www.treasury.gov/about/education/Pages/in-god-we-trust.aspx)

1864        Apr 23, Battle of Cane River, LA (Red River Expedition, Monett's Ferry).
    (MC, 4/23/02)

1864        Apr 25, Battle of Marks’ Mill, Arkansas.
    (HN, 4/25/98)
1864        Apr 25, After facing defeat in the Red River Campaign, Union General Nathaniel Bank returned to Alexandria, Louisiana.
    (HN, 4/25/99)

1864        Apr 30, Work began on the Dams along the Red River which would allow Union General Nathaniel Banks’ troops to sail over the rapids above Alexandria, Louisiana.
    (HN, 4/30/98)
1864        Apr 30, New York became the 1st state to charge for a hunting license.
    (MC, 4/30/02)

1864        Apr, At Fort Pillow, Tenn., Confederate troops murdered at least 25 black Union soldiers who had surrendered and begged for their lives. In 1996 "Don’t Know Much About the Civil War: Everything You Need to Know About America’s Greatest Conflict But Never Learned" by Kenneth C. Davis was published.
    (SFC, 6/19/96, p.E8)

1864        May 1-8, Battle at Alexandria, Louisiana (Red River Campaign).
    (MC, 5/1/02)
1864        May 1, Atlanta campaign, GA.
    (MC, 5/1/02)
1864        May 4, Ulysses S. Grant crossed Rapidan and began his duel with Robert E. Lee’s Confederate army.
    (HN, 5/4/98)

1864        May 5, Atlanta Campaign: 5 days fighting began at Rocky Face Ridge.
    (MC, 5/5/02)
1864        May 5, The Battle of Wilderness began as Robert E. Lee caught U.S. Grant's forces in the Virginia woods. It was the first in a series of clashes fought as Grant's army advanced on Richmond, Va. During the close range fighting in the dense woods of Virginia, forest fires broke out, killing many wounded soldiers. While the battle ended as a tactical draw, Lee was unable to halt Grant's progress toward Richmond.
    (HN, 5/5/98)(HNPD, 5/5/99)
1864        May 5, Battle between Confederate & Union ships at mouth of Roanoke.
    (MC, 5/5/02)

1864        May 6, In the second day of the Battle of Wilderness between Union General Ulysses S. Grant and Confederate General Robert E. Lee, Confederate Gen. James Longstreet (d.1903) was wounded by his own men.
    (HN, 5/6/99)(MC, 5/6/02)
1864        May 6, General Sherman began to advance on Atlanta.
    (MC, 5/6/02)

1864        May 7, In Virginia the Battle of Wilderness ended, with heavy losses to both sides. Union losses were 17,666; CSA-7,500. In 2002 the US federal government bought the 465-acre tract of the battle site and incorporated it into Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania Military Park.
    (HN, 5/7/98)(AARP, 7/05, p.12)

1864        May 8, Union troops arrived at Spotsylvania Court House to find the Confederates waiting for them.
    (HN, 5/8/99)
1864        May 8, The Atlanta Campaign saw severe fighting at Rocky Face Ridge.
    (HN, 5/8/98)

1864        May 8-19 Grant and Lee‘s armies suffered horrendous losses at the "Bloody Angle" during the Battle of Spotsylvania. Shortly after the Battle of the Wilderness, Grant‘s Union forces once again attempted to outflank or smash Lee‘s Confederates. Defensive breastworks contributed to savage, close combat that lasted about a week and a half, resulting in 17,000 Union and 8,000 casualties.
    (HNQ, 10//00)

1864        May 9, Union General John Sedgwick was shot and killed by a confederate sharpshooter during fighting at Spotsylvania, Va. His last words before getting hit were "They couldn't hit an elephant at this distance."
    (HN, 5/9/99)
1864        May 9, Battle of Dalton, GA.
    (MC, 5/9/02)
1864        May 9, Battle of Cloyd's Mt. and Swift Creek, VA (Drewry’s Bluff, Ft. Darling).
    (MC, 5/9/02)
1864        May 9, Austria and Denmark held a ship battle at Helgoland.
    (MC, 5/9/02)

1864        May 10, Battles at Spotsylvania Court House, Virginia. [see May 8]
    (MC, 5/10/02)

1864        May 11, Confederate General J.E.B. Stuart was mortally wounded at Yellow Tavern.
    (HN, 5/11/98)

1864        May 12, The Battle of Spotsylvania Courthouse, Virginia, was fought.
    (SC, Internet, 5/12/97)
1864        May 12, Battle of Todd's Tavern, VA (Sheridan's Raid).
    (MC, 5/12/02)
1864        May 12, Union General Benjamin Butler attacked Drewry’s Bluff on the James River.
    (SC, internet, 5/12/97)(HN, 5/12/99)
1864        May 12, J.E.B. Stuart (31), Confederate Gen’l., died. [see May 11]
    (SC, Internet, 5/12/97)(MC, 5/12/02)

1864        May 13, Battle of Resaca commenced as Union General Sherman fought towards Atlanta.
    (SS, Internet, 5/13/97)(HN, 5/13/98)
1864        May 13, Union soldier William Christman became the first US soldier to be laid to rest at Arlington National Cemetery. His death was due to measles.
    (SFC, 5/14/14, p.A6)

1864        May 15, At Battle of New Market, Virginia, Military Institute cadets repelled a Union attack.
    (HN, 5/15/99)
1864        May 15, In mid-May about daylight Major Downing succeeded in surprising the Cheyenne village of Cedar Bluffs, in a small canon about 60 miles north of the South Platte river. “We commenced shooting. I ordered the men to commence killing them. They lost, as I am informed, some 26 killed and 30 wounded. My own loss was one killed and one wounded. I burnt up their lodges and everything I could get hold of. I took no prisoners. We got out of ammunition and could not pursue them."

1864        May 16, In the Atlanta Campaign, the battle of Resaca, begun May 13, ended.
    (MC, 5/16/02)

1864        May 17, The Battle of Adairsville, Georgia, resulted in a Confederate retreat.
    (HN, 5/17/98)

1864        May 18, Jan P. Veth Bayern, Dutch painter, etcher, lithographer, art historian, was born.
    (SC, 5/18/02)
1864        May 18, The fighting at Spotsylvania in Virginia, reached its peak at the Bloody Angle.
    (HN, 5/18/99)
1864        May 18, Battle of Yellow Bayou, LA (Bayou de Glaize, Old Oaks).
    (SC, 5/18/02)
1864        May 18, James Byron Gordon (41) Confederate Brigadier-General, died.
    (SC, 5/18/02)

1864        May 19, The last engagement in a series of battles of Spotsylvania was fought. Following the American Civil War Battle of Spotsylvania in 1864, General Ulysses S. Grant said, "The world has never seen so bloody and so protracted a battle as the one being fought and I hope never will again."
    (HN, 5/19/98)(HNQ, 2/12/99)
1864        May 19, Battle of Port Walthall Junction, VA (Bermuda Hundred).
    (MC, 5/19/02)
1864        May 19, Nathaniel Hawthorne (b.1804), US writer (Scarlet Letter), died in Plymouth, New Hampshire. Friend and former US Pres. Franklin Pierce was at his bedside. In 2003 Brenda Wineapple authored "Hawthorne: A Life."
    (MC, 5/19/02)(http://www.gradesaver.com/)(SSFC, 10/5/03, p.M1)

1864        May 20, Battle at Ware Bottom Church, Virginia, killed or injured 1,400.
    (MC, 5/20/02)
1864        May 20, Spotsylvania-campaign ended after 10,920 were killed or injured person.
    (MC, 5/20/02)

1864        May 21, Gen. David Hunter took command of Dept. of West Virginia.
    (MC, 5/21/02)

1864        May 22, Battle of North Anna River, VA.
    (MC, 5/22/02)

1864        May 23, Union General Ulysses Grant attempted to outflank Lee in the Battle of North Anna, Virginia.
    (HN, 5/23/98)

1864        May 25, Battle of New Hope Church, Ga. Joseph E. Johnston tried to halt Sherman’s advance on Atlanta at the Hell Hole.
    (SC, 5/25/02)(AM, 11/04, p.28)

1864        May 26, Congress created the Montana Territory and Virginia City became the capital in 1865. Helena was made capital of the territory in 1875.  Montana became the 41st state in 1889, with Helena the state capital.
    (AP, 5/26/98)(HNQ, 2/9/00)
1864        May 26-30, There was a skirmish along the Totopotomoy Creek, Virginia.
    (MC, 5/26/02)

1864        May 29, A.H. Borgesius, Dutch amateur astronomer, was born.
    (SC, 5/29/02)
1864        May 29, Mexican Emperor Maximilian arrived at Vera Cruz.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1864        May 30, Battle of Bethesda Church, VA.
    (MC, 5/30/02)

1864        Jun 1, Battle of Cold Harbor, Virginia, began as Lee tried to turn Grant’s flank.
    (HN, 6/1/98)
1864        Jun 1-Nov, Shenandoah Valley campaign began. (MC, 6/1/02)
1864        Jun 1, Hong Xiuquan (b.1814), leader of the Taiping Heavenly Army, died from poisoning. At the time of his death his led over 100,000 troops and controlled an area bigger than France. In 1996 Jonathan Spence authored “God’s Chinese Son," a biography of Xiuquan, who believed himself to be God’s second son.
    (WSJ, 8/18/07, p.P9)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hong_Xiuquan)

1864        Jun 2, This was day 2 in the US Civil War Battle of Cold Harbor.
    (SC, 6/2/02)
1864        Jun 2, The Circassian-Russian war, begun in 1763, ended. It left about a million Circassians of the northwest Caucasus dead. Historians in general agree on the figure of some 500,000 inhabitants of the highland Caucasus being deported by Russia in the 1860s. A large fraction of them died in transit from disease.
    (Econ, 5/26/12, p.61)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russian%E2%80%93Circassian_War)

1864        Jun 3, Some 7,000 Union troops were killed within 30 minutes during the Battle of Cold Harbor in Virginia. General Lee won his last victory of the Civil War at the Battle of Cold Harbor in Virginia
    (HN, 6/3/98)(MC, 6/3/02)

1864        Jun 4, With Gen. Sherman again flanking them, Confederates under General Joseph Johnston retreated to the mountains before Marietta, Georgia. General Joseph E. Johnston, the Confederacy’s second-ranking field general, described the army led by Union General William Tecumseh Sherman as the best "since the days of Julius Caesar."
    (HN, 6/4/98)(HNQ, 9/4/98)

1864        Jun 5, Battle of Piedmont, VA (Augusta City).
    (MC, 6/5/02)
1864        Jun 8, Abraham Lincoln was nominated for another term as president during the National Union (Republican) Party's convention in Baltimore.
    (AP, 6/8/07)

1864        Jun 9, Battle of Kenesaw Mountain, GA (Pine Mt, Pine Knob, Golgotha).
    (MC, 6/9/02)

1864        Jun 11, Gen. Wade Hampton (1818-1902) led a company of Citadel cadets at the battle of Trevilian Station in Virginia.
    (WSJ, 6/7/08, p.W9)(http://civilwarcavalry.com/?p=207)
1864        Jun 11, Richard Strauss (d.1949), German orchestra conductor and composer, was born. His work included "Daphne" and "Ariadne auf Naxos," (1912).
    (CFA, ‘96, p.48)(WUD, 1994, p.1405)

1864        Jun 12, Lee sent Early into the Shenandoah Valley.
    (MC, 6/12/02)

1864        Jun 14, Alois Alzheimer (d.1915), German psychiatrist, pathologist (Alzheimer Disease), was born.
1864        Jun 14, At the Battle of Pine Mountain, Georgia, Confederate General Leonidas Polk was killed by a Union shell.
    (HN, 6/14/98)

1864        Jun 15, Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton signed an order establishing a military burial ground at Robert E. Lee's home estate at Arlington. This became Arlington National Cemetery. It was founded by Union Quartermaster Gen. Montgomery C. Meigs, who had lost a son in the war. The first soldier buried at Arlington was on May 13, 1864.
    (AP, 6/15/97)(SFC, 2/16/09, p.E6)(SFC, 5/14/14, p.A6)
1864        Jun 15, Battle for Petersburg, Virg., began as Union forces skirmished against the Confederate line.
    (HN, 6/15/98)

1864        Jun 16, Siege of Petersburg and Richmond began after a moonlight skirmish.
    (HN, 6/16/98)
1864        Jun 16, Battle of Lynchburg, VA.
    (MC, 6/16/02)

1864        Jun 17, A 640 meter long pontoon bridge over the James River in Virginia was finished.
    (MC, 6/17/02)
1864        Jun 17, General John B. Hood replaced General Johnston as head of CSA troops around Atlanta.
    (MC, 6/17/02)

1864        Jun 18, At Petersburg, Union General Ulysses S. Grant realized the town could no longer be taken by assault and settled into a siege.
    (HN, 6/18/98)

1864        Jun 19, Skirmish at Pine Knob Georgia.
    (DTnet, 6/19/97)
1864        Jun 19, The CSS "Alabama" was sunk by the USS "Kearsarge" off Cherbourg, France. The Alabama had captured, sank or burned 68 ships in 22 months.
    (DT, 6/19/97)(HN, 6/19/98)(HNQ, 11/28/00)

1864        Jun 20, Battle of Petersburg, VA, in trenches.
    (MC, 6/20/02)

1864        Jun 22, Confederate General A. P. Hill turned back a Federal flanking movement at the Weldon Railroad near Petersburg, Virginia.
    (HN, 6/22/98)
1864        Jun 22, Battle of Ream's Station, VA (Wilson's Raid).
    (MC, 6/22/02)

1864        Jun 25, Union troops surrounding Petersburg, Virginia began building a mine tunnel underneath the Confederate lines. With the Army of Northern Virginia stubbornly clinging to Petersburg, Ulysses S. Grant decided to cut its vital rail lines.
    (HN, 6/25/98)

1864        Jun 27, General Sherman was repulsed by Confederates at the Battle of Kennesaw Mountain.
    (HN, 6/27/98)

1864        Jun 29, In Canada the St-Hilaire train disaster occurred near the town of Mont-Saint-Hilaire, Quebec. The train, which had been carrying many German and Polish immigrants, failed to acknowledge a stop signal and fell through an open swing bridge into the Richelieu River. The widely accepted death toll was 99 persons.

1864        Jun 30, Pres. Lincoln signed legislation creating America’s first national park. Congress gave to California the lands known as Yosemite with the understanding that the state would preserve them for public enjoyment.
    (SFEC, 10/18/98, p.T4)(SSFC, 6/22/14, p.P6)

1864        Jul 1, Battle of Petersburg, VA, began.
    (MC, 7/1/02)

1864        Jul 2, Statuary Hall in US Capitol was established.
    (SC, 7/2/02)
1864        Jul 2, Gen. Early and Confederate forces reached Winchester.
    (SC, 7/2/02)

1864        Jul 3, Battle of Chattahoochee River, GA, began and lasted until Jul 9.
    (MC, 7/3/02)
1864        Jul 3, At Harpers Ferry, WV, Federals evacuated in face of Early's advance.
    (MC, 7/3/02)

1864        Jul 4-9, Battle at Chattahoochee River, Georgia.
    (MC, 7/4/02)

1864        Jul 5, William Ralston founded the Bank of California with $2 million in capital.
    (Ind, 11/2/02, 5A)(SFC, 4/7/06, SF Rising p.14)

1864        Jul 6, Battle of Chattahoochee River, GA.
    (MC, 7/6/02)

1864        Jul 8, Confederate General Joseph E. Johnston retreated into Atlanta to prevent being flanked by Union General William T. Sherman.
    (HN, 7/8/98)

1864        Jul 9, An informal force of Union troops was defeated by Jubal Early at Monacacy, Maryland. Gen’l. Lew Wallace was able to detain Confederate Lt. Gen’l. Jubal from an early advance on Washington. Federal casualties numbered 1959 vs. 400 Confederate.
    (HT, 3/97, p.66)(AP, 7/11/97)(HN, 7/9/98)(MC, 7/9/02)

1864        Jul 10, During the siege of Petersburg, General Ulysses S. Grant established a huge supply center, called City Point, at the confluence of the James and Appomattox rivers. After nearly 10 months of trench warfare, Confederate resistance at Petersburg, Va., suddenly collapsed. Desperate to save his army, Robert E. Lee called on his soldiers for one last miracle.
    (HN, 7/10/98)

1864        Jul 11, Confederate General Jubal Early's army arrived in Silver Spring, Maryland, on the outskirts of Washington, D.C., and began to probe the Union line. Confederate forces led by Gen. Jubal Early began an invasion of Washington, D.C., turning back the next day.
    (HT, 3/97, p.66)(AP, 7/11/97)(HN, 7/11/98)
1864        Jul 11(Jun 11), Battle of Laurel Hill, WV.
    (MC, 7/11/02)
1864        Jul 11(Jun 11), Battle of Trevillian Station, VA (Central Railroad).
    (MC, 7/11/02)

1864        Jul 12, President Abraham Lincoln became the first standing president to witness a battle as Union forces repelled Jubal Early’s army on the outskirts of Washington, D.C.
    (HN, 7/12/98)

1864        Jul 13, Gen Jubal Early retreated from the outskirts of Washington back to Shenandoah Valley.
    (MC, 7/13/02)

1864        Jul 14, At Harrisburg, Mississippi, Federal troops under General Andrew Jackson Smith repulsed an attack by General Nathan Bedford Forrest, one of Forrest’s only two defeats.
    (HN, 7/14/98)
1864        Jul 14, Gold was discovered in Helena, Mont. Four prospectors discovered gold in a small stream they called "Last Chance." This marked the birth of Helena, future capital of Montana. [see 1863]
    (Visitor’s brochure, 9/11/97)(MC, 7/14/02)

1864        Jul 17, Confederate President Jefferson Davis replaced General Joseph E. Johnston with General John Bell Hood in hopes of defeating Union General William T. Sherman outside Atlanta.
    (HN, 7/17/98)

1864        Jul 18, President Lincoln asked for 500,000 volunteers for military service.
    (MC, 7/18/02)

1864        Jul 18-20, Battle of Winchester, VA (Stephenson's Depot).
    (MC, 7/19/02)

1864        Jul 20, Confederate General John Bell Hood attacked Union forces under General William T. Sherman outside Atlanta. Gen. Hood lashed out against the Union right wing north of the city. Repulsed but undaunted, Hood turned to strike the Federal left wing, Major General James B. McPherson’s Army of the Tennessee, east of Atlanta. He deployed Major General Benjamin F. Chatham’s corps northeast of the city and sent Lieutenant General William J. Hardee's corps around McPherson’s left flank with orders to crush the Army of the Tennessee on the morning of July 22. Both corps were then to assail the rest of Sherman’s host. Battle of Peachtree Creek was part of the Atlanta Campaign.
    (HN, 7/20/98)(HNQ, 7/19/01)(MC, 7/20/02)

1864        Jul 22, The Battle of Atlanta reached its peak when Confederate General John Bell Hood launched an all-out attack on Union General William T. Sherman's Army. Union General James McPherson was killed repulsing a Confederate attack. The Federal officer who sent his men naked against the enemy was Colonel James P. Brownlow of the 1st (Union) Tennessee Cavalry. Confederate casualties numbered 8449, 3641 US. In the mid-1880s a team of German artists in Milwaukee made a cyclorama of the battle to celebrate northern heroism. The six-ton work was then displayed in the south with its meaning reversed and uniforms recolored before being donated to the city of Atlanta. In 2017 it was leased from the city, restored and displayed in a bespoke rotunda with explanations of its past and the battle.
    (HN, 7/22/98)(Econ, 4/29/17, p.22)

1864        Jul 24, In the Battle of Winchester, VA, casualties numbered US1200 and CS600.
    (MC, 7/24/02)

1864        Jul 26-31, Riots took place at McCook's to Lovejoy Station, and Stoneman's to Macon, Georgia.
    (MC, 7/26/02)
1864        Jul 26, Battle at Ezra Chapel (Church), Georgia [Hood's Third Sortie].
    (MC, 7/26/02)

1864        Jul 27, Battle of Darbytown, VA (Deep Bottom, Newmarket Road) (Strawberry Plains).
    (MC, 7/27/02)

1864        Jul 28, Atlanta Campaign-Battle of Ezra Church.
    (SC, 7/28/02)

1864        Jul 29, During the Civil War, Union forces tried to take Petersburg, Va., by exploding a mine under Confederate defense lines. The attack failed. [see Jul 30]
    (AP, 7/30/97)
1864        Jul 29, 3rd and last day of battle at Deep Bottom Run, Virginia.
    (MC, 7/29/02)
1864        Jul 29, Battle of Macon, GA (Stoneman's Raid).
    (MC, 7/29/02)

1864        Jul 30, Gen Burnside failed on an attack of Petersburg and in an effort to penetrate the Confederate lines around Petersburg, Va., Union troops exploded some 8,000 pounds of gunpowder underneath the Confederate trenches. The blast killed 100s of Confederates. Union forces could not capitalize on the assault and ended up trapped in the bloody crater. The ensuing action is known as the Battle of the Crater. 4,000 Union soldiers were killed, wounded or captured in the Battle of the Crater during the Siege of Petersburg. [see Jul 29]
    (HN, 7/30/98)(HNQ, 8/23/00)(MC, 7/30/02)
1864        Jul 30, Gen. Jubal Early ordered Confederate troops to attack Chambersburg, Pennsylvania. The town was burned by Confederate forces under Gen. McCausland (1836-1927).
    (ON, 10/20/11, p.11)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_McCausland)

1864        Jul 31, Ulysses S. Grant was named General of Volunteers.
    (MC, 7/31/02)
1864        Jul 31, Louis Hachette (64), French publisher, died.
    (MC, 7/31/02)

1864        Aug 1, Union General Ulysses S. Grant gave general Philip H. Sheridan the mission of clearing the Shenandoah Valley of Confederate forces.
    (HN, 8/1/98)
1864        Aug 1, Battle of Petersburg, VA.
    (MC, 8/1/02)

1864        Aug 3, Federal gunboats attacked but did not capture Fort Gains, at the mouth of Mobile Bay, Alabama.
    (HN, 8/3/98)

1864        Aug 4, Federal troops failed to capture Fort Gaines on Dauphin Island, one of the Confederate forts defending Mobile Bay.
    (HN, 8/4/99)

1864        Aug 5, During the Civil War, Union Adm. David G. Farragut is said to have given his famous order, "Damn the torpedoes, full speed ahead!" as he led his fleet against Mobile Bay, Ala. The Union Navy captured Mobile Bay in Alabama.
    (AP, 8/5/97)(HN, 8/5/98)

1864        Aug 6, Rebels evacuated Ft. Powell, Mobile Bay.
    (MC, 8/6/02)

1864        Aug 7, Union Gen. Philip Henry Sheridan took command of his 30,000-man army at Harper’s Ferry, West Virginia. His orders from Gen. Grant were to march into the Shenandoah Valley and destroy the army of Confederate Gen. Jubal Early.
    (ON, 10/20/11, p.11)
1864        Aug 7, Union troops captured part of Confederate General Jubal Early's army at Moorefield, West Virginia.
    (HN, 8/7/98)

1864        Aug 8, Union troops and fleet occupied Fort Gaines, Alabama.
    (MC, 8/8/02)
1864        Aug 8, The 1st Geneva Convention was issued on protecting the war wounded.

1864        Aug 10, Confederate Commander John Bell Hood sent his cavalry north of Atlanta to cut off Union General William Sherman’s supply lines.
    (HN, 8/10/98)

1864        Aug 12, After a week of heavy raiding, the Confederate cruiser Tallahassee claimed six Union ships captured.
    (HN, 8/12/98)

1864        Aug 13, Battle of Deep Bottom, Va., (Strawberry Plains) and Fussell's Mill, Va.
    (MC, 8/13/02)

1864        Aug 14-16, Confederate General Joe Wheeler besieged Dalton, Georgia.
    (MC, 8/14/02)
1864        Aug 14, A Federal assault continued for a 2nd day of battle at Deep Bottom Run, Virginia.
    (MC, 8/14/02)

1864        Aug 15, The Confederate raider Tallahassee captured six Federal ships off New England.
    (HN, 8/15/98)

1864        Aug 16, Battle of Front Royal, VA. (Guard Hill).
    (MC, 8/16/02)

1864        Aug 18, Union General William T. Sherman sent General Judson Kilpatrick to raid Confederate lines of communication outside Atlanta. The raid was unsuccessful. Union General William Sherman considered Judson Kilpatrick, his cavalry chief, ‘a hell of a damn fool.’
    (HN, 8/18/98)
1864        Aug 18,  Day 1 of 3 day Petersburg Campaign-Battle of Weldon Railroad, Va.
    (MC, 8/18/02)

1864        Aug 19, The 2nd day of battle at Globe Tavern, Virginia.
    (MC, 8/19/02)

1864        Aug 20, The 8th and last day of battle at Deep Bottom Run, Va., left about 3900 casualties.
    (MC, 8/20/02)

1864         Aug 21, Confederate General A.P. Hill attacked Union troops south of Petersburg, Va., at the Weldon railroad. His attack was repulsed, resulting in heavy Confederate casualties.
    (HN, 8/21/00)

1864        Aug 22, In Geneva, Switzerland, representatives of 12 nations agreed to sign the First Geneva Contention “for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded in Armies in the Field." By 1866 twenty countries had signed. 194 states were signatories as of 2008.
    (ON, 4/08, p.12)

1864        Aug 23, Union troops and fleet occupied Fort Morgan, Alabama.
    (MC, 8/23/02)

1864        Aug 25, Confederate General A.P. Hill pushed back Union General Winfield Scott Hancock from Reams Station where his army had spent several days destroying railroad tracks. With Robert E. Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia stubbornly clinging to Petersburg, Ulysses S. Grant decided to cut its vital rail lines. To perform the surgery, he selected one of the North’s proven heroes—‘Hancock the Superb.’
    (HN, 8/25/98)
1864        Aug 25, A combination rail and ferry service became available from SF to Alameda, Ca.
    (chblue.com, 8/25/01)

1864        Aug 28, The Democratic National Convention began in Chicago. General George B. McClellan's campaign platform called the war in America a failure. [see Aug 31]
    (WSJ, 9/25/03, p.A18)

1864        Aug 31, At the Democratic convention in Chicago, General George B. McClellan was nominated for president. [see Aug 28]
    (HN, 8/31/98)
1864        Aug 31, Atlanta Campaign-Battle of Jonesboro Georgia, 1900 casualties.
    (MC, 8/31/01)

1864        Sep 1, Roger David Casement, Irish nationalist (Easter uprising 1916), was born.
    (MC, 9/1/02)
1864        Sep 1, Confederate forces under General John Bell Hood evacuated Atlanta in anticipation of the arrival of Union General William T. Sherman's troops.
    (HN, 9/1/99)
1864        Sep 1, 2nd day of battle at Jonesboro, Georgia, left some 3,000 casualties.
    (MC, 9/1/02)
1864        Sep 1, Battle of Petersburg, VA.
    (MC, 9/1/02)
1864        Sep 1, The Charlottetown Conference, convened in Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, was the first of a series of meetings that ultimately led to the formation of the Dominion of Canada.
    (HNQ, 8/22/99)

1864        Sep 2, During the Civil War, Union Gen. William T. Sherman’s forces occupied Atlanta.
    (AP, 9/2/97)

1864        Sep 3, Battle of Berryville, VA.
    (MC, 9/3/01)

1864        Sep 4, Bread riots took place in Mobile, Alabama.
    (MC, 9/4/01)

1864        Sep 5, In California boilers on the steamer Washoe exploded on its voyage from San Francisco to Sacramento. An estimated 175 people were onboard. Reporter Mark Twain estimated as many as 100 people were killed and 75 wounded or missing.
1864        Sep 5, British, French & Dutch fleets attacked Japan in Shimonoseki Straits.
    (MC, 9/5/01)

1864        Sep 7, Union General Phil Sheridan’s troops skirmished with the Confederates under Jubal Early outside Winchester, Virginia.
    (HN, 9/7/00)

1864        Sep 11, A 10-day truce was declared between generals Sherman and Hood so civilians could leave Atlanta, Georgia.
    (HN, 9/11/98)

1864        Sep 14, Lord Robert Cecil, one of the founders of the League of Nations and its president from 1923 to 1945, was born.
    (HN, 9/14/98)

1864        Sep 16, Confederate General Nathan Bedford Forrest led 4,500 men out of Verona, Miss. to harass Union outposts in northern Alabama and Tennessee.
    (HN, 9/16/98)

1864        Sep 17, Gen. Grant approved Sheridan's plan for Shenandoah Valley Campaign. "I want it so barren that a crow, flying down it, would need to pack rations."
    (MC, 9/17/01)
1864        Sep 17, Walter Savage Landor, author, died.
    (MC, 9/17/01)

1864        Sep 18, Battle of Martinsburg, WV.
    (MC, 9/18/01)

1864        Sep 19, Union forces under Gen. Sheridan defeated Confederate forces under Gen. Jubal Early at Winchester, Virginia. The Battle of Opequon is more commonly known as the Third Battle of Winchester. Archibald Campbell Godwin (b.1831), Confederate brig-general, died in the battle.
    (ON, 10/20/11, p.11)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archibald_C._Godwin)

1864        Sep 22, Union General Philip Sheridan defeated Confederate General Jubal Early's troops at the Battle of Fisher's Hill, in Virginia. Gen Early retreated to Brown's Gap. Sheridan set up camp in Harrisonburg, Va.
    (ON, 10/20/11, p.11)(www.civilwar.org/battlefields/fisher-s-hill.html)

1864        Sep 23, Confederate and Union forces clashed at Mount Jackson, Front Royal and Woodstock in Virginia during the Valley campaign.
    (HN, 9/23/98)
1864        Sep 23, Battle of Athens, Va.
    (MC, 9/23/01)

1864        Sep 26, General Nathan Bedford Forrest and his men assaulted a Federal garrison near Pulaski, Tennessee.
    (HN, 9/26/99)

1864        Sep 27, Confederate guerrilla Bloody Bill Anderson and his henchmen, including a teenage Jesse James, massacred 20 unarmed Union soldiers at Centralia, Mo.
    (HN, 9/27/98)
1864        Sep 27, Battle at Pilot Knob (Ft Davidson), Missouri. 1700 were killed or injured.
    (MC, 9/27/01)

1864        Sep 28, Union General William Rosecrans blamed his defeat at Chickamauga on two of his subordinate generals. They were later exonerated by a court of inquiry.
    (HN, 9/28/98)
1864        Sep 28-30, The Battle of Fort Harrison Va. (Chaffin's Farm New Market Heights).
    (MC, 9/28/01)

1864        Sep 29, Union troops captured the Confederate Fort Harrison, outside Petersburg, Virginia. After nearly 10 months of trench warfare, Confederate resistance at Petersburg, Va., suddenly collapsed.
    (HN, 9/29/98)

1864        Sep 29-30, Christian A. Fleetwood was one of 13 African-American soldiers who won the Medal of Honor at the Battle of Chaffin's Farm, Virginia.
    (HN, 12/21/98)

1864        Sep 30, Black Soldiers were given the Medal of Honor. [see Sep 29-30]
    (MC, 9/30/01)
1864        Sep 30, Confederate troops failed to retake Fort Harrison from the Union forces during the siege of Petersburg.
    (HN, 9/30/98)
1864        Sep 30, Battle of Preble's Farm Va. (Poplar Springs Church).
    (MC, 9/30/01)

1864        Sep, General William Tecumseh Sherman held the opinion: "If forced to choose between the penitentiary and the White House for four years . . .I would say the penitentiary, thank you." William T. Sherman penned that thought in a letter to General Henry W. Halleck in Sep, 1864. Twenty years later he squashed a movement to name him the Republican presidential candidate, saying, "I will not accept if nominated and will not serve if elected."
    (HNQ, 3/27/01)

1864        Oct 1, The Condor, a British blockade-runner, was grounded near Fort Fisher, North Carolina.
    (HN, 10/1/98)
1864        Oct 1, George Spencer (b.1799), a priest of the Passionist religious order, died in Scotland. Spencer had left the Anglican Church and taken the name "Ignatius of St. Paul" after he became a Catholic priest. In 2021 Pope Francis put him on the path to sainthood.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ignatius_Spencer)(AP, 2/20/21)

1864        Oct 5, At the Battle of Allatoona, a small Union post was saved from Lt. Gen. John Bell Hood's army. 1/3 of Union troops died repulsing Southern forces.
    (HN, 10/5/98)(MC, 10/5/01)
1864        Oct 5, Calcutta, India, was denuded by a cyclone and some 70,000 people were killed.

1864        Oct 7, General Phil Sheridan wired General Ulysses Grant that he had destroyed so much between Winchester and Staunton that the area "will have little in it for man or beast."
    (HN, 10/7/98)
1864        Oct 7, The USS Wachusett captured the CSS Florida in a naval engagement fought at the neutral harbor of Bahia, Brazil. Many of the Confederate crew were ashore at the time.
    (AH, 10/04, p.15)
1864        Oct 7-13, Battle of Darbytown Road, Va.
    (MC, 10/7/01)

1864        Oct 9, At the Battle of Tom's Brook the Confederate cavalry that harassed Sheridan's campaign was wiped by Custer and Merrit's cavalry divisions.
    (MC, 10/9/01)

1864        Oct 11, Slavery was abolished in Maryland. [see Oct 13]
    (MC, 10/11/01)

1864        Oct 12, Roger B. Taney (b.1777), US Supreme Court Chief Justice (1836-1864), died after serving over 28 years. He favored state’s rights and voided laws limiting the rights of slaveholders. In the 1857 Dred Scott case Taney ruled that blacks as slaves could not become citizens of the US.
    (SFC, 9/6/05, p.A4)(www.oyez.org/oyez/resource/legal_entity/24/)

1864        Oct 13, Battle at Darbytown Road Virginia resulted in 337 casualties.
    (MC, 10/13/01)
1864        Oct 13, Battle of Harpers Ferry, WV (Mosby's Raid).
    (MC, 10/13/01)
1864        Oct 13, Maryland voters adopted a new constitution, including abolition of slavery. [see Oct 11]
    (MC, 10/13/01)

1864        Oct 15, Confederate troops occupied Glasgow, Missouri.
    (MC, 10/15/01)

1864        Oct 17, Elinor Glyn, British novelist (3 Weeks), was born.
    (MC, 10/17/01)

1864        Oct 19, Philip Sheridan and his gelding horse Rienzi made their most famous ride to repulse an attack led by Lt. General Jubal A. Early at Cedar Creek, Virginia. Sheridan had been on his way back from a strategy session in Washington, D.C. when Early attacked. The Union scored a narrow victory which helped it secure the Shenandoah Valley. Thomas Buchanan Read later wrote a poem, "Sheridan‘s Ride," and created a painting immortalizing the Union general and his steed.
    (AP, 10/19/97)(HN, 10/19/98)(HNQ, 6/29/00)
1864        Oct 19, The northernmost action of the American Civil War took place in the Vermont town of St. Albans. Some 25 escaped Confederate POWs led by Kentuckian Bennett Young (21) raided the town near the Canadian border with the intent of robbing three banks and burning the town. While they managed to leave town and hide out in Canada with more than $200,000, their attempts to burn down the town failed. Most of the raiders were captured and imprisoned in Canada and later released after a court ruled the robberies in St. Albans were acts of war.
    (HNQ, 12/9/98)(ON, 11/99, p.11)(MC, 10/19/01)

1864        Oct 20, Lincoln  established Thanksgiving as a national holiday. [see Oct 3, 1863]
    (MC, 10/20/01)

1864        Oct 23, Forces led by Union Gen. Samuel R. Curtis defeated Confederate Gen. Stirling Price’s army in Missouri.
    (AP, 10/23/97)

1864        Oct 25, Skirmishes took place at Mine Creek, Ka., and Turkeytown, Al.
    (MC, 10/25/01)

1864        Oct 27, Battle of Boydton Plank Road, Va. (Burgess' Mill, Southside Railroad).
    (MC, 10/27/01)
1864        Oct 27, Battle of Fair Oaks, Va.
    (MC, 10/27/01)
1864        Oct 27, Siege of Petersburg, Va.
    (MC, 10/27/01)
1864        Oct 27, Battle of Newtonia, Mi.
    (MC, 10/27/01)
1864        Oct 27, Confederate ship Albemarle was torpedoed and sank.
    (MC, 10/27/01)

1864        Oct 28, Battle at Fair Oaks, Virginia, ended after 1554 casualties.
    (MC, 10/28/01)

1864        Oct 31, Nevada became the 36th state under a proclamation signed by Pres. Lincoln.
    (AP, 10/31/97)(LVRJ, 11/1/97, p.1B)(HN, 10/31/98)

1864        Oct, James Russel Lowell and Charles Elliot Norton had resuscitated the North American Review and in this issue published a book review, his first, by Henry James.
    (WSJ, 10/17/96, p.A20)

1864        Oct, Financial pressures exerted negative market influences as noted in a letter to the Economist in 1865.
    (WSJ, 9/28/95, p.A18)

1864        Oct, Lambdin P. Milligan and two others were tried in an Indiana military court and found guilty of conspiring with the South to set up a "Northwestern Confederacy." All three conspirators were sentenced to hang the following May. Milligan, maintaining his innocence, wrote this note to his friend Secretary of War Edwin Stanton, pleading for his case to be reconsidered. Milligan's case was based on the fact that he had been tried in a military court in violation of his civil rights. His execution was postponed and the Supreme Court then ruled in favor of Milligan and the other conspirators, and on April 12, 1866, the prisoners were released. Ex parte Milligan is considered an extremely important Supreme Court decision, upholding the civil rights of all Americans. One Supreme Court justice wrote, "No graver question was ever considered by this court, nor one which more clearly concerns the rights of the whole people; for it is the birthright of every American citizen when charged with a crime, to be tried and punished according to the law."
    (HNPD, 12/28/98)

1864          Nov 4, There was a Confederate assault on the Union depot and headquarters at Reynoldsburg Island, near Johnsonville, Tennessee. Paddle-wheelers USS Key West, Acting Lt. King; USS Tawah, Acting Lt. Goudy; and small steamer U.S.S. Elfin, Acting Master Augustus F. Thompson; were destroyed after an engagement with Confederate batteries off Johnsonville, Ten., along with several transport steamers and a large quantity of supplies.

1864        Nov 8, President Abraham Lincoln was re-elected with Andrew Johnson as his vice-president. Lincoln won with 55% of the popular vote.
    (HN, 11/6/98)(SFC, 12/21/98, p.A3)(ON, 12/03, p.4)

1864        Nov 9, Sherman designed his "March to the Sea."
    (MC, 11/9/01)

1864            Nov 10, Kingston, Ga., was burned as the first act of Sherman's March to Sea. Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman had made the city his headquarters as he planned to lay waste the south over the next six weeks.

1864            Nov 11, Sherman's troops destroyed Rome, Georgia. Gen. Sherman (1820-1891) ordered Gen. John Murray Corse’s (1835-1893) troops to destroy Rome, Georgia, and “everything that could be useful to an enemy."

1864        Nov 15, Union Major General William T. Sherman’s troops set fires that destroyed much of Atlanta.
    (HN, 11/15/98)
1864        Nov 15, 1st US mines school opened in the basement of Columbia University, NY.
    (MC, 11/15/01)

1864        Nov 16, Union Gen. William T. Sherman and his troops departed Atlanta and began their "March to the Sea" during the Civil War.
    (AP, 11/1697)(HN, 11/16/98)

1864        Nov 21, Confederate General John Bell Hood launched the Franklin-Nashville Campaign into Tennessee from northern Alabama. Hood led the Confederate Army of Tennessee in its offensive into Tennessee, which was decisively broken in the battles of Franklin and Nashville. Hood, a graduate of West Point, had been in the U.S. Cavalry until the Civil War broke out. He was seriously wounded attacking Little Round Top during the Battle of Gettysburg and later lost a leg at Chickamauga in September of that year. In 1864, he was appointed a Lieutenant General under Joseph E. Johnston‘s command in defense of Atlanta. In July, Confederate president Jefferson Davis put Hood in command who promptly attacked Sherman‘s Union army and was repulsed. Hood then attempted a long march to the north and west to assault Sherman‘s rear and ran into Union Army of the Cumberland. The November Battle of Franklin and December Battle of Nashville decisively defeated Hood‘s Army which was harassed and almost destroyed in its retreat. Hood‘s own request to end his command was granted the following month. After the war he lived in New Orleans.
    (HNQ, 11/4/00)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Franklin-Nashville_Campaign)
1864        Nov 21-22, Battle at Griswoldville, Georgia.
    (MC, 11/21/01)

1864        Nov 22, Union General O. Howard ordered plunderers shot to death.
    (MC, 11/22/01)
1864        Nov 22, Battle at Griswoldville, Georgia, ended after 650 casualties.
    (MC, 11/22/01)

1864        Nov 23-25, The Battle at Ball's Ferry, Georgia, left 30 casualties.
    (MC, 11/23/01)

1864        Nov 24, Henri Toulouse-Lautrec (d.1901), French post-impressionist painter, was born.

1864        Nov 25, A Confederate plot to burn NYC failed.
    (MC, 11/25/01)
1864        Nov 25, Confederates retreated at Sandersville, Georgia.
    (MC, 11/25/01)
1864        Nov 25, David Roberts (b.1796), Scottish painter, died. He toured Egypt and the Holy Land from 1838-1840. His work there made him a prominent Orientalist painter.
    (SSFC, 7/24/11, p.F7)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_Roberts_%28painter%29)

1864        Nov 26, Skirmish at Sylvan Brutal and Waynesboro, Georgia.
    (MC, 11/26/01)
1864         Nov 26, Colonel Kit Carson led the attack in the first Battle of Adobe Walls. Carson, leading a column of 335 officers and men of the 1st New Mexico Volunteer Cavalry, surprised an encampment of Kiowa Indians on the site of adobe buildings on the South Canadian River in Texas. After routing the Kiowa, Carson’s forces were counterattacked by hundreds of Comanches from nearby villages and forced to retreat.
    (HNQ, 9/25/98)

1864        Nov 27, 2nd day of Battles at Waynesboro, Georgia.
    (MC, 11/27/01)

1864        Nov 28, 3rd day of Battles at Waynesboro and Jones's Plantation, Georgia.
    (MC, 11/28/01)
1864        Nov 28, Battle of New Creek, WV, (Rosser's Raid, Ft. Kelly).
    (MC, 11/28/01)

1864        Nov 29, 4th and last day of skirmishes took place at Waynesboro, Georgia.
    (MC, 11/29/01)
1864        Nov 29, Battle of Spring Hill, Ten. (Thomason's Station).
    (MC, 11/29/01)
1864        Nov 29, In retaliation for an Indian attack on a party of immigrants near Denver, 750 members of a Colorado militia unit, led by Colonel John M. Chivington, attacked an unsuspecting village of Cheyenne and Arapahoe Indians camped on Sand Creek in present-day Kiowa County. Some 300 [163] Indians were killed in the attack, including women and children, many of whose bodies were mutilated. Ten soldiers died in the attack. The Sand Creek Massacre, as this incident came to be called, provoked a savage struggle between Indians and the white settlers. It also generated two Congressional investigations into the actions of Chivington and his men. The House Committee on the Conduct of the War concluded that Chivington had "deliberately planned and executed a foul and dastardly massacre which would have disgraced the varied and savage among those who were the victims of his cruelty."
    (HNPD, 11/29/98)(HN, 11/29/98)(SFC, 9/15/00, p.A9)(SSFC, 2/1/04, p.C13)

1864        Nov 30, Battle of Honey Hill, SC, (Broad River). 96 were killed and 665 wounded.
    (MC, 11/30/01)
1864        Nov 30, The Union won the Battle of Franklin, Tenn., where John B. Hood ordered a disastrous assault on Union earthworks. There were 7,700 casualties. Maj. Gen’l. Patrick R. Cleburne, division commander in the Army of Tennessee, was killed at the battle of Franklin. In early 1864 he had advocated the abolition of slavery and the formal opening of the Confederate Army of the Freedmen. In 2005 Robert Hicks authored the novel “The Widow of the South," set around the Battle of Franklin.
    (HN, 11/30/98)(SFC, 11/29/02, p.A23)(AM, 11/04, p.28)(SSFC, 9/4/05, p.F1)

1864        Dec 1, Skirmish at Millen Brutal, Georgia.
    (MC, 12/1/01)
1864        Dec 1, Franklin-Nashville Campaign began.
    (HN, 12/1/98)
1864        Dec 1, Raid at Stoneman: Knoxville, Ten., to Saltville, Va.
    (MC, 12/1/01)

1864        Dec 2, Major General Grenville M. Dodge was named to replace General Rosecrans as Commander of the Department of Missouri.
    (HN, 12/2/98)
1864        Dec 2, Skirmish at Rocky Creek Church, Georgia.
    (MC, 12/2/01)

1864        Dec 3, Major General William Tecumseh Sherman met up with some resistance from Confederate troops at Thomas Station on his march to the sea.
    (HN, 12/3/98)

1864        Dec 4, Battle of Waynesborough (Brier Creek) Ga.
    (MC, 12/4/01)
1864        Dec 4, Romanian Jews were forbidden to practice law.
    (MC, 12/4/01)

1864        Dec 5, Confederate General Hood sent Nathan Bedford Forrest’s cavalry and a division of infantry towards Murfreesboro, Tenn.
    (HN, 12/5/98)

1864        Dec 10, General Sherman's armies reached Savannah and a 12 day siege began.
    (MC, 12/10/01)

1864        Dec 13, Battle of Ft. McAllister, Ga.
    (MC, 12/13/01)

1864        Dec 15, The battle at Nashville began.
    (HN, 12/15/98)

1864        Dec 16, Union forces under General George H. Thomas won the battle at Nashville, Tenn. There were 4,400 casualties.
    (HFA, ‘96, p.20)(HN, 12/16/98)(MC, 12/16/01)

1864        Dec 20, Confederate forces evacuated Savannah, Ga., as Union Gen. William T. Sherman continued his "March to the Sea."
    (AP, 12/20/97)
1864        Dec 20-27, Battle of Ft. Fisher, NC.
    (MC, 12/20/01)

1864        Dec 22, During the Civil War, Gen’l. Sherman telegraphed Pres. Lincoln from Georgia, saying: "I beg to present to you, as a Christmas gift, the city of Savannah with 150 guns and plenty of ammunition." In 2008 Noah Andre Trudeau authored “Southern Storm: Sherman’s March to the Sea."   
    (SFEC,11/30/97, p.T4)(AP, 12/22/97)(WSJ, 8/4/08, p.A11)

1864        Dec, In the 1864 Harper's Weekly Christmas issue, Thomas Nast drew Abraham Lincoln, Jefferson Davis and Robert E. Lee along with his traditional Santa Claus. The Santa Claus created by Nast for the 1862 Christmas issue of Harper's Weekly, played a prominent role in all the wartime holiday centerfolds and annual Christmas issues except the 1864 illustration "The Union Christmas Dinner." In that image Abraham Lincoln is pictured welcoming Jefferson Davis and Robert E. Lee back into the Union, with Santa Claus, his sleigh and reindeer appearing in silhouette before a rising moon behind the word Christmas.
    (HNQ, 12/24/98)

1864        Fitz Hugh Lane, American landscape artist, painted "Brace’s Rock, Brace’s Cove."
    (WSJ, 3/21/02, p.A20)

1864        Composer Eugen D'Albert was born in Glasgow. He considered himself a German and set only German text in his works, which included his Cello Concerto and the operas "Tiefland" and the 1916 "Die Toten Augen" (The Dead Eyes).
    (SFEC, 1/30/00, DB p.33)

1864        Gustave Moreau, French painter, created his work "Oedipus and the Sphinx." His students included Georges Rouault, Albert Marqyet, and Henri Matisse.
    (WSJ, 6/1/99, p.A20)

1864        In 1994 Prof. Jenny Franchot (d.1998 at 45) of UC Berkeley published "Road to Rome: The Antebellum Protestant Encounter with Catholicism." Franchot specialized in American literature before 1865.
    (SFC, 10/17/98, p.C2)

1864        “The Maine Woods" by Henry David Thoreau (1817-1862) was published posthumously, based on 3 previous visits to Maine in 1846, 1853 and 1857.
    (SSFC, 7/29/07, p.G8)(http://thoreau.eserver.org/mewoods.html)

1864        Anthony Trollope’s novel “Can You Forgive Her" began to appear in England in serial form.  It is the first of six novels in his "Palliser" series.

1864        Jules Verne wrote "Journey to the Center of the Earth." It was made into a film in 1959.
    (SFEC, 11/17/96, BR p.4)(WSJ, 9/10/99, p.W11C)

1864        The most popular song of the year was "Tenting on the Old Camp Ground."
    (NH, 10/98, p.16)

1864        In New York City Mary Ann Crabtree booked her daughter Lotta (17) in the play "Little Nell and the Marchioness." It was a smash success. Lotta Crabtree went on to star in a succession of stage musicals and became the wealthiest performer in the country.
    (SFC, 12/12/20, p.B4)

1864        Tchaikovsky composed the overture "The Storm."
    (WSJ, 8/11/98, p.A16)

1864        Frederick Olmsted designed the Mountain View Cemetery in Oakland, Ca.
    (SFC, 7/6/99, p.C1)

1864        The Clemens House was built in Carson City, Nev., by Orion Clemens, brother of author Samuel Clemens, better known as Mark Twain. Orion served as the first and only Territorial Secretary (1861-1864), and at times, acting governor of the Nevada Territory.
    (SSFC, 11/19/06, p.F10)(www.cr.nps.gov/nr/travel/nevada/ori.htm)

1864        Pope Pius IX issued the encyclical "Quanta cura," which included a syllabus of 70 errors in contemporary beliefs. The Syllabus of Errors included 80 negative points condemning modern ideas such as freedom of speech and religion and separation of church and state.
    (PTA, 1980, p.510)(SFC, 9/1/00, p.D4)

1864        In Connecticut the West Cornwall Bridge was built over the Housatonic River. The covered bridge connected the 2 rural communities of Sharon and Cornwall.
    (SSFC, 1/7/07, p.G10)

1864        The Knights of Pythias, a secret fraternal order for philanthropic purposes, was founded in Washington, DC.
    (AHD, 1971, p.724)

1864        The National Bank Act of this year superseded the National Currency Act of 1863.
1864        The US Congress authorized the issuance of a series of fractional currency notes in denominations of 3, 5, 10, 15, 25 and 50 cents, with Spencer Clark’s office being given responsibility for production of the notes. A firestorm ensued when it was discovered that Clark's image had been put on the 5-cent note. There are different historical accounts of how this occurred. Congress soon banned the portrayal of living people.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spencer_M._Clark)(Econ, 9/16/17, p.71)
1864        Congress banned private coinage but private paper currency was still allowed.
    (SFEC, 7/5/98, Par p.17)

1864        Andersonville Confederate prison held 32,000 Union prisoners in southwestern Georgia in a pen designed for 8,000. The setting was made into a film for TV by John Frankheimer in 1996 based on an original script by David Rintels. Of the 45,000 Union prisoners of war that were brought to Andersonville, 29% i.e. 12,914, died there.
    (WSJ, 2/26/96, p.A-10)(SFC, 4/28/96, p.T-10)

1864        The Confederate War Dept. organized the Indian tribes of eastern Oklahoma and western Arkansas into the Indian Division. Cherokee Gen’l. Stand Watie commanded the Cherokee Mounted Rifles.
    (WSJ, 6/9/97, p.A19)

1864        Union General William Tecumseh Sherman surrounded and burned Atlanta, Georgia. The city was a Confederate supply depot with a population of around 10,000, 1/10 the size of New Orleans.
    (WSJ, 4/9/96, p.A-1)(WSJ, 8/9/96, p.A10)

1864        The Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 was repealed.
    (SFC, 2/21/97, p.A25)

1864        A federal law permitted any woman to divorce her husband if he was in the military.
    (SFEC, 6/28/98, Z1 p.8)

1864        The US Congress pushed Idaho’s northeastern border back to the Bitterroot Mountains after Sidney Edgerton of the Idaho Territory went to Washington with $2,000 in gold. Edgerton wound up as the territorial governor of newly created Montana.
    (WSJ, 5/31/08, p.W9)

1864        Ruel C. Gridley (d.1870), owner of the Gridley Store in Austin, Nevada, lost an election bet and had to carry a 50 lb. sack of flour the length of Austin to the tune of “John Brown’s Body." The sack was auctioned and the proceeds went to the Sanitary Fund, a forerunner to the Red Cross, to help relieve suffering created by the Civil War. The sack was resold many times and soon other towns called for a similar auction. The last auction was at the St. Louis World’s Fair.
    (ACC, 2004)

1864        Oregon adopted its first death penalty.
    (SFC, 9/6.96, p.A11)

1864        Grover Cleveland, a lawyer and politician in Buffalo, New York, dodged the draft by provided a substitute when he was drafted. Andrew Johnson was a brigadier general of volunteers before becoming a military governor and then vice president. James Garfield began as a lieutenant colonel and rose to become a major general before resigning upon being elected to Congress in 1863. Benjamin Harrison started as a second lieutenant in the 70th Indiana eventually mustering out as a brevet brigadier general in 1865. William McKinley enlisted as a private in 1861 and was mustered out a brevet major four years later.
    (HNQ, 8/4/00)

1864        Hertwig and Co. of Thuringia, Germany, introduced ceramic figurines called Snow Babies made from bisque (unglazed clay) covered with crushed bisque “snowflakes." The first Snow Babies had been made of sugar candy and used as Christmas decorations.
    (SFC, 9/12/07, p.G7)

1864        California's Alpine County was cobbled together from pieces of Amador, El Dorado and Calaveras counties.
    (SSFC, 2/1/20, p.S2)
1864        In San Francisco Rudolph Herman opened the Harbor View Baths on Strawberry  Island, a sand beach located between Fort Point and Aquatic Park. The area was razed in 1915 for the Panama-Pacific Int’l. Expo.
    (SFC, 5/4/19, p.C2)
1864        In San Francisco the Masonic Cemetery was established.
    (SFC, 3/31/18, p.C2)
1864        The SF Mechanics Institute, founded in 1854, paid $10,000 to build a grandiose pavilion for its fourth industrial fair on the southwest corner of Geary and Stockton.
    (SFC, 1/2/16, p.C2)
1864        In San Francisco a woolen mill was built on the block bounded by Beach, Polk, Larkin and North Point streets. In the 1890s it was taken over by the Ghirardelli Chocolate Company. In the 1960’s Ghirardelli transferred operations to San Leandro and the square was converted to a restaurant and shopping complex.
    (SSFC, 10/28/12, p.D4)
1864        UC Medical Center was founded as Toland Medical College. It was named after founder Dr. Hugh H. Toland, who arrived with the gold rush from South Carolina.
    (SFC, 5/12/96, p.A-10)
1864        The restaurant known as Jack’s opened on Sacramento St. From 1903 to 1996 it was owned by one family.
    (SFC, 12/31/96, p.B1)
1864        William Sharon (44) was sent to Virginia City as manager of the Nevada branch of the Bank of California.
    (Ind, 7/1/00,5A)
1864        Herbert Liebes opened a fur salon which grew to become H. Liebes & Company. Liebes ran sailing schooners from Alaska to SF with cargoes of furs.
    (SFC, 6/29/04, p.B6)
1864        John Swett, California schools superintendent, revised the state’s school law to require the establishment of separate schools for Chinese under certain circumstances, but the new law had little practical effect.
    (SFC, 4/15/17, p.C2)

1864        Adolphus Busch (1839-1913), German immigrant married to Eberhard Anheuser’s daughter (1861), began working at his father-in-law’s brewery in St. Louis.
    (WSJ, 5/27/08, p.A18)(www.dol.gov/oasam/programs/laborhall/2007_busch.htm)

1864        G.J. Bourdin patented the first successful instant camera called the Dubroni.
    (SFC, 6/12/96, Z1 p.5)

1864        The Enterprise Manufacturing Co. was founded. They made many kinds of coffee grinders, meat choppers, irons and other products.
    (SFC, 3/3/99, Z1 p.4)

1864        Surveyors thought they found the US Continental Divide and marked the boundary between Montana and Idaho at the Bitterroot Range.
    (SFEC, 10/6/96, zone 1 p.4)

1864        A meteorite was found near Orgueil, France, that was later believed to be a fragment of a comet. It was later found to show traces of amino acids.
    (SFC, 12/19/01, p.A8)

1864        Henry Plummer, sheriff, was hanged by vigilantes in Bannock, Montana. In 1920 Frank Bird Linderman authored the novel, "Henry Plummer."
    (HND, 7/21/98)(SFEC, 7/23/00, Par p.16)

1864        George Boole, Irish mathematician and inventor of Boolean algebra, died.
    (SFC, 12/2/97, p.C3)

1864        The Imperial State Manufactory Vienna, a maker of porcelains since 1744, closed. The royalty owned firm used the beehive or shield mark.
    (SFC, 10/17/07, p.G2)

1864        In Britain Scottish servant John Brown began to attend to Queen Victoria and drew the widowed queen out of a severe depression. He remained with her until his death in 1883. The 1997 film "Mrs. Brown" suggested an affair between the two.
    (SFEC, 7/13/97, Par p.2)

1864        Brazil under Emperor Pedro II invaded Uruguay. In response Paraguay’s Pres. Francisco Solano Lopez attacked Brazil’s province of Matto Grosso.
    (Econ, 12/22/12, p.46)

1864        Elie Abel Carriere wrote an account in the French journal Revue Horticole of a journey to the beech forest at Verzy, southeast of Reims, to see the monster beech, Fagus sylvatica Tortuosa.   
    (NH, 6/96, p.45)
1864        Phylloxera was 1st noted on grapevines in Roquemaure, France. It ravaged the vineyards there for nearly 20 years. In 1872 it reached Austria and Portugal. In 1875 it appeared in Australia and in 1886 in South Africa. In 1987 George Ordish authored “The Great Wine Blight." In 2004 Christy Campbell authored “Phylloxera: How Wine was Saved for the World." In 2011 George Gale authored “Dying on the Vine: How Phylloxera Transformed Wine."
    (SSFC, 3/27/05, p.E3)(Econ, 7/23/11, p.81)

1864        In southern India a flood surge wrecked the British naval fleet at the mouth of the Krishna River.
    (Econ, 12/12/15, p.40)

1864        Jamaican law banned sex relations between men.
    (SFC, 8/30/14, p.A2)

1864        In the Netherlands Gerard Adriaan Heineken founded a beer brewery. In 2002 it was the world’s 3rd largest brewery.
    (SFC, 1/5/02, p.A22)

1864        Prussia and Austria snatched Schleswig-Holstein from Denmark. The border was redrawn by plebiscite in 1920. After 1945 Germany and Denmark agreed to recognize the rights of minorities on both sides.
    (Econ, 6/2/12, p.66)

1864        Circassian fighters in Sochi surrendered to the czarist forces. Circassians were widely dispersed following Russian expulsions.
    (AP, 8/21/12)

1864        In Sweden the Alfred Nobel factory for the manufacture of nitroglycerin accidentally blew up, killing Nobel’s youngest brother and four others.
    (HNPD, 10/21/98)

1864        The Geneva Convention initially met to improve the lot of the wounded and sick of Armies in the field and later added revisions. It established a code of conduct for the treatment in wartime of the sick and wounded and prisoners of war. It also said that an occupying power must guarantee the protection of civilians in the area it occupies.
    (WSJ, 2/26/96, p.A-10)(SFC, 4/11/97, p.A12)

1864        Missionaries settled in Zanzibar following a call by David Livingstone for volunteers to fight the slave trade and help spread Christianity across Africa.
    (SSFC, 6/9/02, p.C13)

1864-1865    Army Col. Kit Carson, directed by Brig. Gen. James Carleton, forced the move of some 9,000 Dineh Navajo from Canyon de Chelly in Arizona to the Bosque Redondo reservation near Fort Sumner, New Mexico. About half the people survived in what came to be known as the Long Walk. In 2006 Hampton sides authored “Blood and Thunder: An epic of the American West," an account of the Navaho move.
    (SFC, 1/3/97, p.A26)(SFEC, 5/4/97, z1 p.4)(SSFC, 1/7/01, p.T9)(WSJ, 10/7/06, p.P12)
c1864-1865    Following newspaper editor Horace Greeley’s attempt to broker an end to the Civil War, President Lincoln’s Secretary of Navy, Gideon Welles, said he had "found himself involved in the meshes of his own frail net." Greeley attempted to act as a go-between between the Lincoln administration and some Confederate representatives waiting at Niagara Falls just over the Canadian border. "I just thought I would let him go up and crack that nut for himself," Lincoln later reportedly said of the meddlesome editor.
    (HNQ, 5/22/99)

1864-1900    Richard Hovey, US poet.
    (WUD, 1994, p.689)

1864-1903    Martha Jane Canary (aka Calamity Jane) skilled horsewoman and rifle shot. Calamity was a scout during the Sioux campaign of 1876 and was known for getting into fights, heavy drinking and prostitution. She and James Butler "Wild Bill" Hickok apparently worked together as outriders for a wagon train of prostitutes on its way to the gold-mining town of Deadwood, South Dakota.
    (HNPD, 8/28/99)

1864-1903    Napa County was one of California’s leading producers of cinnabar.
    (WCG, 7/95, p.22)

1864-1910     Jules Renard, French educator and author: "Talent is like money; you don’t have to have some to talk about it."
    (AP, 4/16/97)

1864-1926    Israel Zangwill, English dramatist: "Take from me the hope that I can change the future, and you will send me mad."
    (AP, 4/9/00)

1864-1933    Fred Holland Day, photographer, publisher and book-collector. He was a leading representative of the New School of American Photography. He did a photo documentation of all the places that Keats had inhabited or visited in his life. He was a member of an amateur society of Orientalist called the Visionists and helped produce the group’s weekly art journal, The Mahogany Tree. He published works by William Butler Yeats, Walter Pater and Stephen Crane in his firm Copeland & Day. Also published were John Lane’s anthology The Yellow Book, the bible for decadents, and Oscar Wilde’s Salome with illustrations by Aubrey Beardsley
    (Civilization, July-Aug. 1995, p.40-47)

1864-1936    Miguel de Unamuno, Spanish philosopher: "La vida es duda, y la fe sin la duda es solo muerte." (Life is doubt, and faith without doubt is nothing but death.)
    (AP, 2/4/01)

1865        Jan 4, The New York Stock Exchange opened its first permanent headquarters at 10-12 Broad Street near Wall Street in NYC. The Corinthian-style structure would serve the Exchange until 1903 when more spacious quarters opened at 18 Broad Street.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R43)(http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/jan04.html)

1865        Jan 7, Cheyenne and Sioux warriors attacked Julesburg, Colo., in retaliation for the Sand Creek Massacre.
    (HN, 1/7/99)

1865         Jan 10, Sinclair Lewis (d.1951), American author of 23 novels and 3 plays, was born in Sauk Centre, Minn.
    (HNQ, 5/18/98)(WSJ, 1/18/02, p.W8)

1865        Jan 11, Battle of Beverly, WV.
    (MC, 1/11/02)

1865        Jan 13-14, Union fleet bombed Fort Fisher, NC.
    (AH, 2/05, p.16)

1865        Jan 15, Union troops captured Fort Fisher at Wilmington, North Carolina. It was the last major Confederate port open to blockade runners.
    (AH, 2/05, p.16)

1865        Jan 16, General Sherman began a march through the Carolinas. During the march Sherman issued Field Order No. 15 that set aside land, "40 acres and a mule," in Georgia and South Carolina for freed slaves.
    (HN, 1/16/99)(SFC, 6/20/00, p.A6)(SFC, 4/5/02, p.H4)
1865        Jan 16, Charles (19) and Michael de Young (17) started a free theater-program sheet in SF called The Daily Dramatic Chronicle. Early quarters were at 417 Clay. They borrowed a $20 gold piece from Capt. William Hinkley, who owned the building where they lived, to start the paper.
    (SFC, 7/18/96, p.A1)(SFEC, 3/8/98, BR p.1)(SFC, 8/7/99, p.A1)(SFC, 1/16/09, Extra p.1)(SFC, 12/8/18, p.C3)

1865        Jan 17, The 170-foot sailing ship Sir John Franklin, a clipper out of Baltimore with 16 people aboard, wrecked near Pescadero, Ca. Capt. Desperaux and 11 crew members were lost.
    (SFC, 8/10/02, p.A13)(Ind, 8/10/02, 5A)

1865        Jan 18, Battle of Ft. Moultrie, SC.
    (MC, 1/18/02)

1865        Jan 19, Pierre-Joseph Proudhon (b.1809), French economist and a socialist, died. “Property is theft." He was the founder of Mutualist philosophy and was the first person to declare himself an anarchist.

1865        Jan 23-25, Battle of City Point, VA (James River, Trent's Reach).
    (MC, 1/23/02)

1865        Jan 31, House of Representatives approved a constitutional amendment (121-24) abolishing slavery. It was the 13th amendment to the US Constitution.
    (HN, 1/31/99)(WSJ, 7/16/01, p.A10)(MC, 1/31/02)   

1865        Jan 31, Gen. Robert E. Lee was named general-in-chief of the Confederate armies.
    (AP, 1/31/98)

1865        Jan, In Chicago Marshall Field and a partner, Levi Leiter, accepted an offer to become senior partners at the dry goods establishment of Potter Palmer. The new firm became known as "Field, Palmer, Leiter & Co. The building at Washington and State Street was destroyed in the great fire of 1871.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marshall_Field)(WSJ, 9/21/05, p.A16)

1865        Feb 1, Lincoln's home state of Illinois became the first to ratify the Thirteenth Amendment abolishing slavery throughout the United States. President Abraham Lincoln had issued the Emancipation Proclamation two years earlier, but it had not effectively abolished slavery in all of the states--it did not apply to slave-holding border states that had remained with the Union during the Civil War. After the war, the sentiment about blacks was mixed even among anti-slavery Americans: some considered Lincoln's address too conservative and pushed for black suffrage, arguing that blacks would remain oppressed by their former owners if they did not have the power to vote. After the amendment was passed, the Freedmen's Bureau was created to help blacks with the problems they would encounter while trying to acquire jobs, education and land of their own.
    (HNPD, 2/1/99)

1865        Feb 2, Confederate raider William Quantrill and his bushwackers robbed citizens, burned a railroad depot and stole horses from Midway, Kentucky.
    (HN, 2/2/01)

1865        Feb 3, The Hampton Roads Conference was attended by President Abraham Lincoln and the Vice President of the Confederacy, Alexander H. Stephens, in an attempt to end the American Civil War. The four-hour meeting aboard the Union steamboat River Queen anchored in Hampton Roads in Virginia, also included Lincoln's Secretary of State, William H.  Seward, Confederate Assistant Secretary of War John Campbell and Senator R.M.T. Hunter. Lincoln‘s peace offer required rebel states to return to the Union, accept the freedom of their slaves and to disband their army. Even though military defeat was imminent, the Confederate representatives did not have the authority to accept any peace offer without a guarantee of independence for the Confederacy, therefore, no agreement was reached.
    (HFA, ‘96, p.22)(AP, 2/3/97)(HNQ, 2/5/00)

1865        Feb 4, Robert E. Lee was named commander-in-chief of Confederate Army.
    (MC, 2/4/02)

1865        Feb 5, Three-day Battle of Hatcher's Run, Va., began.
    (HN, 2/5/99)

1865        Feb 7, John Henry Winder (b.1800), US Confederate brig-gen and provost marshal, died. He was in charge of all Union prisoners east of the Mississippi River.

1865        Feb 8, Confederate raider William Quantrill and men attacked a group of Federal wagons at New Market, Kentucky.
    (HN, 2/8/00)
1865        Feb 8, Martin Robinson Delany became the 1st black major in US army.
    (MC, 2/8/02)

1865        Feb 9, Wilson Bentley (d.1931) was born on a farm near Jericho, Vermont. His interest in snow flakes led him to make the 1st photographs of snow crystals on Jan 15, 1885.
    (ON, 11/04, p.4)
1865        Feb 9, Mrs. [Beatrice] Patrick Campbell, actress (Pygmalion), was born in England.
    (MC, 2/9/02)

1865        Feb 12, Henry Highland Garnet, became the 1st black to speak in US House of Reps.
    (MC, 2/12/02)

1865        Feb 13, The Confederacy approved the recruitment of slaves as soldiers, as long as the approval of their owners was gained.
    (HN, 2/13/98)

1865        Feb 16, Columbia, S.C., surrendered to Federal troops.
    (HN, 2/16/98)

1865        Feb 17, The South Carolina capital city, Columbia, was half destroyed by fire as the Confederates evacuated and Union forces under Major General William Tecumseh Sherman marched through. It's not known which side set the blaze. Sherman had made a swift and steady advance through Georgia and South Carolina, and by late February 1865, his army was approaching Charlotte, North Carolina.
    (HN, 2/17/98)(AP, 2/17/98)
1865        Feb 17, Union forces regained Fort Sumter.
    (HFA, ‘96, p.22)
1865        Feb 17-18, Battle of Charleston SC.
    (MC, 2/17/02)

1865        Feb 18, Union troops forced the Confederates to abandon Fort Anderson, N.C.
    (HN, 2/18/98)
1865        Feb 18, Battle of Ft. Moultrie, SC.
    (MC, 2/18/02)
1865        Feb 18, Columbia, SC, was evacuated and  Sherman's troops burned the city.
    (MC, 2/18/02)

1865        Feb 20, MIT was formed as the 1st US collegiate architectural school.
    (MC, 2/20/02)

1865        Feb 22, Federal troops captured Wilmington, N.C. (Fort Anderson).
    (HN, 2/22/98)(MC, 2/22/02)
1865        Feb 22, Tennessee adopted a new constitution abolishing slavery.
    (HN, 2/22/98)(AP, 2/22/99)

1865        Feb 23, England’s Reform League was established to concentrate solely on manhood suffrage. The Universal League for the Material Elevation of the Industrious Classes became defunct.

1865        Feb 25, General Joseph E. Johnston replaced John Bell Hood as Commander of the Confederate Army of Tennessee. Arthur Fremantle made a breathtaking tour of the Confederacy. Within three months he had met most of the top Confederate leaders, including Robert E. Lee, James Longstreet, Joseph Johnston and Jefferson Davis.
    (HN, 2/25/98)

1865        Feb 27, Confederate raider William Quantrill and his bushwhackers attacked Hickman, Kentucky, shooting women and children.
    (HN, 2/27/00)
1865        Feb 27, A Civil War skirmish took place near Sturgeon, Missouri.
    (MC, 2/27/02)

1865        Feb, Major General William Tecumseh Sherman had made a swift and steady advance through Georgia and South Carolina, and by late February 1865, his army was approaching Charlotte, North Carolina.
    (HN, 2/8/98)

1865        Mar 1, Anna Paulowna Romanova (70), great monarch of Russia, died.
    (SC, 3/1/02)

1865        Mar 2, Freedman's Bureau was founded for Black Education.
    (SC, 3/2/02)
1865        Mar 2, General Lee proposed peace to Grant. President Abraham Lincoln rejected Confederate General Robert E. Lee's plea for peace talks, demanding unconditional surrender.
    (HFA, ‘96, p.22)(HN, 3/2/99)
1865        Mar 2, General Early's army was defeated at Waynesborough, Va.
    (SC, 3/2/02)
1865        Mar 2, British newspaper "Morning Chronicle" began publishing.
    (SC, 3/2/02)

1865        Mar 3, US Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands was established to help destitute free blacks.
    (SC, 3/3/02)

1865        Mar 4, President Lincoln was inaugurated for his 2nd term as President. It was held at the Patent Office, the site of a military hospital. Four companies of African-American troops and lodges of African-American Masons and African-American Odd-Fellows joined the procession to the Capitol.
    (WSJ, 2/12/04, p.D12)(SSFC, 1/20/13, Par p.4)
1865        Mar 4, Confederate congress approved the final design of "official flag."
    (SC, 3/4/02)

1865        Mar 6, President Lincoln's 2nd Inaugural Ball was held.
    (MC, 3/6/02)
1865        Mar 6, The last Confederate victory of the Civil War occurred at Natural Bridge crossing near Tallahassee, Fla., when the forces of Union Gen’l. John Newton were routed by entrenched southerners.
    (HT, 3/97, p.10)(HN, 3/6/98)

1865        Mar 7-10, Battles were fought around Kingston, NC.
    (MC, 3/7/02)

1865        Mar 8, Frederick William Goudy, US printer, type designer, was born.
    (MC, 3/8/02)
1865        Mar 8, Battle of Kingston, NC (Wilcox's ridge, Wise's Forks).
    (MC, 3/8/02)

1865        Mar 10, Battle of Monroe's Crossroads, NC.
    (MC, 3/10/02)

1865        Mar 11, General Sherman and his forces occupied Fayetteville, N.C. Union General William Sherman considered Judson Kilpatrick, his cavalry chief, "a hell of a damn fool." At Monroe’s Cross Roads, N.C., his carelessness and disobedience of orders proved Sherman’s point.
    (HN, 3/11/98)

1865        Mar 13, Confederate Pres. Jefferson Davis signed a measure allowing black slaves to enlist in the Confederate States Army with the promise they would be set free.
    (BG, 3/13/16, p.B6)
1865        Mar 13, Lt. Col. William M. Graham was given a brevet brigadier generalcy. Unfortunately, Graham had been killed in action some days before--6,396 days to be precise--at the head of the old U.S. 11th Infantry at the Battle of Molino del Rey on August 8, 1847.
    (HNQ, 4/1/01)

1865        Mar 15, Lincoln delivered his Second Inaugural Address. In 2002 Ronald C. White Jr. authored "Lincoln’s Greatest Speech: The Second Inaugural."
    (HFA, ‘96, p.28)(WSJ, 2/8/02, p.W9)

1865        Mar 16, Union troops pushed past Confederate blockers at the Battle of Averasborough, N.C., and left 1,500 causalities.
    (HN, 3/16/99)(MC, 3/16/02)

1865        Mar 18, The Congress of the Confederate States of America adjourned for the last time.
    (HN, 3/18/98)
1865        Mar 18, Battle of Wilson's raid to Selma, AL.
    (MC, 3/18/02)

1865        Mar 19, Battle of Bentonville: Confederates retreated from Greenville, NC. [see Mar 20-21]
    (MC, 3/19/02)

1865        Mar 20, Battle of Bentonville, N.C.
    (HN, 3/20/98)
1865        Mar 20, Michigan authorized workers' cooperatives.
    (MC, 3/20/02)

1865        Mar 21, The Battle of Bentonville, N.C. ended, marking the last Confederate attempt to stop. Union General William Sherman considered Judson Kilpatrick, his cavalry chief, ‘a hell of a damn fool.’ At Monroe’s Cross Roads, N.C., his carelessness and disobedience of orders proved Sherman’s point.
    (HN, 3/21/98)

1865        Mar 22, Theophile Ysaye, composer, was born.
    (MC, 3/22/02)
1865        Mar 22, Raid at Wilson's: Chickasaw, AL, to Macon, GA.
    (MC, 3/22/02)

1865        Mar 23, General Sherman and Cox's troops reached Goldsboro, NC.
    (SS, 3/23/02)

1865        Mar 25, Battle of Mobile, AL (Spanish Fort, Fort Morgan, Fort Blakely).
    (MC, 3/25/02)
1865        Mar 25, Battle of Bluff Spring, FL.
    (MC, 3/25/02)
1865        Mar 25, Confederate forces captured Fort Stedman during the siege of Petersburg, Va., but were forced to withdraw by counterattacking Union troops.
    (AP, 3/25/97)(HN, 3/24/01)

1865        Mar 27, Siege of Spanish Fort, AL. It was captured by Federals.
    (MC, 3/27/02)

1865        Mar 29, Battle of Quaker Road, Va.
    (MC, 3/29/02)
1865        Mar 29-Apr 9, The Appomattox campaign in  Virginia left 7582 killed.
    (MC, 3/29/02)

1865        Mar 31, Battle of Boydton, VA (White Oaks Roads, Dinwiddie Court House).
    (MC, 3/31/02)
1865        Mar 31, Gen. Pickett moved to 5 Forks, abandoning the defense of Petersburg.
    (MC, 3/31/02)

1865        Mar, Thomas Sutherland of Scotland founded the Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation (HSBC) to finance trade in the Far East. It established the Shanghai branch on April 3, 1865.

1865        Apr 1, At the Battle of Five Forks in Petersburg, Va., Gen. Robert E. Lee began his final offensive.
    (HN, 4/1/98)(OTD)
1865        Apr 1-9, Battle at Blakely Alabama.
    (MC, 4/1/02)

1865        Apr 2, Confederate President Davis and most of his Cabinet fled the Confederate capital of Richmond, Va. Grant broke Lee’s line at Petersburg. President Jefferson Davis moved his government headquarters to Danville, Va., when its previous capital, Richmond, became engulfed in flames. Though it would have been safer to secure a location further south, Danville was naturally protected by the Dan and Staunton rivers, and it was in close proximity to Gen. Robert E. Lee’s army to the north and Gen. Joseph E. Johnston’s army to the south. The Piedmont Railroad connected Danville and Greensboro, N.C. and offered easy access to supplies.
    (AP, 4/2/97)(HN, 4/2/98)(HNQ, 11/1/01)
1865        Apr 2, Battle of Petersburg, Va. (Ft Gregg, Sutherland's Station).
    (MC, 4/2/02)
1865        Apr 2, Battle of Ft. Blakely, AL. and Selma, AL.
    (MC, 4/2/02)
1865        Apr 2, Ambrose Powell Hill (39), Confederate general, was killed in action.
    (MC, 4/2/02)
1865        Apr 2, Richard Cobden (b.1804), English manufacturer and Radical and Liberal statesman, died. He had advocated for free trade and led the campaign against Corn Laws, which were repealed in 1846.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Cobden)(Econ, 10/1/16, SR p.16)

1865        Apr 3, Union forces captured the Confederate capital of Richmond, Va.
    (HFA, ‘96, p.28)(AP, 4/3/97)(HN, 4/3/98)
1865        Apr 3, Battle at Namozine Church, Virginia (Appomattox Campaign).
    (MC, 4/3/02)

1865        Apr 4, Lee's army arrived at the Amelia Courthouse.
    (MC, 4/4/02)

1865        Apr 5, As the Confederate army approached Appomattox, it skirmished with Union army at Amelia Springs and Paine's Cross Road.
    (HN, 4/5/99)

1865        Apr 6, At the Battle of Sayler's Creek, a third of Lee's army was cut off by Union troops pursuing him to Appomattox. Skirmish at High Bridge, VA, (Appomattox).
    (HN, 4/6/99)(MC, 4/6/02)
1865        Apr 6, Reuben B. Boston, US and Confederate cavalry colonel, died in battle.
    (MC, 4/6/02)

1865        Apr 7, Battle of Farmville, VA.
    (MC, 4/7/02)

1865        Apr 8, General Robert E. Lee's retreat was cut off near Appomattox Court House. Lee requested to meet with Gen Ulysses Grant to discuss possible surrender.
    (HN, 4/8/98)(MC, 4/8/02)

1865        Apr 9, Erich Ludendorff, German general during World War I, was born.
    (HN, 4/9/99)
1865        Apr 9, Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee surrendered to Gen. Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox Court House, Virginia, and ended the Civil War. A lifelong friend and trusted aide of Ulysses S. Grant, Seneca Indian Ely Parker was at his general’s side at the surrender at Appomattox. The Union 20th Maine Infantry Unit was designated as one of the regiments to receive the surrender of Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia. One in four Southern men of military age died vs. one in ten for the Yankees. In 1998 Bevin Alexander published "Robert E. Lee’s Civil War." In 2001 Jay Winik authored "April 1865: the Month That Saved America."
    (A&IP, p.92)(AP, 4/9/97)(WSJ, 4/2/98, p.A20)(HN, 4/9/98)(WSJ, 7/24/98, p.W10)(WSJ, 4/2/01, p.A20)
1865        Apr 9, Federals captured Ft. Blakely, Alabama.
    (MC, 4/9/02)

1865        Apr 10, At Appomattox Court, Va, General Robert E. Lee issued Gen Order #9, his last orders to the Army of Northern Virginia. Seneca Indian Ely Parker was at his general's side at Appomattox. In 2001 William C. Davis authored "An Honorable Defeat."
    (HN, 4/10/99)(WSJ, 6/13/01, p.A18)(MC, 4/10/02)

1865        Apr 11, Lincoln urged a spirit of generous conciliation during reconstruction.
    (MC, 4/11/02)
1865        Apr 11, Battle of Mobile, AL., evacuated by Confederates.
    (MC, 4/11/02)

1865        Apr 13, Union forces under Gen. Sherman began their devastating march through Georgia. Sherman's troops took Raleigh, NC.
    (HN, 4/13/98)(MC, 4/13/02)

1865        Apr 14, On the evening of Good Friday, just after 10 p.m.,  Pres. Lincoln was shot and mortally wounded by John Wilkes Booth while attending the comedy "Our American Cousin" at Ford's Theater in Washington DC. Southern sympathizer John Wilkes Booth burst into the presidential box and shot Lincoln behind the ear. Booth shouted out “sic semper tyrannis" (thus always to tyrants), Virginia’s state motto, after shooting Pres. Lincoln. He leaped to the stage, breaking his left leg on impact, and escaped through a side door. Lincoln was carried to a nearby house where he remained unconscious until his death at 7:22 the following morning. Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton, who had kept vigil at Lincoln's bedside, said, "Now he belongs to the ages." As I would not be a slave, so I would not be a master. This expresses my idea of democracy."
    (V.D.-H.K.p.277)(AP, 4/14/97)(AP, 4/14/98)(HNPD, 4/14/00)(WSJ, 10/13/06, p.W13)
1865        Apr 14, A 2nd assassin stabbed the Sec. of State 5 times. George Atzerodt, a 3rd assassin for the vice president, got cold feet.
    (SSFC, 4/8/01, Par p.12)(WSJ, 2/2/05, p.B1)
1865        Apr 14, Mobile, Alabama, was captured.
    (MC, 4/14/02)

1865        Apr 15, President Lincoln died, several hours after he was shot at Ford’s Theater in Washington by John Wilkes Booth. Andrew Johnson, Vice-President under Lincoln, became the 17th President (1865-1869) of the US upon the assassination. The first Mourning Stamp was issued after his assassination, a 15-cent black commemorative. In 1999 Allen C. Guelzo authored "Abraham Lincoln: Redeemer President," an intellectual biography. In 2002 William Lee Miller authored "Lincoln’s Virtues: An Ethical Biography." In 2004 Ronald C. White Jr. authored “The Eloquent President." In 2005 Doris Kearns Goodwin authored “Team of Rivals: The Political Genius of Abraham Lincoln." In 2006 Douglas L. Wilson authored “Lincoln’s Sword: The Presidency and the Power of Woods."
    (http://condor.stcloudstate.edu/~brixr01/NYTAPR151865.html)(WSJ, 12/29/99, p.A16)(WSJ, 2/8/02, p.W9)(WSJ, 1/20/05, p.D9) (SSFC, 11/27/05, p.M3)(SFC, 11/27/06, p.C2)
1865        Apr 15, Otto von Bismarck was elevated to earl.
    (MC, 4/15/02)
1865        Apr 17, Mary Surratt was arrested as a conspirator in the Lincoln assassination.
    (HN, 4/17/98)

1865        Apr 18, Dr. Samuel A. Mudd originally claimed to have never met Booth during his initial interview with investigating detectives. Presidential assassin John Wilkes Booth, injured and fleeing Ford's Theatre, had knocked on the door of Dr. Mudd for help.
    (HNQ, 8/26/01)
1865        Apr 18, Confederate Gen Joseph Johnston surrendered to Gen W.T. Sherman in North Carolina.
    (MC, 4/18/02)

1865        Apr 20, Chicago's Crosby Opera House opened.
    (MC, 4/20/02)

1865        Apr 21, Abraham Lincoln’s funeral train left Washington.
    (HN, 4/21/98)

1865        Apr 23, Union cavalry units continued to skirmish with Confederate forces in Henderson, North Carolina and Munsford Station, Alabama.
    (HN, 4/23/99)

1865        Apr 26, Battle of Ft. Tobacco, VA.
    (MC, 4/26/02)
1865        Apr 26, Confederate Gen. Joseph E. Johnston surrendered the Army of Tennessee at Durham, NC, to Union Gen. W.T. Sherman. Sherman considered Judson Kilpatrick, his cavalry chief, ‘a hell of a damn fool.’ At Monroe’s Cross Roads, N.C., his carelessness and disobedience of orders proved Sherman’s point.
    (HN, 4/26/98)(MC, 4/26/02)
1865        Apr 26, John Wilkes Booth (27) was tracked to a Virginia farm near Bowling Green, and shot in the neck by federal troops when he tried to escape from a burning barn. At some time prior to this Booth’s leg was operated on by Dr. Samuel Mudd, ancestor of news commentator Roger Mudd, who obtained a presidential pardon for Dr. Mudd’s financial ruin. Dr. Mudd served time at the Fort Jefferson Prison in the Dry Tortugas. [see Apr 27]
    (SFC, 6/7/96, p.A8)(WP, 6/29/96, p.A16)(AP, 4/26/98)

1865        Apr 27, John Wilkes Booth was killed by Federal Cavalry in Virginia. In 2004 Michael W. Kauffman authored “American Brutus." In 2006 James L. Swanson authored “Manhunt: The 12-Day Chase for Lincoln’s Killer. [see Apr 26]
    (HN, 4/27/98)(WSJ, 2/11/06, p.P10)(WSJ, 1/28/07, p.P10)
1865        Apr 27, The steamer Sultana caught fire and burned after one of its boilers exploded on the Mississippi River near Memphis, Tenn., killing more than 1,400 paroled Union prisoners on their way home. One account reported 1,547 people dead. At least 1,238 of the 2,031 passengers, mostly former Union POWs, were killed.
    (AP, 4/27/97)(SFC, 3/13/99, p.E6)(HN, 4/27/99)(MC, 4/27/02)

1865        Apr 28, Giacomo Meyerbeer's opera "L'Africaine," premiered in Paris.
    (MC, 4/28/02)

1865        Apr 30-May 1, Gen Sherman's "Haines's Bluff" at Snyder's Mill, Virginia.
    (MC, 4/30/02)

1865        Apr, Henry James (1843-1916), reportedly had a love relationship with Oliver Wendall Holmes, the future US Supreme Court Justice.
    (SFEC, 11/3/96, BR p.1)

1865        May 1, In Charleston, SC, some 10,000 people paraded to a mass grave site of Union soldiers at a former race track. This was likely the 1st large-scale US Memorial Day event. [see May 5, 1866, 1868]
    (SFC, 5/26/03, p.A1)

1865        May 2, President Johnson offered a $100,000 reward for the capture of Confederate President Jefferson Davis.
    (HN, 5/2/98)

1865         May 3,    President Lincoln’s funeral train arrived in Springfield, Illinois.
    (HN, 5/3/98)

1865        May 4, Abraham Lincoln was buried in a temporary tomb in Oak Ridge Cemetery in Springfield, Illinois.
    (SFEC, 3/22/98, p.T4)(www.state.il.us/HPA/hs/Tomb.htm)
1865        May 4, Battle of Mobile, AL. [see Apr 11,14]
    (MC, 5/4/02)

1865        May 5, The Thirteenth Amendment was ratified, abolishing slavery, except for "duly convicted" prisoners.
    (HN, 5/5/98)(WSJ, 7/16/01, p.A10)

1865        May 9, William Smith (1797-1887) was forced out of office as governor of Virginia following the Confederate surrender.
    (http://tinyurl.com/lnq3flb)(Econ, 8/17/13, p.28)
1865        May 9, August de Boeck (d.1937), Flemish composer, was born.

1865        May 10, Confederate Pres. Jefferson Davis was captured by Union troops in Irwinville, Georgia.
    (HN, 5/10/98)(AP, 5/10/08)

1865        May 12, The last land action of the Civil War was fought at Palmito Ranch in Texas. It was a Confederate victory.
    (SC, Internet, 5/12/97)(HN, 5/12/02)

1865        May 17, The International Telegraph Convention was signed in Paris. The International Telecommunication Union later became a specialized agency of the United Nations that is responsible for issues that concern information and communication technologies. By 2019 ITU's global membership included 193 Member States as well as some 900 companies, universities, and international and regional organizations.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Telecommunication_Union)(PR Newswire, 12/17/19)

1865        May 21, C.J. Thomsen, archaeologist who named the Stone, Iron and Bronze Ages, was born in Denmark.
    (MC, 5/21/02)

1865        May 23, The American flag was flown at full staff over White House for the 1st time since Lincoln was shot. Union Army's Grand Review began in Washington DC.
    (MC, 5/23/02)

1865        May 25, Frederick Augustus III, King of Saxon (1904-18), was born.
    (SC, 5/25/02)
1865        May 25, John Raleigh Mott, organizer (YMCA, Nobel 1946), was born.
    (SC, 5/25/02)
1865        May 25, Pieter Zeeman, Dutch physicist (Zeeman effect, Nobel 1902), was born. 
    (SC, 5/25/02)

1865        May 26, Arrangements were made in New Orleans for the surrender of Confederate forces west of the Mississippi. The last Confederate Army surrendered in Shreveport, La.
    (AP, 5/26/97)(HN, 5/26/99)
1865        May 26, At the Battle of Galveston, TX., Edmund Kirby Smith surrendered.
    (MC, 5/26/02)

1865        May 29, Amnesty for the Confederates was granted.
    (HFA, ‘96, p.30)

1865        May, E.L. Godkin announced the start of a new magazine called The Nation and asked William James to be a contributor.
    (WSJ, 10/17/96, p.A20)

1865        Jun 2, At Galveston, Confederate General Kirby-Smith surrendered the Trans-Mississippi Department to Northern Forces.
    (HN, 6/2/98)

1865        Jun 3, George V, Saksen-Coburg [Windsor], King of Great Britain, was born.
    (MC, 6/3/02)

1865        Jun 6, Confederate raider William Quantrill (b.1837) died in Louisville, Ky., from a shot in the spine he received escaping a Union patrol near Taylorsville, Kentucky.
    (HN, 6/6/99)(www.tsha.utexas.edu/handbook/online/articles/QQ/fqu3.html)

1865        Jun 9, Carl Nielsen, Danish composer, was born.
    (HN, 6/9/01)

1865        Jun 10, The opera "Tristan und Isolde" by Richard Wagner premiered in Munich, Germany. Wagner had begun the work in 1857.
    (AP, 6/10/97)(WSJ, 3/12/99, p.W2)

1865        Jun 13, William Butler Yeats (d.1939), Irish poet and playwright, was born to an Anglo-Irish family in a Dublin suburb. He is best remembered for his poems "Byzantium" and "Easter 1916." He won the Nobel Prize in 1923. The first volume of his autobiography was "Reveries Over Childhood and Youth" (1915). Richard Ellman published a biography in 1948. The book "W.B. Yeats: A Life, Vol. 1: The Apprentice Mage 1865-1914," by R.F. Foster covered this period of Yeats’ life. "The Lake Isle of Innisfree" is his best known poem. "Too long a sacrifice / Can make a stone of the heart. / O when may it suffice?"
    (V.D.-H.K.p.365)(WSJ, 4/2397, p.A1)(AP, 4/29/98)(HN, 6/13/98)(SFEC, 8/8/99, p.T6)(MC, 6/13/02)

1865        Jun 17, Edmund Ruffin (b.1794), Virginia-born secessionist, writer, committed suicide after Confederacy defeat. For most of his life, Ruffin was a farmer and a renowned agricultural reformer. Increasingly, however, he turned his attention in the 1850s to politics, especially the defense of slavery and secession. Plagued by ill health, family misfortunes, and the rapid collapse of Confederate forces in 1865, Ruffin proclaimed "unmitigated hatred to Yankee rule," and on June 17, 1865, at his estate of Redmoor, in Amelia county, Virginia, he pulled the trigger on his silver-mounted gun and joined other fallen Confederate soldiers, the casualty of what some call the “last shot of the Civil War." . His act, sometimes considered the "last shot" of the Civil War, become identified with the Confederacy's defeat and a symbol of the lost cause.

1865        Jun 19, Emancipation Day, also known as Juneteenth, was the day that Union General Granger informed Texas slaves that they were free. Blacks came to celebrate the day as Juneteenth Freedom Day.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gordon_Granger)(SFEC, 6/21/98, p.D3)(SFC, 6/18/04, p.B2)

1865        Jun 23, Confederate General Stand Watie, who was also a Cherokee chief, surrendered the last sizable Confederate army at Fort Towson, in the Oklahoma Territory.
    (WSJ, 6/9/97, p.A19)(HN, 6/23/98)

1865        Jun 26, Bernard Berenson, art critic (Italian Painters of the Renaissance), was born.
    (MC, 6/26/02)

1865        Jun 29, William E. Borah, Republican senator from Idaho, proponent of the League of Nations, was born.
    (HN, 6/29/98)

1865        Jun 30, Eight alleged conspirators in assassination of Lincoln were found guilty after kangaroo court-martial and brutal treatment by military officers.
    (MC, 6/30/02)

1865        Jun, The Confederate ship Shenandoah under Capt. James Waddell attacked Yankee whalers off the coast of Alaska firing the last shots of the US Civil War. From 1864 to 1865 the Shenandoah captured, sank or ransomed 38 Union ships, mostly whalers, in the Indian, Pacific and Arctic oceans.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CSS_Shenandoah)(SFC, 8/4/18, p.C4)

1865        Jul 2, Lili Braun, feminist, socialist writer (Im Schatten Titanen), was born in Prussia.
    (SC, 7/2/02)
1865        Jul 2, William Booth (1829-1912), British Methodist preacher, held his first meeting for the Salvation Army in London.

1865        Jul 4, 1st edition of "Alice in Wonderland" was published. English mathematician Charles Lutwidge Dodgson is best known for writing the children’s book Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland under the pen name Lewis Carroll. Born in 1832, Also a skilled portrait photographer, Dodgson pioneered in the art of photographing children.
    (SFEM, 11/24/96, p.59)(HNQ, 6/12/98)(Maggio, 98)   

1865        Jul 5, The US Secret Service began operating under the Treasury Department. The Secret Service Division began in Washington, D.C., to suppress counterfeit currency. Chief William P. Wood was sworn in by Secretary of the Treasury Hugh McCulloch.
1865        Jul 5, Great Britain imposed world’s 1st maximum speed laws.
    (MC, 7/5/02)

1865        Jul 7, The trap doors of the scaffold in the yard of Washington’s Old Penitentiary were sprung, and Mary Surratt, Lewis Paine, David Herold and George Atzerodt dropped to their deaths. The four had been convicted of "treasonable conspiracy" in the assassination of President Abraham Lincoln, and had learned that they were to be hanged only a day before their execution. Shortly after 1 p.m. the prisoners were led onto the scaffold and prepared for execution. The props supporting the platform were knocked away at about 2 p.m. Assassin John Wilkes Booth had been killed on April 26, 12 days after Lincoln’s assassination. Other convicted conspirators—Edman Spangler, Dr. Samuel Mudd, Samuel Arnold and Michael O’Laughlin—were imprisoned.
    (AP, 7/7/97)(HNPD, 7/7/98)

1865        Jul 8, C.E. Barnes of Lowell, MA, patented the machine gun.
    (MC, 7/8/02)

1865        Jul 13, Horace Greeley advised his readers to "Go west young man."
    (MC, 7/13/02)

1865        Jul 14, The Chickasaw Indian Nation under Winchester Colbert was the last military force to surrender in the Civil War.
    (WSJ, 6/9/97, p.A19)
1865        Jul 14, Edward Whymper, Charles Hudson, Michel Croz, and Douglas Hadow became the 1st to climb the Matterhorn, on the border of Switzerland and Italy. Only Edward Whymper survived the descent.

1865        Jul 19, Charles Horance Mayo (d.1939), American surgeon and co-founder of the Mayo Clinic Foundation for Medical Education and Research, was born. "I have never known a man who died from overwork, but many who died from doubt."
    (HN, 7/19/98)(AP, 12/11/00)

1865        Jul 21, Wild Bill Hickok killed gunman Dave Tutt in Springfield, Illinois, in the first formal quick-draw duel.
    (HN, 7/21/98)

1865        Jul 25, Dr. James Barry (b.1795), British military medical officer and senior inspector general, died. It was soon revealed that Dr. Barry was likely a female. In 2003 Rachel Holmes authored “Scanty Particulars: the Scandalous Life and Astonishing Secret of Queen Victoria’s Most Eminent Military Doctor."
    (NYTBR, 2/2/03, p.21)(www.geocities.com/hotsprings/2615/medhist/barry.html)

1865        Jul 30, The worst US steamship disaster occurred. The Brother Jonathon, a paddle wheel steamer, sank off the coast of Northern California near Crescent City. 221 [166] people died after the ship hit a rock near Crescent City. There were 19 survivors. The 220-foot, side-wheeled steamer was onroute to Puget Sound and reportedly carried as much as $2 million in gold. In the 1990s Deep Sea Research found and salvaged 1,207 gold coins from the ship. California received 20% of the treasure and the rest was put up for auction in 1999.
    (HFA, '96, p.28)(SFC, 7/18/96, p.A18)(SFC, 6/10/97, p.A4)(SFC, 4/23/98, p.A6)(SFC, 5/28/99, p.D7)(SSFC, 4/21/02, p.A27)

1865        Aug 2, Irving Babbitt, founder of modern humanistic movement, was born.
    (HN, 8/2/98)
1865        Aug 2, Capt. James Waddell (1824-1886) of the Confederate ship Shenandoah learned of the end of the US Civil War when he encountered the Liverpool barque Barracouta as it sailed from San Francisco.
1865        Aug 2, A trans Atlantic Cable being laid by SS Great Eastern snapped and was lost.
    (MC, 8/2/02)

1865        Aug 4, Blacks celebrate this date as the day "on which Nicodemus’ master laid aside his whip." The year is called the "Year of Jubilee."
    (NH, 7/98, p.31)

1865        Aug 10, Alexander K. Glazunov, composer (Chopiniana), was born in St. Petersburg, Russia.
    (MC, 8/10/02)

1865        Aug 13, Ignaz Semmelweis (47), Hungarian gynecologist, died. [see Jul 1, 1818]
    (MC, 8/13/02)

1865        Aug 15, Sir Joseph Lister discovered the antiseptic process. [see Sep 1]
    (MC, 8/15/02)

1865        Aug 20, Pres. Johnson proclaimed an end to the "insurrection" in Texas.
    (MC, 8/20/02)

1865        Aug 31, The US Federal government estimated the American Civil War had cost about eight-billion dollars. Human costs have been estimated at more than one-million killed or wounded.
    (MC, 8/31/01)

1865        Aug, A national military cemetery was dedicated at Andersonville, Georgia, by Clara Barton and the Red Cross for the 13,000 men who died at Camp Sumter. Dorance Atwater (d.1912), a Union soldier, had secretly copied the roll of Union dead at the prison. After the war Atwater was appointed Consul at Papeete, Tahiti. He died in San Francisco in 1910.
    (AHHT, 10/02, p.22)(http://petticoatsandpistols.com/category/civil-war/page/2/)

1865        Sep 1, Joseph Lister performed his 1st antiseptic surgery.
    (MC, 9/1/02)

1865        Sep 2, William Rowan Hamilton, Ireland's greatest man of science who made contributions in the study of optics and applications of algebra to geometry, died.

1865        Sep 3, Army commander in SC ordered Freedmen's Bureau to stop seizing land.
    (MC, 9/3/01)

1865        Sep 6, Russia forbade the use of Latin letters in the Lithuanian language.  Following the 1863 uprising the Czarist authorities prohibited the publication of Lithuanian books in Roman letters. Books in Cyrillic were allowed but not accepted by the people. Secret book couriers smuggled in Latin lettered books until 1904.
    (DrEE, 9/14/96, p.4)(LC, 1998, p.24)

1865        Sep 17, In San Francisco Mark Twain and ‘Mousetrap Man’ (Tremenheere Lanyon Johns) were seen walking up Clay street under the influence of hashish. At this time concentrated cannabis was commonly available in tincture or solid form in drug stores.
    (SSFC, 10/2/11, p.E9)

1865        Sep 23, Emmuska Orczy (d.1947), baroness and writer, was born in Tarnaors, Hungary. Her family moved to London in 1880. Her books included "The Scarlet Pimpernel" (1905).
    (HN, 9/23/00)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baroness_Orczy)

1865        Sep 24, James Cooke walked a tightrope from the San Francisco Cliff House to Seal Rocks.
    (MC, 9/24/01)

1865        Oct 1, Paul Abraham Dukas, composer (Sorcerer's Apprentice), was born in Paris, France.
    (MC, 10/1/01)

1865        Oct 2, Former Confederate General Robert E. Lee became president of Washington and Lee University in Virginia.
    (MC, 10/2/01)

1865        Oct 5, George Calvert Yount (b.1794), founder of Yountville, died in Napa Valley, Ca.

1865        Oct 8, Heinrich Wilhelm Ernst, composer, died at 51.
    (MC, 10/8/01)

1865        Oct 10, Raffaele Merry del Val, Spanish cardinal, was born.
    (MC, 10/10/01)
1865        Oct 10, John Wesley Hyatt patented a new method for manufacturing billiard balls. He used melted glue and cloth as an alternative to the ivory balls in use, but his 1st products did not work well. [see Apr 6, 1869]
    (MC, 10/10/01)(ON, 11/03, p.3)

1865        Oct 11, President Johnson paroled CSA VP Alexander Stephens.
    (MC, 10/11/01)

1865        Oct 18, British PM Henry John Temple (b.1874), the 3rd Viscount Palmerston, died at his home in Romsey.

1865        Oct 25, The S.S. Republic was carrying 59 passengers and 20,000 $20 gold coins from New York to New Orleans when it sank in a hurricane off Savannah, Ga. All the passengers boarded life boats and got off alive. In 2003 Odyssey Marine Exploration found the ship. The company recovered some 52,000 silver and gold coins.
    (AP, 8/17/03)(AP, 11/29/03)(SFC, 6/11/12, p.E2)

1865        Oct, financial pressures exerted negative market influences as noted in a letter to the Economist.
    (WSJ, 9/28/95, p.A-18)

1865        Nov 2, Warren Gamaliel Harding, the 29th president of the United States (1921-29), was born near Corsica, Ohio. Harding was owner and publisher of the Marion Star.
    (SFEC, 1/12/97, Z3 p.4)(AP, 11/2/97)(HNQ, 10/21/98)

1865        Nov 5, The Union Pacific started construction on its western railroad from Omaha, Nebraska. The city was originally Fort Atkinson.
    (SFC, 7/8/96, p.D2)(SFC, 9/7/96, p.B4)

1865        Nov 6, The Confederate ship Shenandoah under Capt. James Waddell surrendered in Liverpool, England, after attacking Yankee commercial shipping off the coast of Alaska. It had sunk of captured 38 vessels, mostly New Bedford whaleships. The surrender of the Shenandoah was the last act of the US Civil War.
    (SFC, 1/3/15, p.C2)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CSS_Shenandoah)

1865            Nov 10, Captain Henry Wirz (b.1822), commandment of Camp Sumter, Ga., (known as “Andersonville" by the North) was hanged outside Washington, D.C., after being found guilty of war crimes.
    (www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USACWwirz.htm)(AHHT, 10/02, p.22)

1865            Nov 11, Dr. Mary Edward Walker, 1st Army female surgeon, was awarded the Medal of Honor by Pres. Andrew Johnson for her work as a field doctor, for outstanding service at the Battle of Bull Run, the Battle of Chickamauga, the Battle of Atlanta, and as a Confederate prisoner of war in Richmond, Va. Her medal was rescinded 1917 along with 910 others, but restored by President Carter June 10, 1977.
    (SFC, 7/17/96, p.E10)(HNQ, 3/12/02)(www.army.mil/cmh-pg/mohciv2.htm)

1865        Nov 13, PT Barnum's New American museum opened in Bridgeport, Conn.
    (MC, 11/13/01)

1865        Nov 18, Mark Twain's first story "The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County" was published in the New York Saturday Press. Biologists later thought that the frog named Dan’l Webster by Twain was a California red-legged frog and currently endangered.
    (SFC, 5/18/96, p.A-6)(HN, 11/18/00)

1865        Nov 26, "Alice in Wonderland" by Lewis Carroll was published in US.
    (MC, 11/26/01)

1865        Dec 6, 13th Amendment was ratified, abolishing slavery. [see Dec 18]
    (MC, 12/6/01)

1865        Dec 8, Jean Sibelius (d.1957), composer (Valse Triste, Finlandia), was born as Johan Julius Christian in Tavastehus, Finland: "Pay no attention to what critics say. There has never been set up a statue in honor of a critic.
    (SFC,10/14/97,p.B3)(WUD,1994, p.1323)(SFEC,11/16/97, Z1 p.5)(MC, 12/8/01)

1865        Dec 18 The Thirteenth Amendment to the US Constitution, abolishing slavery, was declared in effect.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.276)(AP, 12/18/07)

1865        Dec 20, Maude Gonne, Irish nationalist (Irish Joan of Arc), was born.
    (MC, 12/20/01)

1865        Dec 24, Several veterans of the Confederate Army formed a private social club in Pulaski, Tenn., called the Ku Klux Klan. In three short years the organization had members in every former Confederate state and was responsible for terrorist acts against Reconstruction.
    (AP, 12/24/97)(HNQ, 8/4/99)

1865        Dec 25, Evangeline Cory Booth, Salvation Army general (1904-34), was born.
    (MC, 12/25/01)

1865        Dec 26, James H. Nason (Mason) of Franklin, Mass., received a patent for a coffee percolator.
    (AP, 12/26/97)(MC, 12/26/01)

1865        Dec 30, Rudyard Kipling (d.1936), British author and poet, best known for "Jungle Book" and "Soldiers Three," was born in Bombay, India. "There are only two classes of mankind in the world -- doctors and patients." He won the Nobel prize for literature in 1907.
    (AP, 12/30/97)(HN, 12/30/98)(AP, 2/7/00)(MC, 12/30/01)

1865        Dec, In San Francisco tensions exploded between volunteer firefighting groups during a race to a fire. Three companies engaged in a brawl that left dozens of men with broken bones, bruises and gunshot wounds.
    (SFC, 5/1/21, p.B3)

1865            Baroness Emmuska Orczy (d.1947), Hungarian-British author (“Scarlet Pimpernel" 1905), was born in Tarna-Ors, Hungary.

1865        Frederic Bazille painted "Beach at Sainte-Adresse."
    (WSJ, 3/9/99, p.A20)

1865-1867    Honore Daumier created his painting "The Strong Man" during this period.
    (SFC, 3/24/00, p.B1)

1865        Edgar Degas painted the portrait of his sister and brother-in-law: "Monsieur and Madame Edmondo Morbilli."
    (SFC, 10/13/97, p.E1)

1865        Edward Burne-Jones, painter, began his "St. George and the Dragon" series.
    (WSJ, 6/11/98, p.A20)

1865        Monet painted "A Cart on the Snowy Road at Honfleur."
    (SFC, 1/29/99, p.D6)
1865-1866    Edouard Manet painted "The Tragic Actor (Rouviere as Hamlet)" about this time.
    (WSJ, 4/16/03, p.D10)

1865        Bret Harte edited the 1st collection of California poetry from newspaper clippings of poems compiled by Mary Tingley of San Francisco.
    (SSFC, 1/4/04, p.M1)

1865        Union Brig. Gen. August Kautz authored "The 1865 Customs of Service: A Handbook for the Rank and File of the Army.
    (AH, 10/01, HT p.9)

1865        The Dante Club formed in Boston to help Henry Wadsworth Longfellow complete the 1st top-notch English translation of Dante’s "Inferno."
    (SSFC, 2/2/03, p.M6)

1865        Jules Verne published his book: "From the Earth to the Moon." In the book a rocket is launched from Florida to the moon and safely returns to Earth by landing in the ocean. Verne, the father of science fiction, uncannily predicted through his 19th-century writing many of the scientific and technological accomplishments of the 20th century.
    (SFEC, 4/19/98, Par p.10)(HNQ, 2/6/99)

c1865        The late 20th century book "Been in the Storm So Long" by Leon F. Litwack focused on the aftermath of slavery in the mid 1860s and won a Pulitzer Prize.
    (SFEC, 4/19/98, BR p.4)

1865        The McKendrick-Breaux House at 1474 Magazine St., a 3-story, masonry home, was built in New Orleans.
    (Hem., Dec. ‘95, p.145)

1865        William Butterfield’s auction business was founded in SF. In 1970 Butterfield & Butterfield was sold to Bernard Osher. In 1999 the operation was acquired by EBay, a San Jose-based online auction house.
    (SFC, 4/27/99, p.B1)(SFC, 3/8/08, p.F6)

1865        Charles and Michael de Young started a free theater-program sheet in SF called the Dramatic Chronicle.
    (SFC, 7/18/96, p.A1)(SFEC, 3/8/98, BR p.1)

1865        The first known baseball card depicts the Brooklyn Atlantics in a team portrait.
    (SFEC, 8/17/97, Par p.2)

1865        Pres. Lincoln dispatched Gen’l. Lew Wallace to the Mexican border to stop the flow of contraband. Wallace was appointed vice-president of the trial over those accused of conspiring to assassinate Lincoln. He then presided over the trials of Confederate Capt. Henry Wirz, commander of the Andersonville prison camp. He served as governor of New Mexico for 4 years and then served as US minister to Turkey.
    (HT, 3/97, p.66)
1865        Pres. Lincoln authorized Clara Barton to organize a volunteer group to locate Union soldiers who had gone missing in action. The team of unpaid assistants managed to discover the fates of over 20,000 missing men, many who had died as prisoners of war.
    (ON, 8/12, p.10)

1865        A judge ruled that San Francisco owned the Outside Lands, a 17,776-acre west of the city's 1851 charter line that was also claimed by the federal government.
    (SFC, 9/5/20, p.B4)

1865        In Kansas Fort Dodge was set up to protect the Santa Fe Trail. No liquor was allowed within 5 miles.
    (SFC, 6/13/98, p.E4)

1865        William Brown opened the Boston Saloon in Virginia City, Nevada, for black patrons. It burned down in an 1876 fire.
    (AM, 11/00, p.23)
1865        In Nevada the town of St. Thomas was settled as an agricultural center and way station on the Arrowhead Trail between Salt Lake City and Los Angeles. In 1936 the town was submerged under Lake Mead following the completion of the Hoover Dam.
    (SSFC, 5/6/18, p.F7)

1865        At Fort Wagner in South Carolina the first Civil War regiment of emancipated black slaves, led by Robert Gould Shaw, was destroyed. The event was later memorialized by Augustus Saint-Gaudens in a bronze relief on display in Boston Commons. The 1989 film "Glory" also portrayed the events.
    (SFC,10/15/97, p.D3)

1865        Newly freed slaves founded a community called Freedom Hill or Liberty Hill on the south side of the Tar River in North Carolina. It was chartered in 1885 as Princeville.
    (SFC, 2/3/97, p.A8)

c1865        The term scalawag referred to Southerners who cooperated with carpetbaggers-a pejorative term given to Northerners who, after the American Civil War, went into the Southern states to participate in political and civic affairs.  During Reconstruction in the former Confederacy, a scalawag—a scamp or rascal—was a white Southerner who cooperated with the so-called carpetbaggers or supported the Republican policies. The name carpetbagger was intended to portray these Northerners as roaming opportunists who carried all of their belongings in cheap satchels constructed of carpet—carpetbags—seeking to take advantage of the situation. During Reconstruction, the South was under military rule and the former governing class disqualified from holding official positions.
    (HNQ, 12/30/99)

1865        Machine-made left and right shoes replaced the "straights" that fit on either foot. [see 1818, and May 19, 1885]
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R40)

c1865        Silverware makers began making silver-plated holders and lids for glass and pottery biscuit jars, and some were covered entirely by silver plate.
    (SFC, 2/11/98, Z1 p.6)

1865        The Howe Machine Co. of Bridgeport, Conn., was established and its sewing machine won a gold medal at the 1867 Paris Exhibition. [see Elias Howe 1819-1867]
    (HNQ, 2/27/02)

1865        The Cargill company was founded in Iowa by William W. Cargill when he bought a grain flat house in Conover. In 1898, John H. MacMillan, Sr., and his brother, Daniel, began working for W. W. Cargill. The Cargill and MacMillan families built the regional grain trader into a global giant.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cargill)(Econ, 9/2/17, p.53)

1865        Benjamin Altman founded B. Altman & Co., a big department store at Fifth Avenue and 34th Street in NYC. It expanded to a chain of stores but filed for bankruptcy in 1989.
    (SFC, 6/11/08, p.G3)

1865        Daniel C. Ripley founded a lamp manufacturing firm in Pittsburgh, Pa. the following year he joined with 5 partners to form Ripley & Co. Ripley was granted a patent in 1868 for a glass oil lamp. The company merged with others in 1891 to form the U.S. Glass Co. of Pittsburgh.
    (SFC, 12/14/05, p.G4)(SFC, 4/4/07, p.G2)

1865        Swiss furniture craftsmen formed the Chair Makers Union of Tell City, Indiana. This later became the Tell City Chair Co.
    (SFC, 11/23/05, p.G2)

1865        Spiegel began as a Chicago home-furnishing store. It branched into mail order for rural customers in 1905 and abandoned its retail outlets in 1954. In 1982 it was purchased by the German Otto family.
    (WSJ, 3/2/04, p.A6)

1865        Cornell Univ., the youngest member of the Ivy League, was founded by Ezra Cornell and Andrew Dickson White as a coeducational, non-sectarian institution where admission was offered irrespective of religion or race.
1865        The Univ. of Michigan celebrated its 25th birthday with 1,205 students and 32 faculty members. It surpassed Harvard as the largest university in the US.
    (LSA, Fall/04, p.53)

1865        The Matterhorn was climbed by a team of 7 climbers led by Whymper, an obsessive English illustrator. Four of the climbers fell to their death on the descent.
    (SFEM, 10/13/96, p.38)

1865        The SF Elevator, a weekly black newspaper edited by Philip Bell, was established.
    (SFC, 7/2/07, p.B2)
1865        An earthquake hit SF.
    (SFC, 4/14/96, p.Z1, p.3)
1865        In northern California a surprise attack by settlers wiped out nearly all the Indians of the Yahi tribe, south of Mt. Lassen. Rancher Norman Kingsley and three others shot 30 Yahi, including babies and young children, on Mill Creek.  Remnants hid in the mountains for 40 years until there was but one survivor, Ishi, who emerged in 1911.
    (SFC, 2/19/99, p.A1)(SFC, 9/6/14, p.C1)

1865        Samuel Cunard (b.1787), founder of the 1st regular Atlantic steamship line, died. In 2003 Stephen Fox authored "Transatlantic," a chronicle of Cunard.
    (MC, 11/21/01)(WSJ, 7/1/03, p.D8)

1865        Matthew Dowdy Shiell, a sea-trader, landed on an uninhabited part of Redonda Island, part of Antigua and Barbuda, and declared it his kingdom. Title passed out of the Shiell family in 1947.
    (Econ, 12/24/05, p.85)(www.redonda.org/redonda.html#1869)

1865        In Argentina 153 settlers from Wales arrived on the ship Mimosa and founded the coastal city of Puerto Madryn, named after Sir Parry Madryn, a nobleman who assisted them.
    (SFEC, 5/9/99, Z1 p.6)

1865        In Argentina Leonardo Villa made the first attempt at oil exploration and production. Since the subsurface resources were owned by the government he had to seek a permit and was denied.
    (WSJ, 10/4/96, p.A9)

1865        In Belgium King Leopold II ascended to the throne.
    (SFEC, 9/27/98, BR p.1)

1865        A native reportedly slipped Bolivian cinchona seeds to a British trader. The Dutch government got hold of them and, after 30 years, figured out how to grow them in Indonesia. By 1900 the Dutch were producing more than 5,000 tons of quinine a year.
    (Econ., 12/19/20, p.35)

1865        James Clerk Maxwell, British physicist, unified the partial theories for electricity and magnetism.
    (BHT, Hawking, p.19)
1865        The East London Railway Company bought the Thames Tunnel. It later became part of the London Underground subway system.
    (ON, 4/06, p.9)
1865        Henry Bessemer, English mechanical engineer, filed a patent to cast strips of steel directly, rather than as large ingots to be reheated and shaped.
    (Econ, 3/11/17, p.65)
1865        Robert Fitzroy (b.1805), British sea captain, died. He commanded the H.M.S. Beagle and co-authored a 4-volume account of the ship’s 1831-1836 circumnavigation. In 2004 John and Mary Gribbin authored the biography “Fitzroy."
    (WSJ, 10/8/04, p.W8)

1865        A commercial treaty was established between Britain and the German zollverein.
    (G&M, 7/31/97, p.A20)
1865        BASF was founded in Germany as Badische Anilin & Soda Fabrik. Anilin was important in making dyes and soda was used in glass, soaps and textiles.
    (Econ, 11/4/06, p.80)

1865        In Finland the Nokia Co. began making wood and paper products. Later it diversified to cellular phones.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)(Econ, 12/6/08, p.85)

1865        Emile Zola wrote a diatribe against the annual French state-sponsored art show called the Salon. He mocked the jurors who had rebuffed Edouard Manet amongst others.
    (WSJ, 8/1/96 p.A13)
1865        Eduard Rene Lefebvre de Laboulaye, a French scholar, proposed a monument for America's centennial and strengthen the democratic cause in France. The monument took form as the Statue of Liberty.
    (SFEC, 6/20/99, p.T10)
1865        The St. Anne Prison was built in Avignon, France, atop the ruins of a 13th century insane asylum. The prison was closed in 2003 and in 2007 the government offered to sell it for transformation to a luxury hotel.
    (SFC, 12/28/07, p.A18)
1865        A Latin Monetary Union was established amongst France, Belgium, Italy, Switzerland and Greece, but quickly weakened as members pursued their own economic policies.
    (WSJ, 1/13/98, p.A1)

1865        During the Orissa famine in India the British political secretariat of the Bengal government refused to import rice to the stricken areas because it was “a breach of the laws of political economy."
    (WSJ, 2/23/06, p.D8)

1865        In Milan, Italy, the Galleria, one of the world’s first shopping malls, was constructed.
    (SFEC, 7/13/97, p.T12)

1865        Russia  took  Bukhara, Tashkent, and Samerkand (Uzbekistan).

1865        San Marino banned abortion in any circumstance. In 2021 its citizens voted in a referendum calling for abortion to be made legal in the first 12 weeks of pregnancy.
    (AP, 9/24/21)

1865        In Saudi Arabia a cholera outbreak killed 15,000 pilgrims and then spread worldwide.
    (AP, 2/27/20)

1865-1866    Gustave Courbet, French painter, painted his "Reclining Woman." It features a plump, red-haired nude slumbering by herself in a forest.
    (WSJ, 4/6/95, p.A-12)
1865-1866    Lord John Russel served as Prime Minister of England for a 2nd time.
    (HN, 8/18/98)

1865-1867    Thomas Bard and Josiah Stanford found oil in California’s Ojai Valley. Drilling produced the first gusher.
    (SSFC, 10/29/06, p.F6)

1865-1868    Oppressive taxes levied on cotton drained some $70 million from the US southern economy.
    (WSJ, 7/22/96, p.A15)

1865-1869    Some 12,000 Chinese workers were brought to the US to help complete the transcontinental railroad. 15,000 Chinese worked on the transcontinental railroad.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R25)(SFEC, 2/6/00, Rp.10)

1865-1870    South America’s War of the Triple Alliance saw Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay aligned against Paraguay. The Triple Alliance believed Paraguay was undermining the region’s political stability. The war ended in crushing defeat of Paraguay with as much as 90% of its adult male population killed.
    (WSJ, 4/10/00, p.A1)(Econ, 12/22/12, p.45)

1865-1871    Dostoevsky wrote three of his greatest novels. The era was documented by Joseph Frank in his work "Dostoevsky: The Miraculous Years." This book was the fourth volume of Frank’s biographical project. From a review by James H. Billington, librarian of Congress.
    (WSJ, 3/28/95, p.A-24)

1865-1875    Texas, like other Confederate states, was subjected to a federal army of occupation for a decade.
    (WP, 6/29/96, p.A15)
1865-1875    After the American Civil War some southerners moved to Brazil where the government offered land grants and slavery was still permitted.
    (NH, 7/96, p.74,75)(SFC, 4/28/15, p.A2)

1865-1876    Gen. Luigi Palma di Cesnola served as the American Consul in Lanarca, Cyprus. He collected antiquities and later sold them to the NY Metropolitan Museum of Art. In 1879 he became the director of the museum.
    (WSJ, 4/10/00, p.A44)

1865-1877    This was the US period of “Reconstruction" following the Civil War, when the South was occupied by northern troops.
    (Econ, 3/3/07, SR p.4)
1865-1877    In eastern Pennsylvania the Molly McGuires, a secret society of Irish miners, waged a war with arson, murders and beatings, on coal-mine owners.
    (WSJ, 10/7/97, p.A20)

1865-1900    In 2007 Jack Beatty authored “Age of Betrayal: The Triumph of Money in America, 1865-1900," a look at the failures of American government during the Gilded Age.
    (SFC, 5/8/07, p.E2)

1865-1929    Robert Henri, American artist: "The individual says, 'My crowd doesn't run that way.' I say, don't run with crowds."
    (AP, 8/22/99)

1865-1939    William Butler Yeats, Irish poet and playwright. The first volume of his autobiography was "Reveries Over Childhood and Youth" (1915). Richard Ellman published a biography in 1948. "Too long a sacrifice / Can make a stone of the heart. / O when may it suffice?"
    (V.D.-H.K.p.365)(WSJ, 4/2397, p.A1)(AP, 4/29/98)

1865-1943     William Lyon Phelps, American educator and journalist: "The fear of life is the favorite disease of the 20th century."
    (AP, 12/11/97)

1865-1946     Logan Pearsall Smith, Anglo-American author: If you are losing your leisure, look out; you may be losing your soul. "How awful to reflect that what people say of us is true."
    (AP, 9/19/97)(AP, 1/27/99)

1865-1959    Bernard Berenson, Lithuanian-American art critic and author: "Life has taught me that it is not for our faults that we are disliked and even hated, but for our qualities."
    (AP, 7/17/00)

1866        Jan 2, Gilbert Murray, Australian born scholar who became the chairman of the League of Nations, 1923 through 1928, was born.
    (HN, 1/2/99)

1866        Jan 11, Steamship London sank in storm off Land's End England and 220 people died.
    (MC, 1/11/02)

1866        Feb 4, Mary Baker Eddy "cured"  her injuries by opening a bible.
    (MC, 2/4/02)

1866        Feb 13, Jesse James took part in his 1st bank holdup. At least a dozen former Southern guerrilla soldiers, including Frank James and Cole Younger, held up the Clay County Savings Association in Liberty, Missouri, of $15,000. Jesse James was recovering from wounds suffered as a Confederate guerrilla and probably wasn’t able to help brother Frank and Cole, but the Liberty bank job is considered the James-Younger Gang’s first robbery. Another outlaw legend, Charles "Black Bart" Boles baffled Wells Fargo detectives during an eight year stint of 27 stagecoach robberies.
    (HN, 2/13/98)(HN, 7/18/00)(MC, 2/13/02)

1866        Feb 21, Lucy B. Hobbs became the first woman to graduate from a dental school, the Ohio College of Dental Surgery in Cincinnati.
    (AP, 2/21/98)

1866        Feb 26, Herbert Henry Dow, pioneer in US chemical industry (Dow Chemical), was born.
    (SC, 2/26/02)
1866        Feb 26, New York Legislature established the NYC Metropolitan Board of Health.
    (SC, 2/26/02)

1866        Mar 1, Paraguayan canoes sank 2 Brazilian ironclads on Rio Parana.
    (SC, 3/1/02)

1866         Mar 2, Excelsior Needle Company of Wolcottville, Connecticut, began making sewing machine needles, the 1st US company to make sewing needles.
    (HC, Internet, 2/3/98)(SC, 3/2/02)

1866        Mar 10, Antonio Francesco Gaetano S. Pacini (87), composer, died.
    (MC, 3/10/02)

1866        Mar 19, The immigrant ship Monarch of the Seas sank in Liverpool; 738 died.
    (MC, 3/19/02)

1866        Mar 21, The US Congress authorized national soldiers' homes.
    (MC, 3/21/02)

1866        Mar 27, President Andrew Johnson vetoed the civil rights bill, which later became the 14th amendment.
    (HN, 3/27/98)
1866        Mar 27, Andrew Rankin patented the urinal.
    (MC, 3/27/02)

1866        Mar 31, Fred. Law Olmsted, New York City landscape architect, wrote a long piece on city planning for parks with special reference to San Francisco.
    (SFEM, 7/27/97, p.30)

1866        Apr 1, Ferruccio D.M.B. Busoni, pianist, composer, conductor (Arlecchino), was born in Italy.
    (MC, 4/1/02)
1866        Apr 1, US Congress rejected presidential veto and gave all equal rights.
    (MC, 4/1/02)

1866        Apr 2, Pres. Johnson ended war in Ala, Ark, Fla, Ga, Miss, La, NC, SC, Ten and Va.
    (MC, 4/2/02)

1866        Apr 6, Butch Cassidy, [Robert Parker], US desperado (Wild Bunch Passage), was born. [see Apr 13,15]
    (HN, 4/6/98)(MC, 4/6/02)
1866        Apr 6, Joseph Lincoln Steffens (d.1936), American political philosopher, investigative reporter and muckraker journalist (Shame of the Cities), was born in San Francisco: "Nothing is done. Everything in the world remains to be done or done over." "Never practice what you preach. If you’re going to practice it, why preach it?"
    (AP, 5/16/97)(HN, 4/6/98)(AP, 4/24/98)(HNQ, 10/4/98)
1866        Apr 6, G.A.R. was formed (Grand Army of the Republic). It was composed of men who served in the US Army and Navy during the Civil War. The last member died in 1956.
    (WUD, 1994 p.614)(MC, 4/6/02)

1866        Apr 9, A Civil Rights Bill passed over Pres Andrew Johnson's veto to secure for former slaves all the rights of citizenship intended by the 13th Amendment. The president was empowered to use the Army to enforce the law. This formed the basis for the 14th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution.
    (MC, 4/9/02)(PC, 1992, p.502)

1866        Apr 10, The American Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA) was incorporated.
    (AP, 4/9/97)

1866        Apr 13, Butch Cassidy [Robert LeRoy Parker], American western outlaw and leader of the Wild Bunch, was born in Beaver, Utah. [see Apr 6,15]
    (HN, 4/13/99)

1866        Apr 14, Anne Mansfield Sullivan, teacher who educated Helen Keller, was born.
    (HN, 4/14/98)

1866        Apr 15, Robert LeRoy Parker, a.k.a. "Butch Cassidy," was born in Beaver, Utah. [see Apr 6,13]
1866        Apr 15, William Jackson (51), composer, died.
    (MC, 4/15/02)

1866        Apr 16, Karakozov attempted to assassinate Tsar Alexander II of Russia.
    (MC, 4/16/02)

1866        Apr 17, Ernest Henry Starling, British physiologist, was born.
    (HN, 4/17/01)

1866        Apr 21, Jane Walsh Carlyle (b.1801), the wife of Scottish essayist Thomas Carlyle, died.

1866        May 1, In San Francisco Robert B. Woodward (d.1879) opened his Woodward’s Gardens amusement park with a 25-cent admission. He had bought property and a stately mansion of US Sen. John C. Fremont located between Mission and Valencia to the east and west and 13th and 15th streets to the north and south. In 1873 the park added the nation’s first aquarium. 
    (SFC, 10/30/12, p.E6)(SSFC, 7/19/15, p.F3)(SFC, 12/19/15, p.C2)

1866        May 2, Jesse Lazear, American physician and researcher of yellow fever.
    (HN, 5/2/02)

1866        May 3, The first submarine in the Americas, a 39-foot vessel designed in the 1860s by German immigrant Karl Flach, sank in the Bay of Valparaiso off the coast of Chile. The crew, two Chileans, two Frenchmen and seven Germans, including Flach and his 15-year-old son, all died. In 2007 a search team found the vessel.
    (Reuters, 5/3/07)

1866        May 5, Villagers in Waterloo, NY, held their 1st Memorial Day service. In 1966 Pres. Johnson gave Waterloo, NY, the distinction of holding the 1st Memorial Day. On Apr 13, 1862, volunteers led by Sarah J. Evans had paid homage to the graves of Civil War soldiers in the Washington area.
    (SFC, 5/26/03, p.A2)

1866        Mar 6, Rev Dr William Whewell (b.1794), an English polymath, died in Cambridge. He was also a scientist, Anglican priest, philosopher, theologian, historian of science and was Master of Trinity College, Cambridge. One of Whewell's greatest gifts to science was his wordsmithing. He often corresponded with many in his field and helped them come up with new terms for their discoveries. Whewell contributed the terms scientist, physicist, linguistics, consilience, catastrophism, uniformitarianism, and astigmatism amongst others; Whewell suggested the terms electrode, ion, dielectric, anode, and cathode to Michael Faraday.

1866        May 7, German premier Otto von Bismarck was seriously wounded in an assassination attempt.
    (MC, 5/7/02)

1866        May 11, Confederate President Jefferson Davis became a free man after spending two years in prison for his role in the American Civil War.
    (HN, 5/11/99)
1866        May 11, The Overend Gurney, known as the 'bankers bank,' suspended payments and went into liquidation owing £11 million to shareholders and the public. Overend Gurney began collapsing in the early months of 1866. The bank run on Overend Gurney was the last in the UK until 2007. The Bank of England’s role as a lender of last resort helped to establish sterling as an international currency.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Overend,_Gurney_and_Company)(Econ, 9/22/07, p.16)(Econ, 1/31/15, p.62)

1886        Mar 14, The SS Oregon collided with an unidentified schooner and sank eight hours later only a few hours from her scheduled arrival in New York City. One person was drowned during evacuation efforts. It had sailed from Liverpool on 6 March 1886 with 852 people on board, 647 passengers and a crew of 205, along with 1,835 tons of cargo and 598 bags of mail, under the command of Captain Phillip Cottier. In 2019 a bottle of ale from the ship was used to develop a new brew.

1866        May 16, US Congress authorized the minting of the first five-cent piece, also known as the "Shield nickel." The Shield nickel was quite effective in replacing the half dime, as its base metal composition discouraged hoarding and caused it to circulate very widely.
    (AP, 5/16/07)(http://en.allexperts.com/q/Coin-Collecting-2297/dime-small.htm)
1866        May 16, Charles Elmer Hires invented root beer.
    (MC, 5/16/02)

1866        May 17, Erik Alfred Leslie Satie, French composer, was born.
    (HN, 5/17/01)

1866        May 18, French Government of De Putte resigned.
    (SC, 5/18/02)

1866        May 24, Founders of UC Berkeley named their town after Bishop George Berkeley due to a line Berkeley’s poem: On the Prospect of Planting Arts and Learning in America: "Westward the course of empire takes its way."
    (SFC, 3/28/03, p.A3)

1866        May 29, US Gen'l. Winfield Scott (79) died at West Point, New York. Union General Winfield Scott was the originator of the military strategy known as the "Anaconda Plan." Scott's plan for defeating the Confederacy featured a naval blockade of the South designed to slowly "strangle" the fledgling country. The Union did impose such a blockade, but by 1861 Scott was considered too old to lead the federal armies and he retired that November. Although a Virginian born on June 13, 1786, Scott-popularly called "Old Fuss and Feathers"-remained loyal to the Union and its army he commanded when war broke out.
    (HNQ, 2/19/99)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Winfield_Scott)

1866        May 30, Bederich Smetana's Opera "The Bartered Bride" premiered in Prague.
    (MC, 5/30/02)

1866        Jun 2, Renegade Irish Fenians surrendered to US forces.
    (SC, 6/2/02)

1866        Jun 7, Irish Fenians raided Pigeon Hill, Quebec.
    (SC, 6/7/02)

1866        Jun 8, Prussia annexed the region of Holstein.
    (HN, 6/8/98)

1866        Jun 15, Prussia attacked Austria.
    (HN, 6/15/98)

1866        Jun 18, Both Houses of the US Congress passed the 14th Amendment. The Radical Republicans were satisfied that they had secured civil rights for blacks, but were disappointed that the amendment would not also secure political rights for blacks; in particular, the right to vote. Secretary of State William H. Seward issued an unconditional certificate of ratification, dated July 28, 1868, declaring the Fourteenth Amendment to have been duly ratified by the requisite three-fourths of the states.

1866        Jun 20, Lord George ESMH Carnarvon, Egyptologist (Tutankhamen), was born in England.
    (MC, 6/20/02)

1866        Jun 27, The Battle of Langensalza was fought near Bad Langensalza in what is now modern Germany, between the Kingdom of Hanover (Hanoverians) and the Prussians. The Hanoverians won the battle but were then surrounded by a larger and reinforced Prussian army, and, unable to link up with their Bavarian allies to the south, they surrendered. Hanover was annexed after losing a war with Prussia.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Langensalza_%281866%29)(Econ, 6/7/14, p.61)

1866        Jun 29, England’s Reform League, organized a demonstration in Trafalgar Square. Its size and violence surprised everyone. A second meeting on 2 July was even more heated. The Trafalgar Square meetings were followed by a giant meeting held at Hyde Park on 23 July.

1866        Jul 4, Firecracker thrown in wood started a fire that destroyed Portland, Me.
    (Maggio, 98)

1866        Jul 10, The Indelible pencil was patented by Edson P. Clark of Northampton, Mass.
    (MC, 7/10/02)

1866        Jul 13, Great Eastern began a two week voyage to complete a 12-year effort to lay telegraph cable across the Atlantic between Britain and the United States. Massachusetts merchant and financier Cyrus West Field first proposed laying a 2,000-mile copper cable along the ocean bottom from Newfoundland to Ireland in 1854, but the first three attempts ended in broken cables and failure. Field’s persistence finally paid off in July 1866, when Great Eastern, the largest ship then afloat, successfully laid the cable along the level, sandy bottom of the North Atlantic. As messages traveled between Europe and America in hours rather than weeks, Cyrus Field was showered with honors. Among the honors was this commemorative print referring to the cable as the Eighth Wonder of the World.
    (HN, 7/13/98)(HNPD, 7/29/98)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R22)

1866        Jul 21, A cholera-epidemic killed hundreds in London.
    (MC, 7/21/02)

1866        Jul 23, Francesco Cilea, composer, was born.
    (MC, 7/23/02)

1866        Jul 24, Tennessee became the first state to be readmitted to the Union after the Civil War.
    (AP, 7/24/97)

1866        Jul 25, Ulysses S. Grant was named General of the Army, the first officer to hold the rank.
    (AP, 7/25/97)

1866        Jul 27, Cyrus W. Field finished laying out the first successful underwater telegraph cable between North America and Europe. A previous cable in 1858 burned out after only a few weeks of use.
    (AP, 7/27/08)

1866        Jul 28, Beatrix Potter (d.1943), English author of children's stories (The Tale of Peter Rabbit), was born.
    (HN, 7/28/98)
1866        Jul 28, Metric system became a legal measurement system in US. It defined the meter as exactly 39.37 inches and was later superceded.
    (SC, 7/28/02)(SFC, 10/13/03, p.E2)

1866        Jul 29, Barbe-Nicole Clicquot (b.1777), head of the Clicquot champagne business, died. She was widowed at age 27 and transformed her husbands struggling business into one of the great champagne houses of France. In 2008 Tilar J. Mazzeo authored “The Widow Clicquot."
    (WSJ, 11/5/08, p.A21)(http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barbe-Nicole_Clicquot-Ponsardin)

1866        Jul, The Sioux war on the Powder river commenced. When it commenced General St. George Cook, in command at Omaha, forbade within the limits of his command the sale of arms and ammunition to Indians.

1866        Aug 8, African-American Matthew Alexander Henson was born in Maryland. He and four Inuits accompanied U.S. Naval Commander Robert E. Peary when he planted the U.S. flag at the North Pole on April 6, 1909. Henson became an Arctic expert during Peary's first two failed expeditions. By the third attempt, which began in July 1908, Henson's strength, knowledge of the Eskimo language and dog driving skills made him an essential member of the team. Whether Peary's party actually reached the North Pole or missed it by as much as 60 miles due to a navigational miscalculation remains controversial to this day.
    (HNPD, 8//99)(Internet)

1866        Aug 11, The world's 1st roller rink opened at Newport, RI.
    (MC, 8/11/02)

1866        Aug 12, Jacinto Benavente y Martinez, Spanish dramatist (Nobel 1922), was born.
    (SC, 8/12/02)

1866        Aug 20, President Andrew Johnson formally declared the Civil War over, even though the fighting had stopped months earlier. After the Civil War Congress voted to give freed slaves 40 acres and a mule but Pres. Johnson killed the plan with a veto.
    (AP, 8/20/97)(SFC, 6/29/99, p.A7)

1866        Aug 23, Treaty of Prague ended the Austro-Prussian war.
    (MC, 8/23/02)

1866        Sep 1, James J. Corbett, "Gentleman Jim," heavyweight champion boxer (1892-97), was born. He was the boxer who beat the legendary John L. Sullivan. After his boxing career he became an actor and lecturer.
    (MC, 9/1/02)(SC, 9/1/02)
1866        Sep 1, Manuelito, the last Navaho chief, turned himself in at Fort Wingate, New Mexico.
    (MC, 9/1/02)

1866        Sep 6, Frederick Douglass became the 1st US black delegate to a national convention.
    (MC, 9/6/01)

1866        Sep 8, Siegfried Sassoon, British author and poet famous for his anti-war writing about World War I, was born. His work included "Counterattack."
    (HN, 9/8/98)(MC, 9/8/01)

1866        Sep 12, The first burlesque show opened in New York City (NYC). The show was a four act performance called "The Black Crow", running for 475 performances and made a reported $1.3 million for its producers.
    (MC, 9/12/01)

1866        Sep 21, Charles Jean Henri Nicolle, bacteriologist, was born. He discovered that typhus fever is transmitted by body louse and was awarded a Nobel Prize in 1928.
    (HN, 9/21/98)(MC, 9/21/01)
1866        Sep 21, H.G. Wells (d.1946), English novelist and historian was born as Herbert George Wells in Bromley, Kent, England. His work included the novel "Marriage" and "The Time Machine" (1895). The science fiction writer is best known for "The Time Machine" (1895), "The Invisible Man" and "The War of the Worlds."
    (WSJ, 11/21/96, p.A20)(www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/Jwells.htm)

1866        Sep 25, (Leonard W) Jerome Park opened in Bronx for horse racing.
    (MC, 9/25/01)

1866        Oct 2, J. Osterhoudt patented a tin can with key opener.
    (MC, 10/2/01)

1866         Oct 6, The Reno brothers—Frank, John, Simeon and William—committed the country’s first train robbery near Seymore, In., netting $10,000.
    (HN, 10/6/98)

1866        Oct 15, A great fire in Quebec destroyed 2,500 houses.
    (MC, 10/15/01)

1866        Oct 30, Jesse James gang robbed a bank in Lexington, Missouri, of $2000.
    (MC, 10/30/01)

1866          Nov 1, Belle Starr [née Myra Maybelle Shirley], “Bandit Queen" and wild woman of the west, married James C. Reed (d.1874) in Collins County, Texas.
1866        Nov 1, 1st Civil Rights Bill passed.
    (MC, 11/1/01)

1866        Nov 12, Sun Yat-Sen (d.1925), Chinese statesman and revolutionary leader, was born (trad). Born to a Christian peasant near Macao, he attended an Anglican grammar school in Hawaii, and went on to graduate from Hong Kong School of Medicine in 1892. While there he became involved in revolutionary activities and was forced to leave China in 1895. He organized a revolutionary secret society in 1905. In 1911 he returned to China after a successful revolution in the south and became provisional president of a republican government there before stepping aside for Yuan Shih-k’ai. Sun formed the nationalist Kuomintang party in 1912. "To understand is hard. Once one understands, action is easy."
    (HFA, ‘96, p.18)(AP, 6/22/97)(HNQ, 6/3/98)

1866        Nov 17, Ambroise Thomas' opera "Mignon" was produced (Paris).
    (MC, 11/17/01)

1866        Nov 19, The sailing ship Coya, a Welsh coal ship out of Sidney with passengers bound for SF, wrecked near Pigeon Point, Ca. 26 people perished and 3 survived.
    (SFC, 8/10/02, p.A13)

1866        Nov 20, Pierre Lalemont patented a rotary crank bicycle.
    (MC, 11/20/01)

1866        Nov 28, Henry Bacon, architect (Lincoln Memorial), was born.
    (MC, 11/28/01)

1866        Nov 30, Work in  Chicago began on 1st US underwater highway tunnel.
    (MC, 11/30/01)

1866        Dec 3, The Syrian Protestant College opened in Beirut with Dr. Daniel Bliss as its first president. It centered its teaching on the American liberal arts tradition. In 1920 it was renamed the American University of Beirut.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_University_of_Beirut)(Reuters, 3/24/17)

1866        Dec 4, Wassily Kandinsky (d.1944), Russian artist, was born. He is credited with the invention of abstract art.
    (WUD, 1994, p.778)(WSJ, 8/13/99, p.W10)(HN, 12/4/00)

1866        Dec 6, Chicago’s water supply tunnel into Lake Michigan was completed.
    (SSFC, 8/18/02, p.C12)(http://tinyurl.com/7zmyr6v)

1866        Dec 14, Roger Fry, English art critic, was born.
    (HN, 12/14/00)

1866-        Dec 20-21, The Lakota Sioux Indians called this night "The moon when the Deer shed their horns." A bright full moon occurred due to a confluence of 3 celestial events. The moon reached perigee with Earth on the solstice with the sun at its closest point. The event occurred again on Dec 22, 1999.
    (WSJ, 12/16/99, p.A1)

1866        Dec 21, Indians led by Red Cloud and Crazy Horse killed Captain William J. Fetterman and 79 other men who had ventured out from Fort Phil Kearny to cut wood. U.S. Army Captain William J. Fetterman once boasted, "Give me 80 men and I'll march through the whole Sioux nation!" When Lakota warriors under the overall leadership of Chief Red Cloud gathered around Fort Phil Kearny (in what is now Wyoming), Fetterman got command of his 80 men. Disobeying the orders of his commander, Colonel Henry B Carrington, not to proceed beyond the Lodge Trail Ridge, Fetterman pursued a band of retreating Indians--and rode right into a waiting trap, allegedly laid by the Ogallala warrior Crazy Horse. Fetterman, his executive officer and 78 troopers were wiped out.
    (HNPD, 12/21/98)(HN, 12/21/98)

1866        Dec 26, In San Francisco Lazarus Moses was fined $300 for selling goods stolen by the Hoodlum gang.
1866        Dec 26, Brig. Gen. Philip St. George Cooke, head of the Department of the Platte receives word of the Dec 21 Fetterman Fight in Powder River County in the Dakota territory.
    (HN, 12/26/99)

1866        Albert Bierstadt created his painting "Storm in the Rocky Mountains: Mt. Rosalie."
    (WSJ, 9/19/02, p.D12)

1866        Gustave Courbet, French artist, painted "The Waterspout" and “Origin of the World."
    (WSJ, 11/28/06, p.D8)

1866        Edouard Manet painted "Young Lady in 1866." The painting helped pave the way for Impressionism.
    (WSJ, 8/3/01, p.W2)

1866        Jean-Francois Millet painted "Flight of Crows."
    (WSJ, 7/12/99, p.A26)

1866        Louisa May Alcott wrote her novel "A Long Fatal Love Chase." It was then deemed too sensational for publication.
    (SFC, 4/30/96, p. B-3)

1866        Samuel Baker authored "The Albert N’yanza, Great Basin of the Nile, and Explorations of the Nile Sources."
    (ON, 10/01, p.12)

1866        Dostoevsky wrote his "Crime and Punishment."
    (WSJ, 3/28/95, p.A-24)

1866        Edouard Seguin (1812-1880), French physician, authored “Idiocy and Its Treatment." He had established schools in France and the US for the intellectually handicapped, which stressed the importance of developing self-reliance and independence.
    (ON, 3/07, p.3)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edouard_Seguin)

1866        Bedrich Smetana wrote his opera "The Bartered Bride."
    (MC, 5/16/02)

1866        William Hammond Hall began to design San Francisco’s Golden Gate Park.
    (OAH, 2/05, p.A10)
1866        San Francisco established The Almshouse on the grounds of what later became Laguna Honda Hospital, providing shelter for the city’s unemployed and homeless men.
    (SFC, 8/26/08, p.B5)
1866        In San Francisco the Sisters of Notre Dame de Namur opened Notre Dame school across the street from the Mission Dolores.
    (SFC, 3/18/05, p.F2)
1866        Swiss-born Antoine Borel (1840-1915) took over his brother’s SF mercantile firm, Alfred Borel & Co., when Alfred returned to Europe. Antoine later became director of the Bank of California (1882-1909), held directorships in the SF Dry Dock Co., the Golden Gate Milk Co. and the Spring Valley Water Co. He assumed the position of Swiss consul in 1885.
    (Ind, 4/5/03, 5A)
1866        In San Francisco Levi Strauss established his dry goods company headquarters at 14-16 Battery St.
    (SSFC, 3/24/19, p.D4)
1866        In San Francisco by this time Lawrence & Houseworth, opticians, had established their firm as the most prominent publisher on the West Coast. Their catalog included some 1200 images.
    (SFEC, 5/23/99, DB p.42)
1866        Henry Casebolt, San Francisco transit tycoon, built a house at 2727 Pierce St.
    (SFC, 5/5/07, p.B3)
1866        Mary Ellen Pleasant was kicked off a streetcar in San Francisco and began arguing against laws prohibiting black people from riding them.
    (SFC, 2/16/09, p.B2)

1866        The word "ecology" was coined by German zoologist Ernst Haeckel from the Greek oikos, for house, and logos, for discourse. It meant the study of the relations between living organisms and their environment.
    (NH, 2/97, p.4)

1866        The Boston Yacht Club was founded.
    (SFEC, 7/13/97, p.T7)

1866        The New York Yacht Club hosted the 1st-ever transatlantic race.
    (Econ, 5/28/05, p.35)

1866        A group of NY sportsmen purchased some 4,000 acres on Long Island centered around Snedecor’s Tavern and established the Southside Sportsmen’s Club. Around 1963 the land was turned into a state preserve.
    (WSJ, 10/9/07, p.D6)

1866        The veteran organization Grand Army of the Republic (GAR) was formed in Springfield, Illinois, in 1866. The patriotic organization of U.S. Civil War veterans who served in Federal forces was formed to protect the interests of the veterans. The GAR had a peak membership of more than 400,000 in 1890 and was a powerful political influence. The organization was dissolved in 1956.
    (HNQ, 8/30/98)

1866        The Ku Klux Klan is generally acknowledged to have started in Pulaski, Tenn., in this year. [see Dec 24, 1865]
    (WSJ, 7/15/96, p.A1)

1866        Pres. Andrew Johnson signed an executive order that removed the Shoalwater Bay Indians in Washington state from their villages and onto a 1-sq. mile reservation. By 2000 erosion took away over half the tribal land and miscarriages stood at 4 times the expected rate.
    (SFEC, 3/26/00, p.A8)

1866        America abrogated a trade agreement with Britain. Lord Elgin had negotiated a reciprocity agreement with the British North American colonies in 1854.
    (Econ, 11/26/16, p.18)

1866        The US coined some silver dollars without the inscription "In God We Trust." Only 2 coins were known to exist in 2004. In Oct 1867, one was stolen along with some 7,000 other rare coins from the Florida collection of Willis H. du Pont. It turned up in 2004.
    (ST, 3/2/04, p.A8)

1866        The US government bought land around northern California’s Golden Gate for harbor defense. The area was turned into the Old Lime Point military reservation.
    (SFC, 6/13/08, p.A22)

1866        Freed Cherokee slaves were adopted into the tribe under a treaty with the US government. In 2007 the Cherokee Nation voted to revoke citizenship to descendants of the slaves. In 2017 a US district judge ruled that Cherokee Freedmen have a right to tribal citizenship under the 1866 treaty.
    (SFC, 3/5/07, p.A2)(SFC, 9/1/17, p.A6)

1866        In Mississippi a fifth of the state’s revenues were spent on artificial arms and legs for Confederate veterans.
    (SFEC, 7/6/97, Z1 p.6)
1866        A white mob rushed a courthouse in Carroll County, Miss., after 2 black men filed a lawsuit against a white man. Over 20 blacks were murdered.
    (WSJ, 10/17/08, p.A14)

1866        Western Union introduced the ticker system to supply New York Stock Exchange prices to brokers around the country.
    (SFC, 2/2/06, p.A13)

1866        The Hopland, Ca., hops industry began. The damp soils of the Russian River floodplains were suitable for the cultivation of hops, whose flowers determine the bitterness and aromatic properties of beer.
    (WCG, 7/95, p.91)

1866        Oliver F. Winchester, a Connecticut shirt maker, began making Winchester rifles in New Haven, spearheading the development of rifles for multiple shots.
    (WSJ, 6/15/06, p.B2)

1866        The Moretti and Respini families settled coastal property north of Santa Cruz, Ca., and developed their Coast Dairies.
    (SFC, 7/28/06, p.A1)
1866        Pacific Rolling Mills opened the first big iron and steel mill in the West at what became known as Pier 70 in SF.
    (SSFC, 9/14/08, p.A11)

1866        The railroad land grant corporations in Montana, led by J.P. Morgan and James Hill, grabbed off 40 million acres.
    (SFC, 4/28/96, B-9)

1866        When the transcontinental railroad reached Abilene, Kansas, Chicago livestock buyer J.G. McCoy saw the possibilities of linking the unwanted herds of Texas longhorns with the meat-packing centers of Chicago. McCoy built a series of holding pens in Abilene and convinced south Texas ranchers to drive the cattle north along the Chisholm Trail to the railhead.
    (HNPD, 1/4/99)

1866        Jasper Daniel (Jack Daniel) started distilling whiskey in Lynchburg, Tenn.
    (SFC, 2/04/04, p.D2)

1866        James Vernor, a Detroit pharmacist, began marketing a new soft drink.
    (SFEC, 2/21/99, Z1 p.8)

1866        Mendel published two mathematical papers wherein he established that the offspring of a pair of different plants would evince the working of simple statistical laws.

1866        Richard Owen published his monograph on the Dodo bird: "Memoir on the Dodo (Didus ineptus)."
    (NH, 11/96, p.23,28)

1866        Weather records began to be officially kept.
    (SFC, 1/23/99, p.E4)

1866        The first 124 leprosy patients were dropped off on the Kalaupapa peninsula of the Hawaiian island of Molokai.
    (SFEC, 9/8/96, T3)

1866        The Calaveras skull, from a mining shaft in Altaville near Angels Camp in Calaveras County, Ca., was one of the most notorious archaeological hoaxes perpetrated in the nineteenth century.
    (RFH-MDHP, p.177)

1866        Colonel John O'Neill of the Fenian Brotherhood--formerly of the U.S. cavalry--led a force of Irish-Americans against this British-ruled Canada. A year after America's Civil War ended, scores of Irish Americans who had once fought for the Union or the Confederacy joined forces against a new enemy.
    (HNQ, 4/17/01)

1866        The West Pier at Brighton, England, was built by Eugenius Birch. It was closed in 1975.
1866        In England Hyde Park was trashed by citizens who were outraged that it could no longer be used for public demonstrations or speech. The government relaxed restrictions against free speech and orators began preaching at Speakers Corner near the Marble Arch in Hyde Park. [see 1872]
    (BS, 5/3/98, p.1R)(SFEM, 3/21/99, p.24)
1866        Henry Wickham (1846-1928) ventured from Britain to South America hoping to shoot exotic birds and ship home feathers for lady’s hats. This venture failed as the birds exploded from the rifle shots. He returned to the Amazon region and in 1876 gathered seeds of the Hevea brasiliensis tree, which produced latex. Less than 4% of some 70,000 seeds germinated, but this was enough to ship seedlings to Ceylon, India, Malaya and Singapore and begin a global rubber plantation boom.
    (WSJ, 2/27/08, p.D10)

1866        Denmark passed a law against blasphemy.
    (SFC, 2/24/17, p.A2)

1866        French colonial officials sent an expedition to explore the Mekong River and check its commercial potential.
    (Econ, 1/3/04, p.29)

1866        Diamonds were discovered in South Africa. [see 1867]
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)

1866        In Sweden Alfred Nobel invented dynamite, a safe and manageable form of nitroglycerin. A pacifist by nature, Nobel hoped that the destructive power of his invention would bring an end to wars.
    (HNPD, 10/21/98)

1866        Venice joined the Kingdom of Italy.
    (WSJ, 9/19/97, p.A13)

1866-1867     Mohammad Afzal occupied Kabul, Afghanistan, and proclaimed himself Amir.

1866-1868    When the US government tried to force the Sioux back to Fort Laramie, the Indians responded with attacks that culminated in Red Cloud’s War of this period. Red Cloud’s War of 1866-‘68 was waged in opposition to the development by the U.S. government of a trail through Wyoming and Montana to the Montana gold camps. The two-year war was waged between the Lakota Sioux, led by Ogallala chief Red Cloud, and the U.S. Army. On December 21, 1866, the Sioux won a major victory, wiping out the entire command of 80 men under Capt. William J. Fetterman. The war ended with the signing of the Laramie Treaty, which included the closure of the Bozeman Trail and U.S. abandonment of three forts.
    (HT, 3/97, p.43)(HNQ, 8/22/98)

1866-1886    Dr. John Kirk, a Scottish botanist, served as the British representative on the island of Zanzibar. He made great effort to abolish the local slave trade. In 2011 Alastair Hazell authored “The Last Slave Market: Dr John Kirk and the Struggle to End the African slave Trade.
    (Econ, 8/6/11, p.72)

1866-1890    During the Indian Wars, the black Buffalo Soldiers of the 9th Cavalry represented 20% of Army personnel involved.
    (SFEC, 4/5/98, p.C14)

1866-1926    Aby Warburg, a wealthy independent scholar. He later authored "The Renewal of Pagan Antiquity."
    (SFEC, 12/12/99, BR p.10)

1866-1939    Philander Chase Johnson, American author: "Cheer up! The worst is yet to come!"
    (AP, 8/19/99)

1866-1944    George Ade, American humorist.
    (AHD, 1971, p.15)

1866-1944    Vasily Kandinsky, Russian born painter. He is considered the originator of abstract art. He lived with painter Gabriele Munter in Munich from 1903 until the outbreak of WW I when he was forced to leave Germany. His work includes "Composition VII" (1913).
    (WUD, 1994, p.778)(SFC, 7/7/96, BR p.9)

1866-1947     Richard Le Gallienne, English poet and essayist: "It is only on paper that one moralizes—just where one shouldn’t."
    (AP, 6/21/98)

1866-1954    Ernest Dimnet, French priest, lecturer and author: "The happiness of most people we know is not ruined by great catastrophes or fatal errors, but by the repetition of slowly destructive little things."
    (AP, 9/6/98)

1866-1959    Abraham Flexner, American educator and author: "Comfort, opportunity, number and size are not synonymous with civilization."
    (AP, 11/14/99)

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