Timeline 1811-1820

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1811        Jan 2, US Sen Timothy Pickering (1745-1829) of Massachusetts became the 1st US senator to be censured. He had revealed confidential documents communicated by the president of the US.

1811        Jan 6, Charles Sumner (d.1874), leading anti-slavery senator and author, was born in Boston. He was active in the movement to outlaw war, opposed the Mexican War and was a founder in 1848 of the Free-Soil party. A senator from Massachusetts, Sumner was an ardent abolitionist and helped organize the Republican party. In c1867 Massachusetts Senator Charles Sumner popularized the name Alaska for the territory that had been known as Russian America in a famous Senate speech supporting the treaty to purchase Russian America: "There is the National flag. He must be cold, indeed, who can look upon its folds rippling in the breeze without pride of country. If in a foreign land, the flag is companionship, and country itself, with all its endearments."
    (HNQ, 9/28/98)(AP, 6/14/97)(HNQ, 11/17/98)

1811        Jan 8, Charles Deslondes led several hundred poorly armed slaves towards New Orleans in the largest slave rebellion in US history.
    (AH, 2/06, p.14)

1811        Jan 9, The USS Revenge, a ship commanded by US Navy hero Oliver Hazard Perry ran aground on a reef off of Watch Hill, Rhode Island. Divers discovered the wreck in August 2005, but only made the news public in 2011.
    (AP, 1/8/11)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/USS_Revenge_%281806%29)

1811        Jan 10, An uprising of over 400 slaves was put down in New Orleans. Sixty-six blacks were killed and their heads were strung up along the roads of the city.
    (HN, 1/10/99)

1811        Jan 15, In a secret session, Congress planned to annex Spanish East Florida.
    (HN, 1/15/99)

1811        Feb 1, Scotland’s Bell Rock lighthouse, at the mouth of Scotland’s Firth of Forth, began operations. Robert Stevenson (1772-1850) had begun work on the lighthouse in 1807.
    (ON, 5/06, p.8)

1811        Feb 2, Russian settlers established Ft. Ross trading post in northern California. Fort Ross was settled by peg-legged Ivan Kuzkov (Kuskov) in Sonoma County (1912). It was designed as a base for fur hunters and a warm weather supplier for the Russian colonies in Alaska. The colonists included 25 Russians and over 80 Aleut Indians from the islands of western Alaska. Kuskov managed the settlement until 1821.
    (SFEC, 3/23/97,  p.T5)(SFEC, 9/20/98, Z1 p.4)(SFC, 6/15/01, WBb p.7)(MC, 2/2/02)

1811        Feb 3, Horace Greeley (d.1872), abolitionist newspaper editor, was born in Amherst, New Hampshire. He popularized the phrase "Go west, young man." Greeley, who began his journalism career at The New Yorker, founded The New York Tribune in 1841 with support from powerful political friends. Under Greeley's direction, The Tribune took a strong stand against slavery, the South and slave owners in the years leading up to the Civil War. The Tribune and Greeley also crusaded against liquor, gambling, prostitution and capital punishment. One of the founders of the Republican Party, Greeley was also an eccentric who dabbled in many of the fads of his day. The phrase was spoken to Josiah Grinell, who went west to Iowa, became a Congregational minister and founded Grinell College from which Robert Noyce, developer of the microchip and founder of Intel, graduated. "There is no bigotry like that of ‘free thought’ run to seed."
    (HNPD, 2/3/99)(WSJ, 10/26/00, p.W12)(AP, 7/21/98)

1811        Feb 5, George, Prince of Wales, was named the Prince Regent due to the insanity of his father, Britain's King George III. George Augustus Frederick became prince regent after his father, George III, slipped permanently into dementia. In 1999 Saul David published "The Prince of Pleasure: The Prince of Wales and the Making of the Regency."
    (WSJ, 3/26/99, p.W10)(AP, 2/5/08)

1811        Feb 11, Pres. Madison prohibited trade with Britain for 3rd time in 4 years.
    (MC, 2/11/02)

1811        Mar 1, In Egypt the Ottoman viceroy Muhammad Ali Pasha massacred the Mameluke leaders of Egypt for plotting against him. He had invited them to a banquet at the citadel of Cairo.
    (PCh, 1992, p.373)(SC, 3/1/02)

1811        Mar 11, Urbain Jean Joseph le Verrier, co-discoverer (Neptune), was born.
    (MC, 3/12/02)
1811        Mar 11, Ned Ludd led a group of workers in a wild protest against mechanization. Members of the organized bands of craftsmen who rioted against automation in 19th century England were known as Luddites and also "Ludds." The movement, reputedly named after Ned Ludd, began near Nottingham as craftsman destroyed textile machinery that was eliminating their jobs. By the following year, Luddites were active in Yorkshire, Derbyshire, Lancashire and Leicestershire. Although the Luddites opposed violence towards people (a position which allowed for a modicum of public support), government crackdowns included mass shootings, hangings and deportation to the colonies. It took 14,000 British soldiers to quell the rebellion. The movement effectively died in 1813 apart from a brief resurgence of Luddite sentiment in 1816 following the end of the Napoleonic Wars.
    (HN, 3/11/01)(HNQ, 5/14/01)(WSJ, 3/29/04, p.A1)

1811        Mar 20, George Caleb Bingham (d.1879), Missouri painter, was born in Virginia. His paintings included "Fur Traders on the Missouri."
    (WUD, 1994, p.149)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Caleb_Bingham)
1811        Mar 20, Napoleon II, the Duke of Reichstadt, was born. He was the son of Napoleon Bonaparte.
    (HN, 3/20/99)

1811        Mar 25, A comet, dubbed the Great Comet of 1811, was discovered by Honoré Flaugergues at 2.7 AU from the sun in the now-defunct constellation of Argo Navis. In October 1811, at its brightest, it displayed an apparent magnitude of 0, with an easily visible coma.

1811        Mar 31, Robert Wilhelm Eberhard von Bunsen, German inventor of the Bunsen burner, was born.
    (HN, 3/31/99)

1811        Apr 5, Robert Raikes, founder of Sunday Schools, died.
    (MC, 4/5/02)

1811        Apr 12, First U.S. colonists on Pacific coast arrived at Cape Disappointment, Washington.
    (HN, 4/12/98)(MC, 4/12/02)

1811        May 11, Chang and Eng Bunker, Chinese Siamese twins, were born.
    (MC, 5/11/02)

1811        Jun 14, Harriet Beecher Stowe (d.1896), American writer and author of "Uncle Tom's Cabin," was born in Litchfield, Conn. The book showed the horrors of slavery and President Abraham Lincoln joked she had started the American Civil War.
    (AHD, p.1272)(HN, 6/14/99)

1811            Jun 19, Samuel P. Chase (b.Apr 17, 1741), Supreme Court Justice (1798-1811), revolutionary, attorney, Declaration of Independence signer; died. Chase was served with 6 articles of impeachment by the House of Representatives in late 1804. Two more articles would later be added. The Jeffersonian Republican-controlled United States Senate began an impeachment trial against Justice Chase in early 1805. He was charged with political bias, but was acquitted by the Senate of all charges on March 1, 1805. To this day, he remains the only Supreme Court justice to be impeached.

1811        Jul 5, Venezuela became the first South American country to declare independence from Spain.
    (HFA, ‘96, p.34)(AP, 7/5/97)

1811        Jul 18, William Makepeace Thackeray (d.1863), English novelist and satirist, was born. His books were published as monthly serials. "Next to excellence is the appreciation of it."
    (HN, 7/18/98)(AP, 10/28/00)

1811        Jul 31, Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, Mexican hero priest, was executed by Spanish.
    (MC, 7/31/02)

1811        Aug 3, Elisha Graves Otis (d.1861), inventor (safe elevator), was born. The Vermont native, was a master mechanic working at a bedstead factory in Yonkers, N.Y., when he built a hoisting machine with two sets of metal teeth at the car’s sides. If the lifting rope broke, the teeth would lock into place, preventing the car from falling. Otis ever realized the potential of his invention. His sons built the Otis Elevator Company, enabling the skylines of cities throughout the world to be transformed with skyscrapers.
    (www.famousamericans.net/elishagravesotis/)(ON, 5/05, p.12)

1811        Aug 5, C.L. Ambroise Thomas, French composer (Mignon, Francoise de Rimini), was born.
    (MC, 8/5/02)

1811        Aug 6, Judah Philip Benjamin (d.1884), Sec. War and Sec. State for the Confederacy, was born a British subject in the Virgin Islands. He went on to become the first professed Jew elected to U.S. Senate, from the state of Louisiana in 1852. He was brought to South Carolina as a child. After attending Yale (1825--7) he settled in New Orleans. He served Louisiana in the US Senate (Whig, 1853--9; Democrat, 1859--61). He was noted for his pro-slavery speeches in the Senate. Favoring secession, he served the Confederacy as attorney general (1861) and then as secretary of war (1861--2). He was blamed for the Confederate army's lack of equipment, but Jefferson Davis promoted him to secretary of state (1862--5). Late in the war he urged the recruitment of slaves into the Confederate Army. With the collapse of the Confederacy he fled to the West Indies and then to England (1866), where he made a brilliant new career as a British barrister, especially in appeal cases. He wrote the Treatise on the Law of Sale of Personal Property (1868), which at once became the standard in the field. In 1872, he became a counsel to the queen. Benjamin died in Paris.
    (HNQ, 12/8/98)(MC, 8/6/02)

1811        Aug 12, John FE Acton (77), cruel premier of Naples, died.
    (MC, 8/12/02)

1811        Aug 14, Paraguay declared independence from Spain.
    (PC, 1992, p.373)

1811        Aug 31, Théophile Gautier, French poet, novelist and author of "Art for Art’s Sake," was born.
    (HN, 8/31/98)

1811        Sep 3, John Humphrey Noyes was born in Vermont. He founded the Oneida Community (Perfectionists) in 1848.
    (MC, 9/3/01)(SSFC, 12/29/02, p.A6)

1811        Oct 11, The first steam-powered ferryboat, the Juliana, was put into operation between New York City and Hoboken, N.J.
    (AP, 10/11/97)

1811        Oct 22, Franz Liszt, piano virtuoso, was born near Sopron, Hungary. He was the son of a steward of the Esterhazy family.
    (Hem., 6/98, p.128)(HN, 10/22/00)

1811        Oct 27, Isaac Merrit Singer, inventor of a practical home sewing machine, was born.
    (HN, 10/27/98)(MC, 10/27/01)

1811        Oct 29, The 1st Ohio River steamboat left Pittsburgh for New Orleans.
    (MC, 10/29/01)

1811        Nov 5, El Salvador fought its 1st battle against Spain for independence.
    (MC, 11/5/01)

1811        Nov 7, Gen. William Henry Harrison won a battle against the Shawnee Indians at the Battle of Tippecanoe in the Indiana territory. Tenskwatawa, the brother of Shawnee leader Tecumseh, was engaged in the Battle of the Wabash, aka Battle of Tippecanoe, in spite of his brother’s strict admonition to avoid it. The battle near the Tippecanoe River with the regular and militia forces of Indiana Territory Governor William Henry Harrison, took place while Tecumseh was out of the area seeking support for a united Indian movement. The battle, which was a nominal victory for Harrison’s forces, effectively put an end to Tecumseh’s dream of a pan-Indian confederation. Harrison’s leadership in the battle also provided a useful campaign slogan for his presidential bid in 1840.
    (HFA, ‘96, p.46)(HNQ, 5/28/98)(HN, 11/7/98)

1811        Nov 16, John Bright, British Victorian radical, was born. He founded the Anti-Corn Law League.
    (HN, 11/16/99)

1811        Nov 16, An earthquake in Missouri caused the Mississippi River to flow backwards. [see Dec 15-16]
    (MC, 11/16/01)

1811        Nov 21, Heinrich W. von Kleist (34), German playwright, died.
    (MC, 11/21/01)

1811        Nov 29, Wendell Phillips, women's suffrage, antislavery, prison reformer, was born.
    (MC, 11/29/01)

1811        Dec 15-1811 Dec 16, A 7.3 earthquake struck the central US on the Mississippi River. It was centered at New Madrid, Missouri. Aftershocks continued into 1812. In 1976 James Penick Jr. authored "The New Madrid Earthquakes of 1811-1812." [see Jan 23, Feb 7, 1812]
    (HC, 6/7/98)(ON, 10/99, p.5,6)(SFC, 2/24/01, p.A10)(NH, 3/1/04, p.66)

1811        The book "Sense and Sensibility," by Jane Austen (1775-1817), was published. It appeared anonymously as “written by a lady."

1811        Manhattan adopted a street grid that allowed the island to be developed over time. It planned for a sevenfold expansion.
    (Econ, 6/21/14, p.59)(Econ, 7/2/16, p.12)

1811        The Bowdoin College Museum of Art in Brunswick, Maine, was begun as a bequest from James Bowdoin III, son of a college benefactor.
    (WSJ, 7/21/00, p.W2)

1811        A group of amateur naturalists formed the Academy of Natural Sciences in Philadelphia.
    (AH, 10/04, p.20)

1811        The 1st rubber factory was established.
    (SFC, 3/21/07, p.G2)

1811        In the US politics killed the Bank of the United States established by Hamilton as a central bank and a mechanism for government borrowing.
    (WSJ, 3/12/97, p.A18)

1811        Francis Cabot Lowell, an American industrialist, moved to England and gathered information on mill details. He returned to the US and started the textile industry in New England and the Massachusetts mill town of his name.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R50)

1811        Fanny Burney (1752-1840), English writer, underwent a mastectomy without anesthesia. In 2001 Claire Harman authored the biography: "Fanny Burney."
    (SSFC, 12/23/01, p.M5)

1811        Avogadro proposed that the ultimate particles of even elemental gases may not be atoms but instead molecules made up of combinations of atoms. He also proposed that equal volumes of gases contain equal numbers of molecules.

1811        Gas hydrates were first discovered but their molecular structure was not understood until the late 20th century. They are crystals of water that look like ice but contain a molecule of free-floating gas in a pentagonally-linked cage.
    (NH, 5/97, p.28)

1811        William Burchell, botanist for the East India Company, set off into the bush for Hottentot country after his girlfriend abandoned him just before marriage. He stayed 4 years and is listed as the man who invented the working safari.
    (SFC, 8/5/00, p.B4)

1811        In Britain the Dulwich Picture Gallery opened at Dulwich College. It contained an art collection gathered by Noel Desenfans and Francis Bourgeois, who had put it together for the Stanislaus Augustus Poniatowski, king of Poland, before he was forced to abdicate.
    (WSJ, 2/15/00, p.A24)
1811        British Foreign Secretary Lord Wellesley, older brother of the Duke of Wellington, wrote that the Peninsula War diverted French resources and that the time was ripe to strike against Napoleon.
    (WSJ, 7/10/96, p.A16)
1811        In England John Williams, the Highway Hacker, murdered 2 whole families in the Docklands section of London. He committed suicide while awaiting trial. A crowd stole his body and drove a stake through his heart and buried him in a lime pit off Cannon St. The murder later inspired Thomas De Quincey’s essay “On Murder Considered as One of the Fine Arts."
    (SFEC, 10/17/98, p.T9)(WSJ, 6/9/07, p.P8)
1811        The British began a period of sovereignty in Java (Indonesia).
    (WSJ, 9/13/08, p.W18)

1811        The Mamelukes remained a powerful influence in Egypt until they were massacred or dispersed by Mehemet Ali.
    (WUD, 1994, p.869)
1811        The Turks dispatched Egyptian ruler Muhammad Ali to overthrow the Wahabis and reinstate Ottoman sovereignty in Arabia.
    (NW, 9/30/02, p.33)

1811        Napoleon Bonaparte gave to his wife, Empress Marie Louise, a tiara with 950 diamonds (700 carats). The original emeralds were later replaced with Persian turquoise. Now part of the Smithsonian Inst. and bequeathed by Marjorie Merriweather Post.
    (Postcard , Nat’l Mus. Nat. Hist.,1995)

1811        Matsumura Gekkei (b.1752) also known as Goshun, Japanese painter based in Kyoto, died.
    (SFC, 12/8/05, p.E1)

1811        Scotsman Gregor MacGregor (1786-1845), later known as His Serene Highness Gregor I, Prince of Poyais, received a commission from Simon Bolivar in Venezuela to serve in the Army of Liberation. After he returned to London in 1820, he began selling land in the fictional kingdom of Poyais. He served 8 months in jail after English and French expeditions revealed the hoax. In 1839 he returned to Venezuela. In 2004 David Sinclair authored "The Land That Never Was: Sir Gregor MacGregor and the Most Audacious Land Fraud in History."
    (SSFC, 1/18/04, p.M2)(WSJ, 1/30/04, p.W9)

1811-1812    Marie Dorion, a 21-year-old Iowa Indian, was the only woman to accompany the 1811-12 overland expedition to the Pacific Northwest led by Wilson Price Hunt. Her husband, Pierre Dorion was hired as an interpreter. Marie would endure many hardships on the expedition to establish a fur trading post at the mouth of the Columbia River.
    (HNQ, 12/9/00)

1811-1812    The Scott expedition to the South Pole culminated in tragedy.
    (WSJ, 2/10/95), p.A-7)

1811-1812    In Mexico during the war for independence the crime rate rose to double digits for two years in a row.
    (SFEC, 1/26/97, p.A14)

1811-1816    The Luddite bands of workman destroyed manufacturing machinery in England under the belief that their use diminished employment. They were named after Ned Ludd, the 18th cent. Leicestershire worker who originated the idea. Opponents of technology harken back to the English weavers who broke textile machinery, apparently at the urging of their leader, Ned Ludd. [see May 3, 1811]
    (WUD, 1994, p.852)(WSJ, 4/12/96, p.B-1)

1811-1843    Some 500,000 slaves arrived at Valongo, Brazil’s main landing stage for African slaves. This port area of Rio de Janeiro was re-discovered in 2010 as the city prepared for the 2016 Olympics.
    (Econ, 1/28/12, p.35)

1811-1857    Jacob Whitman Bailey, teacher of chemistry, mineralogy and geology at West Point. He was a pioneer of American science and is noted for his microscopical studies.
    (OAPOC-TH, p.71)

1811-1882    Louis Blanc, French utopian socialist, proposed the social ideal of "from each according to his ability, to each according to his needs." The nineteenth-century writer and thinker had a profound influence on radical thought.
    (HNQ, 4/12/99)

1811-1881    Prof. Ferdinand Neselman of Koenigsburg Univ. first referred to the Aistians as the Balts in his book "The Language of the Prussians According to its Surviving Fragments."
    (DrEE, 10/12/96, p.2)

1811-1882    Henry James, US philosopher and author. He was the father of William and Henry.
    (WUD, 1994, p.762)

1811-1884    Wendell Phillips, American abolitionist:  "Responsibility educates."
    (AP, 5/29/00)

1812        Jan 23, A 2nd major earthquake shook New Madrid, Missouri.
    (NH, 3/1/04, p.67)

1812        Feb 5, Franz Schneider (74), composer, died.
    (MC, 2/5/02)

1812        Feb 7, A 3rd major earthquake shook New Madrid, Missouri, and for a few hours reversed the course of the Mississippi River. [see Dec 15-16, 1811, Jan 23, 1912]
    (NH, 3/1/04, p.67)

1812        Feb 7, Charles Dickens, English novelist, was born in Portsmouth, England. His stories reflected life in Victorian England. In his novel "Dombey & Son," Dickens confronted the subject of money, and its use as a measure of success. His work also included "Master Humphrey’s Clock," published in installments like most of his novels. The closing line of A Christmas Carol: "And so, as Tiny Tim observed, God Bless Us, Every One!" Some of his more famous novels include "Oliver Twist" and "A Tale of Two Cities."
    (SFC, 6/17/97, p.E3)(AP, 2/7/97)(HN, 2/7/99)
1812        Feb 7, Lord Byron made his maiden speech in House of Lords.
    (MC, 2/7/02)

1812        Feb 9, Franz Anton Hoffmeister (57), composer, died.
    (MC, 2/9/02)

1812        Feb 11, Alexander Hamilton Stephens (d.1883), Vice Pres (Confederacy), was born near Crawfordville, Georgia. Stephens, who served in the U.S. House of Representatives from 1843 to 1859, was a delegate at the Montgomery meeting that formed a new union of the seceded states. He was elected vice president to Jefferson Davis on February 9, 1861. Stephens was later elected governor of Georgia in 1882 but died after serving just a few months.
    (HNQ, 5/24/98)(MC, 2/11/02)
1812        Feb 11, Massachusetts Gov. Elbridge Gerry signed a re-districting law  that favored his party, giving rise to the term "gerrymandering." His district was shaped like a salamander.
    (AP, 2/11/97)(Econ, 10/9/10, p.20)

1812        Feb 16, Henry Wilson, 18th U.S. Vice President (Grant 1873-1875), was born. 
    (HN, 2/16/98)

1812        Feb 27, In Argentina Manuel Belgrano (1770-1820), economist, lawyer, politician, and military leader, created and raised the national colors for the first time in Rosario.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manuel_Belgrano)    (Econ, 4/22/17, p.30)

1812        Mar 6, Aaron Lufkin Dennison, father of American watch making, was born.
    (MC, 3/6/02)

1812        Mar 9, Swedish Pomerania was seized by Napoleon.
    (HN, 3/9/98)

1812        Mar 11, Citizenship was granted to Prussian Jews.
    (MC, 3/12/02)

1812        Mar 14, The US Congress authorized war bonds to finance War of 1812.
    (MC, 3/14/02)

1812        Mar 19, Spanish Cortes passed a liberal constitution under a hereditary monarch.
    (AP, 3/19/03)

1812        Mar 25, (OS) Alexander Herzen (d.1870), Russian author, was born. "Life has taught me to think, but thinking has not taught me how to live."
    (AP, 8/15/99)(www.bookrags.com/biography/aleksandr-ivanovich-herzen/)

1812        Mar 26, Earthquake destroyed 90% of Caracas; about 20,000 died.
    (SS, 3/26/02)(PCh, 1992, p.376)

1812        Apr 4, The territory of Orleans became the 18th state and later became known as Louisiana.
    (HN, 4/4/99)

1812        Apr 15, Pierre-Etienne-Theodore Rousseau, painter, was born.
    (MC, 4/15/02)

1812        Apr 20, George Clinton (73), the 4th vice president of the United States, died in Washington, becoming the first vice president to die while in office.
    (AP, 4/20/97)

1812        Apr 26, Alfred Krupp, German arms merchant, was born.
    (HN, 4/26/98)

1812        Apr 27, Friedrich von Flotow, composer (Martha), was born.
    (MC, 4/27/02)

1812        Apr 30, Louisiana became the 18th state.
    (AP, 4/30/97)(HN, 4/30/98)

1812        May 7, Poet Robert Browning was born in London. His works include "The Piper of Hamelin" and "The Ring and the Book."
    (AP, 5/7/97)(HN, 5/7/99)

1812        May 11, The Waltz was introduced into English ballrooms. Most observers considered it disgusting and immoral.
    (MC, 5/11/02)
1812        May 11, British PM Spencer Perceval was shot by a bankrupt banker in the lobby of the House of Commons. Lord Liverpool (1770-1828) was asked to serve as PM of Britain and he served until 1827.
    (HN, 5/11/99)(WSJ, 2/9/05, p.D10)(www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/PRliverpool.htm)

1812        May 13, Johann Matthias Sperger (62), composer, died.
    (MC, 5/13/02)

1812        May 25, A series of coal mine explosions took place around the Felling Colliery in Durhamshire, England. 92 miners were killed. This prompted local clergymen to organize the Society for Preventing Accidents in Coal Mines.
    (ON, 12/01, p.6)

1812        May, William Moorcroft, East India Co. head of 5,000 acre horse farm at Pusa, India, departed for Tibet in search of horses to improve his stock.
    (ON, 1/02, p.3)

1812        Jun 4, The Louisiana Territory was renamed the Missouri Territory.
    (AP, 6/4/97)

1812        Jun 16, City Bank of New York came into existence. A group of merchants had taken the first steps towards setting up a new bank in 1811 to help New York compete with rivals Philadelphia, Boston, and Baltimore. In 1976, under the leadership of CEO Walter B. Wriston, First National City Bank (and its holding company First National City Corporation) was renamed Citibank, N.A.

1812        Jun 18, The War of 1812 began as the United States declared war against Great Britain and Ireland. The term "war hawk" was first used by John Randolph in reference to those Republicans who were pro-war in the years leading up to the War of 1812. These new types of Republicans, who espoused nationalism and expansionism, included Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun. Most of them came from the agrarian areas of the South and West. In 2004 Walter R. Borneman authored “1812: The War That Forged a Nation."
    (AP, 6/18/97)(HN, 6/18/98)(HNQ, 5/13/99)(WSJ, 12/16/04, p.D8)
1812        Jun 18, Ivan Goncharov, Russian novelist of the Russian realism school of thought, was born. He is best known for his book "Oblomov."
    (HN, 6/18/99)

1812        Jun 22, A pro-war mob destroyed Hanson's newspaper office, four days after America’s declaration of war against Great Britain. Revered American Revolutionary cavalry hero Henry "Light-Horse Harry" Lee was nearly beaten to death by a mob in Baltimore. Lee came to the aide of an anti-war newspaper publisher in Baltimore, Alexander Contee Hanson, defending his right to freedom of speech. When Hanson returned to Baltimore five weeks later to resume publication, his office was again besieged by vigilantes. After a tense standoff through the night of July 27, Hanson and his supporters, including Lee, were taken to a local jail. Later the mob stormed the jail, severely beating those being held. Lee, father of Robert E. Lee, never fully recovered from injuries sustained in the beating and died in 1818.
    (HNQ, 9/17/99)

1812        Jun 23, The church at Mission San Juan Bautista in California was dedicated.
    (SJSVB, 6/24/96, p.41)

1812        Jun 24, Napoleon crossed the Nieman River [in Lithuania] and invaded Russia. The French army under Napoleon crossed the Nemunas River near Kaunas. Prior to his march into Russia, Napoleon had taken land from Russia and returned it to Polish control in Warsaw. This assured him safe passage through Poland and Lithuania on his way to Russia. In 1824 the book “History of the Expedition to Russia, Undertaken by the Emperor Napoleon in the Year 1812" by Count de Segur, a general in Napoleon’s army, was first published. An English translation edited by Gerard Shelley was published in 1928.
    (HN, 6/24/98)(WSJ, 8/25/07, p.P9)(H of L, 1931, p.83-84)

1812        Jun 30, William Moorcroft, East India Co. head of 5,000 acre horse farm at Pusa, India, arrived in Tibet. He found no horses to improve his stock but learned of Russian presence.
    (ON, 1/02, p.3)

1812        Jul 12, United States forces led by General William Hull entered Canada during the War of 1812 against Britain. However, Hull retreated shortly thereafter to Detroit. Madison had called for 50,000 volunteers to invade Canada but only 5,000 signed up.
    (AP, 7/12/99)(ON, 9/02, p.2)

1812        Jul 18, Great Britain signed the Treaty of Orebro, making peace with Russia and Sweden.
    (HN, 7/18/98)

1812        Jul 22, English troops under the Duke of Wellington defeated the French at the Battle of Salamanca in Spain.
    (AP, 7/22/97)(HN, 7/22/98)

1812        Jul, British troops under the Duke of Wellington pillaged the Spanish town of Badajos. This prompted Wellington to call his troops "the scum of the earth."
    (WSJ, 1/6/95, A-10)

1812        Aug 12, British commander the Duke of Wellington occupied Madrid, Spain, forcing out Joseph Bonaparte.
    (HN, 8/12/98)

1812        Aug 16, American General William Hull surrendered Detroit without resistance to a smaller British and Indian forces under General Isaac Brock.
    (AP, 8/16/97)(HN, 8/16/98)

1812        Aug 17, Napoleon Bonaparte’s army defeated the Russians at the Battle of Smolensk during the Russian retreat to Moscow.
    (HN, 8/17/98)

1812        Aug 18, Returning from a cruise into Canadian waters Captain Isaac Hull's USS Constitution of the fledgling U.S. Navy encountered British Captain Richard Dacre's HMS Guerriere about 750 miles out of Boston. After a frenzied 55-minute battle that left 101 dead, Guerriere rolled helplessly in the water, smashed beyond salvage. Dacre struck his colors and surrendered to Hull's boarding party. In contrast, Constitution suffered little damage and only 14 casualties. The fight's outcome shocked the British Admiralty while it heartened America through the dark days of the War of 1812. [see Aug 19]
    (HNPD, 8/18/98)

1812        Aug 19, The USS Constitution, also known as Old Ironsides, got its name when it defeated the British warship Guerriere off Nova Scotia in a slugfest of broadsides, when cannonballs were said to have bounced off her sides. The USS Constitution won more than 30 battles against the Barbary pirates off Africa’s coast in the War of 1812. [see Aug 18]
    (SFEC, 7/13/97, Par p.14)(AP, 8/19/97)

1812        Aug 20, Czar Alexander gave Gen. Mikhail Ilarionovich Kutuzov (1745-1813) command of the Russian army.

1812        Aug 22, Charles Etienne Gudin (44), one of Napoleon Bonaparte’s favorite generals, died near Smolensk after being hit by a cannon ball during Napoleon’s unsuccessful invasion of Russia. His name was later inscribed on the Arc de Triomphe in Paris. In 2019 his remains were formally identified by DNA tests after a one-legged skeleton was found under a dance floor in Smolensk. In 2021 his remains were repatriated to France.
    (The Telegraph, 11/6/19)(https://tinyurl.com/dzjdj5k6)(AP, 7/13/21)

1812        Aug, Lt. Governor of Nova Scotia John Coape Sherbrooke sent a naval force and 500 British troops to conquer Maine and re-establish the colony New Ireland. The Treaty of Ghent returned this territory to the United States and the British left in April 1815.

1812        Sep 7, On the road to Moscow, Napoleon won a costly victory over the Russians under Kutuzov at Borodino. This was the greatest mass slaughter in the history of warfare until the Battle of the Somme in 1916. In 2004 Adam Zamoyski authored “Napoleon’s Fatal March on Moscow."
    (HN, 9/7/98)(Econ, 4/17/04, p.81)

1812        Sep 12, Richard March Hoe was born in NYC. He built the first successful rotary printing press.
    (HN, 9/12/00)

1812        Sep 14, The Russian army left Moscow. Napoleon's invasion of Russia reached its climax as his Grande Armee entered Moscow, only to find the enemy capital deserted and burning, set afire by the few Russians who remained. The fires were extinguished by Sep 19.
    (ON, 10/2010, p.11)(http://reference.allrefer.com/encyclopedia/B/Borodino.html)

1812        Sep 18, A fire in Moscow (set by Napoleon's troops) destroyed 90% of houses and 1,000 churches. [see Sep 14]
     (MC, 9/18/01)
1812        Sep, In France as Napoleon’s army proceeded to invade Russia it numbered 442,000 troops. In Sept. it reached Moscow with 100,000 men. The remains of the Grandee Armee struggled out of Russia in 1813 with 10,000 men. A map drawn by Charles Joseph Minard plots six variables to depict the march over time: the size of the army, its location on a 2-dimensional surface, the direction of the army’s movement, and temperatures on various days during the retreat from Moscow. In 1970 Curtis Cate published the book: "The War of the Two Emperors."
    (Adv. E. Tufte, 5/18/96, p.4)(SFEC, 6/15/97, Z1 p.3)

1812        Sep, William Moorcroft, East India Co. head of 5,000 acre horse farm at Pusa, India, was arrested in Nepal while returning from Tibet to India. They were released after 17 days in captivity.
    (ON, 1/02, p.3)

1812        Sep-Oct, Moscow was burned under the brief occupation by Napoleon. After the burning the Neglinnaya River was confined to an underground pipe.
    (AM, Jul/Aug ‘97 p.28)

1812        Oct 9, American Lieutenant Jesse Duncan Elliot captured two British brigs, the Detroit and Caledonia on Lake Erie in the War of 1812. Elliot set the brig Detroit ablaze the next day in retaliation for the British capture seven weeks earlier of the city of Detroit.
    (MC, 10/9/01)

1812        Oct 13, At the Battle of Queenston Heights, a Canadian and British army defeated the Americans who had tried to invade Canada. This was the 1st major land battle in the War of 1812.
    (HN, 10/13/98)(HNQ, 1/31/02)
1812        Oct 13, Isaac Brock, English general (conquered Detroit), died in battle.
    (MC, 10/13/01)

1812        Oct 18, The Russian army attacked French forces on the outskirts of Moscow. Some 2,500-3,000 French soldiers were killed.
    (ON, 10/2010, p.11)

1812        Oct 19, French forces under Napoleon Bonaparte began their retreat from Moscow.
    (AP, 10/19/97)(HN, 10/19/98)

1812        Oct 22, The Duke of Wellington abandoned his 1st siege of Burgos, Spain.

1812        Oct 23, There was a failed coup against emperor Napoleon.
    (MC, 10/23/01)

1812        Oct 25, The U.S. frigate United States captured the British vessel Macedonian during the War of 1812.
    (AP, 10/25/98)

1812        Nov 9, Paul Abadie, French master builder (renovated Notre Dame), was born.
    (MC, 11/9/01)

1812        Nov 14, As Napoleon Bonaparte's army retreated form Moscow, temperatures dropped to 20 degrees below zero. Michel Ney defended the Napoleon‘s rear during the retreat from Moscow and was called by Napoleon "The bravest of the brave." He rejoined Napoleon during the Hundred Days and the Waterloo campaign. After Napoleon‘s defeat, he was found guilty of treason and shot. It was later suggested that many soldiers died because their tin coat buttons deteriorated in the extreme cold.
    (HN, 11/14/99)(HNQ, 9/21/00)(SSFC, 6/8/03, p.M2)

1812        Nov 26, In Belarus Napoleon Bonaparte's army began crossing the Beresina River over two hastily constructed bridges. The Battle of Berezina began as Napoleon’s army retreated from its invasion of Russia. Heavy losses were later estimated to be as many as 25,000.
    (HN, 11/26/99)(AP, 11/24/19)

1812        Nov 27, One of the two bridges being used by Napoleon Bonaparte's army across the Beresina River in Russia collapsed during a Russian artillery barrage.
    (HN, 11/27/99)

1812        Nov 29, The last elements of Napoleon Bonaparte's Grand Armee retreated across the Beresina River in Russia. Tens of thousands of French troops and civilians perished when the Russians attacked Napoleon's army as it crossed the Berezina River in Belarus on the punishing retreat from Moscow. The following Spring it was recorded that 32,000 bodies were rounded up and burned on the river banks near Studianka.
    (HN, 11/29/99)(AP, 11/26/07)(www.wtj.com/articles/berezina/)

1812        Dec 2, James Madison was re-elected president of US; Elbridge Gerry was vice-pres.
    (MC, 12/2/01)(www.ushistory.org/declaration/signers/gerry.htm)

1812        Dec 4, Peter Gaillard of Lancaster, Pa., patented a horse-drawn mower.
    (MC, 12/4/01)

1812         Dec 6, The majority of Napoleon Bonaparte's Grand Armeé staggered into Vilnius, Lithuania, ending the failed Russian campaign. An estimated 50,000 soldiers reached Lithuania and as many as 20,000 died there. As many as 450,000 soldiers from France, Italy, Spain, Croatia, Germany and at least 15 other countries died in the Russian campaign.
    (HN, 12/6/99)(Arch, 9/02, p.41)

1812        Dec 8, In California the Great Stone Church at Mission San Juan Capistrano crashed down after an earthquake just 6 years after being completed. Forty worshippers were killed. Half of the church under the work of architect Isidro Aguilar (d.1803) remained standing.
    (HT, 3/97, p.60)

1812        Dec 13, The last remnants of Napoleon Bonaparte's Grand Armeé reached the safety of Kovno, Poland, after the failed Russian campaign.
    (HN, 12/13/99)

1812        Dec, 14, The last French units of Napoleon’s Grand Armeé crossed the Nieman River of Lithuania, leaving Russia.
    (ON, 10/2010, p.11)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/French_invasion_of_Russia)

1812        Dec 18, Napoleon Bonaparte arrived in Paris after his disastrous campaign in Russia.
    (HN, 12/18/99)

1812        Dec 20, Achille Peri, composer, was born.
    (MC, 12/20/01)
1812        Dec 20, Sacagawea, Shoshone interpreter for Lewis & Clark, died.
    (MC, 12/20/01)

1812        Dec 23, Samuel Smiles (d.1904), doctor and writer, was born in Scotland.  He later authored “Self-Help" 1859), a classic work on self-improvement.
    (Econ, 4/24/04, p.86)

1812        Dec 24, Joel Barlow, aged 58, American poet and lawyer, died from exposure near Vilna, Poland [Lithuania], during Napoleon's retreat from Moscow. Barlow was on a diplomatic mission to the emperor for President Madison.
    (HN, 12/24/98)

1812        Dec, Michael Faraday began working for Sir Humphrey Davy at the British Royal Society.
    (ON, 10/03, p.11)
1812        Dec, Vilnius, Lithuania, was recaptured by Russian forces.

1812        Jacques-Louis David, French artist, painted a portrait of Napoleon as a working ruler.
    (Econ, 12/23/06, p.126)

1812        Louis-Vincent-Leon Palliere, French painter, created his work “Ulysses and Telemachus Massacre Penelope’s Suitors."
    (WSJ, 12/28/05, p.D8)
1812        Pierre-Paul Prud’hon (1758-1823), French artist, painted "Venus and Adonis."
    (WSJ, 4/8/98, p.A20)
1812        Georges Cuvier, French anatomist, published his 4 volume work "Recherches sur les ossemens fossiles" (Research on Fossil Bones).
    (NH, 8/96, p.18)
1812        Nicodemus Havens authored his “Wonderful Vision of the City of New York," wherein he was presented with a view of the Situation of the World, after the dreadful Fourth of June, 1812, and showing what part of New York is to be destroyed.
    (http://tinyurl.com/4n6ycb)(WSJ, 10/3/08, p.A19)
1912        Louisa d’Andelot du Pont Copeland spearheaded the founding of the Delaware Art Museum.
    (WSJ, 7/10/00, p.A32)
1812        Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm published their first collection of "Folk Tales for Children and the Home." It included "The Frog King, or Iron Henry."
    (SFEC, 1/2/00, BR p.10)
1812        The 1st American recipe for tomato ketchup was published.
    (SFC, 8/27/03, p.E4)
1812        Madison proposed to France and England that if one would stop attacking American commerce at sea, then the US would break off commercial relations with the other. Napoleon quickly accepted Madison’s terms and under congressional pressure Madison declared war on England. He did not know that 24 hours prior to the declaration, England had voted to stop its abuses on American shipping.
    (A&IP, ESM, p.33)

1812        San Francisco Bay’s Red Rock Island was first mentioned by Russian fur traders. In 1826 it was charted by British Capt. Frederick Beechey.
    (SFC, 12/27/14, p.C2)

1812        Mackinaw Island, Michigan, was recaptured by the British.
    (SSFC, 7/27/03, p.C5)

1812        The Cherokee Indians sided with the United States in the War of 1812.
    (NG, 5/95, p.78)

1812        Gen. "Mad" Anthony Wayne established Fort Wayne, Indiana. He got his nickname because he was crazy enough to join his troops on the front lines.
    (WSJ, 2/6/04, p.A10)

1812        Maine separated from the state of Massachusetts.
    (WSJ, 8/6/99, p.W12)

1812        The 1st New England cotton mill was erected in Fall River, Mass.
    (Panic, p.8)

1912        Du Pont was forced to give up a big piece of its explosives business due to government trust busting but kept its military line and became the chief supplier to the Allies in WW I. The Hagley Museum and Library in Wilmington tracked the business history of the du Ponts.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R46)(WSJ, 2/25/99, p.A1)

1812        The small Bank of America was founded in NYC.
    (SFC, 4/14/98, p.B1)

1812        Aaron Benedict started a button-making business in Waterbury, Conn. The name was changed to Benedict & Burnham in 1834, and to Benedict & Burnham Manufacturing in 1843.
    (SFC, 3/19/97, z1 p.3)

1812        The steamboat New Orleans was built in Pittsburgh and steamed to New Orleans but lacked sufficient power to return upstream.
    (ON, 7/02, p.9)

1812        Mason Weems made his sermon concerning gambling: "O gamblers!... You are engaged in the most horrible warfare that rational beings can ever undertake. A warfare most unnatural; even against the best and noblest part of your nature—your social affections and sympathies with your kind.
    (WSJ, 8/14/98, p.W11)

1812        Mary Anning of Lyme Regis in Dorcetshire, England, excavated a 17-foot-long skeleton and sold it to Henry Hoste Henley, Lord of the Manor of Colway for £23. The fossil was later named Icthyosaurus.
    (ON, 3/01, p.5)

1812        Dec, Vilnius, Lithuania, was recaptured by Russian forces.

1812        Russia acquired Bessarabia, the north eastern part of the original principality of Moldavia, in the aftermath of the Russo-Turkish War (1806-1812).
    (Econ, 1/6/07, p.43)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bessarabia)

1812        Swiss explorer Jean Louis Burckhardt rediscovered the ancient city of Petra in present-day Jordan.
    (HNQ, 5/26/01)

1812-1840    Carl Ludvig Engel, a Prussian architect, redesigned and rebuilt Helsinki as the capital of the Grand Duchy of Finland-Russia.
    (SFEM, 8/8/99, p.44)

1812-1841    Russian fur traders established the settlement of Fort Ross in northern California.
    (WCG, p.74)

1812-1888    May 12, Edward Lear, English author of nonsense verse is born.
    (HFA, ‘96, p.30)(AHD, p.744)

1813        Jan 2, In Vilnius, Lithuania, Russian Army head M. Kutuzov announced the end of war in Russia.
    (LHC, 1/3/03)

1813        Jan 4, Isaac Pitman (d.1897), inventor (stenographic shorthand), was born in Britain.
    (MC, 1/4/02)(WSJ, 8/20/04, p.A1)

1813        Jan 11, The 1st pineapples were planted in Hawaii (or 1/21).
    (MC, 1/11/02)

1813        Jan 18, Joseph Farwell Glidden, inventor of barbed wire, was born.
    (HN, 1/18/99)(MC, 1/18/02)

1813        Jan 22, During the War of 1812, British forces under Henry Proctor along with Indian allies under Tecumseh defeated a U.S. contingent planning an attack on Fort Detroit.
    (HN, 1/22/99)(AM, 7/00, p.19)
1813        Jan 22, A combined British and Indian force attacked an American militia retreating from Detroit near Frenchtown, later known as Monroe, Mich. Only 33 men of some 700 men escaped the battle of the River Raisin. Over 400 Kentucky frontiersmen were killed.
    (Arch, 9/00, p.22)(www.kdla.ky.gov/resources/KY_BRR.htm)

1813        Jan 24, Theodore Sedgwick (b.1746), arch-Federalist and former Massachusetts Senator (1796-1799), died. In 2007 John Sedgwick authored “In My Blood: Six Generations of Madness and Desire in an American Family."
    (http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=S000222)(WSJ, 1/6/07, p.P13)

1813        Jan 29, Jane Austin published "Pride and Prejudice," a blend of instruction and moral entertainment.
    (HN, 1/29/99)

1813        Feb 18, Czar Alexander entered Warsaw at the head of his Army.
    (HN, 2/18/99)

1813        Feb 24, Off Guiana, the American sloop Hornet under Master Commandant James Lawrence sank the British sloop Peacock.
    (HN, 2/24/98)(ON, 10/99, p.12)

1813        Feb 26, Robert R. Livingston (66), US diplomat (Declaration of Independence), died in Clermont, NY. He had helped Robert Fulton develop the "North River Steam Boat" (1807).
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_R._Livingston_%28chancellor%29)(ON, 6/12, p.1)

1813        Feb 27, The 1st federal vaccination legislation was enacted.
    (MC, 2/27/02)

1813          Feb 28, Russia and Prussia formed the Kalisz union against Napoleon.

1813        Mar 3, Office of Surgeon General of the US army was established.
    (SC, 3/3/02)

1813        Mar 4, The Russians fighting against Napoleon reached Berlin. The French garrison evacuated the city without a fight.
    (HN, 3/4/99)

1813        Mar 8, The 1st concert of Royal Philharmonic.
    (MC, 3/8/02)

1813        Mar 15, John Snow (d.1858), obstetrician, was born in York, England. He worked on the epidemiology of cholera.
    (ON, 5/05, p.8)(www.johnsnowsociety.org/johnsnow/facts.html)

1813        Mar 19, David Livingston, explorer found by Stanley in Africa, was born in Scotland.
    (HN, 3/19/98)

1813        Mar 21, James Jesse Strang, King of Mormons on Beaver Is, MI. (1850-56), was born.
    (MC, 3/21/02)

1813        Mar 25, The first U.S. flag flown in battle was on the frigate Essex in the Pacific.
    (HN, 3/24/98)

1813        Mar 27, Nathaniel Currier, lithographer for Currier and Ives, was born.
    (HN, 3/27/98)

1813        Apr 10, Joseph-Louis Lagrange (b.1736), Italian-born mathematician, died in Paris. He is considered to be the greatest mathematician of the eighteenth century.

1813        Apr 14, Junius S. Morgan, US merchant, philanthropist (Metro Museum of Art), was born.
    (MC, 4/14/02)
1813        Apr 14, Joachim Nicolas Eggert (34), composer, died.
    (MC, 4/14/02)

1813        Apr 15, U.S. troops under James Wilkinson sieged the Spanish-held city of Mobile in future state of Alabama.
    (HN, 4/15/99)

1813        Apr 19, Benjamin Rush (67), physician, revolutionary (signed Declaration of Independence), died.
    (MC, 4/19/02)

1813        Apr 23, Stephen Douglas (d.1861), the "Little Giant," was born. He debated Abraham Lincoln for a seat on the U.S. Senate and later lost to Lincoln for the presidency of the United States. He argued that the Declaration of Independence did not mean to include blacks.
    (WSJ,2/12/97, p.A16)(HN, 4/23/99)

1813        Apr 27, Americans forces under Gen. Zebulon M. Pike (34) captured York (present day Toronto), the seat of government in Ontario; Pike was killed.
    (HN, 4/27/99)(MC, 4/27/02)

1813        Apr 28, Prince Mikhail Illarionovich Golenishchev-Kutuzov (b.1745), Field Marshal of the Russian Empire, died. Kutuzov forced the French army to leave Russia along the path it had devastated when it entered the country. He served as one of the finest military officers and diplomats of Russia under the reign of three Romanov Tsars: Catherine II, Paul I and Alexander I. His military career was closely associated with the rising period of Russia from the end of the 18th century to the beginning of the 19th century. Kutuzov is considered to have been one of the best Russian generals.

1813        Apr 29, Rubber was patented.
    (HN, 4/29/98)

1813        Apr, Captain David Porter of the U.S. Navy sailed the USS Essex into the Galapagos Archipelago after a six month journey around Cape Horn, eager to find a way to help his country in their powder-keg relations with Great Britain. Capt. Porter made his first landfall at a place called Post Office Bay, on Charles Island, and raided the barrel there that served as the informal but effective communications link between whaling ships and the outside world. The primitive post box, a barrel system of drop-off and pick-up, had been established some 20 years earlier, but its efficiency had become well-known. Inside of half a year, Capt. Porter and the Essex had captured 12 British whalers and devastated the whale British industry in the Pacific, forcing a reallocation of Royal Navy ships to a distant region far from the "home front" in North America.

1813        May 2, Napoleon defeated a Russian and Prussian army at Grossgorschen. During the Napoleonic Wars a British naval officer proposed the use of saturation bombing and chemical warfare.
    (HN, 5/2/98)

1813        May 5, Soren Kierkegaard (d.1855), Danish philosopher and theologian, was born. He founded Existentialism and believed that man's relation to God must be an agonizing experience. "Truth is not introduced into the individual from without, but was within him all the time." His books included the philosophical novel "Diary of a Seducer."
    (WUD, 1994, p.786)(AP, 10/23/97)(SFC, 9/4/98, p.C5)(HN, 5/5/99)

1813        May 9, U.S. troops under William Henry Harrison rescued Fort Meigs from British and Canadian troops.
    (HN, 5/9/99)

1813        May 10, Montgomery Blair, lawyer in the Dred Scot case, was born in Franklin County, Ky. The case decided the limits of slavery.
    (HN, 5/10/99)(MC, 5/10/02)

1813        May 22, Richard Wagner, German composer, conductor and writer, was born in Leipzig, Germany. He composed "The Flying Dutchman."
    (AP, 5/22/97)(HN, 5/22/99)

1813        May 27, Americans captured Fort George, Canada.
    (HN, 5/27/98)

1813         Jun 1, The U.S. Navy gained its motto as the mortally wounded commander of the U.S. frigate "Chesapeake", Captain James Lawrence (b.1871) was heard to say, "Don’t give up the ship!", during a losing battle with a British frigate "Shannon"; his ship was captured by the British frigate.
    (DTnet, 6/1/97)(AP, 6/1/98)(ON, 10/99, p.12)

1813        Jun 5, Captain James Lawrence died from his wounds as the Shannon towed the Chesapeake to Halifax. Lawrence was buried with honors on Jun 8 and his remains were later sent to NYC for burial in Trinity churchyard.
    (ON, 10/99, p.12)

1813        Jun 6, The U.S. invasion of Canada was halted at Stoney Creek, Ontario.
    (HN, 6/6/98)

1813        Jun 8, David D. Porter, Union Admiral, was born.
    (HN, 6/8/98)

1813        Jun 21, The Peninsular War ended. It began on February 16, 1808, when Napoleon ordered a large French force into Spain under the pretext of sending reinforcements to the French army occupying Portugal.
    (MC, 6/21/02)

1813        Jun 24, Henry Ward Beecher (d.1887), American clergyman and brother of Harriet Beecher Stowe, was born. "Even a liar tells a hundred truths to one lie; he has to, to make the lie good for anything."
    (AP, 5/2/97)(HN, 6/24/01)

1813        Jun 26, Metternich met with Napoleon at Dresden and informed him that he must sue for peace if he wanted continued Austrian support.
    (ON, 5/04, p.3)

1813        Jul 15, Napoleon Bonaparte’s representatives met with the Allies in Prague to discuss peace terms.
    (HN, 7/15/98)

1813        Jul 31, British invaded Plattsburgh, NY.
    (MC, 7/31/02)

1813        Aug 9, After reports that British naval vessels were nearing St. Michaels, Md., to attack the shipbuilding town that night, the county militia placed lanterns on the tops of the tallest trees and on the masts of vessels in the harbor; and had all other lights extinguished. When the British attacked, they directed their fire too high and overshot the town.
    (HNQ, 11/25/02)

1813        Aug 10, A number of British barges manned by marines shelled the town of St. Michaels, Md., on the Chesapeake Bay. Residents had hoisted lanterns to treetops and masts and caused the British canons to overshoot their mark. One house was hit by a cannonball on the roof and the ball rolled across the attic and down the staircase frightening Mrs. Merchant as she carried her infant daughter downstairs.
    (SMBA, 1996)

1813        Aug 14, British warship Pelican attacked and captured US war brigantine Argus.
    (MC, 8/14/02)

1813        Aug 23, At the Battle of Grossbeeren Prussians under Von Bulow repulsed the French.
    (MC, 8/23/02)
1813        Aug 23, Alexander Wilson (b.1766), Scottish-born poet and naturalist, died in Philadelphia. He had completed 7 volumes of “American Ornithology" and was working on an 8th volume when he died.
    (AH, 10/04, p.23)(www.dep.state.pa.us/dep/PA_Env-Her/alexandar_wilson.htm)

1813            Aug 26-1813 Aug 27, The Battle of Dresden was Napoleon’s last major victory against the allied forces of Austria, Russia and Prussia. French forces under Napoleon scored a victory against the Allied army led by Field Marshal Schwarzenberg. Three days after the battle, the Allies surrounded and captured a French corps at the Battle of Kulm.

1813        Aug 30, Creek Indians massacred over 500 whites at Fort Mims Alabama.
    (HN, 8/30/98)

1813        Sep 7, The earliest known printed reference to the United States by the nickname "Uncle Sam" occurred in the Troy Post. [see Oct, 1814]
    (HN, 9/7/98)
1813        Sep 10, The nine-ship American flotilla under Oliver Hazard Perry wrested naval supremacy from the British on Lake Erie by capturing or destroying a force of six English vessels in the War of 1812. With Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry’s flagship unable to fight, an outmatched British flotilla faced the prospect of a remarkable victory. But Perry only transferred his pennant to another ship and fought on. American Captain Oliver Hazard Perry led his home-built 10-vessel fleet to victory against a six-vessel British squadron commanded by Captain Robert H. Barclay in the Battle of Lake Erie. Perry’s triumph, marked by his legendary message to General William Henry Harrison, "We have met the enemy and they are ours," was of great strategic value for the United States because it ensured American control of the Northwest Territory. During the battle, Perry left his badly damaged Lawrence and transferred his motto flag, reading, "Don’t Give Up the Ship," to Niagara. From there he continued the fight.
    (AP, 9/10/97)(HN, 9/10/98)(HNPD, 9/10/98)

1813        Sep 13, John Sedgwick (d.1864), Major General (Union volunteers), was born.
    (MC, 9/13/01)

1813        Sep 24, Andre-Ernest-Modeste Gretry, composer, died at 72.
    (MC, 9/24/01)

1813        Oct 5, The Battle of Moraviantown was decisive in the War of 1812. Known as the Battle of the Thames in the United States, the U.S. victory over British and Indian forces near Ontario at the village of Moraviantown on the Thames River is know in Canada as the Battle of Moraviantown. Some 600 British regulars and 1,000 Indian allies under English General and Shawnee leader Tecumseh were greatly outnumbered and quickly defeated by U.S. forces under the command of Maj. Gen. William Henry Harrison. Tecumseh (45) was killed in this battle.
    (HN, 10/5/98)(PC, 1992 ed, p.378)

1813        Oct 9, Giuseppe Verdi, Italian composer (Traviata, Rigoletto, Aida), was born. [see Oct 10]
    (MC, 10/9/01)

1813        Oct 10, Composer Giuseppe Verdi was born in Le Roncole, Italy. [see Oct 9]
    (HFA, ‘96, p.40)(AP, 10/10/97)(HN, 10/10/98)

1813        Oct 16-1813, Oct 19, In the Battle at Leipzig (aka Battle of the Nations) Napoleon faced Prussia, Austria and Russia and suffered one of his worst defeats.
    (DoW, 1999, p.325)

1813        Oct 17, Georg Buchner, German playwright (Danton's Death, Woyzeck), was born.
    (MC, 10/17/01)

1813        Oct 18, The Allies defeated Napoleon Bonaparte at Leipzig.
    (HN, 10/18/98)

1813        Oct 26, Canadian militia defeated American forces at the Battle of Chateauguay.

1813        Oct 29, The Demologos, the first steam-powered warship, was launched in New York City.
    (HN, 10/29/98)

1813          Nov 2, Treaty of Fulda. After the Battle of Leipzig (Oct 16-19) King Frederick I of Württemberg (1754-1816) deserted Napoleon’s waning fortunes. By a treaty made with Klemens Wenzel Nepomuk Lothar von Metternich (1773-1858) at Fulda, Hessen, Germany he secured the confirmation of his royal title and of his recent acquisitions of territory, while his troops marched with those of the allies into France.
    (DoW, 1999, p.325)

1813        Nov 3, American troops destroy the Indian village of Tallushatchee in the Mississippi Valley. US troops under Gen Coffee destroyed an Indian village at Talladega, Ala.
    (HN, 11/3/99)(MC, 11/3/01)

1813        Nov 6, Chilpancingo congress declared Mexico independent of Spain.
    (MC, 11/6/01)

1813        Nov 12, J. H. St. John de Crevecouer, French explorer and writer, died. He had spent more than half of his life in the New World and contributed two important concepts to the American consciousness. The first is the idea of the "American Adam," that there is something different, unique, special, or new about these people called "Americans." The second idea is that of the "melting pot," that people's "American-ness" transcends their ethnic, cultural, or religious backgrounds.

1813        Nov 16, The British announced a blockade of Long Island Sound, leaving only the New England coast open to shipping.
    (HN, 11/16/98)

1813        Nov 29, Giambattista Bodoni (73), Italian stamp cutter, publisher, and type font designer (bodoni), died.
    (MC, 11/29/01)

1813        Dec 8, Ludwig van Beethoven's 7th Symphony in A, premiered.
    (MC, 12/8/01)

1813        Dec 10, Zachariah Chandler, US merchant and politician, was born. He founded the Republican Party.
    (MC, 12/10/01)

1813        Dec 19, British forces captured Fort Niagara during the War of 1812.
    (AP, 12/20/06)

1813        Dec 20, Dr. Samuel Mudd, doctor who helped Lincoln assassin John Wilkes Booth, was born. [2nd ref. says 1833]
    (HN, 12/20/98)(MC, 12/20/01)

1813        Dec 30, The British burned Buffalo, N.Y., during the War of 1812.
    (AP, 12/30/06)

1813        Dec 31, Some 83,000 Prussian and Russian soldiers pursued Napoleon across the Rhine at Pfalzgrafenstein Castle.
    (SFEC, 3/15/98, p.T5)

1813        Raphaelle Peale, son of Charles Willson, painted his still life "Black-berries."
    (SFC, 1/25/97, p.E1)

1813        The Rossini opera "L’Italiana in Algeri" had its premier in Venice. [see 1808]
    (SFC, 7/12/97, p.E1)

1813        In New Mexico El Santuario del Senor de Esquipulas was built. It is a tiny chapel near the village of Chimayo, and one of the 6 adobe missions scattered along the western shoulder of the Sangre de Cristo mountains between Taos and Santa Fe. Rumor has it that Don Bernardo Abeyta, a Catholic penitent from Santa Cruz, found a buried crucifix here in 1810 while on a pilgrimage. Native Americans called this valley Tsimayo-pokwi and believed it to be holy ground.
    (SFC, 5/12/96, p.T-5)

1813        The US federal government was almost broke from the war with Britain but was able to get Stephen Girard, wealthy ship owner and banker, to help finance the war effort. Congress quickly moved to charter the Second Bank of the US.
    (WSJ, 3/12/97, p.A18)
1813        Immigrants John Jacob Astor, David Parish, Alexander Dallas and Stephen Girard stepped in to provide over $9 million to finance the US War of 1812.
    (WSJ, 1/2/97, p.6)(www.fee.org/~web/0203iolpdf/col4.pdf)

1813         Laws banning the carrying of concealed weapons were passed in Kentucky and Louisiana.

1813        A new 45 carat blue diamond emerged in France. It was guessed to have been cut from the 112 carat Blue Diamond of the crown jewels. The 112 carot stone was recut in 1673 to 67 carats.
    (THC, 12/3/97)(EB, 1993, V6 p.51)

1813        John (Cameron) Gilroy of Scotland sailed from England on the Isaac Todd to Monterey, Ca., where he was dropped off to recover from scurvy.
    (SFC, 11/29/97, p.A14)

1813        A troop ship returning from the War of 1812 was blown ashore at Cape Pine on Newfoundland’s Avalon Peninsula. All 350 passengers died.
    (SFEC, 9/29/96, p.T-6)

1813        Andrew Jackson received a bullet wound that shattered his left shoulder. The bullet was not removed until 1832 and was later suspected of causing lead poisoning.
    (SFC, 8/11/99, p.A2)

1813        Zebulon Montgomery Pike, the American explorer who has a Colorado mountain named for him, died leading an attack that captured York, now known as Toronto, in the War of 1812. Pike, born in New Jersey in 1779, sighted in 1806 but did not climb the mountain that would later be named Pikes Peak in the Colorado Rockies. Pike led two expeditions from 1805 to 1807, one in the upper Mississippi region of the Louisiana Purchase and the second in what is now New Mexico and Colorado. As a brigadier general, Pike was killed, when a powder magazine exploded as he led the assault on York, then capital of upper Canada. Some 320 Americans were killed or wounded in the explosion.
    (HNQ, 5/7/98)

1813        In Australia explorers Gregory Blaxland, William Wentworth and William Lawson blazed the first trail from Sidney across the Blue Mountains to the fertile western plains.
    (Hem., 1/97, p.53)
1813        Bennelong (49), an Australian Aborigine, died. He was one of the first Aborigines to live among white settlers after the landing of the First Fleet in 1788, when he was kidnapped and employed as a cultural interlocutor by the British. Bennelong had adapted to the European way of life, teaching the colonizers about Aboriginal customs and language and learning to speak English, but ultimately became an alcoholic.
    (AFP, 3/19/11)

1813        Georg Heinrich von Langsdorff was nominated consul general of Russia in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. He acquired a farm (named "Mandioca", or manioc) in the north of Rio and collected plants, animals and minerals. He hosted and entertained foreign naturalists and scientists, and explored the flora, fauna and geography of the province of Minas Gerais with French naturalist Augustin Saint-Hilaire from 1813 to 1820.

1813        Thomas De La Rue (1793-1866) launched a newspaper in Guernsey. He moved to London in 1821 and established a printing firm. It grew to become the world’s largest commercial banknote printer.
    (http://lunaticg.blogspot.com/2010/03/who-is-thomas-de-la-rue.html)(Econ, 8/11/12, p.50)
1813        The British government removed the British East India Company’s monopoly of trade with India.
    (Econ, 12/17/11, p.111)
1813        William Charles Wells presented a paper to the Royal Society in which he introduced the idea of natural selection to explain why people might vary in skin color in different climates.
    (Econ, 2/7/09, p.73)

1813        In Canada American militiamen burned down the town of Niagara-on-the Lake.
    (WSJ, 8/29/97, p.A9)

1813        The Tokujo-maru, a Japanese ship with a cargo of rice for Edo, was blown off course. Three surviving crew members were picked up 18 months later by a British ship off the coast of California.
    (Econ, 12/22/07, p.64)

1813        Prussia took over Danzig.
    (WSJ, 8/31/98, p.A4)

1813        The Prussians introduced the Iron Cross during the Napoleonic wars.
    (WSJ, 4/23/99, A1)

1813        The Clark family of Paisley, Scotland, began manufacturing cotton thread. By the 1840s members of the family moved to the US and in 1866 developed a twisted cotton thread for sewing machines, which they named O.N.T. (Our New Thread).
    (SFC, 10/5/05, p.G3)

1813        A Swiss traveler discovered the Great and Small Temples of Ramses II at Abu Simbel in Egypt.
    (NG, May 1985, R. Caputo, p.591)

1813-1820    The classic Vietnamese love poem "The Tale of Kieu" was written by Nguyen Du (1766-1820). It was based on an earlier Chinese novel entitled "The story of Kim-Van-Kieu ", written by an author under the pen-name of "Thanh-Tam Tai-Nhan" in the 16th or the early 17th century.
    (SFC, 9/25/96, p.E7)(www.geocities.com/SoHo/Den/5908/literature/kieu.html)

1813-1828    Russia gains control of northern Azerbaijan due to the weak local power of the khanates. Industrialization and oil extraction are expanded.
    (Compuserve Online, Grolier’s Amer. Acad. Enc./ Azerbaijan)

1813-1843    Robert Southey was the poet laureate of England over this period. He was the author of "The Three Bears."
    (SFEC, 2/15/98, Z1 p.8)

1813-1855     Soren Kierkegaard, Danish philosopher: "Truth is not introduced into the individual from without, but was within him all the time." "Don’t forget to love yourself."
    (AP, 10/23/97)(AP, 3/5/98)

1813-1887    Ellen Wood, English playwright and journalist: "It is not so much what we have done amiss, as what we have left undone, that will trouble us, looking back."
    (AP, 2/13/01)

1813-1891    Prince Louis-Lucien Bonaparte, linguist, amassed a collection of some 14,000 books on linguistics. Because his special interest was the Finnish and Estonian languages, he gathered extensively from the whole Baltic region. The collection was sold in 1894 to the Newberry Library in Chicago from a London bookseller.
    (DrEE, 9/28/96, p.4)

1813-1901    Oct 10, Giuseppe Verdi, Italian composer was born. Best know for his operas.
    (AHD, 1971, p.1422)(HFA, ‘96, p.40)

1813-1908    Thomas Mellon, American empire builder and judge, made his fortune in real-estate speculation and founded the Mellon Bank.
    (WSJ, 2/27/95, p.A-10)

1814        Jan 2, Lord Byron completed "The Corsair."
    (MC, 1/2/02)

1814        Jan 14, Berthe Morisot (d.1895) French impressionist painter, was born in Bourges.
    (NMWA, 12/04, p.10)
1814        Jan 14, The Treaty of Kiel or Peace of Kiel was concluded between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the Kingdom of Sweden on one side and the Kingdoms of Denmark and Norway on the other side in Kiel. It ended the hostilities between the parties in the ongoing Napoleonic Wars, where the United Kingdom and Sweden were part of the anti-French camp (the Sixth Coalition) while Denmark-Norway was allied to Napoleon Bonaparte.

1814        Jan 27, Johann Gottlieb Fichte (b.1762), German philosopher, died.
    (MC, 1/27/02)

1814        Feb 9, Samuel Jones Tilden, philanthropist, was born.
    (HN, 2/9/97)(MC, 2/9/02)

1814        Feb 10, Napoleon personally directed lightning strikes against enemy columns advancing toward Paris, beginning with a victory over the Russians at Champaubert. During the Napoleonic Wars a British naval officer proposed the use of saturation bombing and chemical warfare to undermine the strength of Emperor Napoleon.
    (HN, 2/10/97)

1814        Feb 21, Nicolo Gabrielli, composer, was born.
    (MC, 2/21/02)

1814        Feb 27, Ludwig von Beethoven's 8th Symphony in F, premiered.
    (MC, 2/27/02)
1814        Feb 27, Napoleon’s Marshal Nicholas Oudinot was pushed back at Barsur-Aube by the Emperor’s allied enemies shortly before his abdication.
    (HN, 2/27/98)

1814        Feb, A man claiming to be an aide-de-camp to the armies fighting Napoleon landed in Dover and claimed that Cossacks had butchered Napoleon and that Paris had fallen. Stock prices soared and conspirators sold shares at a 15% profit before the fraud was unmasked.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)
1814        Feb, In Legazpi, Philippines, the Mayon volcano erupted and 1,200 people were killed.
    (SFC, 6/25/01, p.A9)

1849        Mar 3, Gold Coinage Act authorized the $20 Double Eagle gold coin.
    (SC, 3/3/02)

1849        Mar 4, The US had no President. Polk's term ended on a Sunday and Taylor couldn't be sworn-in; Senator David Atchison (pres pro tem) term had ended March 3rd.
    (SC, 3/4/02)

1814        Mar 10, Napoleon Bonaparte was defeated by a combined Allied Army at the battle of Laon, in France.
    (HN, 3/10/99)

1814        Mar 27, General Jackson led U.S. soldiers who killed 700 Creek Indians at Horseshoe Bend, La. [in Northern Alabama] Jackson lost 49 men. In 2001 John Buchanon authored "Jackson’s Way" and Robert V. Remini authored "Andrew Jackson and His Indian Wars."
    (SFEC, 2/16/97, BR p.4)(HN, 3/27/99)(WSJ, 7/26/01, p.A12)

1814        Mar 29, In the Battle at Horseshoe Bend, Alabama, Andrew Jackson beat the Creek Indians. [see Mar 27]
    (MC, 3/29/02)

1814        Mar 30, Britain and allies marched into Paris after defeating Napoleon.
    (MC, 3/30/02)

1814        Mar 31, Forces allied against Napoleon captured Paris.
    (MC, 3/31/02)

1814        Apr 2, Henry Lewis "Old Rock" Benning, Brig General in Confederate Army, was born.
    (MC, 4/2/02)

1814        Apr 4, Napoleon Bonaparte first abdicated at Fontainebleau. He was allowed to keep the title of emperor. [see Apr 11]

1814        Apr 11, Napoleon Bonaparte (45) abdicated at Fontainebleau a 2nd time and was banished to the island of Elba, a small island in the Mediterranean, retaining the title of emperor and 400 volunteers to act as his guard. He was granted sovereignty over Elba and a pension from the French government. [see Apr 6]

1814        Apr 15, John Lothrop Motley, US historian, author (Rise of Dutch Rep), was born.
    (MC, 4/15/02)

1814        Apr 20, Napoleon departed for exile in Elba.
    (Econ, 4/14/07, p.94)

1814        Apr 26, King Louis XVIII landed on Calais from England.
    (MC, 4/26/02)

1814        Apr, The Duke of Wellington led 60,000 troops against 325,000 French troops at Toulouse and defeated them just days after Napoleon abdicated the throne.
    (WSJ, 1/6/95, A-10)

1814        May 4, Napoleon Bonaparte disembarked at Portoferraio on the island of Elba in the Mediterranean.
    (HN, 5/4/99)
1814        May 4, Bourbon reign was restored in France. Louis XVIII was crowned as successor to his guillotined brother.
    (MC, 5/4/02)

1814        May 5, The British attacked Ft. Ontario, Oswego, New York.
    (HN, 5/5/98)

1814        May 6, Wilhelm Ernst, violinist, composer, was born.
    (MC, 5/6/02)
1814        May 6, George Joseph Vogler (64), composer, died.
    (MC, 5/6/02)

1814        May 11, Americans defeated the British at Battle of Plattsburgh.
    (MC, 5/11/02)

1814        May 12, Robert Treat Paine (83), US judge (signed Declaration of Ind), died.
    (MC, 5/12/02)

1814        May 17, Norway’s constitution was signed, providing for a limited monarchy. Denmark ceded Norway to Sweden.
    (AP, 5/17/97)(HN, 5/17/98)
1814        May 29, Empress Josephine (1804-14), first wife of Napoleon Bonaparte, died. She maintained grand roses at Malmaison, where there were an estimated 250 varieties.
    (TGR, 1995, p.2)(SC, 5/29/02)

1814        May 30, The First Treaty of Paris was declared, after Napoleon's first abdication. It returned France to its 1792 borders and secured for the British definite possession of the Cape of Good Hope.
    (HN, 5/30/98)(HN, 5/30/99)(EWH, 4th ed, p.884)

1814        Jun 1, Philip Kearney, Union Civil War general, was born. He was killed at the Battle of Chantilly, Virginia.
    (HN, 6/1/99)

1814        Jun 3, Nicolas Appert (b.1749), French cook, died. He was the winner of a 12,000 franc prize offered by Napoleon for developing a method to preserve food. His original canning method took 14 years to develop and used glass jars sealed with wax reinforced with wire.
    (WSJ, 1/21/03, p.A1)(www.foodreference.com)

1814        Jul 5, US troops under Gen. Jacob Brown and Gen. Winfield Scott defeated a superior British force under Maj. Gen. Phineas Riall near the Niagara River at Chippewa, Canada. British casualties exceeded 500 compared to some 300 Americans.
    (AH, 10/07, p.53)

1814        Jul 7, Sir Walter Scott's (1771-1832) novel "Waverly" was published anonymously so as not to damage his reputation as a poet.
    (HN, 7/7/01)(WUD, 1994 p.1281)

1814        Jul 18, The British captured Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin.
    (MC, 7/18/02)

1814        Jul 19, Samuel Colt, inventor of the first practical revolver, was born.
    (HN, 7/19/98)
1814        Jul 19, British Royal Navy explorer Captain Matthew Flinders (b.1774) died in London. He was buried at St. James's burial ground, but the headstone was removed in the 1840s, leaving the precise location of his grave a mystery. He had led the first known circumnavigation of Australia. In 2019 his remains were found by archaeologists excavating the burial ground burial ground where a railway station is planned.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Matthew_Flinders)(AP, 1/25/19)

1814        Jul 22, Five Indian tribes in Ohio made peace with the United States and declared war on Britain.
    (HN, 7/22/98)

1814        Jul 25, British and American forces fought each other to a stand off at Lundy's Lane (Niagara Falls), Canada, in some of the fiercest fighting in the War of 1812.
    (HN, 7/25/98)

1814        Aug 7, Pope Pius VII reinstated the Jesuits.
    (MC, 8/7/02)

1814        Aug 9, Andrew Jackson and the Creek Indians signed the Treaty of Fort Jackson, giving the whites 23 million acres of Mississippi Creek territory. This ended Indian resistance in the region and opened the doors to pioneers after the conclusion of the War of 1812.
    (HN, 8/9/98)(HNQ, 8/13/99)

1814        Aug 10, John Clifford Pemberton (d.1881), Lt Gen (Confederate Army), was born.
    (MC, 8/10/02)

1814        Aug 13, Treaty of London-Netherland was signed to stop the transport of slaves. By agreement Britain paid the Dutch £6 million in compensation for the Cape of Good Hope. [see May 30]
    (EWH, 4th ed, p.884)(MC, 8/13/02)

1814        Aug 14, British marines landed near the mouth of the Patuxent River in Maryland and began marching overland to attack Washington, DC.
    (ON, 6/08, p.1)

1814        Aug 24, 5,000 British troops under the command of General Robert Ross marched into Washington, D.C., after defeating an American force at Bladensburg, Maryland. It was in retaliation for the American burning of the parliament building in York (Toronto), the capital of Upper Canada. Meeting no resistance from the disorganized American forces, the British burned the White House, the Capitol and almost every public building in the city before a downpour extinguished the fires. President James Madison and his wife fled from the advancing enemy, but not before Dolly Madison saved the famous Gilbert Stuart portrait of George Washington. This wood engraving of Washington in flames was printed in London weeks after the event to celebrate the British victory.
    (AP, 8/24/97)(HNPD, 8/24/98)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Bladensburg)
1814        Aug 24, The US Capitol and White House in Washington D.C. were burned and sacked by British General Robert Ross and Rear Admiral Sir George Cockburn. This made Congress realize the need for quick transportation and sparked the digging of the Chesapeake-Delaware Canal.
    (NG, Sept. 1939, J. Maloney p.379)

1814        Aug 25, British forces destroyed the Library of Congress, containing some 3,000 books.
    (MC, 8/25/02)

1814        Aug, After the British burned the White House in 1814, President James Madison lived in the nearby Octagon—so named because of its unique eight-sided shape—until the end of his term.
    (HNQ, 10/28/00)

1814        Sep 11, An American fleet led by Thomas Macdonough scored a decisive victory over the British in the Battle of Lake Champlain in the War of 1812.
    (AP, 9/11/97)(HN, 9/11/98)

1814        Sep 12, A British fleet under Sir Alexander Cochrane began the bombardment of Fort McHenry, the last American defense before Baltimore. Lawyer Francis Scott Key had approached the British attackers seeking the release of a friend who was being held for unfriendly acts toward the British. Key himself was detained overnight on September 13 and witnessed the bombardment of Fort McHenry from a guarded American boat.
1814        Sep 12, The Battle of North Point was fought near Baltimore during War of 1812. British General Ross was killed by a sniper’s bullet in a skirmish just prior to the main battle. The battle proved to be strategic American victory, but since they left the field in the hands of the British, tactically it was a defeat for the Americans.

1814        Sep 13, British ships bombarded Ft. McHenry under the command of General Armistead. Francis Scott Key watched the bombing from a detained American boat. The British used red glaring Congreve rockets and air bursting bombs during the war.
    (NG, Sept. 1939, p.392)(SFC, 6/22/96, p.E4)

1814        Sep 14, In the dawn light Francis Scott Key saw that the American flag still waved over Fort McHenry in Maryland during the War of 1812. He looked on from the deck of a boat on the Patasco River nine miles away and wrote “The Star Spangled Banner." The lyrics were alter adopted to the British tune "To Anacreon in Heaven," which had also served as Irish drinking song and a number of other songs. "The Star-Spangled Banner" was officially recognized as the national anthem in 1931. The seldom sung third verse says: “No refuge could save the hireling and slave from the terror of flight or the gloom of the grave." The 40 feet long flag had been made by Baltimore widow Mary Young Pickersgill and her 13-year-old daughter just a month before the attack. In 1907 the flag was donated to the Smithsonian.
    (https://www.youtube.com/embed/YaxGNQE5ZLA)(SFC, 7/4/97, p.A2)(AP, 9/14/97) (WSJ, 7/3/02, p.B1)(SFC, 9/15/17 p.A5)

1814        Sep 15, The words of the "Star-Spangled Banner," written by Francis Scott Key following the Sep 13 attack on Fort Henry, was printed on a handbill without the name of Francis Scott Key and originally known as "The Defense of Fort McHenry."
    (HNQ, 2/16/02)

1814        Sep 21, "Star Spangled Banner" was published as a poem.
    (MC, 9/21/01)

1814        Sep, Alexander I of Russia entered Paris at the head of an anti-Napoleon coalition.
    (WSJ, 6/26/96, p.A16)
1814        Sep, The Congress of Vienna convened in late September and continued to June 8, 1815. Friedrich von Gentz of Austria served as secretary to the Congress. It was held after the banishment of Napoleon to Elba. The congress aimed at territorial resettlement and restoration to power of the crowned heads of Europe with Prince Metternich of Austria as the dominant figure. Viscount Castlereagh and the Duke of Wellington represented Britain. Alexander I stood for Russia. Talleyrand stood for France. Prince von Hardenberg stood for Prussia. In 2007 Adam Zamoyski authored “Rites of Peace: The Fall of Napoleon and the Congress of Vienna." In 2008 David King authored “Vienna 1814: How the Conquerors of Napoleon Made Love, War and Peace at the Congress of Vienna.
    (Econ, 4/14/07, p.94)(www.bartleby.com/65/vi/Vienna-C.html)(SSFC, 4/6/08, Books p.4)

1814        Oct 3, Mikhail Yurevich Lermontov (d.1841), Russian poet and writer (Demon), was born.
    (WUD, 1994 p.822)(MC, 10/3/01)

1814        Oct 4, Jean Francois Millet (d.1875), French painter, was born.

1814        Oct 17, Two giant porter vats at the Horse Shoe Brewery on London’s Tottenham Court Road burst when the securing hoops failed. The 25-foot-high vats were owned by Sir Henry Meux and. Several lives were lost along with an estimated 8,000-9,000 barrels of porter.

1814        Oct 19, Mercy Otis Warren (b.1728), Massachusetts playwright, died.
    (WSJ, 2/5/08, p.A16)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mercy_Otis_Warren)

1814        Oct, The name Uncle Sam, a nickname for the United States, was coined during the War of 1812. Workers at Samuel Wilson’s meat-packing plant in Troy, N.Y., which supplied provisions to the U.S. Army, joked that the U.S. stamped on the barrels bound for the troops actually stood for their boss Uncle Sam Wilson. Army contractor Elbert Anderson, Jr. sought bids to provide food for the 5,000 soldiers at the Greenbush Cantonment near Troy, NY. The firm of E. & S. Wilson (Ebenezar and Samuel, d.1854 at 87) provided many of the rations in oak casks labeled "E.A.-U.S.," as required by the contract. A quip attributed the casks to Elbert Anderson and his Uncle Sam. Later government property in general became referred to as "Uncle Sam’s." [see Sep 7, 1813]
    (Hem., 7/95, p.89)(WC, Summer ‘97, p.3)

1814        Nov 5, Having decided to abandon the Niagara frontier, the American army blew up Fort Erie.
    (HN, 11/5/98)

1814        Nov 6, Adolphe Sax (d.1894), instrument maker and inventor of the saxophone, was born.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1272)(HN, 11/6/98)

1814        Nov 7, Andrew Jackson attacked and captured Pensacola, Florida, defeating the Spanish and driving out a British force.
    (HN, 11/7/98)

1814        Nov 13, Joseph Hooker (d.1879), Major General (Union volunteers), was born.
    (MC, 11/13/01)

1814        Nov 23, Elbridge Gerry (b.1744), the 9th governor of Massachusetts (1810-1812), died in Washington, DC. As a Democratic-Republican he served as the fifth Vice President under President James Madison from March 1813 until his death. He is known best for being the namesake of gerrymandering.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elbridge_Gerry)(WSJ, 10/22/04, p.W5)

1814        Nov, Unable to pay in specie [i.e. gold] as required by law, the US government offered to pay its debt in paper. Most banks refused to accept the Treasury notes as security and war bonds fell to 60 cents on the dollar.
    (WSJ, 12/12/95, p.A-19)

1814        Dec 1, The shallow-draft steamboat Enterprise, completed in Pittsburgh under the direction of keelboat captain Henry Miller Shreve, left for New Orleans to deliver guns and ammunition to Gen. Jackson.
    (ON, 7/02, p.9)

1814        Dec 2, Marquis de Sade (74), writer, died.
    (MC, 12/2/01)

1814        Dec 13, General Andrew Jackson announced martial law in New Orleans, Louisiana, as British troops disembarked at Lake Borne, 40 miles east of the city.
    (HN, 12/13/98)

1814        Dec 14, The steamboat Enterprise, designed by keelboat captain Henry Miller Shreve, arrived in New Orleans with guns and ammunition for Gen. Jackson. It was immediately commandeered for military service.
    (ON, 7/02, p.9)

1814        Dec 19, Edwin McMasters Stanton, US Secretary of War (1861-65), was born in Ohio.
    (MC, 12/19/01)

1814        Dec 24, The Treaty of Ghent between the United States and Great Britain, terminating the War of 1812, was signed at Ghent, Belgium. The news did not reach the United States until two weeks later (after the decisive American victory at New Orleans). The treaty, signed by John Quincy Adams for the US, committed the US and Britain "to use their best endeavors" to end the Atlantic slave trade.
    (AP, 12/24/97)(WSJ, 12/31/97, p.A11)(HN, 12/24/98)(SFEC, 11/21/99, p.T10)

1814        Dec 24, Austrian Emperor Francis I appointed Joseph Ritter von Prechtl as the first director of the Polytechnical Institute of Vienna.
    (StuAus, April ‘95, p.18)

1814        Mir Ali created a full-length portrait of Persia’s Fath-Ali Shah (1771) shortly after Shah’s loss of a major battle against the Russians.
    (WSJ, 8/1/06, p.D6)(www.jsenterprises.com/john/thesis/chapter2.htm)

1814        Jacques-Louis David created his painting “Leonidas at Thermopylae."
    (WSJ, 4/6/05, p.D11)

c1814        Pierre-Paul Prud’hon (1758-1823), French artist, drew his "Bust of a Female Figure."
    (WSJ, 12/5/96, p.A16)

1814        ETA Hoffman’s "Best Tales of Hoffman" was published.

1814        Rossini composed his opera "Il Turco in Italia."
    (WSJ, 11/10/98, p.A20)

1814        The Avila House, a thick-walled adobe building at 14 Olvera in Los Angeles, was built.
    (SFEC,12/797, p.T3)

1814        The Monterey Custom’s House was built by the Mexican government on the Monterey Peninsula in California.
    (Hem., 1/96, p.26)

1814        The 1st Odd Fellows arrived in the US from Europe. The fraternal organization was founded in Europe in the 18th century. [see 1819]
    (SFC, 11/28/00, p.A25)

1814        Andrew Jackson called the followers of French freebooter Jean Lafitte "hellish banditti." Jackson later revised his opinion and asked Lafitte to aid him against the British in the defense of New Orleans. Many of the 4,500 men behind Jackson‘s entrenchments at New Orleans on January 8, 1815, were followers of Lafitte.
    (HN, 1/17/00)

1814        David Farragut, a ship's boy on the frigate Essex, was captured by the British when the Essex was defeated by the British.
    (WSJ, 1/26/00, p.A20)

1814        Jose Dario Arguello, Spanish-born commander of the Presidio, served as the governor of Alta California. He was later buried at Mission Dolores.
    (SFEC, 9/21/97, p.C7)

1814        The Marquis de Sade died. His writings included "Justine," "Juliette," and "120 Days of Sodom." In 1999 Neal Schaeffer published "The Marquis De Sade: A Life," and Francine du Plessix Gray published "At Home With the Marquis De Sade: A Life."
    (SFEC, 7/25/99, BR p.3)

1814        Jose Francisco de San Martin (1778-1850) became general in chief of Argentina’s Army of the North. His primary mission was to protect Argentina against Spanish royalists in Peru.
    (ON, 10/09, p.8)

1814        In Austria rebuilding began of the 14th century Arenberg Castle following a major fire.
    (SFC, 4/20/09, p.A2)

1814        Britain began overseeing the Chagos Archipelago.
    (Reuters, 11/16/16)

1814        The union between the crowns of Denmark and Norway was dissolved. The Treaty of Kiel severed Norway's former colonies and left them under the control of the Danish monarch. Greenland became a Danish colony, and a part of the Danish Realm in 1953 under the Constitution of Denmark.

1814        The Kingdom of Sardinia was united with the Kingdom of Liguria.
    (WUD, 1994, p.830)

1814-1815    Sep-Jun, The Congress of Vienna was held after the banishment of Napoleon to Elba. Prince Metternich of Austria was the dominant figure and it aimed at territorial resettlement and restoration to power of the crowned heads of Europe. Viscount Castlereagh and the Duke of Wellington represented Britain. Alexander I stood for Russia. Talleyrand stood for France. Prince von Hardenberg stood for Prussia. In 2007 Adam Zamoyski authored “Rites of Peace: The Fall of Napoleon and the Congress of Vienna."
    (WUD, 1994, p.310, 1677)(Econ, 4/14/07, p.94)

1814-1864    Hong Xiuquan, believed himself to be the second son of God. In 1851 he declared himself king of China and the world. In 1853 his Taiping army took the city of Nanjing as its heavenly capital. He ruled there until 1864. When the Qing (Manchu) government troops tightened their siege he died from eating what he said was manna sent by God to alleviate his believer’s starvation. His story is told by Jonathan D. Spence in God’s Chinese Son: The Taiping Heavenly Kingdom of Hong Xiuquan.
    (WSJ, 1/5/96, p.A-8)

1814-1876    Mikhail Bakunin was an authoritarian anarchist.
    (WSJ, 8/24/98, p.A10)

1814-1903    Nicolaas Beets, born Sept. 13, died Mar. 13. Dutch poet and prose writer. He was a professor of theology at Utrecht after 1874. In 1839, while a student in Leiden, he published under the pseudonym of Hildebrand the first version of his Camera Obscura (completed 1854), a remarkable collection of stories and essays filled with keen observations, insight into character, and humorous episodes.
    (CO, Amer. Her. Dic., 6/25/95)

1814-1969    In Hohenberg, Bavaria, C.M. Hutschreuther operated a porcelain factory and inscribed his ware with various marks. e.g. A crown over the initials CM in a shield with 18 on one side and 14 on the other was used from 1950-1963.
    (SFC, 8/14/96, z-1 p.5)

1815        Jan 5, Federalists from all over New England, angered over the War of 1812, drew up the Hartford Convention, demanding several important changes in the U.S. Constitution.
    (HN, 1/5/99)

1815        Jan 8, US forces led by Gen. Andrew Jackson and French pirate Jean Lafitte led some 3,100 backwoodsmen to victory against 7,500 British veterans at Chalmette in the Battle of New Orleans in the closing engagement of the War of 1812. A British army marched on New Orleans without knowing that the War of 1812 had ended on Christmas Eve of 1814. A massacre ensued, as 2,044 British troops, including three generals, fell dead, wounded or missing before General Andrew Jackson's well-prepared earthworks, compared with only 71 American casualties. Among the British victims were Gen. Sir Edward Pakenham and the Highlanders of the 93rd Regiment of Foot. In 2000 Robert V. Remini published "The Battle of New Orleans."
    (AP, 1/8/98)(HN, 1/8/99)(WSJ, 1/26/00, p.A20)(AH, 2/05, p.16)

1815        Jan 11, Sir John A. Macdonald, the first prime minister of Canada, was born in Glasgow, Scotland.
    (AP, 1/11/98)

1815        Jan 21, Horace Wells (d.1845), dentist, was born. He pioneered the use of medical anesthesia and was the 1st to use nitrous oxide as a pain killer.
    (Dr, 7/17/01, p.2)(MC, 1/21/02)

1815        Jan 30, The burned Library of Congress was reestablished with Jefferson's 6,500 volumes.
    (MC, 1/30/02)

1815        Feb 3, World's 1st commercial cheese factory was established, in Switzerland.
    (MC, 2/3/02)

1815        Feb 6, The state of New Jersey issued the first American railroad charter to John Stevens, who proposed a rail link between Trenton and New Brunswick. The line, however, was never built.
    (AP, 2/6/97)

1815        Feb 11, News of the Treaty of Ghent, ending the War of 1812, finally reached the United States.
    (HN, 2/11/99)

1815        Feb 24, Robert Fulton (b.1765), steamboat pioneer, died at age 49. In 2001 Kirkpatrick Sale authored the biography: "The Fire of His Genius."
    (WSJ, 9/24/01, p.A22)(MC, 2/24/02)

1815        Feb 25, Napoleon left his exile on the Island of Elba, intending to return to France.
    (HN, 2/25/98)

1815        Feb 26, Napoleon, escaped from the Island of Elba, and 1,200 of his men started the 100-day re-conquest of France.
    (HN, 2/26/98)(AP, 2/26/98)   

1815        Feb, Congress appropriated funds for the restoration of the White House and hired James Hoban, the original designer and builder, to do the work.
    (SFEC, 7/4/99, Par p.5)

1815        Mar 1, In France, returning from Elba, Napoleon landed at Cannes with a force of 1, 500 men and marched on Paris.
    (HN, 3/1/99)
1815        Mar 1, Sunday observance in Netherlands was regulated by law.
    (SC, 3/1/02)

1815        Mar 2, To put an end to robberies by the Barbary pirates, the United States declared war on Algiers.
    (HN, 3/2/99)

1815        Mar 5, Friedrich (Franz) Anton Mesmer (b.1734), German physician who pioneered the medical field of hypnotic therapy, died in obscurity in Meersburg, Swabia (now Germany). He was suspected of having seduced a pretty pianist while attempting to cure her blindness through hypnosis.
    (HN, 5/23/98)(WSJ, 5/30/00, p.A24)(MC, 3/5/02)

1815        Mar 16, William I (1772-1843), prince of Orange-Nassau, proclaimed the Netherlands a kingdom at the urging of the powers gathered at the Congress of Vienna. In 1813 he had proclaimed himself 'Sovereign Prince' of the "United Netherlands."
    (Econ, 4/13/13, p.55)

1815        Mar 20, Napoleon Bonaparte entered Paris, beginning his "Hundred Days" rule. He had escaped from his imprisonment on the island of Elba off the coast of Tuscany. He gathered his veterans and marched on Paris. At Waterloo, Belgium, he met the Duke of Wellington, commander of the allied anti-French forces and was resoundingly defeated. Napoleon was then imprisoned on the island of St. Helena in the south Atlantic. In 1997 Gregor Dallas published: The Final Act: The Roads to Waterloo." the book includes a good account of the Congress of Vienna.
    (AP, 3/20/97)(V.D.-H.K.p.232)(SFEC,11/2/97, Par p.10)(HN, 3/20/98)

1815        Apr 1, Otto von Bismarck (d.1898), German statesman, was born. He founded the German Empire and was the chancellor of Germany, the Second Reich, from 1866-90 [1971-1990]. The Iron Chancellor created the modern social insurance state when he introduced transfer payments to appease worker insecurities. "History is simply a piece of paper covered with print; the main thing is still to make history, not to write it." "Every man had his basic worth - from which must be subtracted his vanity.
    (WUD, 1994, p.151)(AP, 11/6/97)(WSJ, 4/24/98, p.A14)(SFEC, 3/7/99, Z1 p.8)(HN, 4/1/99)

1815        Apr 5, Mount Tambora on Sumbawa Island, Indonesia, in the Java Sea began erupting. [see Apr 10]
    (NOHY, 3/90, p.41)(www.britannica.com/eb/article?tocId=9071099)

1815        Apr 6, At Dartmoor Prison in southwest England 7 American prisoners were killed by British soldiers under the command of Captain Thomas G. Shortland. Some 6,000 prisoners were awaiting return to the US. A farmer’s jury with no victims or witnesses issued a verdict on April 8 of "justifiable homicide."
    (AH, 10/02, p.36)

1815        Apr 10, A third of the 13,000 foot Mount Tambora on Sumbawa Island, Indonesia, was blasted into the air. Some 50,000 islanders were killed and the whole planet was shrouded in a debris of sulfuric droplets. In 2006 scientist reported finding traces of Tambora society. Tsunamis and starvation that followed killed an estimated 60-120 thousand people.
    (www.sullivan-county.com/immigration/e3.htm)(AP, 2/28/06)(Econ., 4/11/15, p.21)

1815        Apr 28, Andrew Jackson Smith (d.1897), Major General (Union volunteers), was born.
    (MC, 4/28/02)

1815        Apr 24, Anthony Trollope (d.1882), British novelist, was born. His 47 novels included "The American Senator." His 33rd novel was "The Way We Live Now" (1875). "Nobody holds a good opinion of a man who has a low opinion of himself." An essay by Cynthia Ozick on the novel is in her 1996 book "Fame and Folly."
    (WSJ, 5/22/96, p.A-18)(AP, 10/13/97)(WSJ, 6/9/00, p.W17)(HN, 4/24/01)(Econ, 4/11/20, p.67)

1915        Apr, Arthur R. Smith (20) auditioned to fly for the Panama-Pacific Expo in SF and performed 14 consecutive loop-the-loops. He painted each loop with a stream of gray smoke. He died in 1926 while testing a new airplane on a night flight from Chicago to Bryan.
    (Ind, 9/5/98, p.5A)
1815        Apr, British General Arthur Wellesley, duke of Wellington, began assembling troops at Brussels, Belgium. 73,000 British troops were joined by 33,000 German, Dutch and Belgian troops preparing to face Napoleon. Prussian Gen. Gebhard Leberecht von Blucher gathered an army of 120,000 southeast of Brussels.
    (ON, 4/06, p.1)

1815        May 5, Eugene-Marin Labiche, French playwright, was born.
    (MC, 5/5/02)

1815        May 29, Cornelis de Gijselaar (64), politician, patriot, died.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1815        Jun 1, James Gillray (b.1757), British caricaturist and printmaker, died. He is famous for his etched political and social satires, mainly published between 1792 and 1810.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Gillray)(Econ, 12/19/09, p.99)

1815        Jun 8, The Congress of Vienna ended. Negotiations had begun in 1812 to rearrange Europe following the defeat of Napoleon. The final conclave began Nov 1, 1814. In 2007 Adam Zamoyski authored “Rites of Peace: The Fall of Napoleon and the Congress of Vienna."
    (www.victorianweb.org/history/forpol/vienna.html)(WSJ, 8/1/07, p.D7)

1815        Jun 16, Napoleon defeated the Prussians at the Battle of Ligny, Belgium.
1815        Jun 16, A French attack at the crossroads called Quatre Bras badly mauled Anglo-Dutch army under Wellington, but failed to rout it or to take the crossroads. Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte had marched into Belgium to find himself confronted by two allied armies, which he tried to split apart. Although similarly battered at Ligny that day, the Prussian army also retired intact. Both armies would face Napoleon again two days later at Waterloo.
    (HNPD, 6/16/99)(Econ, 5/23/15, p.71)

1815        Jun 17, A heavy rainstorm prevented French forces from catching up with Wellington’s army as they retreated to Waterloo.
    (Econ, 7/16/05, p.15)(ON, 4/06, p.3)

1815        Jun 18, British and Prussian troops under the Duke of Wellington defeated Napoleon Bonaparte and his forces at the Battle of Waterloo in Belgium. The French elite troops of the Imperial Guard wore bearskins to appear more intimidating. Afterwards Britain established towering bear skin hats for soldiers in ceremonial duties and to guard royal residencies and the Tower of London. Field Marshal Gebhard Leberecht von Blucher made a short speech to his troops saying that he was pregnant and about to give birth to an elephant. He was taken from the front in protective custody and missed the battle. Napoleon lost over 40,000 men at Waterloo; the British and Belgians lost 15,000; the Prussians lost 7,000. The total losses in 3 days of fighting was later estimated at 91,800. In 2002 Andrew Roberts authored "Napoleon and Wellington." In 2005 Andrew Roberts authored “Waterloo: Napoleon’s Last Gamble."
    (SFEC, 2/28/99, Z1p.10)(WSJ, 9/13/02, p.W10)(Econ, 2/12/05, p.81)(ON, 4/06, p.5)
1815        Jun 18, Thomas Picton (b.1758), Welsh officer of the British Army, died at the Battle of Waterloo. He came to public attention initially for his alleged cruelty during his governorship (1797–1803) of Trinidad.

1815        Jun 22, Napoleon Bonaparte abdicated a second time.
    (AP, 6/22/97)

1815        Jun 30, US naval hero Stephen Decatur signed a treaty ending attacks by Algerian pirates. Commodores Stephen Decatur and William Bainbridge had conducted successful operations against the Barbary States of Algiers, Tunis and Tripoli  [See Aug 5].
    (WSJ, 10/9/01, p.A22)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Barbary_War)

1815        Jul 7, After defeating Napoleon at Waterloo, the victorious Allies marched into Paris.
    (HN, 7/7/98)

1815        Jul 8, With Napoleon defeated, Louis XVIII returned to Paris.
    (HN, 7/8/98)

1815        Jul 9, The 1st US natural gas well was discovered.
    (MC, 7/9/02)
1815        Jul 9, King Louis XVIII left Ghent for France.
    (MC, 7/9/02)

1815        Jul 15, Napoleon Bonaparte was captured and exiled to St Helena. [see Jul 17]
    (MC, 7/15/02)

1815        Jul 17, Napoleon Bonaparte surrendered to the British at Rochefort, France.
    (HN, 7/17/98)

1815        Aug 1, Richard Henry Dana (d.1882), US jurist, novelist, lawyer and sailor, was born. He wrote "Two Years Before the Mast."
    (WUD, 1994, p.366)(SFEC, 2/9/97, p.W5)(MC, 8/1/02)

1815        Aug 5, A peace treaty with Tripoli, which followed treaties with Algeria (Jun 30) and Tunis (Aug 28), brought an end to the Barbary Wars. Commodores Stephen Decatur and William Bainbridge had conducted successful operations against the Barbary States of Algiers, Tunis and Tripoli.
    (HN, 8/5/98)(WSJ, 10/9/01, p.A22)(ON, 10/06, p.10)

1815        Aug 8, Napoleon Bonaparte set sail for St. Helena, in the South Atlantic, to spend the remainder of his days in exile.
    (AP, 8/8/97)

1815        Sep 8, Alexander Ramsey (d.1903), territorial governor of Minnesota (1849-1853), was born near Harrisburg, Pa.

1815        Sep 9, John Singleton Copley (b.1737), American artist, died in London.

1815        Aug, The merchant ship Commerce, under Capt. James Riley (1877-1939) of Connecticut, wrecked off the northwest coast of Africa. He survived captivity under Muslim slave traders and endured a lengthy trek across the Sahara. He later authored “Sufferings in Africa" (1817) and "An authentic Narrative of the Loss of the American Brig Commerce" (1818). In 2004 Dean King authored "Skeletons on the Zahara: A True Story of Survival."
    (SSFC, 2/22/04, p.M1)(WSJ, 6/2/07, p.P8)

1815        Sep 26, Russia, Prussia and Austria signed a Holy Alliance. "Justice, charity and peace" were to be the precepts that guided the Holy Alliance as envisioned by Czar Alexander I of Russia. The alliance of Russia, Austria and Prussia was formed after the downfall of Napoleon and later all European rulers signed the agreement except the prince regent of Great Britain, the pope and the sultan of Turkey. With no specific aims beyond mutual assistance, the provisions of the Holy Alliance were so vague that it had little effect on European diplomacy. Metternich quietly replaced the entire alliance by the purely political alliance of 20 November, 1815, between Austria, Prussia, Russia and England.
    (www.newadvent.org/cathen/07398a.htm)(HNQ, 7/7/98)

1815        Sep 28, Joachim Murat's fleet sailed from Corsica to Naples.
    (MC, 9/28/01)

1815        Oct 7, Marshal Ney, one of Napoleon’s most trusted field commanders, was condemned to death and shot for having left the services of the King.
    (HN, 10/7/98)

1815        Oct 8, General Joachim Murat's forces landed at Pizzo, Italy.
    (MC, 10/8/01)

1815        Oct 13, Joachim Murat, marshal of France and King of Naples (1808-15), was executed.
    (MC, 10/13/01)

1815        Oct 17, Napoleon (d.1821) arrived in St. Helena.
    (MC, 10/17/01)

1815        Oct 22, Ascension Island was garrisoned by the British Admiralty. For administrative purposes it was treated as a ship, the HMS Ascension. Some 20 million birds are believed to have lived on the island. By 2000 the number of birds was down to a few hundred thousand due to cats.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ascension_Island)(Econ, 12/18/10, p.160)(Econ, 9/14/13, SR p.9)

1815        Oct 29, Daniel Decatur Emmett, the composer of "Dixie," which became the unofficial national anthem of the Confederacy during the American Civil War, was born in Mount Vernon, Ohio. Organizer of one of the first minstrel shows, "Dixie" was written in 1859 as a concluding number, or "walk-around," for a minstrel show. Emmett died on June 28, 1904.
    (HNQ, 3/21/99)

1815        Oct 31, Sir Humphrey Davy of London patented miner's safety lamp after being hired by the Society for Preventing Accidents in Coal Mines.
    (MC, 10/31/01)(ON, 12/01, p.7)

1815        Nov 1, Crawford Williamson Long, surgeon and pioneer (use of ether), was born.
    (MC, 11/1/01)

1815        Nov 2, George Boole (d.1864), English-Irish mathematician and logician (Boolean algebra), was born.
    (WUD, 1994, p.170)(SFC, 12/2/97, p.C3)(MC, 11/2/01)

1815        Nov 3, Adrien Louis Victor Boieldieu, composer, was born.
    (MC, 11/3/01)

1815         Nov 12, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, a social reformer and militant feminist, was born in Johnstown, New York, and graduated from the Troy Female Seminary in 1832. She worked closely with Susan B. Anthony and served as president of the National Woman Suffrage Association. She died on October 26, 1902. She said, "The male element is a destructive force" in an address to the Women’s Suffrage Convention in Washington, D.C. in 1868.
    (AP, 11/12/97)(HNQ, 5/17/98)

1815        Nov 15, John Banvard, painter of the world’s largest painting (3 mile canvas), was born in NYC.
    (MC, 11/15/01)

1815        Nov 20, The treaties known collectively as the 2nd Peace of Paris were concluded. Austria’s Klemens von Metternich helped create a “Concert of Europe," a system by which 4-5 big powers kept miscreants in check and managed the affairs of smaller states for over a decade.
    (www.newadvent.org/cathen/07398a.htm)(http://tinyurl.com/2sqgp9)(Econ, 6/9/07, p.68)

1815        Nov 25, Johann Peter Saloman (70), composer, died.
    (MC, 11/25/01)

1815        Nov 27, Cracow, Poland, declared itself a free republic.
    (MC, 11/27/01)

1815        Nov 28, Johann Peter Salomon (70), composer, died.
    (MC, 11/28/01)

1815        Dec 10, Ada Lovelace (d. Nov 27, 1852), Lord Byron’s daughter and the inventor of computer language, was born. In 1998 the sci-fi film, "Conceiving Ada," was directed by Lynn Hershman-Leeson.
    (SFC, 1/22/98, p.D7)(SFC, 4/30/98, p.E1)

1815        Dec 22, Spanish colonial authorities executed Mexican revolutionary priest Jose Maria Morelos (b.1765).

1815        Dec 31, George Gordon Meade (d.1872), Union general, was born. He defeated Robert E. Lee at the Battle of Gettysburg.
    (HN, 12/31/99)(MC, 12/31/01)

1815        Adolph Menzel (d.1905), German painter, was born. He combined elements of many styles and was considered the greatest artist in Germany at the time and was Prussia’s foremost historical artist. He was considered Germany’s French Impressionist.
    (WSJ, 10/8/96, p.A20)(WSJ, 7/16/98, p.A16)

1815        J.M.W. Turner made paintings in this summer renowned for their red skies. The coloration was due to the April 5 eruption of Mt. Tambora in Indonesia.
    (SFEC, 7/9/00, Z1 p.2)

1815        The novel "Emma," by English writer Jane Austen (1774-1817), was published.
    (ON, 12/09, p.8)

1815        Nathaniel Coverly Jr. and ghostwriter Nathaniel Hill Wright published a fictitious narrative of the adventures of Lucy Brewer, a "Female Marine" who disguised herself as a sailor and served as a marine in the War of 1812.
    (WSJ, 2/22/00, p.A20)

1815        John Roulstone of Sterling, Mass., penned the first 3 stanzas of the poem "Mary Had a Little Lamb" after his classmate Mary Sawyer came to school followed by her pet lamb.
    (SFC, 8/24/98, p.B6)

1815        William Smith (d.1839), British geologist, made the 1st geological map of England and became impoverished in the process. In 2001 Simon Winchester authored "The Map That Changed the World."
    (RTH, 8/28/99)(WSJ, 8/17/01, p.W6)(SSFC, 8/26/01, DB p.86)

1815        Luis Arguello, the Spanish commander of El Presidio de San Francisco, began expanding the original 90-square-yard fort with new adobe wall and buildings.
    (SFC, 10/5/14, p.C2)
1815        The San Francisco de Asis church de Taos, New Mexico, was completed and still operates today as a parish church. It is one of the 6 adobe missions scattered along the western shoulder of the Sangre de Cristo mountains between Taos and Santa Fe, New Mexico.
    (AWAM, Dec. 94, p.68)(SFC, 5/12/96, p.T-5)

1815        Mackinaw Island, Michigan, was permanently signed over to the US.
    (SSFC, 7/27/03, p.C5)

1815        Jose Francisco de San Martin, governor of Cuyo, Argentina, founded a militia and prepared for an attack on Spanish royalists in Chile.
    (ON, 10/09, p.8)

1815        Austria’s chancellor Klemens von Metternich helped create a “Concert of Europe," a system by which 4-5 big powers kept miscreants in check and managed the affairs of smaller states for over a decade.
    (Econ, 6/9/07, p.68)
1815        Austria introduced a new marriage law requiring men to take a means test before they were permitted to wed.
    (Econ, 1/17/15, p.81)

1815        The city-state of Geneva, briefly the capital of the Kingdom of Burgundy, and then a republic, became part of the Confederation of Switzerland.
    (Hem., 1/96, p.81)

1815        The British Foreign Secretary, Lord Castlereagh, warned the Prime Minister, Lord Liverpool, that Czar Alexander must be watched and resisted just like Napoleon.
    (WSJ, 7/10/96, p.A16)
1815        Britain passed a law severely restricting grain imports from European neighbors. Austria retaliated with tariffs on wool and cotton. Sicily raised tariffs on textiles, Sweden raised tariffs on silk, wool, cotton, iron steel and copper. English manufacturers formed the anti-Corn-Law League to lobby against the measure.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R50)
1815        Britain took action against pirate sheikhs protected by the Wahabis, later rulers of Saudi Arabia, because ships of the East India Company were attacked in int’l. waters. Britain allied with the ruler of Muscat and Oman and Mohamed Ali of Egypt.
    (WSJ, 10/9/01, p.A22)
1815        The British took over Ceylon (Sri Lanka).
    (Arch, 7/02, p.34)
1815        British debt reached 745 million pounds.
    (Econ, 12/24/05, p.105)
1815        Following the wars with Napoleon John Barrow, 2nd secretary to the admiralty, directed the British Navy to a campaign of exploration. In 2000 Fergus Fleming authored "Barrow’s Boys," an account of the expeditions he generated.
    (WSJ, 4/18/00, p.A16)
1815        Nepalese soldiers, later known as Gurkhas, began serving in the British military.
    (Econ, 5/2/09, p.58)

1815        The first German Burschenschaft (fraternity) was founded in Jena, Germany.
    (Econ, 2/11/06, Survey p.15)

1815        Authorities in Milan issued an edict that forbade gambling in the back rooms of the opera houses including La Scala.
    (Civil., Jul-Aug., ‘95, p.88)
1815        Giovanni Battista Belzoni, Italian hydraulic engineer and vaudeville entertainer, arrived in Egypt and began to search for tombs of pharaohs.
    (NG, 9/98, p.19)
1815        Sant’ Antioco, Sardinia, was the site of the last big Moorish raid on Italy. More than a hundred Sardinians were seized as slaves.
    (Econ., 2/21/15, p.51)

1815        As part of the post-Napoleonic settlement at the Congress of Vienna, most of Lithuania was absorbed by Russia.
    (Compuserve, Online Encyclopedia)

1815        Switzerland became officially neutral.
    (SFC, 6/7/96, p.A12)

1815-1818    Famine stricken farmers in southwest China turned to growing opium, the most profitable crop then available. The famine was related to the 1815 eruption of Mount Tambora, Indonesia.
    (Econ, 7/19/14,p.71)

1815-1819    Mirza Saleh Shirazi, a Persian court intellectual, made a court-sponsored trip to Europe via Iran and the Caucasus during this period. He wrote one of the first books in Persian about a Christian country under the title of Travelogue (Safarnāmeh), narrating his journey.

1815-1820    The current Mission Santa Barbara in Santa Barbara, Ca. was built around an earlier structure damaged by earthquake. It is the 10th of California’s 21 missions and is the only one with twin towers.
    (AWAM, Dec. 94, p.66)

1815-1848    This period in US history was later covered in the book “Waking Giant: American in the Age of Jackson" (2008), by David S. Reynolds.
    (WSJ, 9/27/08, p.W10)

1815-1862    Edwin P. Christy, originator of the popular Negro minstrel shows.
    (BAAC PN, Chambers, 1/8/96)

1815-1864    Eliza Farnham, American reformer: "The ultimate aim of the human mind, in all its efforts, is to become acquainted with Truth."
    (AP, 11/23/98)

1815-1914    In 2016 Richard Evans authored “The Pursuit of Power: Europe 1815-1914."
    (Econ, 9/3/16, p.71)

1816        Jan 12, France decreed the Bonaparte family to be excluded from the country forever.
    (MC, 1/12/02)

1816        Feb 5, Gioachino Rossini's Opera "Barber of Seville" premiered in Rome.
    (MC, 2/5/02)

1816        Feb 13-14, Teatro San Carlo in Naples was destroyed by fire.
    (MC, 2/13/02)

1816        Mar 6, Jews were expelled from Free city of Lubeck, Germany.
    (MC, 3/6/02)

1816        Mar 20, the U.S. Supreme Court, in Martin vs. Hunter’s Lessee, affirmed its right to review state court decisions.
    (AP, 3/20/97)

1816        Mar 31, Francis Asbury (b.1745), English-born US itinerant Methodist minister, died in Virginia.

1816        Apr 21, Charlotte Bronte (d.1855), English novelist, writer of "Vilette" and "Jane Eyre," was born in Thornton, England. "Better to be without logic than without feeling." In 1999 Brian Wilks published "Charlotte in Love: The Courtship and Marriage of Charlotte Bronte."
    (WP, 1952, p.37)(AP, 9/13/99)(HN, 4/21/98)(WSJ, 7/28/99, p.A21)

1816        May 12, Lord Grimthorpe was born. He was the designer of "Big Ben," the most recognized structure in London.
    (HN, 5/12/99)

1816        May 24, Emanuel Leutze, US painter, was born. His work included  "Washington Crossing the Delaware" (1851).
    (MC, 5/24/02)

1816        Jun 6, There was a 10" snowfall in New England in this "year without a summer". The oceanographer Henry Stommel and his wife Elizabeth described this year in their (1983) book “Volcano Weather: The Story of 1816, The year Without a Summer." The 1815 eruption of Mt. Tambora lofted a cloud of ash that turned this summer into a virtual winter with snow in Europe and New England.
    (NOHY, 3/90, p.130)(SFC, 5/19/97, p.D1)

1816        Jun 18, French-born Argentine Capt. Hipolito Bouchard (1780-1837), having blocked the fortress of Callao, Peru, captured several ships including a 464-ton frigate called Consecuencia. Argentine patriot and investor Vicente Echevarria later purchased the ship, now renamed La Argentina, armed it with 34-artillery pieces and made Bouchard captain.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hippolyte_Bouchard)(SFC, 11/11/17, p.C3)

1816        Jul 3, Dorothea Jordan (65), French actress, mistress (William IV), died.
    (MC, 7/3/02)

1816        Jul 6, Philipp Meissner (67), composer, died.
    (MC, 7/6/02)

1816        Jul 9, Argentina declared independence from Spain. Argentina assumed that the Malvina Islands were included.
    (AP, 7/9/97)(SFC, 6/19/98, p.A12)

1816        Jul 11(Jun 11), Gas Light Co. of Baltimore was founded.
    (MC, 7/11/02)

1816        Jul 14, Francisco de Miranda (b.1750), Venezuela-born self-appointed leader of independence for South America from Spanish rule, died in a Spanish prison in Cadiz. He is regarded as a forerunner of Simón Bolívar, who during the Spanish American wars of independence successfully liberated much of South America.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francisco_de_Miranda)(Econ, 7/23/16, p.28)

1816        Jul 21, Paul Julius Baron von Reuter (d.1899), founder of the British news agency bearing his name, was born in Hesse, Germany, as Israel Beer Josaphat.
    (AP, 7/21/99)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paul_Julius_Reuter)

1816        Jul 27, US troops destroyed the Seminole Fort Apalachicola, to punish the Indians for harboring runaway slaves.
    (MC, 7/27/02)

1816        Jul 31, George Henry Thomas (d.1870), Union general in the Civil War whose bravery at the battle of Chickamauga earned him the nickname "the Rock of Chickamauga," was born.
    (HN, 7/31/98)(MC, 7/31/02)

1816        Aug 14, Great Britain annexed Tristan da Cunha.
    (MC, 8/14/02)

1816        Aug 24, Daniel Gooch, laid 1st successful transatlantic cables, was born.
    (MC, 8/24/02)

1816        Aug 27, Admiral Sir Edward Pellew, a noble from Devon, England, bombed Algiers, a refuge for Barbary pirates. He flew the green, white and black flag of St. Petroc. In 1836 the battle was pictured in a painting by George Chambers, Senior. Pellew was subsequently named Lord Exmouth.
    (http://tinyurl.com/gjooc)(Econ, 9/30/06, p.66)

1816        Sep 5, Louis XVIII of France dissolved the chamber of deputies, which had been challenging his authority.
    (HN, 9/5/98)

1816        Sep 12, Russian agents commenced construction of a Western-style fortress commanding Waimea Bay on the island of Kauai, named Fort Elizabeth after the Russian czarina. Before the fort was completed, Hawaiian King Kamehameha acted to force the Russians out. The Hawaiians finished construction of the fort and renamed it Fort Hipo.
    (HNQ, 6/5/99)

1816        Oct 7, The 1st double decked steamboat, Washington, arrived in New Orleans.
    (MC, 10/7/01)

1816        Nov 3, Jubal Anderson Early (d.1891), Lt. General (Confederate Army), was born.
    (MC, 11/3/01)

1816        Dec 2, The first savings bank in the United States, the Philadelphia Savings Fund Society, opened for business.
    (AP, 12/2/99)

1816        Dec 4, James Monroe of Virginia was elected the fifth president of the United States. He defeated Federalist Rufus King.
    (AP, 12/4/97)(MC, 12/4/01)

1816        Dec 10, The estranged wife of poet Percy Shelley committed suicide by drowning in London’s Hyde Park. 20 days later Percy married Mary Godwin, author of “Frankenstein" (1818).
    (ON, 11/07, p.8)

1816        Dec 11, Indiana became the 19th state.
    (AP, 12/11/97)

1816        Dec 13, E. Werner von Siemens, German artillery officer and inventor, was born.
    (MC, 12/13/01)
1816        Dec 13, Patent for a dry dock was issued to John Adamson in Boston.
    (MC, 12/13/01)

1816        Dec, Henry “Orator" Hunt made a speech in Spa fields in East London which was disrupted by a group of revolutionaries who murdered a gunsmith and plundered his shop. They then set off for London, but the insurrection was quickly put down.
    (Econ, 12/23/06, p.104)

1816        Jacques Louis David (1748-1825) painted the portrait: "Comte Henri-Amedee de Turenne".
    (WUD, 1994 p.369)

1816        Caspar David Friedrich, German romantic artist, painted "View of a Harbor." It was soon purchased by Friedrich Wilhelm III of Prussia as a birthday present for the crown prince.
    (WSJ, 1/3/97, p.A7)

1816        William Smith published his "Strata identified by Organized Fossils."
    (RFH-MDHP, p.70)

1816        William Cullen Bryant, James Fennimore Cooper, and Washington Irving were popular writers of this period.
    (A&IP, ESM, p.34)

1816        Robert Adams, the 1st Westerner to reach Timbuktu, transcribed an account of his experiences there as an enslaved American sailor.
    (Econ, 12/20/03, p.126)

1816        Jane Austin completed her last novel, "Persuasion." In 1995 it was made into a film by a British company.
    (WSJ, 10/6/95, p.A-8)

1816        Gioachino Rossini composed his opera "Otello."
    (SI-WPC, 1997)(SFC, 1/29/00, p.E3)(WSJ, 8/1/01, p.A12)

1816        The American Bible Society was founded. The first president was Elias Boudinot. He was succeeded by his vice president John Jay. In 1998 its library had 53,000 copies of the Bible in over 2,000 languages and dialects.
    (WSJ, 8/7/98, p.W13)

1816        Elijah Goodridge of Newbury, Massachusetts, was tried for committing robbery on his own person and then having Ebenezer Pearson arrested for the crime.
    (LSA., Fall 1995, p.22)

1816        The US passed the first tariff to protect its industries.
    (A&IP, ESM, p.34)

1816        The Second Bank of the US was chartered. It over-lent wildly and then called in its money sparking financial panic. Pres. Jackson ended its special status in 1836.
    (WSJ, 11/19/04, p.A8)(Econ, 12/24/05, p.91)

1816        Indiana was admitted to the Union.
    (A&IP, ESM, p.34)

1816        Pittsburgh was incorporated on the site of old Fort Pitt.
    (SFC, 1/29/00, p.E3)

1816        Medical records from upstate NY showed that a patient paid 25 cents to have a tooth pulled and $1.25 to have a baby.
    (SFEC, 6/27/99, Z1 p.8)

1816        Henry Hall, a Cape Cod farmer, discovered that sand spread over wild cranberry plants induced good growth.
    (Econ, 12/18/04, p.123)

1816        Naturalist Adelbert von Chamisso spent a month around SF Bay while aboard the Russian ship Rurik, which was circumnavigating the globe. Captain Otto von Kotzebue said the Gov. of California invited the crew to witness a bear and bull fight. Spanish troops captured a grizzly bear and a wild bull and chained them for battle on a beach.
    (SFC, 4/1/99, p.E1)(SFC, 3/4/17, p.C1)
1816        The California poppy was correctly described and named by Adelbert von Chamisso, a native Frenchmen driven to Germany by the revolution. He was appointed naturalist with the Russian scientific and trapping voyage of Kotzebue and developed an intimate relationship with the ship’s surgeon, Dr. Johann Frederich Eschscholtz, for whom he named the San Francisco poppy, Eschscholzia californica. [see 1792,1794, 1825-1833]
    (NBJ, 2/96, p.12)

1816        Gouverneur Morris (b.1752), chief writer of the US Constitution (1787), died at Morrisania, NY. In 2003 Richard Brookhiser authored "Gentleman Revolutionary," a biography of Morris.
    (WSJ, 5/28/03, p.D8)

1816         "Stille Nacht" (Silent Night) was originally written as a poem by Austrian priest Joseph Mohr, at a time of great suffering in the wake of Europe's Napoleonic wars. Two years later his friend, the organist, choirmaster and schoolteacher Franz Xaver Gruber, composed the melody. It was first performed at the chapel in Oberndorf village, near Salzburg, on Dec. 24, 1818.
    (AFP, 12/20/18)

1816        In London, England, William Cobbett brought out twopenny version of his Weekly Political Register on a single sheet of paper to avoid the stamp duty.
    (Econ, 12/23/06, p.103)(www.nndb.com/people/245/000049098/)
1816        Robert Stirling, British clergyman, proposed a sealed heated air engine to compete with the ubiquitous steam engine. His Stirling engine converted heat into mechanical energy by compressing and expanding a fixed quantity of gas.
    (Econ, 8/14/04, p.72)(Econ, 6/6/09, p.24)
1816        Beau Brummell, English dandy, first sought obscurity to escape his creditors.
    (SFC, 1/29/00, p.E3)
1816        Lord Byron (George Gordon), English romantic poet, separated from his wife Annabella (d.1860) following an incestuous relationship with his half-sister Augusta Leigh (d.1851). In 2002 David Crane authored "The Kindness of Sisters: Annabella Milbanke and the Destruction of the Byrons."
    (SSFC, 10/27/02, p.M2)
1816        Lord Byron and guests gathered at the Villa Diodati on Lake Geneva, Switz. It was here that Byron challenged his guests to write a ghost story. This led Mary Shelley to produce Frankenstein in 1818 and John Polidori to create his short story “The Vampyre" (1819).
    (Econ, 1/13/07, p.75)
1816        Lord Elgin sold his Parthenon sculptures to the British government for 35,000 pounds. A request in 1811 for 62,400 pounds had been rejected. Elgin later fled to France to avoid his creditors.
    (ON, 11/99, p.4)
1816        Two British naval ships under Captain Basil Hall landed at Okinawa, in the Ryukyu archipelago, which was then known as Loo-Choo. In 1818 Hall published an account of his voyage: “Account of a Voyage of Discovery to the West Coast of Corea, and the Great Loo-Choo Island."
    (Econ, 10/29/05, p.44)(www.polybiblio.com/bibliotrek/BT000004..html)
1816        The British founded Banjul (Gambia) as a trading post and base for suppressing the slave trade. Captain Alexander Grant obtained the sandy bank of Banjul Island by a treaty from the Chief of Kombo and built the planned city of Bathurst, renamed Banjul in 1973. The British renamed Banjul Island as St. Mary's Island and first named Bathurst after the 3rd Earl Bathurst, Secretary of State for War and the Colonies at the time. The name was changed to Banjul in 1973.

1816        General A.P.Yermolov served as Commander of the Russian army in the Caucasus. Military pressure intensifies as Russian troops continue to advance deep into Chechnya. Chechnya responded by stepping up its resistance movement, which, for more than 30 years, was headed by Beibulat Teimiev.

1816        In France Dr. Rene Theophile Hyacinthe Laennec invented the stethoscope.
    (ON, 9/00, p.11)
1816        In France  Joseph N. Niepce developed the first photographic negative. His earliest recorded image, an 1825 print of a man leading a horse, sold for $443,220 in 2002.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)(SFC, 7/14/99, p.4)(SFC, 3/22/02, p.A2)

1816        In Germany Johann Maelzel patented the metronome a couple of years after it was drawn up by Dutch inventor Dietrich Nikolaus Winkel.
    (SFC, 1/29/00, p.E3)

1816        Saartjie Baartman (26), taken from S. Africa in 1810, fell sick and died penniless and friendless in France after being exhibited as the "Hottentot Venus." Her body was dissected, her brain and genitals were bottled, and her skeleton was wired and exhibited in the Musee de l’Homme in Paris. In 1994 Nelson Mandela requested that she be returned home. In 2002 her remains were returned to S. Africa. In 2003 Barbara Chase-Ribaud authored the novel "Hottentot Venus" based on the Baartman story. In 2007 Rachel Holmes authored “African Queen: The Real Life of the Hottentot Venus."
    (SFC, 5/4/02, p.A8)(SSFC, 11/9/03, p.M6)(SFC, 1/1/07, p.D2)(Econ., 2/28/15, p.31)

1816        Mohammed Ali Pasha, Ottoman ruler over Egypt, sent Fredric Cailliaud, a French goldsmith and mineralogist, to find the Roman emerald mines of southeastern Egypt.
    (AM, 5/01, p.A38)

1816-1818    Bad weather around the world during this period was a result of the 1815 volcanic eruption of Mount Tambora in Indonesia.
    (Econ., 4/11/15, p.22)
1816-1841    Ellen Sturgis Hooper, American poet: "I slept, and dreamed that life was Beauty; I woke, and found that life was Duty."
    (AP, 8/5/00)

1816-1865    C.J. Thomsen, curator during these years of the Museum of Northern Antiquities (later the Danish National Museum), formulates the three age system, from stone to bronze to iron. He was probably helped in his ideas by the work of Goguet.
    (RFH-MDHP,1969, p.13)

1816-1876    Charlotte Saunders Cushman, American actress: "To me it seems as if when God conceived the world, that was Poetry; He formed it, and that was Sculpture; He colored it, and that was Painting; He peopled it with living beings, and that was the grand, divine, eternal Drama."
    (AP, 11/7/98)

1817        Jan 17, Jose Francisco de San Martin led a revolutionary army from Argentina over Andes into Chile.
    (ON, 10/09, p.10)

1817        Jan 25, Giocchino Rossini's opera "La Cenerentola" premiered in Rome. It was based on the Cinderella story.
    (WSJ, 11/2/95, p.A-12)(MC, 1/25/02)

1817        Feb 2, John Glover, English chemist (sulphuric acid), was born.
    (MC, 2/2/02)

1817        Feb 8, Richard Stoddert Ewell (d.1872(), Lt Gen (Confederate Army), was born.
    (MC, 2/8/02)

1817        Feb 12, Argentina’s Jose de San Martin, having led a revolutionary army over the Andes into Chile, helped defeat the Spanish forces at Chacabuco. The royalists lost 500 men in the battle and another 600 were taken prisoner.
    (www.gdws.co.uk/chacabuco.htm)(Econ, 4/25/09, p.87)(ON, 10/09, p.10)
1817        Feb 12, Under the leadership of Bernardo O‘Higgins, Chile gained its independence from Spain, when a combined Argentine and Chilean army defeated the Spaniards. O‘Higgins went on to become head of state on February 17, supported by the army but not favored by the oligarchy because he sought abolition of their privileges. Once the threat from Spain was eliminated from the region, opposition to O‘Higgins mounted. General unrest and a poor harvest combined to force O‘Higgins to abdicate his position in 1823. The official proclamation was made on Feb 12, 1818.
    (HNQ, 9/1/99)(AP, 2/12/07)

1817        Feb 14, Frederick Douglass (d.1895), "The Great Emancipator," was born in Maryland as Frederick Augustus Washington Bailey. He was the son of a slave and a white father who bought his own freedom and published “The Narrative Life of Frederick Douglass" (1845) a memoir of his life as a slave. "The life of the nation is secure only while the nation is honest, truthful, and virtuous."
    (AHD, 1971, p.394)(HN, 2/14/99)(AP, 2/20/99)(ON, 12/09, p.12)

1817        Feb 17, A street in Baltimore became the first to be lighted with gas from America’s first gas company.
    (AP, 2/17/98)

1817        Feb 18, Lewis Addison Armistead (d.1863), Brig General (Confederate Army), was born. He died leading "Pickett's Charge" on the final day of the Gettysburg battle.
    (MC, 2/18/02)
1817        Feb 18, Walter Paye Lane (d.1892), Brig General (Confederate Army), was born.
    (MC, 2/18/02)

1817        Feb 19, William III, King of the Netherlands, was born.
    (HN, 2/20/98)

1817        Mar 2, The 1st US Evangelical church building was dedicated in New Berlin, PA.
    (SC, 3/2/02)

1817        Mar 3, Mississippi Territory was divided into Alabama Territory and Mississippi.
    (SC, 3/3/02)
1817        Mar 3, The first commercial steamboat route from Louisville to New Orleans was opened.
    (HN, 3/3/99)

1817        Mar 22, Braxton Bragg (d.1876), Gen (Confederate Army), was born.
    (MC, 3/22/02)

1817        Mar 25, Tsar Alexander I recommended the formation of Society of Israeli Christians.
    (MC, 3/25/02)

1817        Apr 15, The first American school for the deaf opened in Hartford, Conn.
    (AP, 4/15/97)

1817        Apr 17, 1st US school for deaf  was founded in Hartford, Conn.
    (MC, 4/17/02)

1817        Apr 18, George Henry Lewes, philosophical writer, was born.
    (HN, 4/18/98)

1817        Apr 19, David Ricardo (1772-1823), British political economist, published "Principles of Political Economy and Taxation." Here Ricardo argued for the labor theory of value and explained why the best farmland often makes money for the landlord, not the farmer.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R20)(Econ, 11/5/05, p.91)(Econ, 4/22/17, p.69)

1817        Jun 12, Karl von Drais (1785-1851), German forest official and inventor, reportedly first rode his Laufmaschine ("running machine"), later called the velocipede, from about 7km from Mannheim to the "Schwetzinger Relaishaus." His machine incorporated the two-wheeler principle that is basic to the bicycle and motorcycle.

1817        Jun 27, Hipolito Bouchard obtained the Argentine corsair patent (a "letter of marque") that authorized him to prey on Spanish commerce.

1817        Jul 1, Dewitt Clinton (1769-1828) began serving his first term as governor of New York and continued to 1822.

1817        Jul 12, Henry David Thoreau (d.1862), essayist, naturalist and poet, was born in Concord, Mass. His work included "On Walden Pond." He referred to the three Greek goddesses of fate: Clotho (spinner of the thread of destiny), Lachesis (disposer of lots) and especially Atropos (who holds the scissors that will cut endeavor short). "We have constructed a fate, an Atropos, that never turns aside." He was also the author of the essays "Civil Disobedience and Slavery in Massachusetts."
    (AHD, p.1339)(Civil., Jul-Aug., '95, p.66)(HFA, '96, p.34)(HN, 7/12/98)

1817        Jul 14, Madame de Stael (51), writer and daughter of former French finance minister Jacques Necker, died. She was intimate with Benjamin Constant and their intellectual collaboration made them one of the most important intellectual pairs of their time. In 2005 Maria Fairweather authored “Madame de Stael." In 2008 Renee Winegarten authored the dual biography “Germaine de Stael & Benjamin Constant."
    (Econ, 3/19/05, p.88)(www.kirjasto.sci.fi/stael.htm)(WSJ, 6/23/08, p.A15)

1817        Jul 18, Jane Austen (b.1775), English writer, died at age 41. In 1869 her nephew James Edward Austen-Leigh published “A Memoir of Jane Austen." Austen had introduced a new narrative style which moved deftly between the narrator’s voice and the character’s innermost thoughts.
    (www.pemberley.com/janeinfo/janelife.html)(SFEC,11/9/97, BR p.3)(ON, 12/09, p.8)(Econ 7/15/17, p.71)

1817        Aug 18, Gloucester, Mass., newspapers told of a wild sea serpent seen offshore.
    (MC, 8/18/02)

1817        Aug 24, Aleksei K. Tolstoy, [Kozjma Prutkov], Russian poet, writer, was born.

1817        Sep 21, Carter Littlepage Stevenson, Major General (Confederate Army), was born.
    (MC, 9/21/01)

1817        Sep 23, Leon Charles Francois Kreutzer, composer, was born.
    (MC, 9/23/01)

1817        Oct 13, William Kirby, Canadian writer, was born.
    (HN, 10/13/00)

1817        Oct 15, Tadeusz AB Kosciusko (b.1746), Polish Lt-Gen. and American Revolution freedom fighter, died.
    (MC, 10/15/01)

1817        Oct 19, Tom Taylor, British playwright, was born. His play "Our American Cousin" was being performed at Ford’s Theater when President Abraham Lincoln was assassinated by John Wilkes Boothe.
    (HN, 10/19/98)

1817        Oct 20, The 1st Mississippi "Showboat," left Nashville on maiden voyage.
    (MC, 10/20/01)

1817        Oct, Pres. and Mrs. James Monroe moved back into the restored White House.
    (SFEC, 7/4/99, Par p.5)

1817        Nov 8, Andrea Appiana (63), Italian royal painter of Napoleon, died.
    (MC, 11/8/01)

1817        Nov 9, Edward Richard Sprigg Canby, Major General (Union volunteers), was born.
    (MC, 11/9/01)

1817        Nov 10, The Tennessee legislature enacted laws that defined the common boundary with Georgia and created a boundary commission to jointly survey and mark the state border.

1817        Nov 12, Mirza Hoseyn 'Ali Nuri (Baha' Ullah), founder of the Baha'i faith, was born.
    (HN, 11/12/00)

1817        Nov 20, 1st Seminole War began in Florida. [see Nov 27]
    (MC, 11/20/01)

1817        Nov 21, Richard Brooke Garnett (d1863), Brig General (Confederate Army), was born. He died at Gettysburg.
    (MC, 11/21/01)

1817        Nov 22, Fredric Cailliaud discovered the old Roman emerald mines at Sikait, Egypt.
    (AM, 5/01, p.39)

1817        Nov 27, US soldiers attacked a Florida Indian village and began the Seminole War. [see Nov 20]
    (MC, 11/27/01)

1817        Nov, William Wirt was selected as the attorney general. He served for 11 years and 3 months.
    (SFC, 1/11/99, p.A5)

1817        Dec 7, William Bligh (63), British naval officer of "Bounty" infamy, died.
    (MC, 12/7/01)

1817        Dec 10, Mississippi was admitted as the 20th state of the Union.
    (HFA, ‘96, p.44)(AP, 12/10/97)

1817        Dec 16, The Georgia legislature enacted laws that defined the common boundary with Tennessee and created a boundary commission to jointly survey and mark the state border.

1817        Dec 28, Benjamin Robert Haydon (d.1846), British painter, threw a dinner party in London to show his nearly completed painting "Christ’s Entry Into Jerusalem" and to introduce poet John Keats to William Wordsworth. Other guests included essayist Charles Lamb. In 2002 Penelope Hughes-Hallett authored "The Immortal Dinner."
    (WSJ, 9/13/02, p.W10)

1817        Dec, The book “Northanger Abbey," by English novelist Jane Austen (1775-1817), was published following her death in July. It was written around 1798-1799 and revised in 1803.

1817        Francis Beaufort (1774-1857), Irish-born hydrogapher, authored a best-selling travel book about the southern coast of Turkey.
    (NH, 11/1/04, p.51)

1817        John Bradbury, Scottish naturalist, authored "Travels in the Interior of America in the Years 1809, 1810 and 1811."
    (ON, 10/99, p.6)

1817        William Hazlitt, the finest of the romantic critics, published "Characters of Shakespeare’s Plays."
    (WSJ, 10/23/98, p.W8)

1817        Dr. William Kitchiner authored his cookbook "Apicius Redivivus, or the Cook's Oracle." It included 11 ketchup recipes, including 2 each for mushroom, walnut and tomato ketchups, and one each for cucumber, oyster and cockles and mussels ketchups.
    (SFC, 8/27/03, p.E4)

1817        Thomas Love Peacock, a friend and neighbor of poet Percy Bysshe Shelley, authored his comic novel “Melincourt." A character in the novel was based on Shelley.
    (Econ, 12/23/06, p.94)

1817        Percy Bysshe Shelley (25), English romantic poet, authored his sonnet “Ozymandias." It was first published in 1818.
    (Econ, 12/21/13, p.125)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ozymandias)

1817        The multi-volume "Flora Brasiliensis" was commissioned by Maximilian I of Austria. The definitive volume on Brazilian botany was completed in 1906.
    (WSJ, 7/7/98, p.A14)

1817        Tuscumbia, Alabama was founded by the US government.
    (Postcard, Polychrome Picture Products)

1817        Jose Manuel Boronda and his family arrived in Monterey from San Francisco. They were among the first to build a home outside the walls of the city.
    (SSFC, 3/3/19, p.M8)

1817         Work began on the Erie Canal, more properly named the New York State Barge Canal. The canal connected Lake Erie with the Hudson and opened on October 26, 1825. The canal was proposed by NY Gov. Dewitt Clinton and detractors called it "Clinton's Folly." Workers were paid a quart of whiskey a day plus $1. [see 1826]
    (WSJ, 7/3/96, p.A8)(HN, 7/4/98)(IB, Internet, 12/7/98)(SFEC, 12/27/98, Z1 p.8)(SFEC, 1/31/99, Z1 p.8)

1817        The Univ. of Michigan was founded by a Presbyterian minister, John Monteith, and a Catholic priest, Gabriel Richard and Judge Gus Woodward. The Univ. of Michigan was established by a Michigan Public Act under a Board of Regents.
    (MT, 12/94, p.2-3)(LSA., Fall 1995, p.10)(MT, Fall ‘96, p.10)

1817        The New York Stock and Exchange Board (NYSE) was formalized and established its first quarters in a rented room at 40 Wall St.
    (SFC, 4/23/98, p.D2)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R43)

1817        Frederick Eberle was tried for illegally conspiring to prevent the introduction of the English language into German Lutheran church services in Philadelphia.
    (LSA., Fall 1995, p.22)

1817        Sir Thomas Stamford Bingley Raffles (1781-1826), British statesman, wrote a book entitled “History of Java." He was heavily involved in the conquest of the Indonesian island of Java from Dutch and French military forces during the Napoleonic Wars and contributed to the expansion of the British Empire.
    (Econ, 11/10/12, p.88)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stamford_Raffles)
1817        Britain banned private coins. They had been issued to address a major shortage of government coinage. From 1787 to 1797 and again from 1811 to 1818, the greater part of Great Britain's stock of coins came not from the Royal Mint in London but from a score of private mints in Birmingham.
    (WSJ, 1/5/09, p.A11)(http://mises.org/story/3168)

1817        The Bank of Montreal was established as Canada's first bank. It later became known as BMO Financial Group.
    (AFP, 1/28/14)

1817        In Egypt Giovanni Battista Belzoni discovered the tomb of Seti I.
    (NG, 9/98, p.19)

1817        Baron Karl de Drais de Sauerbrun of Germany invented the draisienne, the first 2-wheeled, rider-propelled machine and exhibited it in Paris in 1818. The vehicle came to be known as the “velocipede," a 2-wheeled running machine without pedals.
    (www.cycle-info.bpaj.or.jp/english/learn/bcc02.html)(Wired, 2/98, p.172)(Econ, 2/5/05, p.77)

1817        The Metropolitan Cathedral in Mexico City was completed.
    (Hem., 1/96, p.49)

1817        Pedro Moreno and Victor Rosales died fighting Spain in western Mexico. Their bodies were among 14 later placed in urns as hero’s of Mexico’s 1810-1821 independence movement. In 1925 urns holding the remains were sealed in crypts at the Independence monument. Others in the urns included Miguel Hidalgo and Ignacio Allende.
    (AP, 8/14/10)

1817        The Dutch and French agreed on a final pact to divide the control of St. Martin Island. The southern Dutch half comprises the Eilandgebied Sint Maarten (Island Territory of St. Maarten) and is part of the Netherlands Antilles. The northern French half comprises the Collectivité de Saint-Martin (Collectivity of St. Martin) and is an overseas collectivity of France.

1817        Spain formally accepted the principle to abolish slavery.
    (WSJ, 12/16/97, p.A18)

1817-1819    Titian Ramsey Peale was curator at the Academy of Natural Sciences in Philadelphia; and again from 1825-1931. He helped amass one of the largest and earliest systematic collections of insects in the US. He invented special book boxes for mounting moths and butterflies between sheets of glass.
    (NH, 7/96, p.4)

c1817-1924    Pierre Joseph Redoute printed "Les Roses."
    (SFEM, 4/6/97, p.16)

1817-1825    James Monroe became the 5th President of the US. [see 1758-1831, Monroe]
    (A&IP, ESM, p.96b, photo)(WUD, 1994, p.927)

1818        Jan 1, An official reopening of the White House took place after being repaired from burning by British during War of 1812.
    (SFEC, 7/4/99, Par p.5)(http://tinyurl.com/7uewdhv)
1818        Jan 1, The novel "Frankenstein" by Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley (1797-1851) was published anonymously. It was an attack on industrialization. The work stemmed from a contest in 1816 at Byron’s Villa Diodati in Geneva, between Byron, Shelley and Mary to produce a ghost story. In 1998 Joan Kane Nichols published "Mary Shelley: Frankenstein’s Creator." In 2006 Dorothy and Thomas Hoobler authored “The Monsters: Mary Shelley and the Curse of Frankenstein." In 2007 Susan Tyler Hitchcock authored “Frankenstein: A Cultural History."
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)(SSFC, 5/21/06, p.M6)(WSJ, 10/30/07, p.D6)(ON, 11/07, p.8)

1818        Jan 2, Lord Byron completed "Childe Harold's Pilgrimage" (4th canto).
    (MC, 1/2/02)

1818        Feb 7, The first successful U.S. educational magazine, Academician, began publication in New York City.
    (HN, 2/7/99)

1818        Feb 11, In Louisiana sugar plantation owner Levi Foster sold to his in-laws the slaves named Kit (28) for $975 and Alick (9) for $400. In 2000 Gwendolyn Midlo Hall and LSU Press published a CD-ROM database on Louisiana slave transactions: "Databases for the Study of Afro-Louisiana History and Genealogy, 1699-1860: Computerized Information from Original Manuscript Sources."
    (SFEC, 7/30/00, p.)(www.afrigeneas.com)

1818        Feb 12, Chile officially proclaimed its independence, more than seven years after initially renouncing Spanish rule [see Feb 12, 1817].
    (AP, 2/12/07)

1818        Mar 28, Wade Hampton (d.1902), Confederate general, was born.
    (HN, 3/28/98)(MC, 3/28/02)
1818        Mar 28, Giuseppe Antonio Capuzzi (62), composer, died.
    (MC, 3/28/02)

1818        Apr 4, Congress decided the flag of the United States would consist of 13 red and white stripes and 20 stars, with a new star to be added for every new state of the Union.
    (AP, 4/4/97)(HN, 4/4/98)

1818        Apr 7, Gen. Andrew Jackson captured St. Marks, Fla., from the Seminole Indians.
    (MC, 4/7/02)

1818        Apr 14, The US Medical Corp. formed.
    (MC, 4/14/02)

1818        Apr 16, U.S. Senate ratified the Rush-Bagot amendment to form an unarmed U.S.-Canada border. The Rush-Bagot Agreement between Great Britain and the U.S. had to do with mutual disarmament on the Great Lakes. In the exchange of notes between British minister to the U.S. Charles Bagot and Richard Rush, Acting Secretary of State, the countries agreed to limits on their inland naval forces. A sequel to the Treaty of Ghent, the agreement was approved by the U.S. Senate on April 16, 1818.
    (HN, 4/16/98)(HNQ, 6/7/00)

1818        Apr 18, A regiment of Indians and blacks was defeated at the Battle of Suwanna, in Florida, ending the first Seminole War.
    (HN, 4/18/99)

1818        Apr 28, President Monroe proclaimed naval disarmament on the Great Lakes and Lake Champlain.
    (HN, 4/28/98)

1818        Apr 29, Alexander II, Tsar of Russia (1855-1881), was born.
    (HN, 4/29/98)(MC, 4/29/02)

1818        Apr, Dr. John William Polidori published “The Vampyre," a novel based on an unpublished story fragment by Lord Byron. Polidori was Byron’s personal physician.
    (ON, 11/07, p.8)

1818        May 5, Karl Marx, German philosopher, was born in Prussia. He argued that history was marked by various stages of class struggle and capitalism which had overcome feudalism would in turn be overcome by socialism and the elimination of private property. He and Friedrich Engels founded Communism (1847). Together they wrote "The Communist Manifesto" and "Das Capital."
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R20)(AP, 5/5/97)(HN, 5/5/99)

1818        May 10, Paul Revere (b.1735) American patriot, died in Boston. Revere, best known for his midnight ride, fathered 16 children-eight by his first wife Sarah Orne and eight by his second wife, Rachel Walker. Born to Apollos Rivoire and Deborah Hitchbourne, Paul Revere was one of 13 children.
    (AP, 5/10/97)(HNQ, 7/26/99)

1818        May 20, William George Fargo, one of the founders of Wells, Fargo & Co., actor, was born.
    (HN, 5/20/98)

1818        May 24, Gen. Andrew Jackson captured Pensacola, Florida.
    (MC, 5/24/02)

1818        May 25, Jacob Christoph Burckhardt (d.1897), Swiss cultural historian, was born. "The people no longer believe in principles, but will probably periodically believe in saviors." "Neither in the life of the individual nor in that of mankind is it desirable to know the future."
    (AP, 5/6/98)(AP, 6/11/98)(SC, 5/25/02)

1818        May 27, Amelia Jenks Bloomer (d.1894), American reformer who popularized the "bloomers" garment that bears her name, was born in Homer, N.Y. Amelia Jenks Bloomer, Seneca Falls, N.Y., was the editor of The Lily, a periodical "devoted to the interests of women. "Along with her support of woman suffrage and temperance, Bloomer was an advocate of dress reform. Believing that restrictive corsets and cumbersome skirts were injurious to the health of women, in the 1850s Bloomer designed and often wore a comfortable costume of a short skirt worn over baggy trousers drawn tight at the ankle. Bloomer’s costume, portrayed in this Currier and Ives print, became so controversial that any reasonable talk of dress reform was drowned out by the jeers. Finally, Elizabeth Cady Stanton advised bloomer advocates to abandon the costume. It was not until the 1930s and 40s that women began wearing pants, although bloomers were the inspiration for early bicycling and beach apparel.
    (AP, 5/27/99)(HNPD, 9/9/98)

1818        May 28, P.G.T. Beauregard, Confederate general, was born. He first fired on Fort Sumpter and fought at First Manassas, and Shiloh.
    (HN, 5/28/99)

1818        Jun 1, Mathematician James Camak demarcated the border between Georgia and Tennessee. Due to a faulty sextant and bad astronomical charts he drew the line a mile south of the intended boundary, the 35th parallel.
    (Econ, 3/15/08, p.42)(www.profsurv.com/archive.php?article=1215&issue=86)

1818        Jun 2, The British army defeated the Maratha alliance in Bombay, India.
    (HN, 6/2/98)

1818        Jun 10, Pesaro opera theater opened with Rossini's "La Gaza Ladra."
    (MC, 6/10/02)

1818        Jun 16, An ice-dammed lake in the Val de Bagnes above Martigny broke through its barrier causing many deaths. This event led Jean de Charpentier to focus on Swiss glaciers and then influence Louis Agassiz with his ideas regarding glacier development.

1818        Jun 17, Charles Francois Gounod, opera composer of "Faust" and "Romeo et Juliette," was born in Paris, France.
    (MC, 6/17/02)

1818        Jul 1, Ignaz Semmelweis (d.1865), Hungarian gynecologist, was born. He later connected childbed fever to doctors who spread of germs due to their failure to wash their hands. In 2003 Sherwin B. Nuland authored "The Doctors' Plague: Germs, Childbed Fever and the Strange Story of Ignac Semmelweis."
    (MC, 7/1/02)(SSFC, 11/23/03, p.M3)

1818        Jul 30, Emily Bronte (d.1848), English author of "Wuthering Heights," was born. She was the younger sister of Charlotte Bronte and died of tuberculosis.
    (WP, 1952, p.38)(HN, 7/30/98)(WSJ, 7/28/99, p.A21)

1818        Aug 1, Maria Mitchell (d.1889), the first female astronomer in the U.S., was born. She discovered a comet in 1847 and was the first prof. of astronomy at Vassar College. In 1869 she was the first woman elected to the American Philosophical Society.
    (Alg, 1990, p.30)(HN, 8/1/00)

1818        Aug 7, Henri Charles Litolff, French composer, pianist, was born.
    (MC, 8/7/02)   

1818        Aug 13, Suffragist Lucy Stone, women’s rights activist, founder of Woman’s Journal, was born in West Brookfield, Mass.
    (AP, 8/13/97)(HN, 8/13/98)

1818        Aug 22, Warren Hastings (85), 1st governor-general of India (1773-84), died.
    (MC, 8/22/02)

1818        Aug 28, Jean Baptiste Pointe du Sable, trader, founder of Chicago, died.
    (MC, 8/28/01)

1818        Aug, The frigate La Argentina, commanded by privateer Hipolito Bouchard, arrived in Hawaii. There he acquired a 280-ton corvette called the Santa Rosa de Chacabuco, whose crew had mutinied and sold her to the king of Hawaii.
    (SFC, 11/11/17, p.C3)

1818        Sep 12, Richard Gatling (d.1903), American inventor, was born. The Gatling gun, an early type of machine gun, was named after him.

1818        Oct 8, 2 English boxers were 1st to use padded gloves.
    (MC, 10/8/01)

1818        Oct 15, Irvin McDowell (d.1985), Major General (Union volunteers), was born.
    (MC, 10/15/01)

1818        Oct 19, US and Chickasaw Indians signed a treaty.
    (MC, 10/19/01)

1818        Oct 20, The United States and Britain established the 49th Parallel as the boundary between Canada and the United States.
    (HN, 10/20/98)

1818        Oct 22, Leconte de Lisle, writer, was born.
    (MC, 10/22/01)

1818        Oct 24, Felix Mendelssohn (9) performed his 1st public concert in Berlin.
    (MC, 10/24/01)

1818        Oct 25, Argentine privateer Frenchman Hipolito Bouchard aboard La Argentina and Englishman Peter Corney in command of the Santa Rosa set sail from Hawaii for Alta California with 360 men and 52 canons.
    (SFC, 11/11/17, p.C3)

1818        Oct 28, Abigail Adams, wife of former Pres. John Adams, died. In 1975 some 200 letters of Abigail Adams were published as “The Book of Abigail and John."
    (WSJ, 2/10/07, p.P8)(www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=4)
1818        Oct 28, Ivan Turgenev (d.1883), Russian novelist, poet, playwright (Fathers & Sons), was born. [see Nov 9]
    (MC, 10/28/01)

1818        Nov 1, James Renwick, architect, was born. His work included St. Patrick’s Cathedral in NYC.
    (HN, 11/1/00)

1818        Nov 5, Benjamin Butler (d.1893), later Union Civil War general, was born in New Hampshire.

1818        Nov 9, Ivan Turgenev, Russian author, was born. His work includes "Fathers and Sons" and "A Month in the Country." [see Oct 28]
    (HN, 11/9/00)

1818        Nov 21, Argentine privateers Frenchman Hipolito Bouchard and Englishman Peter Corney led a 2-ship attack against the presidio at Monterey, Ca. The women, children, and men unfit to fight were sent to an inland mission at Soledad. Five of the attackers were killed as Commander Pablo Vicente de Sola defended the fort.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hippolyte_Bouchard)(SFC, 10/10/03, p.B3)(SFC, 11/25/17, p.C2)
1818        Nov 21, Russia's Czar Alexander I petitioned for a Jewish state in Palestine.
    (MC, 11/21/01)

1818        Nov 22, Argentine privateer Hipolito Bouchard led 200 men and nine boats ashore in Monterey. Bouchard’s men, 130 with rifles and 70 with spears landed 7 km (4.3 mi) away from the Monterey fort. The fort resisted ineffectively, and after an hour of combat the Argentine flag flew over it. The Argentines took the city for six days, during which time they stole the cattle and burned the fort, the artillery headquarters, the governor's residence and the Spanish houses. The town's residents were unharmed.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hippolyte_Bouchard)(SFC, 11/25/17, p.C2)

1818        Nov 23, Spanish soldier Dolores Cantua galloped into the Presidio of San Francisco to report that two foreign ships had just attacked Monterey.
    (SFC, 11/11/17, p.C1)

1818        Dec 3, Illinois was admitted as the 21st state.
    (AP, 12/3/97)(HN, 12/3/98)

1818        Dec 13, Mary Todd Lincoln, wife of President Abraham Lincoln, was born.
    (HN, 12/13/98)

1818        Dec 14, The pirate Hippolyte Bouchard demanded gunpowder and other supplies from the padres at Mission San Juan Capistrano, Ca. The padres refused and the pirate sent 140 men to destroy the mission and the town was stripped of its provisions.
    (HT, 3/97, p.61)

1818        Dec 21, Lewis H. Morgan, US ethnologist (Systems of Consanguinity), was born.
    (MC, 12/21/01)

1818        Dec 24, James Prescott Joule (d.1889), British physicist, was born. Joule studied the nature of heat, and discovered its relationship to mechanical work. This led to the law of conservation of energy, which led to the development of the first law of thermodynamics.
1818        Dec 24, "Stille Nacht" (Silent Night), originally written in 1816 as a poem by Austrian priest Joseph Mohr, was performed for the first time, at the Church of St. Nikolaus in Oberndorf, Austria. The melody was composed by Mohr's friend, the organist, choirmaster and schoolteacher Franz Xaver Gruber.
    (AFP, 12/20/18)

1818        Theophile Bra, French academic sculptor, won the Prix de Rome.
    (SFEM, 11/1/98, p.4)

1818        Caspar David Friedrich (1774-1840), German Romantic landscape artist, creating his painting “Wanderer Above a Sea of Clouds."
    (Econ, 10/29/11, IL p.25)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caspar_David_Friedrich)

1818        The “Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin" (1706-1790), an unfinished record of his life, was published posthumously in London. An earlier French edition had appeared in 1791.
    (AH, 10/07, p.26)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Autobiography_of_Benjamin_Franklin)
1818        John Keats published his poem "Endymion."
    (WSJ, 1/15/98, p.A17)

1818        David Young, poet, teacher and astronomer, began publishing a Farmer’s Almanac.
    (CFA, ‘96,Vol 179, p.98)

1818        The Epistles of John were published by the American Bible Society in the language of the Delaware Indians.
    (WSJ, 8/7/98, p.W13)

1818        People began wearing left and right shoes. Shoes were made identical for either foot prior to this.
    (SFEC, 2/22/98, Z1 p.8)

1818        Henry Sands Brooks began H. & D.H. Brooks & Co. in mostly rural Manhattan. It became a key military supplier during the Civil War. A 2nd store opened in 1928 and operations grew to the well known chain known as Brooks Brothers.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R40)(SFC, 6/29/01, p.A8)(NW, 9/1/03, p.64)

1818        A handful of Cherokee emigrated to Oklahoma 20 years before the Trail of Tears. They are known as the Old Settlers.
    (NG, 5/95, p.91)

1818        Franciscan priests established the Santa Ysabel Mission to convert the Kumeyaay Indians in San Diego County.
    (SFC, 9/16/96, p.A15)

1818        Illinois became the 21st state of the US.
    (HFA, ‘96, p.20)

1818        The Libbey Glass Co. of Toledo, Ohio, was founded as the New England Glass Company by Edward Drummond Libbey. Libbey collected glass "through the ages" in a museum for the inspiration his workers. In 1999 it was a division of Owens-Illinois.
    (SFC, 3/31/99, Z1 p.6)(WSJ, 10/19/01, p.W15)

1818        Brown Brothers Harriman (BBH) was founded in Philadelphia as John A. Brown and Company, an importer of linen. On January 1, 1931, Brown Brothers And Company merged with Harriman Brothers & Company, an investment company started in 1912 with railway money.

1818        Abigail Adams, wife of former Pres. John Adams, died.
    (WSJ, 5/30/01, p.A20)

1818        Dr. James Blundell (1791-1878), a British obstetrician, performed the first successful transfusion of human blood, for the treatment of postpartum hemorrhage.
1818        The first modern use for rubber was discovered by British medical student James Syme. He used it to waterproof cloth in order to make the first raincoats, a process patented in 1823 by Charles Macintosh.

1818        Grozny was established in the northern Caucasus as a Russian fortress.
    (SFEC, 4/30/00, p.C14)

1818        In Russia the Smirnoff family went into the vodka business.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)

1818        In Spain the last prosecution of the Spanish Inquisition was held.
    (WSJ, 4/16/98, p.A20)

1818        In Spain an annual national Christmas lottery was begun.
    (SFC,12/23/97, p.D3)

1818-1820    John Keats (d.1821), English poet, lived in Hampstead and wrote "The Eve of St. Agnes," "Ode on a Grecian Urn," and "Ode to a Nightingale."
    (SFC, 12/24/96, p.E4)(WSJ, 1/15/98, p.A17)
1818-1820    Cotton prices dropped by 50% during this period as world production exploded.
    (Econ, 4/6/13, p.88)

1818-1883    Karl Marx, German writer and theorist for socialism. Marx called his own philosophy dialectical materialism, and claims to start philosophically from a point of view opposite to Hegel. Marx asserts that he starts from concrete reality and not from an idea, as does Hegel. Knowing history as well as he hid, he claimed to be able not only to explain why things happened as they had, but also to predict what was going to happen in the future.

1818-1885    Henry Wheeler Shaw, "Josh Billings," American author: "As scarce as truth is, the supply is always greater than the demand."
    (AP, 8/1/99)

1818-1889    James Prescott Joule, English experimental physicist, measured the mechanical, or energy, equivalent of heat itself.
    (TNG, Klein, p.55)

1819        Jan 17, Simon Bolivar the "liberator" proclaimed Colombia a republic.
    (HN, 1/17/99)

1819        Feb 8, John Ruskin (d.1900), writer, critic, artist, Gothic Revivalist (Pre-Raphaelite), was born. His work included "Modern Painter" and "The Stones of Venice."
    (WSJ, 3/6/00, p.A28)(MC, 2/8/02)

1819        Feb 9, Lydia E. Pinkham, patent-medicine maker and entrepreneur, was born.
    (HN, 2/9/01)

1819        Feb 14, Christopher Latham Sholes, inventor of the first practical typewriter, was born.
    (HN, 2/14/01)

1819        Feb 22, James Russell Lowell (d.1891), American essayist, poet, critic, diplomat, abolitionist, was born: "He who is firmly seated in authority soon learns to think security, and not progress, the highest lesson of statecraft."
    (AP, 6/29/99)(MC, 2/22/02)
1819        Feb 22, Spain signed the Adams-Onis Treaty with the United States ceding eastern Florida. Spanish minister Do Luis de Onis and U.S. Secretary of State John Quincy Adams signed the Florida Purchase Treaty, in which Spain agrees to cede the remainder of its old province of Florida. Spain renounced claims to Oregon Country. [see 1821]
    (AP, 2/22/99)(HN, 2/22/99)

1819        Mar 2, Territory of Arkansas was organized. [see Jul 4]
    (SC, 3/2/02)
1819        Mar 2, US passed its 1st immigration law.
    (SC, 3/2/02)

1819        Mar 3, An Act to protect the commerce of the United States and punish the crime of piracy became a federal statute. It was amended in 1820 to declare the slave trade and robbing a ship to be piracy as well. The last execution for piracy in the United States was of slave trader Nathaniel Gordon in 1862 under the amended act.
1819        Mar 3, The Civilization Fund Act was created by the United States legislature to encourage activities of benevolent societies in providing education for Native Americans and also authorized an annuity to stimulate the "civilization process."

1819        Mar 6, The US Supreme Court ruled in McCulloch v. Maryland that the state could not impose a tax on the notes of banks not chartered in the state. Luther Martin represented Maryland in the landmark case.
    (WSJ, 9/20/08, p.A21)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/McCulloch_v._Maryland)

1819        Mar 26, Louise Otto, German feminist author, was born.
    (HN, 3/25/98)

1819        Mar 29, Edwin Drake (d.1890), the man who drilled the first productive oil well (1859), was born.
    (HN, 3/29/98)
1819        Mar 29, Isaac Mayer Wise, rabbi, founder (American Hebrew Congregations), was born.
    (MC, 3/29/02)

1819        Apr 14, Charles Halle, pianist, conductor, founder (Halle Orch), was born.
    (MC, 4/14/02)

1819        Apr 18, Franz von Suppa, composer (Light Cavalry Overture), was born in Spalato, Dalmatia.
    (MC, 4/18/02)

1819        Apr 19, The USS Alabama and Louisiana destroyed a pirate base at the Patterson's Town Raid on Breton Island, Louisiana.

1819        Apr 26, The first Odd Fellow lodge (Independent Order of Odd Fellows or IOOF) was established in the U.S. in Baltimore, Md. They started in Great Britain with the purpose: "to relieve the brethren, bury the dead, and care for the widow and orphan."
    (440 Int’l. Internet, 4/26/97, p.1)

1819        Mar 29, Edwin Drake, the man who drilled the first productive oil well, was born.
    (HN, 3/29/98)

1819        May 15, Thomas Leonidas Crittenden, Major General (Union volunteers), was born.
    (MC, 5/15/02)

1819        May 21, The 1st bicycles (swift walkers) in US were introduced in NYC.
    (MC, 5/21/02)

1819        May 23, Bolivar’s revolutionary commanders met in the deserted village of Setenta, Venezuela, and planned a march across the Andes to attack Spanish forces in New Granada (Colombia).
    (ON, 3/05, p.1)

1819        May 24, Queen Victoria (d.1901) was born in London. Her reign (1836-1901) restored dignity to the British crown. She had nine children. "Great events make me quiet and calm; it is only trifles that irritate my nerves."
    (AP, 5/24/97)(HN, 5/24/99)(AP, 2/24/99)

1819        May 26, The first steam-propelled vessel to attempt a trans-Atlantic crossing, the 350-ton Savannah, departed from Savannah, Ga., May 26 and arrived in Liverpool, England, Jun 20. [HNQ set May 24 for the departure]
    (AP, 5/22/97)(HNQ, 3/18/02)

1819        May 27, Julia Ward Howe, writer of the "Battle Hymn of the Republic," was born.
    (HN, 5/27/99)

1819        May 31, Poet Walt Whitman (d.1892) was born in West Hill, N.Y. He became America’s national poet with vibrant works such as 1855’s Leaves of Grass. His poems included: "When Lilacs Last in the Doorway Bloomed." Some of Whitman’s poems were inspired by his Civil War experience as a hospital volunteer in Washington. Although a staunch supporter of the Union cause, Whitman comforted dying soldiers of both sides, as described in one of the poet's wartime newspaper dispatches: "I stayed a long time by the bedside of a new patient.... In an adjoining ward I found his brother...It was in the same battle both were hit. One was a strong Unionist, the other Secesh; both fought for their respective sides, both badly wounded, and both brought together after a separation of four years. Each died for his cause."
    (AP, 5/31/97)(HN, 5/31/98)(HNQ, 6/1/98)(V.D.-H.K.p.278)(HNPD, 5/25/99)(HN, 5/31/99)

1819        Jun 10, J.D. Gustave Courbet (d.1877), French realist painter (Demoiselles the la Seine), was born. His realistic landscapes were marked by bold shadows and compositions fragmented by the play of natural light. This technique was pursued more fully by the impressionists. His work included "Rock at HautePierre."
    (DPCP, 1984)(WSJ, 3/10/00, p.W16)(MC, 6/10/02)

1819        Jun 20, Jacques Offenbach (d.1880), French composer (Tales of Hoffmann), was born in Cologne. His work included the comedy opera "Barbe-Bleue" (Blue Beard).
    (MC, 6/20/02)(WSJ, 2/20/98, p.A16)
1819        Jun 20, The paddle-wheel steamship Savannah arrives in Liverpool, England, after a voyage of 27 days and 11 hours--the first steamship to successfully cross the Atlantic.
    (HN, 6/20/01)   

1819        Jun 26, Abner Doubleday (d.1893), Civil War General, was born. He was incorrectly credited with inventing American baseball.
    (HN, 6/26/99)(WSJ, 7/19/01, p.A20)
1819        Jun 26, The bicycle was patented by W.K. Clarkson, Jr. of New York City. [see May 21]
    (MC, 6/26/02)

1819         Jul 4, The Territory of Arkansas was created.
    (IB, Internet, 12/7/98)
1819        Jul 4, William Herschel (1738-1822), German-born English astronomer, made his last telescopic observation of an 1819 comet. His son, Sir John Frederick William Herschel (1792-1871), was also an astronomer.
    (WUD, 1994, p.666)(Maggio, 98)

1819        Jul 9, Elias Howe (d.1867), inventor of the sewing machine, was born in Spencer, Mass. Howe, a machinist, developed his sewing machine in 1843-45 and patented it in 1846. Although Howe's machine sewed only short, straight lines, tailors and seamstresses saw it as a threat to their jobs. Unable to market his machine in America, Howe took it to Britain where he sold the rights to an English manufacturer in 1847. Upon his return to the United States, Howe discovered that his patent had been infringed upon by other sewing machine manufacturers, such as Isaac Singer. After a lengthy court battle, Howe's patent was upheld and royalties from sewing machine sales made him a wealthy man.
    (WUD, 1994, p.689)(HN, 7/9/99)(MC, 7/9/02)

1819        Jul, Stephen Long joined Gen. Henry Atkinson's Yellowstone Expedition bound from St. Louis to the Rockies on the steamboat Western Engineer. This was the first steamboat to travel up the Missouri River into the Louisiana Purchase territory. Edwin James, a medical doctor, botanist and ethnologist, also served on the expedition.

1819        Aug 1, Herman Melville (d.1891), American novelist, author of Moby Dick, was born. In 1996 part one of a 2-part biography was published by Hershel Parker: Herman Melville: 1819-1851. In 1951 Leon Howard wrote a biography. Melville wrote 5 books between 1845-1850. They included "Typee," "Omoo," and "White-Jacket."
    (AHD, p.818)(WSJ, 11/22/96, p.A14)(HN, 8/1/98)(SFEC, 2/13/00, BR p.6)

1819        Aug 2, The first parachute jump from a balloon was made by Charles Guille in New York City.
    (HN, 8/2/01)

1819        Aug 7, South American liberator Simon Bolivar defeated Spanish forces under Gen. Jose Barreiro in New Granada (Colombia) at the Battle of Boyaca. The revolutionary army entered Bogota Aug 10.
    (HNQ, 9/12/99)(ON, 3/05, p.2)

1819        Aug 9, William Thomas Green Morton (d.1868), American dentist who 1st used ether on a patient (1846), was born.
    (WUD, 1994, p.932)(MC, 8/9/02)

1819        Aug 16, English police charged unemployed demonstrators at St. Peter's Field in the Manchester Massacre. Marchers were demanding voting rights for the working class. 18 people were killed in the Peterloo massacre. The press responded with a volley of attacks that included “The Political House that Jack Built" by William Hone and illustrator George Cruikshank.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peterloo_Massacre)(Econ, 12/23/06, p.104)

1819        Aug 23, Oliver Hazard Perry, naval hero, died on his 34th birthday.
    (MC, 8/23/02)

1819        Aug 25, Allan Pinkerton (d.1884) was born in Glasgow, Scotland. He fled Scotland in 1842 to avoid capture for his involvement with the revolutionary group called the Chartists. In 1850 he founded the Pinkerton detective agency in Chicago and later worked as Abe Lincoln's bodyguard.
    (www.crimelibrary.com/gangsters2/pinkerton/)(ON, 2/12, p.9)
1819        Aug 25, Scotsman James Watt (b.1736), Scottish inventor, died. His 1775 improved steam engine advanced coal mining and made the Industrial Revolution possible.
    (ON, 6/10, p.5)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Watt)

1819        Aug 26, Albert "Bertie" von Saxon-Coburg-Gotha (d.1861), husband of queen Victoria, was born at Schloss Rosenau, near Coburg, Bavaria.
    (WUD, 1994, p.34)(http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com)

1819        Aug 31, A naval battle took place between United States Revenue Cutter Service cutters and one of Jean Lafitte's pirate ships off southern Florida.

1819        Sep 6, William Starke Rosecrans, Maj. General (Union volunteers), was born.
    (MC, 9/6/01)
1819        Sep 6, Thomas Blanchard (b.1788) patented the lathe.
    (MC, 9/6/01)

1819        Sep 13, Clara Josephine Schumann, [nee Wieck], pianist and composer, was born in Leipzig, Germ.
    (MC, 9/13/01)

1819        Sep 16, Dr. John Jeffries, who crossed the English Channel (1785) with Frenchman Jean-Pierre Blanchard for the first time in a hydrogen balloon, died in Boston.
    (HN, 5/15/98)(HN, 1/7/99)

1819        Sep 17, Jean-Bernard-Leon Foucault, physicist (pendulum proved Earth rotates), was born. [see Sep 18]
    (MC, 9/17/01)

1819        Sep 18, Leon Foucault, French physicist, was born. [see Sep 17]
    (HN, 9/18/00)

1819        Oct 6, Willem A. Scholten, Dutch potato flour manufacturer, was born.
    (MC, 10/6/01)

1819        Oct 20, Daniel Edgar Sickles (d.1914), Major General (Union volunteers), was born.
    (MC, 10/20/01)

1819        Oct 22, The 1st ship passed through Erie Canal (Rome-Utica).
    (MC, 10/22/01)

1819        Nov 22, George Eliot (d.1880), English writer, was born as Mary Ann Evans. Her books included “Adam Bede," “Silas Marner" and “Middlemarch." She was driven out of England with her companion, G.H. Lewes, for a while for not being married. Her books tore away the curtain of Victorian life and revealed its bitter small-mindedness for anyone to see. "The happiest women, like the happiest nations, have no history."
    (www.kirjasto.sci.fi/gelliot.htm)(HN, 11/22/98)(SSFC, 2/9/14, p.F7)

1819        Dec 14, Alabama was admitted as the 22nd state, making 11 slave states and 11 free states.
    (AP, 12/14/97)(HN, 12/14/98)

1819        Theodore Chasseriau (d.1856), artist, was born in Semana, Dominican Republic. He was the son of a French diplomat and French-Creole mother.
    (WSJ, 11/26/02, p.D8)

1819        Caspar David Friedrich (1774-1840), German Romantic painter, created his "Two Men Contemplating the Moon." He painted it as part of a series of 3 (1824,1830). The 3rd had the same title, the 2nd was titled "Man and Woman Contemplating the Moon."
    (WSJ, 9/21/01, p.W2)(WSJ, 10/17/01, p.A24)

1819        J.M.W. Turner (44), English artist (1775-1851), visited Venice for the 1st time. He returned in 1833 and 1840. His 1st oil painting with a Venetian setting was done in 1833.
    (WSJ, 3/17/04, p.D4)

1819        Spain’s Prado opened as the Real Mueso de Pintura y Escultura.
    (WSJ, 4/16/03, p.D10)

1819        John Vanderlyn depicted the Versailles gardens in a panorama later transferred to the Metropolitan Museum of Art.
    (WSJ, 9/3/98, p.A20)

1819        Washington Irving published "The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon," which included "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow" and "Rip Van Winkle."
    (USAT, 11/12/99, p.2D)

1819        Johann Wilhelm Klein of Vienna, Austria, published a book on training dogs for the blind.
    (ON, 12/03, p.5)

1819        The opera "La Donna del Lago," by Gioacchino Antonio Rossini premiered in Naples. It was based on the Walter Scott romance "The lady of the Lake."
    (WSJ, 7/29/97, p.A12)

1819        William Jay age 22, English architect, built several fine homes in Savannah, Georgia. These included the Scarbrough House and the Owens-Thomas House.
    (Hem. 1/95, p. 70)

1819        The American Geological Society was founded at Yale College. The membership included the illustrious Benjamin Silliman  (1779–1864). The Society was short-lived, going out of existence in 1828.
1819        Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826) almost single-handedly created the University of Virginia and served as its first president. The university opened for classes in 1825.
    (http://www.virginia.edu/uvatours/shorthistory/)(SSFC, 2/11/07, p.F2)

1819        The city of Vandalia was founded and began serving as the state capital of Illinois. The capital was moved to Springfield in 1839.
    (Econ, 12/22/12, p.42)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Springfield,_Illinois)

1819        A recession hit the US. As farms prices dropped leveraged buyers went bust.
    (Econ, 4/6/13, p.88)

1819        Hannibal, Missouri, the small Midwestern city and boyhood home of Mark Twain (Samuel Clemens), was settled by Moses Bates on land belonging to Abraham Bird.
    (HNQ, 2/6/01)

1819        In Savannah Chatham Artillery Punch was served to Pres. James Monroe. It was a concoction of Catawba, rum, gin, brandy, rye whiskey, strong tea, brown sugar, Benedictine, juices of oranges and lemons, Maraschino cherries and champagne.
    (SFEC,11/30/97, p.T4)

1819        Chief Justice John Marshall in Dartmouth College v. Woodward described the corporation as "an artificial being, invisible, intangible." Among its properties "are immortality; and if the expression be allowed, individuality."
    (WSJ, 4/11/01, p.A16)

1819        In Philadelphia Dr. Thomas W. Dyott, (druggist, patent-medicine vendor, and physician) purchased the Kensington Glass Works. He expanded the business and changed the name to the Dyottville Glass Works. He was forced out of the firm in 1838, but the glassworks continued operating until about 1923.
    (SFC, 1/14/98, Z1 p.2)

1819        Caffeine was isolated by this year. Its pure form turned out to be a bitter powder readily soluble in boiling water.
    (WSJ, 1/30/00, p.A20)

1819        Hans Christian Oersted discovered that an electric current will deflect the needle of a compass pointing to the unity of the electromagnetic force.
    (JST-TMC,1983, p.72)

1819        In Sidney, Australia, convict labor built the Hyde Park Barracks and the state Parliament.
    (SFEC, 1/4/98, p.T4)   

1819        Johann Baptist von Spix discovered the Spix macaw of Brazil (Cyanopsitta spixii). The last wild Spix macaw disappeared in 2000.
    (SFC, 10/7/99, p.A15,18)(SFC, 12/27/00, p.C2)

1819        The British burned the Arab port of Ras al Khaymah in response to attacks by Arab "pirate" ships. Sheikh Sultan bin Muhammad of the emirate of Sharjah publishes a book in 1987, The Myth of Arab Piracy in the Gulf, claiming the Arabs were defending their native waters.
    (NG, 5/88, p.662, 670)
1819        The British claimed Malacca from the Dutch. They used St. Paul’s church as an ammunition dump and put a lighthouse in front.
    (Econ, 11/15/14, SR p.5)

1819        Bogota became the capital of Colombia.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.15)

1819        The government of Egypt formally presented the obelisk of Alexandria as a gift to Great Britain. It was first erected in Heliopolis in 1461 BC. The Romans had moved it to Alexandria in 14BC and it had lain prone since an earthquake soon after 1300.
    (ON, 6/20/11, p.9)

1819        In Hawaii monarchists defeated traditionalists at the battlefield of Kuamoo. 300 warriors perished along with the old Hawaiian religion.
    (SSFC, 8/26/01, p.T9)

1819        William Moorcroft, East India Co. head of 5,000 acre horse farm at Pusa, India, set out for Bukhara, Uzbekistan, to trade for horses.
    (ON, 1/02, p.3)
1819        In India a British hunting party discovered the painted caves at Ajanta that dated from c200BC-650AD.
    (WSJ, 11/12/98, p.A28)

c1819        In France a silver soup tureen was manufactured by Jean-Baptiste Claude Odiot. It fetched over a million dollars in a 1997 auction.
    (WSJ, 10/24/97, p.B18)

1819        Hawaii’s King Kamehameha II abolished the brutal kapu system of laws. Temples and sacred sites associated with the system began to fall into disrepair. Queen Kaahumanu, helped overturn the kapu belief system by sharing a meal with Kamehameha II following the death of King Kamehameha.
    (SFEC, 9/7/97, p.T8)(SSFC, 8/30/09, p.M5)

1819        Russia declared Odessa to be a free port.
    (Econ, 12/18/04, p.86)

1819        Singapore was declared a free port after it was taken over by Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles (1781-1826), an officer of the British East India Co. Sultan Hussein was enthroned by the British but he never ruled. Raffles laid out the city into ethnic zones.
     (WSJ, 11/12/96, p.A18)(WSJ, 7/22/99, p.A23)(SFCM, 3/11/01, p.70)(SSFC, 2/07/04, p.C9)

1819-1820    The James Long Expedition was an attempt to take control of Spanish Texas. Long successfully established a small independent government, known as the Republic of Texas (distinct from the later Republic of Texas created by the Texas Revolution). The expedition crumbled later in the year, as Spanish troops drove the invaders out. Long returned to Texas in 1820 and attempted to reestablish his control.

1819-1826     Sons of Timur Shah struggle for the throne--Civil War--anarchy. Afghans lost Sind permanently.

1819-1861    Prince Albert of Britain, consort to Queen Victoria.
    (WUD, 1994, p.34)

1819-1880    George Eliot, English writer, was driven out of England with her companion, G.H. Lewes, for a while for not being married. Her books tore away the curtain of Victorian life and revealed its bitter small-mindedness for anyone to see. "The happiest women, like the happiest nations, have no history."
    (V.D.-H.K.p.279)(AP, 11/14/98)

1819-1891    Donn Piatt, American journalist: "There is no tyranny so despotic as that of public opinion among a free people."
    (AP, 3/10/01)

1819-1898     Theodor Fontane, German author: "Happiness, it seems to me, consists of two things: first, in being where you belong, and second -- and best -- in comfortably going through everyday life, that is, having had a good night's sleep and not being hurt by new shoes." His work included practical hiking guides to Brandenburg, poetry theater criticism, foreign correspondence and novels. His novels included "Effi Briest" and "L’Adultera." In 1998 a biography by Gordon Craig was scheduled to be published.
    (AP, 8/7/97)(WSJ, 12/2/98, p.A20)

1819-1910    Julia Ward Howe, US writer and reformer. She wrote "The Battle Hymn of the Republic."
    (WUD, 1994, p.689)

1820        Jan 12, Royal Astronomical Society was founded in England.
    (MC, 1/12/02)

1820        Jan 20, Anne Clough, promoter of higher education, was born.
    (HN, 1/20/99)
1820        Jan 20-1820 Jan 29, As George IV was about to become King of England, his wife Caroline (the German princess of Brunswick) returned to claim her rights. She had been living on the continent and was rumored to have had as lovers such men as: the politician George Canning, the admiral Sir Sydney Smith, the painter Sir Thomas Lawrence. The House of Lords introduced a Bill of Pains and Penalties, which sought to strip Caroline of her title of Queen on the grounds of her scandalous conduct. George had previously married Maria Anne Fitzherbert in secret. A trial ensued, but witnesses refused to speak against the queen and the bill had to be amended.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caroline_of_Brunswick)(WSJ, 5/23/96, p.A-10)(WSJ, 3/26/99, p.W10)

1820        Jan 29, Britain's King George III (b.1760) died insane at Windsor Castle at age 81, ending a  reign that saw both the American and French revolutions. He was succeeded by his son George IV (1762-1830), who as Prince of Wales had been regent for 9 years during his father’s insanity. In 2005 scientists reported high levels of arsenic in the hair of King George III and said the deadly poison may be to blame for the bouts of apparent madness he suffered. In 2006 Stella Tillyard authored “A Royal Affair: George III and His Troublesome Siblings" and Jeremy Black authored “George III: America’s Last King."
    (http://tinyurl.com/gsbuj)(AP, 1/29/98)(WSJ, 12/26/06, p.D8)(Econ, 1/28/06, p.80)

1820        Jan 30, Edward Bransfield discovered Antarctica and claimed it for the UK.
    (MC, 1/30/02)

1820        Jan, A large fire in Savannah, Georgia wiped out 463 buildings.
    (SFC, 6/25/95, p.T-7)

1820        Feb 6, The American Colonization Society sent its 1st organized emigration of blacks back to Africa from NY to Sierra Leone.
    (AH, 2/05, p.17)
1820        Feb 6, US population announced at 9,638,453 including 1,771,656 blacks (18.4%).
    (MC, 2/6/02)

1820        Feb 7, Samuel Adams Holyoke (57/58), composer, died.
    (MC, 2/7/02)

1820        Feb 8, General William T. Sherman (d.1891), Union general in America's Civil War, was born. His famous "March to the Sea" changed the face of modern warfare.
    (HN, 2/8/99)(AP, 4/7/99)(MC, 2/8/02).

1820        Feb 15, American suffragist Susan B. Anthony (d.1906) was born in Adams, Mass. Her middle name was Brownell. Her biography by Lynn Sherr was titled: "Failure Is Impossible."
    (SFEC, 9/21/97, Par p.4)(AP, 2/15/98)(HN, 2/15/98)(SFC, 8/15/98, p.E4)
1820        Feb 15, French statesman Pierre-Joseph Cambon (63), member of Committee of Public Safety (French Revolution), died.

1820        Feb 17, Henri Vieuxtemps, composer, teacher (Brussels Cons), was born in Verviers, Belgium.
    (MC, 2/17/02)

1820        Feb 28, John Tenniel (d.1914), illustrator of "Alice in Wonderland," was born. He was an English caricaturist.
    (HN, 2/28/98)(WUD, 1994, p.1463)

1820        Feb, The Cato Street Conspiracy, organized by revolutionary Arthur Thistlewood, was the.  assassination of the entire British Cabinet.  Earlier, in 1816, Thistlewood helped plan the Spa Fields Riots, during which the Bank of England and Tower of London were to be seized. In February, 1820, Thistlewood learned the entire British Cabinet planned to dine at the Earl of Harrowby’s house in London’s Grosvenor Square. His plot for murder was revealed to the police, who apprehended Thistlewood and a number of accomplices as they prepared to leave a room on Cato Street for Grosvenor Square. Thistlewood was tried for high treason and hanged, along with four others.
    (HNQ, 6/28/99)

1820        cFeb, Five surviving crew members in 2 boats of whale ship Essex were picked up by 2 ships. [see Owen Chase in 1819, 1821]
    (SFEC, 7/23/00, BR p.12)

1820        Mar 3, The Missouri Compromise was passed by Congress. It allowed Missouri to enter the Union as a slave state and Maine to enter as a free state. [see Mar 6]
    (PCh, 1992, p.389)(SC, 3/3/02)

1820        Mar 5, Dutch city of Leeuwarden forbade Jews to go to synagogues on Sundays.
    (MC, 3/5/02)

1820        Mar 6, The Missouri Compromise, enacted by Congress, was signed by President James Monroe. This compromise provided for the admission of Missouri into the Union as a slave state, but prohibited slavery in the rest of the northern Louisiana Purchase territory. The compromise was invalidated in the 1856 Scott vs. Sanford case. [see Mar 3]
    (HN, 3/6/98)(SFC, 11/30/00, p.A3)

1820        Mar 9-11, Philippines chased out foreigners and about 125 died.
    (MC, 3/9/02)

1820        Mar 9, Congress passed the Land Act, paving the way for westward expansion.
    (HN, 3/9/99)

1820        Mar 14, Victor Emmanuel II, King of Sardinia (1849-61) and Italy (1861-78), was born.
    (MC, 3/14/02)

1820        Mar 15, Maine, a province of Massachusetts since 1647, became the 23rd state. Maine entered the Union as a free state and helped maintain the balance in the US Senate, that would have been disrupted by the entrance of Missouri Territory into the Union as a slave state.
    (AP, 3/15/97)

1820        Mar 22, The Decatur-Barron Duel. U.S. naval hero Stephen Decatur (b.1779) was killed in a duel with Commodore James Barron near Washington, D.C.
    (HFA, ‘96, p.26)(AP, 3/22/97)

1820        Mar 30, Anna Sewell, English novelist, was born. Her "Black Beauty" has become the classic story about horses.
    (HN, 3/30/99)

1820        Apr 15, Evander McNair, Brig General (Confederate Army), died in 1902, was born.
    (MC, 4/15/02)

1820        Apr 17, Alexander Cartwright, sportsman, was born. He developed baseball.
    (HN, 4/17/01)

1820        Apr 20, Arthur Young, author (Annals of Agriculture), died.
    (MC, 4/20/02)

1820        May 4, Joseph Whitaker, bookseller and publisher, was born. He founded Whitaker's Almanac.
    (HN, 5/4/99)

1820        May 12, Florence Nightingale (d.1910), Crimean War British nurse known as “Lady with the Lamp," was born in Florence, Italy. She is also known as the founder of modern nursing.
    (AP, 5/12/97)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Florence_Nightingale)

1820        May 13, The opera "Die Jearsbraut" was completed.
    (SS, Internet, 5/13/97)

1820        May 15, The US Congress designated the slave trade to a form of piracy.
    (HN, 5/15/99)

1820        May 23, James Buchanan Eads, engineer of the Eads Bridge in St. Louis, was born.
    (HN, 5/23/98)

1820        Jun 14, John Bartlett, editor, compiler of Bartlett's Familiar Quotations, was born.
    (HN, 6/14/01)

1820        Jun 19, Joseph Banks, English natural historian (Cook, Australia), died.
    (MC, 6/19/02)

1820        Jun 28, The tomato was proven to be non-poisonous.
    (MC, 6/28/02)

1820        Jul 10, Captain Jairus of the USRC Louisiana captured four pirate ships off Belize.

1820        Aug 2, John Tyndall (d.1893), British physicist, was born. He was the first scientist to show why the sky is blue. "It is as fatal as it is cowardly to blink (at) facts because they are not to our taste."
    (AP, 9/25/99)(HN, 8/2/00)

1820        Aug 6, M.A. Elisa Bonaparte (43), Corsican monarch of Lucca, died.
    (MC, 8/6/02)

1820        Aug 7, The 1st potatoes were planted in Hawaii.
    (MC, 8/7/02)

1820        Aug 9, David Stuurman (1773-1830) escaped from South Africa's Robben Island for a 2nd time. He was soon captured and in 1823 was transported to Australia. He was first arrested in 1809 and charged for resisting colonial rule as well as opposing the conscription of the Khoi into militias that were created to defend the colony and to attack the San and amaXhosa. He first escaped Robben Island in Dec. 1809.
    (BBC, 3/16/21)

1820        Aug 12, Oliver Mowat, a founder of the Canadian Confederation, was born.
    (SC, 8/12/02)

1820        Aug 13, George Grove, biblical scholar, musicographer (Grove's Dictionary), was born in London, England.
    (MC, 8/13/02)

1820        Aug 14, The 1st US eye hospital, the NY Eye Infirmary, opened in NYC.
    (MC, 8/14/02)

1820        Sep 2, China’s Emperor Jiaqing (b.1760) died.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jiaqing_Emperor)(Econ, 3/19/11, p.93)

1820        Sep 4, Czar Alexander declared that Russian influence in North America extended as far south as Oregon and closed Alaskan waters to foreigners.
    (HN, 9/4/98)

1820        Sep 20, John Fulton Reynolds, Major General (Union volunteers), was born. He died in 1863 on first day at Gettysburg.
    (MC, 9/20/01)

1820        Sep 26, The legendary frontiersman Daniel Boone died quietly at the Defiance, Mo., home of his son Nathan, at age 85.
    (HN, 9/26/99)

1820        Sep 28, Friedrich Engels, socialist who collaborated with Karl Marx on The Communist Manifesto and Das Kapital, was born.
    (HN, 9/28/98)

1820        Sep, John Keats and the young painter Severn started for Italy aboard the cargo boat Maria Crowther.
    (WP, 1951, p.15)

1820        Sep, William Moorcroft, East India Co. head of 5,000 acre horse farm at Pusa, India, arrived in Ladakh, while enroute to Bukhara, Uzbekistan, to trade for horses. He spent 2 years here before continuing his journey.
    (ON, 1/02, p.5)

1820        Oct 6, Jenny Lind (d.1887), soprano, was born. She was known as the "Swedish Nightingale."
    (HN, 10/6/00)

1820        Oct 11, Sir George Williams, founder of the YMCA, was born.
    (HN, 10/11/00)

1820        Oct 12, John James Audubon boarded the steamboat Western Engineer in Cincinnati, Ohio, and embarked on a 5-year journey along the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers collecting and painting birds.
    (ON, 12/05, p.7)

1820        Oct 15, Florence Nightingale (d.1910), English hospital reformer and nursing pioneer, was born. "Were there none who were discontented with what they have, the world would never reach anything better."
    (AP, 11/12/97)(HN, 10/15/98)

1820        Oct 20, Spain sold a part of Florida to US for $5 million.
    (MC, 10/20/01)

1820        Oct, Argentina’s Jose de San Martin blockaded Lima, Peru, and urged the people of Peru to join in the uprising against Spain.
    (www.gdws.co.uk/chacabuco.htm)(Econ, 4/25/09, p.87)(ON, 10/09, p.10)

1820        Nov 18, U.S. Navy Capt. Nathaniel B. Palmer discovered the frozen continent of Antarctica.
    (AP, 11/18/97)

1820        Nov 20, Whalers  from Nantucket, Mass., lost their ship to an 80-ton bull sperm whale and attempted to make landfall in 3 boats on the coast of South America. 8 crewmen survived after they consumed 7 of their mates. [see Owen Chase in 1821] 5 men in 2 boats were picked up after 90 days. In 1960 cabin boy Thomas Nickerson wrote an account of the tragedy. In 2000 Nathaniel Philbrick authored "In the Heart of the Sea, The Tragedy of the Whale Ship Essex."
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Essex_%281799_whaleship%29)(SFEC, 7/23/00, BR p.12)(Econ, 1/2/16, p.54)

1820        Nov 28, Friedrich Engels (d.1895), German social philosopher; Marx's collaborator, was born.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.257)(MC, 11/28/01)

1820        Dec 6, James Monroe, the 5th US president, was elected for a 2nd term.
    (MC, 12/6/01)

1820        Dec 7, Peru’s army, after sweeping out the Spanish, swore in the first mayor of the Peruvian Republic, in Chaupimarca plaza, the central district of Cerro de Pasco. By 2010 the town faced destruction due to industrial mining.
    (AP, 4/19/10)

1820        Dec 20, Missouri imposed a $1 bachelor tax on unmarried men between 21 and 50.
    (MC, 12/20/01)

1820        Dec, Franz Schubert composed his String Quartet No. 12 in C Minor (Quartettsatz). It was only introduced to the public in 1867.

1820        Anne Bronte (d.1849), younger sister of Charlotte and Emily, was born. Her novels included "Agnes Grey" and "The Tenant of Wildfell Hall."
    (WSJ, 7/28/99, p.A21)

1820        Lola Montez, cabaret singer and countess, was born Eliza Gilbert and grew up in India as a military brat. She was later involved with King Ludvig of Bavaria and he made her Countess of Landsfeld. She later traveled to California. Her biography by Bruce Seymour is titled: "Lola Montez: A Life."
    (SFC, 7/7/96, BR p.8)

1820        Constable made his painting of Salisbury Cathedral.
    (WSJ, 12/6/01, p.A19)

1820        French economist Jean-Baptiste Say (1767-1832) began working at the National Conservatory of Arts in Paris as the country’s first professor of economics.
    (Econ, 8/12/17, p.54)

1820        Keisai Eisen, Japanese artist, pictured an intricately coifed woman that later appeared on the cover of a French magazine and inspired Van Gogh’s 1887 "Courtesan."
    (WSJ, 12/1/98, p.A20)

1820        Mary Shelley wrote her children’s story "Maurice, or the Fisher’s Cot. " It did not get published until 1998 when Claire Tomalin published an edition with an extensive editorial preface.
    (SFEC, 11/15/98, BR p.3)

1820        Helen Keller’s grandfather built the Ivy Green House in Tuscumbia, Alabama.
    (PC, Polychrome Picture Products)

1820        The Mexican government granted Luis Peralta (1759-1851) the 44,800-acre Rancho San Antonio in the East Bay of northern California, for his military services. The rancho ran from San Leandro Creek to a rise known as El Cerrito. Peralta settled in San Jose, while his four sons took over the land grant. The Peralta Hacienda in Oakland was built in 1870.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lu%C3%ADs_Mar%C3%ADa_Peralta)(SFC, 5/3/02, p.A20)(SFC, 11/26/10, p.D9)

1820        A law banning the carrying of concealed weapons was passed in Indiana.

1820        In New Jersey a county poorhouse farm was established on 200 acres of land in what later became Hudson County, directly across the river from Manhattan. Be the end of the century it had become the sprawling Snake Hill complex with isolation hospitals and 3 burial grounds. In the 20th century it was renamed Laurel Hill. The institutions steadily emptied after the Depression and in 1950 the new New Jersey Turnpike ran through the site. In 2002 the New Jersey Turnpike Authority purchased the eastern burial ground of Snake Hill. Research soon revealed an estimated 3,500 burials on the purchased property, which became known as the Secaucus Potter’s field site. In 2003 the last burial was disinterred for a total of 4,571 sets of human remains from 2686 graves.
    (Arch, 5/05, p.43)

1820        In Tennessee an iron forge was established by settler Isaac Love on the Little Pigeon River at the foot of the Great Smokey Mountains.
    (SFC, 6/9/97, p.A3)

1820        Congregational missionaries from New England arrived. The brig Thaddeus delivered the first missionaries and Lucy Thurston taught the native women to sew calico patch work. James Michener later used their story as the focus of his historical novel "Hawaii."
    (Wired, 8/95, p.90)(Hem., 2/96, p.72)(SFEM, 2/8/98, p.10)

1820        Thomas Jefferson wrote of slavery: "We have a wolf by the ears and can neither hold him, nor safely let him go." Although a slaveholder himself, Jefferson had expressed hopes that in the wake of the American Revolution, slavery in the South would wither and die.
    (HNQ, 2/16/00)

1820        Eliphalet Snedecor rented land on Long Island, NY, and established a tavern. It became popular among fisherman and bird shooters.
    (WSJ, 10/9/07, p.D6)

1820        Norwich Univ. began as a private military college in the Green Mountains of Vermont.
    (Hem, 9/04, p.69)

1820        American cotton exports reached 400,000 bales a year.
    (Econ, 12/20/03, p.46)

1820        An American whaling ship from Brighton, Massachusetts, was later believed to be the first to enter Japanese waters.
    (Econ, 12/22/07, p.64)

1820        In the Antelope seizure, a Spanish flag vessel was involved at a time when Spain still sanctioned the slave trade.
    (WSJ, 12/31/97, p.A11)

1820        The industrial force exceeded the number of people engaged in agriculture in Great Britain.

1820        There are more than a thousand ships engaged in transporting timber from the North America to the British Isles. Human cargo filled the return journey.
    (NOHY, 3/90, p.52)

1820        US census takers on the Virginia-Tennessee border at Stone Mountain labeled the local Melungeons as "free persons of color." The people were of a mixed ancestry, neither all black, nor all white, nor all Indian. In 1997 some 500 Melungeon descendents still lived in the area. Later N. Brent Kennedy wrote: "The Melungeons... An Untold Story of Ethnic Cleansing in America."
    (WSJ, 4/14/97, p.B1)

1820        Hans Christian Oersted, Danish physicist, discovered that an electric current creates a magnetic field around a conductor.

1820        The Greek Venus de Milo statue of marble was found in 1820 on Melos and is now in the Louvre. It was sculpted about c200BC. [2nd source says 2,500 years old]
    (WUD, 1994, p.1586)(SFEC, 3/9/96, Z1 p.5)

1820        Scotsman Gregor MacGregor (1791-1845), later known as His Serene Highness Gregor I, Prince of Poyais, returned to London from Venezuela and began selling land in the fictional kingdom of Poyais. He served 8 months in jail after English and French expeditions revealed the hoax. In 1839 he returned to Venezuela. In 2004 David Sinclair authored "The Land That Never Was: Sir Gregor MacGregor and the Most Audacious Land Fraud in History."
    (SSFC, 1/18/04, p.M2)
1820        Some 4,000 British colonists, the Albany settlers, settled in the eastern coastal region of the Cape of Good Hope.
    (EWH, 4th ed, p.884)
c1820    In London Thomas Hancock sliced up a rubber bottle from the Americas to create garters and waistbands.
    (SFC, 9/19/98, p.E3)

1820        In India the Prince of Baroda was forbidden to increase his daily number of canon salutes by the British Raj, so instead he had his fort's canons made from solid gold at 28 pounds each.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R4)

1820        Cats were introduce to Macquarie Island, located half-way between New Zealand and Antarctica. Rabbits were introduced in 1878. The eradication of cats led to an epidemic of rabbits, which devastated the native vegetation.   
    (Econ, 9/14/13, SR p.10)

1820        In southern Poland Jan Kutschera opened the Sczcawnica Zdroj health resort. He sold it in 1929 to the Hungarian Szalay family, which turned it into a fashionable place. Josef Szalay bequeathed it to Krakow’s Academy of Arts and Sciences, which sold it to Count Stadnicki in 1909. Stadnicki (d.1982 at 99) was ousted by the communists in 1948. By 2008 his heirs had regained control of the spa and invested $4.5 million in restoration.
    (SSFC, 8/17/08, p.F7)

1820        Port Elizabeth was founded British settlers and named in memory of the late wife of the Cape Colony's then governor. In 2021 its name was change to Gqeberha, the Xhosa name for the Baakens River, which flows through the city.
    (BBC, 2/24/21)
1820        The first permanent astronomical observatory in the southern hemisphere was built near Cape Town, South Africa.
    (Econ, 6/2/12, p.95)

1820        Nguyen Du (b.1766), author of “The Tale of Kieu," died. His Vietnamese epic tells the story of woman who sells herself into prostitution to pay off her father’s debt.
    (SSFC, 8/21/05, p.B1)

1820s        Grain prices collapsed in Britain.
    (WSJ, 12/11/98, p.W10)

1820s        Renegade Zulus rebelled against King Chaka, but were crushed. Descendents of the renegade Zulus are of the Ndebele tribe, which forms a 5th of Zimbabwe’s 11 million people, the majority of which are of the Shona tribe.
    (SFEC, 1/12/97, p.C16)

1820s        The Garinagu, descendants of African slaves and Caribbean Indians, fled to Belize from the Bay Islands of Honduras.
    (SFEC, 6/1/97, p.T3)

1820-1825    In India Ghulam Ali Khan painted his gouache and watercolor: "Assembly of Ascetics and Yogins around a Fire."
    (SFC, 2/7/98, p.E8)

1820-1891    George Hearst, later businessman and politician, was born.
    (SFEM, 10/24/99, p.20)

1820-1903    Herbert Spencer, nineteenth-century British thinker and early upholder of the theory of evolution, regarded human progress as "not an accident but a necessity." Spencer was born in England believed that every aspect of reality must be viewed in terms of a continuing development from lower to higher stages. His naturalistic philosophy had a great influence on the development of biology, psychology, anthropology and sociology. Spencer published his idea of the evolution of biological species before Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace. Spencer coined the phrase "survival of the fittest in his 1864 work Principles of Biology. "Hero-worship is strongest where there is least regard for human freedom."
    (HNQ, 8/19/98)(AP, 2/25/00)

1820-1904    Christian Nestell Bovee, American author: "Doubt whom you will, but never doubt yourself."
    (AP, 3/10/99)

1820-1910    Felix Nadar, French photographer, was born in Paris as Gaspard-Felix Tournachon. He is known for photographing such people as George Sand, Alexandre Dumas, Gioacchino Rossini, Eugene Delacroix, Sarah Burnhardt, Charles Baudelaire and Gerard de Nerval. He was the first photographer to experiment with electric lighting, and explored the realm of aerial photography.
    (Smith., 5/95, p.72)

1820-1920    Some 6 million Irish people, 90% of them Catholic, immigrated to America.
    (WSJ, 10/27/08, p.A15)

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