Return to home1821 Jan 4,
The first native-born American saint, Elizabeth Ann Seton, died in
1821 Jan 21, John Breckinridge
(d.1875), 14th U.S. Vice President, was born. He served under James
Buchanan (1857-1861). Breckenridge was a Confederate General in the
Civil War. [His brother-in-law was Lloyd Tevis, founder of Wells
(WUD, 1994, p.183)(HN, 1/21/99)
1821 Feb 3, Elizabeth Blackwell
(d.1910), first woman to get an MD from a U.S. medical school, was
born in Bristol, England.
1821 Feb 11, Auguste Edouard
Mariette, French Egyptologist, (dug out Sphinx 12/16/42), was born.
1821 Feb 12, The Mercantile
Library of City of NY opened.
1821 Feb 21, Charles Scribner,
was born. He founded the New York Publishing firm which became
Charles Scribner's Sons and also founded Scribner's magazine.
1821 Feb 22, The Adams-Onis
Treaty became final, whereby Spain gave up all of Florida to the US.
The boundary between Mexico and the Louisiana Purchase was
established and the US renounced all claims to Texas.
(AH, 2/06, p.15)
1821 Feb 23, College of
Apothecaries, the 1st US pharmacy college, was organized in
1821 Feb 23, John Keats,
English poet, died of tuberculosis at the age of 26. In 1998 the
biography "Keats" by Andrew Motion was published. Earlier
biographies included one by W. Jackson Bates (1963), and a
novelistic psychological portrait by Aileen Ward (1963). The
standard work on Keats was written by Robert Gittings in 1968.
(WP, 1951, p.11)(WSJ, 1/15/98, p.A17)(SFEC,
3/29/98, BR p.6)
1821 Feb 24, Mexico rebels
proclaimed the "Plan de Iguala," their declaration of independence
from Spain, and took over the mission lands in California.
(HT, 3/97, p.61)(AP, 2/24/98)(HN, 2/24/98)
1821 Mar 5, Monroe was the
first president to be inaugurated on March 5, only because the 4th
was a Sunday.
1821 Mar 14, African Methodist
Episcopal Zion Church founded in NY.
1821 Mar 15, Josef Loschmidt
(d.1895), a pioneer of 19th-century physics and chemistry, was born
in Putschim (Pocerny), Bohemia. In his first publication (1861)
Loschmidt proposed the first structural chemical formulae for many
important molecules, introducing markings for double and triple
carbon bonds. In 1865 he became the first person to use the kinetic
theory of gases to obtain a reasonably good value for the diameter
of a molecule. What we call "Avogadro's number" is, in
German-speaking countries, called "Loschmidt's number."
1821 Mar 19, Sir Richard Burton
(d.1890), English explorer, was born.
1821 Mar 25, Greece gained
independence from Turkey (National Day). [see Mar 28]
1821 Mar 26, Franz
Grillparzer's "Das Goldene Vliess" premiered in Vienna.
1821 Mar 28, Greek Independence
Day celebrates the liberation of Southern Greece from Turkish
domination. In 1844 Thomas Gordon authored a study of the Greek
revolution. In 2001 David Brewer authored "The Greek War of
(SFC, 3/28/98, p.A15)(WSJ, 9/17/01, p.A20)
1821 Apr 4, Linus Yale,
American portrait painter and inventor of the Yale lock, was born.
(HN, 4/4/01)(MC, 4/4/02)
1821 Apr 9, Charles Baudelaire
(d.1867), French poet, was born. His works were censored and he was
considered a pathetic psychopath; he also became the most acute
critic of his age in France. He was photographed by Felix Nadar in
(V.D.-H.K.p.278)(Smith., 5/95, p.72)(HN, 4/9/01)
1821 Apr 20, Franz K. Achard
(67), German physicist, chemist, died.
1821 May 3, The Richmond
[Virginia] Light Artillery was organized.
(RC handout, 5/27/96)
1821 May 5, Napoleon Bonaparte
(b.1769), former emperor of France (1799-1815), died in exile on the
island of St. Helena. He died by slow poisoning at the hands of his
companion Charles Tristan de Montholon. Scottish pathologist Dr.
Hamilton Smith later used Napoleon’s hair to determine that arsenic
had been administered about 40 times from 1820-1821. In 2010 a lock
of Napoleon’s hair fetched 140,000 New Zealand dollars ($97,000) at
auction. In 1992 Proctor Patterson Jones authored "Napoleon, An
Intimate Account." In 1999 an English translation of Jean-Paul
Kauffmann's "The Black Room at Longwood: Napoleon's Exile on St.
Helena" was published. In 1904 F. De Bouirrienne published "Memoirs
of Napoleon Bonaparte." In 1988 S. De Chair edited "Napoleon's
Memoirs." In 2014 Andrew Roberts authored “Napoleon the Great.”
(V.D.-H.K.p.232)(AP, 5/5/97)(SFEC, 1/18/98, BR
p.9)(SFEC, 8/16/98, Z1 p.8)(SFC, 4/8/99, p.C5)(AP, 8/8/97)(SFEC,
8/1/99, Par p.16)(AP, 7/01/10)(Econ, 9/20/14, p.77)
1821 May 25, Diederich Krug,
composer, was born.
1821 May 25, Klemens von
Metternich (1773-1858) became chancellor of Austria.
1821 Jun 2, Ion Bratianu (Lib),
premier of Romania (1876-88), was born.
1821 Jun 19, The Ottomans
defeated the Greeks at the Battle of Dragasani.
1821 Jun 21, African Methodist
Episcopal Zion (AMEZ) Church was organized in NYC as a national
body. [see Mar 14]
1821 Jun 24, Battle of
Carabobo: Bolivar defeated the royalists outside of Caracas.
1821 Jul 2, Charles Tupper, 6th
Canadian PM (1896), was born.
1821 Jul 6, Edmund Pettus
(d.1907), for whom the civil rights landmark Edmund Pettus Bridge
was named, was born in Alabama. He earned his fame as a Confederate
brigadier general. Pettus was a lawyer and judge and served
throughout the western theater during the Civil War. He resumed his
law practice after the war and went on to serve in the U.S. Senate.
Pettus died while in his second term in Congress. The Edmund Pettus
Bridge in Selma, Alabama, became a civil rights landmark when on
March 7, 1965, a band of civil rights marchers on their way to
Montgomery crossed the bridge, only to be attacked by state troopers
on the other side.
1821 Jul 13, Confederate
cavalry commander Nathan Bedford Forrest was born in Tennessee’s
1821 Jul 16, Mary Baker Eddy
(d.1910), founder of the Christian Science movement (1879), was
(HN, 7/16/98)(WSJ, 9/26/03, p.W17)
1821 Jul 17, Spain ceded
Florida to the United States. [see Feb 22]
1821 Jul 17, Andrew Jackson
became the governor of Florida.
1821 Jul 19, The coronation of
George IV of England was held. His wife, Caroline, was refused
admittance. She died Aug 7.
1821 Jul 28, Peru declared its
independence from Spain. Lima had been the seat of the Spanish
viceroys until this time. Jose Francisco de San Martin of Argentina
had blockaded Lima and forced the Spanish viceroy to abandon the
city. Martin returned to Argentina in 1822
(SFC, 12/20/96, p.B4)(AP, 7/28/97)(ON, 10/09,
1821 Jul, English captain John
Franklin led a party to explore the Barrens in northwest section of
Canada’s Hudson Bay. George Back, midshipman, Royal Navy, painted a
scene of the Sandstone Rapids on the Arctic Circle of Canada’s
Northwest Territories. Of the 20 men in the party to map the
northern coast of Canada west of the Hudson Bay, 11 starved and
froze to death. Back returned to England and was hailed as "the man
who ate his boots." Twenty-three years later he led a third arctic
expedition of 129 men in two ships and all perished.
(NH, 5/96, p.30)(WSJ, 2/10/95, p.A-7)
1821 Aug 4, The 1st edition of
Saturday Evening Post was published. It continued until 1969.
1821 Aug 7, Caroline of
Brunswick (b.1768), wife of England’s King George IV, died. In 2006
Jane Robins authored “The Trial of Queen Caroline: The Scandalous
Affair that Nearly Ended a Monarchy.”
1821 Aug 10, Missouri became
the 24th state.
1821 Aug 19, There was a failed
liberal coup against French King Louis XVIII.
1821 Aug 23, After 11 years of
war, Spain granted Mexican independence as a constitutional
monarchy. Spanish Viceroy Juan de O'Donoju signed the Treaty of
Cordoba, which approved a plan to make Mexico an independent
(HN, 8/23/00)(MC, 8/23/02)
1821 Aug 28, In the city of
Puebla a nun served a tri-colored chili dish to the Emperor Agustin
de Iturbide, who was on his way home from signing the Treaty of
Cordoba, which effectively freed Mexico from Spain. Iturbide, a
Creole, had led the suppression of the initial rebellion for
independence. He later abdicated, went into exile, returned and was
executed. After Iturbide Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna led the country
over 11 presidential terms.
(WSJ, 9/5/96, p.B1)(WSJ, 8/13/97, p.A12)
1821 Sep 1, William Becknell
led a group of traders from Independence, Mo., toward Santa Fe on
what would become the Santa Fe Trail.
1821 Sep 10, English captain
John Franklin led a party to explore the Barrens in northwest
section of Canada’s Hudson Bay. Naturalist John Richards recorded
that they found the summer track of a man, where summer last only
(NH, 5/96, p.30)
1821 Sep 15, A junta convened
by the captain-general in Guatemala declared independence for its
provinces Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua San Salvador
(AP, 9/15/97)(EWH, 1968, p.843)
1821 Sep 27, The Mexican Empire
declared its independence. Revolutionary forces occupied Mexico City
as the Spanish withdraw.
1821 Oct 5, Greek rebels
captured Tripolitza, the main Turkish fort in the Peloponnesian area
1821 Oct 13, Rudolf Virchow,
German politician and anthropologist (cell pathology), was born.
1821 Oct 16, Albert Franz
Doppler, composer, was born.
1821 Oct 17, Alexander Gardner,
American photographer, was born. He documented the Civil War and the
1821 Nov 9, The 1st US pharmacy
college held 1st classes in Philadelphia.
1821 Nov 10, Andreas J Romberg
(54), German violinist and composer (Der Rabe), died.
1821 Nov 11, Fyodor
Mikhailovich Dostoevsky (d.1881), Russian novelist who wrote "The
Brothers Karamazov," was born. "Originality and a feeling of one’s
own dignity are achieved only through work and struggle."
(AP, 12/9/97)(HN, 11/11/98)
1821 Nov 16, Trader William
Becknell reached Santa Fe, N.M., on the route that will become known
as the Santa Fe Trail.
1821 Dec 12, Gustave Flaubert
(d.1880), French novelist, was born. "Our ignorance of history
causes us to slander our own times." [see May 8, 1880]
(V.D.-H.K.p.278)(AP, 6/19/99)(HN, 12/12/99)
1821 Dec 17, Kentucky abolished
1821 Dec 25, Clara Barton
(d.1912), the founder of the American Red Cross, was born in North
Oxford, Massachusetts. She worked as a volunteer nurse during the
Civil War, distributing food and medical supplies to troops and
earning herself the label "Angel of the Battlefield." She later
served alongside the International Red Cross in Europe--however, she
could not work directly with the organization because she was a
woman. In 1882 she formed an American branch of the Red Cross.
Barton lobbied for the Geneva Convention and she expanded the
mission of the Red Cross to include helping victims of peacetime
disasters. Clara Barton died at her home in Glen Echo, Maryland, on
April 12, 1912, when she was 90 years old.
(HNPD, 12/26/98)(WUD, 1994 p.123)
1821 Dec 28, Gioacchino Rossini
moved to Bologna.
1821 In California Esteban
Munras, engaged by Friar Juan Francisco Martin, arrived at Mission
San Miguel and supervised the interior decorations of the new
church. Munras, an artist trained by the Spanish, designed murals
for the new church.
(SB, 3/28/02)(SFC, 10/1/09, p.E6)
1821 Owen Chase, the first
mate, ghost-wrote the "Narrative of the Most Extraordinary and
Distressing Shipwreck of the White-Whale ship Essex." The story
inspired Herman Melville’s "Moby Dick." In 2000 Nathaniel Philbrick
authored "In the Heart of the Sea," a complete investigation into
the Nantucket whaler’s story and "the taboo of gastronomic incest."
(WSJ, 4/28/00, p.W6)
1821 Thomas Jefferson wrote his
(Civil., Jul-Aug., ‘95, p.62)
1821 Stefano Cavaletti, Italian
tuner and craftsman, left a note on the snaggle-toothed spinet that
he tuned for the young Verdi, free of charge due to Verdi’s talent.
(Civil., Jul-Aug., ‘95, p.90)
1821 An independent institution
for the instruction of Lutheran and reformed theologies was
established at the Univ. of Vienna.
(StuAus, April ‘95, p.18)
1821 In the US Emma Willard
started the first secondary school for girls in Troy, N.Y.
(SFEC, 11/3/96, Z1,p.2)
1821 John Quincy Adams, Sec. of
State, wrote: "America does not go abroad in search of monsters to
destroy. She is the well-wisher to the freedom and independence of
all. She is the champion only of her own."
(WSJ, 6/25/97, p.A20)
1821 Tucson raised the Mexican
flag after the Revolution in Mexico.
(AWAM, Dec. 94, p.31)
1821 In the US south Denmark
Vessey mounted a slave rebellion.
(SFC, 6/24/96, p.A19)
1821 John (Cameron) Gilroy of
Scotland married Maria Clara Ortega, the 13-year-old granddaughter
of Jose Francis Ortega, a member of the "Sacred Expedition" of 1769.
They lived in San Ysidro. The town of Gilroy, Ca., is named after
(SFC, 11/29/97, p.A18)
1821 Ignaz Venetz-Sitten, Swiss
civil engineer, recognized the continent covering scale of the
1821 Thomas Johann Seebeck
(1770-1831), Estonia-born German physicist, discovered that applying
a temperature difference across two adjoined metals would give rise
to a small voltage. This came to be called the Seebeck effect.
(Econ, 9/6/08, TQ p.6)
1821 The 1st alphabet for
Hawaiians was prepared by Christians missionaries. The letters of
the alphabet were a,e,h,i,k,l,m,n,o,p,u,w.
(SSFC, 4/4/04, Par p.17)(Internet)
1821 Amherst College was
founded in Amherst, Mass.
1821 The Boston English High
School, the first US public high school, held its opening classes.
1821 One hunter in 12 months
shot 18,000 migrating golden plover for the dinner table.
(SFEC, 11/3/96, Z1,p.2)
1821 William Playfair, Scottish
engineer, political economist and scoundrel, published a visual
chart that displayed the “weekly wages of a good mechanic” along
with the price of a “quarter of wheat” with the reigns of monarchs
displayed along the top.
(Econ, 12/22/07, p.74)
1821 Anita Ribeiro (d.1849),
later wife of Italian revolutionary Garibaldi, was born in Laguna
(ON, 10/06, p.5)
1821 English economist David
Ricardo noted that the influence of machinery is frequently
detrimental to the interest of the working class.
(Econ, 6/25/16, SR p.3)
1821 Karl von Drais
(1785-1851), German forest official and inventor, invented the
earliest typewriter with a keyboard.
1821 Guatemala established
(NG, 6/1988, p.781)
1821 Mexican rule began over
the New Mexico territory.
(SSFC, 5/22/05, p.E12)
1821 Mexico outlawed slavery.
(Econ, 1/25/14, p.69)
1821 A cholera outbreak in
Saudi Arabia killed an estimated 20,000 pilgrims.
1821 Ignatz Venetz, Swiss civil
engineer, presented a paper titled “Temperature Variation in the
Swiss Alps” to the Helvetic Society of Natural Sciences, in which he
described retreating ice glaciers and acknowledged Jean-Pierre
Perraudin, a hunter and mountain guide, as the originator of the
idea that a glacier had once occupied the full length of the Val de
Bagnes. In 1833 Jean de Charpentier (1786-1855), a German-Swiss
geologist, arranged to have the paper published.
1821-1823 In Iceland the Eyjafjallajokull volcano
erupted over this period.
(Econ, 4/24/10, p.62)
1821-1844 Haiti occupied the Dominican Rep. during
(Econ, 5/31/14, p.30)
1821-1846 Mexico ruled over California with a
series of 12 governors. During part of this time Gen’l. Jose Castro
commanded all of the Spanish forces in California and was an active
opponent of US rule in 1846.
(SFEC, 9/21/97, p.C7)
1821-1858 Elisa Rachel Felix, French actress, died
of tuberculosis. She introduced a new voicing into French theater in
part due to her physical condition.
(WP, 1951, p.21-22)
1821-1881 Henri Frederic Amiel, Swiss
critic: "The man who has no inner life is the slave of his
1821-1894 Hermann Helmholtz, German physician
turned physicist, a leader in energetics who helped establish the
principle of the conservation of energy along with Kelvin.
(TNG, Klein, p.88)
1821-1924 Thirty-three million people arrive into
the US in this period.
(NOHY, Weiner, 3/90, p.52)
1822 Jan 2, Rudolph J.E.
Clausius (d.1888), German physicist (thermodynamics), was born.
1822 Jan 6, Heinrich Schliemann
(d.1890), German businessman and amateur archeologist, was born. He
began excavating Troy in 1870 following a visit to Hissarlik in
1822 Feb 4, Free American
Blacks settled Liberia, West Africa. The first group of colonists
landed in Liberia and founded Monrovia, the colony's capital city,
named in honor of President James Monroe.
(HNPD, 7/26/98)(MC, 2/4/02)
1822 Feb 9, The American Indian
1822 Feb 16, Francis Galton
(d.1911), English scientist, was born. He was one of the first
moderns to present a carefully considered eugenics program.
(NH, 6/97, p.18)(SFC, 8/28/97,
1822 Feb 22, Adolf Kuszmaul,
German physician (stomach pump, Kuszmaul disease), was born.
1822 Feb 23, Boston was granted
a charter to incorporate as a city.
1822 Mar 9, The first patent
for false teeth was requested by C. Graham of NY. [see Jun 9, 1882]
(HN, 3/9/98)(MC, 3/9/02)
1822 Mar 16, John Pope, Union
general in the American Civil War, was born.
1822 Mar 16, Rosa Bonheur,
French painter and sculptor, was born.
1822 Mar 19, Boston was
incorporated as a city.
1822 Mar 22, Gioacchino Rossini
married Isabella Colbran in Bologna.
1822 Mar 30, Congress combined
East and West Florida into the Florida Territory.
(AP, 3/30/97)(MC, 3/30/02)
1822 Apr 3, Edward Everett
Hale, American clergyman and author (Man without a Country) , was
1822 Apr 26, Frederick
Olmstead, landscape architect, was born in Connecticut. His work
included Yosemite Nat’l. Park, Central Park in New York City (1858),
and other city parks in Boston, Ma., Hartford, Ct., and Louisville,
(440 Int’l. Internet, 4/26/97, p.5)(SFC, 4/5/04,
1822 Apr 27, Ulysses S. Grant
(d.1885), general and 18th U.S. president (1869-1877), was born in
Point Pleasant [Hiram], Ohio.
(AP, 4/27/97)(HN, 4/27/02)
1822 May 24, At Battle of
Pichincha (Ecuador) General Sucre (1795-1830) won a decisive victory
against Spanish forces. Shortly after the battle, Sucre and Bolivar
entered the newly-liberated Quito and Sucre was named President of
the Province of Quito, which formed Gran Colombia with Venezuela and
1822 May 26, Edmond de
Goncourt, writer, was born.
1822 May 30, In South Carolina
slave revolt leaders Denmark Vesey (aka Telemaque) and Peter Poyas
were arrested for planning a slave revolt.
1822 May, Dr. Gideon Mantell
published his book “The Fossils of South Downs,” based on his
studies of huge teeth and bones found at the Tilgate Forest quarry.
(ON, 7/06, p.1)
1822 Jun 6, Alexis St. Martin,
a fur trader at Fort Mackinac in the Michigan territory, was
accidentally shot in the abdomen. William Beaumont, a US Army
assistant surgeon, treated the wound and St. Martin survived. The
stomach wound did not close and Beaumont undertook experiments in
1825 to study the digestive system.
(ON, 1/02, p.6)
1822 Jun 9, Charles Graham
patented false teeth. [see Mar 9, 1822]
1822 Jun 14, Charles Babbage
(1792-1871), a young Cambridge mathematician, announced the
invention of a machine capable of performing simple arithmetic
calculations in a paper to the Astronomical Society. His 1st
Difference Engine could perform up to 60 error-free calculation in 5
minutes. Babbage and engineer John Clement completed the calculator
portion of a new engine in 1832, but the project lost funding and
(I&I, Penzias, p.94)(ON, 5/05, p.5)
1822 Jun 25, Ernst Theodor
Amadeus (ETA) Hoffmann (46), German writer, judge, composer, died.
1822 Jul 2, Denmark Vesey
(b.1767) was executed in Charleston, South Carolina, for planning a
massive slave revolt.
1822 Jul 8, Percy Bysshe
Shelley (b.1792), English poet, drowned while sailing in Italy at
1822 Jul 22, Gregor Johann
Mendel (d.1884), Austrian botanist who developed the theory of
heredity, was born.
(HN, 7/22/98)(NH, 6/01, p.30)
1822 Jul 25, Gen. Agustin de
Iturbide was crowned Agustin I, 1st emperor of Mexico.
1822 Jul 26, Simon Bolivar and
Jose de San Martin held a secret meeting.
1822 Aug 25, F. William
Herschel (85), German astronomer (discovered Uranus), died.
1822 Aug 31, Fitz John Porter
(d.1901), Major General (Union volunteers), was born.
1822 Aug, William Richardson
(1795-1856) came to SF as first mate aboard the British whaler
Orion. He jumped ship and began living at the Presidio. In 1835 he
put up a tent in Yerba Buena, later renamed San Francisco, on Calle
de la Fundacion, a site later identified as 827 Grant Ave.
1822 Sep 6, John Constable,
English painter, painted his “Cloud Study, 6 September 1822.” He
painted some 100 studies of the sky between 1821-1822.
(MC, 3/31/02)(WSJ, 6/9/04, p.D8)
1822 Sep 7, Brazil declared its
independence from Portugal.
1822 Sep 9, Napoleon J K P
Bonaparte, French prince and member National Convention, was born.
1822 Oct 4, Rutherford B.
Hayes, the 19th president (R) of the United States, was born in
Delaware, Ohio. Hayes was a major-general in the Civil War, then an
Ohio congressman, then succeeded Grant as president (1877-81). Hayes
won the Electoral College by a margin of one vote after his opponent
won the popular vote in an election so fraught with charges of vote
fraud that there were even fears of a coup. Hayes refused to
seek a second term.
(AP, 10/4/97)(HN, 10/4/98)(MC, 10/3/01)
1822 Oct 8, The Galunggung
volcano on Java sent boiling sludge into valley. The eruption left
4,011 dead. The long-inactive volcano erupted Apr 4 and blew its top
on Apr 12. The Oct 8 and Oct 12 eruptions left 4,011 dead.
1822 Oct 9, George Sykes
(d.1880), Major General (Union volunteers), was born.
1822 Oct 13, Antonio Canova
(b.1757), Italian sculptor, died at age 64. His work included a
sculpture of Napoleon’s sister Pauline, as a semi-naked Venus
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antonio_Canova)(Econ, 11/10/07, p.105)
1822 Oct 15, Alfred Meissner,
Austrian physician and writer, was born.
1822 Oct 20, The 1st edition of
the London Sunday Times was published.
1822 Nov 2, The USRC Louisiana
along with USS Peacock and the Royal Navy schooner HMS Speedwell
captured five pirate vessels off Havana, Cuba.
1822 Dec 1, Franz Liszt (11)
made his debut as a pianist for Isabella Colbran.
1822 Dec 4, Frances Crabbe,
English feminist and founder of the Anti-Vivisection Society, was
1822 Dec 6, John Eberhard was
born. He built the 1st large-scale pencil factory in US.
1822 Dec 12, Mexico was
officially recognized as an independent nation by US.
1822 Dec 14, John Christie,
English patron of music, was born. He founded the Glyndebourne
1822 Dec 14, The Congress of
Verona ended, ignoring the Greek war of independence.
1822 Dec 26, Dion Boucicault,
Irish-US actor and playwright (Rip van Winkle), was born.
1822 Dec 27, Louis Pasteur
(d.1895), French chemist and microbiologist, was born in Dole,
France. One of his several monumental contributions to science and
industry was pasteurization, the process of heating wine, beer and
milk to kill microorganisms that cause fermentation and disease.
Pasteur also developed important vaccines and his work on molecular
asymmetry led to the science of stereochemistry. He was the first to
vaccinate animals for anthrax and chicken cholera, and in 1885 he
proved that his rabies vaccine could be used successfully on humans
when he saved the life of a 9-year-old boy who had been bitten by a
rabid dog. The Pasteur Institute was formed in Paris in 1888 for
research on rabies. Pasteur ran the institute until his death in
(WUD, 1994, p.1055)(AP, 12/27/97)(HNPD, 12/27/98)
1822 Dec 28, William Booth
Taliaferro (d.1898), Brig Gen (Confederate Army), was born.
1822 Charles Willson Peale
painted his "Self Portrait."
(SFC, 1/25/97, p.E1)
1822 Pierre-Paul Prud’hon
(1758-1823) painted "A Grief-Stricken Family." It was painted
shortly after his student and mistress, Constance Mayer, slit her
(WSJ, 4/8/98, p.A20)
1822 Utagawa Kunisada, Japanese
artist, painted "The Popular Type."
(WSJ, 4/24/96, A-12)
1822 William West painted a
portrait of the poet Lord Byron.
(SFC, 6/9/97, p.D3)
1822 J.F. Champollion published
his work on deciphering the Rosetta Stone.
1822 Thomas De Quincey wrote
his "Confessions of an English Opium Eater." He used the word
tranquilizer to describe the effect of the drug.
(SFEC, 11/24/96, Z 1 p.2)
1822 Twenty years after the war
of 1812 the US government finished paying off the national debt
(WSJ, 3/12/97, p.A18)
1822 The Superintendent of
Mails in Washington, D.C., complained about the need to hire 16
extra mailmen because of the volume of Christmas cards and holiday
mail. The tradition of Christmas cards had become so popular it
became a burden for the United States Postal System, which
petitioned Congress to limit the exchange of cards by post. But the
cards kept coming and the postal burden worsened.
1822 California became part of
(SFEC, 9/20/98, Z1 p.4)
1822 The Queen of the Angels
Roman Catholic Church in Los Angeles was built.
1822 Monterey had begun the
century as the Spanish capital of Alta California but in this year
became the Mexican capital of Alta California.
(SFEC, 11/3/96, DB p.71)
1822 Christian Buschmann (17),
organ and clavier tuner, constructed the first primitive accordion.
It wasn’t until the 1840s that the "magdaburgerspelen" came into
fashion, the instrument generally believed to be the forerunner to
the durspel of our time.
1822 Mary Mantell, a fossil
collector in Sussex, England, discovered a handful of teeth that her
husband, Dr. Gideon Mantell, recognized as similar to those of the
iguana lizard of South America. This was recorded as one of the
first dinosaurs to be discovered.
1822 The parasitic plant
Rafflesia was discovered in the lowland forests of Southeast Asia.
It steals nutrition from other plants and periodically creates a
monstrous, red-brown flower with the perfume of rotten flesh.
(SFC, 1/19/04, p.A4)
1822 Albanian leader Ali Pasha
of Tepelena was assassinated by Ottoman agents for promoting
(www, Albania, 1998)
1822 London’s St. Matthew’s
Church was built to commemorate the victory at Waterloo.
(Econ, 12/22/12, p.100)
1822 In London a bronze
Achilles cast from cannons from the Napoleonic wars was unveiled at
the residence of the Duke of Wellington. A strategic fig leaf was
(SFEM, 3/21/99, p.24)
1822 The French Bollore Group
started out as a family-run manufacturer of paper for cigarettes and
1822 Gebruder Heubach (Heubach
Brothers) began a porcelain manufacturing operation in Lichte,
Thuringia, Germany. The firm became known for manufacturing doll
heads and in 2005 was still in operation as Lichte Porcelain.
(SFC, 10/5/05, p.G3)
1822 The Greek town of
Naoussa was razed by the Turks during Greece's war of independence.
1822 There was a massacre of
Greeks on the island of Chios. The event was later depicted in a
painting by Delacroix.
(WSJ, 9/17/01, p.A20)
1822 In Mexico the mission of
St. Gertrude the Great on the Baha Peninsula was closed as the local
(WSJ, 12/26/97, p.A9)
1822 In New Zealand Welshman
John Grono named Milford Sound, South Island, after his home,
Milford Haven. It was later named a UN protected World Heritage
(SSFC, 4/21/02, p.C5)
1822-1825 Luis Antonio Arguello, son of Jose
Dario, was the first native-born governor of Alta California.
(SFEC, 9/21/97, p.C7)
1822-1831 Pedro I ruled Brazil.
(EWH, 4th ed., p.854)
1822-1884 Gregor Mendel, Austrian botanist monk,
established basic principles of heredity.
1822-1888 Matthew Arnold, English poet and critic.
His books included "Culture and Anarchy." His best known poem is
Dover Beach." In 1999 Ian Hamilton wrote "A Gift Imprisoned: The
Poetic Life of Matthew Arnold."
(WSJ, 3/25/99, p.A24)
1822-1889 The period of the Brazilian monarchy.
(Hem, 8/96, p.68)
1822-1890 Cesar Auguste Franck, French composer
born in Belgium. His work included "Piece Heroique."
(WUD, 1994, p.563)(SFC, 8/13/96, p.B2)
1822-1895 Louis Pasteur, French chemist and
bacteriologist, was born on Dec. 27.
(CFA, ‘96, p.60)(WUD, 1994, p.1055)
1822-1900 Edward John Phelps, American lawyer and
diplomat: "The man who makes no mistakes does not usually make
1822-1904 Some 23,000 immigrants, mostly from the
US, arrived in Liberia.
(NG, Feb, 04)
1823 Jan 15, Matthew Brady,
Civil War photographer, was born.
1823 Jan 27,
Edouard-Victoire-Antoine Lalo, French composer (Symphonie
Espagnole), was born.
1823 Jan 27, Pres. Monroe
appointed 1st US ambassadors to South America.
1823 Feb 2, Rossini's opera
"Semiramide" premiered in Venice.
1823 Feb 16, John Daniel
Imboden (d.1895), Brig General (Confederate Army), was born.
1823 Feb 27, William Buel
Franklin (d.1903), Major General (Union volunteers), was born.
1823 Feb 28, Ernst Renan,
French philosopher, historian, scholar of religion, was born.
1823 Mar 3, Guyla Andrássy Sr.,
premier of Hungary (1867-71), was born.
1823 Mar 23, Schuyler Colfax,
(R) 17th US Vice President (1869-73), was born.
1823 Mar 25, Coelestin
Jungbauer (75), composer, died.
1823 Apr 1, Simon Bolivar
Buckner (d.1914), Lt. Gen. (Confederate Army), was born.
1823 Apr 3, William Macy "Boss"
Tweed, New York City political boss, was born.
1823 Apr 4, Karl Wilhelm
Siemens, inventor (laid undersea cables), was born.
1823 May 5, James Allen Hardie
(d.1876), Bvt Major General (Union Army), was born.
1823 May 8, "Home Sweet Home"
was 1st sung in London.
1823 May 10, The 1st steamboat
to navigate the Mississippi River arrived at Ft. Snelling (between
St. Paul and Minneapolis).
1823 May 15, Antonio Frantisek
Becvarovsky (69), composer, died.
1823 Jun 11, Major General
James L. Kemper, Confederate hero, was born. He fought at the
battles of Williamsburg and Gettysburg.
1823 Jul 1, The United
Provinces of Central America (Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras,
Nicaragua and San Salvador) gained independence from Mexico. The
union dissolved by 1840.
(PC, 1992, p.393)(ON, 12/99, p.5)
1823 Sep 10, Simon Bolivar was
named president of Peru and assumed the presidency with dictatorial
powers. He had led the wars for independence from Spain in
Venezuela, Colombia, Peru and Bolivia.
1823 Sep 21, The Angel Moroni
1st appeared to Joseph Smith (b.1823), according to Smith (founder
of Mormon Church). Smith in New York claimed that an angel named
Moroni led him to ancient golden plates that revealed the untold
story of America during biblical times.
(SFC, 4/8/96, p.A-1,6)(MC, 9/21/01)
1823 Oct 5, Carl Maria von
Weber visited Beethoven.
1823 Oct 12, Charles Macintosh
of Scotland began selling raincoats (Macs).
1823 Dec 2, President Monroe,
replying to the 1816 pronouncements of the Holy Alliance, proclaimed
the principles known as the Monroe Doctrine, "that the American
continents, by the free and independent condition which they have
assumed and maintained, are henceforth not to be considered as
subjects for future colonization by European powers." His doctrine
opposing European expansion in the Western Hemisphere insured that
American influence in the Western hemisphere remain unquestioned.
Former US Pres. Thomas Jefferson (1801-1809) helped Monroe shape the
1823 Dec 7, Leopold Kronecker,
German mathematician (Tensor of Kronecker), was born.
1823 Dec 19, Georgia passed the
1st US state birth registration law.
1823 Dec 20, Franz Schubert's
"Ballet-Musik aus Rosamunde," premiered in Vienna.
1823 Dec 23, The poem: “A Visit
from St. Nicholas,” was published. The poem was first published
anonymously in the Troy, New York Sentinel, and was reprinted
frequently thereafter with no name attached. Authorship was later
attributed to Clement Clarke Moore and the poem was included in an
anthology of his works. His connection with the verses has been
questioned by some. Recent scholarship reveals the original to have
been written by Major Henry Livingston (1748-1828). The segment of
the poem referring to reindeer reads: Now! Dasher, now! Dancer, now!
Prancer, and Vixen, On! Comet, on! Cupid, on! Dunder and Blixem.
Rudolph was added following the publication of Robert L. May's
Christmas story in 1939.
12/23/97)(AH, 2/05, p.18)
1823 Alfred Russel Wallace
(d.1913), naturalist, was born. He developed the theory of evolution
by natural selection at the same time as did Charles Darwin.
(NH, 2/02, p.74)
1823 Raphaelle Peale painted
"After the Bath." The artist was a hopeless lush and one of the
subtlest still-life painters who ever lived. On display at the
Nelson Art Gallery, Kansas City, Missouri.
(T&L, 10/1980, p.67)
1823 Johann Anton Ramboux,
German artist, created "Merenda in the Farnesi Gardens in Rome" in
pen and brown ink over pencil.
(WSJ, 7/16/98, p.A16)
1823 Franz Schubert composed
his song cycle "Die Schöne Müllerin." He also became gravely ill
with syphilis in this year.
(WSJ, 4/16/97, p.A16)
1823 The Reverend Hiram
Bingham, leader of a group of New England Calvinist missionaries,
began translating the Bible into Hawaiian. The project took 16
(Wired, 8/95, p.90)
1823 Mission San Francisco de
Solano de Sonoma was established by Father Jose Altimira. It was to
be the last of the 21 California missions set up to convert the
native Indians and develop the local resources. The native Indians
were of the Nappa tribe, hence the name of the Napa Valley. Spanish
explorer Francisco Castro accompanied Father Altimira and they
planted the first grapevines.
(WCG, p.58)(INV, 7/95, p.12)(SFC, 7/14/00, WBb,
1823 The city of Boston donated
an Egyptian mummy to Massachusetts General Hospital as a medical
oddity. In 2013 the 2,500-year-old mummy, named Padihershef, was
removed from its coffin for cleaning and restoration.
(SFC, 6/8/13, p.A4)
1823 The city of Ypsilanti,
Mich., was initially named Woodruff's Grove and was founded by
pioneers in 1823. It was re-named Ypsilanti in honor of a Greek war
hero, Demetrius Ypsilanti. The railroad came to the city in 1838,
and it became a major stopping point for travelers between Detroit
and the west. The Michigan State Normal School, now Eastern Michigan
University, was founded here in 1849.
1823 In New Orleans Louis
Joseph Dufilho Jr. established a pharmacy and was the first licensed
pharmacist in the US. The building later became The Pharmacy Museum.
(SFEM, 6/14/98, p.24)
1823 José Antonio Vizcarra, the
governor of New Mexico, waged war against the Navajo. Vizcarra and a
column of 1,500 soldiers advanced through the west of the state, and
their route took them through Chaco Canyon where they discovered a
city of the Anasazi, the ancestors of the Pueblo Native Americans.
1823 John Rankin, Presbyterian
minister, moved to Ripley, Ohio, and soon established the Ripley
Line of the underground railroad. In 2003 Ann Hagedorn authored
"Beyond the River: The Untold Story of the Heroes of the Underground
Railroad." In 2005 Fergus M. Bordewich authored “Bound for Canaan,”
a look at the people involved in the UR operations.
(WSJ, 1/30/03, p.D8)(WSJ, 3/29/05, p.D6)
1823 Philip Cazenova founded a
British banking firm partnership. It incorporated in 2001.
(Econ, 11/13/04, p.82)
1823 Lord Byron returned to
Greece to provide moral support to insurgents and draw attention to
Ottoman massacres of Greek civilians.
9/7/08, Books p.5)
1823 Poet Lord Byron spent a
summer on the Ionian island of Cephalonia.
(SFEC, 1/18/98, p.T3)
1823 In Brazil homosexual acts
(SFC, 1/11/99, p.A10)
1823 The Rishengchang Draft
Bank in Pingyao became the first bank in China to issue checks.
(Econ, 10/18/14, p.46)
1823 In Paris, France, the
Galerie Viviene, a covered arcade, was built.
(SSFC, 2/23/14, p.M4)
1823 The first New England
missionaries arrived on Maui.
1823 British Major Dixon Denham
and Captain Hugh Clapperton (1788-1827) entered Northern Nigeria
from the north, crossing the desert from Tripoli.
(Econ, 1/7/06, p.74)(
1823 A fire in Rome destroyed a
basilica, said to have been built over the burial site of St. Paul.
This basilica had been built by Theodosius over an older church
built over the burial site. A new St. Paul Outside the Walls
basilica was built over the site. In 2006 a sarcophagus was
uncovered that dated to at least 390BC.
1823 The Momotomba volcano, 18
miles from Managua and on the northwest shore of Lake Nicaragua,
went dormant. In the 17th cent. it had destroyed the capital of
(SFC, 4/13/96, p.A-15)
1823 Steam powered shipping
began on Lake Geneva between Switzerland and France.
(SFEC, 7/19/98, p.T3)
1923 In Nha Trang, Vietnam, a
retreat was built for Bao Dai, the last Vietnamese king. It later
became the Bao Dai Villas Hotel.
(SFEC, 4/26/98, p.T5)
1823-1871 Charles Buxton, English author: "You
will never 'find' time for anything. If you want time you must make
1823-1890 William Kitchen Parker, English
anatomist and embryologist. See .
(NH, 10/96, p.37)
1823-1896 Coventry Patmore, English poet: "Nearly
all our disasters come from a few fools having the ‘courage of their
1823-1900 F. Max Mueller, German philologist: "To
think is to speak low. To speak is to think aloud."
1823-1911 Thomas Wentworth Higginson, American
clergyman-author: "To be really cosmopolitan, a man must be at home
even in his own country."
1824 Jan 1, The Camp Street
Theatre opened as the first English-language playhouse in New
1824 Jan 8, William Wilkie
Collins, English novelist (Woman in White), was born.
1824 Jan 8, Tom Spring defeated
Jack Langan in a British championship boxing match that lasted 2½
1824 Jan 21, Thomas "Stonewall"
Jackson, Confederate General, was born.
1824 Jan 22, A British force
was wiped out by an Asante army under Osei Bonsu on the African Gold
Coast. This was the first defeat for a colonial power.
1824 Jan 26, Edward Jenner,
discoverer of vaccination, died.
1824 Feb 4, J.W. Goodrich
introduced rubber galoshes to public.
1824 Feb 9, Anna Katharina
Emmerick (b.1774), a sickly, virtually illiterate German nun, died.
Her gory visions of Jesus' last hours of suffering before his
crucifixion drew pilgrims to her bedside in the years before her
death. In 2004 she was beatified by Pope John Paul VI.
1824 Feb 10, Simon Bolivar was
named President by the Congress of Peru.
1824 Feb 14, Winfield Scott
Hancock (d.1886), Major General (Union volunteers), was born.
1824 Feb 23, Lewis Cass Hunt
(d.1886), Brig General (Union volunteers), was born.
1824 Feb 28, Charles Blondin,
tightrope walker, was born.
1824 Mar 2, Bedrich Friedrich
Smetana (1884), Czech, Bohemian composer (Bartered Bride, Moldau),
(WUD, 1994, p.1345)(WSJ, 10/4/96, p.A7)(SC,
1824 Mar 2, In the Supreme
Court case of Gibbons v Ogden held that the power to regulate
interstate commerce was granted to Congress by the Commerce Clause
of the Constitution. The Court found that New York's licensing
requirement for out-of-state operators was inconsistent with a
congressional act regulating the coasting trade. Gibbons had hired
Cornelius Vanderbilt as captain of his boat, Bellona, which operated
under a federal license.
(Econ, 4/18/09, p.90)(ON, 6/12,
1824 Mar 5, Elisha Harris, U.S.
physician, founder of the American Public Health Association, was
1824 Mar 5, James Merritt Ives,
lithographer for Currier and Ives, was born.
1824 Mar 7, Meyerbeer's opera
"Il Crociati in Egitto," premiered in Venice.
1824 Mar 9, Leland Stanford,
railroad builder and founder of Stanford University, was born in
what was then Watervliet, New York (later the town of Colonie).
1824 Mar 11, The U.S. War
Department created the Bureau of Indian Affairs. A lifelong friend
and trusted aide of Ulysses S. Grant, Ely Parker rose to the top in
two worlds, that of his native Seneca Indian tribe and the white
man’s world at large. He went on to become the first Indian to lead
1824 Mar 12, Gustav Robert
Kirchoff, physicist, was born in Prussia.
(HN, 3/12/98)(MC, 3/12/02)
1824 Mar 26, 1st performance of
Beethoven's "Missa Solemnis."
1824 Apr 6, King Kamehameha
II's royal yacht, HA`AHEO o HAWAI`I (Pride of Hawaii), sank on the
southwest corner of Hanalei Bay near the mouth of the Waioli River,
after striking a five-foot deep reef a hundred yards offshore.
1824 Apr 17, Russia abandoned
all North American claims south of 54’ 40’.
1824 Apr 19, George Gordon,
(6th Baron Byron, b.1788) aka Lord Byron, English poet, died of
malaria in Greece at Missolonghi on the gulf of Patras preparing to
fight for Greek independence. In 1999 Benita Eisler published the
biography "Byron: Child of Passion, Fool of Fame." In 2002 Fiona
MacCarthy authored "Byron : Life and Legend." In 2009 Edna O’Brien
authored “Byron in Love.”
(SFC, 6/9/97, p.D3)(WSJ, 4/26/99, p.A16)(HN,
4/1901)(SSFC, 12/29/02, p.M2)(SSFC, 6/21/09, Books p.J5)
1824 Apr 27, William Richard
Bexfield, composer, was born.
1824 May 7, The Ninth Symphony
by Beethoven had its premiere. The "Ode to Joy" lyric was originally
written by Friedrich von Schiller as the "Ode to Freedom."
(LGC, 1970, p.98)(WSJ, 12/10/01, p.A16)
1824 May 8, William Walker,
president of Nicaragua, was born.
1824 May 16, Edmund
Kirby-Smith, educator and soldier, was born. He was a Confederate
general in the western theater.
1824 May 29, Cadmus Marcellus
Wilcox, Major General (Confederate Army), was born.
1824 Jun 8, A washing machine
was patented by Noah Cushing of Quebec.
1824 Jun 10, Caesar
Augustus Rodney (v.1772), US Attorney General (1807-1811) and nephew
of US Judge Caesar Rodney (1728-1784), died in Buenos Aires. He
served as a US Senator from Delaware (1822-1823).
1824 Jun 16, The Society for
the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals was formed at Old Slaughter’s
Coffee House in London under the direction of Arthur Broome.
1824 Jul 20, Alexander
Schimmelfennig, Brig. General Union volunteers, was born in Prussia.
1824 Jul 20, Marc Brunel (55)
was appointed as engineer for the Thames Tunnel Company. He hired
his son, Isambard Brunel, as his assistant. Brunel senior, a
royalist, had fled the French Revolution to become, briefly,
official engineer to the city of New York, and then, having settled
in London, a consultant engineer to the Royal Navy. Educated and
trained in both French and English schools and workshops, Brunel
junior served his practical apprenticeship assisting his father in
the building of the first tunnel under the Thames, which later
carried the Underground between Wapping and Rotherhithe.
1824 Jul 21, Rama II (b.1767),
King Phra Buddha Loetla Nabhalai, died. King Phra Buddha Loetla
Nabhalai succeeded his father in 1809 and ruled for almost 15 years.
His reign was more peaceful. Art and literature flourished. The king
was an avid composer of poetry, plays and songs. The most notable
poet under the king's patronage was Sunthorn Phu, known as the "the
Shakespeare of Thailand" for his role in literature.
1824 Jul 25, Costa Rica gained
Guanacaste province from Nicaragua as the town people of Nicoya and
Santa Cruz decided to join Costa Rica. In 2013 Nicaragua’s President
Daniel Ortega warned Costa Rica that he may ask the International
Court of Justice to restore to Managua the province he said it lost
1824 Jul 27, Alexandre Dumas
fils, French playwright, novelist (Camille), was born.
1824 Jul 30, Gioacchino Rossini
became manager of Theatre Italian in Paris.
1824 Jul, The Richmond
[Virginia] Light Artillery changed its name to the Richmond Fayette
Artillery in honor of the Marquis de La Fayette.
(RC handout, 5/27/96)
1824 Aug 15, General Lafayette
returned to the US under an invitation from Pres. Monroe. Political
ribbons were printed in for the 1st time in large quantities to
celebrate his US tour.
1824 Aug 15, Freed American
slaves formed the country of Liberia.
1824 Aug 24, Simon Bolivar's
army beat the Spanish in Peru in the Battle at Junin.
(PC, 1992, p.394)
1824 Sep 4, Anton Bruckner,
composer and Wagner disciple, was born in Austria.
1824 Sep 23, Captain Richard
Charlton was appointed British Consul to Hawaii. He arrived in
Hawaii and assumed his post in April, 1825.
(Hawaii state archives)
1824 Oct 4, The Federal
Constitution of the United Mexican States of 1824 was enacted, after
the overthrow of the Mexican Empire of Agustin de Iturbide. In the
new constitution, the republic took the name of United Mexican
States, and was defined as a representative federal republic, with
Catholicism as the official religion. A liberal constitution,
established at this time, was later replaced by Santa Anna.
1824 Oct 21, Joseph Aspdin
patented Portland cement in Yorkshire, England.
1824 Oct 22, The Tennessee
Legislature adjourned ending Davy Crockett’s state political career.
Crockett died at the legendary siege of the Alamo in 1836.
1824 Oct 23, The 1st steam
locomotive was introduced.
1824 Nov 2, Popular
presidential vote was 1st recorded; Jackson beat J.Q. Adams. Gen.
Jackson won the popular vote followed by John Quincy Adams, William
Crawford and Henry Clay. Jackson won 99 electoral votes, Adams won
84, Crawford won 41 and Clay won 37. Crawford, Treasury secretary,
was accused of malfeasance. Henry Clay was denounced for passing
days gambling and nights in a brothel. Clay convinced his supporters
in congress to vote for Adams. The House of Representatives chose
John Quincy Adams, who chose Clay for vice president. A furious
Jackson proceeded to help found the Democratic Party.
(WSJ, 10/8/96, p.A22)(WSJ, 11/9/00, p.A26)(WSJ,
12/11/00, p.A18)(MC, 11/2/01)
1824 Nov 5, Stephen Van
Rensselaer established the Rensselaer School with a letter to Rev.
Dr. Samuel Blatchford, in which he asked him to serve as the first
president. The first engineering college in the U.S., Rensselaer
School, opened in Troy, New York, on Jan 3, 1825. It later became
known as Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.
1824 Nov 16, NY City's Fifth
Avenue opened for business.
1824 Nov 18, Franz Sigel
(d.1902), Major General (Union volunteers), was born.
1824 Dec 1, The presidential
election was turned over to the U.S. House of Representatives when a
deadlock developed among John Quincy Adams, Andrew Jackson, William
H. Crawford and Henry Clay with Jackson 32 votes shy of a majority.
John Quincy Adams ended up the winner. He was reportedly the only
(AP, 12/1/97)(WSJ, 12/31/97, p.A11)(SFEC,
1824 Dec 9, In the Battle of
Ayacucho (Candorcangui) Peru defeated Spain.
1824 Dec 22, Chiefess
Kapiolani, a Christian, defied Pele, the Hawaiian volcano goddess,
and lived. Tennyson's eponymous poem celebrated the event.
1824 John Hayter painted
portraits of Hawaii’s King Kamehameha II and Queen Kamamalu in
London shortly before they died there of measles.
(AH, 10/01, p.14)
1824 Lydia Maria Child of
Wayland, Mass., authored "Hobomok," a novel of a Puritan girl who
falls in love with an Indian after her fiancée is lost at sea. She
later founded Juvenile Miscellany, the 1st children’s magazine in
the US. She later authored "The Frugal Housewife" and "An Appeal in
Favor of That Class of Americans Called Africans" (1833) and the
poem: "The New England’s Boy’s Song About Thanksgiving Day" (Over
the river, and through the woods…). In 1994 Carolyn Karcher authored
her biography: "The First Woman in the Republic."
(WSJ, 11/21/02, p.A1)
1824 James Morier authored “The
Adventures of Haji Bab of Ispahan,” the tale of a barber’s son who
seeks his fortunes in Persia.
(WSJ, 10/6/07, p.W8)
1824 Meyerbeer composed his
opera "Il Crociato in Egitto," with a part for the last of the great
castrato singers, Giovanni Batista Velluti.
1824 The Second Bank of the
United States, established by federal charter in 1791, was completed
in Philadelphia by William Strickland. It was modeled after the
Parthenon. From 1841-1934 it served as a Custom House. It was
acquired by the National Park Service in 1939 and in 1974 became the
home of the Peale portraits. The renovated museum reopened Dec 1,
(WSJ, 2/22/05, p.D10)
1824 US Supreme Court Chief
Justice John Marshall said quarantines restricting movement from
endangered areas were withing "the acknowledged powers of state3s to
provide for the health of the citizens".
(SFC, 3/23/20, p.A10)
1824 In California Rafael
Garcia led the defense of Mission San Rafael against hostile
(SFC, 5/26/97, p.A11)
1824 Hens called Rhode Island
Reds were first bred in Little Compton, R.I. They lay brown eggs and
gained a regional preference.
(SFC, 5/26/96, Z 1 p.2)
1824 William Moorcroft, East
India Co. head of 5,000 acre horse farm at Pusa, India, arrived in
Peshawar, Afghanistan, while enroute to Bukhara, Uzbekistan, to
trade for horses.
(ON, 1/02, p.3)
1824 The first company to come
out with the paper milk carton was the Toronto East India Company,
which developed it in 1824 due to a glass shortage.
1824 Argentina issued its first
bond with an expected lifespan of 46 years. The government defaulted
in 4 years and an ensuing standoff with creditors took 29 years to
(Econ, 8/2/14, p.9)
1824 The Ashanti tribe in West
Africa defeated the troops under Sir Charles MacCarthy. His polished
skull then became a prized feature of the annual yam festival.
(WSJ, 5/16/96, p.A-12)
1824 "Publish and be damned,"
was exclaimed by the Duke of Wellington to Harrietta Wilson, a
courtesan of note, whose publisher went trolling amongst her former
beaux, offering exclusion from her memoirs for 200 hundred pounds
(WSJ, 2/3/95, p.A-11)
1824 Dean William Buckland of
Oxford Univ. discovered and described the bones of the meat-eating
Megalosaurus, "huge reptile."
1824 In England the first
animal welfare group was founded.
(SFEC, 1/10/99, p.A20)
1824 The Royal National
Lifeboat Institution was established in England.
(Econ, 5/14/05, p.87)
1824 Charles Henry Harrod (25)
established his first retail business. Until 1831 it was variously
listed as a draper, mercer and a haberdasher. In 1834 he established
a wholesale grocery in Stepney, at 4 Cable Street, London, with a
special interest in tea.
1824 The Mexican governor of
California offered all missions for sale under a program of
(SFEC, 3/12/00, p.T4)
1824 A Mexican General was
served chiles en nogada after he threw out the last Spanish viceroy.
The dish consisted of green chiles, pomegranate seeds and a white
(WSJ, 12/11/98, p.A1)
1824 Newfoundland became a
(SFEC, 6/25/00, BR p.6)
1824 In the Philippines a
Spanish priest built a 17-foot high and 13-foot wide bamboo organ
near Manila. In 1975 it became the centerpice of the Int’l. Bamboo
(SSFC, 3/15/15, p.A7)
1824 The Saud family
established a new capital at Riyadh.
(WSJ, 11/13/01, p.A14)
1824-1860 Yanagawa Shigenobu II, Japanese
printmaker, was active. His work included the color woodcut “Kuroho”
1824-1868 Lesotho acted as a buffer between the
Afrikaner’s Boer Republic and British colonial interests and
supplied seasonal farm workers to both.
(WSJ, 3/25/98, p.A11)
1824-1877 Julia Kavanagh, Irish novelist: "The
slight that can be conveyed in a glance, in a gracious smile, in a
wave of the hand, is often the ne plus ultra of art. What insult is
so keen or so keenly felt, as the polite insult which it is
impossible to resent?"
1824-1879 William Morris Hunt, artist. His work
included an oil of Niagara Falls.
(WSJ, 11/6/98, p.W10)
1824-1887 Gustav Kirchoff, German physicist,
discovers that the reasons for the Fraunhoffer lines in light
spectra from the sun are due to absorption of specific wavelengths
of energy by elements in the gaseous chromosphere that resonate when
impacted at specific energy levels. The light emitted by the excited
atoms will then have characteristic markings such as the D-line of
1824-1889 (William) Wilkie Collins, English
novelist. His work included the 1860 mystery: "The Woman in White."
It was later made into a TV version on both "Mystery" (1985) and
"Masterpiece Theater" (1998).
(WUD, 1994, p.290)(WSJ, 2/19/98, p.A20)
1824-1892 George William Curtis, American
author-editor "Heroes in history seem to us poetic because they are
there. But if we should tell the simple truth of some of our
neighbors, it would sound like poetry."
1824-1907 William Thomson (Lord Kelvin), Scottish
scientist-inventor, a leader in energetics. Along with Helmholtz he
helped establish the principle of the conservation of energy.
(TNG, Klein, p.88)
1825 Jan 1, Dewitt Clinton
(1769-1828) began serving his 2nd term as governor of New York and
continued to 1828.
1825 Jan 1, Dr. Gideon Mantell
presented his paper “Notice on the Iguanodon” to members of
England’s Philosophical Society. His paper linked the large
hypothetical “Sussex lizard” to a modern species of reptile. This
work led to his induction to the Royal Society on Dec 25, 1825.
(ON, 7/06, p.3)
1825 Jan 3, Scottish factory
owner Robert Owen bought 30,000 acres in Indiana as site for New
Harmony utopian community.
1825 Jan 25, Eli Whitney
(b.1765), cotton gin inventor and gun manufacturer, died.
(ON, 2/03, p.6)
1825 Jan 19, Ezra Daggett and
nephew Thomas Kensett received a patent from Pres. Monroe for food
storage in tin cans. [see 1810]
1825 Jan 27, Congress approved
Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma), clearing the way for forced
relocation of the Eastern Indians on the "Trail of Tears."
1825 Jan 28, George Edward
Pickett (d.1875), Major General in the Confederate Army, was born.
When blame was being sought for why his ill-fated charge was the
final action of the Battle of Gettysburg, and why the Confederacy
did not win the three-day battle, George Pickett suggested that "The
Union Army might have had something to do with it." Pickett had been
sponsored for West Point by the Illinois congressman, Abraham
1825 Feb 9, The House of
Representatives elected John Quincy Adams Jr. 6th U.S. president
(1825-1829) after no candidate received a majority of electoral
(A&IP, ESM, p.96b, photo)(AHD, 1971,
p.14)(HN, 2/9/97)(AP, 2/9/99)
1825 Feb 12, Creek Indian
treaty signed. Tribal chiefs agreed to turn over all their land in
Georgia to the government and migrate west by Sept 1, 1826.
1825 Feb 22, Russia and Britain
established the Alaska/Canada boundary.
1825 Feb 24, Thomas Bowdler,
self-appointed Shakespearean censor, died. His expurgated
Shakespeare edition was published in 1818.
(MC, 2/24/02)(SFC, 1/21/04, p.D2)
1825 Feb 25, William Moorcroft,
East India Co. head of 5,000 acre horse farm at Pusa, India, arrived
at Bukhara, Uzbekistan, to trade for horses. He met with Khan
Haydar, Emir of Bukhara.
(ON, 1/02, p.5)
1825 Feb 28, Quincy Adams
Gillmore (d.1888), Major General (Union volunteers), was born.
1825 Mar 2, The 1st grand opera
in US sung in English was in NYC.
1825 Mar 4, John Quincy Adams
was inaugurated as 6th President.
1825 Mar 12, The English Sloop,
Eliza Ann, was captured by pirates, who proceeded to murder the crew
(LSA., Fall 1995, p.18)
1825 Mar 25, The first
Brazilian Constitution was promulgated by Peter I and solemnly sworn
in the Cathedral of the Empire.
1825 Apr 16, John Henry Fuseli
(aka Johan Heinrich Fussli b.1741), Swiss born British Romantic
painter, died. His paintings included “Nightmare” (1782).
(www.artnet.com/library/03/0302/T030268.asp)(Econ, 2/18/06, p.78)
1825 Apr 25, Charles Ferdinand
Dowd was born. He standardized time zones.
1825 May 1, George Inness, US
landscape painter (Delaware Water Gap), was born.
1825 May 4, Thomas Henry Huxley
(d.1895), British biologist, naturalist and author, was born. "God
give me strength to face a fact though it slay me." "My experience
of the world is that things left to themselves don't get right." His
work includes the collected Essays in nine volumes: 1. Method and
Results, 2. Darwiniana, 3. Science and Education, 4. Science and the
Hebrew Tradition, 5. Science and the Christian Tradition, 6. Hume,
with Helps to the Study of Berkeley, 7. Man’s Place in Nature, 8.
Discourses, Biological and Geological, 9. Evolution and Ethics and
Other Essays. In 1997 Adrian Desmond wrote the biography: "Huxley."
"God give me strength to face a fact though it slay me."
(OAPOC-TH, p.71)(WSJ, 10/10/97, p.A20)(AP,
11/1/97)(AP, 1/26/99)(HN, 5/4/01)
1825 May 7, Italian composer
Antonio Salieri (74) died in Vienna, Austria.
(AP, 5/7/97)(MC, 5/7/02)
1825 May 15, In Yerba Buena
(later San Francisco) William Richardson married the Presidio
Commander's daughter, Maria Antonia Martinez, at Mission Dolores and
the couple honeymooned at Sausalito.
1825 May 20, Charles X became
King of France.
1825 May 25, American Unitarian
Association was founded.
1825 May 29, David Bell Birney
(d.1864), Major General (Union volunteers), was born.
1825 Jun 7, R.D. Blackmore,
author (Norie), was born.
1825 Jun 19, Gioacchino
Rossini's "Il Viaggio a Reims," premiered. Rossini wrote the "IL
Viaggio a Reims" opera to celebrate the coronation of Charles X. The
libretto by Luigi Balocchi was intended to show all major European
nationalities coming together to celebrate the event.
(WSJ, 9/29/99, p.A20)(MC, 6/19/02)
1825 Jun 20, Coronation of
French king Charles X, the surviving brother of guillotined Louis
1825 Jul 16, Alexander Gordon
Laing (32), British Army Major, set off on camel from Tripoli in an
attempt to become the 1st European to cross the Sahara Desert and
reach the fabled city of Timbuktu (Mali).
(SSFC, 1/1/06, p.M2)(ON, 11/06, p.5)
1825 Aug 1, William Beaumont, a
US Army assistant surgeon at Fort Mackinac in the Michigan
territory, began experiments to study the digestive system of Alexis
St. Martin, a fur trader who was accidentally shot in the
abdomen in 1822.
(ON, 1/02, p.6)
1825 Aug 6, Simon Bolivar drew
up a constitution for Bolivia in which a life president appointed
his successor. Sucre served as the sole capital until losing a brief
civil war to La Paz in 1899. Upper Peru became the autonomous
republic of Bolivia.
(Econ, 7/1/06, p.77)(AP, 7/21/07)(AP, 8/6/08)
1825 Sep 7, The Marquis de
Lafayette, the French hero of the American Revolution, bade farewell
to President John Quincy Adams at the White House.
1825 Aug 25, Uruguay declared
its independence from Brazil.
1825 Aug 27, William Moorcroft,
East India Co. head of 5,000 acre horse farm at Pusa, India, died
near Balkh, Afghanistan, while returning to India following his trip
to Bukhara, Uzbekistan, to trade for horses. In 1985 Garry Alder
authored "Beyond Bukhara: The Life of William Moorcroft, Asian
Explorer and Veterinary Surgeon."
(ON, 1/02, p.6)
1825 Sep 27, The Stockton and
Darlington rail line opened in England. The first locomotive to haul
a passenger train was operated by George Stephenson in England. The
British engineers Richard Trevithick and George Stevenson were the
first innovators of the technology.
1825 Oct 9, The first Norwegian
immigrants to America, sailing form Stavanger, arrived on the sloop
(HN, 10/9/98)(SSFC, 4/21/13, p.H4)
1825 Oct 16, Thomas Turpin
Crittenden (d.1905), Brig. Gen. (Union volunteers), was born.
1825 Oct 17, Franz Liszt's
operetta Don Sanche premiered in Paris
1825 Oct 25, Johann Strauss
(d.1899), Austrian orchestra conductor and composer, was born.
(WUD, 1994, p.1405)(HN, 10/25/98)
1825 Oct 26, The Erie Canal was
opened in upstate New York. It cut through 363 miles of wilderness
and measured 40 feet wide and 4 feet deep. It had 18 aqueducts and
83 locks and rose 568 feet from the Hudson River to Lake Erie. The
first boat on the Erie Canal left Buffalo, N.Y. after eight years of
construction. At the request of New York Governor DeWitt Clinton,
the New York state legislature had provided $7 million to finance
the project. The canal facilitated trade between New York City and
the Midwest--manufactured goods were shipped out of New York and
agricultural products were returned from the Midwest. As the canal
became vital to trade, New York City flourished and settlers rapidly
moved into the Midwest and founded towns like Clinton, Illinois.
[see 1826] Gov. Clinton rode the Seneca Chief canal boat from
Buffalo to New York harbor for the inauguration. In 2004 Peter L.
Bernstein authored “Wedding of the Waters: The Erie Canal and the
Making of a Great Nation.” In 2009 Gerard Koeppel authored “Bond of
Union: Building the Erie Canal and the American Empire.”
(SFEC, 4/20/97, p.T10)(AP, 10/26/97)(HN,
10/26/98)(WSJ, 2/8/00, p.A24)(WSJ, 1/14/05, p.W6)(Econ, 2/28/09,
1825 Nov 9, Ambrose Powell Hill
(d.1865), Lt Gen (Confederate 3rd Army Corp), was born.
1825 Nov 26, The first college
social fraternity, the Kappa Alpha Society, was formed at Union
College in Schenectady, N.Y.
(AP, 11/26/97)(HN, 11/26/98)
1825 Nov 29, 1st Italian opera
in US, "Barber of Seville," premiered in NYC and was welcomed by the
legendary librettist for Mozart (and friend of Casanova), Lorenzo
DaPonte, who was Professor of Italian at King's (later Columbia)
1825 Dec 27, The 1st public
railroad using steam locomotive was completed in England.
1825 Dec 28, James Wilkinson
(b.1757), US General and statesman, died In Mexico City. He
was associated with several scandals and controversies. Wilkinson's
involvement with the Spanish (as Agent 13) was widely suspected in
his own day, but it was not proven until 1854, with Louisiana
historian Charles Gayarre's publication of the American general's
correspondence with Esteban Rodríguez Miró, Louisiana's colonial
governor between 1785 and 1791. Other historians subsequently added
to the catalog of Wilkinson's treasonous activities.
1825 Dec 29, Giuseppe Maria
Gioacchino Cambini, composer, died.
1825 Dec 29, Jacques-Louis
David (b.1748), French painter (Death of Marat), died.
(WUD, 1994 p.369)(MC, 12/29/01)
1825 Camille Corot created his
painting "View of Rome."
(WSJ, 9/9/03, p.D6)
1825 Goya (79) made his 4
lithographs known as the "Bulls of Bordeaux."
(WSJ, 5/4/99, p.A20)
1825 Jean Anthelme
Brillat-Savarin (1755-1826), French lawyer and professor, invented
the genre of food writing with his book “The Physiology of Taste.”
(WSJ, 5/5/07, p.P10)
1825 Beethoven composed his
String Quartet No. 15 in A Minor.
1825 The Marquis de Lafayette
laid the cornerstone for the Monument at Bunker Hill in a ceremony
addressed by Daniel Webster.
(HT, 3/97, p.33)
1825 Sing Sing Prison opened on
the banks of the Hudson River. The name was from the local Sint
Sinct Indian tribe. [see 1901]
(WSJ, 3/29/02, p.A1)
1825 Franciscan missionaries
planted vineyards north of San Francisco to make sacramental wine.
(WSJ, 4/16/97, p.CA1)
1825 Philadelphia druggist Elie
Magliore Durand first touted the effervescent soda water as a health
drink. Shortly afterward, New York inventor John Matthews originated
the fountain apparatus that conveniently rested on a pharmacist’s
counter to dispense carbonated drinks.
1825 The US government launched
a mapping and surveying expedition of the Sant Fe Trail. The notes
ended up filed for decades. In 2000 David Dary authored "The Santa
Fe Trail: Its History, Legends and Lore."
(WSJ, 12/28/00, p.A9)
1825 The Bureau of Indian
Affairs began as an office of the War Department that dealt with
what white Americans saw as the "Indian problem."
(SFC, 9/9/00, p.A3)
1825 A law that defined and set
punishment for abortion was placed into the Missouri penal code. It
was the 2nd US abortion law after a 1821 law in Connecticut. The law
prohibited only abortions induced by poisoning.
(SFEM, 2/1/98, p.13)
1825 The element aluminium was
(NH, 7/02, p.35)
1825 William Sturgeon, English
inventor, found that an electric current flowing through a coil of
wire created a magnet. Shortly thereafter, the American physicist
Joseph Henry discovered that placing an iron core inside the wire
coil strengthened the effect- permitting this electromagnet to lift
and drop small iron objects at the closing and opening of a switch
connecting the coil to a storage battery.
(I&I, Penzias, p.96)
1825 The Miramichi fires burned
some 3 million acres in Maine and New Brunswick, Canada.
(SFC, 10/30/03, p.A15)
1825 Parson Weems, writer,
died. His work included "Life of George Washington With Curious
Anecdotes, equally Honorable to Himself and Exemplary to his Young
(SFEC, 7/12/98, Par p.13)
1825 A financial panic ensued
in the US and Europe following over-investment in mining firms in
(Panic, p.6)(Econ, 4/12/14, p.50)
1825 The Bank of England began
lending money aggressively and continued to 1826 to help stabilize a
financial crisis, despite lacking the legal authority to do so.
(Econ, 11/5/11, p.92)
1825 The British conquered the
Burmese state of Arakon (aka Rakhine), called Rohang by early
Muslims, and administered it as part of British India. Muslims are
believed to have arrived here in as long ago as the 8th century.
(Econ, 6/13/15, p.38)
1825 In Egypt British traveler
and draftsman James Burton sketched tombs of the New Kingdom
pharaohs in the Valley of the Kings.
(NG, 9/98, p.7)
1825 A French emissary of
Charles X demanded that Haiti pay 150 million gold francs in
exchange for recognition as French warships cruised over the
horizon. The deal required 5 annual payments of 30 million and
required a loan from a French bank for the 1st payment. Haiti
renegotiated the debt in 1838.
(WSJ, 1/2/04, p.A1)
1825 France established its
imperial paramilitary, the Gendarmerie Coloniale, for law
enforcement across its colonial empire.
(WSJ, 2/2/04, p.A12)
1825 The Hungarian Academy of
Sciences (MTA) was founded.
1825 The impresario of La Scala
in Milan, Italy, sold the theater’s library of manuscript opera
scores to the young copyist Giovannin Ricordi. This initiated the
rise of Ricordi’s music-publ. firm.
(Civil., Jul-Aug., ‘95, p.84)
1825 Japan issued an edict that
spelled out what would happen to uninvited guests. “Should any
foreigners land anywhere, they must be arrested or killed.”
(Econ, 12/22/07, p.63)
1825 A disastrous breach of
Dutch coastal defenses occurred.
1825 The Decembrists consisted
of idealistic military officers who plotted unsuccessfully against
the Russian tsar.
(Econ, 5/21/05, p.27)
1825-1829 John Quincy Adams served as the 6th
president of the US.
(WSJ, 10/22/97, p.A20)
1825-1832 Lambert Hitchcock marked all his
furniture with the insignia "L. Hitchcock."
(SFC, 6/12/96, Z1 p.5)
1825-1833 Scottish botanist and gardener, David
Douglas, visited the US Pacific Coast and sent a collection of
poppies to the London Horticultural Society, where the species was
successfully cultivated. [see 1792,1794, 1816]
(NBJ, 2/96, p.12)
1825-1852 Master Juba was a free black man and the
first recognized master of tap dancing.
(WSJ, 4/21/98, p.A21)
1825-1858 The Suffolk Bank operated a clearing
house in Boston that served the New England region, and required all
country banks doing business in Boston to maintain clearing
(WSJ, 2/5/98, p.A23)
1825-1859 An ongoing project under Frederick
Burkhardt has undertaken the task of editing and publishing the
letters of Charles Darwin of this period. The first of 30 volumes
came out in 1985 published by Cambridge Univ. Press, and the 10th in
1996. Selected letters over this period from the first 7 volumes
have been published as "Charles Darwin’s Letters: A Selection
(NH, 5/96, p.6)
1825-1888 Sandwich glass, also known as pressed
glass, was made by the Boston and Sandwich Glass Works in Sandwich,
Mass. They made the original dolphin-based glassware.
(SFC, 7/9/97, Z1 p.3)
1825-1893 Jean Martin Charcot, hypnotist. He
taught Sigmund Freud and influenced Freud’s theories of the
(WSJ, 5/30/00, p.A24)
1825-1997 The 1997 book, "The American Opera
Singer" by Peter G. Davis, covers the lives and adventures of opera
and concert singers over this period.
(WSJ, 11/6/97, p.A20)
1826 Jan 26, Julia Dent Grant,
First Lady and wife of Ulysses Grant, was born.
1826 Feb 2, Jean Anthelme
Brillat-Savarin (b.1755), French lawyer and epicure, died. “Tell me
what you eat and I will tell you what you are.” His famous work,
Physiologie du goût (The Physiology of Taste), was published in
December 1825, two months before his death.
1826 Feb 11, London University
1826 Feb 13, The American
Temperance Society formed in Boston.
1826 Feb 16, Franz von
Holstein, composer, was born.
1826 Mar 4, The Granite Railway
in Quincy, MA, became the 1st US RR to be chartered.
1826 Mar 21, Beethoven's
Quartet #13 in B flat major (Op 130) premiered in Vienna.
1826 Apr 1, Samuel Mory
patented the internal combustion engine.
1826 Apr 6, Gustave Moreau,
French painter, was born.
1826 Apr 9, Chatham Roberdeau
Wheat was born in Alexandria, Va. He studied law at the University
of Nashville and then served in the 1st Tennessee Cavalry as a
lieutenant during the Mexican War. He became a Confederate commander
of the 1st Louisiana Special Battalion in the Civil War, also known
as Wheat's Tigers.
1826 Apr 12, Karl Maria von
Weber's opera "Oberon," premiered in London.
1826 Apr 13, Franz Danzi (62),
1826 Apr 22, Ibrahim, son of
Mohammed Ali of Egypt, took Missolonghi (in West Greece) after a
long siege. [see Apr 23]
(CMW, 1968, p.154)
1826 Apr 23, Missolonghi (in
west Greece) fell to Egyptian-Turkish forces. [see Apr 22]
(HN, 4/23/99)(MC, 4/23/02)
1826 Apr 28, Alexander
Stadtfeld, composer, was born.
1826 May 4, Frederick Church,
US romantic landscape painter (Hudson River School), was born.
1826 May 7, Varina Howell Davis
(d.1905), 1st lady (Confederacy), was born.
1826 May 10, Giuseppe
Sigismondo (86), composer, died.
1826 May 25, Christian
Friedrich Ruppe (72), composer, died.
1826 May 29, Ebenezer
Butterick, inventor (tissue paper dress pattern), was born.
1826 Jun 4, Karl Maria FE von
Weber (39), German composer (Oberon), died.
1826 Jul 4, Stephen Foster
(Stephen Collins Foster, d. Jan 13, 1864) composer, was born near
Pittsburgh. His famous songs include "My Old Kentucky Home," "O
Susanna," "Old Folks at Home," "Old Black Joe" and "Camptown Races."
(HFA, ‘96, p.22)(AHD, p. 519)(BAAC PN, Chambers,
1/8/96)(IB, Internet, 12/7/98)
1826 Jul 4, Construction of the
Pennsylvania Grand Canal was begun.
(WSJ, 7/3/96, p.A8)
1826 Jul 4, Thomas Jefferson,
the nation's third president, died at age 83 at one o'clock in the
afternoon and was buried near Charlottesville, Virginia. He was the
founder of the Univ. of Virginia and wrote the state’s statute of
religious freedom. In 1981 Dumas Malone, aged 89 and nearly blind,
published "The Sage of Monticello," the sixth and final volume of
his Pulitzer Prize-winning biography of Jefferson. In 1997 Joseph J.
Ellis won the National Book Award in nonfiction for "American
Sphinx: The Character of Thomas Jefferson." "Nothing gives one
person so much of an advantage over another as to remain unruffled
in all circumstances."
(A&IP, Miers, p.29)(SFEC, 6/29/97, BR
p.5)(AP, 7/4/97)(SFC, 4/29/98, p.A6)(SFEC, 10/25/98, Z1 p.12)(IB,
1826 Jul 4, John Adams died at
age 90 in Braintree [Quincy], Mass, just a few hours after
Jefferson. Because communications was slow in those days, Adams and
Jefferson, at their death, thought the other was still alive. Adams'
last words were, "Thomas Jefferson still survives." It was 50 years
to the day after the Declaration of Independence was adopted. Adams
was the 2nd president of the US. A multi-generational biography of
the Adams family was later written by Paul C. Nagel: "Descent from
Glory." The Joseph Ellis book The Passionate Edge" helped restore
Adams to his rightful place in the American pantheon. The 1972
musical film 1776 focused on Adams’ efforts to get an independence
resolution through Congress. In 1998 C. Bradley Thompson published
"John Adams and the Spirit of Liberty." In 2001 David McCullough
authored "John Adams." In 2005 James Grant authored “John Adams:
Party of One.”
(A&IP, p.29)(AP, 7/4/97)(SFC, 7/4/98,
p.E4)(IB, Internet, 12/7/98)(WSJ, 12/22/98, p.A16)(WSJ, 5/30/01,
p.A20)(WSJ, 3/24/05, p.D8)
1826 Jul 4, In 2001 Andrew
Burstein authored "America’s Jubilee," a description of the jubilee
year as it was experienced by various people.
(WSJ, 1/23/00, p.A20)
1826 Jul 5, Sir Thomas Stamford
Bingley Raffles (b.1781), British statesman, died in London. He is
best known for his founding of the city of Singapore (now the
city-state of the Republic of Singapore). He is often described as
the "Father of Singapore". He was also heavily involved in the
conquest of the Indonesian island of Java from Dutch and French
military forces during the Napoleonic Wars and contributed to the
expansion of the British Empire. He was also an amateur writer and
wrote a book entitled History of Java (1817). In 2012 Victoria
Glendinning authored “Raffles and the Golden Opportunity.”
1826 Jul 8, Luther Martin
(b.1748), Maryland lawyer and former delegate to the Constitutional
Convention, died in NYC. In 2008 Bill Kaufman authored “Forgotten
Founder, Drunken Prophet: The Life of Luther Martin.”
1826 Jul 26, Riots in Vilnius,
Lithuanian, caused the death of many Jews.
1826 Aug 7, Marc Brunel hired
his son, Isambard, to replace William Armstrong as chief engineer
for building the tunnel under England’s Thames River.
1826 Aug 13, Major Gordon
Laing, Scottish explorer, became the 1st European to enter Timbuktu
(Mali), where some 12,000 people lived. Laing was killed by a Tuareg
nomad spear on Sep 26 as he headed for Morocco. In 2005 Frank T.
Kryza authored “The Race for Timbuktu: In Search of Africa’s City of
(SSFC, 4/11/04, p.D6)(SSFC, 1/1/06, p.M2)(Econ,
1/7/06, p.75)(ON, 11/06, p.6)
Aug 22, Colonies under Jedediah Strong Smith moved near Salt Lake
1826 Sep 3, USS Vincennes left
NY to become 1st warship to circumnavigate globe.
1826 Sep 26, The Persian
cavalry was routed by the Russians at the Battle of Ganja in the
1826 Oct 7, The first railway
in the United States opened at Quincy, Massachusetts.
1826 Nov 24, Carlo Collodi, the
creator of Pinocchio, was born.
1826 Nov 27, Jedediah Smith’s
expedition reached San Diego, becoming the first Americans to cross
the south-western part of the continent. He crossed the Mohave
Desert and the San Bernadino Mountains from Utah.
(HN, 11/27/98)(SFEC, 12/5/99, p.T5)
1826 Dec 3, George Brinton
McClellen (d.1885), Union general who defeated Robert E. Lee at
Antietam and ran against Abraham Lincoln for president, was born.
(HN, 12/3/98)(MC, 12/3/01)
1826 Dec 26, Franz Coenen,
composer, was born.
1826 Theophile Bra, French
academic sculptor, experienced a nervous breakdown and began to make
(SFEM, 11/1/98, p.)
1826 Corot painted "Cascade of
Terni." "Its flat light, monumentalizing simplicity and minimal
content anticipated Courbet, Manet and Cezanne."
(SFC, 6/4/96, p.E5)
1826 Ferdinand Eugene Delacroix
(d.1863), French artist, painted his “Portrait of Charles de
Verninac” about this time. De Verninac (1803-1834) died later in NYC
while returning home after catching yellow fever while serving as
French vice consul in Chile.
(SFC, 1/21/15, p.E1)
1826 The Erie Canal, 387 miles
long and completed in 1826, connected Lake Erie, at Buffalo, to the
Hudson River at Albany, New York. Begun in 1817 through the
determined efforts of New York Governor DeWitt Clinton, the canal,
which utilized light packet boats drawn by horses, reduced the
passenger schedule between Buffalo and Albany from the 10 days
required by stage service to three-and-a-half days. The canal
brought many settlers to the Mohawk Valley and formed a great
highway for freight from the Northwest to the seaboard. [see 1825]
1826 Lord & Taylor opened
as a dry goods store in NYC. English-born Samuel Lord had started a
dry goods business in New York in 1824 and opened the original store
that would become Lord & Taylor in 1826, on Catherine Street in
what is now Two Bridges, Manhattan.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lord_%26_Taylor)(SFC, 8/29/19, p.D1)
1826 David Farragut gathered
youngsters from warships anchored in Hampton Roads and established
America’s first floating Annapolis aboard the U.S.S. Alert.
(NG, Sept. 1939, J. Maloney p.363)
1826 The Galerie Vero-Dodat (2,
Rue de Bouloi), was built by two well-off charcutiers in Paris,
France. Vero and Dodat spared no expense with the classical style
interior that featured sculpted woodwork, ceiling frescoes, mosaic
flooring, and brass ornament,
(Hem., 10/’95, p.109)
1826 Joseph Buchner refined
willow bark in crystals that he named salicin, after salix, the
Latin name for willow. [see aspirin in 1899]
(SSFC, 10/24/04, p.M6)
1826 Samuel Heinrich Schwabe,
German amateur astronomer, began a systematic program of observing
the Sun from his home in Dessau. He kept careful records of sunspots
over 17 years and in 1843 noted an 11-year cycle in their frequency.
(Econ, 6/28/03, p.77)(NG, 7/04, p.21)
1826 Scotsman Robert Stein
invented the continuous still. It was later refined by Aeneas Coffey
as the Coffey still.
(Hem, 11/02, p.36)
1826 An American mechanic
developed mold-blown glass.
(SFC, 9/21/05, p.G3)
1826 Dost Mohammad Khan took
Kabul, Afghanistan, and established control.
1826 In Batavia Capt. William
Morgan was kidnapped by brother Masons for divulging fraternity
secrets. His body was never found. His book "Illustrations of
Freemasonry" revealed some Mason secrets. His death inspired
America’s 1st third party, the anti-Mason, who dominated western NY
for almost a decade.
(WSJ, 7/25/00, p.A20)(WSJ, 2/6/02, p.A16)(WSJ,
1826 In Argentina Bernardino
Rivadavia (1780-1845) was chosen as the first president of the
United Provinces of La Plata. He was forced to resign in 1827. His
political opponents called him the “Chocolate Dictator.”
(www.infoplease.com/ce6/people/A0841998.html)(SSFC, 11/27/05, p.A24)
1826 Sir John Bernard
Burke published “Burke’s Landed Gentry,” a detailed listing of key
families or other influential figures in the United Kingdom.
1826 Englishmen scientist James
Smithson (1765-1829) drew up his will and named his nephew as
beneficiary. In the will he stated that should his nephew die
without heirs, the estate should go to the US of America to found at
Washington, under the name of the Smithsonian Institute, an
establishment for the increase and diffusion of knowledge among men.
(SFEC, 8/25/96, p.T6)
1826 Pilkington, a British
glass producer, was founded in St. Helens, Lancashire. In 2006 it
was bought by Nippon Sheet Glass (NSG).
1826 The British Cape Colony
was extended northward to the Orange River.
(EWH, 4th ed, p.885)
1826 John James Audubon
(1785-1851), painter and ornithologist, arrived in Britain to
oversee the production of his "Birds of America." Although the 1st
engravings were done in Edinburgh the project was soon transferred
to London and completed over the next 12 years.
(WSJ, 3/26/04, p.W6)(AH, 10/04, p.75)
1826 Audubon read a technical
paper before the Natural History Society of Edinburgh entitled:
"Account of the habits of the turkey buzzard, particularly with the
view of exploding the opinion generally entertained of its
extraordinary power of smelling." [see K.E. Stager in 1964]
(Nat. Hist., 4/96, p.54)
1826 The Zoological Society of
London was established by Sir Stamford Raffles and Sir Humphry Davy.
1826 In Egypt Jean-Francois
Champollion, French Egyptologist and decipherer of the Rosetta
Stone, began collecting Egyptian artifacts. He convinced Charles X
to purchase the private collections of the French and English
consuls in Egypt.
(WSJ, 1/29/98, p.A16)
1826 Rene Theophile Hyacinthe
Laennec, French physician and inventor of the stethoscope, died from
(ON, 9/00, p.11)
1826 In Mexico Plutarco Elias
Calles, founder of the modern Mexican political system, tried to
suppress the Church. This fomented the Cristiada, 3 years of
rebellion and outright war.
(WSJ, 8/13/97, p.A12)
1826 Dom Pedro IV, emperor of
Brazil, attained the Portuguese throne.
(SSFC, 1/28/01, p.T1)
1826 In Scotland the first
exhibition of Clydesdale horses for show occurred at the Glasgow
Exhibition. The horses had been bred for hauling coal.
(SFEC, 1/30/00, Z1 p.2)
1826 Methodist missionaries
arrived at Tonga from Australia.
(SFEC, 5/28/00, p.T10)
1826 The Ottoman Sultan
eliminated the Janissaries by slaughtering them. Originally they
were Greek boys forcibly taken from their families by the occupying
Turks and raised and trained to be elite troops at the service of
the Ottoman Empire. From the mid-17th century, this abduction of
boys stopped and Janissaries became a hereditary corps.
1826-1828 Corot was in Italy and painted "View of
St. Peter’s and the Castel Sant’Angelo."
1826-1829 Dumont d’Urville (1790-1842), French
explorer and naturalist, sailed around the Pacific Ocean.
(CW, Spring ‘99, p.3)
1826-1833 In NYC the Hawk and Buzzard newspaper
subsisted largely on gossip.
(SFEM, 11/8/98, p.12)
1826-1852 The Duke of Wellington served as
Constable of the Tower of London.
(Hem, 9/04, p.71)
1826-1877 Walter Bagehot, English editor and
economist: "One of the greatest pains to human nature is the pain of
a new idea." "It is good to be without vices, but it is not good to
be without temptation."
(AP, 5/22/97)(AP, 9/2/98)
1826-1887 Dinah Maria Mulock Craik, English
novelist. "The man who does his work, any work, conscientiously,
must always be in one sense a great man."
1826-1908 Henry Clifton Sorby, English geologist,
invented a method for making thin rock slices for microscopic
1827 Feb 1, Alphonse de
Rothschild, French banker, was born.
1827 Feb 7, Ballet (Deserter)
was introduced to US at Bowery Theater in NYC.
1827 Feb 7, Franz Anton Dimmler
(73), composer, died.
1827 Feb 17, Johann Heinrich
Pestalozzi (81), Swiss educator, died.
1827 Feb 27, Richard W. Johnson
(d.1897), Bvt Major General (Union Army), was born.
1827 Feb 27, A Mardi Gras
street procession in New Orleans was initiated by students, who were
home from school in France. They formed a parade of masked marchers
on Shrove Tuesday, the day before the period of penance begins on
(HN, 2/27/98)(HNQ, 2/9/99)
1827 Feb 28, The first U.S.
railroad chartered to carry passengers and freight, the Baltimore
and Ohio Railroad Co., was incorporated.
1827 Mar 5, Pierre-Simon
Laplace (b.1749), French mathematician, astronomer, physicist, died.
He invented perturbation theory and wrote the 5-volume work
"Celestial Mechanics." In 1998 Charles Couiston Gillespie published
his biography "Pierre-Simon Laplace: A Life in Exact Science."
1827 Mar 5, Alessandro Volta
(b.1745), Italian physicist who made 1st battery (1800), died.
1827 Mar 16, The first
Afro-American newspaper , Freedom’s Journal, was published in New
(HFA, ‘96, p.26)(AP, 3/16/97)
1827 Mar 26, Ludwig von
Beethoven (56), German composer, died in Vienna. He had been deaf
for the later part of his life, but said on his death bead "I shall
hear in heaven." It was later determined that he suffered from lead
poisoning. In 1995 Tia DeNora authored "Beethoven and the
Construction of Genius." In 2000 Russell Martin authored
"Beethoven’s Hair: An Extraordinary Historical Odyssey and a
Scientific Mystery Solved." In 2014 Jan Swafford authored
“Beethoven: Anguish and Triumph.”
(WSJ, 5/29/96, p.A5)(AP, 3/256/97)(HN,
3/26/99)(SFC, 10/18/00, p.A2)(WSJ, 1/17/02, p.A12)(Econ, 9/20/14,
1827 Mar 29, Composer Ludwig
van Beethoven was buried in Vienna amidst a crowd of over 10,000
1827 Apr 2, William Holdman
Hunt, English painter (Light of the World), was born.
1827 Apr 2, Joseph Dixon began
manufacturing lead pencils.
1827 Apr 5, Joseph Lister
(d.1912), English physician, was born. He founded the idea of using
antiseptics during surgery.
(WUD, 1994, p.836)(HN, 4/5/99)
1827 Apr 7, English chemist
John Walker invented wooden matches.
1827 Apr 10, Lewis Wallace
(d.1905), soldier, lawyer, diplomat and author (Ben Hur), was born.
"As a rule, there is no surer way to the dislike of men than to
behave well where they have behaved badly."
(HN, 4/10/98)(AP, 12/5/00)
1827 Apr 13, Hugh Clapperton,
Scottish traveler and explorer of West and Central Africa, died in
Sokoto, Nigeria, of dysentery.
1827 Apr 20, John Gibbon
(d.1896), Major General (Union volunteers), was born.
1827 Apr 26, Charles Edward
Hovey, Bvt Major General (Union volunteers), was born.
1827 May 4, John Hanning Speke,
English explorer, was born. He discovered Lake Victoria and the
source of the Nile.
1827 May 29, Reuben Lindsay
Walker (d.1890), Brigadier General (Confederate Army), was born.
1827 Jun 5, Athens fell to the
Ottomans during Greek War of Independence.
(HN, 6/5/98)(MC, 6/5/02)
1827 Jun 12, Johanna Spyri
(d.1901), Swiss author, was born. She is best known for her novel
Heidi, the story of a young girl who leave her home in the Swiss
Alps for adventures in the world below. [see June 12, 1829]
(WUD, 1994 p.1379)(HN, 6/12/99)
1827 Jul 4, New York state law
emancipated adult slaves. The laws were rewritten to make sure that
all slaves would eventually be freed.
(SFEC, 12/1/96, BR p.5)(Maggio, 98)(ON, 11/99,
1827 Jul 14, Augustin-Jean
Fresnel (b.1788), French engineer, died. He contributed
significantly to the establishment of the theory of wave optics.
Fresnel studied the behavior of light both theoretically and
experimentally. He worked out a way to focus light using diffraction
and was the first to construct a special type of lens, now called a
Fresnel lens, as a substitute for mirrors in lighthouses.
1827 Aug 10, There were race
riots in Cincinnati and some 1,000 blacks left for Canada.
1827 Aug 12, William Blake
(b.1757), English visionary engraver and poet, died. “He who kisses
the joy as it flies / Lives in eternity’s sunrise.” In 2001 G.E.
Bentley Jr. authored "The Stranger From Paradise: A Biography of
(SSFC, 5/27/01, DB
1827 Aug 22, Industrialist Ezra
Butler Eddy (d.1906) was born in Vermont. E.B. Eddy, who became
known as the matchmaker of the world, moved his small friction-match
factory from Burlington, Vt., to Hull, Que., in 1851. He expanded,
modernized and diversified to produce a variety of wood and paper
products. Eddy was elected mayor of Hull six times and was a member
of the Quebec legislature for six years.
1827 Aug 22, Josef Strauss,
Austrian composer (Dorfschwalben aus Austria), was born.
1827 Sep 18, John Towsend
Trowbridge, poet and author of books for boys, who wrote the Jack
Hazzard and Toby Trafford series, was born.
1827 Oct 15, Charles Darwin
reached Christ's Counsel, Cambridge.
1827 Oct 20, British, French
and Russian squadrons entered the harbor at Navarino, Greece, and
destroyed most of the Egyptian fleet there. The Ottomans demanded
(EWH, 4th ed,
1827 Nov 10, Alfred Howe Terry
(d.1890), Major General (Union volunteers), was born.
1827 Nov 15, Creek Indians lost
all their property in US.
1827 Nov 26, Ellen Gould White,
founder of the Seventh Day Adventists, was born.
1827 Luther Roby, a Concord
printer, published "A Journal Kept By Mr. John Howe While He Was
Employed As A British Spy during the Revolutionary War; Also While
He Was Engaged In The Smuggling Business." The book was later
thought to based on the journal of British officer Henry De Berniere
and published by John Gill, member of the Sons of Liberty, in 1779.
(AH, 10/01, p.56)
1827 David Zeisberger, Moravian
missionary, published "Grammar of the Language of the Lenni-Lenape,"
a Delaware Indian tribe.
(NH, 10/96, p.16)
1827 V. Bellini wrote his opera
"Il Pirata." It was his 1st major success.
(WSJ, 10/31/02, p.A1)
1827 August Marschner wrote his
opera "Der Vampyr."
(WSJ, 1/21/98, p.A16)
1827 Franz Schubert composed
his song cycle "Winterreise."
(WSJ, 4/16/97, p.A16)
1827 Businessman and publisher
Louis A. Godey bought the Boston Godey’s Lady’s Book, a ladies’
magazine, and offered its editorship to successful novelist Sarah
Hale, a widow with four children to support. Godey’s Lady’s Book,
with Sarah Josepha Hale as its editor and driving force for 50
years, was an important cultural influence in 19th-century America.
Godey’s enjoyed great success publishing morally upright and
sentimental literature and avoiding unfeminine topics like politics,
scandal and controversy. By mid-century it had 150,000 subscribers.
Particularly popular were fashion plates, such as the steel-plate
engraving of wedding gowns shown here, crafts, décor and
housekeeping ideas that greatly influenced American home life.
Competition and Hale’s retirement in 1877 led Louis Godey to sell
the magazine in 1883. Thirteen years later, Godey’s was absorbed
into another publication.
1827 The first edition of New
York's Freedom's Journal was published by John Russworm and Samuel
Cornish. "For too long others have spoken for us." The journal
lasted for 2 years.
(SFEC, 1/31/99, DB p.28)(SFC, 2/22/99, p.A21)
1827 John Nelson Darby
(1800-1882), British evangelical preacher, first conceived the
doctrine of a secret rapture based on a passage of St. Paul’s letter
to the Thessalonians.
1827 Joseph Smith, Mormon
founder, received his tablets on Mount Cumorah near Palmyra, NY.
(NW, 9/10/01, p.48)
1827 Catherine McAuley
(1787-1841), founded the Sisters of Mercy in Dublin, Ireland. They
engaged chiefly in works of spiritual and corporal mercy. Frances
Warde led the sisters out from Ireland. In 2002 John J. Fialka
authored "Sisters: Catholic Nuns and the Making of America."
(WUD, 1994 p.1333)(SSFC, 1/19/03, p.M6)
1827 The U.S. and Great Britain
submitted the Maine and New Brunswick boundary dispute to
arbitration by the King of the Netherlands in 1827, whose compromise
was accepted by the British but rejected by the U.S.
1827 Roger Brooke Taney became
attorney general of Maryland.
(WSJ, 11/21/06, p.D8)
1827 The government hired Capt.
Henry Miller Shreve to remove a 100-mile "raft" of snags and trees
that prevented steamboats from entering the Red River. His work camp
later became the city of Shreveport, La.
(ON, 7/02, p.11)
1827 John Davis opened the
doors of the first full-dress American gambling casino in New
1827 John Herschel proposed
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)
1827 Friction matches were
(SFEC, 8/13/00, Z1 p.2)
1827 Francois Soudre invented
the artificial language Solresol. He proposed using the musical
scale for the building blocks of an international vocabulary.
(Wired, 8/96, p.86)
Fourier, French mathematician who served under Napoleon in Egypt,
compared the interaction of the earth and its atmosphere to the
setting in a hothouse. He said the Earth’s gases are like the
greenhouse glass walls and help keep us warm.
(NOHY, Weiner, 3/90, p.26)
1827 Greenwich Academy, the
oldest school for girls in Connecticut, was founded.
(NG, Feb, 04, p.120)
1827 Balkaria, a Caucasus
region later known as known as Kabardino-Balkari, was annexed by
1827 The Univ. of Toronto,
Canada, was founded.
(Econ, 1/22/05, p.20)
1827 The Chippewa community of
Aamjiwnaang First Nation was founded in Ontario just across from
Port Huron, Mich. Much of the original reserve was sold via
questionable land deals in the 1960s. In 1993 the percentage of boys
born in the community began dropping and by 2005 girls outnumbered
boys by 3:1. Local petrochemical manufacturing was suspected as the
(SSFC, 12/18/05, p.A30)
1827 The Cocos Islands (aka
Keeling Islands) in the Indian Ocean were settled by the
Clunies-Ross family. A descendent ceded the coral atolls to
Australia in 1978.
(Econ, 12/24/05, p.84)
1827 In France Victor Hugo
wrote the official coronation ode for Charles X, the last Bourbon
(WSJ, 2/10/98, p.A16)
1827 The lithopane (lithophane)
was patented in Paris. It allowed a picture, embedded in porcelain,
to be viewed in light by varying the thickness of a porcelain base.
Generally credited as being the invention of Baron Paul de
Bourguignon, of Rubelles, France, in 1827, the earliest forms of
lithophanes were actually produced in China many years before other
countries produced them.
1827 Joseph Niepce, French
inventor, met with English botanist Francis Bauer, who agreed to
present Niepce’s ground breaking photographic work to the Royal
Society, which rejected the bid. Before leaving London Niepce made a
gift of his 1826 pewter image to Bauer. The pewter image was
re-discovered in 1952 by photo historian Helmut Gernsheim.
(ON, 10/08, p.8)
1827 The Hanseatic city of
Bremen, faced with the silting of its Weser River, bought land for
Bremerhaven from the king of Hanover in order to maintain a link to
(Econ, 5/21/11, p.60)
1827 The first 10,000 Tamils
came to work in Sri Lanka's nascent coffee plantations as indentured
laborers. By 2017 Tamils accounted for over 4% of Sri Lanka's
(Econ, 4/30/17, p.38)
1827-1828 An epidemic hit the missions of northern
California. Researchers later believed it was measles.
(SFC, 5/16/20, p.B4)
1828 Feb 8, French author Jules
Verne (d.1905) was born. He is considered the father of science
fiction. Many of his 19th-century works forecast amazing scientific
feats--feats that were actually carried out in the 20th
century--with uncanny accuracy. Verne's 1865 book From the Earth to
the Moon told the story of a space ship that is launched from
Florida to the moon and that returns to Earth by landing in the
ocean. Something of a scientist and traveler himself, Verne's 1870
work about a submarine, "Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea," and
"Around the World in Eighty Days" also foretold technological
advances that seemed fantastic at the time. "Anything one man can
imagine, other men can make real."
(HNPD, 2/8/99)(AP, 10/1/00)
1828 Feb 11, Dewitt Clinton
(b.1769), American politician and naturalist. He had served as a US
Senator, 2-time governor of New York state and 3-time mayor of NYC.
1828 Feb 12, George Meredith,
English poet and novelist, was born.
1828 Feb 18, More than 100
vessels were destroyed in a storm at Gibraltar.
1828 Feb 21, The first issue of
the Cherokee Phoenix, the 1st American Indian newspaper in US, was
printed, both in English and in the newly invented Cherokee
(HN, 2/21/98)(MC, 2/21/02)
1828 Feb, Alta California Gov.
Jose Echeandia arrested 8 men and imprisoned them in San Diego for
entering the area without passports or permission. James Ohio Pattie
(~1803-~1833) was among those arrested. Pattie was released in
December after agreeing to vaccinate people on the coast following
an outbreak of smallpox in northern California.
(SFC, 5/2/20, p.B2)
1828 Mar 5, Johann Gungl,
composer, was born.
1828 Mar 8, Johann Anton Sulzer
(75), composer, died.
1828 Mar 17, Maj. Gen'l.
Patrick R. Cleburne, the "Stonewall" of the West, was born.
1828 Mar 20, Henrik Ibsen
(d.1906), poet and dramatist was born in Skien, Norway. His work
included “Peer Gynt” and “Hedda Gabler.” "The worst enemy of truth
and freedom in our society is the compact majority. Yes, the damned,
compact, liberal majority." In 1971 the 3rd and final volume of
“Ibsen: A Biography” by Michael Meyer (d.2000) was published.
(HFA, '96, p.26)(HN, 3/20/98)(AP, 7/22/98)(SFC,
1828 Apr 14, The first edition
of Noah Webster's "American Dictionary of the English Language" was
published. Webster had finished writing it in England in January,
1828 Apr 16, Francisco Jose
Goya y Lucientes (b.1746), Spanish painter, cartoonist, died at age
82 in France. He had served 3 generations of Spanish kings as court
painter. In 2002 Julia Blackburn authored "Old Man Goya." In 2003
Robert Hughes authored "Goya." See link for Goya timeline.
(WSJ, 5/10/02, p.W8)(Econ, 10/18/03,
1828 Apr 21, Hippolyte Taine,
French philosopher, historian (Voyage in Italy), was born.
1828 Apr 26, Russia declared
war on Turkey to support Greece's independence.
1828 Apr 27, The London Zoo
opened to fellows of the Zoological Society of London. It was
originally intended to be used as a collection for scientific
study. As of 2017 it was the world's oldest scientific zoo and
housed 20,166 animals.
1828 May 6, The Cherokee
Indians were forced to sign a treaty giving up their Arkansas
Reservation for a new home in what later became Oklahoma. This led
to a split in the tribe as one group moved to Oklahoma and others
stayed behind and became known as the Lost Cherokees.
1828 May 8, Jean Henri Dunant
(d.1910), Swiss philanthropist, was born. He founded the Int’l.
Committee of the Red Cross and was the first recipient (jointly) of
the Nobel Peace Prize.
1828 May 12, Dante Gabriel
Rossetti (d.1882), English poet and painter, was born. He helped
found the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood.
1828 May 13, US passed the
Tariff of Abominations. Congress raised duties on manufactured goods
from abroad on which the South was dependent. South Carolina
declared the tariff null and void within its borders and pres.
Jackson threatened to send in troops. The tariffs were lowered in
(SS, Internet, 5/13/97)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R50)
1828 May 16, Sir William
Congreve (b.1772), British artillerist and inventor, died. In 1805
he developed the Congreve Rocket.
(MC, 5/16/02)(WUD, 1994 p.310)
1828 May 18, The Battle of Las
Piedras, ended the conflict between Uruguay and Brazil.
1828 May 22, Albrecht von
Grafe, German eye surgeon, founder of modern ophthalmology, was
1828 Jun 7, A party led by
Jebediah Smith completed a journey down the Klamath River and were
on the verge of starvation when they were visited by Indians who
brought food. Smith's party proceeded north to Oregon and most of
the party was killed by Umpqua Indians. Smith was killed in 1831 by
Comanches on the Cimarron River. Smith’s party were the 1st white
people to see Lake Earl, the biggest lagoon on the West Coast.
(SFEC, 12/5/99, p.T5)(SFEC, 7/16/00, p.B1)
1828 Jun 14, German Grand Duke
Karl August (b.1757), the sovereign Duke of Saxe-Weimar and of
Saxe-Eisenach, died. He is noted for the intellectual brilliance of
1828 Jul 4, James Johnston
Pettigrew, scholar, teacher, Brig General (Confederate Army), was
1828 Jul 4, Ground-breaking
ceremonies were held in Baltimore for construction of the Baltimore
and Ohio Railroad. Charles Carroll, last surviving signer of the
Declaration of Independence, turned the spade in Baltimore. At the
groundbreaking, Carroll said, "I consider this among the most
important acts of my life, second only to that of signing the
Declaration of Independence, if even it be second to that." On the
same day, in nearby Georgetown, President John Quincy Adams, with
great fanfare, lifted the first shovel of dirt to begin construction
of the Chesapeake & Ohio Canal that would link Washington,
Baltimore and Pittsburgh by water. The railroad went on to become
one of the nation's longest rail lines, reaching St. Louis,
Missouri, in 1857. The 185-mile canal, though it had many years of
use, was quickly eclipsed as a transportation medium by the superior
technology of the railroad.
(IB, Internet, 12/7/98)(SFEC, 4/25/99, p.T6)(HNQ,
1828 Jul 27, Gilbert Charles
Stuart, painter, died.
1828 Aug 15, In San Francisco
the daughter (5) and son (1) of Presidio soldier Ignacio Olivas were
killed as he and his wife attended a dance party near Mission
Dolores. Suspicion fell on fellow soldier Francisco Rubio, who was
found guilty and executed on August 1, 1831. Rubio claimed innocence
to the end.
(SFC, 4/4/15, p.C1)
1828 Aug 22, Franz Joseph Gall
(70), German-French physician, fraud (phrenology), died.
1828 Aug 27, Simon Bolívar
proclaimed himself dictator of Gran Colombia through the "Organic
Decree of Dictatorship”.
1828 Aug 28, Leo Tolstoy
(d.1910), Russian novelist, was born. His work included "War and
Peace" and "Anna Karenina." "History would be an excellent
thing if only it were true." "It is amazing how complete is the
delusion that beauty is goodness." [see Sep 9]
(WUD, 1994 p.1491)(AP, 4/15/97)(AP, 10/14/99)(HN,
1828 Aug, England’s Thames
Tunnel Company was forced to halt operations due to accidents and
loss of financial support. Work was halted for 7 years.
(ON, 4/06, p.9)
1828 Sep 8, Joshua Lawrence
Chamberlain, Bvt Major General (Union volunteers), hero of Little
Round Top at Gettysburg, was born.
1828 Sep 9, Leo Tolstoy,
Russian novelist, was born. [see Aug 28]
1828 Sep 20, Gioacchino
Rossini’s opera "Le Comte Ory," premiered in Paris.
1828 Sep 25, Conspirators broke
into the presidential palace in Bogota in an attempt to murder Simon
Bolivar, who escaped thanks to the help of his lover, Manuela Sáenz.
1828 Nov 1, Balfour Steward,
Scottish physicist and meteorologist, was born.
1828 Nov 8, Thomas Bewick
(b.1753), English engraver and ornithologist, died. In 2007 Jenny
Uglow authored “Nature’s Engraver: A Life of Thomas Bewick.”
1828 Nov 19, Franz Schubert
(b.1797), Austrian composer, died of syphilis in Vienna. His work
included the C-Major Symphony, string quartets, 3 piano sonatas, and
the C-Major String Quartet. Schubert’s song cycle "Schwanengesang"
was published posthumously in 1829. Otto Erich Deutsch catalogued
his work [hence the "D" numbers] and wrote a documentary biography.
In 1997 Brian Newbould wrote "Schubert: The Music and the
(SFEC, 2/2/97, DB. p.32)(WSJ, 4/16/97,
p.A16)(WSJ, 5/13/97, p.A21)
1828 Dec 3, Andrew Jackson was
elected 7th president of the United States over John Quincy Adams.
Resentment of the restrictive credit policies of the first central
bank, the Bank of the United States, fueled a populist backlash that
elected Andrew Jackson.
(AP, 12/3/97)(WSJ, 12/31/97, p.A11)(WSJ, 6/10/98,
1828 Dec 22, Rachel Jackson,
beloved wife of Andrew Jackson, died of heart disease just weeks
before her recently elected husband was inaugurated as president of
the United States. Andrew Jackson had been 21 and a promising young
lawyer when Rachel Donelson Robards, his landlady's daughter and the
estranged wife of Lewis Robards of Kentucky, caught his eye. Robards
had started divorce proceedings, but had dropped them without his
wife's knowledge. Believing she was a free woman, Rachel married
Andrew Jackson in 1791. Two years later, the couple discovered that
Robards was finally suing for divorce--on the grounds of adultery
and desertion. The divorce was granted, and in 1794, the couple
quietly remarried. Yet, for the rest of her life, Rachel was
unjustly slandered for her irregular marriage. The gossip became
particularly painful during the 1828 presidential campaign when the
37-year-old scandal was resurrected as a campaign issue. Andrew
Jackson defeated his opponent John Quincy Adams, but when Rachel
died soon after the election, Jackson bitterly attributed her death
to "those vile wretches who...slandered her."
1828 Dec 23, Mathilde
Wesendonk, German writer, poet (Tagebuchblatter), was born.
1828 Dr. Paul Ferdinand Gachet
was born in Lille. He moved to Paris in 1848 to study medicine and
developed a clientele of artists that included Pissarro and Cezanne.
He accepted paintings in exchanged for services and amassed a
sizable collection. He also painted and used the pseudonym Paul Van
(WSJ, 2/16/99, p.A20)
1828 Boston artist Sarah
Goodrich (1788-1853) painted “Beauty Revealed: Self Portrait.”
(Econ, 12/19/15, p.112)
1828 Pietro Tenerani, Italian
sculptor, made his two statues, allegories of Hunting and Fishing,
at Carrara. They were placed in Carrara’s Academy of Fine Arts, the
former Cybo-Malaspina palace.
1828 John Rubens Smith painted
his watercolor "West Front of the United States Capital." [see
(Civil., Jul-Aug., ‘95, p.66)
1828 Sister Mary Elizabeth
Lange of Haiti co-founded the first black Catholic school in the US.
(SFC, 5/26/96, T-7)
1828 Pres. John Quincy Adams
helped Abdul Rahman Ibrahima, a former prince from Timbuktu, gain
freedom following 40 years of enslavement on a cotton plantation.
(Econ, 9/26/15, p.32)
1828 Opponents of Andrew
Jackson accused the general of having murdered a Baptist minister
and five other white militiamen during the Creek War.
(WSJ, 10/8/96, p.A22)
1828 McKendree University, a
private liberal arts college, was founded in Illinois.
1828 Me-a-pa-te, "the hill that
is hard to go around," in western Nebraska was renamed Scott’s
Bluff, after the body of trapper Hiram Scott was found nearby.
(HT, 3/97, p.34)
1828 John Overlord, Andrew
Jackson and James Winchester, the founders of Memphis, Tenn.,
bestowed an easement to the Mississippi riverfront for a promenade.
(Econ, 4/10/04, p.24)
1828 The Republic of Gran
Colombia fell apart due to political rivalries between its
constituent provinces. Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela became
(ON, 3/05, p.2)
1828 The Danish government
decreed that all persons should have a surname which was inherited
from the preceding generation.
1828 In France a perfume and
cosmetics house was established. In 1998 the firm was led by
Jean-Paul Guerlain, the great-grandson of the founder.
(SFC, 6/13/98, p.A11)
1828 In France Louis Daguerre
contacted Joseph Niepce with an offer to work together on the
photographic process that Niepce had developed.
(ON, 10/08, p.8)
1828 Rennee Caillie of France
became the 1st Westerner to reach Timbuktu, Mali, and survive to
tell the tale. In 1830 he published an account of his journey.
(SSFC, 4/11/04, p.D6)(ON, 11/06, p.7)
1828 The Mexican city of
Valladolid was renamed Morelia after independence hero Jose Maria
(SSFC, 11/17/02, p.C11)
1828 Russia conquered the
Armenian provinces of Persia, and this had brought within her
frontier the Monastery of Etchmiadzin, in the Khanate of Erivan,
which was the seat of the Katholikos of All the Armenians.
1828 Siamese [Thailand] forces
invaded Laos. Vat Sisaket, a temple in Vientiane, survived the
(SFEC, 8/28/98, p.T4)
1828 Uruguay, created as a
buffer state between Argentina and Brazil, declared its
(Hem., 2/96, p.26)
1828-1830 Arthur Wellesley (1769-1852), the duke
of Wellington, served as British prime minister. He blocked badly
needed political reform and was later considered one of England’s
worst prime ministers.
(WSJ, 1/6/95, A-10)(ON, 4/06, p.5)
1828-1861 Queen Ranavalona I ruled over
1828-1896 Elizabeth Charles, British writer: "To
know how to say what others only know how to think is what makes men
poets or sages; and to dare to say what others only dare to think
makes men martyrs or reformers -- or both."
1828-1909 George Meredith, English poet: "Cynicism
is intellectual dandyism."
1829 Jan 19, Johann von
Goethe's "Faust, Part 1," premiered.
1829 Jan 28, In Scotland
William Burke was hanged for murder following a scandal in which he
was found to have provided extra-fresh corpses for anatomy schools
in Edinburgh. His partner William Hare had turned king’s witness.
The scandal led to the 1832 Anatomy Act.
1829 Feb 11, Alexander
Griboyedov (b.1795), Russian diplomat, playwright and composer, was
beheaded by a mob attack on the Russian embassy in Tehran.
Griboyedov was protecting an Armenian eunuch, who had escaped from
the harem of the Persian shah along with 2 Armenian girls. The
Russians let the incident pass after an Iranian apology. They were
already at war with the Turks and in regional competition with the
1829 Feb 16, Francois-Joseph
Gossec (95), Belgian-French composer (Messe de Morts), died.
1829 Feb 26, Levi Strauss,
creator of blue jeans, was born.
1829 Mar 2, Carl Schurz, was
born. He was a Civil War general, political reformer and
1829 Mar 2, New England Asylum
for the Blind, 1st in US, was incorporated in Boston.
1829 Mar 4, An unruly crowd
mobbed the White House during the inaugural reception for President
Jackson, the 7th US President. The event was later depicted by
artist Louis S. Glanzman in his painting “Andrew Jackson’s
(AP, 3/4/98)(WSJ, 1/17/09, p.W5)
1829 Apr 6, Niels Henrik Abel
(b.1802), Norwegian mathematician, died of tuberculosis. After him
comes the term Abelian group, an algebraic commutative group. In
2004 Peter Pesic authored “Abel’s Proof: An Essay on the Sources and
Meaning of Mathematical Unsolvability.”
(AHD, 1971, p.2)(SFC, 3/26/04, p.A15)(Econ,
1829 Apr 10, William Booth,
founder (Salvation Army), was born.
1829 Apr 13, English
Emancipation Act granted freedom of religion to Catholics.
1829 May 8, Louis Moreau
Gottschalk (d.1869), American pianist, was born in New Orleans.
1829 May 10, Thomas Young,
physicist, decipherer of Egyptian hieroglyphics, died.
1829 May 15, Joseph Smith was
"ordained" by John the Baptist- according to Joseph Smith.
Mormon church was founded in NY.
1829 May 18, Bernardo Bittoni,
1829 May 24, Andres de Santa
Cruz (1792-1865), the president of Peru, began also serving as
president of Bolivia and continued to 1839.
1829 May 29, Humphrey Davy
(84), scientist, inventor (Miner's safety lamp), died at age 50. In
1963 Anne Treneer authored "The Mercurial Chemist: A Life of Sir
(ON, 12/01, p.7)(SC, 5/29/02)
1829 May, In Poland Niccolo
Paganini (1782-1840), Italian violinist, performed in concert in
Warsaw. Frederic Chopin (19) was so impressed that he proceeded to
compose a series of piano studies a la Paganini. Chopin’s 27 Etudes
later became a cornerstone of every gifted pianist’s repertoire.
(WSJ, 11/15/08, p.W11)
1829 Jun 8, John Everett
Millais, painter (Order of Release), was born in England.
1829 Jun 12, Johanna Spyri
(d.1901), Swiss author (Heidi), was born. [see June 12, 1827]
1829 Jun 27, James Smithson
(b.1765), Englishmen scientist, died. His 1926 will he stated that
should his nephew die without heirs, the estate should go to the US
of America to found at Washington, under the name of the Smithsonian
Institute, an establishment for the increase and diffusion of
knowledge among men. In 2003 Nina Burleigh authored "The Stranger
and the Statesman: James Smithson, John Quincy Adams and the Making
of America's Greatest Museum, The Smithsonian." [see 1836]
(SFEC, 8/25/96, p.T6)(SC, 6/27/02)(SSFC,
12/21/03, p.M1)(SSFC, 12/21/03, p.A1)
1829 Jul 4, Cornerstone laid
for 1st US mint (Chestnut & Juniper St, Phila).
1829 Jul 4, In Boston, Mass.,
abolitionist William Lloyd Garrison (1805-1879) gave a passionate
antislavery sermon at the Park Street Church and was attacked by a
white supremacist mob who dragged him from the pulpit and beat him
nearly to death. Garrison published the anti-slavery newspaper, the
Liberator, from 1831-1865.
1829 Jul 23, William Austin
Burt of Mount Vernon, Mich., received a patent for his
"typographer," a forerunner of the typewriter.
1829 Aug 9, The locomotive
"Stourbridge Lion" went into service.
1829 Aug 16, The original
Siamese twins, Chang and Eng Bunker, arrived in Boston aboard the
ship Sachem to be exhibited to the Western world.
1829 Aug 25, Pres. Jackson made
an offer to buy Texas, but the Mexican government refused.
1829 Aug 31, Giachinno
Rossini's final opera "William Tell" was produced in Paris.
1829 Sep 8, George Crook
(d.1890), Major General (Union volunteers), was born.
1829 Sep 12, Charles Dudley
Warner, essayist and novelist who, with Mark Twain, wrote "The
Guilded Age," was born.
1829 Sep 25, There was a failed
assassination attempt on Simon Bolivar.
1829 Sep 28, Walker's Appeal, a
racial antislavery pamphlet, was published in Boston.
1829 Sep 29, London’s
reorganized police force, "bobbies", which became known as Scotland
Yard, went on duty. In 1828 Sir Robert Peel set up a committee whose
findings paved the way for his police Bill, which led to the setting
up of an organized police service in London.
1829 Sep, Ralph Waldo Emerson
married Ellen Louisa Tucker. She had active tuberculosis and died
two years later. His two brothers, Edward Bliss and Charles Chauncy
died of TB in 1834 and 1835. [see 1883-1885]
(WP, 1952, p.41)
1829 Oct 5, the 21st president
of the United States, Chester Alan Arthur, was born in Fairfield,
Vt. Some sources list 1830.
1829 Oct 16, In Boston, Mass.,
the Tremont House, designed by Isaiah Rogers, opened as a hotel and
continued to about 1895. The four-story, neoclassical building was
the first modern hotel in America.
1829 Oct 17, Delaware River and
Chesapeake Bay Canal formally opened. The Chesapeake-Delaware Canal
was 14 miles long.
(NG, Sept., 1939, p.379)(MC, 10/17/01)
1829 Oct 17, Sam Patch (~23),
stunt diver, successfully dove 120 feet from a platform on Goat
Island at Niagara Falls.
(MC, 11/13/01)(ON, 4/02, p.6)
1829 Oct 23, The Eastern State
Penitentiary in Philadelphia received its 1st prisoner, burglar
Charles Williams (18). It was based on the Quaker idea of reform
through solitude and reflection. It opened to tourists in 1971 after
being closed to prisoners. The prison was designed by John Haviland.
(WSJ, 9/19/97, p.B1)(AHHT, 10/02, p.18)
1829 Oct 29, Maria A. [Nannerl]
Mozart, Austrian pianist (Wolfgang's sister), died.
1829 Nov 8, Lord William
Bentinck, Governor-General of the East India Company, called for the
abolition of sati (suttee), the practice of a widow burning herself
to death on her husband's funeral pyre. [see Dec 4]
1829 Nov 13, Sam Patch (~23),
stunt diver, dove 125 feet from a platform at the Genessee Falls in
Rochester. His body was found the following March in the Genessee
River ice. In 2003 Paul E. Johnson authored "Sam Patch, the Famous
(MC, 11/13/01)(ON, 4/02, p.6)(SSFC, 6/15/03,
1829 Nov 16, Anton G.
Rubinstein, Russian pianist, conductor and composer, was born.
1829 Nov 20, Jews were expelled
from Nikolayev and Sevastopol, Russia.
1829 Nov 28, Anton Rubinstein
(d.1894), pianist and composer (Omitri Doskoy), was born in
Vykhvatinetz, Podolia. He was the teacher of Tchaikovsky and
considered the only rival of Liszt. His work included 6 symphonies,
dozens of concertos and chamber works, and 20 operas, of which only
"The Demon" has shown staying power. It was based on Lermontov’s
(WSJ, 7/16/96, p.A9)(MC, 11/28/01)
1829 Dec 4, British colonial
rulers abolished "suttee" (Sati) in India. This was the practice of
a widow burning herself to death on her husband's funeral pyre.
1829 Dec 8, The first
presidential address of Andrew Jackson.
(WSJ, 4/2/96, p.A-14)
1829 Dec 14, In France Joseph
Niepce signed a 10-year partnership agreement with Louis Daguerre to
perfect a new photographic imaging process discovered by Niepce.
(ON, 10/08, p.9)
1829 Dec 18, Jean-Baptiste de
Lamarck (~85), French nature investigator, died.
1829 Dec 21, The 1st stone arch
railroad bridge in US was dedicated in Baltimore.
1829 Dec 22, The Baltimore
& Ohio Railroad opened the first passenger railway line.
1829 Dec 27, Hinton Helper,
southern abolitionist, was born. He wrote "The Impending
Crisis," the most stinging indictment of slavery.
1829 David Walker, an outspoken
black abolitionist, stated the Mr. Jefferson’s remarks (on white
superiority) "have sunk deep into the hearts of millions of whites
and will never be removed this side of eternity." [see 1743]
1829 Hans Christian Andersen
(1805-1875) published his first literary work: “A Walking Tour from
Holmen’s Canal to the Eastern Point of Amager.”
(ON, 7/06, p.7)
1829 William Cobbett, British
writer, authored “The Emigrant’s Guide,” offering advice on settling
in the New World.
(WSJ, 12/22/08, p.A17)
1829 Mendelssohn's revived
Bach’s St. Matthew Passion.
1829 Frederic Chopin at 19
published his Waltz #10, Op.69/2 and Waltz #13 Op.70/3. These were
his first and second published waltzes.
(BAAC PN, Chambers, 1/8/96)
1829 Utopian reformers opened
the Hall of Science in a disused downtown Manhattan church, across
the street from Tract House, the headquarters of a new Christian
(SSFC, 9/8/02, p.M2)
1829 The American Bible Society
published scripture in the Seneca Indian language.
(WSJ, 8/7/98, p.W13)
1829 Sister Mary Elizabeth
Lange of Haiti co-founded the first black religious order of nuns
(the Oblate Sisters of Providence) in the US.
(SFC, 5/26/96, T-7)
1829 US Senator Daniel Webster
appointed the first Senate page. The first US House page was
appointed in 1842.
(SFC, 10/5/06, p.A16)(WSJ, 10/5/06, p.A4)
1829 Plymouth Brethren
missionaries from the US made their 1st trip to Baghdad.
(WSJ, 1/17/03, p.W13)
1829 Abner Cutler started a
cabinet making business in Buffalo, New York. The company
manufactured roll-top desks for decades.
(SFC, 8/17/05, p.G5)
1829 Cornelius Vanderbilt
(1794-1877), NYC-based entrepreneur, began his own line of
steamboats and rapidly branched out to trans-oceanic shipping and
(ON, 6/12, p.2)
1829 In Pennsylvania David G.
Yuengling (d.1877), an immigrant from Germany, established the Eagle
Brewery on Centre St. in Pottsville. As of 2016 the D.G. Yuengling
& Son brewery was recognized as the oldest in the United States.
3/23/04, p.B5)(SFC, 6/23/16, p.C6)
1829 William Austin Burt
patented his typographer, the first practical typewriter writing
(SJSVB, 3/25/96, p.27)
1829 In Western Australia the
Nyoongar people were largely dispossessed by white settlement. In
2006 they proved native title to over more than 6,000 square
kilometers (2,300 square miles) covering Perth and its surrounds by
continuing to observe traditional customs.
1829 Daniel O’Connell, an Irish
Catholic, took a seat in the House of Commons and began to work for
the repeal of the union between Britain and Ireland. Nationalistic
sentiments became identified mainly with the Catholics.
(SFEC, 12/22/96, Z1,p.6)
1829 In England a ban on
Catholic voting was lifted.
(SFEC, 10/6/96, BR p.5)
1829 Oxford and Cambridge held
their first boat race on the River Thames at Henley in Oxfordshire.
The second race occurred in 1836, with the venue moved to be from
Westminster to Putney.
1829 Robert Stephenson built
the Rocket, one of the world’s first steam locomotives, in
(Econ, 6/6/15, p.46)
1829 The Obelisk of Luxor, a
gift from Egypt, was transported to the Place de la Concorde in
Paris. [see 1836]
(WSJ, 10/26/99, p.A24)
1829 Friedrich Buschmann,
German musician, invented the accordion and laid out the buttons in
a circle of fifths pattern.
(ElMus, 3/95, p.69)
1829 A hurricane destroyed the
town of Loreto in Baha California except for the Mission Nuestra
Senora de Loreto. The center of government was moved down the coast
to La Paz.
(SFEC, 5/18/97, p.T5)(SSFC, 11/2/03, p.C10)
1829-1833 Walter Bowne served as mayor of NYC.
(SSFC, 4/17/05, Par p.12)
1829-1833 Honore Daumier, French artist, created
his bust of Comte de Lameth. Daumier honed his caricaturing skills
with a series of terra-cotta busts that lampooned the right-wing
leaders of the Court party. Lameth had fought for the colonists in
the American Revolution and had voted to abolish the aristocracy
during the French revolution.
(WSJ, 3/10/00, p.W16)
1829-1837 Andrew Jackson was President of the US.
In 2001 Robert V. Remini authored "Andrew Jackson and His Indian
(A&IP, ESM, p.96b, photo)(SSFC, 7/15/01, DB
1829-1877 This period in US history was covered by
Walter A. McDougall in his 2008 book “Throes of Democracy: The
American Civil War Era 1829-1877.”
(WSJ, 3/11/08, p.D6)
1829-1900 Charles Dudley Warner, American author
and editor: "Public opinion is stronger than the legislature, and
nearly as strong as the Ten Commandments."
1829-1904 John Rogers, sculptor. He depicted
Americans the way they wanted to be seen and became known as the
(AHHT, 4/01, p.7)
1829-1906 Carl Schurz, American politician:
"Ideals are like stars; you will not succeed in touching them with
your hands. But like the seafaring man on the desert of waters, you
choose them as your guides, and following them you will reach your
1829-1908 Thomas Hill, American landscape painter.
(SSFC, 2/4/01, DB p.65)
1829-1912 General William Booth was the founder
and leader of the Salvation Army, a Christian and social welfare
organization taking spiritual and material help to the needy, first
in London and then around the world. Booth, ordained a Methodist
minister in 1858 but later becoming an independent evangelist,
changed the name of his Christian Mission to the Salvation Army in
1878, adopting a military structure. Booth‘s seven children toiled
in the Army, organizing units (including the Volunteers of America)
throughout the world.
1830 Jan 7, 1st US Railroad
Station opened in Baltimore.
1830 Jan 7, Albert Bierstadt,
painter (US landscapes), was born in Germany.
1830 Jan 8, Gouverneur Kemble
Warren (d.1882), Major Gen (Union volunteers), was born.
1830 Jan 8, Hans von Bulow,
pianist, virtuoso conductor, was born in Dresden.
1830 Jan 13, There was a great
fire in New Orleans. It was thought to be set by rebel slaves.
1830 Jan 28, Daniel Auber's
opera "Fra Diavolo," premiered in Paris.
1830 Feb 3, Robert Cecil,
Marquess of Salisbury (C), British PM (1885-1902), was born.
1830 Feb, In France the
Comedie-Francaise performed "Hernani," a play whose hero swears
vengeance against Don Carlo, i.e. King Charles. The play "provoked a
brouhaha that heralded the July Revolution."
(WSJ, 2/10/98, p.A16)
1830 Mar 4, V. Bellini's opera
"I Capuleti e i Montecchi" premiered in Venice.
(WSJ, 11/10/98, p.A20)(SC, 3/4/02)
1830 Mar 16, London reorganized
its police force, Scotland Yard.
1830 Apr 5, Alexander Muir,
poet (Maple Leaf Forever), was born in Lesmahagow, Scotland.
1830 Apr 6, The Church of Jesus
Christ of Latter-day Saints was organized by Joseph Smith and five
others in Fayette, Seneca County, N.Y. Joseph Smith (25) published
the “Book of Mormon” in Palmyra, New York. He claimed that the
manuscript was based on ancient golden plates revealed to him by the
angel Moroni and written in the language of the Egyptians. The book
records the journey of an ancient Israelite prophet, Lehi, and his
family to the American continent some 2,000 years ago. [see 1827,
1831] Some 5,000 copies of the book were published. In 2014 Avi
Steinberg authored “The Lost Book of Mormon: A Journey Through the
Mythic Lands of Nephi, Zarahemla & Kansas City, Missouri.”
(SFC, 4/9/96, A-7)(NH, 10/96, p.19)(AP,
4/6/97)(SFC, 6/15/12, p.A24)(SSFC, 10/26/14, p.P3)
1830 Apr 9, Edward Muybridge,
pioneered study of motion, photography, was born in England. In 2002
Rebecca Solnit authored "River of Shadows: Eadweard Muybridge and
the Technological Wild West."
(MC, 4/9/02)(SSFC, 1/26/03, p.M1)
1830 May 1, Mother (Mary
Harris) Jones, reformer and labor organizer, was born. [see 1837]
1830 May 3, The 1st regular
steam train passenger service started.
1830 May 5, John B. Stetson,
American hat maker, was born. He gave his name to the wide-brimmed
1830 May 18, Karl Goldmark
Keszthely, composer, was born in Hungary.
(HN, 5/18/98)(SC, 5/18/02)
1830 May 18, Edwin Beard
Budding of England signed an agreement for the manufacture of his
invention, the lawn mower. He adopted the rotary blade in the cloth
industry to grass.
(SC, 5/18/02)(Econ, 12/20/03, p.118)
1830 May 20, The 1st railroad
timetable was published in the newspaper Baltimore American.
1830 May 20, Dr. Hyde patented
a fountain pen.
1830 May 24, "Mary Had a Little
Lamb," was written. Sarah Josepha Hale of Newport, N.H., published a
collection of poems "Poems for Our Children," that included "Mary
Had a Little Lamb." [see 1815]
(SFC, 8/24/98, p.B6)(MC, 5/24/02)
1830 May 24, The first
passenger railroad in the United States began service between
Baltimore and Elliott’s Mills, Md. The first regularly scheduled
railroad passenger service was pulled by the engine named "The Best
Friend of Charleston."
(AP, 5/24/97)(SFC, 6/18/99, p.D4)
1830 May 25, Jules de Geyter,
Belgian poet (International), was born.
1830 May 28, Congress
authorized Indian removal from all states to western prairie.
1830 Jun 26, Britain’s King
George IV (b.1762) died. George Augustus Frederick of Hanover,
Prince of Wales, was called Prinny by his friends. He was succeeded
by his brother, King William IV. In 2002 Steven Parissien authored
"George IV." The crown passed to George's brother who became William
4/5/02, p.W12)(ON, 4/09, p.7)
1830 Jul 4, William Sublette, a
trapper and explorer, named Independence Rock, Wyo., when he
celebrated his 54th birthday there.
(SFC, 8/13/98, p.A3)
1830 Jul 5, The French occupied
the North African city of Algiers. A flotilla had set sail earlier
from Toulon to wrest Algeria from Ottoman control.
(AP, 7/5/97)(Econ, 3/1/14, p.83)
1830 Jul 10, Camille Pissarro
(d.1903), French impressionist painter, was born on the island of
St. Thomas in the West Indies. He studied as a child in Paris but
spent his early years as an artist in Caracas, Venezuela. In Paris
he became a devotee of the neo-Impressionist technique.
(WUD, 1994, p.1097)(DPCP 1984)(HN, 7/10/01)
1830 Jul 15, 3 Indian tribes,
Sioux, Sauk & Fox, signed a treaty giving the US most of
Minnesota, Iowa & Missouri.
1830 Jul 18, Uruguay adopted a
1830 Jul 25, King Charles X of
France signed the July Ordinances, also known as "The Ordinances of
Saint-Cloud". These, among other steps, suspended the liberty of the
press, dissolved the newly elected Chamber of Deputies and excluded
the commercial middle-class from future elections.
1830 Jul 27, A second
Revolution broke out in Paris opposing the laws of Charles X.
1830 Jul 28, Revolution in
France replaced Charles X with Louis Philippe.
1830 Jul 29, Liberals led by
the Marquis of Lafayette seized Paris in opposition to the king’s
restrictions on citizens’ rights.
1830 Jul 31, Charles X of
France was forcibly ejected from the French throne. [see Jul 28]
1830 Jul-1830 Aug, In Britain
the June 26 death of Britain’s King George IV triggered elections.
Polling took place in July and August and the Tories won a majority
over the Whigs, but division among Tory MPs allowed Earl Grey to
form an effective government and take the question of electoral
reform to the country the following year.
1830 Aug 4, Plans for the city
of Chicago were laid out.
1830 Aug 9, Louis-Philippe
formally accepted the crown of France, following abdication of
Charles X, last brother of guillotined Louis XVI. He was the son of
the opportunistic Duke d'Orleans, first cousin to the late king, who
renounced his royal heritage and called himself plain Phillipe
Egalite. Louis-Philippe voted for his cousin's death in 1793, but
followed him to the guillotine in 1794.
1830 Aug 25, The "Tom Thumb"
steam locomotive, designed by Peter Cooper, ran its famous race with
a horse-drawn car. The horse won because the engine, which had been
ahead, broke down. [see Sep 18]
(HN, 8/25/98)(ON, 1/01, p.12)
1830 Aug 25, Belgium rebelled
against Netherlands. Among the reasons for rebelling were heavy
taxes on beer.
(chblue.com, 8/25/01)(Econ, 12/17/11, p.125)
1830 Aug 28, "Tom Thumb," the
1st locomotive in US, ran from Baltimore to Ellicotts Mill.
1830 Aug, The Swing Riots, a
widespread uprising by English agricultural workers, began with the
destruction of threshing machines in the Elham Valley area of East
Kent in the summer. By early December the riots spread throughout
the whole of southern England and East Anglia.
(Econ, 6/30/12, SR
1830 Sep 9 Charles Durant flew
a balloon from New York City across the Hudson River to Perth Amboy,
1830 Sep 9, In Russia a cholera
epidemic, entering the country from Asia, forced the lockdown of
Nizhny Novgorod province. Alexander Pushkin wrote his short story
(Econ., 7/6/20, p.69)
1830 Sep 15, British MP William
Huskisson (b.1770) was killed under the wheels of the “Rocket” train
at the opening of the Liverpool and Manchester Railway. He was the
1st person to be run-over by a railroad train.
1830 Sep 18, Tom Thumb" the
first locomotive built in the United States, lost a nine-mile race
in Maryland to a horse. [see Aug 25]
(HN, 9/18/98)(ON, 1/01, p.12)
1830 Sep 18, William Hazlitt
(b.1778), in his time England’s finest essayist, died. "A nickname
is the heaviest stone that the devil can throw at a man." In 2008
Duncan Wu authored “William Hazlitt: The First Modern Man.”
1830 Sep 20, The National Negro
Convention convened in Philadelphia with the purpose of abolishing
1830 Oct 15, Helen Maria Hunt
Jackson (d.1885), writer and poet, was born in Amherst,
Massachusetts. Her 1881 non-fiction work, "A Century of Dishonor,"
raised concerns about the treatment of Native Americans. Jackson, a
lifelong friend of Emily Dickinson, worked on a government
investigation of the treatment of Mission Indians. Her 1884 novel
Ramona was also about the plight of Indians in California. "Wounded
vanity knows when it is mortally hurt; and limps off the field,
piteous, all disguises thrown away. But pride carries its banner to
the last; and fast as it is driven from one field unfurls it in
another." "It is the weakness and danger of republics, that the
vices as well as virtues of the people are represented in their
(AP, 5/24/97)(HN, 10/15/98)(HNQ, 12/20/99)(AP,
1830 Nov 8, Oliver Otis Howard
(d.1909), Major General (Union volunteers), was born.
1830 Nov 13, Oliver Wendell
Holmes published "Old Ironsides."
1830 Nov 15, In Britain Lord
Grey used his majority in the House of commons to defeat the
government of Arthur Wellesley, the Duke of Wellington. Wellington
resigned the next day.
(ON, 4/09, p.8)
1830 Nov 29, In Warsaw young
Polish officers from the local Army of the Congress, Poland's
military academy revolted against the Russian Empire. They were led
by lieutenant Piotr Wysocki and were soon joined by large segments
of societies of Lithuania, Belarus, and the Right-bank Ukraine.
Nicholas I ruthlessly repressed the insurrection and by October 1831
Polish forces capitulated.
1830 Dec 5, Christina Rossetti
(d.1894), poet (Winter Rain, Passing Away), was born in London. She
wrote devotional verse, curious fairy tales and category defying
poems. Her brothers, William Michael and Dante Gabriel, helped found
the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, whose professed aim was to revive
the purity and vividness they admired in late medieval art. Her
story is told by Jan Marsh in "Christina Rosetti: A Writer’s Life."
"Better by far you should forget and smile, Than that you should
remember and be sad."
(WSJ, 7/25/95, p.A-10)(AP, 12/11/98)(MC, 12/5/01)
1830 Dec 10, Emily Dickinson
(d.1886), American poet, was born in Amherst, Massachusetts. Perhaps
the best-known woman poet in the United States today, Dickinson led
a rather secluded life. After studying at Amherst Academy and then
for one year at the Mount Holyoke Female Seminary, she lived with
her family and never married. The few friends that Emily Dickinson
did have received regular gifts of poetry and letters from her.
Although she wrote poetry constantly, she never seriously pursued
publishing her work. Only about 10 poems were published in her
lifetime, and those were submitted for publication without her
permission. After her death in 1886, more than 1,700 of her poems,
which she had bound together in bundles, were discovered and
published. "They say that God is everywhere, and yet we always think
of Him as somewhat of a recluse."
(HNPD, 12/8/98)(AP, 1/10/99)
1830 Dec 17, Simon Bolivar
(b.1783), called "the Liberator," died of TB in Santa Marta, in
Colombia. He was a leader in Venezuela for struggles of
national independence in South America. He formed a Gran Colombia
that lasted 8 years, but broke apart into Venezuela, Colombia and
Ecuador. In 2006 John Lynch authored “Simon Bolivar: A Life.”
(AHD, p.148)(SFC, 6/14/97, p.E3)(AP,
12/17/97)(Econ, 7/1/06, p.77)
1830 Dec 20, An international
conference declared the dissolution of the Kingdom of the
Netherlands effectively recognizing the independence of Belgium.
1830 Dec 26, Gaetano
Donizetti's opera "Anna Bolena," premiered in Milan.
1830 Ingres made his pencil
study for "La Grande Odalisque. "
(WSJ, 7/1/96, p.A11)
c1830 Franz Kreuger
painted his portrait of Russia’s Empress Alexandra Fedorovna.
(SSFM, 4/1/01, p.61)
c1830 Sheldon Peck, American
New England artist, painted the portrait of a revolutionary soldier
or dignitary. The portrait had been found in a local auction and was
bought for $25. In 1997 it was valued at about $250,000.
(SFC, 8/19/97, p.A6)
1830 George Earl Bulwer-Lytton
(Edward George Bulwer-Lytton) published his novel "Paul Clifford."
The opening line was "It was a dark and stormy night," and led to
the 1982 Bulwer-Lytton Fiction Contest for bad writing. Lytton also
coined the phrase "the pen is mightier than the sword."
(SFC, 7/14/99, p.A14)(SFC, 7/10/01, p.A18)
1830 William Cobbett
(1763-1835), English pamphleteer, farmer and journalist, authored
his 2-volume work “Rural Rides.” He wrote down what he saw from the
points of view both of a farmer and a social reformer. The result
documented the early nineteenth century countryside and its people
as well as giving free vent to Cobbett's opinions.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Cobbett)(Econ, 6/30/12, SR
1830 Stendhal (1783-1842), the
nom de plume of French author Henri Beyle, authored “The Red and the
Black,” the story of a peasant who reaches for upward mobility
through the favors of two mistresses.
(WSJ, 3/15/08, p.W10)
1830 Charles Lyell published
the first edition of his "Principles of Geology."
1830 The First Symphony by
Berlioz had its premiere.
(SFC, 6/28/97, p.E1)
1830 In Pennsylvania George
Brinton began constructing a home later called Rondelay in Chadds
Ford. After extensive renovations the 6 bedroom home on 38.9 acres
was listed for sale in 1998 for $2.9 mil.
(WSJ, 4/3/98, p.W8)
1830 Andrew Jackson, seventh
President of the US, signed the Indian Removal Act of 1830. The act
banished the Cherokee and other eastern tribes to beyond the
(NG, 5/95, p.78)
1830 Pres. Andrew Jackson
forced Thomas L. McKenney from his job as the 1st US superintendent
of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Jackson disagreed with McKenney’s
opinion that “the Indian was, in his intellectual and moral
structure, our equal.”
(WSJ, 3/15/06, p.D16)
1830 Pres. Jackson named Roger
Brooke Taney as US Attorney General.
(WSJ, 11/21/06, p.D8)
1830 A year after leaving
office as the sixth president of the United States, the Plymouth
district of Massachusetts unexpectedly elected John Quincy Adams to
the House of Representatives, where he served until he suffered a
stroke on the House floor in 1848. He died two days later. Adams at
the time enjoyed the distinction of having been the only son to
follow his father to the presidency.
1830 Senator Daniel Webster
said: "Liberty and Union, now and forever, one and inseparable!"
(WSJ, 9/30/97, p.A20)
1830 The USS Constitution (aka
Old Ironsides) was condemned as unseaworthy. The ship was saved by a
poem by Oliver Wendell Holmes, a Harvard anatomy professor, that
stirred up protests. "Oh, better that her shattered hulk / Should
sink beneath the wave..."
(SFEC, 7/13/97, Par p.14)(SFC, 7/22/97,
1830 The US Naval Observatory
in Washington became the official timekeeper for the United States.
(WSJ, 10/17/95, B-1)
1830 Commercial bottling
operations for ketchup began in Boston.
(SFC, 8/27/03, p.E4)
1830 The yard was standardized
at 36 inches. It had started out as the girth of a Saxon.
(SFC, 10/28/00, p.D4)
c1830 The Bowie knife was first
(WSJ, 11/9/98, p.A1)
1830 Samuel Morrill, a
newspaper printer, cooked up a new ink in his kitchen in Andover,
Mass., forming a company that ultimately become Sun Chemical. In
2004 it was the largest maker of ink in the world.
(SFC, 7/26/04, p.F4)
1830 A Frenchman patented a
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R25)
1830 American alcohol
consumption reached 7.1 gallons per capita.
(WSJ, 10/5/98, p.A28)
1830 The non-Indian population
of California was 4,256.
(SFEC, 9/20/98, Z1 p.4)
1830 Chicago land sold for
about $800 per acre (in 2012 dollars).
(Econ, 4/6/13, p.88)
1830 There were 40 million
buffalo in the US at this time. By 1890 the number was reduced to
(NH, 12/96, p.10)
1830 Richard Lander, British
explorer, completed Mungo Park’s journey down the Niger from Bussa
to the mouth of the river in 5 months.
(ON, 7/00, p.12)
1830 Henry Philip Hope, a
London banker, purchased the 45 carat blue diamond. It later began
to be known as the "Hope Diamond."
(THC, 12/3/97)(EB, 1993, V6 p.51)
1830 A Massachusetts spice
trading ship was seized by pirates in Sumatra. In 2001 "Drums of
Quallah Battoo: Salem Pepper Traders and Sumatran Pirates" by
Charles P Corn (d.2001) was to be published.
(SFC, 3/20/01, p.A19)
1830 1000 Albanian leaders
were invited to meet with an Ottoman general who killed about half
(www, Albania, 1998)
1830 Mayor de San Andres,
Bolivia’s major university, was founded in La Paz.
1830 A French taxidermist
stuffed an African Bushman from Botswana and took the body to Europe
for exhibition. In 2000 the body was returned from a Spanish museum.
(WSJ, 10/5/00, p.A1)
1830 In Germany the Altes
Museum was designed by Karl Friedrich Schinkel in the center of
(WSJ, 7/29/98, p.A13)
1830 In Germany Michael Thonet
(d.1871) started making bentwood furniture. He moved to Vienna in
1842 and in 1850 started making bentwood chairs for commercial use.
His 5 sons joined the company and by 1856 it was known as Gebruder
Thonet. In 1923 the company joined others to form Thonet-Kohn-Mundus
and began making tubular steel furniture. It moved its headquarters
to the US in 1940 and is still in business.
(SFC, 9/4/96, z1 p.5)
1830 The Gran Colombia union
collapsed and Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela became independent
1830 Some sources say that the
1st pizzeria opened in Naples about this time. [see 1889]
(SFCM, 4/18/04, p.16)
1830 Katsushika Hokusai
(1760-1849), Japanese artist, created his famous woodblock print
“Beneath the Wave of Kanagawa” about this time.
(Econ, 6/4/11, p.54)
1830 The government of Peru
exempted guano from taxes. The commercial mining and export of the
rich fertilizer soon followed.
1830-1835 Tocqueville published his Democracy in
America. In a democracy such as the United States, he said, private
associations are permitted by the central government to perform
quasi-governmental functions that take the brunt of governmental
power and protect the people like a great umbrella spread out
against a rainstorm. A nation without this crucial element in its
makeup will be a more terrible tyranny than the world has ever seen.
1830-1837 Some 347 new banks were chartered in the
US. The value of real estate rose 150%.
1830-1840 In Maine the original Great Works Dam
was built as a "wing dam," parallel to the shore, to provide water
for sawmills. It was partially demolished around 1887, when a new
dam was installed by the Penobscot Chemical Fibre Co., the first
pulp mill on the river.
c1830-1840 In St. Louis Henry Shaw made a fortune
outfitting westward bound wagon trains. He retired at 40 and began
to transform a wild prairie outside the city into magnificent
gardens known later as The Missouri Botanical Garden (Shaw’s
(SFC, 10/12/97, p.T5)
c1830-1840 Wine production began in Hunter Valley,
north of Sydney
(SFEC, 9/10/00, p.T6)
c1830-1840 Thomas Babington Macaulay (1800-1859),
English essayist, historian and politician, served as a member of
the British Supreme Council in India.
(www.britannica.com)(Econ, 10/30/04, p.48)
1830-1840 Hokusai (1760-1849) made his "Thirty-Six
Views of Mount Fuji during this decade. The wood blocks included
"Under the Wave of Kanagawa," "The Back of Mt. Fuji from Minobu
River," and "Winter Loneliness." The last was inspired by a poem of
Minamoto no Muneyuki Ason. Another series was titled "A Tour of
(SFC, 9/24/98, p.E3)
c1830-1840 Charles Wheatsone of London developed
the English concertina with a range of three chromatic octaves.
(BAAC, 8/96, p.6)
c1830-1840 Chair manufacturers started using metal
for chair parts.
(SFC, 4/1/98, Z1 p.7)
c1830-1840 Don Vincente, a former Spanish monk,
committed 8 murders for books owned by others.
(SFC, 9/6.96, p.C5)
c1830-1840s The US Congress adhered to a gag rule
that prohibited any consideration of any petition regarding the
status of slavery or the slave trade on federal territory.
(WSJ, 7/29/96, p.A12)
c1830-1880s The art of creating a memorial wreath
from the hair of a departed loved one was a popular Victorian
(SFC,11/5/97, Z.1 p.3)
1830-1850 The Pennsylvania German community made
traditional hand-stitched show towels and most show towels date from
this period. They were hung on a door in the main room of a house.
(SFC,12/10/97, Z1 p.9)
1830-1859 Alfred King worked as a jeweler and
clockmaker in Chippenham, England, during this time. He signed his
work "A. King." His clocks fetch $2-3k.
(SFC, 7/9/97, Z1 p.3)
1830-1862 Britain’s economy doubled in size over
this period as increased productivity spread from cotton to other
(Econ, 9/24/11, SR p.5)
1830-1864 Private coins were manufactured in
several areas of the US.
(SFEC, 7/5/98, Par p.17)
1830-1867 Alexander Smith, Scottish poet and
essayist: "Christmas is the day that holds all time together."
1830-1877 Some 12,500 convicts were locked in
Tasmania during this period.
(SSFC, 1/23/05, p.E6)
1830-1895 Lothar Meyer, German chemist,
independently of Mendeleev discovered that if the chemical elements
are arranged in a sequence according to their atomic weights,
various chemical properties repeat periodically along the sequence.
1830-1897 In Brazil Antonio Vicente Mendes Maciel,
aka Antonio Conselheiro, was born in Quixeramobim, Ceara. He founded
the settlement of Canudos in Bahia that was destroyed by government
forces. [see 1896]
(SFC, 10/7/97, p.A14)
1830-1917 Belva Ann Bennett Lockwood, American
social reformer: "The glory of each generation is to make its own