Timeline 1850-1854

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1850        Jan 6, Franz Xaver Scharwenka, German pianist and composer (Mataswintha), was born.
    (MC, 1/6/02)

1850        Jan 27, Samuel Gompers (d.1924) was born in London. Gompers, labor leader and first president of the American Federation of Labor (AFL), apprenticed as a cigar maker in, London. At the age of 13, Gompers arrived in America, joined the Cigarmakers' Union in 1864 and became the union's president in 1877. In 1881 Gompers was among the founders of the Federation of Organized Trades and Labor Unions of the U.S. and Canada, which was reorganized as the American Federation of Labor in 1886. He served as president of the AFL every year from its inception (except 1895) until his death. As the acknowledged leader of America‘s labor movement, Gompers stressed practical demands of hours and wages and opposed theorists and radicals.
    (HN, 1/27/99)(HNQ, 2/24/00)

1850        Jan 29, Lawrence Hargrave, inventor of the box kite, was born.
    (MC, 1/29/02)
1850        Jan 29, Ebenezer Howard, pioneer of garden cities, was born in London.
    (MC, 1/29/02)
1850        Jan 29, Henry Clay introduced in the Senate a compromise bill on slavery that included the admission of California into the Union as a free state.
    (AP, 1/29/98)
1850        Jan 29, Luigi Sabatelli (b.1772), Italian artist, died in Milan.

c1850        Jan 30, Charles Steingraff (50), a bachelor farmhand, was hanged in Ohio for the murder of a deaf and blind, 12-year-old girl. An estimated 25,000 spectators watched the execution.
    (ON, 10/02, p.3)

1850        Jan, In San Francisco a number of wealthy men used $5,000 of their own money and $6,000 voted by the town council, to buy up lots in the Happy Valley area. Roads leading into area were created, brush was removed and elegant homes began to spring up.
    (SFC, 5/30/20, p.B2)

1850        Feb 12, Washington's original Farewell Address manuscript sold for $2,300.
    (MC, 2/12/02)

1850        Feb 18, The California state legislature created the original 18 counties including the city of San Francisco.
    (SFEC, 1/11/98, DB p.41)(www.sfgov.org/site/visitor_index.asp?id=8091)

1850        Feb 25, Doro Eldengge Huwangdi (b.1782), the Daoguang emperor, died. He was the 8th emperor of the Manchurian Qing dynasty and the 6th Qing (1820-1850) emperor to rule over China.

1850        Feb 27, Henry Edwards Huntington, US railroad exec, was born.
    (MC, 2/27/02)

1850        Mar 7, Tomas Masaryk, Pres. of Czech (1918-35), was born to a Slovak father and Czech-German mother in the small town of Hodonin in South Moravia, very close to what is now the border with Slovakia.
1850        Mar 7, In a three-hour speech to the U.S. Senate, Daniel Webster endorsed the Compromise of 1850 as a means of preserving the Union.
    (AP, 3/7/98)

1850        Mar 9, Alexandre Luigini, composer, was born.
    (MC, 3/9/02)

1850        Mar 11, The Pennsylvania legislature passed an act to incorporate the Female Medical College of Pennsylvania, the first regular medical school for women in America.

1850        Mar 16, Nathaniel Hawthorne’s "The Scarlet Letter" was first published.
    (AP, 3/16/97)

1850        Mar 18, Henry Wells & William Fargo formed American Express in Buffalo. [see Mar 18, 1852]
    (HN, 3/18/98)(MC, 3/18/02)

1850        Mar 26, Edward Bellamy (d.1898), writer, was born. His work included the utopian novel "Looking Backward, 2000-1887," which forecast what America might look like if people worked together for the common good.
    (WSJ, 12/10/99, p.W17)(HN, 3/26/01)

1850        Mar 27, The party of Dr. Thadeus Hildreth found a 22-pound gold nugget in Tuolemne County, Ca. The place was initially named Hildreth’s Diggings, then changed to New Camp, then American Camp and finally Columbia. The population soon swelled to 15,000.
    (SFEC, 1/5/97, p.T5)(SFEC, 3/19/00, p.T6)(CVG, Vol 16, p.1)

1850        Mar 29, Ireland's SS Royal Adelaide sank in storm and 200 people died.
    (MC, 3/29/02)

1850        Mar 30, Charles Dickens published the first issue of his magazine “Household Words."
    (Econ, 9/10/11, p.95)(www.victorianweb.org/periodicals/hw.html)

1850        Mar 31, The US population hit 23,191,876, with the Black population at 3,638,808 (15.7%).
    (MC, 3/31/02)
1850        Mar 31, John Calhoun (b.1782), US vice-president (1825-1832), died while a senator from South Carolina. He was elected vice president under two presidents, John Quincy Adams in 1824 and Andrew Jackson in 1828.
    (WUD, 1994 p.210)(HNQ, 8/19/99)(MC, 3/31/02)

1850        Apr 1, The San Francisco County government was established.

1850        Apr 4, The city of Los Angeles was incorporated.
    (AP, 4/4/97)

1850        Apr 8, William Henry Welch, US pathologist (founded John Hopkins), was born.
    (MC, 4/8/02)

1850        Apr 15, The city of San Francisco was incorporated.
    (AP, 4/15/97)(www.sfgov.org/site/visitor_index.asp?id=8091)

1850        Apr 16, Thomas Sidney Gilchrist, British metallurgist and inventor, was born.
    (HN, 4/16/01)
1850        Apr 16, Marie [Gresholtz] Tussaud (89), Swiss-born maker of wax figures, died.
    (MC, 4/16/02)

1850        Apr 20, Daniel Chester French (d.1931), sculptor of the Concord Minuteman, was born at Exeter, New Hampshire. He had his estate in Stockbridge, Mass. His work also included the Lincoln Memorial. His Chesterwood estate became a museum with an annual 6-month summer season. [Ph. 413-298-3579]
    (HN, 4/20/98)(WSJ, 5/4/99, p.A20)

1850        Apr 23, William Wordsworth (b.1770), English poet, died.

1850        Apr 24, Louis Alexandre Piccinni (70), composer, died.
    (MC, 4/24/02)

1850        Apr, During the debate on the Compromise of 1850, Senator Henry Foote, a unionist and supporter of the compromise, drew a pistol on Senator Thomas Hart Benton, an opponent of the deal. Other senators intervened before Foote could fire.
    (SFC, 7/25/98, p.A6)
1850        Apr, The side-wheel steamship General Anthony Wayne sank  in 50 feet of water in lake Erie about eight miles north of Vermilion, Ohio. 38 of the 93 passengers and crew on board died. The wreckage was discovered in 2007.
    (AP, 6/21/07)

1850        May 4, A 2nd great fire broke out in San Francisco on Portsmouth Square. It consumed 16 blocks  and 300 buildings with damages estimated at $4 million.
    (SFC, 12/24/99, p.A24)(SFC, 4/17/21, p.B3)

1850        May 10, Thomas Johnstone Lipton, yachtsman, tea magnate (Lipton Tea), was born in Glasgow.
    (MC, 5/10/02)

1850        May 16, Johannes von Mikulica-Radecki, Polish surgical pioneer, was born.
    (HN, 5/16/01)

1850        May 18, Oliver Heaviside, physicist who predicted existence of ionosphere, was born.
    (SC, 5/18/02)

1850        Jun 4, A self deodorizing fertilizer was patented in England.
    (MC, 6/4/02)

1850        Jun 11, Cardinal Franzoni told Rev. Joseph Sadoc Alemany, a Dominican missionary who had worked in the Midwest frontier, that he was appointed the new bishop of Monterey, Ca.
    (SSFC, 7/27/03, p.A22)

1850        Jun 14, A 3rd great fire broke out in San Francisco. It raged for 3 days and consumed several hundred buildings with losses close to $5 million.
    (SFC, 12/24/99, p.A24)(SFC, 4/17/21, p.B3)

1850        Jan 16, The first real play in San Francisco, “The Wife," was staged at the modest Washington Hall theater. This was located on the 2n d floor of a building that later became the city’s swankiest brothel.
    (SFC, 5/24/14, p.C2)
1850        Jun 16, Pope Pius IX persuaded Rev. Joseph Sadoc Alemany to return to the US and to go to California.
    (SSFC, 7/27/03, p.A22)

1850        Summer, James Strang announced that he was divinely directed to become a king arranged for his coronation at St. James on Big Beaver Island in Lake Michigan.
    (Smith., Aug. 1995, p.86)

1850        Jun 27, Lafcadio Hearn, US journalist, author (Chita), was born.
    (SC, 6/27/02)
1850        Jun 27, Ivan Vazov, poet, novelist, playwright (Under the Yoke), was born in Bulgaria.
    (SC, 6/27/02)

1850        Jul 2, Prussia agreed to pull out of Schleswig and Holstein, Germany.
    (HN, 7/2/98)
1850        Jul 2, Sir Robert Peel (b.1788), former British prime minister (1834-35 and 1841-46), died. He founded the Conservative Party and the London Police Force whose officers were called "bobbies." In 2007 Douglas Hurd authored “Robert Peel: A Biography."
    (HN, 2/5/99)(Econ, 6/30/07, p.93)

1850        Jul 4, President Zachary Taylor stood hatless in the sun for hours listening to long-winded speeches. He returned to the White House and attempted to cool off by eating cherries, cucumbers and drinking iced milk. Severe stomach cramps followed and it is likely that Taylor's own physicians inadvertently killed him with a whole series of debilitating treatments. [see Jul 9]
    (HN, 7/11/99)
1850        Jul 4, William Kirby (b.1759), English entomologist, died. He was an original member of the Linnean Society and a Fellow of the Royal Society, as well as a country priest. He had studied how the ichneumon insect devours the living body of the caterpillar upon which it preys.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Kirby_%28entomologist%29)(SFC, 8/2/13, p.A10)

1850        Jul 9, Zachary Taylor (b.1784), the 12th president of the United States, died of cholera at the age of 65 after serving only 16 months. He was succeeded by Millard Fillmore. Taylor was a Southerner, a slaveholder and the hero of the Mexican War in 1848 when he was nominated by the Whig Party as a candidate for president of the United States. He was an inoffensive candidate in the anxious years leading up to the Civil War because he had never taken a position on a political issue or even cast a vote in his life. During his 16 months as president, Congress addressed the explosive issue of slavery's expansion to the west with the Compromise of 1850, but Taylor himself never had the opportunity to act on this issue.
    (WUD,1994,p.1679)(SFC, 9/26/96, p.E10)(AP, 7/9/97)(HN, 7/9/98)(HN, 7/11/99)
1850        Jul 9, Báb, founder of Bábism and one of the central figures of the Baha'i Faith., was executed in Tabriz, Iran.

1850        Jul 10, Millard Fillmore (Whig) was sworn in as the 13th president following the death of Zachary Taylor.
    (SFC, 2/21/97, p.A25)    (AP, 7/10/97)(HN, 7/10/98)

1850        Jul 14, The 1st public demonstration of ice made by refrigeration took place. James Harrison of Australia designed an ice-making machine. It was an improvement on one invented by Jacob Perkins in 1834.
    (MC, 7/14/02)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)

1850        Jul 15, Mother Francis Xavier Cabrini, the first American canonized saint, was born.
    (HN, 7/15/98)

1850        Jul 17, Statesman Daniel Webster said: "I was born an American; I will live an American; I shall die an American."
    (HNQ, 2/15/02)
1850        Jul 17, Astronomer William Cranch Bond and photographer John Adams Whipple focused on Vega and produced the 1st photograph of a star.
    (NH, 7/00, p.16)

1850        Jul 19, Margaret Fuller (b.1810), America’s first foreign correspondent, died aboard the Elizabeth, along with her husband and child, as the ship slammed into a sandbar less than 100 yards from Fire Island, NY. In 2012 John Matteson authored “The Lives of Margaret Fuller."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Margaret_Fuller)(SSFC, 1/29/12, p.F4)

1850        Jul 20, John Graves Shedd, president of Marshall Field and Company, was born. He was the first Chicago merchant to give his employees a half-day off on Saturdays.
    (HN, 7/20/98)

1850        Jul 25, Gold was discovered in the Rogue River in Oregon, extending the quest for gold up the Pacific coast.
    (HN, 7/25/98)
1850        Jul 25, The clipper ship Frolic, enroute from Hong Kong to SF, wrecked on a reef at the north edge of what is now California’s Preserve off Point Cabrillo Light Station. It had run opium from India to China to trade for silver and merchandise. The crew escaped in small boats and though all trade goods were lost the area became recognized as ideal for a redwood sawmill.
    (SSFC, 2/11/07, p.G10)(www.pointcabrillo.org/frolic-history.htm)(WSJ, 12/15/07, p.W10)

1850        Jul 26, The final design for London’s Great Council Exhibition, the first-ever World’s Fair, was officially approved. The structure of the glass and iron building,  designed by Joseph Paxton, was essentially completed by Jan 1, 1851. The Exhibition opened May 1.
    (WSJ, 1/26/98, p.A16)(ON, 7/04, p.12)

1850        Aug 5, Guy de Maupassant, short story writer and author of "The Necklace," was born.
    (HN, 8/5/98)
1850        Aug 5, Herman Melville and Nathaniel Hawthorne met at a picnic with friends at Monument Mountain near Stockbridge, Massachusetts. Two days later, Melville visited Hawthorne at his little red farmhouse in Lenox. Hawthorne gave him two bottles of champagne and they took a walk to the lake. That same day, Hawthorne wrote to a friend, "I met Melville, the other day, and liked him so much that I have asked him to spend a few days with me before leaving these parts." For a year and a half, the two friends lived six miles apart during the most productive time in their writing lives. Their five greatest books - The Scarlet Letter, The House of the Seven Gables, Moby-Dick, The Blithedale Romance, and Pierre - were either being written or published. In fact, The Blithedale Romance and Pierre were written at the same time, and The Scarlet Letter and Moby-Dick were published only a year apart. In the fall of 1851, Melville dedicated Moby-Dick to Hawthorne.

1850        Aug 17, Jose Francisco de San Martin (b.1778), Argentine-born South American revolutionary hero, died in France.
    (SC, 8/17/02)(Internet)

1850        Aug 18, Honore de Balzac (b.1799), French novelist, died at age 51.
    (WUD, 1994, p.115)(MC, 8/18/02)

1850        Aug 22, Nikolaus Lenau (48) (pseudonym of Nikolaus Franz Niembsch), Hungarian-born poet and writer, died in Austria.
    (MC, 8/22/02)(Internet)

1850        Aug 23, The 1st national women's rights convention convened in Worcester, Mass.
    (MC, 8/23/02)

1850        Aug 26, Charles Richet, French physiologist (anaphylaxis-Nobel 1913), was born.
    (MC, 8/26/02)

1850        Aug 28, Richard Wagner's opera "Lohengrin'' premiered at Weimar, Germany, under the direction of Franz Liszt.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lohengrin_(opera))(WSJ, 3/16/98, p.A20)

1850        Sep 2, Eugene Field, author, poet and journalist, was born. His work included "Little Boy Blue."
    (HN, 9/2/00)(MC, 9/2/01)

1850        Sep 9, The US Congress admitted California as a free state and the 31st state of the Union.
    (AP, 9/9/97)(SSFC, 11/28/21, p.J1)
1850        Sep 9, Territories of New Mexico and Utah were created.
    (MC, 9/9/01)

1850        Sep 11, Jenny Lind, the "Swedish Nightingale," gave her first  concert in the United States, at Castle Garden in New York.
    (AP, 9/11/00)

1850        Sep 18, The US Congress passed the second Fugitive Slave Bill into law (the first was enacted in 1793) as part of Compromise of 1850. It allowed slave owners to reclaim slaves who had escaped to other states. The Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 set fines up to $1,000 for facilitating a slave’s flight. The act authorized federal commissioners to receive a $10 fee if they decided for a slaveholder, but only a $5 fee for deciding for a fugitive.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fugitive_Slave_Act_of_1850)(AP, 9/18/97)(WSJ, 1/30/03, p.D8)(AH, 10/02, p.53)

1850        Sep 20, The slave trade in Washington, D.C., was abolished as a provision of Henry Clay’s Compromise of 1850. Because each state had its own slavery code when the District of Columbia was founded in 1800, Washington had adopted Maryland’s laws. Although the 1850 legislation made the slave trade illegal, slavery itself was still legal. Nevertheless, Washington became a haven for free blacks. By 1860, free blacks outnumbered slaves almost four-to-one. President Abraham Lincoln put an end to Washington’s slavery altogether in 1862, freeing about 2,989 African Americans who were then slaves according to the slavery code.
    (HNPD, 9/20/98)(HN, 9/20/98)

1850        Sep 22, An earthquake in Sichuan, China, killed some 300,000 people.

1850        Sep 28, Flogging was abolished as a form of punishment in the U.S. Navy.
    (AP, 9/28/97)

1850        Sep 29, Pres. Millard Fillmore named Mormon leader Brigham Young as the first governor of the Utah Territory.
    (HN, 9/29/98)(SFC, 10/23/02, p.H4)

1850        Sep, A 4th great fire broke out in San Francisco.
    (SFC, 4/17/21, p.B3)

1850        Oct 3, The Univ. of Mich. Medical School received its first students.
    (MT, Fall/99, p.3)

1850        Oct 12, The 1st women's medical school, the Female Medical College of Pennsylvania, opened to students.

1850        Oct 19, Annie Smith Peck (d.1935), one of the world’s renowned mountain climbers, was born in Providence, Rhode Island.

1850        Oct 29, In Yerba Buena, later San Francisco, Eustachquio Valencia (20) married Ann Frances Moses (16) in Mission Dolores. She had arrived with her Mormon family in 1846.
    (SFC, 6/12/21, p.B1)

1850        Nov 6, The San Francisco Bay Yerba Buena and Angel islands were reserved for military use.
    (MC, 11/6/01)

1850        Nov 9, Lewis Lewin, German toxicologist and father of psycho-pharmacology, was born.
    (MC, 11/9/01)

1850        Nov 13, Robert Lewis Stevenson (d.1894), novelist, was born in Scotland. His books included: "Treasure Island" and "The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde." In 1996 R.C. Terry edited and published “Robert Louis Stevenson: Interviews and Recollections."
    (Smith., 8/95, p.54)(SFC, 9/1/96, Par. p.12)(HN, 11/13/98)

1850        Nov 19, Lord Tennyson became the British poet laureate.
    (MC, 11/19/01)

1850        Nov, San Francisco voters approved a plank road from downtown out to the Mission. Alderman Alfred Green and brothers George and John Treat immediately began working on competing plans for racetracks in the Mission. Entrepreneur Col. Charles Wilson and partners had proposed the toll road at their own expense. The town council agreed, but stipulated that ownership be turned over to the city in seven years.
    (SFC, 5/14/16, p.C2)(SFC, 11/28/20, p.B4)

1850        Dec 17, In California some 500 Indians in the Yosemite region attacked a store on the Fresno River owned by James Savage. A clerk and two other whites were killed and the $25,000 in cash and goods were taken. This marked the beginning of the Mariposa Indian War. Savage had employed some 500 Yokut Indians to pan for gold.
    (SFC, 5/16/15, p.C2)

1850        Dec 24, Frederic Bastiat (b.1801), French free-market economist, died in Rome of tuberculosis.
    (WSJ, 7/5/01, p.A12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frederic_Bastiat)

1850        Dec 28, Rangoon, Burma, was destroyed by fire.
    (MC, 12/28/01)

1850        Dec, The Taiping rebellion began against the ruling Manchu-led Qing Dynasty and continued to 1864. It was led by heterodox Christian convert Hong Xiuquan, who having received visions, maintained that he was the younger brother of Jesus Christ. About 20 million people died, mainly civilians, in one of the deadliest military conflicts in history. In 2012 Stephen R. Platt authored “Autumn in the Heavenly Kingdom: China, the West, and the Epic Story of the Taiping Civil War."
    (Econ, 8/6/11, p.74)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taiping_Rebellion)(SSFC, 2/26/12, p.F5)

1850        Gustave Courbet (1819-1877), French artist, painted "Burial at Ornans."
    (WSJ, 11/28/06, p.D8)

1850        Benson J. Lossing, journalist and engraver, published his 2-volume "Pictorial Field Book of the Revolution."
    (AH, 10/01, HT p.23)

1850        Donald Grant Mitchell wrote his best-selling novel "Reveries of a Bachelor," under the pen name Ik Marvel.
    (SFEM, 6/28/98, p.30)

1850        Bayard Taylor authored "El Dorado," a reporter’s account of the California gold rush. In 2001 it was reprinted as "Eldorado: Adventures in the Path of Empire."
    (SSFC, 2/4/01, BR p.5)

1850        Books prior to this year were printed on alkaline paper and tended to survive. Books printed after this date were on acidic paper and began to crumble with age.
    (SFEC, 1/18/98, Z1 p.8)

1850         Ivan Turgenev, Russian writer, produced his greatest play: "A Month in the Country."
    (WSJ, 4/26/95, p.A-14)

1850        A building census in Norfolk, Virginia indicated that there were 10,000 18th and early 19th century structures. Of these only a handful survive.
    (Hem. 1/95, p. 69)

1850        Allan Pinkerton (1819-1884) partnered with Chicago attorney Edward Rucker in forming the North-Western Police Agency, later known as the Pinkerton Agency. "We never sleep" was their motto. The company’s emblem—a wide open eye—inspired the term "private eye. In 1999 the agency was sold to a Swedish company, Securitas AB.
    (http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/aug25.html)(HNQ, 8/7/98)(SFC, 2/23/99, p.C4)

1850        US President Millard Fillmore issued an executive order that designated the southern point of the Marin Headlands a military reservation later called Lime Point Military Reservation. Fillmore also reserved Alcatraz Island for military use.
    (The Park, Summer 1995)(SFEC, 8/1/99, p.B4)(OAH, 2/05, p.A1)

1850        Pres. Fillmore signed and enforced the Fugitive Slave Act that authorized the return of slaves seeking sanctuary back to their masters.
    (SFC, 2/10/97, p.A1)

1850        Senator Henry Clay of Kentucky introduced the 8 provisions of the Great Compromise Bill. The provisions of the Great Compromise bill were reduced to 5 and passed one by one. They were in sum: 1) the admission of California as a free state; 2) slavery in the territories of Utah and New Mexico would be resolved by popular sovereignty; 3) slavery would be ended in the District of Columbia; 4) the federal government would assume a $10 million debt by Texas; 5) the federal government would be responsible for the return of runaway slaves. New York Sen. W.F. Seward stated: "The unity of our empire hangs on the decision of this day."
    (SFC, 2/21/97, p.A25)

1850        The US Supreme Court opined that  an invention had to be something more than the work of a skilled mechanic to qualify for a patent.
    (Econ, 5/5/07, p.78)

1850        Laws in California were passed that allowed the enslavement of Indians.
    (SFEC, 9/20/98, Z1 p.4)
1850        California passed anti-sodomy legislation in its “crime against nature" law.
    (SSFC, 5/11/08, Books p.4)
1850        Ygnacio, the grandson of Dona Juana Sanchez de Pacheco, built the first homestead in the Walnut Creek area of northern California.
    (SFC, 7/17/06, p.B5)
1850        Robert Ridley opened a bar south of San Francisco, called the Mansion House, in a decaying building of the Mission Dolores complex.
    (SFC, 11/28/20, p.B4)
1850        San Francisco was roughly bounded by Union St. to the north, Market St. on the south, Powell St. on the west and Montgomery St. on the east.
    (SFC, 11/28/20, p.B1)
1850        Col. John Geary, the first mayor of San Francisco, donated land for a square to be held in perpetuity for park use. It later became Union Square. He owned the surrounding property and looked to increase its value.
    (SFEC, 3/15/98, p.W27)(SSFC, 7/21/02, p.F2)
1850        Nevada City, Ca., was named.
    (SFC, 4/14/96, T-3)
1850        In San Francisco Fred Lawson, a Norwegian sea captain, began sinking ships to lock in his underwater real estate. By 1953 he sank numerous ships including four in a block of water later bounded by Davis,  Drumm, Pacific and Jackson streets.
    (SFC, 1/25/14, p.C1)
1850        Ferry commuting began on the SF Bay.
    (SFC, 4/21/97, p.A11)
1850        Suisun City, Calif. was founded. Suisun means "West Wind" in the language of the Patwan Indians who lived in this area.
    (Hem., Nov.’95, p.91,95)
1850        Residents of the northern California town of Rough and Ready rebelled against taxes and began a secession movement from the US. It lasted just 3 months in part because nearby saloonkeepers refused to sell liquor to the “foreigners."
    (SSFC, 8/10/08, p.E8)
1850        The US Treasury contracted Moffat & Company, a private mint firm in San Francisco, to mint American government stamped coins.
    (Economist, 9/8/12, p.18)
1850        In San Francisco two entrepreneurs established a lookout station atop a downtown hill called Loam Alta to relay information of incoming ships by semaphore to the merchants' exchanges in the Financial District. A year later a 2nd lookout was established at Point Lobos.
    (SFC, 11/27/21, p.C1)
1850        In San Francisco an official graveyard site called Yerba Buena Cemetery was chosen in the triangle formed by Market, Larking and McAllister streets. The 13-acre site later became the SF Civic Center.
    (SFC, 3/5/16, p.C4)(SFC, 3/31/18, p.C1)
1850        In San Francisco only seven of 4,025 Chinese were women.
    (SFC, 1/6/18, p.C1)

1850        The Arapaho Indians issued a $5 bill.
    (SFEC, 1/25/98, Z1 p.8)

1850        Kentucky updated the state constitution. One provision was the ineligibility for public office of anyone who had participated in a duel since ratification.

1850        The Mormons applied unsuccessfully for Utah statehood. Debates with the federal government ensued over political issues and polygamy.
    (NW, 9/10/01, p.48)

1850        Erasmus Corning founded the New York Central Railroad. He later built a banking network along its route that nurtured the growth of new communities.
    (WSJ, 5/8/95, p.A-14)

1850        Marshall Field (16) started working a dry goods clerk in Pittsfield, Mass. In 1855 he moved to Chicago. In 1947 John Tebbel authored "The Marshall Fields: A Study in Wealth." In 2002 Axel Madsen authored "The Marshall Fields: The Evolution of an American Business Dynasty."
    (WSJ, 10/9/02, p.D8)

1850        The Willard family acquired a 4-story hotel in Washington DC and turned it into the 100-room Willard Hotel at 1401 Pennsylvania Ave. In 1901 it was replaced by an opulent 389-room Beaux-Arts building. In 1968 it was closed and scheduled for demolition. In 1986 it re-opened following a $73 million restoration.
    (SFC, 1/5/06, p.E4)

1850        Directors of the Brooklyn released 8 pair of sparrows imported from England. They did not thrive and director Nicolas Pike acquired 50 more pair and released them in Brooklyn’s Greenwood Cemetery 1853.
    (AH, 6/02, p.39)

1850        Woodsmen marched west from New York clearing forests of white pine, yellow birch, hemlock, maple, and oak.
    (NOHY, Weiner, 3/90, p.51)

1850        Heinrich Schliemann, German businessman, moved to California and made a fortune in banking.
    (Nat. Hist., 4/96, p.45)
1850        In California Gregorio Briones, a soldier of the Spanish and then Mexican army, claimed title to 13,320 acres of west Marin land.
    (SFC, 5/26/97, p.A10)

1850        Cincinnati, the largest meat-packing center in the United States at that time, earned the name Porkopolis.
    (HNQ, 10/15/00)

1850        Brigham Young was appointed governor of the Utah territory.
    (SFC, 4/9/96, A-7)

1850        The Ansonia Clock Co. was founded in Derby, Conn., by Anson G. Phelps. After 2 fires and reorganizations the company moved to NY in 1880.
    (SFC, 12/15/98, Z1 p.6)

1850        James Folger (18), a native of Massachusetts, began roasting beans in SF. Folger’s Coffee established itself on the Barbary Coast and was the first major coffee company in SF. Jim Folger eventually traveled to the gold country to sell coffee to miners.
    (SFC, 6/28/97, p.D2)(SSFC, 8/5/01, p.A1)(SFC, 6/5/08, p.C2)

1850        George Jones of London built a hexagonal ended instrument using a diatonic German concertina fingering system to which he added another row of accidental notes making the instrument chromatic. It became known as the Anglo-chromatic or Anglo system concertina.
    (BAAC, 8/96, p.6)

1850        Baking Powder was invented.   
(SFC, 1/11/97, p.B7)

1850        The US census showed a black population of 3,639,000 people of whom 90% were born in America. The mulatto count was 406,000.
    (SFC, 5/3/96, p.A-25)
1850        An estimated 50,000 Irish prostitutes worked in New York City.
    (WSJ, 3/17/97, p.A18)
1850        The population of Chicago approached 30,000.
    (Econ, 3/18/06, Survey p.12)
1850        Only 2% of the American population lived past 65.
    (SFEM, 6/28/98, p.40)

1850        Sally Thomas (b.1787), quasi-slave, died. She had grown up as a Virginia slave and was relocated to Tennessee. She had 3 mixed-race sons by 2 white men, one a Virginian plantation owner, the other John Catron, became a member of the US Supreme Court. In 2005 John Hope Franklin and Loren Schweninger authored “In Search of the Promised Land: A Slave Family in the Old South."
    (SSFC, 8/28/05, p.C2)

1850        Expeditions to the Arctic found evidence of the Franklin Expedition. Three graves dug into the permafrost were discovered in 1850, their headstones dated 1846. A written record was found in 1859, indicating that Franklin died on June 11, 1847, and that Erebus and Terror were abandoned in April 1848. The crews’ deaths have been attributed to either scurvy or lead poisoning originating from the solder on food tins. Both ships and the remains of most of the 129 crewmen have never been found.
    (HNQ, 6/11/98)

1850        Rabbits were introduced to Australia about this time and soon became pests.
    (Nat. Hist., 4/96, p.16)
1850        The Granny Smith apple originated about this time in Australia. According to Morgan and Richards The Book of Apples: A Mrs. Smith, born in England in 1800, emigrated to Australia in 1838. In 1860s she found some seedlings growing in a creek where she had tipped out some apples brought back from Sydney. Tree was propagated and later family increased their orchards and marketed fruit in Sydney.

1850        In Vienna, Austria, F. Walther re-arranged the reeds of a 3-row diatonic accordion to play a 46 note chromatic scale and created the chromatic button accordion.
    (BAAC, 8/96, p.6)

1850        British author Charles Dickens published “The Personal History, Adventures, Experience and Observation of David Copperfield the Younger of Blunderstone Rookery" in book format. It had been serialized a year earlier.
1850        The Wenlock Olympian Games were set up by Dr. William Penny Brookes in Much Wenlock, England. A typical program of events featured running and leaping competitions and throwing a cricket ball, as well as non-athletic pursuits such as choir singing and awards for reading, arithmetic, knitting and sewing.
    (AP, 7/1/11)
1850        England established its 1st public libraries.
    (Econ, 5/1/04, p.59)

1850        French priest Jean-Baptiste Lamy was dispatched by Rome to bring order and discipline to the New Mexican territory.
    (WSJ, 9/13/06, p.D10)

1850        A mob in Athens burned down the home of a British citizen. In response Viscount Palmerston, Britain’s foreign secretary, called for a blockade of Greece.
    (Econ, 7/15/06, p.56)

1850        In Hong Kong the Lane Crawford department store first opened.
    (Econ, 6/8/13, p.65)

c1850    A Mongolian national consciousness emerged in the mid-19th century.

1850        In the Netherlands Zwarte Piet (Black Pete), a Dutch version of St. Nicholas, made his debut as an African servant in a book. By 2012 he was being described as a racist caricature of a black person.
    (AP, 12/4/12)

1850        Christchurch was settled in earnest with the arrival of the Canterbury Association, which had formed in England to found a colony in New Zealand.
    (SSFC, 2/12/12, p.H4)

1850        On the Orkney mainland Skara Brae was rediscovered by William Watt, the laird of Skaill, after a fierce storm stripped the grass from a high sand dune.
    (SFEC, 3/23/97, p.T3)

1850        Panama’s city of Colon was founded as the isthmus of Panama became a route for the California gold rush.
    (Econ, 5/17/08, p.47)

1850        Switzerland established a currency union to replace multiple cantonal currencies.
    (Econ, 7/19/14, p.49)

1850-1853    Millard Fillmore is the 13th President of the US.
    (A&IP, ESM, p.96b, photo)

1850-1854    Of the 1200 murders in San Francisco in this period, only one results in a legal execution.
    (SFC, 11/15/95, p.B-1)

1850-1859    The Lehigh Valley town of Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, became an iron-making center in the 1850s thanks to discoveries of coal and iron ore nearby.
    (WSJ, 10/8/08, p.A15)

1850s    In Cincinnati abolitionist Nicholas Longworth hired Robert Scott Duncanson to paint 8 large murals in his home. The murals were covered by wallpaper by 1869 and not uncovered until 1931. The house and a large art collection were given to the city by Charles and Anna Taft around 1928.
    (WSJ, 8/8/00, p.A20)
1850s    In New York City the African-American community of Seneca Village was razed to make way for Central Park. The village had 264 frame houses, 3 churches, 2 cemeteries and a school.
    (AM, May/Jun 97 p.62)

1850s    In San Francisco Washerwoman’s Lagoon was a large pond used as a laundry site at Gough and Greenwich. By 1882 it had become polluted and was filled in.
    (SFEC, 11/15/98, p.A15)(SFC, 6/14/14, p.C2)
1850s    In California John C. Fremont occupied Fremont’s Ranch in Bear Valley, north of Mariposa, a Mexican land-grant of 44,000 acres. He later became the state’s first US Senator and the first Republican candidate for president. He also became a Civil War general and a governor of the Arizona territory. In 2000 David Roberts authored "A Newer World: Kit Carson, John C. Fremont, and the Claiming of the American West.
    (SFEC, 4/12/98, p.T6)(SFC, 6/5/98, p.A20)(SFC, 6/5/98, p.A20)(WSJ, 1/10/00, p.A24)

c1850s    Mormon settlers began moving to Lana’i, Hawaii, with the idea of establishing a "City of Joseph" under their leader William Gibson. Gibson placed title to all the community land under his own name and even under threat of excommunication refused to give up the deed. Gibson registered the land under his own name and refused to hand the deeds over to the Mormon Church. He went on to become a friend, advisor and cabinet minister to King Kalakaua.
    (SFEM, 10/13/96, p.24)(SSFC, 8/26/01, p.T10)

1850s    The political organization called the American Party, which flourished in the 1850s, is better known as the Know-Nothing Party. Originally a clandestine organization, members were instructed to say that they "know nothing" when asked about the party, hence the name. Primarily, the party was anti-immigrant and stood in opposition to whatever political power immigrant groups happened to have in Northern cities. In 1854 the American Party won significant elections in seven state governments. The party’s national platform in 1856 included anti-Catholic and anti-alien planks.
    (HNQ, 8/27/98)

1850s    John Augustus of Boston persuaded the courts to release young offenders into his custody instead of sending them to prison. This was the start of the practice of probation.
    (SFEC, 11/21/99, Z1p.2)

1850s    Elizabeth Ware Packard led successful struggles in 13 states to obtain due process of law for women, who previously could be committed to mental institutions simply on the word of their husbands.
    (SFC, 3/25/98, p.A22)

1850s    Publishers switched to cheaper paper based on wood pulp instead of rags and linen. The new material contained an acid residue to ate the wood fibers and destroyed books in as little as 30 years.
    (WSJ, 7/10/97, p.A6)

1850s    English inventor Alexander Parkes is credited with being the first to make plastic in the 1850s. Parkes’ plastic was a cellulosic made by treating a mixture of cotton and nitric acid with camphor. In the United States, John and Isaiah Hyatt developed a similar plastic in 1869 as a substitute for ivory in the manufacture of billiard balls, which they called celluloid. The first completely synthetic plastic, Bakelite, was invented in 1907 and produced in 1909 by Dr. Leo H. Baekeland. Parkes mixed chloroform and castor oil to make the first plastic which he called Parkesine.
    (HNQ, 5/8/98)(WSJ, 1/11/98, p.R18)
c1850s    Staffordshire potters in England made many different Shakespeare figurines.
    (SFC, 9/4/96, z1 p.5)

1850-1854    About this time English adopted the form filibuster, from Spanish filibustero. It was applied to certain adventurers who committed unsanctioned activities in the West Indies and Central America. [See William Walker Sep 12, 1860]

1850-1870    A major wave of Italians immigrated to California. The majority came from Liguria and Tuscany. A 2nd wave began in 1880.
    (SSFC, 7/10/05, p.D5)

1850-1891    Sophia Kovalevsky, mathematician. In 1983 her biography by Don H. Kennedy was published: "Little Sparrow: A Portrait of Sophia Kovalevsky."
    (NH, 6/96, p.20)

1850-1900    The Hawaii of this period is described in the 1997 novel "A Map of Paradise" by Linda Ching Sledge.
    (SFEC, 8/17/97, BR p.3)

1850-1910    This period is covered in the book Railroad Crossing: Californians and the Railroad 1850-1910 by William Deverall.
    (SFC, 7/8/96, p.D2)
1850-1910    Margaret Collier Graham, American writer: "People need joy quite as much as clothing. Some of them need it far more."
    (AP, 6/16/99)

1850-1919     Ella Wheeler Wilcox, American poet: "The only folks who give us pain are those we love the best."
    (AP, 6/5/98)

1850-1925     Emma Carleton, American journalist: "Reputation is a bubble which a man bursts when he tries to blow it for himself."
    (AP, 6/4/97)

1850-1930    In 2005 Richard J. Orsi authored “Sunset Limited: The Southern Pacific Railroad and the Development of the American West."
    (SSFC, 5/8/05, p.B1)

1850-1933     Augustine Birrell, English author and statesman: "History is a pageant and not a philosopher."
    (AP, 9/10/97)

1850-1956     The Empire Mine in Grass Valley, Ca., produced over 5.8 million ounces of gold. It had 365 miles of tunnels and was later turned into a 784-acre state park.
    (SFEC, 4/12/98, p.T7)

1850-1990    The world human population tripled in this period.
    (NOHY, 3/1990, p.52)

1851        Jan 5, California's 1st Gov. Peter Hardeman Burnett in his State of the State address called Indians "savages" and said a "war of extermination will continue to be waged between the races until the Indian race becomes extinct".
    (SSFC, 11/28/21, p.J1)

1851        Jan 6, Leon Foucault (d.1868), French scientist, watched a pendulum swing and shift its plane of motion. This he realized was due to the rotation of the Earth. In 2003 Amir D. Aczel authored "Pendulum: Leon Foucault and the Triumph of Science."
    (WSJ, 8/28/03, p.D18)

1851        Jan 25, Sojourner Truth addressed the 1st Black Women's Rights Convention in Akron. [see May 28, 1851]
    (MC, 1/25/02)

1851        Jan 27, John James Audubon (b.1785), wildlife painter and conservationist (Audubon Society), died. He was buried in NYC. In 2004 Duff Hart-Davis authored "Audubon's Elephant," an account of his 12 year sojourn to Europe to oversee the production of "Birds of America." In 2004 William Souder authored “Under a Wild Sky: John James Audubon and the Making of the Birds of America." In 2004 Richard Rhodes authored “John James Audubon: The Making of an American."
    (WSJ, 3/26/04, p.W6)(SSFC, 6/20/04, p.M6)(SSFC, 10/17/04, p.M6)(AH, 10/04, p.75)

1851        Jan 28, Northwestern University, near Chicago, was chartered.
    (MC, 1/28/02)

1851        Jan 31, Gail Borden announced the invention of evaporated milk.
    (MC, 1/31/02)

1851        Feb 1, Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley (53), novelist (Frankenstein), died.
    (MC, 2/1/02)

1851        Feb 6, Robert Schumann's 3rd Symphony "Rhenish," premiered in Dusseldorf.
    (MC, 2/6/02)

1851        Feb 8, Kate (Katherine O'Flaherty ) Chopin (d.1904), American novelist, short story writer, was born. Her work included "The Awakening." She wrote tales of love and passion that presented women testing the boundaries of social convention. "There are some people who leave impressions not so lasting as the imprint of an oar upon the water."
    (AP, 3/11/99)(SFEC, 11/14/99, BR p.5)(HN, 2/8/01)   

1851        Feb 15, Black abolitionists invaded a Boston courtroom to rescue a fugitive slave.
    (440 Int’l., 2/15/99)

1851        Mar 3, Congress authorized the smallest US silver coin, a 3¢ piece. The trine obverse side depicted a shield over a six-pointed star.
    (SC, 3/3/02)(WSJ, 12/12/03, p.W15)

1851        Mar 18, In San Francisco the new 40-foot-wide Mission Plank Road opened at a cost of $96,000. A horse rider was charged 25 cents; a wagon with two horses, 75 cents; a four-horse team, $1. The road was an enormous financial success.
    (SFC, 11/28/20, p.B4)

1851        Mar 21, Yosemite Valley was discovered (by non-natives) in California. The 58 men of the Mariposa Battalion under Major James D. Savage were the first whites to enter Yosemite Valley. Their first view of the valley was from the plateau later named Mount Beatitude. They expelled Chief Tenaya and his band of Ahwahneechee Indians. Dr. Bunnell, a physician in the battalion, named the valley Yosemite to honor the local Indians. He did not realize that the word "yohemeti" meant "some of them are killers" and was an insult against the valley people.
    (SFEC, 5/18/97, Z1 p.4)(SFEC,12/28/97, Z1 p.1)(MC, 3/21/02)
1851        Mar 21, Emperor Tu Duc ordered that Christian priests be put to death.
    (HN, 3/21/99)

1851        Mar 24, In San Francisco pedestrians and horse drawn vehicles streamed out on the new Mission Plank Road to the new Pioneer Race Course, built by the Treat brothers. It was bounded by 24th, 26th Capp and Florida streets. It closed in 1864.
    (SFC, 5/14/16, p.C2)

1851        Mar 25, Sarah Chesham (41), of Clavering, Essex, was publicly executed at Chelmsford jail after being found guilty of attempting to murder her husband Richard by poisoning him with arsenic a year earlier. Legal and medical experts later determined that small traces of arsenic, found in her supposed victims, were not uncommon in the human body and that tests carried out at the time proved inconclusive. During Victorian Britain’s ‘poison panic’, 167 people were charged with murder or attempted murder by poison between 1840 and 1850. In 2019 her descendants wrote to David Gauke, the Justice Secretary, in a bid for a posthumous pardon so their ancestor's name will be cleared.
    (The Telegraph, 3/29/19)

1851        Mar 27, Paul-Marie-Theodore-Vincent d'Indy, composer (Symphonie Cevenole), was born in Paris.
    (MC, 3/27/02)

1851        Apr 2, Rama III (b.1788), King Phra Nangklao, died. King Phra Nangklao reformed the tax and treasury system and oversaw a boom in trade with China during his 27-year rule from 1824. Siam renewed official contacts with western powers for the first time since the late Ayutthaya period, and supported the British in their first Anglo-Burmese War in 1824. The king did not name a successor and the throne passed to his half-brother.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rama_III)(Reuters, 5/2/19)

1851        Apr 12, Emil Liebling, composer, was born.
    (MC, 4/12/02)

1851        Apr 14, Morgan Earp was born in Marian County, IA.

1851        Apr. 23, The first Canadian postage stamp was issued.
    (CFA, ‘96, p.44)

1851        Apr 30, The California State Legislature passed an act creating a State Marine Hospital in San Francisco. $50,000 was earmarked for its construction.
    (SSFC, 5/22/16, p.N10)

1851        May 1, The Great Council Exhibition, the first-ever World’s Fair, opened in London’s Hyde Park. Some 6 million people came to see the new glass and iron Crystal Palace, designed by Joseph Paxton (1823-1865). Paxton used roof ventilators and underground air-cooling chambers to regulate indoor temperature.
    (WSJ, 1/26/98, p.A16)(ON, 7/04, p.12)(Econ, 12/4/04, TQ p.17)

1851        May 4, The Sydney Ducks set fire to a store on San Francisco’s Portsmouth Square. Most of the dwellings on Telegraph Hill were destroyed. The heart of SF was destroyed and some 2000 buildings burned down. This led to the formation of the secret Committee of Vigilance, which hung several criminals and drove others out of the city. Remnants from Hoff's store, built on a wharf over the bay, were found in 1986 during excavations for the Embarcadero West 33-story high-rise. Damage was estimated at $12 million.
    (SFC, 12/24/99, p.A24)(SFC, 11/27/00, p.A18)(SFC, 10/13/18, p.C1)(SFC, 4/17/21, p.B3)
1851        May 4, The 1840-ship General Harrison burned to the water line. It was salvaged for parts, buried and not seen again until 2001 when construction at Battery and Clay revealed its remains. The whaling ship Niantic, already converted to a waterfront hotel, burned and sank into the bay. The Niantic Hotel was rebuilt and operated until 1872. In 1977 new construction uncovered the Niantic’s burned remains.
    (SFC, 9/8/01, p.A11)(SFC, 2/4/05, p.E16)(SFC, 2/17/18, p.C1)

1851        May 6, Dr. John Gorrie patented a "refrigeration machine."
    (MC, 5/6/02)
1851        May 6, Linus Yale patented his Yale lock.
    (MC, 5/6/02)

1851        May 12, A treaty was signed on the south bank of the Kaweah River, the site of John Wood's grave. Woods was killed by Yokut Indians. The California Tule River War ended.
    (HN, 4/28/00)(WW, 6/99)(HN, 5/12/01)

1851        May 18, The Amsterdam-Nieuwediep telegraph connection linked.
    (SC, 5/18/02)

1851        May 20, Emile Berliner, inventor of the flat phonograph record, was born in Germany.
    (MC, 5/20/02)
1851        May 20, Rose Hawthorne Lathrop, US nun, daughter of Nathaniel Hawthorne, was born.
    (MC, 5/20/02)

1851        May 25, Jose Justo de Urquiza of Argentina led a rebellion against his former ally, the absolute ruler Juan Manuel de Rosas.
    (HN, 5/25/99)

1851        May 28, Freed slave and abolitionist Sojourner Truth attended a national women's convention in Akron, Ohio, where the female delegates were heckled by men in the audience who claimed that men were superior to women. Frances Gage, president of the convention, recorded Sojourner Truth's words that day. "Dat man ober dar say dat women needs to be helped into carriages and lifted ober ditches, and to hab de best place everywhar. Nobody eber helps me into carriages, or ober mud-puddles, or gibs me any best place! And ain't I a woman! Look at me! Look at my arm! I have ploughed, and planted and gathered into barns, and no man could head me! And ain't I a woman? I could work as much and eat as much as a man--when I could get it--and bear de lash as well! And ain't I a woman? I have borne thirteen chilern, and seen 'em mos' all sold into slavery, and when I cried out with my mother's grief, none but Jesus heard me! And ain't I a woman?" Sojourner Truth's words, according to Gage, "turned the sneers and jeers of an excited crowd into notes of respect and admiration."
    (SFC, 3/30/97, Z1 p.6)(HN, 7/13/99)(MC, 5/28/02)

1851        May 29, Leon Bourgeois, French premier (1895-96, Nobel 1920), was born.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1851        May, In San Francisco Sam Brannan and several other leaders formed the First Committee of Vigilance. They took it on themselves to purge the city of criminals. The group disbanded in September.
    (SFC, 5/19/96,City Guide, p.16)(SFC, 6/1/13, p.C2)

1851        Jun 2, Maine became the first state to enact a law prohibiting alcohol. By the Civil War 13 Northern states had bans on alcohol sales. In 1998 Thomas R. Pegram authored "Battling Demon Rum," a history of anti-alcohol movements in the US. Crusader and entrepreneur Neal Dow had led the push to ban alcohol.
    (AP, 6/2/97)(WSJ, 10/5/98, p.A28)    (SSFC, 12/15/13, p.A19)

1851        Jun 5, Harriet Beecher Stow published the first installment of Uncle Tom’s Cabin in The National Era.
    (HN, 6/5/99)

1851        Jun 9, In San Francisco Father John McGinnis celebrated Mass in a hall at Fourth and Jessie and marked the founding of St. Patrick’s. St. Patrick’s Church was built on Market St. at the present site of the Sheraton-Palace Hotel. It was moved in 1872 to Eddy St. near Divisadero and served as the Parish Hall for Holy Cross. The wooden structure is thought to be the oldest in the city.
    (SFEC, 3/2/97, z1 p.7)(SSFC, 6/10/01, p.A22)

1851        Jun 11, San Francisco vigilantes lynched John Jenkins (aka John Simpton) on Portsmouth Square for stealing a safe. He was part of contingent of ex-con Australians known as the Sidney Ducks.
    (SFC, 6/1/13, p.C1)

1851        Jun 15, Jacob Fussell, Baltimore dairyman, set up the 1st ice-cream factory.
    (MC, 6/15/02)

1851        Jun 21, Daniel Carter Beard, organized the first [US] boy scout troop, was born.
    (HN, 6/21/98)

1851        Jun, In San Francisco a 6th major fire caused $3 million in losses.
    (SFC, 4/17/21, p.B3)

1851        Jul 8, Sir Arthur John Evans, English archaeologist who excavated Knossos, Crete, was born.
    (MC, 7/8/02)

1851        Jul 10, Louis-Jacques-Mand Daguerre, French painter (daguerreotype), died.
    (MC, 7/10/02)

1851        Jul 23, Sioux Indians and US signed the Treaty of Traverse des Sioux.
    (MC, 7/23/02)

1851        Jul 28, A total solar eclipse was captured on a daguerreotype photograph.
    (SC, 7/28/02)

1851        Jul, In San Francisco Alfred Green’s new Pavilion Race Course opened. It was bounded by 20th, 22nd, Capp and Treat streets. It closed in 1863.
    (SFC, 5/14/16, p.C2) 

1851        Aug 3, Lady Isabella Caroline Somerset, temperance leader, was born.
    (SC, 8/3/02)

1851        Aug 12, Isaac Singer was granted a patent on his sewing machine.
    (AP, 8/12/97)

1851        Aug 13, John Lincoln Clem (d.1937), Drummer (last survivor of Union Volunteers), was born.
    (MC, 8/13/02)

1851        Aug 14, Doc Holliday was born in Griffin, GA.

1851        Aug 22, The Schooner America outraced the Aurora in the Solent, a stretch of sea separating the Isle of Wight from England proper, to win a trophy that became known as the America’s Cup. For 132 years the New York Yacht Club defeated all challengers to retain the prestigious America’s Cup, the record for the longest winning streak in sports history. The Liberty lost it to the Australia II in 1983.
    (AP, 8/22/97)(SFEC, 10/1/00, p.T4)(SSFC, 4/15/07, p.G4)

1851        Aug 31, The Yankee clipper ship Flying Cloud set a record for sailing from NY to San Francisco around South America in 89 days.

1851        Sep 11, African Americans skirmished with a band of slave bounty hunters intent on capturing any fugitive slaves hidden in the abolitionist town, Christiana, Pennsylvania. This was one year after the second fugitive slave law (first law was on February 12, 1793) was passed by Congress, requiring the return of all escaped slaves to their owners in the South. One bounty hunter was killed and 1 wounded during the skirmish.
    (MC, 9/11/01)

1851        Sep 13, Walter Reed (d.1902), U.S. Army doctor, was born in Gloucester County, Va. In 1900 he went to Cuba and verified that yellow fever was caused by a mosquito.
    (HN, 9/13/98)(WSJ, 10/22/99, p.B1)(AP, 9/13/02)

1851        Sep 14, James Fenimore Cooper (b.1789), writer, died at Cooperstown, NY.

1851        Sep 17, The Fort Laramie Treaty was signed between the US government treaty commissioners and representatives of the Cheyenne, Sioux, Arapaho, Crow, Assiniboine, Mandan, Hidatsa, and Arikara Nations. The Sioux pledged not to harass the wagon trains traveling the Oregon Trail in exchange for a $50,000 annuity. The treaty did not last long. Some 12,000 American Indians gathered at Fort Laramie for a peace council with the US. The government agreed that 12 million acres of the Mandan, Hidatsa and Arikara Indians would remain free of settlement (eastern Montana, northeastern Wyoming and western North Dakota). In 1949 Congress authorized a forced relocation to build the Garrison Dam in North Dakota. In 1986 Martin Cross won a settlement of $149.2 million for the unjust taking of reservation land. In 2004 Paul VanDevelder authored “Coyote Warrior: One Man, Three Tribes, and the Trial that Forged a Nation."
    (http://tinyurl.com/n7d26ok)(HT, 3/97, p.43)(SSFC, 8/29/04, p.M5)

1851        Sep 18, The first edition of The New York Times was published as the New-York Daily Times. It was founded by Henry J. Raymond, Republican Speaker of the NY State Assembly, and banker George Jones as a conservative counterpoint to Horace Greeley's Tribune.
    (AP, 9/18/97)(SFEM, 1/16/00, p.17)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_York_Times)

1851        Oct 2, Ferdinand Foch, French Allied commander in WW I, was born.
    (MC, 10/2/01)

1851        Oct 4, In San Francisco the third Jenny Lind Theater, run by Tom McGuire, opened on Portsmouth Square on the same site as the two preceding it, which were destroyed by the fires of 1851. In 1852 a scandal erupted as the city of San Francisco purchased the theater for $200,000 for use as the city hall. In 1949 the site was named state landmark No. 192.
    (SFC, 5/24/14, p.C1)(www.noehill.com/sf/landmarks/cal0192.asp)(SFC, 7/24/21, p.B5)

1851        Oct 19, Marie-Therese-Charlotte (b.1778), daughter of Louis XVI and Marie-Antoinette died in Austria of pneumonia.

1851      Nov 2, Louis Napoleon staged a coup and took power in France as Napoleon III of the Second Empire.
    (WSJ, 2/10/98, p.A16)(DoW, 1999, p182)

1851        Nov 6, Charles Henry Dow, American financial journalist, was born. He (with Edward D. Jones) inaugurated the 'Dow-Jones' averages.
    (HN, 11/6/99)

1851            Nov 11, Alvan Clark of Cambridge, Massachusetts, patented a telescope. Clark, a portrait painter interested in astronomy, had made several small lenses and mirrors as a hobby. The fact that he could detect the small residual errors in one of the best lenses Europe could offer convinced him that he could make them as well. After he gained a reputation in Europe the American orders started to come in. The Alvin Clark Company became one of the foremost producers of some of the largest lenses for telescopes in the 1800's.

1851        Nov 13, The London-to-Paris telegraph opened.
    (HN, 11/13/98)

1851        Nov 14, Herman Melville’s novel "Moby Dick" was published in the US. The 1st publication was in London on October 18.
    (AP, 11/14/97)(www.mobylives.com/Happy_Birthday_Moby.html)

1851        Nov 16, In France officials drew the winning numbers for the Lottery of the Golden Ingots. Some 7 million tickets had been sold for one franc each to finance the shipment of hand-picked French emigrants to California. From October 1851 to January 1853 a lottery ship sailed every month from Le Havre. 3,293 passengers of 4,016 arrived in San Francisco. The rest disembarked en route.
    (SFC, 9/5/15, p.C2)

1851        Dec 4, Pres. Louis Napoleon Bonaparte forces crushed a coup d'etat in France.
    (MC, 12/4/01)

1851        Dec 10, Melvil Dewey, creator of the Dewey Decimal System, was born.
    (HN, 12/10/98)
1851        Dec 10, Karl von Drais (b.1785), noble German forest official and inventor, died in Karlsruhe. He invented the Laufmaschine ("running machine"), later called the velocipede, draisine (English) or draisienne (French), also nicknamed the hobby horse or dandy horse. It incorporated the two-wheeler principle that is basic to the bicycle and motorcycle and was the beginning of mechanized personal transport. Drais also invented the earliest typewriter with a keyboard (1821).

1851        Dec 19, Joseph Mallord William Turner (b.1775), English painter and printmaker, died. In 2016 Franny Moyle authored “The Extraordinary Life and Momentous Times of J.M.W. Turner.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/J._M._W._Turner)(SFC, 6/20/15, p.E3)

1851        Dec 24, Fire devastated the Library of Congress in Washington, D.C., destroying about 35,000 volumes.
    (AP, 12/24/97)

1851        Dec 29, The first American Young Men’s Christian Assn. was organized, in Boston.
    (AP, 12/29/97)

1851        Dec 30, Asa Griggs Candler, developer of Coca-Cola, was born.
    (MC, 12/30/01)

1851        Thomas Wilmer Dewing (d.1938), American artist, was born.
    (SFC, 4/11/01, p.E1)

1851        Cabanel created his painting "The Death of Moses."
    (WSJ, 9/9/03, p.D6)

1851        Matthew Coates Wyatt created his dog sculpture of the Earl of Dudley’s Newfoundland Bashaw. It was a star exhibit at the British Great Exhibition.
    (WSJ, 12/6/01, p.A19)

1851        Emanuel Gottlieb Leutze (b.1816) painted "Washington Crossing the Delaware." It was later acquired by the NY Metropolitan Museum of Art.
    (SFC, 9/30/97, p.A7)(WSJ, 4/9/99, p.W16)

1851        John Everett Millais began to paint his work "Ophelia," completed in 1852.
    (WSJ, 2/19/97, p.A15)
1851        John Everett Millais (1829-1896) English painter and member of the a Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, created his work "Mariana."
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Everett_Millais)(SFC, 6/30/18, p.E1)

1851        Eugene Scribe, French playwright, wrote "When Ladies Battle" (Bataille de Dames) with Ernest Legouve. Scribe is known for writing the "well made play." The setting is Lyon, France in Oct. 1817.
    (WSJ, 1/2/96, p. A-7)

1851        A lighthouse was built at Point Loma near San Diego, Ca.
    (AAM, 3/96, p.46)
1851        Mormon pioneers founded San Bernadino in southern California.
    (SFC, 4/9/96, A-7)
1851        California Governor Peter Burnett said that unless the Indians were sent east of the Sierras, "a war of extermination would continue to be waged until the Indian race should become extinct."
    (HN, 4/29/00)(WW, 6/99)
1851        Fewer than 100,000 Indians remained in California.
    (SFEC, 9/20/98, Z1 p.4)

1851        Books Inc. first opened as an independent bookseller in San Francisco.
    (Hem., Nov.’95, p.134)
1851        In San Francisco the St. Francis Church was rebuilt in adobe and blessed by Joseph S. Alemany, the new Bishop of Monterey. St. Francis served as his cathedral until Old St. Mary's was built in 1854.
    (SFC, 10/4/99, p.A21)
1851        In San Francisco the congregation of the First Presbyterian Church moved into its first building in Chinatown, which burned down after 6 months.
    (SFC, 5/20/99, p.A19)
1851        Jacob Gundlach arrived in SF and soon established a brewery. In 1858 he bought a winery in Sonoma.
    (SFC, 12/19/02, p.D4)
1851        The Hitchcock family transferred to SF and were welcomed into the Chivalry, a polite fraternity of transplanted Southerners.
    (SFEM, 4/2/00, p.46)
1851        San Francisco 's first street lights were erected on Kearny St.
    (SFC, 6/13/20, p.B4)
1851        The first SF omnibus line began operating between Portsmouth square and Mission Dolores.
    (SFC, 10/6/99, p.A4)
1851        Henry Casebolt (1816-1892) of Virginia came to California and established himself as a builder and inventor in San Francisco.
1851        Harry Meiggs, founder of fisherman’s Wharf in SF, sailed to Mendocino with a full sawmill and made Mendocino the primary source for the Bay Area’s lumber. Meiggs had learned of the redwood and fir forests in the area following efforts to retrieve cargo from the 1850 shipwreck of the Frolic. A town built around the sawmill was first called Meiggsville before becoming Mendocino City.
    (SSFC, 6/3/01, Par p.20)(SFC, 8/8/20, p.B4)
1851        Kalman Haas arrived in San Francisco and soon began operating a grocery wholesale business. The company later switched to liquor wholesales.
    (SSFC, 4/3/06, p.G5)(SFC, 3/19/17, p.C2)
1851        In San Francisco six prominent businessmen obtained a franchise for a water project to deliver water from Mountain Lake through a tunnel to the Presidio and then to downtown SF. The Mountain Lake Water Co. raised $300,000 and in 1853 broke ground on the tunnel. The project went bust after they failed to get an additional $500,000 to complete the project.
    (SFC, 10/11/10, p.A9)
1851        In San Francisco 6 men sailed to the Farallon Islands and declared themselves owners by right of possession. They began gathering eggs and selling them to the city.
    (SFC, 5/25/13, p.C3)
1851        About 775 abandoned ships sat in the SF Bay. Some began to be used as offices and public buildings. The ship Euphemia became the city’s 1st jail and insane asylum. An enterprising barkeep cut a hole in the beached sailing vessel Arkansas and began selling what he called “Gud, Bad and Ind’ifferent Spirits" at 25 cents each. The Old Ship Saloon at Pacific Avenue and Battery Street was built in 1907 and remodeled in 1999.
    (Ind, 9/2/00,5A)(SSFC, 11/15/09, p.A2)
1851        Francisco Guerrero, Mexican official in Alta California, was struck in the back of the head by a slingshot and died. His murder was believed to have kept him from testifying in a murder trial.
    (SFEC, 9/21/97, p.C7)
1851        In northern California gold was found in Plumas County and the mining town of Seneca was born. It later became pretty much a ghost town with a bar called the Gin Mill, which was sold to a pair of hunters in the 1970s. In 2013 the Gin Mill and surrounding 10 acres were put up for sale for $225,000.
    (SSFC, 12/8/13, p.C12)
1851        In the SF Bay Area a nearly weeklong bull and bear fiesta at Mission Santa Clara featured 12 bulls, two grizzly bears and a considerable number of Indians of whom four were killed on the 2nd day.
    (SFC, 3/4/17, p.C4)

1851        The New-York Times was founded by Henry J. Raymond, Republican Speaker of the NY State Assembly, and banker George Jones as a conservative counterpoint to Horace Greeley's Tribune.
    (SFEM, 1/16/00, p.17)

1851        La Vielle Russie was opened in Manhattan by the family of Peter Schaffer and featured Russian antiquities.
    (SFEM, 6/9/96, p.20)

1851        John Kiehl opened an apothecary at Third Ave. and 13th Street in Manhattan to sell potions, lotions and remedies such as to cure baldness and enhance virility. He also sold a get-rich essence called Money Drawing Oil. In 1999 the firm did some $40 million in business with just freebies and word of mouth advertising.
    (F, 10/7/96, p.76)(WSJ, 12/29/99, p.B1)

1851        President Fillmore sent the USS Michigan, the Navy’s first iron-hulled warship, to Beaver Island to arrest James Strang. Strang was put on trial in Detroit and was declared innocent of all charges. Strang then effectively detached his kingdom from the US but maintained voting rights.
    (Smith., Aug. 1995, p.88)

1851        In Minnesota Chief Shakopee and the Dakota Indians were pressured into selling 24 million acres for pennies an acre. Food and money from the federal government was to be distributed to the Indians as part of the treaty.
    (WSJ, 2/5/98, p.A1,6)

1851        Amory Houghton, a Boston entrepreneur, bought an interest in a predecessor of Union Glass in Somerville. The operation became Corning Inc. and by 2000 transformed itself into a major player in the fiber optic business.
    (SFC, 6/19/00, p.G7)

1851        A Mormon trading post in Carson Valley, later called Genoa, became the 1st permanent white settlement of Nevada.
    (SFEC, 7/9/00, DB p.67)(SSFC, 6/22/14, p.N22)

1851        Andrew Jackson Pope and Frederic Talbot of Maine built their 1st sawmill on Puget Sound, Wa. Pope & Talbot were soon shipping lumber around the world.
    (Ind, 6/7/03, p.5A)

1851        The US state of Virginia switched to a voter-elected chief executive.
    (Econ, 8/10/13, p.26)

1851        Western Union was founded as the New York and Mississippi Valley Printing Telegraph Co.
    (SFC, 2/2/06, p.A13)

1851        Simon Lazarus, a rabbinical scholar from Germany, opened a dry-goods store in Columbus, Ohio. The operation grew to become F&R Lazarus, after the names of his sons, who in 1929 created the Federated Dept. Store chain. The downtown Columbus store closed in 2004.
    (WSJ, 5/19/07, p.A6)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Simon_Lazarus)

1851        Dr. John Gorrie (1803-1855) patented an ice-making machine to cool hospital rooms.

1851        Photography had a major breakthrough with the development of a new emulsion called collodion, which caused photosensitive salts to adhere to a sheet of glass.
    (Smith., 5/95, p.75)

1851        The Beckwourth Trail, discovered by James P. Beckwourth (1798-1866), an African American explorer, opened to pioneers. It is the lowest pass (5,221 ft) over the Sierras. Beckwourth was a freed slave and mountain man.
    (SSFC, 4/29/01, p.T9)

1851        Rawlinson unlocked the Persian cuneiform script. The key to unlocking these scripts was found in the names of great rulers.
    (RFH-MDHP, p.193)

1851        Australia’s first gold rush began.
    (SFEC, 9/10/00, p.T9)

1851        Francisco Guerrero, Mexican official in Alta California, was struck in the back of the head by a slingshot and died. His murder was believed to have kept him from testifying in a murder trial.
    (SFEC, 9/21/97, p.C7)

1851        By this year more than half the population of Great Britain was living in towns, and country-house owners found it increasingly hard to dominate politics or protect their own positions.
    (NG, Nov. 1985, p.689)
1851        Big Ben, the tower clock of the House of Parliament in London, was designed by Edmund Beckett Denison. He was assisted by clockmaker Edward John Dent and Sir George Airy, the royal astronomer. Originally the name "Big Ben" referred only to the clock’s huge bell.
    (SFC, 9/30/98, Z1 p.3)
1851        Victor Hugo sought refuge on the Channel island of Guernsey where he wrote "Les Miserables" and other works.
    (WSJ, 2/10/98, p.A16)
1851        Paul Julius Reuter (1816-1899), a German-born immigrant, began transmitting stock-market quotes between London and Paris over the new Dover-Calais submarine telegraph cable.

1851        German traveler Heinrich Barth discovered the Royal Chronicle or Girgam, which described the history Kanem-Bornu Empire. It existed in Chad and Nigeria from the 9th century AD onward and lasted as the independent kingdom of Bornu until 1900.

1851        The Chateau Pichon-Longueville was built in the Bordeaux region of France.
    (USAT, 5/9/03, p.2D)

1851        Mt. Pelee volcano on the French Island of Martinique erupted. It left the city of St. Pierre unscathed.
    (NH, 10/02, p.76)

1851        Rama IV (d.1868) began his rule over Siam and played off European powers against each other.
    (Econ, 1/10/04, p.76)

1851-1920    Mrs. Humphrey Ward, an erudite anti-suffragist, wrote novels on major issues of her day.
    (WSJ, 11/15/96, p.A14)

1851-1962    In California the Benicia Arsenal was active. It was the 1st ordnance supply depot in the West.
    (SFEC, 8/29/99, p.A14)

1851-1873    The US minted a 3-cent piece called a trine.
    (SFC, 4/8/00, p.B4)

1852        Jan 3, The 1st Chinese arrive in Hawaii.
    (MC, 1/3/02)

1852        Jan 5, Serranus Clinton Hastings (1814-1893) began serving as California’s third Attorney General and continued to Jan 2, 1854.

1852        Jan 6, Louis Braille (43) died of tuberculosis in France. He had been blinded by an accident during childhood and spent years developing a system to read by touch. In 1997 Russell Freedman wrote "Out of Darkness: The Story of Louis Braille."
    (http://www.brailler.com/braillehx.htm)(SFEC, 7/6/97, BR p.10)(ON, 10/04, p.9)

1852        Jan 17, At the Sand River Convention, the British recognized the independence of the Transvaal Board.
    (HN, 1/17/99)

1852        Feb 2, Alexandre Dumas Jr.’s "Le Dame aux Camelias," premiered in Paris.
    (MC, 2/2/02)

1852        Feb 11, The 1st British public female toilet opened at Bedford Street in London.
    (MC, 2/11/02)

1852        Feb 16, Charles Taze Russell (d.1916) was born. He founded the International Bible Students Association. In the 1870’s Russell abandoned the Adventist movement and formed his own, which was later named Jehovah’s Witnesses.
    (HN, 2/16/02)

1852        Feb 17, The Imperial Museum, the 5th and last building of what became known as the New Hermitage, opened to the public (Feb 2 OS) in St. Petersburg, Russia. It was commissioned by Nicholas I and designed by Leo van Klenze of Germany.
    (www.photofora.com/eugene/centralsquares/newhermitage.htm)(MT, Winter/03, p.13)

1852        Feb 21, Nikolai Gogol, Russian playwright (Dead Souls), died. [see Mar 4]
    (MC, 2/21/02)

1852        Feb 26, Dr. John Harvey Kellogg (d.1943) was born. He was 24 years old when he became staff physician at the Battle Creek Sanitarium--a position he held for 62 years. Dr. Kellogg, a respected abdominal surgeon, ran "the San" as a health institute where the wealthy could rejuvenate themselves with Kellogg's offbeat cures. Illness was caused, Kellogg believed, by poor eating habits that left poisons in the intestinal tract. Among Kellogg's solutions to the dietary dilemma were "fletcherizing," or chewing food hundreds of times before swallowing, and a vegetarian diet high in bran. It was the bowels, however, that received Kellogg's undivided attention. Patients at the San were subjected to regimens of "cleansing enemas" that cured "ulcers, diabetes, schizophrenia, acne...and premature old age." In 1895, Kellogg's search for the perfect food led to the development of breakfast food flakes made of wheat called Granose. Will Keith Kellogg, John's brother, improved on the Granose idea and founded the W.K. Kellogg Company. http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Oracle/9840/kellogg.html
    (HNPD, 2/26/99)
1852        Feb 26, The British frigate Birkenhead sank off South Africa and 458 died.
    (SC, 2/26/02)

1852        Feb 28, The French ship arrived in San Francisco from Le Havre with some 200 lottery emigrants. They included criminals, political prisoners, honest workers, common thugs and others considered undesirable. France had organized a national lottery for a gold bar and used the proceeds to ship people to California.
    (SF, 8/29/15, p.C1)

1852        Mar 4, Lady (Isabella Augusta) Gregory, Irish playwright, was born. She helped found the Abbey Theatre.
    (HN, 3/4/01)
1852        Mar 4, Nikolai Gogol, Russian writer (43), died. [see Feb 21]
    (SC, 3/4/02)

1852        Mar 13, A familiar symbol of the United States, Uncle Sam, made his debut as a cartoon character in the New York Lantern.
    (AP, 3/13/97)

1852        Mar 18, Henry C. Wells founded Wells, Fargo & Co. with William C. Fargo in San Francisco as a Western equivalent to their east coast American Express. It evolved into Wells Fargo Bank, headquartered in San Francisco and now one of the largest financial institutions in the U.S. In 2002 Philip L. Fradkin authored "Stagecoach: Wells Fargo and the American West" for the company’s 150th anniversary. [see Mar 18, 1850]
    (SFEC, 1/4/98, Z1p.4)(SFC, 6/9/98, p.A10)(HNQ, 11/20/98)(SFC, 2/6/02, p.D1)    (SFC, 3/19/02, p.B1,4)

1852        Mar 20, Harriet Beecher Stowe's (1811-1896) "Uncle Tom's Cabin" was first published in book form after being serialized. It was based on the theme that slavery is incompatible with Christianity. In 2011 David S. Reynolds authored “Mightier Than the Sword: Uncle Tom’s Cabin and the Battle for America."
    (SFC, 3/30/97, Z1. p.6)(AP, 3/20/08)(SSFC, 7/3/11, p.G4)

1852        Mar 29, Ohio made it illegal for children under 18 and women to work more than 10 hours a day.
    (MC, 3/29/02)

1852        Mar, Hubert Bancroft (1832-1918) was sent to San Francisco from New York to established a regional office of his family’s book selling business. In 1868 he abandoned business to devote himself entirely to writing and publishing history.
    (SFC, 5/27/14, p.E1)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hubert_Howe_Bancroft)

1852        Apr 1, Edward Austin Abbey, US, painter (Quest of the Holy Grail), was born.
    (MC, 4/1/02)

1852        Apr 12, Carl Louis Ferdinand von Lindemann (d.1939), German mathematician, was born.

1852        Apr 13, Frank W. Woolworth (d.1919), founder of the retail chain of 5&10 cent stores, was born on a farm near Watertown New York.
    (SFC,10/20/97, p.B2)(HN, 4/13/98)

1852        Apr 23, Edwin Markham, US poet and 1st winner of Amer Acad of Poets Award in 1937, ("Man with a Hoe"), was born.
    (MC, 4/23/02)

1852        Apr 29, The first edition of Peter Mark Roget’s Thesaurus was published. Roget (1779-1869) was a London physician of French-Swiss ancestry who began to collect and organize English words to improve his public speaking.
    (HN, 4/29/98)(WSJ, 9/3/98, p.B1)

1852        Apr 30, Anton Rubinstein’s opera "Dmitri Donskoi," premiered in St Petersburg.
    (MC, 4/30/02)

1852        May 1, Calamity [Martha] Jane [Burke], frontier adventurer, Indian fighter, was born.
    (MC, 5/1/02)

1852        May 8, A war between Denmark and Prussia lasted three years (1848–50) and ended only when the Great Powers pressured Prussia into accepting the London Protocol of 1852. This was the revision of an earlier protocol, which had been ratified on August 2, 1850, by the major Germanic powers of Austria and Prussia. The 1852 London Protocol confirmed that the duchies of Schleswig-Holstein should remain undivided.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/London_Protocol)(Econ, 6/23/12, p.20)

1852        May 18, Massachusetts ruled that all school-age children must attend school.
    (SC, 5/18/02)

1852        May 25, Louis Franchet d'Espèrey [Desperate Frankey], French marshal (WWI), was born.
    (SC, 5/25/02)

1852        May 29, Jindrich z Albestu Kaan, composer, was born.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1852        May 30, George Chinnery (b.1774), painter of Asian scenes, died in Macau. The English painter spent most of his life in Asia, especially India and southern China.
    (Econ, 6/18/11, p.91)

1852        Jun 9, Georg Heinrich von Langsdorff, German-Russian naturalist, physician and explorer, died of typhus in Germany. He first participated as naturalist and physician in the great Russian scientific circumnavigation expedition commanded by Ivan Fedorovich Kruzenshtern, from 1803 to 1805. He returned from San Francisco by ship to Siberia and thence to Saint Petersburg by land, arriving in 1808.
    (Econ, 7/20/13, p.74)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grigory_Langsdorff)

1852        Jun 18, In San Francisco Domingo Ghirardelli, an Italian candy-maker from Peru, announced the opening of his chocolate business at Washington and Kearny streets. [see 1855]
    (SFC, 10/8/97, Z1 p.6)(SFC, 4/26/02, p.G8)(SSFC, 10/14/18, p.M6)

1852        Jun 21, Friedrich Frobel (b.1782), founder of the Play and Activity Institute (1837) in Germany, died. In 1840 he created the word kindergarten to describe the institute.

1852        Jun 25, Antoni Gaudi (d.1926), Spanish modernist architect (Sagrada Familia, Barcelona), was born.
    (MC, 6/25/02)(SFEM, 10/8/00, p.61)

1852        Jun 26, Tzu Hsi (17), aka Orchid or Lady Yehonala, married Ch'ing Emperor Hsien Feng. She had competed to become one of his 7 official wives or 3,000 concubines.
    (SSFC, 2/1/04, p.M6)

1852        Jun 29, Statesman Henry Clay (75) of Kentucky died. He was a master politician in the era preceding the Civil War. Born in 1777, Clay was a lawyer by trade. He began his lengthy political career in the Kentucky legislature and made three unsuccessful bids as the Whig Party's presidential candidate. By the time of his death, Clay had served his country as secretary of state under John Quincy Adams, U.S. Senator and Speaker of the House of Representatives. Clay was the chief architect of the Compromise of 1850, a contribution that earned him the nickname "The Great Compromiser."
    (HNPD, 6/29/99)(MC, 6/29/02)

1852        Jun, In San Francisco one of the weekly bull and bear fights held this month near the crumbling old Mission Dolores was described in detail in a journal by Theophile de Rutte.
    (SFC, 3/4/17, p.C4)

1852        Jul 5, In Rochester, New York, Frederick Douglass gave the speech “What to the Slave is the Fourth of July," in which he called the celebration of liberty a sham in a nation that enslaves and oppresses its Black citizens. In 2006 James A. Colaiaco authored "Frederick Douglass and the Fourth of July".
    (WSJ, 7/1/06, p.P6)(AP, 7/6/20)
1852        Jul 5, Johann Baptist Weigl (69), composer, died.

1852        Jul 12, Dr. John Hudson Wayman camped at the City of Rocks in Idaho and called it “one of the finest places of its kind in the world." US Congress named the area a national reserve in 1988.
    (SFC, 7/6/06, p.E2)

1852        Jul 27, George Foster Peabody, philanthropist and namesake of the Peabody awards for excellence in broadcasting, was born.
    (HN, 7/27/98)

1852        Jul, San Quentin State Prison opened in Marin County, California.
1852        Jul, In California a group of squatters led by a Major Harvey illegally encroached on Indian reservation lands on the Kings River. A number of “old squaws" were killed.
    (SFC, 5/23/15, p.C2)

1852        Aug 2, State Sen. James W. Denver, from Klamath and Trinity counties, challenged Edward Gilbert, editor of the SF Alta California newspaper, to a duel due to an inflammatory editorial. The pair met at Fair Oaks, near Sacramento, and when Gilbert forced a 2nd round of shots, Denver put a fatal shot through his chest. Denver’s 2nd shot hit Gilbert above the left hip. C.A. Washburn succeeded Gilbert at the Alta.
    (PI, 6/13/98, p.5A)(PI, 8/8/98, p.5)(SFC, 7/19/14, p.C2)

1852        Aug 3, In the 1st intercollegiate rowing race, Harvard beats Yale by 4 lengths.
    (SC, 8/3/02)

1852        Aug 16, In northern California trader James Savage entered the Kings River Indian reservation and encountered Major Harvey, who had led an attack there on local Indians. A fight ensued and Harvey shot and killed Savage.
    (SFC, 5/23/15, p.C2)

1852        Sep 14, Augustus Pugin (b.1812), English Gothic architect and designer, died. In 2007 Rosemary Hill authored “God’s Architect: Pugin and the Building of Romantic Britain.
    (Econ, 8/11/07, p.74)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Augustus_Pugin)

1852        Aug 20, The steamer "Atlantic" collided on Lake Erie with the fishing boat Ogdensburg, and sank. An estimated 150-250 people were drowned.
    (MC, 8/20/02)(Internet)

1852        Sep 3, Anti Jewish riots broke out in Stockholm.
    (MC, 9/3/01)

1852        Sep 14, Arthur Wellesley (b.1769), General and Duke of Wellington, died at 83.
1852        Sep 14, Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin (b.1812), English artist and architect, died.

1852        Sep 23, William Stewart Halsted, was born. He established the 1st US surgical school.
    (MC, 9/23/01)

1852        Sep 24, Henri Giffard, a French engineer, flew over Paris in the 1st dirigible flight.

1852        Sep 27, "Uncle Tom's Cabin," premiered in Troy, NY.
    (MC, 9/27/01)

1852        Sep 30, Charles Villiers Stanford, Irish organist and composer, was born.
    (MC, 9/30/01)

1852        Oct 24, Daniel Webster (70), lawyer, speaker and senator from Massachusetts, died. In 1997 Robert V. Remini wrote his biography: "Daniel Webster."
    (WSJ, 9/30/97, p.A20)(MC, 10/24/01)

1852        Nov 2, Franklin Pierce was elected US president over Gen’l. Winfield Scott, who ran as a Whig. In 1852, the U.S. Congress passed a resolution giving Scott the pay and rank of a lieutenant general. Scott, not Ulysses S. Grant, was the first to hold this rank since George Washington. William R. King was elected vice-president.
    (SFC, 10/22/96, p.E8)(http://tinyurl.com/8ku7j)

1852        Nov 10, Dr. Gideon Mantell (b.1790), obstetrician and English fossil hunter, died from an overdose of opium.
    (ON, 7/06, p.4)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gideon_Mantell)

1852        Nov 21, Duke Univ., founded in 1838 as Union Institute in NC, was chartered as Normal College.
    (MC, 11/21/01)

1852        Nov 27, Ada Lovelace (b.1815), Lord Byron’s daughter and the inventor of computer language, was bled to death by physicians at age 36. She had helped Charles Babbage develop his "Analytical Engine," that performed mathematical calculations through the use of punched cards. Her last years were spent in a netherworld of addiction, gambling and adultery and she died of cancer. In 2001 Benjamin Wooley authored her biography: "The Bride of Science."
    (SFC, 1/22/98, p.D7)(SFC, 4/30/98, p.E1)(WSJ, 1/19/00, p.W9)

1852        Nov, In San Francisco John Quinn was ordained at St. Francis Church.
    (SSFC, 3/25/12, DB p.41)

1852        Dec 2, Louis Napoleon, the little nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte, established the Second Empire in France (1852-1870) and called himself Napoleon III. He married the Spanish beauty Eugenie and ran a semi-liberal autocracy for 18 years.
    (WUD, 1994, p.950)(WSJ, 3/14/95, p.A16)(MC, 12/2/01)

1852        Dec 24, The race between the B&O railroad and the C&O Canal to reach the Ohio River, that began in 1828, ended with the railroad victorious.
    (SFEC, 4/25/99, p.T6)

1852        Dec 29, Emma Snodgrass was arrested in Boston for wearing pants.
    (MC, 12/29/01)

1852        Dec 30, Future U.S. president Rutherford B. Hayes married Lucy Ware Webb in Cincinnati.
    (AP, 12/30/02)

1852        Dec 31, The richest year of the gold rush ended, with $81.3 million in gold produced.
    (HN, 12/31/98)

1852        Eugene Delacroix painted "Desdemona Cursed by Her Father."
    (WSJ, 9/24/98, p.A16)

1852        German naturalist Alexander von Humboldt and French botanist Aime Bonpland published the first three volumes of “Travels to the Equinoctial Regions of America, During the Years 1799-1804." It eventually ran to 34 volumes.
    (http://tinyurl.com/gmttuy6)(Econ, 11/7/15, p.78)

1852        A lighthouse was built on Alcatraz island in the San Francisco Bay.
    (SFC, 2/22/07, p.A13)

1852        Seattle, USA, began as a sawmill.
    (WSJ, 9/19/95, p.A-1)

1852        The Mission of the Holy Rosary in the town of Truchas was built. It is the youngest and simplest of the 6 adobe missions scattered along the western shoulder of the Sangre de Cristo mountains between Taos and Santa Fe, New Mexico.
    (SFC, 5/12/96, p.T-5)

1852        Frank Leslie's Weekly, later often known in short as Leslie's Weekly, was founded. The American illustrated literary and news magazine continued publication to 1922.

1852        John Neumann, Catholic missionary, became the bishop of Philadelphia. he was later made a saint.
    (SFEC, 9/14/97, p.A18)

1852        The Mormons conceded for the first time that they practiced polygamy, or "plural marriage."
    (SFC, 4/9/96, A-7)

1852        The Hopi people of northern Arizona arranged for a diplomatic packet to reach Pres. Fillmore via a delegation of 5 prominent men from the Tewas of Tesuque Pueblo in New Mexico, who sought legal protection from Anglo and Hispanic settlers.
    (NH, 11/1/04, p.26)

1852        The US Senate rejected treaties with 18 California tribes that included some of the Yosemite band.
    (SFEC, 5/18/97, Z1 p.4)
1852        The US Navy bought Mare Island in SF Bay from its owner for $83,491 and established a repair facility there.
    (SFEC, 2/9/97, p.W4)(SFC, 1/3/15, p.C2)

1852        The Young Ladies’ Seminary was founded in Benicia, Ca. In 1865 missionaries Cyrus and Susan Mills bought the Seminary for $5,000, renamed it Mills College, and moved it in 1871 to Oakland, Ca. In 2021 Mills College said it will stop enrolling first-year undergraduates after the Fall of 2021 and will confer its final degrees in 2023.
    (www.mills.edu/about/mission_and_history.php)(SFC, 3/18/21, p.A1)
1852        The California legislature convened in Vallejo.
    (SFEC, 3/1/98, p.W26)
1852        The state passed a fugitive slave law that allowed slave masters to reside indefinitely despite the state’s prohibition on slavery.
    (SFC, 7/18/98, p.A15,18)
1852        Frederick F. Fortmann and his wife emigrated to San Francisco from Germany and started the Pacific Brewery at Fourth and Tehama streets.
    (SFC, 1/26/19, p.C4)
1852        Heinrich Schliemann, German businessman, moved from California to Russia and made another fortune selling indigo and potassium nitrate to the Russian army.
    (Nat. Hist., 4/96, p.46)
1852        White Sulphur Springs in St. Helena opened as the 1st spa in California.
    (SSFC, 7/20/03, p.C5)
1852        The Vallecito Stage Station was built on the San Diego-San Antonio line called the "jackass route."
    (SSFC, 11/17/02, p.C1)
1852        The San Francisco Gas Co. was founded by 3 brothers. In 1905 it merged with California electric Light to form PG&E.
    (SFC, 4/7/01, p.A5)
1852        In San Francisco the Daily Alta California reported on “full grown persons engaged very industriously in the game known as town ball."
    (SFC, 9/21/13, p.C1)
1852        In San Francisco half-brothers George and Samuel Shreve opened Shreve & Co., their 1st jewelry near what later became Union Square. It remained a retail store until 1881 when George (d.1893) opened a jewelry-making factory.
    (SSFC, 7/21/02, p.F3)(SFC, 9/19/07, p.G6)
1852        Sam Brannan, San Francisco newspaperman, arrived in Calistoga, Ca. and began plans for a health spa to rival the famed Saratoga Hot Springs in New York State. [see 1848]
    (Article on Calistoga by Sybil McCabe, 7/95)
1852        In San Francisco the Hip Yee Tong association started trafficking women and by 1873 imported some 6,000 women from China making an estimated profit of $200,000.
    (SFC, 1/6/18, p.C2)
1852        Moses Dinkelspiel opened his Dinkelspiel Store in Vallecito, Calaveras County.
    (SFC, 11/17/98, p.B2)
1852        Almaden Vineyards was begun by Etienne Thee, an émigré from France, who settled near Los Gatos, Ca.
    (SFC, 1/24/08, p.C3)
1852        Miners found caves in Amador County, Ca., near Volcano. They were named the Black Chasm caves.
    (SSFC, 4/8/01, p.T5)

1852        Meriden Britannia Co. of Meriden, Connecticut, began operating as a silver plate maker. In 1898 it joined other silver companies to form the Int’l. Silver Co.
    (SFC, 10/22/08, p.G3)

1852        Mr. Formwalt, the first mayor of Atlanta, Georgia, was stabbed to death by a ruffian.
    (WSJ, 4/9/96, p.A-1)

1852        James Strang, king of Big Beaver Island, announced and won election as a state representative in Michigan.
    (Smith., Aug. 1995, p.88)

1852        Smith & Wesson founded its business in Springfield, Mass. Horace Smith, a toolmaker, and Daniel Wesson, a former apprenticed gunsmith, combined their skills to produce a revolutionary handgun.
    (WSJ, 9/12/97, p.A20)(SSFC, 1/28/07, p.F3)

1852        Tennessee Coal, Iron and Railroad Co. was formed as Sewanee Mining Co.
    (WSJ, 5/28/96, R45)

1852        Elisha Graves Otis invented a safety elevator in Yonkers, NY. Otis invented the safety elevator to brake the car to a halt if the supporting cable broke. Otis Steam Elevator Works made its 1st sale in 1854 to P.T. Barnum for display at the New York’s World Fair. In 1889 (the same year Eiffel built his Tower) the elevator met electricity. United Technologies acquired Otis in 1976. In 2001 Jason Goodwin authored "Otis, Giving Rise to the Modern City."
    (HT, 5/97, p.23)(HNQ, 4/21/01)(WSJ, 10/9/01, p.A20)(ON, 5/05, p.12)

1852        The first Holstein cow was shipped to North America on a Dutch ship whose sailors requested milk.
    (SFC, 3/24/00, p.B3)

1852        John Kennedy invented dog tags and tried without success to sell them to the Union Army, but numerous soldiers bought them individually.
    (SFC, 3/8/96, p.E3)

1852        Capt. Charles Melville Scammon, a whaler, discovered the spawning area of the Pacific grey whales in the lagoons of Magdalena Bay off the Baha coast.
    (SFEM, 5/7/00, p.9)

1852        There was heavy flooding on the Red River in North Dakota and Manitoba.
    (SFC, 5/3/97, p.A11)

1852        The Grand Turk Lighthouse was built at the tip of Grand Turk island, at the bottom of the Bahamas chain, as the area thrived from the salt trade.
    (SSFC, 1/7/07, p.G6)

1852        More than 20,000 Chinese immigrants arrived to the US. They were fleeing floods, droughts, famines and revolutions and some 20,000 went to California. A foreign miner's tax was enacted in California and enforced largely against the Chinese. Other states passed similar taxes. The number of Chinese in California reached 25,000, about one-tenth of the non-Indian population.
    (SFC, 7/8/96, p.D2)(SFEC, 2/6/00, Rp.10)(SFEC, 9/20/98, Z1 p.4)

1852        In England the Victoria and Albert Museum was founded by Henry Cole as the South Kensington Museum and later named after Queen Victoria and Prince Albert. It was the first museum to collect and exhibit photography. Charles Thurston Thompson was the first "superintendent of photography."
    (WSJ, 11/4/97, p.A20)(WSJ, 3/24/98, p.A20)
1852        Lady Charlotte Guest took over the helm of Dowlais Iron Co. in Wales after her husband died. [see 1759]
    (SFC, 3/16/04, p.A1)

1852        In Finland the Lutheran Helsinki Cathedral was completed.
    (SSFC, 6/3/12, p.H4)

1852        France established its penal colony at Devil’s Island. It was one of 3 islands called the Iles du Salut (Islands of Salvation). Some 70,000 convicts were sent there until 1946.
    (SSFC, 12/15/02, p.L5)
1852        Maria Vernet Worth, a Parisian shop clerk, became the 1st professional model when her husband found that he sold more dresses when she helped.
    (SFEC, 2/6/00, Z1 p.2)
1852        The first piano accordion appeared in Paris.
    (BAAC, 8/96, p.6)

1852        In Dublin John Henry Newman delivered a series of lectures that were meant to establish the principles of the new Catholic University of which he was the first rector. The collected work was published in 1996 by Yale Univ. Press as "The Idea of a University. "
    (WSJ, 9/16/96, p.A14)

1852        In Iran Mirza Hoseyn 'Ali Nuri (Baha' Ullah, b.1817), founder of the Baha’i Faith, became aware of his mission as a messenger of God while in the notorious Teheran prison known as the Black Pit for involvement in the unsuccessful attempt in 1852 on the life the shah of Persia, Naser od-Din. Released and exiled to Baghdad in 1853, Baha’ Allah revived the Babi faith that had sprung from Shi’ah Islam in the 1840s. He went on to found the Baha’i movement that subsequently spread throughout the world.
    (HNQ, 4/6/99)(HN, 11/12/00)

1852        In Poland Ignacy Lukasiewicz, a druggist, found oil seeping from the ground and in an attempt to make vodka distilled it to produce the first kerosene.
    (SFEC, 8/3/97, Z1 p.2)

1852        James Young (1811-1883), Scottish chemist, took out a US patent for the production of paraffin oil by distillation of coal. Both the US and UK patents were subsequently upheld in both countries in a series of lawsuits and other producers were obliged to pay him royalties.
    (WSJ, 12/6/08, p.A10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Young)

1852-1853    Leo Tolstoy served as a young artillery officer in Chechnya. He wrote his short story "The Raid" in 1853 based on his experiences there.
    (WSJ, 5/10/00, p.A1)

1852-1870    In France Napoleon III, Louis Napoleon Bonaparte, the nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte I, served as emperor.
    (WUD, 1994, p.950)

1852-1892    The Salt Lake Temple on Temple Square in Salt lake City was constructed over this period.
    (THM, 4/27/97, p.N2)

1852-1911    Edwin Austin Abbey, American illustrator and muralist.
    (AHD, 1971, p.2)

1852-1929     James Brander Matthews, American author and educator: "A highbrow is a person educated beyond his intelligence."
    (AP, 4/8/97)

1852-1932     Grace King, American author: "Patience! Patience! Patience is the invention of dullards and sluggards. In a well-regulated world there should be no need of such a thing as patience."
    (AP, 6/1/97)

1852-1933     Henry van Dyke, American clergyman: "Self is the only prison that can ever bind the soul."
    (AP, 11/26/97)

1852-1935    Paul Bourget, French author: "We had better live as we think, otherwise we shall end up by thinking as we have lived."
    (AP, 2/11/00)

1853        Jan 8, 1st US bronze equestrian statue of Andrew Jackson was unveiled in Wash. DC. [see Mar 8]
    (MC, 1/8/02)

1853        Jan 16, Andre Michelin, French industrialist and tire manufacturer (Michelin), was born.
    (MC, 1/16/02)

1853        Jan 19, Giuseppi Verdi's opera "Il Trovatore" premiered in Rome.
    (AP, 1/19/98)
1853        Jan 19, Napoleon III married Eugenie de Montijo.
    (MC, 1/19/02)

1853        Jan 28, Cuban revolutionary Jose Marti was born in Havana.
    (AP, 1/28/98)

1853        Mar 2, The Territory of Washington was organized after separating from Oregon Territory.
    (HN, 3/2/99)(SC, 3/2/02)

1853        Mar 3, A transcontinental railroad survey was authorized by Congress.
    (SC, 3/3/02)
1853        Mar 3, US Assay Office in NYC was authorized.
    (SC, 3/3/02)

1853        Mar 4, Pope Pius IX recovered Catholic hierarchy in Netherlands.
    (SC, 3/4/02)
1853        Mar 4, William Rufus de Vane King (D) was sworn in as 13th US Vice President.
    (SC, 3/4/02)

1853        Mar 5, Arthur W. Foote, organist, composer (Suite for Strings in E), was born in Salem, Mass.
    (MC, 3/5/02)
1853        Mar 5, Howard Pyle, writer and illustrator (The Merry Adventures of Robin Hood), was born.
    (HN, 3/5/01)

1853        Mar 6, Giuseppe Verdi's Opera, "La Traviata," premiered in Venice.
    (AP, 3/6/98)(MC, 3/6/02)

1853        Mar 8, The first bronze statue of Andrew Jackson was unveiled in Washington, D.C. [see Jan 8]
    (HN, 3/8/98)

1853        Mar 30, Vincent Van Gogh (d.1890), Dutch artist, was born in Zundert, Neth. His work included "The Drawbridge and Sunflowers in a Vase," and "Harvest in Prevance," which was done both in oil and as a watercolor. The watercolor sold in 1997 for $14.7 mil. He produced an estimated 900 paintings and 1200 drawings but sold virtually none of them. In 1997 it was reported that more than 100 of his paintings and drawings might be fakes. 300 of his canvasses were painted in the last 15 months of his life.
    (AAP,1964)(WUD,1994, p.606)(SFC, 6/26/97, p.A21)(SFC, 7/5/97, p.A8)(SFEC, 1/4/98, Z1p.8)(HN, 3/30/98)(MC, 3/30/02)

1853        Apr 1, Cincinnati, Ohio, established a fire department made up of paid city employees.
    (AP, 4/1/07)

1853        Apr 7, Dr. John Snow administered chloroform to Queen Victoria at the birth of her 8th child, Prince Leopold.
    (ON, 5/05, p.9)

1853        Apr 11, A steam line burst on SF Bay ferry Jenny Lind as it made its way from Alviso to San Francisco. 31 passengers were killed.
    (SFC, 4/13/13, p.A1)

1853        Apr 14, Harriet Tubman began her Underground Railroad, helping slaves to escape.
    (MC, 4/14/02)

1853        Apr 15, Johann Leopold Fuchs (67), composer, died.
    (MC, 4/15/02)

1853        Apr 16, India's 1st steam locomotive pulled 14 cars and 400 people 34 km. from Bombay to Thane. The government of India, directed by the Britain’s East India Company, had begun construction of a vast rail network this year.
    (NG, 5/95, p.140)(Econ, 12/6/03, p.61)(Econ, 4/22/17, p.69)

1853        Apr 18, The first train in Asia began running (Bombay to Tanna, 36 km).
    (HN, 4/18/98)(MC, 4/18/02)

1853        May 6, The 1st major US rail disaster killed 46 at Norwalk, Connecticut.
    (MC, 5/6/02)

1853        May 11, Baron Nathaniel de Rothschild of England purchased Chateau Mouton in Bordeaux, France, for 1,125,000 gold francs.

1853        May 14, Gail Borden applied for a patent for condensed milk.
    (HN, 5/14/98)

1853        May 21, Lola Montez (1821-1861), Irish-born dancer and former lover of Franz Liszt and mistress of King Ludwig of Bavaria, arrived in San Francisco aboard a steamer from Panama.
    (SFC, 5/31/14, p.D1)

1853        May 26, John Wesley Hardin was born in Bonham, Texas. The 19th-century Western outlaw John Wesley Hardin was named after John Wesley, who began the Methodist movement in 1738.   
    (HNQ, 4/1/00)

1853        Jun 6, The ship Carrier Pigeon, a merchant sailing vessel, struck a reef off of Whale Point (later Pigeon Point) on its way from Boston to SF. The wreck helped prompt the erection of the Pigeon Point lighthouse in San Mateo Ct.
    (SFEC, 5/25/97, p.T3)(SFEC,11/16/97, p.B8)(Ind, 8/10/02, 5A)

1853        Jun 29, Napoleon III met with Georges-Eugene Haussmann to outline plans for the “strategic beautification" of Paris and assigned him to modernize the city. For the next 17 years Haussman, as prefect of the Seine, transformed Paris. He is responsible for the tree lined grand boulevards, the Bois de Boulogne, several railroad stations, the aqueducts, and a tourist friendly sewer system. Haussmann employed one Parisian in five and financed his projects using private capital raised with bonds. The project forced some 200,000 residents from their homes. He used surpluses in his operational budget to cover deficits in his capital budgets. The debts paralyzed the city until the Gaullist era.
    (WSJ, 1/17/1995, p.A-16)(SFEC, 6/28/98, p.T9)(WSJ, 12/9/98, p.A20)(ON, 9/06, p.9)

1853        Jul 4, Moses A. Gunst, millionaire cigar retailer and SF police commissioner, was born in NY and raised in Atlanta.
    (Ind, 3/2/02, 5A)

1853        Jul 5, Cecil John Rhodes (d.1902), politician, diamond merchant, was born in South Africa. He discovered a vast lode of diamonds at Kimberley and founded the De Beers Mining Co. He ran for Cape parliament in 1881 and was prime minister of the Cape Colony from 1890-1896. He founded Rhodesia (later Zimbabwe) for mineral speculation and endowed the Rhodes scholarships upon his death with £3 million.
    (WSJ, 1/11/98, p.R18)(MC, 7/5/02)

1853        Jul 8, An expedition led by Commodore Matthew Perry arrived in Edo Bay, Uraga, Japan, on a mission to seek diplomatic and trade relations with the Japanese. Perry sailed his flagship USS Susquehanna into Edo Bay. He soon forced Japan to open its ports with his big gunboats, the steam-powered “Black Ships."
    (AP, 7/8/97)(SFEC, 1/25/98, Z1 p.2)(ON, 11/04, p.9)

1853        Jul 14, Pres. Franklin Pierce opened the 1st industrial exposition in NY. Some 4,000 exhibitors gathered for a trade show at the New York Crystal Palace (later Bryant Park).
    (WSJ, 9/14/00, p.A24)(MC, 7/14/02)
1853        Jul 14, Commodore Matthew Perry met with Prince Toda and Prince Ido at ceremony at Kurihama, Japan, and presented a letter from former Pres. Fillmore to Emperor Osahito requesting trade relations. Fillmore's term of office had already expired by the time the letter was delivered.
    (ON, 11/04, p.12)(AP, 7/14/07)

1853        Jul 25, David Belasco, actor, playwright and producer, was born.
    (HN, 7/25/02)
1853        Jul 25, Joaquin Murrieta (b.1829), aka the Mexican Robin Hood or the Robin Hood of El Dorado, was shot and killed by California Rangers near Coalinga. A plaque (California Historical Landmark #344) near Coalinga at the intersection of State Routes 33 and 198 later marked the approximate site of the incident. His head was reportedly paraded around mining camps.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joaquin_Murrieta)(SFC, 3/3/14, p.D2)

1853        Jul 29, Pope Pius IX established the archdiocese of San Francisco, Ca.
    (SSFC, 7/27/03, p.A22)

1853        Aug 21, Henry Wellcome (d.1936) was born in Wisconsin. In 1880 Henry went to London to join Silas Burroughs and set up a successful pharmaceutical firm called Burroughs, Wellcome & Co.

1853        Aug 24, The 1st potato chips were prepared by Chef George Crum at Saratoga Springs, NY.
    (MC, 8/24/02)

1853        Sep 14, The Allies landed at Eupatoria on the west coast of Crimea.
    (HN, 9/14/98)

1853        Sep 20, The Allies defeated the Russians at the battle of Alma on the Crimean Peninsula.
    (HN, 9/20/98)

1853        Sep 30, Johannes Brahms met Robert and Clara Schumann. In this year Brahms composed his Sonata in C major and his famous Liebestreu. In this year Brahms also meets Joseph Joachim, Konzertmeister of the King of Hanover, while traveling with the Hungarian violinist, Eduard Remenyi.
    (BLW, Geiringer, 1963 ed., p.36 )

1853        Oct 2, Austrian law forbade Jews from owning land.
    (MC, 10/2/01)

1853        Oct 13, Lillie Langtry (d.1929), British actress, was born. "The sentimentalist ages far more quickly than the person who loves his work and enjoys new challenges." She started the California Guenoc and Langtry Estate wineries.
    (AP, 7/27/98)(HN, 10/13/00)(SSFC, 6/9/02, p.C8)

1853        Oct 15, William Walker set out from San Francisco with 45 men to conquer the Mexican territories of Baja California Territory and Sonora State. He succeeded in capturing La Paz, the capital of sparsely populated Baja California, which he declared the capital of a new Republic of Lower California, with himself as president and his former law partner, Henry P. Watkins, as vice president. He then put the region under the laws of the American state of Louisiana, which made slavery legal.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Walker_(filibuster))(SFC, 8/1/15, p.C2)

1853        Oct 19, Juana Maria, the last living native of San Nicholas, the southernmost Channel Island, died in Santa Barbara weeks after she was found living by herself on the island. Her story later inspired Scott O'Dell's book: "Island of the Blue Dolphins" (1960).
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Juana_Maria)(SSFC, 6/17/18, p.F2)

1853        Oct 26, R.H. Kern, American artist, was killed by Indians in Utah.
    (SSFC, 4/10/05, p.F9)   

1853        Oct 29, Pierre Joseph Guillaume Zimmermann (68), composer, died.
    (MC, 10/29/01)

1853        Oct 30, Pietro Raimondi (66), Italian composer (Potifar, Giacobbe), died.
    (MC, 10/30/01)

1853        Oct, Henry Bessemer (1813-1898), English mechanical engineer, invented a new type of artillery shell. He presented it to the War Department for use in the Crimean War, but they were not interested. He then offered it to France’s Napoleon III, who agreed to test the shells. The larger shells demanded a new type of cannon made of stronger metal, which led to his experiments in making iron.
    (ON, 9/06, p.4)

1853        Nov 9, Stanford White, architect, was born. His designs include Madison Square Garden and Washington Arch.
    (HN, 11/9/00)

1853        Nov 24, William Masterson (Bat Masterson), journalist, gambler, frontier lawman, was born in Henryville, Quebec. He died at his desk as a NYC sports reporter. [see Nov 24, 1856]
    (SFC, 8/2/97, p.E3)(MC, 11/24/01)

1853        Nov 28, Olympia was established as capital of the Washington Territory.
    (DTnet, 11/28/97)

1853        Nov 30, The Russian fleet attacked and burned the wooden Turkish ships at the port of Sinop on the Black Sea coast of northern Turkey. The guns of the Russian ships destroyed the port and its defensive installations. Of the 4,400 Turkish seamen, 3,000 were killed.

1853        Dec 22, Maria Teresa Carreno (d.1917), Venezuelan composer and singer, was born in Caracas.

1853        Dec 23, In San Francisco a housewarming was held for Montgomery Block, the largest building on the West Coast, at Montgomery and Washington streets. In 1951 Idwal Jones authored "Ark Of Empire: San Francisco's Montgomery Block." The four linked structures, known as the Monkey block, were torn down in 1959 to make room for a parking lot. This later became the site of the Transamerica Pyramid.
    (SSFC, 5/25/14, p.C2)(SFC, 10/13/18, p.C2)

1853        Dec 30, The United States bought some 45,000 square miles of land from Mexico in a deal known as the Gadsden Purchase. It included parts of Arizona and New Mexico (29,640 sq. miles) south of the Gila River. The purchase was ratified by Congress on April 25, 1854.
    (AWAM, Dec. 94, p.31)(HFA, ‘96, p.28)(AHD, p.537)(AP, 12/30/97)

1853        Jean Ingres painted his portrait: "Princesse Albert de Broglie."
    (WSJ, 5/28/99, p.W12)

1853        Rembrandt Peale painted a portrait of Martha Washington based on a 1795 portrait done by his father, Charles Vincent Peale.
    (SFEC, 7/27/97, DB p.35)

1853        Charles Dickens (1812-1870) authored his novel “Bleak House," which castigated the insufferable delays of the legal process in Britain.
    (WSJ, 2/24/07, p.P10)

1853        Solomon Northrup (b.1807) and Henry W. Derbu authored "Twelve Years a Slave, Narrative of Solomon Northrup, a Citizen of New York, Kidnapped in Washington in 1841, and Rescued in 1853 from a Cotton Plantation Near the Red River in Louisiana." In 2013 Rachel Seligman, David Fiske and Clifford authored “Solomon Northrup: The Complete Story of the Author of Twelve Years a Slave." A film based on the 1853 book won  the Best Picture Oscar in 2014.
    (ON, 11/99, p.7)(SFC, 3/17/14, p.A8)

1853        Elizabeth Schermerhorn James, the aunt of Edith Wharton, built the Wyndclyffe mansion in Rhinebeck, NY.
    (WSJ, 9/29/03, p.A1)

1853        The US government asked its diplomats not to wear court dress frippery. Diplomats in dark tailcoats were then sometimes confused with butlers.
    (Econ, 11/23/13, p.13)

c1853        Senator William Gwin, a leader of pro-slavery interests in California, proposed to divide California to create a pro-slavery southern half. He was opposed by David C. Broderick.
    (SFEC, 3/1/98, p.W26)
1853        William Waldo, a Whig candidate for governor of California, lost the election and moved to Oregon. He was a major property owner in southern Marin Ct. and his name stuck to the steep hill and later the tunnel just north of the GG Bridge.
    (SFC, 1/26/98, p.A11)(SFC, 8/20/14, p.E4)
1853        The California state prison at San Quentin was completed. It was built to house 50 inmates. An associated housing development on the prison grounds was included.
    (SFEC, 3/1/98, p.W26)(SSFCM, 8/19/01, p.11)(SFCM, 4/4/04, p.8)
1853        Levi Strauss, Bavarian-born dry goods merchant, arrived in California. and Co. He got his start peddling tough canvas pants to California gold miners. When his canvas ran out he switched to serge de Nimes, which evolved into denim [see 1873, 1874].
    (SFC, 1/23/96, p.C4)(SFC, 1/9/99, p.D3)(CHA, 1/2001)
1852        A general store opened in the town of Knights Ferry, Ca. Operations continued into 2011 as the oldest running store in state history.
    (KCSM TV, Calif. Gold, 10/10/11)
1853        Silas Coombs, lumberman from Maine, moved to the Mendocino coast of California and lived at what is now the Little River Inn.
    (SFEC, 4/13/97, p.T9)
1853        An 8-mile-long Morse telegraph line connected the SF hill, now known as Telegraph Hill, to the semaphore station at Point Lobos. Telegraph Hill was once known as Tin Can Hill until a semaphore station was set up on the summit to alert the city on ship arrivals.
    (HT, 5/97, p.12)(SFC, 11/27/00, p.A18)(SFC, 11/27/21, p.C4)
1853        Levi Strauss and Co. got its start peddling tough pants to California gold miners. The first pair sold for $13.50 a dozen. Strauss acquired the idea and patent from Jacob Davis, who first produced canvas pants with rivets for miners.
    (SFC, 1/23/96, p.C4)(SFC, 1/9/99, p.D3)(CHA, 1/2001)
1853        The 7 Mile House opened as a stagecoach stop on the edge of Brisbane. In 2017 it was recognized as one of the oldest restaurants in the country.
    (SSFC, 4/30/17, p.A2)
1853        In San Francisco the Chinese Presbyterian Mission Church became the first US church with an Asian congregation.
    (SFC, 4/15/17, p.C1)
1853        San Francisco’s city engineer Milo Hoadley submitted a plan calling for the leveling of Telegraph and other hills. A special three-member board decided his plan would be too expensive, but did order some streets to be graded.
    (SFC, 5/28/16, p.C2)
1853        By this year there were 12 daily newspapers published in SF. The Sun was the favorite.
    (PI, 8/8/98, p.5)
1853        In San Francisco the US Marine Hospital was built on Harrison St. between Main and Beale.
    (SFC, 5/28/16, p.C2)
1853        The US government fortified the 22-acre island of Alcatraz to protect SF from attack.
    (SFEC, 3/8/98, p.W38)
1853        Fr. Flavian Fontaine, a member of the congregation of the Sacred Hearts of Jesus, acquired land in San Francisco and built a brick building for the Catholic College of Mission Dolores. The site at 14th and Walter Streets stood empty as Fontaine, unable to pay his debts, fled to Panama. The site was acquired by Fr. John Nobili for $11,000. A Jesuit school here was opened in 1854 with Fr. Francis Veyret, SJ, as its only teacher, but it closed in September.
    (GenIV, Winter 04/05)
1853        Joseph J. Atkinson, a brick contractor, built a 4-bedroom house at 1032 Broadway. It was designed by William Ranlett and remodeled by Willis Polk in 1893. It survived the 1906 earthquake and fire.
    (SFC, 2/23/99, p.A15)(SFC, 10/1/14, p.C2)
1853        Henry Meiggs completed a wharf between Mason and Powell  to serve the lumber trade. It extended 1,900 feet into the Bay. He fled to South America to avoid his creditors and died in Peru in 1877. His wharf grew to become Fisherman’s Wharf. Early businesses in the area included Abe Warner’s eatery “Cobweb Palace," Cockney White’s museum, Driscoll’s Salt Water Tub Bathing Emporium, and Riley’s Shooting Gallery. The 1998 book “Crab Is King" by Bernard Averbuch covers the story of Fisherman’s Wharf.
    (SFEC, 7/12/98, DB p.30)(SFC, 8/8/20, p.B4)(SFC, 3/6/21, p.B2)
1853        A Morse telegraph was station was erected on the SF hill now known as Telegraph Hill. Telegraph Hill was once known as Tin Can Hill until a semaphore station was set up on the summit to alert the city on ship arrivals.
    (HT, 5/97, p.12)(SFC, 11/27/00, p.A18)
1853        John Parrott (42), SF businessman, married Abigail Eastman Meagher (18) in Mobile, Ala. He brought her back to SF and they set up house in a new brownstone on Folsom St. in the Rincon Hill. In 1859 they acquired property in San Mateo.
    (Ind, 11/24/01, 5A)
1853        Levi Strauss, Bavarian-born dry goods merchant, arrived in California. and Co. He got his start peddling tough canvas pants to California gold miners. When his canvas ran out he switched to serge de Nimes, which evolved into denim [see 1873, 1874].
    (SFC, 1/23/96, p.C4)(SFC, 1/9/99, p.D3)(CHA, 1/2001)
1853        Joshua Norton attempted to corner the SF rice market with the purchase of $250,000 worth of rice but went bust when rice carrying ships sailed into the Bay. He filed for bankruptcy.
    (G&M, 7/30/97, p.A24)
1853        J.G. Knowles established the first dairy in San Mateo County in the middle of what is now Daly City to supply milk to SF.
    (GTP, 1973, p.63)
1853        In SF the Laurel Hill Cemetery was established. Residents were moved to Colma in 1939-1940 and the site was used for housing.
    (SFC, 5/7/08, p.G6)
1853        The SF YMCA was founded and was the basis for the later Golden Gate Univ.
    (SFEC, 3/15/98, p.W21)
1853        The El Dorado saloon on Kearny St. in SF received a piano shipped around Cape Horn. The piano was later sold to the David Fay family of soap makers.
    (SFCM, 8/28/05, p.11)
1853        The population of San Francisco numbered about 36,000.
    (SFC, 10/11/10, p.A9)
1853        In San Francisco Col. Charles Wilson built a 2nd plank road on Folsom St. to Mission Dolores.
    (SFC, 11/28/20, p.B4)
1853        In California the steam freighter Tennessee was wrecked off the Marin headlands in heavy fog. Everyone escaped safely. Tennessee Point and Tennessee Cove were named after the freighter. The event spurred Congress to fund a lighthouse at Point Bonita.
    (WSJ, 9/17/96, p.A12)(G, Winter 96/97, p.3)(SSFC, 11/4/01, p.T5)

1853        The town of Austin, Indiana, was founded. It became an important rail stop between Indianapolis and Louisville.
    (SFC, 4/6/15, p.A7)

1853        Charles Loring Brace founded the Children’s Aid Society. Its goal was to build character.
    (WSJ, 2/120/00, p.A24)

1853        In Boston Sarah Parker Remond was thrown out of a theater for refusing to be seated in an area reserved for blacks. She fell and filed suit and was awarded monetary compensation. The theater was later desegregated.
    (SFEC, 4/5/98, BR p.5)

1853        Heinrich Steinweg founded his piano dynasty in a Manhattan loft on Varick Street three years after arriving to the US from Germany. His story is told in "The Steinway Saga: An American Dynasty" by D.W. Fostle. He later designed a piano with a heavier internal mechanism that needed to be balanced by fatter keys and thus set the standard 48-inch wide keyboard.
    (WSJ, 6/2/95, p.A-9)(WSJ, 11/4/97, p.A1)(Econ, 2/7/15, p.25)

1853        Keebler Foods was founded in Philadelphia. It was acquired by Kellogg in 2001.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Keebler_Company)(AP, 4/1/19)

1853        Elias Howe settled law suits with 7 rivals of Singer Sewing Company. Singer settled with Howe in 1854.
    (ON, 11/00, p.9)

1853        James Strang, king of Big Beaver Island, declared that his female subjects should dress in loose, knee-length smocks worn over modest pantaloons similar to those popularized by Amelia Bloomer, an earlier new York feminist.
    (Smith., Aug. 1995, p.90)

1853        The New Haven Clock Co. was founded. It made inexpensive brass movements until it bought a clock manufacturing company in 1856. In 1946 it changed its name to the New haven Clock and Watch Co., and went out of business in 1959.
    (SFC, 3/19/97, z1 p.3)

1853        The hypodermic needle was invented for morphine injection. It was believed that addiction would be prevented if the digestive system was bypassed.
    (SFEC, 11/10/96, Z1 p.2)

1853        Charles Frederic Gerhardt first synthesized acetylsalicylic acid, but he failed to understand its molecular structure and its potential importance to humanity.

1853        The low pressure steam engine was developed and reduced the low frequency noise of the single-cylinder steam engines on riverboats, which could be heard for miles.
    (SFEC, 1/23/00, Z1 p.2)

1853        John C. Fremont began his 5th expedition west, his 2nd into the Colorado Mountains, and traveled across Kansas, southern Colorado and Utah in search of a railroad route over the Central Rockies. The group reached Mormon settlements in Utah. Fremont brought along photographer Solomon Nunes Carvalho, who took hundreds of daguerreotypes. Many of the images were lost in an 1881 NYC warehouse fire. In 1994 Robert Shlaer set out to recreate the images and in 2000 published "Sights Once Seen: Daguerreotyping Fremont’s Last Expedition Through the Rockies."
    (SFEC, 7/9/00, BR p.12)(ON, 12/06, p.7)

1853        A smallpox epidemic hit Hawaii and 5-6000 people died.
    (SFC, 10/19/01, p.A17)

1853        Yellow Fever broke out New Orleans. Some 9,000 people were killed.
    (Econ, 5/14/16, p.52)

1853        William Beaumont (67), a US Army assistant surgeon and author of "Experiments and Observations on the Gastric Juice and the Physiology of Digestion" (1833), died. [see 1822]
    (ON, 1/02, p.6)

1853        Chief Tenaya of the Yosemite Ahwahneechee was killed by a Paiute chief near Mono Lake.
    (SFEC, 5/18/97, Z1 p.4)

1853        Matthew Arnold wrote his poem "Scholar Gypsy."
    (SFEC, 8/20/00, p.T9)
1853        Victorian England enacted a law criminalizing violence against women and children.
    (Econ, 1/28/17, p.14)
1853        England and Wales made vaccination compulsory for all infants. Parents who failed to comply were liable to a fine or imprisonment. The law was strengthened in the 1870s despite opposition.
    (Econ., 2/13/21, p.20)
1853        Sarah Losh (b.1785), English architect, died. In 2012 Jenny Uglow authored “The Pinecone: The Story of Sarah Losh, Forgotten Romantic Heroine – Antiquarian, Architect and Visionary."
    (www.stmaryswreay.org/sara_losh.html)(Economist, 9/22/12, p.96)
1853        Hormuzd Rassam (1826-1910), Mosul-born Assyrian, and Sir Austen Henry Layard (1817-1894), British archeologist, uncovered ancient Assyrian tablets at Nineveh (Iraq). Layard published his paper on Assyrian-Egyptian Cross-Dating. By using seal-impressions of rulers occurring on the same piece of clay, Layard was able to assign a date to the Assyrian dynasty because the Egyptian ruler’s reign was firmly dated. The 12-tablet collection included the "Gilgamesh Dream Tablet" found in the rubble of the library of Assyrian King Assur Banipal.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hormuzd_Rassam)(RFH-MDHP, 1969, p.59)(ON, 11/07, p.4)(SFC, 12/7/21, p.A4)

1853         The Taiping army of Hong Xiuquan took the city of Nanjing as its heavenly capital in the Taiping Rebellion (1851-1864). He claimed to be Jesus' brother and ruled there until 1864. Imperial troops crushed his movement and tens of millions died. Some 10,000 people were killed at Nanjing.
    (WSJ, 1/5/96, p.A-8)(WSJ, 4/26/99, p.A6)(SFC, 7/23/99, p.A10)

1853        The Croatian lighthouse Sveti Ivan Na Pucini was built on the northern Adriatic Sea.
    (SSFC, 6/20/04, p.D9)

1853        French wines were first ranked at the order of Napoleon. The top grades were selected on the basis of price, not taste.
    (SFEC, 2/1/98, p.T4)

1853        German physicist Heinrich Magnus (1802-1870) first described the phenomenon, which came to be called the Magnus effect, whereby a spinning object flying in a fluid creates a whirlpool of fluid around itself, and experiences a force perpendicular to the line of motion and away from the direction of spin. According to author James Gleick (b.1954) Isaac Newton described it and correctly theorized the cause 180 years earlier, after observing tennis players in his Cambridge college.

1853        Vilmos Zsolnay founded a pottery in Pecs, Hungary, that became renowned for its colored tile. The Zsolnay factory used a 5-tower mark from about 1878, which symbolized the 5 medieval churches in Pecs.
    (SFC, 8/31/05, p.G3)

1853        In Mexico Benito Juarez, patriot and reformer, was locked up for 11 days in the dungeon of the fortress of San Juan de Ulua in Veracruz.
    (SFEC, 5/17/98, p.T12)

1853        The island of New Caledonia was made a French possession. It served as a penal colony for four decades after 1864. Agitation for independence during the 1980s and early 1990s has dissipated.

1853        In the Ottoman Empire the Sultan moved from Topkapi to Dolmabahce Palace in Constantinople.
    (Sky, 4/97, p.58)

1853-1857    Franklin Pierce, 14th President of the US, acquired land from Mexico and supported the nation’s 1st trade agreement with Japan. Jefferson Davis served as his secretary of war.
    (A&IP, ESM, p.96b, photo)(WSJ, 2/11/03, p.A10)
1853-1857    The 1st perforated postage stamps were made under the administration of Pres. Franklin Pierce.
    (WSJ, 2/11/03, p.A10)

1853-1890    Theo Van Gogh, the younger brother of Vincent Van Gogh. Theo's widow, Johanna Van Gogh-Bonger, inherited the paintings of Vincent that had been in Theo's hands.
    (SFC, 1/18/99, p.B2)

1853-1902    John Twachtman, American impressionist painter. He was born in Cincinnati, lived and painted in Munich and Paris, and founded an informal art school in Cos Cob, Conn.
    (WSJ, 4/10/00, p.A44)

1853-1927    Hudson Maxim, brother of Hiram, invented high quality smokeless powders used in cannon projectiles and torpedoes.
1853-1927    Joao Capistrano de Abreu, Brazilian historian. He later wrote "Chapters of Brazil Colonial History, 1500-1800," first published in 1907. The Oxford Library of Latin America published a new edition in 1998.
    (WSJ, 2/3/98, p.A20)

1854        Jan 5, The steamship San Francisco wrecked and 300 died.
    (MC, 1/5/02)

1854        Jan 10,  William Walker proclaimed the independence of lower California, calling it the Republic of Sonora. A serious lack of supplies, discontent within his party and an unexpectedly strong resistance by the Mexican government quickly forced Walker to retreat and return to San Francisco where he was tried but quickly acquitted.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Republic_of_Sonora)(SFC, 8/1/15, p.C2)

1854        Jan 13, Anthony Foss patented an accordion. [see 1850, 1852]
    (MC, 1/13/02)

1854        Jan 18, Thomas A. Watson, inventor and assistant Alexander Bell (Telephone), was born.
    (MC, 1/18/02)

1854        Feb 6, Composer Robert Schumann was saved from a depression-induced suicide attempt of walking into the Rhine.
    (MC, 2/6/02)

1854        Feb 11, Major streets were lit by coal gas for 1st time.
    (MC, 2/11/02)
1854        Feb 11, Commodore Matthew Perry pulled into Edo Bay, Japan, 12 months early with 9 warships to begin talks for a treaty.
    (ON, 11/04, p.12)

1854        Feb 16, Franz Liszt's symphony "Orpheus," premiered.
    (MC, 2/16/02)

1854        Feb 17, Friedrich A. Krupp, German arms manufacturer, was born.
    (MC, 2/17/02)

1854        Feb 23, Great Britain officially recognized the independence of the Orange Free State.
    (HN, 2/23/99)

1854        Feb 27, Composer Robert Schumann was saved from a suicide attempt in Rhine.
    (MC, 2/27/02)

1854        Feb 28, Some 50 slavery opponents met in Ripon, Wis., to call for creation of a new political group, which became the Republican Party. [see Mar 20, Jul 6]
    (AP, 2/28/00)

1854        Mar 1, The SS City of Glasgow, a steamship of the Inman Line, left Liverpool harbor with 480 passengers and was never seen again.
    (SC, 3/1/02)(WSJ, 7/1/03, p.D8)

1854        Mar 7, Charles Miller patented the 1st US sewing machine to stitch buttonholes.
    (MC, 3/7/02)

1854        Mar 8, US Commodore Matthew C. Perry landed at Yokohama on his 2nd trip to Japan. Within a month, he concluded a treaty with the Japanese. In 2003 Christopher Benfey authored "The Great Wave: Gilded Age Misfits, Japanese Eccentrics and the Opening of Old Japan."
    (AP, 3/8/98)(SSFC, 5/18/03, p.M6)

1854        Mar 14, Thomas Riley Marshall, 28th U.S. Vice President (Woodrow Wilson), was born.
    (HN, 3/14/98)

1854        Mar 15, Emil von Behring, first recipient of the Nobel Prize for medicine in 1901, was born.
    (HN, 3/15/99)

1854        Mar 20, The Republican Party was founded when former members of the Whig political party met to establish a new political party that would oppose the spread of slavery into the western territories. [see Feb 28, Jul 6]
    (MC, 3/20/02)

1854        Mar 28, During the Crimean War, Britain and France declared war on Russia.
    (AP, 3/28/97)

1854        Mar 31, Sir Dugald Clerk, inventor of the two-stroke motorcycle engine, was born.
    (HN, 3/31/98)
1854        Mar 31, Chief Shogun Iyesada, following negotiations with Commodore Perry, approved the Treaty of Kanagawa on behalf of Emperor Osahito. This forced Japan to open its ports to foreign trade.
    (Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 215)(ON, 11/04, p.12)

1854        Mar, A slab of marble, donated by Pope Pius IX, was stolen from the Washington Monument. It had once belonged to the Temple of Concord in Rome. Members of the Know-Nothing Party, an anti-Catholic political movement, reportedly heaved it into the Potomac River.
     (ON, 3/00, p.9)(Econ, 7/25/15, p.25)

1854        Apr 3, The SF Mint opened at 608 Commercial St. It issued $4 million in gold coins this year. An Indian princess appeared on gold dollars. The mint used equipment previously employed by SF-based Moffatt & Company.
    (SFC, 8/21/01, p.A12)(SSFC, 1/28/03, p.E1)(WSJ, 12/12/03, p.W15)(SFC, 4/2/04, p.F3)(Economist, 9/8/12, p.18)
1854        Apr 3, John Wilson (b.1785), Scottish advocate, literary critic and author, the writer most frequently identified with the pseudonym Christopher North of Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine, died in Edinburgh. A scene from his play "The City of the Plague" was adapted by Alexander Pushkin as "A Feast in Time of Plague" and become a subject of a number of adaptations.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Wilson_%28Scottish_writer%29)(Econ., 7/6/20, p.70)

1854        Apr 15, The immigrant steamer ship "Powchattan" (Powhattan) struck Brigantine Shoals and sank off Long Beach, NY. Over 300 people died.

1854        Apr 16, Franz Liszt's "Mazeppa," premiered.
    (MC, 4/16/02)
1854        Apr 16, San Salvador was destroyed by an earthquake.
    (HN, 4/16/98)

1854        Apr 25, Congress ratifies the Gadsden Purchase. [see 1853, Gadsden]
    (HFA, ‘96, p.28)

1854        Apr 29, Henri Poincare (1912), French mathematician, astronomer, philosopher, was born. He investigated the idea of space and led to the notion that space is too complex for mathematics. Rather space is an assumption, and it can be described and controlled only so far as we assume it. In other words there is no such thing as space. Instead, there are as many spaces as there are people... for every person can assume an indefinite number of different spaces.

1854        May 3, William Beale (70), composer, died.
    (MC, 5/3/02)

1854        May 5, English pirate Plumridge robbed along pro-English Finnish coast.
    (MC, 5/5/02)

1854        May 24, Anthony Burns (1834-1862), an escaped slave from Virginia, was arrested in Massachusetts under the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 and returned to bondage. He was eventually ransomed from slavery, with his freedom purchased by Boston sympathizers.
    (SSFC, 3/5/17, p.E6)
1854        May 24, Louis Mountbatten (d.1921), British admiral (WW I), was born in Graz, Austria.

1854        May 26, In Massachusetts a crowd of abolitionists of both races, including Thomas Wentworth Higginson and other Bostonians outraged at the arrest of escaped slave Anthony Burns, stormed the court house to free the man. In the melee, Deputy US Marshal James Batchelder was fatally stabbed, the second US Marshal to be killed in the line of duty.

1854        May 30, The Kansas-Nebraska Act, designed by Sen. Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois, was passed by the US Congress. It allowed people in the territories of Kansas and Nebraska to decide for themselves whether or not to allow slavery within their borders. The governor of the Kansas Territory was James William Denver. Pres. Pierce kept appointing proslavery governors. The Kansas-Nebraska Act repealed the Missouri Compromise and opened the north to slavery. This period of Kansas history was incorporated into the 1998 novel "The All-True Travels and Adventures of Lidie Newton," by Jane Smiley.
    (AP, 5/30/97)(WSJ, 2/11/03, p.A10)(www.historyplace.com/lincoln/kansas.htm)(ON, 4/08, p.1)
1854      May 30, Vermont native Elisha Graves Otis (1811-1861) unveiled his invention, the safety elevator at the New York World's Fair. Audiences gasped as Otis, riding on the hoist's platform, dramatically ordered the lifting rope cut. Instead of falling, the car locked safely into the elevator shaft. Prior to the 1850s there was no existing market for passenger elevators because there was no safety mechanism in the event of a cable break. In 1852 Otis was a master mechanic working at a bedstead factory in Yonkers, N.Y., when he built a hoisting machine with two sets of metal teeth at the car's sides. If the lifting rope broke, the teeth would lock into place, preventing the car from falling. Otis never realized the potential of his invention. His sons built the Otis Elevator Company, enabling the skylines of cities throughout the world to be transformed with skyscrapers.
    (HNPD, 5/30/99)(ON, 5/05, p.12)

1854        Jun 10, The U.S. Naval Academy in Annapolis, Maryland, held its first graduation.
    (HN, 6/10/98)

1854        Jun 17, The Red Turban revolt broke out in Guangdong, China. The Red Turban Rebellion of 1854-1856, sometimes known as the Red Turban Revolt, was a series of uprisings by members of the Tiandihui or Heaven and Earth Society in the Guangdong province of South China.
    (HN, 6/17/98)(http://tinyurl.com/k3gz8ts)

1854        Jun 18, E.W. Scripps (d.1926) was born in Rushville, Ill. He founded the Scripps-Howard newspaper chain and the UP wire service.

1854        Jun 21, The first Victoria Cross was awarded to Charles Lucas, an Irishman and mate aboard the HMS Hecla for conspicuous gallantry at Bomarsrund in the Baltic. The medal was made from metal from a cannon captured at Sebastopol.
    (Camelot, 6/21/99)

1854        Jul 1, The Singer Sewing Company settled a sewing machine patent suit with Elias Howe and paid him $15,000.
    (ON, 11/00, p.9)

1854        Jul 6, The Republican Party was officially organized in Jackson, Michigan. The Republican Party was formed in Ripon, Wisconsin, by a group of anti-slavery politicians at the Little White Schoolhouse. [see Feb 28, Mar 20]
    (Hem., 7/96, p.28)(HN, 7/6/98)

1854        Jul 12, George Eastman (d.1932), inventor of the Kodak camera, was born in Waterville, N.Y.
    (AP, 7/12/99)

1854        Jul 13, US forces shelled and burned San Juan del Norte, Nicaragua.

1854        Aug 8, Smith and Wesson patented metal bullet cartridges.
    (MC, 8/8/02)

1854        Aug 9, Henry David Thoreau published "Walden," in which he described his experiences while living near Walden Pond on Cape Cod in Massachusetts.
    (Hem, Dec. 94, p.44)(AP, 8/9/97)

1854        Aug 16, Duncan Phyfe (86), NYC furniture maker, died.
    (MC, 8/16/02)

1854        Aug 29,  Daniel Halladay patented a self-governing windmill.
    (MC, 8/29/01)

1854        Sep 27, The first great disaster involving an ocean liner in the Atlantic occurred when the steamship Arctic sank off the coast of Newfoundland with 300 people aboard.
    (AP, 9/27/97)(Arch, 7/02, p.7)

1854        Aug 30, John Fremont issued a proclamation freeing the slaves of Missouri rebels.
    (MC, 8/30/01)

1854        Sep 1, Engelbert Humperdinck, German opera composer (Hansel & Gretel), was born.
    (MC, 9/1/02)

1854        Sep 14, Allied armies, including those of Britain & France, landed in Crimea.
    (MC, 9/14/01)

1854        Sep 19, Henry Meyer patented a sleeping rail car.
    (MC, 9/19/01)

1854        Oct 3, William Crawford Gorgas (d.1920), US Surgeon-Gen, was born. He helped cure yellow fever. He served as the chief sanitary officer of the Panama Canal (1904-1913).
    (WUD, 1994 p.610)(MC, 10/3/01)
1854        Oct 3, San Francisco businessman Harry Meiggs departed SF aboard the bark America with his family after embezzling $800,000 from the city to cover debts. He took refuge in Chile where he built a railroad between Santiago and Valparaiso. After 13 years he moved to Peru.
    (SFC, 1/18/14, p.C2)

1854        Oct 4, Abraham Lincoln made his 1st political speech at Illinois State Fair.
    (MC, 10/4/01)

1854        Oct 16, Abraham Lincoln delivered a speech in Peoria, Ill., part of a series against legislation proposed by Sen. Stephen Douglas that would allow settlers to decide the status of slavery in Kansas and Nebraska. In 2008 Lewis E. Lehrman authored “Lincoln at Peoria: The Turning Point."
    (WSJ, 7/26/08, p.W9)
1854        Oct 16, Oscar Wilde (born as Fingal O'Flahertie Wills, d.1900), dramatist, poet, novelist and critic, was born in Dublin. His work included "The Picture of Dorian Gray."  "Anybody can make history. Only a great man can write it." [see 1856-1900]
    (HN, 10/16/98)(AP, 2/16/99)
1854        Oct 17, James Simpson, a Baltimore inventor, received a patent for a multi-walled ice pitcher.
    (SFC, 12/30/98, Z1 p.2)

1854        Oct 20, Arthur Rimbaud (d.1891), French poet (Illuminations), was born in Charlesville.
    (HN, 10/20/00)(MC, 10/20/01)(SFC, 2/12/02, p.D3)

1854        Oct 25, During the Crimean War, a brigade of British light infantry was destroyed by Russian artillery as they charged down a narrow corridor in full view of the Russians. The Crimean War is largely remembered for the Charge of the Light Brigade, a hopeless but gallant British cavalry charge against a heavily defended Russian force. The battle began when the Russians attacked the British-French supply depot at Balaclava, some eight miles from Sevastopol, on the Black Sea Crimean Peninsula. Taken by surprise, the British counterattacked but failed to follow up. Through a staff error, Gen. Lord Cardigan's Light Brigade of 673 horsemen was ordered to charge the Russian position through a mile-long valley and prevent them from carrying away some captured cannon. The Light Brigade advanced up the valley, taking casualties all the way, and reached the guns. But once there, they could not hold their position and were forced to retreat. Of the 673 men who took part in the senseless charge, only 195 were present at roll call that night. The Charge of the Light Brigade ended the battle, but Balaclava remained in the hands of the British-French Allies. The event was described in a poem by Tennyson. French General Bosquet remarked "It is magnificent, but it is not war."
    (AP, 10/25/97)(HNPD, 10/25/98)(HN, 10/25/98)(MC, 10/25/01)

1854        Oct 26, Charles William Post, food manufacturer, was born. He created "Grape Nuts" and "Post Toasties." [see Oct 26, 1855]
    (HN, 10/26/00)

1854        Nov 4, The first lighthouse on the West Coast was built at Alcatraz Island.
    (SFC, 5/19/96,City Guide, p.7)(MC, 11/4/01)
1854        Nov 4, Florence Nightingale (d.1910) and 38 nurses arrived at the Barrack Hospital in Scutari following the outbreak of the Crimean War. She was appointed to oversee female nurses to be dispatched to military hospitals in Turkey to help with increasing casualties. She had been trained as a nurse--against the belief that nursing was not a suitable profession for women--before serving as Superintendent of the Establishment for Gentlewomen during Illness in London in 1853. At Scutari, soldiers appreciated her kindness and devotion as a nurse. Among other things, she later became known for her ideas about hospital reform and for creating reading rooms in hospitals. In 1907, she was the first woman to be awarded the Order of Merit. She died at the age of 90, at home in London. In 1951 Cecil Woodham-Smith authored "Florence Nightingale."
    (HNPD, 11/4/98)(HN, 11/4/98)(ON, SC, p.12)

1854        Nov 5, The British and French defeated the Russians at Inkerman, Crimea.
    (HN, 11/5/98)

1854        Nov 6, John Philip Sousa, "The March Master," American bandmaster, composer and the king of American march music, was born in Washington, D.C. He later wrote 5 novels. Among his 140 marches are "Stars and Stripes Forever" and "Semper Fidelis."
    (AP, 11/6/97)(SFEC, 2/8/98, Z1 p.8)(HN, 11/6/00)

1854        Nov 9, Franz Liszt's "Fest-Long," premiered.
    (MC, 11/9/01)

1854        Nov 13, George Whitfield Chadwick, composer, was born in Lowell Mass.
    (MC, 11/13/01)
1854        Nov 13, "New Era" sank off New Jersey coast with loss of 300.
    (MC, 11/13/01)

1854        Nov, A wooden boat called Mystery set sail from Cornwall, bound for Australia with seven Cornishmen hoping to escape their lives of poverty and dig for gold Down Under, a trip that eventually took 116 days.
    (AFP, 10/21/08)

1854        Dec 8, Pope Pius IX proclaimed the dogma of the Immaculate Conception. In the encyclical Ineffabilis Deus (Latin for "Ineffable God") he stated that: "The Blessed Virgin Mary was, from the first moment of her conception, by a singular grace and privilege of almighty God… Preserved immune from all stain of original sin".
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ineffabilis_Deus)(AP, 12/8/97)(WSJ, 6/3/99, p.A27)

1854         Dec 9, Alfred, Lord Tennyson’s poem, "The Charge of the Light Brigade," was published in England.
    (AP, 12/9/97)

1854        Dec 26, Wood pulp paper was 1st exhibited in Buffalo.
    (MC, 12/26/01)

1854        Gustave Courbet painted "The Meeting [Bonjour, Monsieur Courbet!]." It depicted a meeting with his patron, art collector Alfred Bruyas (1821-1877).
    (SFC, 1/22/05, p.E1)

1854        Eugene Delacroix painted "Arabs Stalking a Lion."
    (WSJ, 9/24/98, p.A16)

1854        Franz Xaver Winterhalter painted a portrait of Empress Eugenie, wife of Napoleon III.
    (WSJ, 4/3/03, p.D8)

1854        A lighthouse, the first on the West Coast, was completed on Alcatraz.
    (SFEC, 3/8/98, p.W38)

1854        The National Hotel was built in Nevada City, Ca. In 2006 it was California’s oldest continuously operating hotel.
    (SSFC, 2/5/06, p.F9)

1854        The Detroit Observatory, the second oldest building of the Univ. of Michigan was initiated by Henry P. Tappan, first pres. of the U of M.
    (LSA, Spring 1995, p.39)

1854        Dr. George W. L. Bickley, a Virginian who had moved to Ohio, organized the first "castle," or local branch, of the Knights of the Golden Circle in Cincinnati and soon took the order to the South, where it was enthusiastically received. Its principal object was to provide a force to colonize the northern part of Mexico and thus extend proslavery interests, and the Knights became especially active in Texas. The Knights of the Golden Circle was a secret society organized in the 1850s in the American Midwest that promoted the extension of slavery. During the American Civil War the society sympathized with the Confederacy, encouraged desertion in the Union Army, resisted enlistment and interfered with the draft. At its peak there were some 200,000 members. It changed its name to the Order of American Knights in 1863 and in 1864 to the Sons of Liberty. Northern authorities arrested many members in 1864 and sentenced to death three of its leaders. The death sentences were later suspended, the leaders ordered released in 1866 by the Supreme Court.
    (HNQ, 8/2/99)

1854        Lola Montez, international performer famed for her “Spider Dance," moved to Grass Valley, Ca., and taught her neighbor, Lotta Crabtree, how to sing and dance.
    (CVG, Vol. 16, p.11)

1854        The Royal and Ancient Club of the Old Course at St. Andrews was established. It oversaw the rules of the game of golf which was played as early as ~1473.
    (SFC, 6/25/95, p.T-9)

1854        US Congress passed a resolution that declared: The great and conservative element in our system is the belief of our people in the pure doctrines and divine truths of the gospel of Jesus Christ.
    (WSJ, 6/26/01, p.A23)

1854        The New England Emigrant Aid Society was created to colonize Kansas with Northern abolitionists. The Massachusetts Emigrant Aid Society, founded by Eli Thayer of Worcester, Massachusetts, promoted the settlement of anti-slavery groups in Kansas, with the ultimate objective of making it a free state. Adhering to the cause of "popular sovereignty," the organization-which was reincorporated in February, 1855 as the New England Emigrant Aid Company-founded the town of Lawrence and other Free State communities. Active into 1857, it helped settle some 2,000 people in Kansas.
    (WSJ, 3/27/98, p.W10)(HNQ, 10/5/99)

1854        In San Francisco the Bank Exchange saloon opened in the Montgomery Block. It was here that bartender Duncan Nichols (1854-1926) became known for serving Pisco Punch, a cocktail that used Peruvian Pisco Brandy. The recipe for the drink was reportedly rediscovered in 1964.
    (SFC, 12/28/19, p.C2)
1854        In San Francisco the Lone Mountain Cemetery was established. It was later renamed Laurel Hill Cemetery.
    (SFC, 3/5/16, p.C4)
1854        The California Legislature defined a public grave-yard as a place where the bodies of six or more persons are buried.
    (WSJ, 12/16/98, p.CA1)
1854        Yosemite Valley was granted to California as a public trust.
    (SFEC, 5/18/97, Z1 p.4)
1854        Ulysses S. Grant was stationed at Fort Humboldt in northern California.
    (SFEC, 4/13/97, p.T5)
1854        The US Navy bought Mare Island near Vallejo for $83,491. Commander David Glasgow Farragut arrived to transform the island into a productive shipyard. He later became the Navy’s first admiral.
    (SFC, 5/7/97, p.A15)(SSFC, 8/11/02, p.C5)
1854        The Mariposa County courthouse was built. The county initially covered a third of the state. The Mariposa Gazette began operations. In 2003 Mariposa County ranked 53rd among the state's 58 counties in terms of population and income.
    (SFC, 5/29/03, p.A14)(SSFC, 7/1/07, p.W8)
1854        The Union Democrat newspaper of Sonora, Ca., began publishing.
    (SFC, 1/3/98, p.A19)
1854        A newspaper began publishing in Eureka, Ca. By 2006 Times-Standard operated with a paid circulation of 20,000 and was managed by Dean Singleton of the Denver-based MediaNews Group.
    (SFCM, 8/13/06, p.10)
1854        Seth Shaw built his family home in Ferndale, Ca. The town later became a California historic landmark and the Shaw House an Inn listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
    (SSFC, 6/10/07, p.G8)
1854        In SF the city’s original International Hotel was built on Jackson Street.
    (SSFC, 8/19/07, p.B1)
1854        San Francisco’s South Park, the city’s first green space, was created as a private English-style oval.
    (SFC, 12/12/15, p.C2)
1854        The 1st California State Fair was held in SF. It was managed and funded by Col. J.L.L. Warren, a respected California seed and floral agribusiness man.
    (SSFC, 8/7/05, p.F7)(www.bigfun.org/fair-info/fair-history/)

1854        St. Paul, Minn., was founded.
    (USAT, 3/5/04, p.9A)

1854        In NYC teacher Elizabeth Jennings Graham (1827-1901) helped desegregate public transportation. She filed a lawsuit after being thrown off a streetcar that barred black riders. Her case was decided in her favor in 1855, and it led to the eventual desegregation of all New York City transit systems by 1865.
    (SFC, 3/8/19, p.A6)
1854        A US naval surgeon at the Brooklyn Navy yard perfected the manufacture of ether.
    (Econ 7/15/17, p.26)
1854        Stephen Hedges of NYC patented his convertible chair, a half round table hinged to a half round chair.
    (SFC, 7/8/98, Z1 p.3)

1854        Washington State became a US territory.
    (HT, 3/97, p.8)

1854        In Keshena Falls, Wisconsin, the Menomonee (people of the wild rice) Chiefs Oshkosh and Keshena met with federal Indian agents and agreed to retain only 275,000 acres from their original 9 ½ million acres. As part of the settlement the chiefs and their followers were promised eternal government protection. In 1954 Congress voted to withdraw that support.
    (NG, Aug., 1974, p.235)

1854        The Bradley & Hubbard Manufacturing Co. was founded in Meriden, Conn. The company made clocks, tables, frames, irons, chandeliers and other metal objects. Their lamps are prized by collectors.
    (SFC, 8/6/97, Z1 p.6)

1854        Bernard Riemann conjectured that the universe as a whole might be non-Euclidean in nature, curving into a "hypersphere".
    (WSJ, 2/17/95, p.A-10)

1854        Archeologist G.B. de Rossi, while excavating the Christian catacombs in Rome discovered a marble-pillared chamber filled with rubble and fragments of inscriptions suggesting the burial of several early Popes.
    (ITV, 1/96, p.60)

1854        White settlers in Del Norte County, Ca., ambushed and killed 30 Tolowa Indians at the Etculet village on Lake Earl.
    (SFEC, 7/16/00, p.B1)

1854        In Australia Chartist ideas influenced the miners of Eureka Stockade in 1854 in Victoria where they adopted all of Chartism's six points including the secret ballot. Chartism was a movement for political and social reform in the United Kingdom during the mid-19th century, between 1838 and 1850. It takes its name from the People's Charter of 1838.

1854        Elisabeth of Bavaria (16) married the Habsburg Emp. Franz Josef II (23).
    (WSJ, 12/8/97, p.A13)

1854        Daniel Florence O’Leary (53), Irish-born personal secretary to Simon Bolivar, died in Bogota. After Bolivar’s death (1830) O’Leary served in a diplomatic capacity for the Venezuelan and British governments in Bogota. In 1879 his memoirs were published by his son.
    (ON, 3/05, p.2)

1854        Charles Dickens authored “Hard Times." One of his reasons for writing it was that sales of his weekly periodical, Household Words, were low, and it was hoped the novel's publication in instalments would boost circulation – as indeed proved to be the case.
1854        Britain’s national meteorological office was founded. It began providing forecasts for the BBC in 1922.
    (Econ, 8/29/15, p.47)
1854        In England the Crystal Palace, a glass and steel structure built for the Great Exhibition of 1851 was moved to the park at Sydenham, south London. The grounds at the suggestion of Prince Albert were landscaped with statues of extinct animals by the sculptor Water-house Hawkins.
    (T.E.-J.B. p.20)
1854        Charles Wheatstone, British cryptologist, invented cipher to be used by diplomats, but a government official worried that it was too complicated. In 2006 Stephen Pincock authored “Codebreaker" a tale of codes and ciphers as well as their creators and crackers.
    (WSJ, 10/7/06, p.P12)
1854        Phillip Morris began making cigarettes in London.
    (SFC, 9/27/97, p.E3)
1854        Cholera broke out in London again. Dr. John Snow traced it to cesspool near a public water pump on Broad Street.
    (ON, 5/05, p.9)

1854        British explorer Sir Richard Burton became one of the first foreigners to penetrate the "forbidden" walls of Harar, Ethiopia, disguised as a Muslim trader. Harar, also called Jugol, was founded in the 10th century and is reputed to be one of the oldest cities in east Africa.
    (AFP, 8/22/14)
1854        Lord Elgin negotiated a reciprocity trade agreement with the British North American colonies. In 1866 America abrogated the agreement.
    (Econ, 11/26/16, p.18)

1854        Italian anatomist Fillipo Pacini discovered the cholera bacillus, but did not prove that it caused cholera. His work remained obscure and was not translated to English.
    (ON, 5/05, p.10)

1854        The National Palace in the Portuguese resort town of Sintra was completed and is considered a prime example of European Romantic architecture.

1854        Florence Nightingale (1820-1910) nursed wounded soldiers at Scutari Hospital in Turkey during the Crimean War.
    (HNQ, 4/29/01)

1854        Alfred Russel Wallace began his historic study of Malay flora and fauna in and around Bukit Timah hill in Singapore.
    (NH, 4/1/04, p.56)

1854        In northern Russia Solovki monks fought off a British naval siege.
    (Econ, 12/18/04, p.83)

1854        Richard Owen, founder of London’s Natural History Museum discovered fossils in South Africa of a plant-eating prosauropod named Massospondylus (bulky vertebrae). Owen is the man who coined the term dinosaur.
    (SFC, 7/29/05, p.A2)

1854        Julia Pastrana (20) became known as the "ape woman" after she left the Mexico’s Pacific coast state of Sinaloa. A rare genetic condition covered her face in thick hair. She was taken around the United States by showman Theodore Lent. She and Lent married and had a son, but she developed a fever related to complications from childbirth, and died along with her baby in 1860 in Moscow. In 2013  the University of Oslo, Norway, shipped her remains back to Sinaloa, where they were laid to rest.
    (AP, 2/13/13)

1854        In Nicaragua a civil war erupted between the Legitimist Party (also called the Conservative Party), based in the city of Granada, and the Democratic Party (also called the Liberal Party), based in León. The Democratic Party sought military support from William Walker who, to circumvent US neutrality laws, obtained a contract from Democratic president Francisco Castellón to bring as many as three hundred colonists to Nicaragua. These mercenaries received the right to bear arms in the service of the Democratic government.

c1854-1856    George Robinson Fardon (1807-1886), British photographer, took pictures of SF for his "San Francisco Album 1854-1856," believed to be the first camera survey of an American city.
    (SFC, 6/19/99, p.B3)
1854-1856    Eliphas Levi (1810-1875), French occult author and ceremonial magician, published Dogme et Rituel de la Haute Magie ("Dogma and Rituals of High Magic") as two volumes (Dogme 1854, Rituel 1856), in which he included an image he had drawn himself which he described as Baphomet and "The Sabbatic Goat", showing a winged humanoid goat with a pair of breasts and a torch on its head between its horns.

1854-1857    David Kerr charted more than 100 sq. miles of the San Francisco Bay Area marshland for the US Coast Survey, the first federal mapping agency.
    (SFC, 10/25/96, p.A10)(http://tinyurl.com/2uwjs3)

1854-1860    The six golden years of French photographer Felix Nadar, representing the best of his portrait photography.
    (Smith., 5/95, p.72)

1854-1923     Bourke Cockran, American politician and orator: "You simply cannot hang a millionaire in America."
    (AP, 11/18/97)

1854-1928    Leos Janacek, Czech composer. His work included the opera "Makropulos" (1926), The Dostoevsky based "From the House of the Dead" and "Katya Kabanova."
    (WSJ, 1/3/96, p.A-7)(WSJ, 8/20/96, p.A8)(WUD, 1994, p.763)(SFC, 1/27/97, p.A20)(WSJ, 6/03/97, p.A20)

1854-1932    George Eastman, American inventor, industrialist, and philanthropist.
    (AHD, 1971, p.411)

1854-1937    Frances Brundage, artist and illustrator. She did paintings of Victorian children and illustrated over 240 books along with calendars, postcards, cloth dolls and prints.
    (SFC, 8/4/99, Z1 p.5)

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