Timeline 1821-1830

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1821        Jan 4, The first native-born American saint, Elizabeth Ann Seton, died in Emmitsburg, Md.
    (AP, 1/4/98)

1821        Jan 21, John Breckinridge (d.1875), 14th U.S. Vice President, was born. He served under James Buchanan (1857-1861). Breckenridge was a Confederate General in the Civil War. [His brother-in-law was Lloyd Tevis, founder of Wells Fargo]
    (WUD, 1994, p.183)(HN, 1/21/99)

1821        Feb 3, Elizabeth Blackwell (d.1910), first woman to get an MD from a U.S. medical school, was born in Bristol, England.

1821        Feb 11, Auguste Edouard Mariette, French Egyptologist, (dug out Sphinx 12/16/42), was born.
    (MC, 2/11/02)

1821        Feb 12, The Mercantile Library of City of NY opened.
    (MC, 2/12/02)

1821        Feb 21, Charles Scribner, was born. He founded the New York Publishing firm which became Charles Scribner's Sons and also founded Scribner's magazine.
    (HN, 2/21/99)

1821        Feb 22, The Adams-Onis Treaty became final, whereby Spain gave up all of Florida to the US. The boundary between Mexico and the Louisiana Purchase was established and the US renounced all claims to Texas.
    (AH, 2/06, p.15)

1821        Feb 23, College of Apothecaries, the 1st US pharmacy college, was organized in Philadelphia.
    (MC, 2/23/02)
1821        Feb 23, John Keats, English poet, died of tuberculosis at the age of 26. In 1998 the biography "Keats" by Andrew Motion was published. Earlier biographies included one by W. Jackson Bates (1963), and a novelistic psychological portrait by Aileen Ward (1963). The standard work on Keats was written by Robert Gittings in 1968.
    (WP, 1951, p.11)(WSJ, 1/15/98, p.A17)(SFEC, 3/29/98, BR p.6)

1821        Feb 24, Mexico rebels proclaimed the "Plan de Iguala," their declaration of independence from Spain, and took over the mission lands in California.
    (HT, 3/97, p.61)(AP, 2/24/98)(HN, 2/24/98)

1821        Mar 5, Monroe was the first president to be inaugurated on March 5, only because the 4th was a Sunday.
    (HN, 3/5/98)

1821        Mar 14, African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church founded in NY.
    (MC, 3/14/02)

1821        Mar 15, Josef Loschmidt (d.1895), a pioneer of 19th-century physics and chemistry, was born in Putschim (Pocerny), Bohemia. In his first publication (1861) Loschmidt proposed the first structural chemical formulae for many important molecules, introducing markings for double and triple carbon bonds. In 1865 he became the first person to use the kinetic theory of gases to obtain a reasonably good value for the diameter of a molecule. What we call "Avogadro's number" is, in German-speaking countries, called "Loschmidt's number."

1821        Mar 19, Sir Richard Burton (d.1890), English explorer, was born.
    (HN, 3/19/01)

1821        Mar 25, Greece gained independence from Turkey (National Day). Greek Independence Day celebrates the liberation of Southern Greece from Turkish domination. In 1844 Thomas Gordon authored a study of the Greek revolution. In 2001 David Brewer authored "The Greek War of Independence."
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Celebration_of_the_Greek_Revolution)(WSJ, 9/17/01, p.A20)

1821        Mar 26, Franz Grillparzer's "Das Goldene Vliess" premiered in Vienna.
    (SS, 3/26/02)

1821        Apr 4, Linus Yale, American portrait painter and inventor of the Yale lock, was born.
    (HN, 4/4/01)(MC, 4/4/02)

1821        Apr 9, Charles Baudelaire (d.1867), French poet, was born. His works were censored and he was considered a pathetic psychopath; he also became the most acute critic of his age in France. He was photographed by Felix Nadar in 1855.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.278)(Smith., 5/95, p.72)(HN, 4/9/01)

1821        Apr 20, Franz K. Achard (67), German physicist, chemist, died.
    (MC, 4/20/02)

1821        May 3, The Richmond [Virginia] Light Artillery was organized.
    (RC handout, 5/27/96)

1821        May 5, Napoleon Bonaparte (b.1769), former emperor of France (1799-1815), died in exile on the island of St. Helena. He died by slow poisoning at the hands of his companion Charles Tristan de Montholon. Scottish pathologist Dr. Hamilton Smith later used Napoleon’s hair to determine that arsenic had been administered about 40 times from 1820-1821. In 2010 a lock of Napoleon’s hair fetched 140,000 New Zealand dollars ($97,000) at auction. In 1992 Proctor Patterson Jones authored "Napoleon, An Intimate Account." In 1999 an English translation of Jean-Paul Kauffmann's "The Black Room at Longwood: Napoleon's Exile on St. Helena" was published. In 1904 F. De Bouirrienne published "Memoirs of Napoleon Bonaparte." In 1988 S. De Chair edited "Napoleon's Memoirs." In 2014 Andrew Roberts authored “Napoleon the Great."
    (V.D.-H.K.p.232)(AP, 5/5/97)(SFEC, 1/18/98, BR p.9)(SFEC, 8/16/98, Z1 p.8)(SFC, 4/8/99, p.C5)(AP, 8/8/97)(SFEC, 8/1/99, Par p.16)(AP, 7/01/10)(Econ, 9/20/14, p.77)

1821        May 24, Samuel Bard (b.1742), American physician and founder of the first medical school in NYC, died.  In 1767 Bard opened a medical school at King's College, which in 1784 was renamed Columbia College.
    (https://tinyurl.com/yyktul74)(SSFC, 8/30/20, p.A10)

1821        May 25, Diederich Krug, composer, was born.
    (SC, 5/25/02)
1821        May 25, Klemens von Metternich (1773-1858) became chancellor of Austria.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Klemens_von_Metternich)(Econ, 11/15/14, p.84)

1821        Jun 2, Ion Bratianu (Lib), premier of Romania (1876-88), was born.
    (SC, 6/2/02)

1821        Jun 19, The Ottomans defeated the Greeks at the Battle of Dragasani.
    (HN, 6/19/98)

1821        Jun 21, African Methodist Episcopal Zion (AMEZ) Church was organized in NYC as a national body. [see Mar 14]
    (MC, 6/21/02)

1821        Jun 24, Battle of Carabobo: Bolivar defeated the royalists outside of Caracas.
    (MC, 6/24/02)

1821        Jul 2, Charles Tupper, 6th Canadian PM (1896), was born.
    (SC, 7/2/02)

1821        Jul 6, Edmund Pettus (d.1907), for whom the civil rights landmark Edmund Pettus Bridge was named, was born in Alabama. He earned his fame as a Confederate brigadier general. Pettus was a lawyer and judge and served throughout the western theater during the Civil War. He resumed his law practice after the war and went on to serve in the U.S. Senate. Pettus died while in his second term in Congress. The Edmund Pettus Bridge in Selma, Alabama, became a civil rights landmark when on March 7, 1965, a band of civil rights marchers on their way to Montgomery crossed the bridge, only to be attacked by state troopers on the other side.
    (HNQ, 10/21/01)

1821        Jul 13, Confederate cavalry commander Nathan Bedford Forrest was born in Tennessee’s Bedford County.
    (AP, 7/13/97)

1821        Jul 16, Mary Baker Eddy (d.1910), founder of the Christian Science movement (1879), was born.
    (HN, 7/16/98)(WSJ, 9/26/03, p.W17)

1821        Jul 17, Spain ceded Florida to the United States. [see Feb 22]
    (AP, 7/17/97)
1821        Jul 17, Andrew Jackson became the governor of Florida.
    (HN, 7/17/98)

1821        Jul 19, The coronation of George IV of England was held. His wife, Caroline, was refused admittance. She died Aug 7.

1821        Jul 28, Peru declared its independence from Spain. Lima had been the seat of the Spanish viceroys until this time. Jose Francisco de San Martin of Argentina had blockaded Lima and forced the Spanish viceroy to abandon the city. Martin returned to Argentina in 1822
    (SFC, 12/20/96, p.B4)(AP, 7/28/97)(ON, 10/09, p.10)

1821        Jul, English captain John Franklin led a party to explore the Barrens in northwest section of Canada’s Hudson Bay. George Back, midshipman, Royal Navy, painted a scene of the Sandstone Rapids on the Arctic Circle of Canada’s Northwest Territories. Of the 20 men in the party to map the northern coast of Canada west of the Hudson Bay, 11 starved and froze to death. Back returned to England and was hailed as "the man who ate his boots." Twenty-three years later he led a third arctic expedition of 129 men in two ships and all perished.
    (NH, 5/96, p.30)(WSJ, 2/10/95, p.A-7)

1821        Aug 4, The 1st edition of Saturday Evening Post was published. It continued until 1969.
    (MC, 8/4/02)

1821        Aug 7, Caroline of Brunswick (b.1768), wife of England’s King George IV, died. In 2006 Jane Robins authored “The Trial of Queen Caroline: The Scandalous Affair that Nearly Ended a Monarchy."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_IV_of_the_United_Kingdom)(Econ, 8/5/06, p.76)

1821        Aug 10, Missouri became the 24th state.
    (AP, 8/10/97)

1821        Aug 19, There was a failed liberal coup against French King Louis XVIII.
    (MC, 8/19/02)

1821        Aug 23, After 11 years of war, Spain granted Mexican independence as a constitutional monarchy. Spanish Viceroy Juan de O'Donoju signed the Treaty of Cordoba, which approved a plan to make Mexico an independent constitutional monarchy.
    (HN, 8/23/00)(MC, 8/23/02)

1821        Aug 28, In the city of Puebla a nun served a tri-colored chili dish to the Emperor Agustin de Iturbide, who was on his way home from signing the Treaty of Cordoba, which effectively freed Mexico from Spain. Iturbide, a Creole, had led the suppression of the initial rebellion for independence. He later abdicated, went into exile, returned and was executed. After Iturbide Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna led the country over 11 presidential terms.
    (WSJ, 9/5/96, p.B1)(WSJ, 8/13/97, p.A12)

1821        Sep 1, William Becknell led a group of traders from Independence, Mo., toward Santa Fe on what would become the Santa Fe Trail.
    (HN, 9/1/99)

1821        Sep 10, English captain John Franklin led a party to explore the Barrens in northwest section of Canada’s Hudson Bay. Naturalist John Richards recorded that they found the summer track of a man, where summer last only 8-weeks.
    (NH, 5/96, p.30)

1821        Sep 15, A junta convened by the captain-general in Guatemala declared independence for its provinces Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua San Salvador and Chiapas.
    (AP, 9/15/97)(EWH, 1968, p.843)

1821        Sep 27, The Mexican Empire declared its independence. Revolutionary forces occupied Mexico City as the Spanish withdraw.
    (MC, 9/27/01)

1821        Oct 5, Greek rebels captured Tripolitza, the main Turkish fort in the Peloponnesian area of Greece.
    (HN, 10/5/98)

1821        Oct 13, Rudolf Virchow, German politician and anthropologist (cell pathology), was born.
    (MC, 10/13/01)

1821        Oct 16, Albert Franz Doppler, composer, was born.
    (MC, 10/16/01)

1821        Oct 17, Alexander Gardner, American photographer, was born. He documented the Civil War and the West.
    (HN, 10/17/00)

1821        Nov 9, The 1st US pharmacy college held 1st classes in Philadelphia.
    (MC, 11/9/01)

1821        Nov 10, Andreas J Romberg (54), German violinist and composer (Der Rabe), died.
    (MC, 11/10/01)

1821        Nov 11, Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky (d.1881), Russian novelist who wrote "The Brothers Karamazov," was born. "Originality and a feeling of one’s own dignity are achieved only through work and struggle."
    (AP, 12/9/97)(HN, 11/11/98)

1821        Nov 16, Trader William Becknell reached Santa Fe, N.M., on the route that will become known as the Santa Fe Trail.
    (HN, 11/16/98)

1821        Dec 12, Gustave Flaubert (d.1880), French novelist, was born. "Our ignorance of history causes us to slander our own times." [see May 8, 1880]
    (V.D.-H.K.p.278)(AP, 6/19/99)(HN, 12/12/99)

1821        Dec 17, Kentucky abolished debtor’s prisons.
    (MC, 12/17/01)

1821        Dec 25, Clara Barton (d.1912), the founder of the American Red Cross, was born in North Oxford, Massachusetts. She worked as a volunteer nurse during the Civil War, distributing food and medical supplies to troops and earning herself the label "Angel of the Battlefield." She later served alongside the International Red Cross in Europe--however, she could not work directly with the organization because she was a woman. In 1882 she formed an American branch of the Red Cross. Barton lobbied for the Geneva Convention and she expanded the mission of the Red Cross to include helping victims of peacetime disasters. Clara Barton died at her home in Glen Echo, Maryland, on April 12, 1912, when she was 90 years old.
    (HNPD, 12/26/98)(WUD, 1994 p.123)

1821        Dec 28, Gioacchino Rossini moved to Bologna.
    (MC, 12/28/01)

1821        In California Esteban Munras, engaged by Friar Juan Francisco Martin, arrived at Mission San Miguel and supervised the interior decorations of the new church. Munras, an artist trained by the Spanish, designed murals for the new church.
    (SB, 3/28/02)(SFC, 10/1/09, p.E6)

1821        Owen Chase, the first mate, ghost-wrote the "Narrative of the Most Extraordinary and Distressing Shipwreck of the White-Whale ship Essex." The story inspired Herman Melville’s "Moby Dick." In 2000 Nathaniel Philbrick authored "In the Heart of the Sea," a complete investigation into the Nantucket whaler’s story and "the taboo of gastronomic incest."
    (WSJ, 4/28/00, p.W6)

1821        Thomas Jefferson wrote his autobiography.
    (Civil., Jul-Aug., ‘95, p.62)

1821        Stefano Cavaletti, Italian tuner and craftsman, left a note on the snaggle-toothed spinet that he tuned for the young Verdi, free of charge due to Verdi’s talent.
    (Civil., Jul-Aug., ‘95, p.90)

1821        An independent institution for the instruction of Lutheran and reformed theologies was established at the Univ. of Vienna.
    (StuAus, April ‘95, p.18)

1821        In the US Emma Willard started the first secondary school for girls in Troy, N.Y.
    (SFEC, 11/3/96, Z1,p.2)

1821        John Quincy Adams, Sec. of State, wrote: "America does not go abroad in search of monsters to destroy. She is the well-wisher to the freedom and independence of all. She is the champion only of her own."
    (WSJ, 6/25/97, p.A20)

1821        Tucson raised the Mexican flag after the Revolution in Mexico.
    (AWAM, Dec. 94, p.31)

1821        In the US south Denmark Vessey mounted a slave rebellion.
    (SFC, 6/24/96, p.A19)

1821        John (Cameron) Gilroy of Scotland married Maria Clara Ortega, the 13-year-old granddaughter of Jose Francis Ortega, a member of the "Sacred Expedition" of 1769. They lived in San Ysidro. The town of Gilroy, Ca., is named after John Gilroy.
    (SFC, 11/29/97, p.A18)

1821        Ignaz Venetz-Sitten, Swiss civil engineer, recognized the continent covering scale of the Pleistocene glaciers.
    (DD-EVTT, p.128)

1821        Thomas Johann Seebeck (1770-1831), Estonia-born German physicist, discovered that applying a temperature difference across two adjoined metals would give rise to a small voltage. This came to be called the Seebeck effect.
    (Econ, 9/6/08, TQ p.6)

1821        The 1st alphabet for Hawaiians was prepared by Christians missionaries. The letters of the alphabet were a,e,h,i,k,l,m,n,o,p,u,w.
    (SSFC, 4/4/04, Par p.17)(Internet)

1821        Amherst College was founded in Amherst, Mass.
1821        The Boston English High School, the first US public high school, held its opening classes.
    (HNQ, 7/5/00)

1821        One hunter in 12 months shot 18,000 migrating golden plover for the dinner table.
    (SFEC, 11/3/96, Z1,p.2)

1821        William Playfair, Scottish engineer, political economist and scoundrel, published a visual chart that displayed the “weekly wages of a good mechanic" along with the price of a “quarter of wheat" with the reigns of monarchs displayed along the top.
    (Econ, 12/22/07, p.74)

1821        Anita Ribeiro (d.1849), later wife of Italian revolutionary Garibaldi, was born in Laguna Brazil.
    (ON, 10/06, p.5)

1821        English economist David Ricardo noted that the influence of machinery is frequently detrimental to the interest of the working class.
    (Econ, 6/25/16, SR p.3)

1821         Karl von Drais (1785-1851), German forest official and inventor, invented the earliest typewriter with a keyboard.

1821         Guatemala established independence
    (NG, 6/1988, p.781)

1821        Mexican rule began over the New Mexico territory.
    (SSFC, 5/22/05, p.E12)
1821        Mexico outlawed slavery.
    (Econ, 1/25/14, p.69)

1821        A cholera outbreak in Saudi Arabia killed an estimated 20,000 pilgrims.
    (AP, 2/27/20)

1821        Sudan's city of Khartoum was founded as a marketplace for slaves. The practice was officially abolished in 1924, but the decision faced strong resistance from the main Arab and Islamic leaders of that era, including Abdelrahman al-Mahdi and Ali al-Mirghani. Southern slave raids were widely reported to have continued until the end of the civil war in 2005, which led to the mainly black African South Sudan seceding from Arabic-speaking Sudan five years later.
    (BBC, 7/26/20)

1821        Ignatz Venetz, Swiss civil engineer, presented a paper titled “Temperature Variation in the Swiss Alps" to the Helvetic Society of Natural Sciences, in which he described retreating ice glaciers and acknowledged Jean-Pierre Perraudin, a hunter and mountain guide, as the originator of the idea that a glacier had once occupied the full length of the Val de Bagnes. In 1833 Jean de Charpentier (1786-1855), a German-Swiss geologist, arranged to have the paper published.
    (ON, 10/08, p.10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jean_de_Charpentier)

1821-1823    In Iceland the Eyjafjallajokull volcano erupted over this period.
    (Econ, 4/24/10, p.62)

1821-1844    Haiti occupied the Dominican Rep. during this period.
    (Econ, 5/31/14, p.30)

1821-1846    Mexico ruled over California with a series of 12 governors. During part of this time Gen’l. Jose Castro commanded all of the Spanish forces in California and was an active opponent of US rule in 1846.
    (SFEC, 9/21/97, p.C7)

1821-1858    Elisa Rachel Felix, French actress, died of tuberculosis. She introduced a new voicing into French theater in part due to her physical condition.
    (WP, 1951, p.21-22)

1821-1881     Henri Frederic Amiel, Swiss critic: "The man who has no inner life is the slave of his surroundings."
    (AP, 8/3/97)

1821-1894    Hermann Helmholtz, German physician turned physicist, a leader in energetics who helped establish the principle of the conservation of energy along with Kelvin.
    (TNG, Klein, p.88)

1821-1924    Thirty-three million people arrive into the US in this period.   
    (NOHY, Weiner, 3/90, p.52)

1822        Jan 2, Rudolph J.E. Clausius (d.1888), German physicist (thermodynamics), was born.

1822        Jan 6, Heinrich Schliemann (d.1890), German businessman and amateur archeologist, was born. He began excavating Troy in 1870 following a visit to Hissarlik in 1868.

1822        Feb 4, Free American Blacks settled Liberia, West Africa. The first group of colonists landed in Liberia and founded Monrovia, the colony's capital city, named in honor of President James Monroe.
    (HNPD, 7/26/98)(MC, 2/4/02)

1822        Feb 9, The American Indian Society organized.
    (MC, 2/9/02)

1822        Feb 16, Francis Galton (d.1911), English scientist, was born. He was one of the first moderns to present a carefully considered eugenics program.
    (NH, 6/97, p.18)(SFC, 8/28/97, p.A12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francis_Galton)

1822        Feb 22, Adolf Kuszmaul, German physician (stomach pump, Kuszmaul disease), was born.
    (MC, 2/22/02)

1822        Feb 23, Boston was granted a charter to incorporate as a city.
    (AP, 2/23/98)

1822        Mar 9, The first patent for false teeth was requested by C. Graham of NY. [see Jun 9, 1882]
    (HN, 3/9/98)(MC, 3/9/02)

1822        Mar 16, John Pope, Union general in the American Civil War, was born.
    (HN, 3/16/01)
1822        Mar 16, Rosa Bonheur, French painter and sculptor, was born.
    (HN, 3/16/01)

1822        Mar 19, Boston was incorporated as a city.
    (HN, 3/19/98)

1822        Mar 22, Gioacchino Rossini married Isabella Colbran in Bologna.
    (MC, 3/22/02)

1822        Mar 30, Congress combined East and West Florida into the Florida Territory.
    (AP, 3/30/97)(MC, 3/30/02)

1822        Apr 3, Edward Everett Hale, American clergyman and author (Man without a Country) , was born.
    (HN, 4/3/98)

1822        Apr 13, Gaetano Valeri (61), composer, died.
    (MC, 4/13/02)

1822        Apr 26, Frederick Olmstead, landscape architect, was born in Connecticut. His work included Yosemite Nat’l. Park, Central Park in New York City (1858), and other city parks in Boston, Ma., Hartford, Ct., and Louisville, Ky.
    (440 Int’l. Internet, 4/26/97, p.5)(SFC, 4/5/04, p.B5)

1822        Apr 27, Ulysses S. Grant (d.1885), general and 18th U.S. president (1869-1877), was born in Point Pleasant [Hiram], Ohio.
    (AP, 4/27/97)(HN, 4/27/02)

1822        May 24, At Battle of Pichincha (Ecuador) General Sucre (1795-1830) won a decisive victory against Spanish forces. Shortly after the battle, Sucre and Bolivar entered the newly-liberated Quito and Sucre was named President of the Province of Quito, which formed Gran Colombia with Venezuela and Colombia.
    (HN, 5/24/98)(AP, 11/24/02)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antonio_Jos%C3%A9_de_Sucre)

1822        May 26, Edmond de Goncourt, writer, was born.
    (MC, 5/26/02)

1822        May 30, In South Carolina slave revolt leaders Denmark Vesey (aka Telemaque) and Peter Poyas were arrested for planning a slave revolt.

1822        May, Dr. Gideon Mantell published his book “The Fossils of South Downs," based on his studies of huge teeth and bones found at the Tilgate Forest quarry.
    (ON, 7/06, p.1)

1822        Jun 6, Alexis St. Martin, a fur trader at Fort Mackinac in the Michigan territory, was accidentally shot in the abdomen. William Beaumont, a US Army assistant surgeon, treated the wound and St. Martin survived. The stomach wound did not close and Beaumont undertook experiments in 1825 to study the digestive system.
    (ON, 1/02, p.6)

1822        Jun 9, Charles Graham patented false teeth. [see Mar 9, 1822]
    (MC, 6/9/02)

1822        Jun 14, Charles Babbage (1792-1871), a young Cambridge mathematician, announced the invention of a machine capable of performing simple arithmetic calculations in a paper to the Astronomical Society. His 1st Difference Engine could perform up to 60 error-free calculation in 5 minutes. Babbage and engineer John Clement completed the calculator portion of a new engine in 1832, but the project lost funding and remained unfinished.
    (I&I, Penzias, p.94)(ON, 5/05, p.5)

1822        Jun 25, Ernst Theodor Amadeus (ETA) Hoffmann (46), German writer, judge, composer, died.
    (MC, 6/25/02)

1822        Jul 2, Denmark Vesey (b.1767) was executed in Charleston, South Carolina, for planning a massive slave revolt.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Denmark_Vesey)(HN, 7/2/01)

1822        Jul 8, Percy Bysshe Shelley (b.1792), English poet, drowned while sailing in Italy at age 29.
    (HN, 7/8/01)

1822        Jul 22, Gregor Johann Mendel (d.1884), Austrian botanist who developed the theory of heredity, was born.
    (HN, 7/22/98)(NH, 6/01, p.30)

1822        Jul 25, Gen. Agustin de Iturbide was crowned Agustin I, 1st emperor of Mexico.
    (SC, 7/25/02)

1822        Jul 26, Simon Bolivar and Jose de San Martin held a secret meeting.
    (MC, 7/26/02)

1822        Aug 19, Melchor Lopez Jimenez (62), composer, died.
    (MC, 8/19/02)

1822        Aug 25, F. William Herschel (85), German astronomer (discovered Uranus), died.
    (MC, 8/25/02)

1822        Aug 31, Fitz John Porter (d.1901), Major General (Union volunteers), was born.
    (MC, 8/31/01)

1822        Aug, William Richardson (1795-1856) came to SF as first mate aboard the British whaler Orion. He jumped ship and began living at the Presidio. In 1835 he put up a tent in Yerba Buena, later renamed San Francisco, on Calle de la Fundacion, a site later identified as 827 Grant Ave.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_A._Richardson)(SFC, 9/16/17 p.C2)

1822        Sep 6, John Constable, English painter, painted his “Cloud Study, 6 September 1822." He painted some 100 studies of the sky between 1821-1822.
    (MC, 3/31/02)(WSJ, 6/9/04, p.D8)

1822        Sep 7, Brazil declared its independence from Portugal.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Empire_of_Brazil)(AP, 9/7/97)

1822        Sep 9, Napoleon J K P Bonaparte, French prince and member National Convention, was born.
    (MC, 9/9/01)

1822        Oct 4, Rutherford B. Hayes, the 19th president (R) of the United States, was born in Delaware, Ohio. Hayes was a major-general in the Civil War, then an Ohio congressman, then succeeded Grant as president (1877-81). Hayes won the Electoral College by a margin of one vote after his opponent won the popular vote in an election so fraught with charges of vote fraud that there were even fears of a coup.  Hayes refused to seek a second term.
    (AP, 10/4/97)(HN, 10/4/98)(MC, 10/3/01)

1822        Oct 8, The Galunggung volcano on Java sent boiling sludge into valley. The eruption left 4,011 dead. The long-inactive volcano erupted Apr 4 and blew its top on Apr 12. The Oct 8 and Oct 12 eruptions left 4,011 dead.

1822        Oct 9, George Sykes (d.1880), Major General (Union volunteers), was born.
    (MC, 10/9/01)

1822        Oct 13, Antonio Canova (b.1757), Italian sculptor, died at age 64. His work included a sculpture of Napoleon’s sister Pauline, as a semi-naked Venus Victrix.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antonio_Canova)(Econ, 11/10/07, p.105)

1822        Oct 15, Alfred Meissner, Austrian physician and writer, was born.
    (MC, 10/15/01)

1822        Oct 20, The 1st edition of the London Sunday Times was published.
    (MC, 10/20/01)

1822        Nov 2, The USRC Louisiana along with USS Peacock and the Royal Navy schooner HMS Speedwell captured five pirate vessels off Havana, Cuba.

1822        Dec 1, Franz Liszt (11) made his debut as a pianist for Isabella Colbran.
    (MC, 12/1/01)

1822        Dec 4, Frances Crabbe, English feminist and founder of the Anti-Vivisection Society, was born.
    (MC, 12/4/01)

1822        Dec 6, John Eberhard was born. He built the 1st large-scale pencil factory in US.
    (MC, 12/6/01)

1822        Dec 12, Mexico was officially recognized as an independent nation by US.
    (MC, 12/12/01)

1822        Dec 14, John Christie, English patron of music, was born. He founded the Glyndebourne Festival Opera. 
    (HN, 12/14/99)
1822        Dec 14, The Congress of Verona ended, ignoring the Greek war of independence.
    (AP, 12/14/02)

1822        Dec 26, Dion Boucicault, Irish-US actor and playwright (Rip van Winkle), was born.
    (MC, 12/26/01)

1822        Dec 27, Louis Pasteur (d.1895), French chemist and microbiologist, was born in Dole, France. One of his several monumental contributions to science and industry was pasteurization, the process of heating wine, beer and milk to kill microorganisms that cause fermentation and disease. Pasteur also developed important vaccines and his work on molecular asymmetry led to the science of stereochemistry. He was the first to vaccinate animals for anthrax and chicken cholera, and in 1885 he proved that his rabies vaccine could be used successfully on humans when he saved the life of a 9-year-old boy who had been bitten by a rabid dog. The Pasteur Institute was formed in Paris in 1888 for research on rabies. Pasteur ran the institute until his death in 1895.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1055)(AP, 12/27/97)(HNPD, 12/27/98)

1822        Dec 28, William Booth Taliaferro (d.1898), Brig Gen (Confederate Army), was born.
    (MC, 12/28/01)

1822        Charles Willson Peale painted his "Self Portrait."
    (SFC, 1/25/97, p.E1)
1822        Pierre-Paul Prud’hon (1758-1823) painted "A Grief-Stricken Family." It was painted shortly after his student and mistress, Constance Mayer, slit her throat.
    (WSJ, 4/8/98, p.A20)
1822        Utagawa Kunisada, Japanese artist, painted "The Popular Type."
    (WSJ, 4/24/96, A-12)
1822        William West painted a portrait of the poet Lord Byron.
    (SFC, 6/9/97, p.D3)
1822        J.F. Champollion published his work on deciphering the Rosetta Stone.
    (RFH-MDHP, p.183)
1822        Thomas De Quincey wrote his "Confessions of an English Opium Eater." He used the word tranquilizer to describe the effect of the drug.
    (SFEC, 11/24/96, Z 1 p.2)

1822        Twenty years after the war of 1812 the US government finished paying off the national debt entirely.
    (WSJ, 3/12/97, p.A18)

1822        The Superintendent of Mails in Washington, D.C., complained about the need to hire 16 extra mailmen because of the volume of Christmas cards and holiday mail. The tradition of Christmas cards had become so popular it became a burden for the United States Postal System, which petitioned Congress to limit the exchange of cards by post. But the cards kept coming and the postal burden worsened.
    (HNQ, 12/15/99)

1822        California became part of Mexico.
    (SFEC, 9/20/98, Z1 p.4)
1822        The Queen of the Angels Roman Catholic Church in Los Angeles was built.
    (SFEC,12/797, p.T3)
1822        Monterey had begun the century as the Spanish capital of Alta California but in this year became the Mexican capital of Alta California.
    (SFEC, 11/3/96, DB p.71)

1822        Christian Buschmann (17), organ and clavier tuner, constructed the first primitive accordion. It wasn’t until the 1840s that the "magdaburgerspelen" came into fashion, the instrument generally believed to be the forerunner to the durspel of our time.

1822        Mary Mantell, a fossil collector in Sussex, England, discovered a handful of teeth that her husband, Dr. Gideon Mantell, recognized as similar to those of the iguana lizard of South America. This was recorded as one of the first dinosaurs to be discovered.
    (T.E.-J.B. p.20)

1822        The parasitic plant Rafflesia was discovered in the lowland forests of Southeast Asia. It steals nutrition from other plants and periodically creates a monstrous, red-brown flower with the perfume of rotten flesh.
    (SFC, 1/19/04, p.A4)

1822         Albanian leader Ali Pasha of Tepelena was assassinated by Ottoman agents for promoting autonomy.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1822        London’s St. Matthew’s Church was built to commemorate the victory at Waterloo.
    (Econ, 12/22/12, p.100)
1822        In London a bronze Achilles cast from cannons from the Napoleonic wars was unveiled at the residence of the Duke of Wellington. A strategic fig leaf was soon added.
    (SFEM, 3/21/99, p.24)

1822        The French Bollore Group started out as a family-run manufacturer of paper for cigarettes and bibles.
    (AFP, 4/24/18)

1822        Gebruder Heubach (Heubach Brothers) began a porcelain manufacturing operation in Lichte, Thuringia, Germany. The firm became known for manufacturing doll heads and in 2005 was still in operation as Lichte Porcelain.
    (SFC, 10/5/05, p.G3)

1822         The Greek town of Naoussa was razed by the Turks during Greece's war of independence.
    (AP, 3/14/19)
1822        There was a massacre of Greeks on the island of Chios. The event was later depicted in a painting by Delacroix.
    (WSJ, 9/17/01, p.A20)

1822        In Mexico the mission of St. Gertrude the Great on the Baha Peninsula was closed as the local population diminished.
    (WSJ, 12/26/97, p.A9)

1822        In New Zealand Welshman John Grono named Milford Sound, South Island, after his home, Milford Haven. It was later named a UN protected World Heritage Site.
    (SSFC, 4/21/02, p.C5)

1822-1825    Luis Antonio Arguello, son of Jose Dario, was the first native-born governor of Alta California.
    (SFEC, 9/21/97, p.C7)

1822-1831    Pedro I ruled Brazil.
    (EWH, 4th ed., p.854)

1822-1884    Gregor Mendel, Austrian botanist monk, established basic principles of heredity.

1822-1888    Matthew Arnold, English poet and critic. His books included "Culture and Anarchy." His best known poem is Dover Beach." In 1999 Ian Hamilton wrote "A Gift Imprisoned: The Poetic Life of Matthew Arnold."
    (WSJ, 3/25/99, p.A24)

1822-1889    The period of the Brazilian monarchy.
    (Hem, 8/96, p.68)

1822-1890    Cesar Auguste Franck, French composer born in Belgium. His work included "Piece Heroique."
    (WUD, 1994, p.563)(SFC, 8/13/96, p.B2)

1822-1895    Louis Pasteur, French chemist and bacteriologist, was born on Dec. 27.
    (CFA, ‘96, p.60)(WUD, 1994, p.1055)

1822-1900     Edward John Phelps, American lawyer and diplomat: "The man who makes no mistakes does not usually make anything."
    (AP, 8/9/97)

1822-1904    Some 23,000 immigrants, mostly from the US, arrived in Liberia.
    (NG, Feb, 04)

1823        Jan 15, Matthew Brady, Civil War photographer, was born.
    (HN, 1/15/99)

1823        Jan 27, Edouard-Victoire-Antoine Lalo, French composer (Symphonie Espagnole), was born.
    (MC, 1/27/02)
1823        Jan 27, Pres. Monroe appointed 1st US ambassadors to South America.
    (MC, 1/27/02)

1823        Feb 2, Rossini's opera "Semiramide" premiered in Venice.
    (MC, 2/2/02)

1823        Feb 16, John Daniel Imboden (d.1895), Brig General (Confederate Army), was born.
    (MC, 2/16/02)

1823        Feb 27, William Buel Franklin (d.1903), Major General (Union volunteers), was born.
    (MC, 2/27/02)

1823        Feb 28, Ernst Renan, French philosopher, historian, scholar of religion, was born.
    (MC, 2/28/02)

1823        Mar 3, Guyla Andrássy Sr., premier of Hungary (1867-71), was born.
    (SC, 3/3/02)

1823        Mar 23, Schuyler Colfax, (R) 17th US Vice President (1869-73), was born.
    (SS, 3/23/02)

1823        Mar 25, Coelestin Jungbauer (75), composer, died.
    (MC, 3/25/02)

1823        Apr 1, Simon Bolivar Buckner (d.1914), Lt. Gen. (Confederate Army), was born.
    (MC, 4/1/02)

1823        Apr 3, William Macy "Boss" Tweed, New York City political boss, was born.
    (HN, 4/3/98)

1823        Apr 4, Karl Wilhelm Siemens, inventor (laid undersea cables), was born.
    (MC, 4/4/02)

1823        Apr 22, R.J. Tyers patented roller skates.
    (MC, 4/22/02)

1823        May 5, James Allen Hardie (d.1876), Bvt Major General (Union Army), was born.
    (MC, 5/5/02)

1823        May 8, "Home Sweet Home" was 1st sung in London.
    (MC, 5/8/02)

1823        May 10, The 1st steamboat to navigate the Mississippi River arrived at Ft. Snelling (between St. Paul and Minneapolis).
    (MC, 5/10/02)

1823        May 15, Antonio Frantisek Becvarovsky (69), composer, died.
    (MC, 5/15/02)

1823        Jun 11, Major General James L. Kemper, Confederate hero, was born. He fought at the battles of Williamsburg and Gettysburg.
    (HN, 6/11/99)

1823        Jul 1, The United Provinces of Central America (Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and San Salvador) gained independence from Mexico. The union dissolved by 1840.
    (PC, 1992, p.393)(ON, 12/99, p.5)

1823        Sep 10, Simon Bolivar was named president of Peru and assumed the presidency with dictatorial powers. He had led the wars for independence from Spain in Venezuela, Colombia, Peru and Bolivia.
    (MC, 9/10/01)

1823        Sep 21, The Angel Moroni 1st appeared to Joseph Smith (b.1823), according to Smith (founder of Mormon Church). Smith in New York claimed that an angel named Moroni led him to ancient golden plates that revealed the untold story of America during biblical times.
    (SFC, 4/8/96, p.A-1,6)(MC, 9/21/01)

1823        Oct 5, Carl Maria von Weber visited Beethoven.
    (MC, 10/5/01)

1823        Oct 12, Charles Macintosh of Scotland began selling raincoats (Macs).
    (MC, 10/12/01)

1823        Dec 2, President Monroe, replying to the 1816 pronouncements of the Holy Alliance, proclaimed the principles known as the Monroe Doctrine, "that the American continents, by the free and independent condition which they have assumed and maintained, are henceforth not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by European powers." His doctrine opposing European expansion in the Western Hemisphere insured that American influence in the Western hemisphere remain unquestioned. Former US Pres. Thomas Jefferson (1801-1809) helped Monroe shape the Monroe Doctrine.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.232)(AP, 12/2/97)(www.loc.gov/rr/program/bib/ourdocs/Monroe.html)
1823        Dec 7, Leopold Kronecker, German mathematician (Tensor of Kronecker), was born.
    (MC, 12/7/01)

1823        Dec 19, Georgia passed the 1st US state birth registration law.
    (MC, 12/19/01)

1823        Dec 20, Franz Schubert's "Ballet-Musik aus Rosamunde," premiered in Vienna.
    (MC, 12/20/01)

1823        Dec 23, The poem: “A Visit from St. Nicholas," was published. The poem was first published anonymously in the Troy, New York Sentinel, and was reprinted frequently thereafter with no name attached. Authorship was later attributed to Clement Clarke Moore and the poem was included in an anthology of his works. His connection with the verses has been questioned by some. Recent scholarship reveals the original to have been written by Major Henry Livingston (1748-1828). The segment of the poem referring to reindeer reads: Now! Dasher, now! Dancer, now! Prancer, and Vixen, On! Comet, on! Cupid, on! Dunder and Blixem. Rudolph was added following the publication of Robert L. May's Christmas story in 1939.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A_Visit_from_St._Nicholas)(AP, 12/23/97)(AH, 2/05, p.18)

1823        Alfred Russel Wallace (d.1913), naturalist, was born. He developed the theory of evolution by natural selection at the same time as did Charles Darwin.
    (NH, 2/02, p.74)

1823        Raphaelle Peale painted "After the Bath." The artist was a hopeless lush and one of the subtlest still-life painters who ever lived. On display at the Nelson Art Gallery, Kansas City, Missouri.
    (T&L, 10/1980, p.67)

1823        Johann Anton Ramboux, German artist, created "Merenda in the Farnesi Gardens in Rome" in pen and brown ink over pencil.
    (WSJ, 7/16/98, p.A16)

1823        Franz Schubert composed his song cycle "Die Schöne Müllerin." He also became gravely ill with syphilis in this year.
    (WSJ, 4/16/97, p.A16)

1823        The Reverend Hiram Bingham, leader of a group of New England Calvinist missionaries, began translating the Bible into Hawaiian. The project took 16 years.
    (Wired, 8/95, p.90)

1823        Mission San Francisco de Solano de Sonoma was established by Father Jose Altimira. It was to be the last of the 21 California missions set up to convert the native Indians and develop the local resources. The native Indians were of the Nappa tribe, hence the name of the Napa Valley. Spanish explorer Francisco Castro accompanied Father Altimira and they planted the first grapevines.
    (WCG, p.58)(INV, 7/95, p.12)(SFC, 7/14/00, WBb, p.8)

1823        The city of Boston donated an Egyptian mummy to Massachusetts General Hospital as a medical oddity. In 2013 the 2,500-year-old mummy, named Padihershef, was removed from its coffin for cleaning and restoration.
    (SFC, 6/8/13, p.A4)

1823        The city of Ypsilanti, Mich., was initially named Woodruff's Grove and was founded by pioneers in 1823. It was re-named Ypsilanti in honor of a Greek war hero, Demetrius Ypsilanti. The railroad came to the city in 1838, and it became a major stopping point for travelers between Detroit and the west. The Michigan State Normal School, now Eastern Michigan University, was founded here in 1849.

1823        In New Orleans Louis Joseph Dufilho Jr. established a pharmacy and was the first licensed pharmacist in the US. The building later became The Pharmacy Museum.
    (SFEM, 6/14/98, p.24)

1823        José Antonio Vizcarra, the governor of New Mexico, waged war against the Navajo. Vizcarra and a column of 1,500 soldiers advanced through the west of the state, and their route took them through Chaco Canyon where they discovered a city of the Anasazi, the ancestors of the Pueblo Native Americans.

1823        John Rankin, Presbyterian minister, moved to Ripley, Ohio, and soon established the Ripley Line of the underground railroad. In 2003 Ann Hagedorn authored "Beyond the River: The Untold Story of the Heroes of the Underground Railroad." In 2005 Fergus M. Bordewich authored “Bound for Canaan," a look at the people involved in the UR operations.
    (WSJ, 1/30/03, p.D8)(WSJ, 3/29/05, p.D6)

1823        Philip Cazenova founded a British banking firm partnership. It incorporated in 2001.
    (Econ, 11/13/04, p.82)

1823        Lord Byron returned to Greece to provide moral support to insurgents and draw attention to Ottoman massacres of Greek civilians.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lord_Byron)(SFC, 9/7/08, Books p.5)
1823        Poet Lord Byron spent a summer on the Ionian island of Cephalonia.
    (SFEC, 1/18/98, p.T3)

1823        In Brazil homosexual acts were decriminalized.
    (SFC, 1/11/99, p.A10)

1823        The Rishengchang Draft Bank in Pingyao became the first bank in China to issue checks.
    (Econ, 10/18/14, p.46)

1823        In Paris, France, the Galerie Viviene, a covered arcade, was built.
    (SSFC, 2/23/14, p.M4)

1823        The first New England missionaries arrived on Maui.

1823        British Major Dixon Denham and Captain Hugh Clapperton (1788-1827) entered Northern Nigeria from the north, crossing the desert from Tripoli.
    (Econ, 1/7/06, p.74)( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hugh_Clapperton)

1823        A fire in Rome destroyed a basilica, said to have been built over the burial site of St. Paul. This basilica had been built by Theodosius over an older church built over the burial site.  A new St. Paul Outside the Walls basilica was built over the site. In 2006 a sarcophagus was uncovered that dated to at least 390BC.
    (AP, 12/6/06)

1823        Mexico forbade the sale or purchase of slaves, and required that the children of slaves be freed when they reached age fourteen.

1823        The Momotomba volcano, 18 miles from Managua and on the northwest shore of Lake Nicaragua, went dormant. In the 17th cent. it had destroyed the capital of Leon.
    (SFC, 4/13/96, p.A-15)

1823        Steam powered shipping began on Lake Geneva between Switzerland and France.
    (SFEC, 7/19/98, p.T3)

1923        In Nha Trang, Vietnam, a retreat was built for Bao Dai, the last Vietnamese king. It later became the Bao Dai Villas Hotel.
    (SFEC, 4/26/98, p.T5)

1823-1871    Charles Buxton, English author: "You will never 'find' time for anything. If you want time you must make it."
    (AP, 10/21/99)

1823-1890    William Kitchen Parker, English anatomist and embryologist. See [1883].
    (NH, 10/96, p.37)

1823-1896     Coventry Patmore, English poet: "Nearly all our disasters come from a few fools having the ‘courage of their convictions."’
    (AP, 3/16/98)

1823-1900 F.     Max Mueller, German philologist: "To think is to speak low. To speak is to think aloud."
    (AP, 10/14/97)

1823-1911    Thomas Wentworth Higginson, American clergyman-author: "To be really cosmopolitan, a man must be at home even in his own country."
    (AP, 4/6/97)

1824        Jan 1, The Camp Street Theatre opened as the first English-language playhouse in New Orleans.
    (HN, 1/1/99)

1824        Jan 8, William Wilkie Collins, English novelist (Woman in White), was born.
1824        Jan 8, Tom Spring defeated Jack Langan in a British championship boxing match that lasted 2½ hours.
    (SFC, 2/1/06, p.G6)(www.cyberboxingzone.com/boxing/spring-t.htm)

1824        Jan 21, Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson, Confederate General, was born.
    (HN, 1/21/99)
1824        Jan 22, A British force was wiped out by an Asante army under Osei Bonsu on the African Gold Coast. This was the first defeat for a colonial power.
    (HN, 1/22/99)

1824        Jan 26, Edward Jenner, discoverer of vaccination, died.
    (MC, 1/26/02)

1824        Feb 4, J.W. Goodrich introduced rubber galoshes to public.
    (MC, 2/4/02)

1824        Feb 9, Anna Katharina Emmerick (b.1774), a sickly, virtually illiterate German nun, died. Her gory visions of Jesus' last hours of suffering before his crucifixion drew pilgrims to her bedside in the years before her death. In 2004 she was beatified by Pope John Paul VI.
    (AP, 10/3/04)(www.vatican.va/news_services)

1824        Feb 10, Simon Bolivar was named President by the Congress of Peru.
    (MC, 2/10/02)

1824        Feb 14, Winfield Scott Hancock (d.1886), Major General (Union volunteers), was born.
    (MC, 2/14/02)

1824        Feb 23, Lewis Cass Hunt (d.1886), Brig General (Union volunteers), was born.
    (MC, 2/23/02)

1824        Feb 28, Charles Blondin, tightrope walker, was born.
    (HN, 2/28/01)

1824        Mar 2, Bedrich Friedrich Smetana (1884), Czech, Bohemian composer (Bartered Bride, Moldau), was born.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1345)(WSJ, 10/4/96, p.A7)(SC, 3/2/02)
1824        Mar 2, In the Supreme Court case of Gibbons v Ogden held that the power to regulate interstate commerce was granted to Congress by the Commerce Clause of the Constitution. The Court found that New York's licensing requirement for out-of-state operators was inconsistent with a congressional act regulating the coasting trade. Gibbons had hired Cornelius Vanderbilt as captain of his boat, Bellona, which operated under a federal license.
    (Econ, 4/18/09, p.90)(ON, 6/12, p.2)   

1824        Mar 5, Elisha Harris, U.S. physician, founder of the American Public Health Association, was born.
    (HN, 3/5/98)
1824        Mar 5, James Merritt Ives, lithographer for Currier and Ives, was born.
    (HN, 3/5/98)

1824        Mar 7, Meyerbeer's opera "Il Crociati in Egitto," premiered in Venice.
    (MC, 3/7/02)

1824        Mar 9, Leland Stanford, railroad builder and founder of Stanford University, was born in what was then Watervliet, New York (later the town of Colonie).
    (HN, 3/9/98)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leland_Stanford)

1824        Mar 11, The U.S. War Department created the Bureau of Indian Affairs. A lifelong friend and trusted aide of Ulysses S. Grant, Ely Parker rose to the top in two worlds, that of his native Seneca Indian tribe and the white man’s world at large. He went on to become the first Indian to lead the Bureau.
    (HN, 3/11/98)

1824        Mar 12, Gustav Robert Kirchoff, physicist, was born in Prussia.
    (HN, 3/12/98)(MC, 3/12/02)

1824        Mar 26, 1st performance of Beethoven's "Missa Solemnis."
    (SS, 3/26/02)

1824        Apr 6, King Kamehameha II's royal yacht, HA`AHEO o HAWAI`I (Pride of Hawaii), sank on the southwest corner of Hanalei Bay near the mouth of the Waioli River, after striking a five-foot deep reef a hundred yards offshore.

1824        Apr 17, Russia abandoned all North American claims south of 54’ 40’.
    (HN, 4/17/98)

1824        Apr 19, George Gordon, (6th Baron Byron, b.1788) aka Lord Byron, English poet, died of malaria in Greece at Missolonghi on the gulf of Patras preparing to fight for Greek independence. In 1999 Benita Eisler published the biography "Byron: Child of Passion, Fool of Fame." In 2002 Fiona MacCarthy authored "Byron : Life and Legend." In 2009 Edna O’Brien authored “Byron in Love."
    (SFC, 6/9/97, p.D3)(WSJ, 4/26/99, p.A16)(HN, 4/1901)(SSFC, 12/29/02, p.M2)(SSFC, 6/21/09, Books p.J5)

1824        Apr 27, William Richard Bexfield, composer, was born.
    (MC, 4/27/02)

1824        May 7, The Ninth Symphony by Beethoven had its premiere. The "Ode to Joy" lyric was originally written by Friedrich von Schiller as the "Ode to Freedom."
    (LGC, 1970, p.98)(WSJ, 12/10/01, p.A16)

1824        May 8, William Walker, president of Nicaragua, was born.
    (HN, 5/8/98)

1824        May 16, Edmund Kirby-Smith, educator and soldier, was born. He was a Confederate general in the western theater.
    (HN, 5/16/99)

1824        May 29, Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox, Major General (Confederate Army), was born.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1824        Jun 8, A washing machine was patented by Noah Cushing of Quebec.
    (MC, 6/8/02)

1824         Jun 10, Caesar Augustus Rodney (v.1772), US Attorney General (1807-1811) and nephew of US Judge Caesar Rodney (1728-1784), died in Buenos Aires. He served as a US Senator from Delaware (1822-1823).

1824        Jun 16, The Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals was formed at Old Slaughter’s Coffee House in London under the direction of Arthur Broome.

1824        Jul 20, Alexander Schimmelfennig, Brig. General Union volunteers, was born in Prussia.
    (MC, 7/20/02)
1824        Jul 20, Marc Brunel (55) was appointed as engineer for the Thames Tunnel Company. He hired his son, Isambard Brunel, as his assistant. Brunel senior, a royalist, had fled the French Revolution to become, briefly, official engineer to the city of New York, and then, having settled in London, a consultant engineer to the Royal Navy. Educated and trained in both French and English schools and workshops, Brunel junior served his practical apprenticeship assisting his father in the building of the first tunnel under the Thames, which later carried the Underground between Wapping and Rotherhithe.
    (HN, 6/26/01)(www.bris.ac.uk/is/services/specialcollections/brunelchronology.html)

1824        Jul 21, Rama II (b.1767), King Phra Buddha Loetla Nabhalai, died. King Phra Buddha Loetla Nabhalai succeeded his father in 1809 and ruled for almost 15 years. His reign was more peaceful. Art and literature flourished. The king was an avid composer of poetry, plays and songs. The most notable poet under the king's patronage was Sunthorn Phu, known as the "the Shakespeare of Thailand" for his role in literature.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rama_II_of_Siam)(Reuters, 5/2/19)

1824        Jul 25, Costa Rica gained Guanacaste province from Nicaragua as the town people of Nicoya and Santa Cruz decided to join Costa Rica. In 2013 Nicaragua’s President Daniel Ortega warned Costa Rica that he may ask the International Court of Justice to restore to Managua the province he said it lost to "occupation."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guanacaste_Province)(AFP, 9/2/13)

1824        Jul 27, Alexandre Dumas fils, French playwright, novelist (Camille), was born.
    (MC, 7/27/02)

1824        Jul 30, Gioacchino Rossini became manager of Theatre Italian in Paris.
    (MC, 7/30/02)

1824        Jul, The Richmond [Virginia] Light Artillery changed its name to the Richmond Fayette Artillery in honor of the Marquis de La Fayette.
    (RC handout, 5/27/96)

1824        Aug 15, General Lafayette returned to the US under an invitation from Pres. Monroe. Political ribbons were printed in for the 1st time in large quantities to celebrate his US tour.
1824        Aug 15, Freed American slaves formed the country of Liberia.
    (MC, 8/15/02)

1824        Aug 24, Simon Bolivar's army beat the Spanish in Peru in the Battle at Junin.
    (PC, 1992, p.394)

1824        Sep 4, Anton Bruckner, composer and Wagner disciple, was born in Austria.
    (MC, 9/4/01)

1824        Sep 23, Captain Richard Charlton was appointed British Consul to Hawaii.  He arrived in Hawaii and assumed his post in April, 1825.
    (Hawaii state archives)

1824        Oct 4, The Federal Constitution of the United Mexican States of 1824 was enacted, after the overthrow of the Mexican Empire of Agustin de Iturbide. In the new constitution, the republic took the name of United Mexican States, and was defined as a representative federal republic, with Catholicism as the official religion. A liberal constitution, established at this time, was later replaced by Santa Anna.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1824_Constitution_of_Mexico)(AP, 9/15/10)

1824        Oct 21, Joseph Aspdin patented Portland cement in Yorkshire, England.
    (MC, 10/21/01)

1824        Oct 22, The Tennessee Legislature adjourned ending Davy Crockett’s state political career. Crockett died at the legendary siege of the Alamo in 1836.
    (HN, 10/22/98)

1824        Oct 23, The 1st steam locomotive was introduced.
    (MC, 10/23/01)

1824        Nov 2, Popular presidential vote was 1st recorded; Jackson beat J.Q. Adams. Gen. Jackson won the popular vote followed by John Quincy Adams, William Crawford and Henry Clay. Jackson won 99 electoral votes, Adams won 84, Crawford won 41 and Clay won 37. Crawford, Treasury secretary, was accused of malfeasance. Henry Clay was denounced for passing days gambling and nights in a brothel. Clay convinced his supporters in congress to vote for Adams. The House of Representatives chose John Quincy Adams, who chose Clay for vice president. A furious Jackson proceeded to help found the Democratic Party.
    (WSJ, 10/8/96, p.A22)(WSJ, 11/9/00, p.A26)(WSJ, 12/11/00, p.A18)(MC, 11/2/01)

1824        Nov 5, Stephen Van Rensselaer established the Rensselaer School with a letter to Rev. Dr. Samuel Blatchford, in which he asked him to serve as the first president. The first engineering college in the U.S., Rensselaer School, opened in Troy, New York, on Jan 3, 1825. It later became known as Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rensselaer_Polytechnic_Institute)(WSJ, 6/2/06, p.79)

1824        Nov 16, NY City's Fifth Avenue opened for business.
    (MC, 11/16/01)

1824        Nov 18, Franz Sigel (d.1902), Major General (Union volunteers), was born.
    (MC, 11/18/01)

1824        Dec 1, The presidential election was turned over to the U.S. House of Representatives when a deadlock developed among John Quincy Adams, Andrew Jackson, William H. Crawford and Henry Clay with Jackson 32 votes shy of a majority. John Quincy Adams ended up the winner. He was reportedly the only bald-headed president.
    (AP, 12/1/97)(WSJ, 12/31/97, p.A11)(SFEC, 11/1/98, Z1p.10)

1824        Dec 9, In the Battle of Ayacucho (Candorcangui) Peru defeated Spain.
    (MC, 12/9/01)

1824          Dec 22, Chiefess Kapiolani, a Christian, defied Pele, the Hawaiian volcano goddess, and lived.  Tennyson's eponymous poem celebrated the event.

1824        John Hayter painted portraits of Hawaii’s King Kamehameha II and Queen Kamamalu in London shortly before they died there of measles.
    (AH, 10/01, p.14)

1824        Lydia Maria Child of Wayland, Mass., authored "Hobomok," a novel of a Puritan girl who falls in love with an Indian after her fiancée is lost at sea. She later founded Juvenile Miscellany, the 1st children’s magazine in the US. She later authored "The Frugal Housewife" and "An Appeal in Favor of That Class of Americans Called Africans" (1833) and the poem: "The New England’s Boy’s Song About Thanksgiving Day" (Over the river, and through the woods…). In 1994 Carolyn Karcher authored her biography: "The First Woman in the Republic."
    (WSJ, 11/21/02, p.A1)

1824        James Morier authored “The Adventures of Haji Bab of Ispahan," the tale of a barber’s son who seeks his fortunes in Persia.
    (WSJ, 10/6/07, p.W8)

1824        Meyerbeer composed his opera "Il Crociato in Egitto," with a part for the last of the great castrato singers, Giovanni Batista Velluti.
    (LGC-HCS, p.44)

1824        The Second Bank of the United States, established by federal charter in 1791, was completed in Philadelphia by William Strickland. It was modeled after the Parthenon. From 1841-1934 it served as a Custom House. It was acquired by the National Park Service in 1939 and in 1974 became the home of the Peale portraits. The renovated museum reopened Dec 1, 2004.
    (WSJ, 2/22/05, p.D10)

1824        US Supreme Court Chief Justice John Marshall said quarantines restricting movement from endangered areas were withing "the acknowledged powers of state3s to provide for the health of the citizens".
    (SFC, 3/23/20, p.A10)

1824        In California Rafael Garcia led the defense of Mission San Rafael against hostile Indians.
    (SFC, 5/26/97, p.A11)

1824        Hens called Rhode Island Reds were first bred in Little Compton, R.I. They lay brown eggs and gained a regional preference.
    (SFC, 5/26/96, Z  1 p.2)

1824        William Moorcroft, East India Co. head of 5,000 acre horse farm at Pusa, India, arrived in Peshawar, Afghanistan, while enroute to Bukhara, Uzbekistan, to trade for horses.
    (ON, 1/02, p.3)
1824        The first company to come out with the paper milk carton was the Toronto East India Company, which developed it in 1824 due to a glass shortage.

1824        Argentina issued its first bond with an expected lifespan of 46 years. The government defaulted in 4 years and an ensuing standoff with creditors took 29 years to resolve.
    (Econ, 8/2/14, p.9)

1824        The Ashanti tribe in West Africa defeated the troops under Sir Charles MacCarthy. His polished skull then became a prized feature of the annual yam festival.
    (WSJ, 5/16/96, p.A-12)

1824        "Publish and be damned," was exclaimed by the Duke of Wellington to Harrietta Wilson, a courtesan of note, whose publisher went trolling amongst her former beaux, offering exclusion from her memoirs for 200 hundred pounds sterling.
    (WSJ, 2/3/95, p.A-11)
1824        Dean William Buckland of Oxford Univ. discovered and described the bones of the meat-eating Megalosaurus, "huge reptile."
    (T.E.-J.B. p.24)

1824        In England the first animal welfare group was founded.
    (SFEC, 1/10/99, p.A20)
1824        The Royal National Lifeboat Institution was established in England.
    (Econ, 5/14/05, p.87)
1824        Charles Henry Harrod (25) established his first retail business. Until 1831 it was variously listed as a draper, mercer and a haberdasher. In 1834 he established a wholesale grocery in Stepney, at 4 Cable Street, London, with a special interest in tea.

1824        The Mexican governor of California offered all missions for sale under a program of secularization.
    (SFEC, 3/12/00, p.T4)

1824        A Mexican General was served chiles en nogada after he threw out the last Spanish viceroy. The dish consisted of green chiles, pomegranate seeds and a white walnut sauce.
    (WSJ, 12/11/98, p.A1)

1824        Newfoundland became a British colony.
    (SFEC, 6/25/00, BR p.6)

1824        In the Philippines a Spanish priest built a 17-foot high and 13-foot wide bamboo organ near Manila. In 1975 it became the centerpice of the Int’l. Bamboo Organ Festival.
    (SSFC, 3/15/15, p.A7)

1824        The Saud family established a new capital at Riyadh.
    (WSJ, 11/13/01, p.A14)

1824-1860    Yanagawa Shigenobu II, Japanese printmaker, was active. His work included the color woodcut “Kuroho" (1832-1836).

1824-1868    Lesotho acted as a buffer between the Afrikaner’s Boer Republic and British colonial interests and supplied seasonal farm workers to both.
    (WSJ, 3/25/98, p.A11)

1824-1877     Julia Kavanagh, Irish novelist: "The slight that can be conveyed in a glance, in a gracious smile, in a wave of the hand, is often the ne plus ultra of art. What insult is so keen or so keenly felt, as the polite insult which it is impossible to resent?"
    (AP, 6/7/97)

1824-1879    William Morris Hunt, artist. His work included an oil of Niagara Falls.
    (WSJ, 11/6/98, p.W10)

1824-1887    Gustav Kirchoff, German physicist, discovers that the reasons for the Fraunhoffer lines in light spectra from the sun are due to absorption of specific wavelengths of energy by elements in the gaseous chromosphere that resonate when impacted at specific energy levels. The light emitted by the excited atoms will then have characteristic markings such as the D-line of sodium.
    (SCTS, p.34)

1824-1889    (William) Wilkie Collins, English novelist. His work included the 1860 mystery: "The Woman in White." It was later made into a TV version on both "Mystery" (1985) and "Masterpiece Theater" (1998).
    (WUD, 1994, p.290)(WSJ, 2/19/98, p.A20)

1824-1892    George William Curtis, American author-editor "Heroes in history seem to us poetic because they are there. But if we should tell the simple truth of some of our neighbors, it would sound like poetry."
    (AP, 8/26/99)

1824-1907    William Thomson (Lord Kelvin), Scottish scientist-inventor, a leader in energetics. Along with Helmholtz he helped establish the principle of the conservation of energy.
    (TNG, Klein, p.88)

1825        Jan 1, Dewitt Clinton (1769-1828) began serving his 2nd term as governor of New York and continued to 1828.
1825        Jan 1, Dr. Gideon Mantell presented his paper “Notice on the Iguanodon" to members of England’s Philosophical Society. His paper linked the large hypothetical “Sussex lizard" to a modern species of reptile. This work led to his induction to the Royal Society on Dec 25, 1825.
    (ON, 7/06, p.3)

1825        Jan 3, Scottish factory owner Robert Owen bought 30,000 acres in Indiana as site for New Harmony utopian community.
    (MC, 1/3/02)

1825        Jan 25, Eli Whitney (b.1765), cotton gin inventor and gun manufacturer, died.
    (ON, 2/03, p.6)

1825        Jan 19, Ezra Daggett and nephew Thomas Kensett received a patent from Pres. Monroe for food storage in tin cans. [see 1810]

1825        Jan 27, Congress approved Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma), clearing the way for forced relocation of the Eastern Indians on the "Trail of Tears."
    (HN, 1/27/99)

1825        Jan 28, George Edward Pickett (d.1875), Major General in the Confederate Army, was born. When blame was being sought for why his ill-fated charge was the final action of the Battle of Gettysburg, and why the Confederacy did not win the three-day battle, George Pickett suggested that "The Union Army might have had something to do with it." Pickett had been sponsored for West Point by the Illinois congressman, Abraham Lincoln.
    (MC, 1/28/02)

1825        Feb 9, The House of Representatives elected John Quincy Adams Jr. 6th U.S. president (1825-1829) after no candidate received a majority of electoral votes.
    (A&IP, ESM, p.96b, photo)(AHD, 1971, p.14)(HN, 2/9/97)(AP, 2/9/99)

1825        Feb 12, Creek Indian treaty signed. Tribal chiefs agreed to turn over all their land in Georgia to the government and migrate west by Sept 1, 1826.
    (MC, 2/12/02)

1825        Feb 22, Russia and Britain established the Alaska/Canada boundary.
    (HN, 2/22/98)

1825        Feb 24, Thomas Bowdler, self-appointed Shakespearean censor, died. His expurgated Shakespeare edition was published in 1818.
    (MC, 2/24/02)(SFC, 1/21/04, p.D2)

1825        Feb 25, William Moorcroft, East India Co. head of 5,000 acre horse farm at Pusa, India, arrived at Bukhara, Uzbekistan, to trade for horses. He met with Khan Haydar, Emir of Bukhara.
    (ON, 1/02, p.5)

1825        Feb 28, Quincy Adams Gillmore (d.1888), Major General (Union volunteers), was born.
    (MC, 2/28/02)

1825        Mar 2, The 1st grand opera in US sung in English was in NYC.
    (SC, 3/2/02)

1825        Mar 4, John Quincy Adams was inaugurated as 6th President.
    (SC, 3/4/02)

1825        Mar 12, The English Sloop, Eliza Ann, was captured by pirates, who proceeded to murder the crew of ten.
    (LSA., Fall 1995, p.18)

1825        Mar 25, The first Brazilian Constitution was promulgated by Peter I and solemnly sworn in the Cathedral of the Empire.

1825        Apr 16, John Henry Fuseli (aka Johan Heinrich Fussli b.1741), Swiss born British Romantic painter, died. His paintings included “Nightmare" (1782).
    (www.artnet.com/library/03/0302/T030268.asp)(Econ, 2/18/06, p.78)

1825        Apr 25, Charles Ferdinand Dowd was born. He standardized time zones.
    (SS, 4/25/02)

1825        Apr, The Marquis de Lafayette visited Natchez, Miss., during the second and final year of a tour made at the invitation of President James Monroe and the US Congress. During those two years, Lafayette stopped at 320 cities and towns in the 24 states then in the union.
    (AP, 6/19/21)

1825        May 1, George Inness, US landscape painter (Delaware Water Gap), was born.
    (MC, 5/1/02)

1825        May 4, Thomas Henry Huxley (d.1895), British biologist, naturalist and author, was born. "God give me strength to face a fact though it slay me." "My experience of the world is that things left to themselves don't get right." His work includes the collected Essays in nine volumes: 1. Method and Results, 2. Darwiniana, 3. Science and Education, 4. Science and the Hebrew Tradition, 5. Science and the Christian Tradition, 6. Hume, with Helps to the Study of Berkeley, 7. Man’s Place in Nature, 8. Discourses, Biological and Geological, 9. Evolution and Ethics and Other Essays. In 1997 Adrian Desmond wrote the biography: "Huxley." "God give me strength to face a fact though it slay me."
    (OAPOC-TH, p.71)(WSJ, 10/10/97, p.A20)(AP, 11/1/97)(AP, 1/26/99)(HN, 5/4/01)

1825        May 7, Italian composer Antonio Salieri (74) died in Vienna, Austria.
    (AP, 5/7/97)(MC, 5/7/02)

1825        May 15, In Yerba Buena (later San Francisco) William Richardson married the Presidio Commander's daughter, Maria Antonia Martinez, at Mission Dolores and the couple honeymooned at Sausalito.

1825        May 20, Charles X became King of France.
    (MC, 5/20/02)

1825        May 25, American Unitarian Association was founded.
    (SC, 5/25/02)

1825        May 29, David Bell Birney (d.1864), Major General (Union volunteers), was born.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1825        Jun 7, R.D. Blackmore, author (Norie), was born.
    (SC, 6/7/02)

1825        Jun 19, Gioacchino Rossini's "Il Viaggio a Reims," premiered. Rossini wrote the "IL Viaggio a Reims" opera to celebrate the coronation of Charles X. The libretto by Luigi Balocchi was intended to show all major European nationalities coming together to celebrate the event.
    (WSJ, 9/29/99, p.A20)(MC, 6/19/02)

1825        Jun 20, Coronation of French king Charles X, the surviving brother of guillotined Louis XVI.
    (MC, 6/20/02)

1825        Jul 16, Alexander Gordon Laing (32), British Army Major, set off on camel from Tripoli in an attempt to become the 1st European to cross the Sahara Desert and reach the fabled city of Timbuktu (Mali).
    (SSFC, 1/1/06, p.M2)(ON, 11/06, p.5)

1825        Aug 1, William Beaumont, a US Army assistant surgeon at Fort Mackinac in the Michigan territory, began experiments to study the digestive system of Alexis St. Martin, a fur trader who  was accidentally shot in the abdomen in 1822.
    (ON, 1/02, p.6)

1825        Aug 6, Simon Bolivar drew up a constitution for Bolivia in which a life president appointed his successor. Sucre served as the sole capital until losing a brief civil war to La Paz in 1899. Upper Peru became the autonomous republic of Bolivia.
    (Econ, 7/1/06, p.77)(AP, 7/21/07)(AP, 8/6/08)

1825        Sep 7, The Marquis de Lafayette, the French hero of the American Revolution, bade farewell to President John Quincy Adams at the White House.
    (AP, 9/7/99)

1825        Aug 25, Uruguay declared its independence from Brazil.
    (AP, 8/25/97)

1825        Aug 27, William Moorcroft, East India Co. head of 5,000 acre horse farm at Pusa, India, died near Balkh, Afghanistan, while returning to India following his trip to Bukhara, Uzbekistan, to trade for horses. In 1985 Garry Alder authored "Beyond Bukhara: The Life of William Moorcroft, Asian Explorer and Veterinary Surgeon."
    (ON, 1/02, p.6)

1825        Sep 27, The Stockton and Darlington rail line opened in England. The first locomotive to haul a passenger train was operated by George Stephenson in England. The British engineers Richard Trevithick and George Stevenson were the first innovators of the technology.
    (AP, 9/27/97)(www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/RAstephensonG.htm)

1825        Oct 9, The first Norwegian immigrants to America, sailing form Stavanger, arrived on the sloop Restaurationen.  
    (HN, 10/9/98)(SSFC, 4/21/13, p.H4)

1825        Oct 16, Thomas Turpin Crittenden (d.1905), Brig. Gen. (Union volunteers), was born.
    (MC, 10/16/01)

1825        Oct 17, Franz Liszt's operetta Don Sanche premiered in Paris
    (MC, 10/17/01)

1825        Oct 25, Johann Strauss (d.1899), Austrian orchestra conductor and composer, was born.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1405)(HN, 10/25/98)

1825        Oct 26, The Erie Canal was opened in upstate New York. It cut through 363 miles of wilderness and measured 40 feet wide and 4 feet deep. It had 18 aqueducts and 83 locks and rose 568 feet from the Hudson River to Lake Erie. The first boat on the Erie Canal left Buffalo, N.Y. after eight years of construction. At the request of New York Governor DeWitt Clinton, the New York state legislature had provided $7 million to finance the project. The canal facilitated trade between New York City and the Midwest--manufactured goods were shipped out of New York and agricultural products were returned from the Midwest. As the canal became vital to trade, New York City flourished and settlers rapidly moved into the Midwest and founded towns like Clinton, Illinois. [see 1826] Gov. Clinton rode the Seneca Chief canal boat from Buffalo to New York harbor for the inauguration. In 2004 Peter L. Bernstein authored “Wedding of the Waters: The Erie Canal and the Making of a Great Nation." In 2009 Gerard Koeppel authored “Bond of Union: Building the Erie Canal and the American Empire."
    (SFEC, 4/20/97, p.T10)(AP, 10/26/97)(HN, 10/26/98)(WSJ, 2/8/00, p.A24)(WSJ, 1/14/05, p.W6)(Econ, 2/28/09, p.89)

1825        Nov 9, Ambrose Powell Hill (d.1865), Lt Gen (Confederate 3rd Army Corp), was born.
    (MC, 11/9/01)

1825        Nov 26, The first college social fraternity, the Kappa Alpha Society, was formed at Union College in Schenectady, N.Y.
    (AP, 11/26/97)(HN, 11/26/98)

1825        Nov 29, 1st Italian opera in US, "Barber of Seville," premiered in NYC and was welcomed by the legendary librettist for Mozart (and friend of Casanova), Lorenzo DaPonte, who was Professor of Italian at King's (later Columbia) College.
    (MC, 11/29/01)

1825        Dec 27, The 1st public railroad using steam locomotive was completed in England.
    (MC, 12/27/01)

1825        Dec 28, James Wilkinson (b.1757), US General  and statesman, died In Mexico City. He was associated with several scandals and controversies. Wilkinson's involvement with the Spanish (as Agent 13) was widely suspected in his own day, but it was not proven until 1854, with Louisiana historian Charles Gayarre's publication of the American general's correspondence with Esteban Rodríguez Miró, Louisiana's colonial governor between 1785 and 1791. Other historians subsequently added to the catalog of Wilkinson's treasonous activities.    
    (ON, 12/08, p.7)(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Wilkinson)

1825        Dec 29, Giuseppe Maria Gioacchino Cambini, composer, died.
    (MC, 12/29/01)
1825        Dec 29, Jacques-Louis David (b.1748), French painter (Death of Marat), died.
    (WUD, 1994 p.369)(MC, 12/29/01)

1825        Camille Corot created his painting "View of Rome."
    (WSJ, 9/9/03, p.D6)

1825        Goya (79) made his 4 lithographs known as the "Bulls of Bordeaux."
    (WSJ, 5/4/99, p.A20)

1825        Jean Anthelme Brillat-Savarin (1755-1826), French lawyer and professor, invented the genre of food writing with his book “The Physiology of Taste."
    (WSJ, 5/5/07, p.P10)

1825        Beethoven composed his String Quartet No. 15 in A Minor.

1825        The US government launched a mapping and surveying expedition of the Sant Fe Trail. The notes ended up filed for decades. In 2000 David Dary authored "The Santa Fe Trail: Its History, Legends and Lore."
    (WSJ, 12/28/00, p.A9)

1825        The Bureau of Indian Affairs began as an office of the War Department that dealt with what white Americans saw as the "Indian problem."
    (SFC, 9/9/00, p.A3)

1825        The Marquis de Lafayette laid the cornerstone for the Monument at Bunker Hill in a ceremony addressed by Daniel Webster.
    (HT, 3/97, p.33)

1825        Sing Sing Prison opened on the banks of the Hudson River. The name was from the local Sint Sinct Indian tribe. [see 1901]
    (WSJ, 3/29/02, p.A1)

1825        Franciscan missionaries planted vineyards north of San Francisco to make sacramental wine.
    (WSJ, 4/16/97, p.CA1)

1825        A law that defined and set punishment for abortion was placed into the Missouri penal code. It was the 2nd US abortion law after a 1821 law in Connecticut. The law prohibited only abortions induced by poisoning.
    (SFEM, 2/1/98, p.13)

1825        Seneca Village began in New York City and eventually spanned from 82nd Street to 89th Street along what later became the western edge of Central Park. The are became a refuge for African Americans, but was finally razed in 1857 to make way for Central Park.

1825        Philadelphia druggist Elie Magliore Durand first touted the effervescent soda water as a health drink. Shortly afterward, New York inventor John Matthews originated the fountain apparatus that conveniently rested on a pharmacist’s counter to dispense carbonated drinks.
    (HNQ, 6/12/98)

1825        In South Carolina the Fort Hill plantation was established by John C. Calhoun, the same year he became the nation's 7th vice president. Calhoun later became a US senator, and zealously defended slavery before the Civil War. His family bequeathed the plantation to South Carolina in 1888, leading to the creation of Clemson University.
    (AP, 4/6/21)

1825        The element aluminium was discovered.
    (NH, 7/02, p.35)

1825        William Sturgeon, English inventor, found that an electric current flowing through a coil of wire created a magnet. Shortly thereafter, the American physicist Joseph Henry discovered that placing an iron core inside the wire coil strengthened the effect- permitting this electromagnet to lift and drop small iron objects at the closing and opening of a switch connecting the coil to a storage battery.
    (I&I, Penzias, p.96)

1825        The Miramichi fires burned some 3 million acres in Maine and New Brunswick, Canada.
    (SFC, 10/30/03, p.A15)

1825        Parson Weems, writer, died. His work included "Life of George Washington With Curious Anecdotes, equally Honorable to Himself and Exemplary to his Young Countrymen."
    (SFEC, 7/12/98, Par p.13)

1825        A financial panic ensued in the US and Europe following over-investment in mining firms in South America.
    (Panic, p.6)(Econ, 4/12/14, p.50)

1825        The Anti-Slavery Reporter was founded in London as the Anti-Slavery Monthly Reporter by Zachary Macaulay (1768–1838), a Scottish philanthropist who devoted most of his life to the anti-slavery movement. er six years it sold 1.7 million copies.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anti-Slavery_Reporter)(Econ., 11/14/20, p.76)
1825        The Bank of England began lending money aggressively and continued to 1826 to help stabilize a financial crisis, despite lacking the legal authority to do so.
    (Econ, 11/5/11, p.92)
1825        The British conquered the Burmese state of Arakon (aka Rakhine), called Rohang by early Muslims, and administered it as part of British India. Muslims are believed to have arrived here in as long ago as the 8th century.
    (Econ, 6/13/15, p.38)

1825        In Egypt British traveler and draftsman James Burton sketched tombs of the New Kingdom pharaohs in the Valley of the Kings.
    (NG, 9/98, p.7)

1825        A French emissary of Charles X demanded that Haiti pay 150 million gold francs in exchange for recognition as French warships cruised over the horizon. The deal required 5 annual payments of 30 million and required a loan from a French bank for the 1st payment. Haiti renegotiated the debt in 1838.
    (WSJ, 1/2/04, p.A1)
1825        France established its imperial paramilitary, the Gendarmerie Coloniale, for law enforcement across its colonial empire.
    (WSJ, 2/2/04, p.A12)

1825        The Hungarian Academy of Sciences (MTA) was founded.
    (AFP, 2/12/19)

1825        The impresario of La Scala in Milan, Italy, sold the theater’s library of manuscript opera scores to the young copyist Giovannin Ricordi. This initiated the rise of Ricordi’s music-publ. firm.
    (Civil., Jul-Aug., ‘95, p.84)

1825        Japan issued an edict that spelled out what would happen to uninvited guests. “Should any foreigners land anywhere, they must be arrested or killed."
    (Econ, 12/22/07, p.63)

1825        A disastrous breach of Dutch coastal defenses occurred.

1825        The Decembrists consisted of idealistic military officers who plotted unsuccessfully against the Russian tsar.
    (Econ, 5/21/05, p.27)

1825-1829    John Quincy Adams served as the 6th president of the US.
    (WSJ, 10/22/97, p.A20)

1825-1832    Lambert Hitchcock marked all his furniture with the insignia "L. Hitchcock."
    (SFC, 6/12/96, Z1 p.5)

1825-1833    Scottish botanist and gardener, David Douglas, visited the US Pacific Coast and sent a collection of poppies to the London Horticultural Society, where the species was successfully cultivated. [see 1792,1794, 1816]
    (NBJ, 2/96, p.12)

1825-1852    Master Juba was a free black man and the first recognized master of tap dancing.
    (WSJ, 4/21/98, p.A21)

1825-1858    The Suffolk Bank operated a clearing house in Boston that served the New England region, and required all country banks doing business in Boston to maintain clearing deposits.
    (WSJ, 2/5/98, p.A23)

1825-1859    An ongoing project under Frederick Burkhardt has undertaken the task of editing and publishing the letters of Charles Darwin of this period. The first of 30 volumes came out in 1985 published by Cambridge Univ. Press, and the 10th in 1996. Selected letters over this period from the first 7 volumes have been published as "Charles Darwin’s Letters: A Selection 1825-1859."
    (NH, 5/96, p.6)

1825-1888    Sandwich glass, also known as pressed glass, was made by the Boston and Sandwich Glass Works in Sandwich, Mass. They made the original dolphin-based glassware.
    (SFC, 7/9/97, Z1 p.3)

1825-1893    Jean Martin Charcot, hypnotist. He taught Sigmund Freud and influenced Freud’s theories of the subconscious.
    (WSJ, 5/30/00, p.A24)

1825-1997    The 1997 book, "The American Opera Singer" by Peter G. Davis, covers the lives and adventures of opera and concert singers over this period.
    (WSJ, 11/6/97, p.A20)

1826        Jan 26, Julia Dent Grant, First Lady and wife of Ulysses Grant, was born.
    (HN, 1/26/99)

1826        Feb 2, Jean Anthelme Brillat-Savarin (b.1755), French lawyer and epicure, died. “Tell me what you eat and I will tell you what you are." His famous work, Physiologie du goût (The Physiology of Taste), was published in December 1825, two months before his death.
    (WSJ, 7/19/08, p.W1)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brillat-Savarin)

1826        Feb 11, London University was founded.
    (MC, 2/11/02)

1826        Feb 13, The American Temperance Society formed in Boston.
    (MC, 2/13/02)

1826        Feb 16, Franz von Holstein, composer, was born.
    (MC, 2/16/02)

1826        Mar 4, The Granite Railway in Quincy, MA, became the 1st US RR to be chartered.
    (SC, 3/4/02)

1826        Mar 21, Beethoven's Quartet #13 in B flat major (Op 130) premiered in Vienna.
    (MC, 3/21/02)

1826        Apr 1,  Samuel Mory patented the internal combustion engine.

1826        Apr 6, Gustave Moreau, French painter, was born.
    (MC, 4/6/02)

1826        Apr 9, Chatham Roberdeau Wheat was born in Alexandria, Va. He studied law at the University of Nashville and then served in the 1st Tennessee Cavalry as a lieutenant during the Mexican War. He became a Confederate commander of the 1st Louisiana Special Battalion in the Civil War, also known as Wheat's Tigers.
    (HN, 4/9/00)

1826        Apr 12, Karl Maria von Weber's opera "Oberon," premiered in London.
    (MC, 4/12/02)

1826        Apr 13, Franz Danzi (62), composer, died.
    (MC, 4/13/02)

1826        Apr 22, Ibrahim, son of Mohammed Ali of Egypt, took Missolonghi (in West Greece) after a long siege. [see Apr 23]
    (CMW, 1968, p.154)

1826        Apr 23, Missolonghi (in west Greece) fell to Egyptian-Turkish forces. [see Apr 22]
    (HN, 4/23/99)(MC, 4/23/02)

1826        Apr 28, Alexander Stadtfeld, composer, was born.
    (MC, 4/28/02)

1826        May 4, Frederick Church, US romantic landscape painter (Hudson River School), was born.
    (MC, 5/4/02)

1826        May 7, Varina Howell Davis (d.1905), 1st lady (Confederacy), was born.
    (MC, 5/7/02)

1826        May 10, Giuseppe Sigismondo (86), composer, died.
    (MC, 5/10/02)

1826        May 25, Christian Friedrich Ruppe (72), composer, died.
    (SC, 5/25/02)

1826        May 29, Ebenezer Butterick, inventor (tissue paper dress pattern), was born.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1826        Jun 4, Karl Maria FE von Weber (39), German composer (Oberon), died.
    (MC, 6/4/02)

1826        Jul 4, Stephen Foster (Stephen Collins Foster, d. Jan 13, 1864) composer, was born near Pittsburgh. His famous songs include "My Old Kentucky Home," "O Susanna," "Old Folks at Home," "Old Black Joe" and "Camptown Races."
    (HFA, ‘96, p.22)(AHD, p. 519)(BAAC PN, Chambers, 1/8/96)(IB, Internet, 12/7/98)
1826        Jul 4, Construction of the Pennsylvania Grand Canal was begun.
    (WSJ, 7/3/96, p.A8)
1826        Jul 4, Thomas Jefferson, the nation's third president, died at age 83 at one o'clock in the afternoon and was buried near Charlottesville, Virginia. He was the founder of the Univ. of Virginia and wrote the state’s statute of religious freedom. In 1981 Dumas Malone, aged 89 and nearly blind, published "The Sage of Monticello," the sixth and final volume of his Pulitzer Prize-winning biography of Jefferson. In 1997 Joseph J. Ellis won the National Book Award in nonfiction for "American Sphinx: The Character of Thomas Jefferson." "Nothing gives one person so much of an advantage over another as to remain unruffled in all circumstances."
    (A&IP, Miers, p.29)(SFEC, 6/29/97, BR p.5)(AP, 7/4/97)(SFC, 4/29/98, p.A6)(SFEC, 10/25/98, Z1 p.12)(IB, Internet, 12/7/98)
1826        Jul 4, John Adams died at age 90 in Braintree [Quincy], Mass, just a few hours after Jefferson. Because communications was slow in those days, Adams and Jefferson, at their death, thought the other was still alive. Adams' last words were, "Thomas Jefferson still survives." It was 50 years to the day after the Declaration of Independence was adopted. Adams was the 2nd president of the US. A multi-generational biography of the Adams family was later written by Paul C. Nagel: "Descent from Glory." The Joseph Ellis book The Passionate Edge" helped restore Adams to his rightful place in the American pantheon. The 1972 musical film 1776 focused on Adams’ efforts to get an independence resolution through Congress. In 1998 C. Bradley Thompson published "John Adams and the Spirit of Liberty." In 2001 David McCullough authored "John Adams." In 2005 James Grant authored “John Adams: Party of One."
    (A&IP, p.29)(AP, 7/4/97)(SFC, 7/4/98, p.E4)(IB, Internet, 12/7/98)(WSJ, 12/22/98, p.A16)(WSJ, 5/30/01, p.A20)(WSJ, 3/24/05, p.D8)
1826        Jul 4, In 2001 Andrew Burstein authored "America’s Jubilee," a description of the jubilee year as it was experienced by various people.
    (WSJ, 1/23/00, p.A20)

1826        Jul 5, Sir Thomas Stamford Bingley Raffles (b.1781), British statesman, died in London. He is best known for his founding of the city of Singapore (now the city-state of the Republic of Singapore). He is often described as the "Father of Singapore". He was also heavily involved in the conquest of the Indonesian island of Java from Dutch and French military forces during the Napoleonic Wars and contributed to the expansion of the British Empire. He was also an amateur writer and wrote a book entitled History of Java (1817). In 2012 Victoria Glendinning authored “Raffles and the Golden Opportunity."
    (Econ, 11/10/12, p.88)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stamford_Raffles)

1826        Jul 8, Luther Martin (b.1748), Maryland lawyer and former delegate to the Constitutional Convention, died in NYC. In 2008 Bill Kaufman authored “Forgotten Founder, Drunken Prophet: The Life of Luther Martin."
    (WSJ, 9/20/08, p.A21)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Luther_Martin)

1826        Jul 22, Giuseppe Piazzi (80), monk, mathematician (found 1st asteroid, 1801), died.
    (MC, 7/22/02)

1826        Jul 26, Riots in Vilnius, Lithuanian, caused the death of many Jews.
    (MC, 7/26/02)

1826        Aug 7, Marc Brunel hired his son, Isambard, to replace William Armstrong as chief engineer for building the tunnel under England’s Thames River.
    (ON, 4/06, p.8)(www.bris.ac.uk/is/services/specialcollections/brunelchronology.html)

1826        Aug 13, Major Gordon Laing, Scottish explorer, became the 1st European to enter Timbuktu (Mali), where some 12,000 people lived. Laing was killed by a Tuareg nomad spear on Sep 26 as he headed for Morocco. In 2005 Frank T. Kryza authored “The Race for Timbuktu: In Search of Africa’s City of Gold."
    (SSFC, 4/11/04, p.D6)(SSFC, 1/1/06, p.M2)(Econ, 1/7/06, p.75)(ON, 11/06, p.6)

1826            Aug 22, Colonies under Jedediah Strong Smith moved near Salt Lake Utah.

1826        Sep 3, USS Vincennes left NY to become 1st warship to circumnavigate globe.
    (MC, 9/3/01)

1826        Sep 26, The Persian cavalry was routed by the Russians at the Battle of Ganja in the Russian Caucasus.
    (HN, 9/26/99)

1826        Oct 7, The first railway in the United States opened at Quincy, Massachusetts.
    (HN, 10/7/98)

1826        Nov 24, Carlo Collodi, the creator of Pinocchio, was born.
    (HN, 11/24/00)

1826        Nov 27, Jedediah Smith’s expedition reached San Diego, becoming the first Americans to cross the south-western part of the continent. He crossed the Mohave Desert and the San Bernadino Mountains from Utah.
    (HN, 11/27/98)(SFEC, 12/5/99, p.T5)

1826        Dec 3, George Brinton McClellen (d.1885), Union general who defeated Robert E. Lee at Antietam and ran against Abraham Lincoln for president, was born.
    (HN, 12/3/98)(MC, 12/3/01)

1826        Dec 26, Franz Coenen, composer, was born.
    (MC, 12/26/01)

1826        Theophile Bra, French academic sculptor, experienced a nervous breakdown and began to make visionary paintings.
    (SFEM, 11/1/98, p.)

1826        Corot painted "Cascade of Terni." "Its flat light, monumentalizing simplicity and minimal content anticipated Courbet, Manet and Cezanne."
    (SFC, 6/4/96, p.E5)

1826        Ferdinand Eugene Delacroix (d.1863), French artist, painted his “Portrait of Charles de Verninac" about this time. De Verninac (1803-1834) died later in NYC while returning home after catching yellow fever while serving as French vice consul in Chile.
    (SFC, 1/21/15, p.E1)

1826        The Erie Canal, 387 miles long and completed in 1826, connected Lake Erie, at Buffalo, to the Hudson River at Albany, New York. Begun in 1817 through the determined efforts of New York Governor DeWitt Clinton, the canal, which utilized light packet boats drawn by horses, reduced the passenger schedule between Buffalo and Albany from the 10 days required by stage service to three-and-a-half days. The canal brought many settlers to the Mohawk Valley and formed a great highway for freight from the Northwest to the seaboard. [see 1825]
    (HNQ, 12/29/99)
1826        Lord & Taylor opened as a dry goods store in NYC. English-born Samuel Lord had started a dry goods business in New York in 1824 and opened the original store that would become Lord & Taylor in 1826, on Catherine Street in what is now Two Bridges, Manhattan.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lord_%26_Taylor)(SFC, 8/29/19, p.D1)

1826        David Farragut gathered youngsters from warships anchored in Hampton Roads and established America’s first floating Annapolis aboard the U.S.S. Alert.
    (NG, Sept. 1939, J. Maloney p.363)

1826        The Galerie Vero-Dodat (2, Rue de Bouloi), was built by two well-off charcutiers in Paris, France. Vero and Dodat spared no expense with the classical style interior that featured sculpted woodwork, ceiling frescoes, mosaic flooring, and brass ornament,
    (Hem., 10/’95, p.109)

1826        Joseph Buchner refined willow bark in crystals that he named salicin, after salix, the Latin name for willow. [see aspirin in 1899]
    (SSFC, 10/24/04, p.M6)

1826        Samuel Heinrich Schwabe, German amateur astronomer, began a systematic program of observing the Sun from his home in Dessau. He kept careful records of sunspots over 17 years and in 1843 noted an 11-year cycle in their frequency.
    (Econ, 6/28/03, p.77)(NG, 7/04, p.21)

1826        Scotsman Robert Stein invented the continuous still. It was later refined by Aeneas Coffey as the Coffey still.
    (Hem, 11/02, p.36)

1826        An American mechanic developed mold-blown glass.
    (SFC, 9/21/05, p.G3)

1826        Dost Mohammad Khan took Kabul, Afghanistan, and established control.

1826        In Batavia Capt. William Morgan was kidnapped by brother Masons for divulging fraternity secrets. His body was never found. His book "Illustrations of Freemasonry" revealed some Mason secrets. His death inspired America’s 1st third party, the anti-Mason, who dominated western NY for almost a decade.
    (WSJ, 7/25/00, p.A20)(WSJ, 2/6/02, p.A16)(WSJ, 6/28/02, p.W13)

1826        In Argentina Bernardino Rivadavia (1780-1845) was chosen as the first president of the United Provinces of La Plata. He was forced to resign in 1827. His political opponents called him the “Chocolate Dictator."
    (www.infoplease.com/ce6/people/A0841998.html)(SSFC, 11/27/05, p.A24)

1826         Sir John Bernard Burke published “Burke’s Landed Gentry," a detailed listing of key families or other influential figures in the United Kingdom.
    (Econ, 12/3/11, p.104)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Burke%27s_Landed_Gentry)
1826        Englishmen scientist James Smithson (1765-1829) drew up his will and named his nephew as beneficiary. In the will he stated that should his nephew die without heirs, the estate should go to the US of America to found at Washington, under the name of the Smithsonian Institute, an establishment for the increase and diffusion of knowledge among men.
    (SFEC, 8/25/96, p.T6)
1826        Pilkington, a British glass producer, was founded in St. Helens, Lancashire. In 2006 it was bought by Nippon Sheet Glass (NSG).
    (Econ, 3/27/10, p.78)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pilkington)
1826        The British Cape Colony was extended northward to the Orange River.
    (EWH, 4th ed, p.885)
1826        John James Audubon (1785-1851), painter and ornithologist, arrived in Britain to oversee the production of his "Birds of America." Although the 1st engravings were done in Edinburgh the project was soon transferred to London and completed over the next 12 years.
    (WSJ, 3/26/04, p.W6)(AH, 10/04, p.75)
1826        Audubon read a technical paper before the Natural History Society of Edinburgh entitled: "Account of the habits of the turkey buzzard, particularly with the view of exploding the opinion generally entertained of its extraordinary power of smelling." [see K.E. Stager in 1964]
    (Nat. Hist., 4/96, p.54)
1826        The Zoological Society of London was established by Sir Stamford Raffles and Sir Humphry Davy.

1826        In Egypt Jean-Francois Champollion, French Egyptologist and decipherer of the Rosetta Stone, began collecting Egyptian artifacts. He convinced Charles X to purchase the private collections of the French and English consuls in Egypt.
    (WSJ, 1/29/98, p.A16)

1826        Rene Theophile Hyacinthe Laennec, French physician and inventor of the stethoscope, died from tuberculosis.
    (ON, 9/00, p.11)

1826        In Mexico Plutarco Elias Calles, founder of the modern Mexican political system, tried to suppress the Church. This fomented the Cristiada, 3 years of rebellion and outright war.
    (WSJ, 8/13/97, p.A12)

1826        Dom Pedro IV, emperor of Brazil, attained the Portuguese throne.
    (SSFC, 1/28/01, p.T1)

1826        In Scotland the first exhibition of Clydesdale horses for show occurred at the Glasgow Exhibition. The horses had been bred for hauling coal.
    (SFEC, 1/30/00, Z1 p.2)

1826        Methodist missionaries arrived at Tonga from Australia.
    (SFEC, 5/28/00, p.T10)

1826        The Ottoman Sultan eliminated the Janissaries by slaughtering them. Originally they were Greek boys forcibly taken from their families by the occupying Turks and raised and trained to be elite troops at the service of the Ottoman Empire. From the mid-17th century, this abduction of boys stopped and Janissaries became a hereditary corps.
    (AP, 3/14/19)
1826-1828    Corot was in Italy and painted "View of St. Peter’s and the Castel Sant’Angelo."
    (FAMSF, 2/98)

1826-1829    Dumont d’Urville (1790-1842), French explorer and naturalist, sailed around the Pacific Ocean.
    (CW, Spring ‘99, p.3)

1826-1833    In NYC the Hawk and Buzzard newspaper subsisted largely on gossip.
    (SFEM, 11/8/98, p.12)

1826-1852    The Duke of Wellington served as Constable of the Tower of London.
    (Hem, 9/04, p.71)

1826-1877     Walter Bagehot, English editor and economist: "One of the greatest pains to human nature is the pain of a new idea." "It is good to be without vices, but it is not good to be without temptation."
    (AP, 5/22/97)(AP, 9/2/98)

1826-1887    Dinah Maria Mulock Craik, English novelist. "The man who does his work, any work, conscientiously, must always be in one sense a great man."
    (AP, 3/14/97)

1826-1908    Henry Clifton Sorby, English geologist, invented a method for making thin rock slices for microscopic investigation.
    (OAPOC-TH, p.71)

1827        Feb 1, Alphonse de Rothschild, French banker, was born.
    (MC, 2/1/02)

1827        Feb 7, Ballet (Deserter) was introduced to US at Bowery Theater in NYC.
    (MC, 2/7/02)
1827        Feb 7, Franz Anton Dimmler (73), composer, died.
    (MC, 2/7/02)

1827        Feb 17, Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi (81), Swiss educator, died.
    (MC, 2/17/02)

1827        Feb 27, Richard W. Johnson (d.1897), Bvt Major General (Union Army), was born.
    (MC, 2/27/02)
1827        Feb 27, A Mardi Gras street procession in New Orleans was initiated by students, who were home from school in France. They formed a parade of masked marchers on Shrove Tuesday, the day before the period of penance begins on Ash Wednesday.
    (HN, 2/27/98)(HNQ, 2/9/99)

1827        Feb 28, The first U.S. railroad chartered to carry passengers and freight, the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Co., was incorporated.
    (AP, 2/28/98)

1827        Mar 5, Pierre-Simon Laplace (b.1749), French mathematician, astronomer, physicist, died. He invented perturbation theory and wrote the 5-volume work "Celestial Mechanics." In 1998 Charles Couiston Gillespie published his biography "Pierre-Simon Laplace: A Life in Exact Science."
    (WSJ, 2/19/98, p.A20)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pierre-Simon_Laplace)
1827        Mar 5, Alessandro Volta (b.1745), Italian physicist who made 1st battery (1800), died.

1827        Mar 16, The first Afro-American newspaper , Freedom’s Journal, was published in New York City.
    (HFA, ‘96, p.26)(AP, 3/16/97)

1827        Mar 26, Ludwig von Beethoven (56), German composer, died in Vienna. He had been deaf for the later part of his life, but said on his death bead "I shall hear in heaven." It was later determined that he suffered from lead poisoning. In 1995 Tia DeNora authored "Beethoven and the Construction of Genius." In 2000 Russell Martin authored "Beethoven’s Hair: An Extraordinary Historical Odyssey and a Scientific Mystery Solved." In 2014 Jan Swafford authored “Beethoven: Anguish and Triumph."
    (WSJ, 5/29/96, p.A5)(AP, 3/256/97)(HN, 3/26/99)(SFC, 10/18/00, p.A2)(WSJ, 1/17/02, p.A12)(Econ, 9/20/14, p.78)

1827        Mar 29, Composer Ludwig van Beethoven was buried in Vienna amidst a crowd of over 10,000 mourners.
    (HN, 3/29/01)

1827        Apr 2, William Holdman Hunt, English painter (Light of the World), was born.
    (MC, 4/2/02)
1827        Apr 2, Joseph Dixon began manufacturing lead pencils.
    (MC, 4/2/02)

1827        Apr 5, Joseph Lister (d.1912), English physician, was born. He founded the idea of using antiseptics during surgery.
    (WUD, 1994, p.836)(HN, 4/5/99)

1827        Apr 7, English chemist John Walker invented wooden matches.
    (MC, 4/7/02)

1827        Apr 10, Lewis Wallace (d.1905), soldier, lawyer, diplomat and author (Ben Hur), was born. "As a rule, there is no surer way to the dislike of men than to behave well where they have behaved badly."
    (HN, 4/10/98)(AP, 12/5/00)

1827        Apr 13, Hugh Clapperton, Scottish traveler and explorer of West and Central Africa, died in Sokoto, Nigeria, of dysentery.

1827        Apr 20, John Gibbon (d.1896), Major General (Union volunteers), was born.
    (MC, 4/20/02)

1827        Apr 26, Charles Edward Hovey, Bvt Major General (Union volunteers), was born.
    (MC, 4/26/02)

1827        May 4, John Hanning Speke, English explorer, was born. He discovered Lake Victoria and the source of the Nile.
    (HN, 5/4/99)

1827        May 29, Reuben Lindsay Walker (d.1890), Brigadier General (Confederate Army), was born.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1827        Jun 5, Athens fell to the Ottomans during Greek War of Independence.
    (HN, 6/5/98)(MC, 6/5/02)

1827        Jun 12, Johanna Spyri (d.1901), Swiss author, was born. She is best known for her novel Heidi, the story of a young girl who leave her home in the Swiss Alps for adventures in the world below. [see June 12, 1829]
    (WUD, 1994 p.1379)(HN, 6/12/99)

1827        Jul 4, New York state law emancipated adult slaves. The laws were rewritten to make sure that all slaves would eventually be freed.
    (SFEC, 12/1/96, BR p.5)(Maggio, 98)(ON, 11/99, p.5)

1827        Jul 14, Augustin-Jean Fresnel (b.1788), French engineer, died. He contributed significantly to the establishment of the theory of wave optics. Fresnel studied the behavior of light both theoretically and experimentally. He worked out a way to focus light using diffraction and was the first to construct a special type of lens, now called a Fresnel lens, as a substitute for mirrors in lighthouses.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Augustin-Jean_Fresnel)(Econ, 6/9/12, p.85)

1827        Jul 16, Josiah Spode, potter, died.
    (MC, 7/16/02)

1827        Aug 10, There were race riots in Cincinnati  and some 1,000 blacks left for Canada.
    (MC, 8/10/02)

1827        Aug 12, William Blake (b.1757), English visionary engraver and poet, died. “He who kisses the joy as it flies / Lives in eternity’s sunrise." In 2001 G.E. Bentley Jr. authored "The Stranger From Paradise: A Biography of William Blake."
    (SSFC, 5/27/01, DB p.73)(http://tinyurl.com/nd7vhfv)

1827        Aug 22, Industrialist Ezra Butler Eddy (d.1906) was born in Vermont. E.B. Eddy, who became known as the matchmaker of the world, moved his small friction-match factory from Burlington, Vt., to Hull, Que., in 1851. He expanded, modernized and diversified to produce a variety of wood and paper products. Eddy was elected mayor of Hull six times and was a member of the Quebec legislature for six years.
    (AP, 8/22/01)
1827        Aug 22, Josef Strauss, Austrian composer (Dorfschwalben aus Austria), was born.
    (MC, 8/22/02)   

1827        Sep 18, John Towsend Trowbridge, poet and author of books for boys, who wrote the Jack Hazzard and Toby Trafford series, was born.
    (HN, 9/18/98)

1827        Oct 15, Charles Darwin reached Christ's Counsel, Cambridge.
    (MC, 10/15/01)

1827        Oct 20, British, French and Russian squadrons entered the harbor at Navarino, Greece, and destroyed most of the Egyptian fleet there. The Ottomans demanded reparations.
    (EWH, 4th ed, p.770)(www.ipta.demokritos.gr/erl/navarino.html)

1827        Nov 10, Alfred Howe Terry (d.1890), Major General (Union volunteers), was born.
    (MC, 11/10/01)

1827        Nov 15, Creek Indians lost all their property in US.
    (MC, 11/15/01)

1827        Nov 26, Ellen Gould White, founder of the Seventh Day Adventists, was born.
    (HN, 11/26/00)

1827        Dec, The Guerrero, a ship crewed by Cuban pirates, sped through the waters south of Florida to Havana, where they aimed to trade their precious cargo: 561 people who had been kidnapped from their homes in West Africa. A British warship called the HMS Nimble engaged the Guerrero, and the two ships battled with cannon and musket fire. The Guerrero crashed into the Florida reef, ripping open its hull. Forty-one African souls died there in bondage.
    (Good Morning America, 9/9/20)

1827        Luther Roby, a Concord printer, published "A Journal Kept By Mr. John Howe While He Was Employed As A British Spy during the Revolutionary War; Also While He Was Engaged In The Smuggling Business." The book was later thought to based on the journal of British officer Henry De Berniere and published by John Gill, member of the Sons of Liberty, in 1779.
    (AH, 10/01, p.56)

1827        David Zeisberger, Moravian missionary, published "Grammar of the Language of the Lenni-Lenape," a Delaware Indian tribe.
    (NH, 10/96, p.16)

1827        V. Bellini wrote his opera "Il Pirata." It was his 1st major success.
    (WSJ, 10/31/02, p.A1)
1827        August Marschner wrote his opera "Der Vampyr."
    (WSJ, 1/21/98, p.A16)
1827        Franz Schubert composed his song cycle "Winterreise."
    (WSJ, 4/16/97, p.A16)

1827        Businessman and publisher Louis A. Godey bought the Boston Godey’s Lady’s Book, a ladies’ magazine, and offered its editorship to successful novelist Sarah Hale, a widow with four children to support. Godey’s Lady’s Book, with Sarah Josepha Hale as its editor and driving force for 50 years, was an important cultural influence in 19th-century America. Godey’s enjoyed great success publishing morally upright and sentimental literature and avoiding unfeminine topics like politics, scandal and controversy. By mid-century it had 150,000 subscribers. Particularly popular were fashion plates, such as the steel-plate engraving of wedding gowns shown here, crafts, décor and housekeeping ideas that greatly influenced American home life. Competition and Hale’s retirement in 1877 led Louis Godey to sell the magazine in 1883. Thirteen years later, Godey’s was absorbed into another publication.
    (HNPD, 9/29/98)

1827        The first edition of New York's Freedom's Journal was published by John Russworm and Samuel Cornish. "For too long others have spoken for us." The journal lasted for 2 years.
    (SFEC, 1/31/99, DB p.28)(SFC, 2/22/99, p.A21)

1827        John Nelson Darby (1800-1882), British evangelical preacher, first conceived the doctrine of a secret rapture based on a passage of St. Paul’s letter to the Thessalonians.
    (www.sullivan-county.com/news/cathouse/darby.htm)(Econ, 12/18/04, p.34)

1827        Joseph Smith, Mormon founder, received his tablets on Mount Cumorah near Palmyra, NY.
    (NW, 9/10/01, p.48)

1827        Catherine McAuley (1787-1841), founded the Sisters of Mercy in Dublin, Ireland. They engaged chiefly in works of spiritual and corporal mercy. Frances Warde led the sisters out from Ireland. In 2002 John J. Fialka authored "Sisters: Catholic Nuns and the Making of America."
    (WUD, 1994 p.1333)(SSFC, 1/19/03, p.M6)

1827        The U.S. and Great Britain submitted the Maine and New Brunswick boundary dispute to arbitration by the King of the Netherlands in 1827, whose compromise was accepted by the British but rejected by the U.S.
    (HNQ, 9/30/99)

1827        Roger Brooke Taney became attorney general of Maryland.
    (WSJ, 11/21/06, p.D8)

1827        The government hired Capt. Henry Miller Shreve to remove a 100-mile "raft" of snags and trees that prevented steamboats from entering the Red River. His work camp later became the city of Shreveport, La.
    (ON, 7/02, p.11)

1827        John Davis opened the doors of the first full-dress American gambling casino in New Orleans.
    (HN, 3/19/98)

1827        John Herschel proposed contact lenses.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)

1827        Friction matches were first produced.
    (SFEC, 8/13/00, Z1 p.2)

1827        Francois Soudre invented the artificial language Solresol. He proposed using the musical scale for the building blocks of an international vocabulary.
    (Wired, 8/96, p.86)

1827        Jean-Baptist-Joseph Fourier, French mathematician who served under Napoleon in Egypt, compared the interaction of the earth and its atmosphere to the setting in a hothouse. He said the Earth’s gases are like the greenhouse glass walls and help keep us warm.
    (NOHY, Weiner, 3/90, p.26)

1827        Greenwich Academy, the oldest school for girls in Connecticut, was founded.
    (NG, Feb, 04, p.120)

1827        Balkaria, a Caucasus region later known as known as Kabardino-Balkari, was annexed by Russia.

1827        The Univ. of Toronto, Canada, was founded.
    (Econ, 1/22/05, p.20)
1827        The Chippewa community of Aamjiwnaang First Nation was founded in Ontario just across from Port Huron, Mich. Much of the original reserve was sold via questionable land deals in the 1960s. In 1993 the percentage of boys born in the community began dropping and by 2005 girls outnumbered boys by 3:1. Local petrochemical manufacturing was suspected as the cause.
    (SSFC, 12/18/05, p.A30)

1827        The Cocos Islands (aka Keeling Islands) in the Indian Ocean were settled by the Clunies-Ross family. A descendent ceded the coral atolls to Australia in 1978.
    (Econ, 12/24/05, p.84)

1827        In France Victor Hugo wrote the official coronation ode for Charles X, the last Bourbon king.
    (WSJ, 2/10/98, p.A16)
1827        The lithopane (lithophane) was patented in Paris. It allowed a picture, embedded in porcelain, to be viewed in light by varying the thickness of a porcelain base. Generally credited as being the invention of Baron Paul de Bourguignon, of Rubelles, France, in 1827, the earliest forms of lithophanes were actually produced in China many years before other countries produced them.
    (SFC, 3/1/06, p.G7)(http://bellerosefarm.com/html/_lithopane_history.html)
1827        Joseph Niepce, French inventor, met with English botanist Francis Bauer, who agreed to present Niepce’s ground breaking photographic work to the Royal Society, which rejected the bid. Before leaving London Niepce made a gift of his 1826 pewter image to Bauer. The pewter image was re-discovered in 1952 by photo historian Helmut Gernsheim.
    (ON, 10/08, p.8)

1827        The Hanseatic city of Bremen, faced with the silting of its Weser River, bought land for Bremerhaven from the king of Hanover in order to maintain a link to the sea.
    (Econ, 5/21/11, p.60)

1827        The first 10,000 Tamils came to work in Sri Lanka's nascent coffee plantations as indentured laborers. By 2017 Tamils accounted for over 4% of Sri Lanka's population.
    (Econ, 4/30/17, p.38)

1827-1828    An epidemic hit the missions of northern California. Researchers later believed it was measles.
    (SFC, 5/16/20, p.B4) 

1828        Jan 31, Alexandros Ypsilanti (35), Greek resistance fighter, died.
    (MC, 1/31/02)

1828        Feb 8, French author Jules Verne (d.1905) was born. He is considered the father of science fiction. Many of his 19th-century works forecast amazing scientific feats--feats that were actually carried out in the 20th century--with uncanny accuracy. Verne's 1865 book From the Earth to the Moon told the story of a space ship that is launched from Florida to the moon and that returns to Earth by landing in the ocean. Something of a scientist and traveler himself, Verne's 1870 work about a submarine, "Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea," and "Around the World in Eighty Days" also foretold technological advances that seemed fantastic at the time. "Anything one man can imagine, other men can make real."
    (HNPD, 2/8/99)(AP, 10/1/00)

1828        Feb 11, Dewitt Clinton (b.1769), American politician and naturalist. He had served as a US Senator, 2-time governor of New York state and 3-time mayor of NYC.

1828        Feb 12, George Meredith, English poet and novelist, was born.
    (HN, 2/12/01)

1828        Feb 18, More than 100 vessels were destroyed in a storm at Gibraltar.
    (MC, 2/18/02)

1828        Feb 21, The first issue of the Cherokee Phoenix, the 1st American Indian newspaper in US, was printed, both in English and in the newly invented Cherokee alphabet.
    (HN, 2/21/98)(MC, 2/21/02)

1828        Feb, Alta California Gov. Jose Echeandia arrested 8 men and imprisoned them in San Diego for entering the area without passports or permission. James Ohio Pattie (~1803-~1833) was among those arrested. Pattie was released in December after agreeing to vaccinate people on the coast following an outbreak of smallpox in northern California.
    (SFC, 5/2/20, p.B2)

1828        Mar 5, Johann Gungl, composer, was born.
    (MC, 3/5/02)

1828        Mar 8, Johann Anton Sulzer (75), composer, died.
    (MC, 3/8/02)

1828        Mar 17, Maj. Gen'l. Patrick R. Cleburne, the "Stonewall" of the West, was born.
    (HN, 3/17/98)

1828        Mar 20, Henrik Ibsen (d.1906), poet and dramatist was born in Skien, Norway. His work included “Peer Gynt" and “Hedda Gabler." "The worst enemy of truth and freedom in our society is the compact majority. Yes, the damned, compact, liberal majority." In 1971 the 3rd and final volume of “Ibsen: A Biography" by Michael Meyer (d.2000) was published.
    (HFA, '96, p.26)(HN, 3/20/98)(AP, 7/22/98)(SFC, 8/10/00, p.D2)

1828        Apr 4, Casparus van Wooden patented chocolate milk powder (Amsterdam).
    (MC, 4/4/02)

1828        Apr 14, The first edition of Noah Webster's "American Dictionary of the English Language" was published. Webster had finished writing it in England in January, 1825.
    (AP, 4/14/97)(HN, 4/14/98)(http://tinyurl.com/2hyj76)

1828        Apr 16, Francisco Jose Goya y Lucientes (b.1746), Spanish painter, cartoonist, died at age 82 in France. He had served 3 generations of Spanish kings as court painter. In 2002 Julia Blackburn authored "Old Man Goya." In 2003 Robert Hughes authored "Goya." See link for Goya timeline.
    (WSJ, 5/10/02, p.W8)(Econ, 10/18/03, p.81)(http://tinyurl.com/ngxt7)

1828        Apr 21, Hippolyte Taine, French philosopher, historian (Voyage in Italy), was born.
    (MC, 4/21/02)

1828        Apr 26, Russia declared war on Turkey to support Greece's independence.
    (MC, 4/26/02)

1828        Apr 27, The London Zoo opened to fellows of the Zoological Society of London. It was originally intended to be used as a collection for scientific study.  As of 2017 it was the world's oldest scientific zoo and housed 20,166 animals.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/London_Zoo)(Reuters, 12/23/17)

1828        May 6, The Cherokee Indians were forced to sign a treaty giving up their Arkansas Reservation for a new home in what later became Oklahoma. This led to a split in the tribe as one group moved to Oklahoma and others stayed behind and became known as the Lost Cherokees.
    (Econ, 3/11/06, p.28)(http://digital.library.okstate.edu/KAPPLER/Vol2/treaties/che0288.htm)

1828        May 8, Jean Henri Dunant (d.1910), Swiss philanthropist, was born. He founded the Int’l. Committee of the Red Cross and was the first recipient (jointly) of the Nobel Peace Prize.
    (HN, 5/8/99)

1828        May 12, Dante Gabriel Rossetti (d.1882), English poet and painter, was born. He helped found the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dante_Gabriel_Rossetti)(WSJ, 7/25/95, p.A-10)

1828        May 13, US passed the Tariff of Abominations. Congress raised duties on manufactured goods from abroad on which the South was dependent. South Carolina declared the tariff null and void within its borders and pres. Jackson threatened to send in troops. The tariffs were lowered in 1833.
    (SS, Internet, 5/13/97)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R50)

1828        May 16, Sir William Congreve (b.1772), British artillerist and inventor, died. In 1805 he developed the Congreve Rocket.
    (MC, 5/16/02)(WUD, 1994 p.310)

1828        May 18, The Battle of Las Piedras, ended the conflict between Uruguay and Brazil.
    (HN, 5/18/98)

1828        May 22, Albrecht von Grafe, German eye surgeon, founder of modern ophthalmology, was born.
    (HN, 5/22/01)

1828        Jun 7, A party led by Jebediah Smith completed a journey down the Klamath River and were on the verge of starvation when they were visited by Indians who brought food. Smith's party proceeded north to Oregon and most of the party was killed by Umpqua Indians. Smith was killed in 1831 by Comanches on the Cimarron River. Smith’s party were the 1st white people to see Lake Earl, the biggest lagoon on the West Coast.
    (SFEC, 12/5/99, p.T5)(SFEC, 7/16/00, p.B1)

1828        Jun 14, German Grand Duke Karl August (b.1757),  the sovereign Duke of Saxe-Weimar and of Saxe-Eisenach, died. He is noted for the intellectual brilliance of his court.

1828        Jul 4, James Johnston Pettigrew, scholar, teacher, Brig General (Confederate Army), was born.
    (MC, 7/4/02)
1828        Jul 4, Ground-breaking ceremonies were held in Baltimore for construction of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. Charles Carroll, last surviving signer of the Declaration of Independence, turned the spade in Baltimore. At the groundbreaking, Carroll said, "I consider this among the most important acts of my life, second only to that of signing the Declaration of Independence, if even it be second to that." On the same day, in nearby Georgetown, President John Quincy Adams, with great fanfare, lifted the first shovel of dirt to begin construction of the Chesapeake & Ohio Canal that would link Washington, Baltimore and Pittsburgh by water. The railroad went on to become one of the nation's longest rail lines, reaching St. Louis, Missouri, in 1857. The 185-mile canal, though it had many years of use, was quickly eclipsed as a transportation medium by the superior technology of the railroad.
    (IB, Internet, 12/7/98)(SFEC, 4/25/99, p.T6)(HNQ, 10/4/99)

1828        Jul 27, Gilbert Charles Stuart, painter, died.
    (MC, 7/27/02)

1828        Aug 15, In San Francisco the daughter (5) and son (1) of Presidio soldier Ignacio Olivas were killed as he and his wife attended a dance party near Mission Dolores. Suspicion fell on fellow soldier Francisco Rubio, who was found guilty and executed on August 1, 1831. Rubio claimed innocence to the end.
    (SFC, 4/4/15, p.C1)

1828        Aug 22, Franz Joseph Gall (70), German-French physician, fraud  (phrenology), died.
    (MC, 8/22/02)

1828        Aug 27, Simon Bolívar proclaimed himself dictator of Gran Colombia through the "Organic Decree of Dictatorship".

1828        Aug 28, Leo Tolstoy (d.1910), Russian novelist, was born. His work included "War and Peace" and  "Anna Karenina." "History would be an excellent thing if only it were true." "It is amazing how complete is the delusion that beauty is goodness." [see Sep 9]
    (WUD, 1994 p.1491)(AP, 4/15/97)(AP, 10/14/99)(HN, 8/28/00)

1828        Aug, England’s Thames Tunnel Company was forced to halt operations due to accidents and loss of financial support. Work was halted for 7 years.
    (ON, 4/06, p.9)

1828        Sep 8, Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain, Bvt Major General (Union volunteers), hero of Little Round Top at Gettysburg, was born.
    (MC, 9/8/01)

1828        Sep 9, Leo Tolstoy, Russian novelist, was born.  [see Aug 28]
    (HN, 9/9/00)

1828        Sep 20, Gioacchino Rossini’s opera "Le Comte Ory," premiered in Paris.
    (MC, 9/20/01)

1828        Sep 25, Conspirators broke into the presidential palace in Bogota in an attempt to murder Simon Bolivar, who escaped thanks to the help of his lover, Manuela Sáenz.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sim%C3%B3n_Bol%C3%ADvar)(Econ, 2/9/08, p.40)

1828        Sep 22, Zulu King Shaka (b.1787) was assassinated by his half brothers Dingane and Mhlangana. The kingdom at this encompassed around 30,000 Square km (12,000 square miles).
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shaka)(Econ., 12/19/20, p.73)

1828        Nov 1, Balfour Steward, Scottish physicist and meteorologist, was born.
    (HN, 11/1/00)

1828        Nov 8, Thomas Bewick (b.1753), English engraver and ornithologist, died. In 2007 Jenny Uglow authored “Nature’s Engraver: A Life of Thomas Bewick."
    (Econ, 5/26/07, p.98)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Bewick)

1828        Nov 19, Franz Schubert (b.1797), Austrian composer, died of syphilis in Vienna. His work included the C-Major Symphony, string quartets, 3 piano sonatas, and the C-Major String Quartet. Schubert’s song cycle "Schwanengesang" was published posthumously in 1829. Otto Erich Deutsch catalogued his work [hence the "D" numbers] and wrote a documentary biography. In 1997 Brian Newbould  wrote "Schubert: The Music and the Man."
    (SFEC, 2/2/97, DB. p.32)(WSJ, 4/16/97, p.A16)(WSJ, 5/13/97, p.A21)   

1828        Dec 3, Andrew Jackson was elected 7th president of the United States over John Quincy Adams. Resentment of the restrictive credit policies of the first central bank, the Bank of the United States, fueled a populist backlash that elected Andrew Jackson.
    (AP, 12/3/97)(WSJ, 12/31/97, p.A11)(WSJ, 6/10/98, p.A18)

1828        Dec 22, Rachel Jackson, beloved wife of Andrew Jackson, died of heart disease just weeks before her recently elected husband was inaugurated as president of the United States. Andrew Jackson had been 21 and a promising young lawyer when Rachel Donelson Robards, his landlady's daughter and the estranged wife of Lewis Robards of Kentucky, caught his eye. Robards had started divorce proceedings, but had dropped them without his wife's knowledge. Believing she was a free woman, Rachel married Andrew Jackson in 1791. Two years later, the couple discovered that Robards was finally suing for divorce--on the grounds of adultery and desertion. The divorce was granted, and in 1794, the couple quietly remarried. Yet, for the rest of her life, Rachel was unjustly slandered for her irregular marriage. The gossip became particularly painful during the 1828 presidential campaign when the 37-year-old scandal was resurrected as a campaign issue. Andrew Jackson defeated his opponent John Quincy Adams, but when Rachel died soon after the election, Jackson bitterly attributed her death to "those vile wretches who...slandered her."
    (HNPD, 12/22/98)

1828        Dec 23, Mathilde Wesendonk, German writer, poet (Tagebuchblatter), was born.
    (MC, 12/23/01)

1828        Dr. Paul Ferdinand Gachet was born in Lille. He moved to Paris in 1848 to study medicine and developed a clientele of artists that included Pissarro and Cezanne. He accepted paintings in exchanged for services and amassed a sizable collection. He also painted and used the pseudonym Paul Van Ryssel.
    (WSJ, 2/16/99, p.A20)

1828        Boston artist Sarah Goodrich (1788-1853) painted “Beauty Revealed: Self Portrait."
    (Econ, 12/19/15, p.112)

1828        Pietro Tenerani, Italian sculptor, made his two statues, allegories of Hunting and Fishing, at Carrara. They were placed in Carrara’s Academy of Fine Arts, the former Cybo-Malaspina palace.
    (SFEC,10/19/97, p.T5)

1828        John Rubens Smith painted his watercolor "West Front of the United States Capital." [see 1775-1844, Smith]
    (Civil., Jul-Aug., ‘95, p.66)

1828        Sister Mary Elizabeth Lange of Haiti co-founded the first black Catholic school in the US.
    (SFC, 5/26/96, T-7)

1828        Pres. John Quincy Adams helped Abdul Rahman Ibrahima, a former prince from Timbuktu, gain freedom following 40 years of enslavement on a cotton plantation.
    (Econ, 9/26/15, p.32)

1828        Opponents of Andrew Jackson accused the general of having murdered a Baptist minister and five other white militiamen during the Creek War.
    (WSJ, 10/8/96, p.A22)

1828        Gold was discovered in the US state of Georgia. The local gold rush began in earnest in 1829. By 1838, Georgia was producing so much gold that the Dahlonega Mint began operation.

1828        McKendree University, a private liberal arts college, was founded in Illinois.

1828        Me-a-pa-te, "the hill that is hard to go around," in western Nebraska was renamed Scott’s Bluff, after the body of trapper Hiram Scott was found nearby.
    (HT, 3/97, p.34)

1828        John Overlord, Andrew Jackson and James Winchester, the founders of Memphis, Tenn., bestowed an easement to the Mississippi riverfront for a promenade.
    (Econ, 4/10/04, p.24)

1828        The Republic of Gran Colombia fell apart due to political rivalries between its constituent provinces. Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela became independent countries.
    (ON, 3/05, p.2)

1828        The Danish government decreed that all persons should have a surname which was inherited from the preceding generation.
    (http://share-hodgson.org/patronym.html)(NYT, 10/8/04, p.A4)

1828        In France a perfume and cosmetics house was established. In 1998 the firm was led by Jean-Paul Guerlain, the great-grandson of the founder.
    (SFC, 6/13/98, p.A11)
1828        In France Louis Daguerre contacted Joseph Niepce with an offer to work together on the photographic process that Niepce had developed.
    (ON, 10/08, p.8)

1828        Rennee Caillie of France became the 1st Westerner to reach Timbuktu, Mali, and survive to tell the tale. In 1830 he published an account of his journey.
    (SSFC, 4/11/04, p.D6)(ON, 11/06, p.7)

1828        The Mexican city of Valladolid was renamed Morelia after independence hero Jose Maria Morelos
    (SSFC, 11/17/02, p.C11)

1828        Russia conquered the Armenian provinces of Persia, and this had brought within her frontier the Monastery of Etchmiadzin, in the Khanate of Erivan, which was the seat of the Katholikos of All the Armenians.

1828        Siamese [Thailand] forces invaded Laos. Vat Sisaket, a temple in Vientiane, survived the invasion.
    (SFEC, 8/28/98, p.T4)

1828        Uruguay, created as a buffer state between Argentina and Brazil, declared its independence.
    (Hem., 2/96, p.26)

1828-1830    Arthur Wellesley (1769-1852), the duke of Wellington, served as British prime minister. He blocked badly needed political reform and was later considered one of England’s worst prime ministers.
    (WSJ, 1/6/95, A-10)(ON, 4/06, p.5)

1828-1861    Queen Ranavalona I ruled over Madagascar.
    (WSJ, 10/10/06, p.A1)(www.gasikara.net/Historama.htm)

1828-1896    Elizabeth Charles, British writer: "To know how to say what others only know how to think is what makes men poets or sages; and to dare to say what others only dare to think makes men martyrs or reformers -- or both."
    (AP, 12/13/98)

1828-1909    George Meredith, English poet: "Cynicism is intellectual dandyism."
    (AP, 10/20/98)

1829        Jan 19, Johann von Goethe's "Faust, Part 1," premiered.
    (MC, 1/19/02)

1829        Jan 28, In Scotland William Burke was hanged for murder following a scandal in which he was found to have provided extra-fresh corpses for anatomy schools in Edinburgh. His partner William Hare had turned king’s witness. The scandal led to the 1832 Anatomy Act.
    (Econ, 11/15/08, p.99)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Burke)

1829        Feb 11, Alexander Griboyedov (b.1795), Russian diplomat, playwright and composer, was beheaded by a mob attack on the Russian embassy in Tehran. Griboyedov was protecting an Armenian eunuch, who had escaped from the harem of the Persian shah along with 2 Armenian girls. The Russians let the incident pass after an Iranian apology. They were already at war with the Turks and in regional competition with the British.
    (WSJ, 2/10/96, p.A18)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexandr_Griboyedov)

1829        Feb 16, Francois-Joseph Gossec (95), Belgian-French composer (Messe de Morts), died.
    (MC, 2/16/02)

1829        Feb 26, Levi Strauss, creator of blue jeans, was born.
    (HN, 2/26/98)

1829        Mar 2, Carl Schurz, was born. He was a Civil War general, political reformer and anti-imperialist.
    (HN, 3/2/99)
1829        Mar 2, New England Asylum for the Blind, 1st in US, was incorporated in Boston.
    (SC, 3/2/02)

1829        Mar 4, An unruly crowd mobbed the White House during the inaugural reception for President Jackson, the 7th US President. The event was later depicted by artist Louis S. Glanzman in his painting “Andrew Jackson’s Inauguration" (1970).
    (AP, 3/4/98)(WSJ, 1/17/09, p.W5)

1829        Apr 6, Niels Henrik Abel (b.1802), Norwegian mathematician, died of tuberculosis. After him comes the term Abelian group, an algebraic commutative group. In 2004 Peter Pesic authored “Abel’s Proof: An Essay on the Sources and Meaning of Mathematical Unsolvability."
    (AHD, 1971, p.2)(SFC, 3/26/04, p.A15)(Econ, 5/15/04, p.80)

1829        Apr 10, William Booth, founder (Salvation Army), was born.
    (MC, 4/10/02)

1829        Apr 13, English Emancipation Act granted freedom of religion to Catholics.
    (MC, 4/13/02)

1829        May 8, Louis Moreau Gottschalk (d.1869), American pianist, was born in New Orleans.
    (HN, 5/8/02)(http://w3.rz-berlin.mpg.de/cmp/gottschalk.html)

1829        May 10, Thomas Young, physicist, decipherer of Egyptian hieroglyphics, died.
    (MC, 5/10/02)

1829        May 15, Joseph Smith was "ordained" by John the Baptist- according to Joseph Smith.  Mormon church was founded in NY.
    (MC, 5/15/02)

1829        May 18, Bernardo Bittoni, composer, died.
    (SC, 5/18/02)

1829        May 24, Andres de Santa Cruz (1792-1865), the president of Peru, began also serving as president of Bolivia and continued to 1839.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andr%C3%A9s_de_Santa_Cruz)(Econ, 2/20/15, p.29)

1829        May 29, Humphrey Davy (84), scientist, inventor (Miner's safety lamp), died at age 50. In 1963 Anne Treneer authored "The Mercurial Chemist: A Life of Sir Humphrey Davy."
    (ON, 12/01, p.7)(SC, 5/29/02)

1829        May, In Poland Niccolo Paganini (1782-1840), Italian violinist, performed in concert in Warsaw. Frederic Chopin (19) was so impressed that he proceeded to compose a series of piano studies a la Paganini. Chopin’s 27 Etudes later became a cornerstone of every gifted pianist’s repertoire.
    (WSJ, 11/15/08, p.W11)

1829        Jun 8, John Everett Millais, painter (Order of Release), was born in England.
    (MC, 6/8/02)

1829        Jun 12, Johanna Spyri (d.1901), Swiss author (Heidi), was born. [see June 12, 1827]
    (HN, 6/12/01)

1829        Jun 27, James Smithson (b.1765), Englishmen scientist, died. His 1926 will he stated that should his nephew die without heirs, the estate should go to the US of America to found at Washington, under the name of the Smithsonian Institute, an establishment for the increase and diffusion of knowledge among men. In 2003 Nina Burleigh authored "The Stranger and the Statesman: James Smithson, John Quincy Adams and the Making of America's Greatest Museum, The Smithsonian." [see 1836]
    (SFEC, 8/25/96, p.T6)(SC, 6/27/02)(SSFC, 12/21/03, p.M1)(SSFC, 12/21/03, p.A1)

1829        Jul 4, Cornerstone laid for 1st US mint (Chestnut & Juniper St, Phila).
    (Maggio, 98)
1829        Jul 4, In Boston, Mass., abolitionist William Lloyd Garrison (1805-1879) gave a passionate antislavery sermon at the Park Street Church and was attacked by a white supremacist mob who dragged him from the pulpit and beat him nearly to death. Garrison published the anti-slavery newspaper, the Liberator, from 1831-1865.
    (www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4p1561.html)(AH, 10/07, p.72)

1829        Jul 23, William Austin Burt of Mount Vernon, Mich., received a patent for his "typographer," a forerunner of the typewriter.
    (AP, 7/23/99)

1829        Aug 9, The locomotive "Stourbridge Lion" went into service.
    (MC, 8/9/02)

1829        Aug 16, The original Siamese twins, Chang and Eng Bunker, arrived in Boston aboard the ship Sachem to be exhibited to the Western world.
    (AP, 8/16/97)

1829        Aug 25, Pres. Jackson made an offer to buy Texas, but the Mexican government refused.
    (chblue.com, 8/25/01)

1829        Aug 31, Giachinno Rossini's final opera "William Tell" was produced in Paris.
    (MC, 8/31/01)

1829        Sep 8, George Crook (d.1890), Major General (Union volunteers), was born.
    (MC, 9/8/01)

1829        Sep 12, Charles Dudley Warner, essayist and novelist who, with Mark Twain, wrote "The Guilded Age," was born.
    (HN, 9/12/98)

1829        Sep 25, There was a failed assassination attempt on Simon Bolivar.
    (MC, 9/25/01)

1829        Sep 28, Walker's Appeal, a racial antislavery pamphlet, was published in Boston.
    (MC, 9/28/01)

1829        Sep 29, London’s reorganized police force, "bobbies", which became known as Scotland Yard, went on duty. In 1828 Sir Robert Peel set up a committee whose findings paved the way for his police Bill, which led to the setting up of an organized police service in London.
    (http://www.met.police.uk/history/timeline1829-1849.htm)(AP, 9/29/97)

1829        Sep, Ralph Waldo Emerson married Ellen Louisa Tucker. She had active tuberculosis and died two years later. His two brothers, Edward Bliss and Charles Chauncy died of TB in 1834 and 1835. [see 1883-1885]
    (WP, 1952, p.41)

1829        Oct 5, the 21st president of the United States, Chester Alan Arthur, was born in Fairfield, Vt. Some sources list 1830.
    (AP, 10/5/07)

1829        Oct 16, In Boston, Mass., the Tremont House, designed by Isaiah Rogers, opened as a hotel and continued to about 1895. The four-story, neoclassical building was the first modern hotel in America.
    (www.vintageallies.com/Vintage/the-tremont-house-boston-ma.html)(Econ, 1/11/14, p.13)

1829        Oct 17, Delaware River and Chesapeake Bay Canal formally opened. The Chesapeake-Delaware Canal was 14 miles long.
    (NG, Sept., 1939, p.379)(MC, 10/17/01)
1829        Oct 17, Sam Patch (~23), stunt diver, successfully dove 120 feet from a platform on Goat Island at Niagara Falls.
    (MC, 11/13/01)(ON, 4/02, p.6)

1829        Oct 23, The Eastern State Penitentiary in Philadelphia received its 1st prisoner, burglar Charles Williams (18). It was based on the Quaker idea of reform through solitude and reflection. In 1913 the Pennsylvania System of isolation was abandoned and the isolation practices ended. The prison was designed by John Haviland and was built on the outskirts of Philadelphia. The whole fortress-like exterior was just a façade hiding the radial structure of the inner prison. It opened to tourists in 1971 after being closed to prisoners.
    (WSJ, 9/19/97, p.B1)(AHHT, 10/02, p.18)(Insider, 8/14/20)

1829        Oct 29, Maria A. [Nannerl] Mozart, Austrian pianist (Wolfgang's sister), died.
    (MC, 10/29/01)

1829        Nov 8, Lord William Bentinck, Governor-General of the East India Company, called for the abolition of sati (suttee), the practice of a widow burning herself to death on her husband's funeral pyre. [see Dec 4]

1829        Nov 13, Sam Patch (~23), stunt diver, dove 125 feet from a platform at the Genessee Falls in Rochester. His body was found the following March in the Genessee River ice. In 2003 Paul E. Johnson authored "Sam Patch, the Famous Jumper."
    (MC, 11/13/01)(ON, 4/02, p.6)(SSFC, 6/15/03, p.M6)

1829        Nov 16, Anton G. Rubinstein, Russian pianist, conductor and composer, was born.
    (MC, 11/16/01)

1829        Nov 20, Jews were expelled from Nikolayev and Sevastopol, Russia.
    (MC, 11/20/01)

1829        Nov 28, Anton Rubinstein (d.1894), pianist and composer (Omitri Doskoy), was born in Vykhvatinetz, Podolia. He was the teacher of Tchaikovsky and considered the only rival of Liszt. His work included 6 symphonies, dozens of concertos and chamber works, and 20 operas, of which only "The Demon" has shown staying power. It was based on Lermontov’s Byronic poem.
    (WSJ, 7/16/96, p.A9)(MC, 11/28/01)

1829        Dec 4, British colonial rulers abolished "suttee" (Sati) in India. This was the practice of a widow burning herself to death on her husband's funeral pyre.
    (http://chnm.gmu.edu/wwh/p/103.html)(Reuters, 9/21/06)

1829        Dec 8, The first presidential address of Andrew Jackson.
    (WSJ, 4/2/96, p.A-14)

1829        Dec 14, In France Joseph Niepce signed a 10-year partnership agreement with Louis Daguerre to perfect a new photographic imaging process discovered by Niepce.
    (ON, 10/08, p.9)

1829        Dec 18, Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck (~85), French nature investigator, died.
    (MC, 12/18/01)

1829        Dec 21, The 1st stone arch railroad bridge in US was dedicated in Baltimore.
    (MC, 12/21/01)

1829        Dec 22, The Baltimore & Ohio Railroad opened the first passenger railway line.
    (HN, 12/22/98)

1829        Dec 27, Hinton Helper, southern abolitionist, was born. He wrote "The Impending Crisis,"  the most stinging indictment of slavery.
    (HN, 12/27/98)

1829        David Walker, an outspoken black abolitionist, stated the Mr. Jefferson’s remarks (on white superiority) "have sunk deep into the hearts of millions of whites and will never be removed this side of eternity." [see 1743]
    (SFC,12/897, p.A27)

1829        Hans Christian Andersen (1805-1875) published his first literary work: “A Walking Tour from Holmen’s Canal to the Eastern Point of Amager."
    (ON, 7/06, p.7)
1829        William Cobbett, British writer, authored “The Emigrant’s Guide," offering advice on settling in the New World.
    (WSJ, 12/22/08, p.A17)

1829        Mendelssohn's revived Bach’s St. Matthew Passion.
    (LGC-HCS, p.32)

1829        Frederic Chopin at 19 published his Waltz #10, Op.69/2 and Waltz #13 Op.70/3. These were his first and second published waltzes.
    (BAAC PN, Chambers, 1/8/96)

1829        Utopian reformers opened the Hall of Science in a disused downtown Manhattan church, across the street from Tract House, the headquarters of a new Christian evangelical movement.
    (SSFC, 9/8/02, p.M2)

1829        The American Bible Society published scripture in the Seneca Indian language.
    (WSJ, 8/7/98, p.W13)

1829        Sister Mary Elizabeth Lange of Haiti co-founded the first black religious order of nuns (the Oblate Sisters of Providence) in the US.
    (SFC, 5/26/96, T-7)

1829        US Senator Daniel Webster appointed the first Senate page. The first US House page was appointed in 1842.
    (SFC, 10/5/06, p.A16)(WSJ, 10/5/06, p.A4)

1829        Plymouth Brethren missionaries from the US made their 1st trip to Baghdad.
    (WSJ, 1/17/03, p.W13)

1829        Abner Cutler started a cabinet making business in Buffalo, New York. The company manufactured roll-top desks for decades.
    (SFC, 8/17/05, p.G5)

1829        Cornelius Vanderbilt (1794-1877), NYC-based entrepreneur, began his own line of steamboats and rapidly branched out to trans-oceanic shipping and railroad building.
    (ON, 6/12, p.2)

1829        In Pennsylvania David G. Yuengling (d.1877), an immigrant from Germany, established the Eagle Brewery on Centre St. in Pottsville. As of 2016 the D.G. Yuengling & Son brewery was recognized as the oldest in the United States.
    (http://www.yuengling.com/our_story/)(WSJ, 3/23/04, p.B5)(SFC, 6/23/16, p.C6)

1829        William Austin Burt patented his typographer, the first practical typewriter writing machine.
    (SJSVB, 3/25/96, p.27)

1829        In Western Australia the Nyoongar people were largely dispossessed by white settlement. In 2006 they proved native title to over more than 6,000 square kilometers (2,300 square miles) covering Perth and its surrounds by continuing to observe traditional customs.
    (AFP, 9/20/06)

1829        Daniel O’Connell, an Irish Catholic, took a seat in the House of Commons and began to work for the repeal of the union between Britain and Ireland. Nationalistic sentiments became identified mainly with the Catholics.
    (SFEC, 12/22/96, Z1,p.6)
1829        In England a ban on Catholic voting was lifted.
    (SFEC, 10/6/96, BR p.5)
1829        Oxford and Cambridge held their first boat race on the River Thames at Henley in Oxfordshire. The second race occurred in 1836, with the venue moved to be from Westminster to Putney.
    (Econ, 3/28/09, p.95)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Boat_Race)
1829        Robert Stephenson built the Rocket, one of the world’s first steam locomotives, in Newcastle, England.
    (Econ, 6/6/15, p.46)

1829        The Obelisk of Luxor, a gift from Egypt, was transported to the Place de la Concorde in Paris. [see 1836]
    (WSJ, 10/26/99, p.A24)

1829        Friedrich Buschmann, German musician, invented the accordion and laid out the buttons in a circle of fifths pattern.
    (ElMus, 3/95, p.69)

1829         Mexico abolished slavery, but it granted an exception until 1830 to Texas. In following years a southern US network helped thousands of American Black slaves escape to Mexico.
    (AP, 9/16/20)
1829        A hurricane destroyed the town of Loreto in Baha California except for the Mission Nuestra Senora de Loreto. The center of government was moved down the coast to La Paz.
    (SFEC, 5/18/97, p.T5)(SSFC, 11/2/03, p.C10)

1829-1833    Walter Bowne served as mayor of NYC.
    (SSFC, 4/17/05, Par p.12)

1829-1833    Honore Daumier, French artist, created his bust of Comte de Lameth. Daumier honed his caricaturing skills with a series of terra-cotta busts that lampooned the right-wing leaders of the Court party. Lameth had fought for the colonists in the American Revolution and had voted to abolish the aristocracy during the French revolution.
    (WSJ, 3/10/00, p.W16)

1829-1837    Andrew Jackson was President of the US. In 2001 Robert V. Remini authored "Andrew Jackson and His Indian Wars."
    (A&IP, ESM, p.96b, photo)(SSFC, 7/15/01, DB p.63)

1829-1877    This period in US history was covered by Walter A. McDougall in his 2008 book “Throes of Democracy: The American Civil War Era 1829-1877."
    (WSJ, 3/11/08, p.D6)

1829-1900    Charles Dudley Warner, American author and editor: "Public opinion is stronger than the legislature, and nearly as strong as the Ten Commandments."
    (AP, 9/24/98)

1829-1904    John Rogers, sculptor. He depicted Americans the way they wanted to be seen and became known as the "People’s Sculptor."
    (AHHT, 4/01, p.7)

1829-1906     Carl Schurz, American politician: "Ideals are like stars; you will not succeed in touching them with your hands. But like the seafaring man on the desert of waters, you choose them as your guides, and following them you will reach your destiny."
    (AP, 5/21/98)

1829-1908    Thomas Hill, American landscape painter.
    (SSFC, 2/4/01, DB p.65)

1829-1912    General William Booth was the founder and leader of the Salvation Army, a Christian and social welfare organization taking spiritual and material help to the needy, first in London and then around the world. Booth, ordained a Methodist minister in 1858 but later becoming an independent evangelist, changed the name of his Christian Mission to the Salvation Army in 1878, adopting a military structure. Booth‘s seven children toiled in the Army, organizing units (including the Volunteers of America) throughout the world.
    (HNQ, 3/13/00)

1830        Jan 7, 1st US Railroad Station opened in Baltimore.
    (MC, 1/7/02)
1830        Jan 7, Albert Bierstadt, painter (US landscapes), was born in Germany.
    (MC, 1/7/02)

1830        Jan 8, Gouverneur Kemble Warren (d.1882), Major Gen (Union volunteers), was born.
    (MC, 1/8/02)
1830        Jan 8, Hans von Bulow, pianist, virtuoso conductor, was born in Dresden.
    (MC, 1/8/02)

1830        Jan 13, There was a great fire in New Orleans. It was thought to be set by rebel slaves.
    (MC, 1/13/02)

1830        Jan 28, Daniel Auber's opera "Fra Diavolo," premiered in Paris.
    (MC, 1/28/02)

1830        Feb 3, Robert Cecil, Marquess of Salisbury (C), British PM (1885-1902), was born.
    (MC, 2/3/02)

1830        Feb, In France the Comedie-Francaise performed "Hernani," a play whose hero swears vengeance against Don Carlo, i.e. King Charles. The play "provoked a brouhaha that heralded the July Revolution."
    (WSJ, 2/10/98, p.A16)

1830        Mar 4, V. Bellini's opera "I Capuleti e i Montecchi" premiered in Venice.
    (WSJ, 11/10/98, p.A20)(SC, 3/4/02)

1830        Mar 16, London reorganized its police force, Scotland Yard.
    (MC, 3/16/02)

1830        Apr 5, Alexander Muir, poet (Maple Leaf Forever), was born in Lesmahagow, Scotland.
    (MC, 4/5/02)

1830        Apr 6, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints was organized by Joseph Smith and five others in Fayette, Seneca County, N.Y. Joseph Smith (25) published the “Book of Mormon" in Palmyra, New York. He claimed that the manuscript was based on ancient golden plates revealed to him by the angel Moroni and written in the language of the Egyptians. The book records the journey of an ancient Israelite prophet, Lehi, and his family to the American continent some 2,000 years ago. [see 1827, 1831] Some 5,000 copies of the book were published. In 2014 Avi Steinberg authored “The Lost Book of Mormon: A Journey Through the Mythic Lands of Nephi, Zarahemla & Kansas City, Missouri."
    (SFC, 4/9/96, A-7)(NH, 10/96, p.19)(AP, 4/6/97)(SFC, 6/15/12, p.A24)(SSFC, 10/26/14, p.P3)

1830        Apr 9, Edward Muybridge, pioneered study of motion, photography, was born in England. In 2002 Rebecca Solnit authored "River of Shadows: Eadweard Muybridge and the Technological Wild West."
    (MC, 4/9/02)(SSFC, 1/26/03, p.M1)

1830        May 1, Mother (Mary Harris) Jones, reformer and labor organizer, was born. [see 1837]
    (HN, 5/1/01)

1830        May 3, The 1st regular steam train passenger service started.
    (MC, 5/3/02)

1830        May 5, John B. Stetson, American hat maker, was born. He gave his name to the wide-brimmed cowboy hat.
    (HN, 5/5/99)

1830        May 18, Karl Goldmark Keszthely, composer, was born in Hungary.
    (HN, 5/18/98)(SC, 5/18/02)
1830        May 18, Edwin Beard Budding of England signed an agreement for the manufacture of his invention, the lawn mower. He adopted the rotary blade in the cloth industry to grass.
    (SC, 5/18/02)(Econ, 12/20/03, p.118)

1830        May 20, The 1st railroad timetable was published in the newspaper Baltimore American.
    (MC, 5/20/02)
1830        May 20, Dr. Hyde patented a fountain pen.
    (MC, 5/20/02)

1830        May 24, "Mary Had a Little Lamb," was written. Sarah Josepha Hale of Newport, N.H., published a collection of poems "Poems for Our Children," that included "Mary Had a Little Lamb." [see 1815]
    (SFC, 8/24/98, p.B6)(MC, 5/24/02)
1830        May 24, The first passenger railroad in the United States began service between Baltimore and Elliott’s Mills, Md. The first regularly scheduled railroad passenger service was pulled by the engine named "The Best Friend of Charleston."
    (AP, 5/24/97)(SFC, 6/18/99, p.D4)

1830        May 25, Jules de Geyter, Belgian poet (International), was born.
    (SC, 5/25/02)

1830        May 28, Congress authorized Indian removal from all states to western prairie.
    (HN, 5/28/98)

1830        Jun 26, Britain’s King George IV (b.1762) died. George Augustus Frederick of Hanover, Prince of Wales, was called Prinny by his friends. He was succeeded by his brother, King William IV. In 2002 Steven Parissien authored "George IV." The crown passed to George's brother who became William IV.
    (www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/george_iv_king.shtml)(WSJ, 4/5/02, p.W12)(ON, 4/09, p.7)

1830        Jul 4, William Sublette, a trapper and explorer, named Independence Rock, Wyo., when he celebrated his 54th birthday there.
    (SFC, 8/13/98, p.A3)

1830        Jul 5, The French occupied the North African city of Algiers. A flotilla had set sail earlier from Toulon to wrest Algeria from Ottoman control.
    (AP, 7/5/97)(Econ, 3/1/14, p.83)

1830        Jul 10, Camille Pissarro (d.1903), French impressionist painter, was born on the island of St. Thomas in the West Indies. He studied as a child in Paris but spent his early years as an artist in Caracas, Venezuela. In Paris he became a devotee of the neo-Impressionist technique.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1097)(DPCP 1984)(HN, 7/10/01)

1830        Jul 15, 3 Indian tribes, Sioux, Sauk & Fox, signed a treaty giving the US most of Minnesota, Iowa & Missouri.
    (MC, 7/15/02)

1830        Jul 18, Uruguay adopted a liberal constitution.
    (HN, 7/18/98)

1830        Jul 25, King Charles X of France signed the July Ordinances, also known as "The Ordinances of Saint-Cloud". These, among other steps, suspended the liberty of the press, dissolved the newly elected Chamber of Deputies and excluded the commercial middle-class from future elections.

1830        Jul 27, A second Revolution broke out in Paris opposing the laws of Charles X.

1830        Jul 28, Revolution in France replaced Charles X with Louis Philippe.
    (SC, 7/28/02)

1830        Jul 29, Liberals led by the Marquis of Lafayette seized Paris in opposition to the king’s restrictions on citizens’ rights.
    (HN, 7/29/98)

1830        Jul 31, Charles X of France was forcibly ejected from the French throne. [see Jul 28]
    (MC, 7/31/02)

1830        Jul-1830 Aug, In Britain the June 26 death of Britain’s King George IV triggered elections. Polling took place in July and August and the Tories won a majority over the Whigs, but division among Tory MPs allowed Earl Grey to form an effective government and take the question of electoral reform to the country the following year.
    (ON, 4/09, p.7)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_Kingdom_general_election,_1830)

1830        Aug 4, Plans for the city of Chicago were laid out.
    (AP, 8/4/97)

1830        Aug 9, Louis-Philippe formally accepted the crown of France, following abdication of Charles X, last brother of guillotined Louis XVI. He was the son of the opportunistic Duke d'Orleans, first cousin to the late king, who renounced his royal heritage and called himself plain Phillipe Egalite. Louis-Philippe voted for his cousin's death in 1793, but followed him to the  guillotine in 1794.
    (MC, 8/9/02)

1830        Aug 25, The "Tom Thumb" steam locomotive, designed by Peter Cooper, ran its famous race with a horse-drawn car. The horse won because the engine, which had been ahead, broke down. [see Sep 18]
    (HN, 8/25/98)(ON, 1/01, p.12)
1830        Aug 25, Belgium rebelled against Netherlands. Among the reasons for rebelling were heavy taxes on beer.
    (chblue.com, 8/25/01)(Econ, 12/17/11, p.125)

1830        Aug 28, "Tom Thumb," the 1st locomotive in US, ran from Baltimore to Ellicotts Mill.
    (MC, 8/28/01)

1830        Aug, The Swing Riots, a widespread uprising by English agricultural workers, began with the destruction of threshing machines in the Elham Valley area of East Kent in the summer. By early December the riots spread throughout the whole of southern England and East Anglia.
    (Econ, 6/30/12, SR p.14)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swing_Riots)

1830        Sep 9 Charles Durant flew a balloon from New York City across the Hudson River to Perth Amboy, N.J.
    (AP, 9/9/05)
1830        Sep 9, In Russia a cholera epidemic, entering the country from Asia, forced the lockdown of Nizhny Novgorod province. Alexander Pushkin wrote his short story "The Undertaker".
    (Econ., 7/6/20, p.69)

1830        Sep 15, British MP William Huskisson (b.1770) was killed under the wheels of the “Rocket" train at the opening of the Liverpool and Manchester Railway. He was the 1st person to be run-over by a railroad train.
    (SFEC,12/21/97, Z1 p.5)(www.wordiq.com/definition/William_Huskisson)

1830        Sep 18, Tom Thumb" the first locomotive built in the United States, lost a nine-mile race in Maryland to a horse. [see Aug 25]
    (HN, 9/18/98)(ON, 1/01, p.12)
1830        Sep 18, William Hazlitt (b.1778), in his time England’s finest essayist, died. "A nickname is the heaviest stone that the devil can throw at a man." In 2008 Duncan Wu authored “William Hazlitt: The First Modern Man."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Hazlitt)(AP, 11/10/99)(WSJ, 1/16/09, p.W10)

1830        Sep 20, The National Negro Convention convened in Philadelphia with the purpose of abolishing slavery.
    (HN, 9/20/98)

1830        Oct 15, Helen Maria Hunt Jackson (d.1885), writer and poet, was born in Amherst, Massachusetts. Her 1881 non-fiction work, "A Century of Dishonor," raised concerns about the treatment of Native Americans. Jackson, a lifelong friend of Emily Dickinson, worked on a government investigation of the treatment of Mission Indians. Her 1884 novel Ramona was also about the plight of Indians in California. "Wounded vanity knows when it is mortally hurt; and limps off the field, piteous, all disguises thrown away. But pride carries its banner to the last; and fast as it is driven from one field unfurls it in another." "It is the weakness and danger of republics, that the vices as well as virtues of the people are represented in their legislation."
    (AP, 5/24/97)(HN, 10/15/98)(HNQ, 12/20/99)(AP, 2/17/00)

1830        Nov 8, Oliver Otis Howard (d.1909), Major General (Union volunteers), was born.
    (MC, 11/8/01)

1830        Nov 13, Oliver Wendell Holmes published "Old Ironsides."
    (MC, 11/13/01)

1830        Nov 15, In Britain Lord Grey used his majority in the House of commons to defeat the government of Arthur Wellesley, the Duke of Wellington. Wellington resigned the next day.
    (ON, 4/09, p.8)

1830        Nov 29, In Warsaw young Polish officers from the local Army of the Congress, Poland's military academy revolted against the Russian Empire. They were led by lieutenant Piotr Wysocki and were soon joined by large segments of societies of Lithuania, Belarus, and the Right-bank Ukraine. Nicholas I ruthlessly repressed the insurrection and by October 1831 Polish forces capitulated.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/November_Uprising)(WSJ, 4/13/99, p.A16)

1830        Dec 5, Christina Rossetti (d.1894), poet (Winter Rain, Passing Away), was born in London. She wrote devotional verse, curious fairy tales and category defying poems. Her brothers, William Michael and Dante Gabriel, helped found the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, whose professed aim was to revive the purity and vividness they admired in late medieval art. Her story is told by Jan Marsh in "Christina Rosetti: A Writer’s Life." "Better by far you should forget and smile, Than that you should remember and be sad."
    (WSJ, 7/25/95, p.A-10)(AP, 12/11/98)(MC, 12/5/01)

1830        Dec 10, Emily Dickinson (d.1886), American poet, was born in Amherst, Massachusetts. Perhaps the best-known woman poet in the United States today, Dickinson led a rather secluded life. After studying at Amherst Academy and then for one year at the Mount Holyoke Female Seminary, she lived with her family and never married. The few friends that Emily Dickinson did have received regular gifts of poetry and letters from her. Although she wrote poetry constantly, she never seriously pursued publishing her work. Only about 10 poems were published in her lifetime, and those were submitted for publication without her permission. After her death in 1886, more than 1,700 of her poems, which she had bound together in bundles, were discovered and published. "They say that God is everywhere, and yet we always think of Him as somewhat of a recluse."
    (HNPD, 12/8/98)(AP, 1/10/99)

1830        Dec 17, Simon Bolivar (b.1783), called "the Liberator," died of TB in Santa Marta, in Colombia. He was a leader in Venezuela for struggles of  national independence in South America. He formed a Gran Colombia that lasted 8 years, but broke apart into Venezuela, Colombia and Ecuador. In 2006 John Lynch authored “Simon Bolivar: A Life."
    (AHD, p.148)(SFC, 6/14/97, p.E3)(AP, 12/17/97)(Econ, 7/1/06, p.77)

1830        Dec 20, An international conference declared the dissolution of the Kingdom of the Netherlands effectively recognizing the independence of Belgium.

1830        Dec 26, Gaetano Donizetti's opera "Anna Bolena," premiered in Milan.
    (MC, 12/26/01)

1830        Ingres made his pencil study for "La Grande Odalisque. "
    (WSJ, 7/1/96, p.A11)

c1830         Franz Kreuger painted his portrait of Russia’s Empress Alexandra Fedorovna.
    (SSFM, 4/1/01, p.61)

c1830        Sheldon Peck, American New England artist, painted the portrait of a revolutionary soldier or dignitary. The portrait had been found in a local auction and was bought for $25. In 1997 it was valued at about $250,000.
    (SFC, 8/19/97, p.A6)

1830        George Earl Bulwer-Lytton (Edward George Bulwer-Lytton) published his novel "Paul Clifford." The opening line was "It was a dark and stormy night," and led to the 1982 Bulwer-Lytton Fiction Contest for bad writing. Lytton also coined the phrase "the pen is mightier than the sword."
    (SFC, 7/14/99, p.A14)(SFC, 7/10/01, p.A18)
1830        William Cobbett (1763-1835), English pamphleteer, farmer and journalist, authored his 2-volume work “Rural Rides." He wrote down what he saw from the points of view both of a farmer and a social reformer. The result documented the early nineteenth century countryside and its people as well as giving free vent to Cobbett's opinions.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Cobbett)(Econ, 6/30/12, SR p.15)
1830        Stendhal (1783-1842), the nom de plume of French author Henri Beyle, authored “The Red and the Black," the story of a peasant who reaches for upward mobility through the favors of two mistresses.
    (WSJ, 3/15/08, p.W10)
1830        Charles Lyell published the first edition of his "Principles of Geology."
    (RFH-MDHP, p.70)

1830        The First Symphony by Berlioz had its premiere.
    (SFC, 6/28/97, p.E1)

1830        In Pennsylvania George Brinton began constructing a home later called Rondelay in Chadds Ford. After extensive renovations the 6 bedroom home on 38.9 acres was listed for sale in 1998 for $2.9 mil.
    (WSJ, 4/3/98, p.W8)

1830        Andrew Jackson, seventh President of the US, signed the Indian Removal Act of 1830. The act banished the Cherokee and other eastern tribes to beyond the Mississippi.
    (NG, 5/95, p.78)

1830        Pres. Andrew Jackson  forced Thomas L. McKenney from his job as the 1st US superintendent of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Jackson disagreed with McKenney’s opinion that “the Indian was, in his intellectual and moral structure, our equal."
    (WSJ, 3/15/06, p.D16)

1830        Pres. Jackson named Roger Brooke Taney as US Attorney General.
    (WSJ, 11/21/06, p.D8)

1830        A year after leaving office as the sixth president of the United States, the Plymouth district of Massachusetts unexpectedly elected John Quincy Adams to the House of Representatives, where he served until he suffered a stroke on the House floor in 1848. He died two days later. Adams at the time enjoyed the distinction of having been the only son to follow his father to the presidency.
    (HNQ, 5/31/01)

1830        Senator Daniel Webster said: "Liberty and Union, now and forever, one and inseparable!"
    (WSJ, 9/30/97, p.A20)

1830        The USS Constitution (aka Old Ironsides) was condemned as unseaworthy. The ship was saved by a poem by Oliver Wendell Holmes, a Harvard anatomy professor, that stirred up protests. "Oh, better that her shattered hulk / Should sink beneath the wave..."
    (SFEC, 7/13/97, Par p.14)(SFC, 7/22/97, p.A11)(SFC,10/24/97, p.E5)

1830        The US Naval Observatory in Washington became the official timekeeper for the United States.
    (WSJ, 10/17/95, B-1)

1830        Commercial bottling operations for ketchup began in Boston.
    (SFC, 8/27/03, p.E4)

1830        The yard was standardized at 36 inches. It had started out as the girth of a Saxon.
    (SFC, 10/28/00, p.D4)

c1830        The Bowie knife was first introduced.
    (WSJ, 11/9/98, p.A1)

1830        Samuel Morrill, a newspaper printer, cooked up a new ink in his kitchen in Andover, Mass., forming a company that ultimately become Sun Chemical. In 2004 it was the largest maker of ink in the world.
    (SFC, 7/26/04, p.F4)

1830        A Frenchman patented a sewing machine.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R25)

1830        American alcohol consumption reached 7.1 gallons per capita.
    (WSJ, 10/5/98, p.A28)

1830        The non-Indian population of California was 4,256.
    (SFEC, 9/20/98, Z1 p.4)

1830        Chicago land sold for about $800 per acre (in 2012 dollars).
    (Econ, 4/6/13, p.88)

1830        There were 40 million buffalo in the US at this time. By 1890 the number was reduced to 1,000.
    (NH, 12/96, p.10)

1830        Richard Lander, British explorer, completed Mungo Park’s journey down the Niger from Bussa to the mouth of the river in 5 months.
    (ON, 7/00, p.12)

1830        Henry Philip Hope, a London banker, purchased the 45 carat blue diamond. It later began to be known as the "Hope Diamond."
    (THC, 12/3/97)(EB, 1993, V6 p.51)

1830        A Massachusetts spice trading ship was seized by pirates in Sumatra. In 2001 "Drums of Quallah Battoo: Salem Pepper Traders and Sumatran Pirates" by Charles P Corn (d.2001) was to be published.
    (SFC, 3/20/01, p.A19)

1830         1000 Albanian leaders were invited to meet with an Ottoman general who killed about half of them.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1830        Mayor de San Andres, Bolivia’s major university, was  founded in La Paz.

1830        A French taxidermist stuffed an African Bushman from Botswana and took the body to Europe for exhibition. In 2000 the body was returned from a Spanish museum.
    (WSJ, 10/5/00, p.A1)

1830        In Germany the Altes Museum was designed by Karl Friedrich Schinkel in the center of Berlin.
    (WSJ, 7/29/98, p.A13)
1830        In Germany Michael Thonet (d.1871) started making bentwood furniture. He moved to Vienna in 1842 and in 1850 started making bentwood chairs for commercial use. His 5 sons joined the company and by 1856 it was known as Gebruder Thonet. In 1923 the company joined others to form Thonet-Kohn-Mundus and began making tubular steel furniture. It moved its headquarters to the US in 1940 and is still in business.
    (SFC, 9/4/96, z1 p.5)

1830        The Gran Colombia union collapsed and Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela became independent countries.
    (AP, 11/24/02)

1830        Some sources say that the 1st pizzeria opened in Naples about this time. [see 1889]
    (SFCM, 4/18/04, p.16)

1830        Katsushika Hokusai (1760-1849), Japanese artist, created his famous woodblock print “Beneath the Wave of Kanagawa" about this time.
    (Econ, 6/4/11, p.54)

1830        The government of Peru exempted guano from taxes. The commercial mining and export of the rich fertilizer soon followed.

1830-1835    Tocqueville published his Democracy in America. In a democracy such as the United States, he said, private associations are permitted by the central government to perform quasi-governmental functions that take the brunt of governmental power and protect the people like a great umbrella spread out against a rainstorm. A nation without this crucial element in its makeup will be a more terrible tyranny than the world has ever seen.

1830-1837    Some 347 new banks were chartered in the US. The value of real estate rose 150%.
    (Panic, p.13,18)

1830-1840    In Maine the original Great Works Dam was built as a "wing dam," parallel to the shore, to provide water for sawmills. It was partially demolished around 1887, when a new dam was installed by the Penobscot Chemical Fibre Co., the first pulp mill on the river.
    {Maine, USA}
c1830-1840    In St. Louis Henry Shaw made a fortune outfitting westward bound wagon trains. He retired at 40 and began to transform a wild prairie outside the city into magnificent gardens known later as The Missouri Botanical Garden (Shaw’s Garden).
    (SFC, 10/12/97, p.T5)

c1830-1840    Wine production began in Hunter Valley, north of Sydney
    (SFEC, 9/10/00, p.T6)

c1830-1840    Thomas Babington Macaulay (1800-1859), English essayist, historian and politician, served as a member of the British Supreme Council in India.
    (www.britannica.com)(Econ, 10/30/04, p.48)
1830-1840    Hokusai (1760-1849) made his "Thirty-Six Views of Mount Fuji during this decade. The wood blocks included "Under the Wave of Kanagawa," "The Back of Mt. Fuji from Minobu River," and "Winter Loneliness." The last was inspired by a poem of Minamoto no Muneyuki Ason. Another series was titled "A Tour of Japanese Waterfalls.
    (SFC, 9/24/98, p.E3)

c1830-1840    Charles Wheatsone of London developed the English concertina with a range of three chromatic octaves.
    (BAAC, 8/96, p.6)

c1830-1840    Chair manufacturers started using metal for chair parts.
    (SFC, 4/1/98, Z1 p.7)

c1830-1840    Don Vincente, a former Spanish monk, committed 8 murders for books owned by others.
    (SFC, 9/6.96, p.C5)

c1830-1840s    The US Congress adhered to a gag rule that prohibited any consideration of any petition regarding the status of slavery or the slave trade on federal territory.
    (WSJ, 7/29/96, p.A12)

c1830-1880s    The art of creating a memorial wreath from the hair of a departed loved one was a popular Victorian mourning ritual.
    (SFC,11/5/97, Z.1 p.3)

1830-1850    The Pennsylvania German community made traditional hand-stitched show towels and most show towels date from this period. They were hung on a door in the main room of a house.
    (SFC,12/10/97, Z1 p.9)

1830-1859    Alfred King worked as a jeweler and clockmaker in Chippenham, England, during this time. He signed his work "A. King." His clocks fetch $2-3k.
    (SFC, 7/9/97, Z1 p.3)

1830-1862    Britain’s economy doubled in size over this period as increased productivity spread from cotton to other industries.
    (Econ, 9/24/11, SR p.5)

1830-1864    Private coins were manufactured in several areas of the US.
    (SFEC, 7/5/98, Par p.17)

1830-1867     Alexander Smith, Scottish poet and essayist: "Christmas is the day that holds all time together."
    (AP, 12/24/97)

1830-1877    Some 12,500 convicts were locked in Tasmania during this period.
    (SSFC, 1/23/05, p.E6)

1830-1895    Lothar Meyer, German chemist, independently of Mendeleev discovered that if the chemical elements are arranged in a sequence according to their atomic weights, various chemical properties repeat periodically along the sequence.
    (SCTS, p.54)

1830-1897    In Brazil Antonio Vicente Mendes Maciel, aka Antonio Conselheiro, was born in Quixeramobim, Ceara. He founded the settlement of Canudos in Bahia that was destroyed by government forces. [see 1896]
    (SFC, 10/7/97, p.A14)

1830-1917     Belva Ann Bennett Lockwood, American social reformer: "The glory of each generation is to make its own precedents."
    (AP, 6/28/99)

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