Timeline 1800-1810

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1800        Jan 7, Millard Fillmore, 13th US president (1850-1853), was born in Summerhill (Locke), N.Y.
    (SFC, 2/21/97, p.A25)(AP, 1/7/98)(HN, 1/7/99)

1800        Jan 8, Victor of Aveyron (~1785-1828), a feral child, emerged from French forests on his own. In 1797 he had been found wandering the woods near Saint-Sernin-sur-Rance, France, and was captured, but soon escaped. He was later  portrayed in the 1969 movie, The Wild Child (L'Enfant sauvage), by François Truffaut.

1800        Jan 10, The US Senate ratified a peace treaty with Tunis.
    (ON, 10/06, p.7)

1800        Jan 20, Carolina, the sister of Napoleon I, married King Joachim Murat of Naples.
    (MC, 1/20/02)

1800        Jan 23, Edward Rutledge (50), US attorney (signed Declaration of Independence), died.
    (MC, 1/23/02)

1800        Jan 24, Edwin Chadwick, British social reformer, was born.
    (MC, 1/24/02)

1800        Jan 30, US population was reported at 5,308,483; Black population 1,002,037 (18.9%).
    (MC, 1/30/02)

1800        Jan, Pierre Samuel du Pont de Nemours, his two sons and their families, arrived in Newport, Rhode Island, from France.
    (SFC, 7/10/00, p.A32)

1800        Jan, Lord Elgin established his British embassy in Constantinople. His orders were to open the borders for trade, obtain entry for British ships to the Black Sea and to secure an alliance against French military expeditions in the eastern Mediterranean.
    (ON, 11/99, p.2)

1800        Feb 11, William Henry Fox Talbot (d.1877), British inventor and pioneer in instantaneous photography, was born.
    (AHD, 1971, p. 1312)(V.D.-H.K.p.273)(HN, 2/11/01)

1800        Mar 14, James Bogardus, US inventor, builder (made cast-iron buildings), was born.
    (MC, 3/14/02)

1800        Mar 17, English warship Queen Charlotte caught fire and 700 people died.
    (MC, 3/17/02)

1800        Mar 20, French army defeated Turks at Heliopolis, Turkey, and advanced to Cairo.
    (MC, 3/20/02)

1800        Mar 28, The Parliament in Westminster passed an Act of Union formally binding Ireland with England and abolished the Irish parliament. The Act of Union entailed the loss of legislative independence of the Irish Parliament. The Act of Union received royal assent on August 1 and became effective on Jan 1, 1801.
    (www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/614673/Act-of-Union)(SFEC, 12/22/96, Z1 p.6)(WSJ, 11/20/98, p.W6)

1800        Apr 2, 1st performance of Ludwig van Beethoven's 1st Symphony in C.
    (MC, 4/2/02)

1800        Apr 15, Sir James Clark Ross, Scottish explorer, was born. He located the Magnetic North Pole.
    (HN, 4/15/99)

1800        Apr 16, George Charles Bingham, British soldier, was born. He commanded the Light Brigade during its famous charge.
    (HN, 4/16/01)

1800        Apr 24, US Congress approved a bill establishing the Library of Congress in Washington, D.C. with a $5,000 allocation.
    (HFA, ‘96, p.28)(AP, 4/24/97)(HN, 4/24/98)

1800        May 5, Louis Hachette, French publisher (Librairie Hachette), was born.
    (MC, 5/5/02)

1800        May 7, US Congress divided the Northwest Territory into two parts. The western part became the Indiana Territory and the eastern sections remained the Northwest Territory.
    (HN, 5/7/99)
1800        May 7, Niccolo  Piccinni (72), Italian composer (Roland), died.
    (MC, 5/7/02)

1800        May 9, John Brown, American abolitionist, was born. His adventures came to an end at Harper's Ferry, where he tried to start a revolution against slavery.
    (HN, 5/9/99)

1800        May 14, Friedrich Schiller's translation of "Macbeth" premiered in Weimar.
    (MC, 5/14/02)

1800        May 15, King George III survived a 2nd assassination attempt.
    (MC, 5/15/02)

1800        May 19, French Bosbeeck, veterinarian, robber, was hanged.
    (MC, 5/19/02)

1800        May-Dec, US presidential elections were held over this period. On Dec 3 state electors met and cast their ballots and a tie resulted between Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr.

1800        Jun 4, The US White House was completed and President & Mrs. John Adams moved in. [see Nov 1]
    (MC, 6/4/02)

1800        Jun 14, French General Napoleon Bonaparte pushed the forces of Austria out of Italy in the Battle of Marengo. In 2007 the sword he wore was auctioned off for over $6.4 million.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Marengo)(SFC, 6/11/07, p.A2)
1800        Jun 14, Jean-Baptiste Kleber (47), French general, architect, was murdered.
    (MC, 6/14/02)

1800        Jul 6, The Sultan of Constantinople at the behest of Lord Elgin issued written orders to his officers in Athens for cooperation with Giovanni Lusieri and the removal of sculptures from the Parthenon.
    (ON, 11/99, p.2)

1800        Jul 8, Dr. Benjamin Waterhouse (1754-1846), co-founder and professor of Harvard Medical School, gave the 1st cowpox vaccination to his son to prevent smallpox.
    (https://tinyurl.com/3vdxfzdj)(Econ., 2/13/21, p.21)

1800        Aug 21, The US Marine Band gave its first concert near the future site of the Lincoln Memorial.
    (SFC, 5/20/96, p.A-3)

1800        Sep 6, Catherine Esther Beecher, educator who promoted higher education for women, was born in East Hampton, Long Island, NY.
    (HN, 9/6/98)

1800        Sep 7, The NYC Zion AME Church was dedicated.
    (MC, 9/7/01)

1800        Sep 23, William Holmes McGuffey, educator, was born. He is famous for his book "Eclectic Readers" (McGuffey Readers).
    (HN, 9/23/98)

1800        Oct 1, Spain ceded Louisiana to France in a secret treaty.
    (AP, 10/1/97)

1800        Oct 2, Nat Turner, slave and the property of Benjamin Turner, was born in Southampton county, Va. He was sold in 1831 to Joseph Travis from Jerusalem, Southampton county, Va.

1800        Oct 3, George Bancroft, historian, known as the "Father of American History" for his 10-volume A History of the United States, was born.
    (HN, 10/3/98)

1800        Oct 7, Gabriel, slave revolt leader in Virginia, was hanged. Gabriel Prosser had mounted a slave rebellion.
    (SFC, 6/24/96, p.A19)(MC, 10/7/01)

1800        Oct 25, Thomas Babington Macaulay (d.1859), England, poet and historian, was born. "No particular man is necessary to the state. We may depend on it that, if we provide the country with popular institutions, those institutions will provide it with great men."
    (AP, 11/30/97)(MC, 10/25/01)

1800        Oct 26, Helmuth Karl von Moltke, Prussian Field Marshal and Count, was born. His reorganization of the Prussian Army led to military victories that allowed the unification of Germany. His father was a German officer serving in the Danish army. His greatest innovation was the creation of a fighting force that could mobilize quickly and strike when and where it chose. He was one of the first generals to grasp the importance of railroads in moving troops. In 1995 Otto Friedrich authored a biography of the Moltke family line from Bismarck to Hitler: “Blood and Iron: From Bismarck to Hitler the von Moltke Family’s Impact on German History."
    (WSJ, 11/7/95, p.A-20)(HN, 10/26/98)

1800        Oct, Napoleon banned the smoking of hashish and consumption of drinks containing it.   

1800        Nov 1, John and Abigail Adams moved into "the President’s House" in Washington DC. It became known as the White House during the Roosevelt administration.
    (SFEC, 5/7/00, p.T8)(MC, 11/1/01)

1800        Nov 17, The Sixth Congress (2nd session) convened for the first time in Washington, DC, in the partially completed Capitol building. Previously, the federal capital had briefly been in  other cities, including New York, Philadelphia, and Annapolis, Maryland. George Washington- a surveyor by profession- had been assigned to find a site for a capital city somewhere along the upper Potomac River, which flows between Maryland and Virginia. Apparently expecting to become president, Washington sited the capital at the southernmost possible point, the closest commute from Mount Vernon, despite the fact that this placed the city in a swamp called Foggy Bottom.
    (HN, 11/17/98)(AP, 11/17/07)

1800        Nov 24, Weber's opera "Das Waldmadchen," premiered in Freiburg.
    (MC, 11/24/01)

1800        Dec 2, John Brown (d.1859), US abolitionist, was born. He was hanged for murder in the Harper’s Ferry Incident in 1859. John Brown led the raid on the Federal Arsenal at Harper’s Ferry. The incident is the backdrop for George MacDonald Fraser’s novel "Flashman and the Angel of the Lord."
    (WUD, 1994, p. 190)(HFA, ‘96, p.44)(WSJ, 4/10/95, p. A-16)

1800        Dec 3, Austrians were defeated by the French at the Battle of Hohenlinden, near Munich.
    (HN, 12/3/98)
1800        Dec 3, US state electors met and cast their ballots for the presidency. A tie resulted between Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr.
1800        In the US presidential elections Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr tied in electoral votes. The selection was then moved to the House of Representatives where on the 36th ballot Vermont and Maryland switch their votes to Jefferson. [see Feb 17, 1801]
    (A&IP, ESM, p.26)(WSJ, 10/27/99, p.A16)

1800        Dec 12, Washington DC was established as the capital of US.
    (MC, 12/12/01)

1800        Dec 29, Charles Goodyear (d.1860), inventor of vulcanized rubber for tires, was born.
    (HN, 12/29/98)

1800        Dec, In Virginia Martha Washington set all her slaves free.
    (SFEC, 5/2/99, Z1 p.8)

1800        France Presern (d.1849), author, painter, poet, musician, mathematician and architect, was born in Slovenia. His image was later featured on Slovenia’s 1,000-tolar bills.
    (SSFC, 8/18/02, p.C6)

c1800        Johann Christian Reinhart, German artist, created his work: "The History Painter, Caricature."
    (WSJ, 7/16/98, p.A16)

1800        Friedrich Schiller wrote his drama "Mary Stuart." The play is compressed into the last 3 days of Mary’s life.
    (SFC, 4/3/98, p.C1)(WSJ, 9/27/01, p.A16)

1800        Rev. Mason L. Weems (d.1825) authored the biography "Life of Washington."
    (ON, 12/00, p.9)

c1800        Worcestershire sauce was a ketchup and came out about this time.
    (SFC, 7/3/96, zz-1,p.3)

c1800        Father Demetrius Gallitzin (1770-1840), a Russian-born Catholic priest, was directed by bishop John Carroll to investigate spirits in the home (Wizard's Clip) of Adam Livingstone in the Shenandoah Valley.
    (WSJ, 10/30/03, p.W17)

1800        Congress allocated a room in the Capitol for the US Supreme Court.
1800        John Jay (1745-1829), the 2nd governor of New York, was confirmed by the US Senate following his 2nd nomination for the Supreme Court. Jay declined the position and John Adams then nominated his Sec. of State, John Marshall, to the position.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Jay)(Econ., 10/10/20, p.18)
1800        The American political "revolution" brought the Republicans to office in the (sic) first peaceful transition of power between rival political parties in human history.
    (WSJ,2/11/97, p.A18)

1800        Jean Baptiste Pointe du Sable, a pioneer trader and founder of the village that became Chicago, sold his holdings and moved to a Missouri farm.
    (SFEC,10/19/97, Z1 p.2)
1800        Virginia congressman John Randolph described Edward Livingston of New York as follows: “He was a man of splendid abilities, but utterly corrupt. Like rotten mackerel by moonlight, he shines and stinks."
    (Econ, 6/1/13, p.16)

1800        The population of the world doubled from what it was in 1500 to more than 800 million. The world’s population reached about 1 billion about this time. In 1927 it reached 2 billion; in 1959 3 billion; in 1987 5 billion; in 1999 6 billion and in 2011 7 billion.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.168)(Econ, 10/22/11, p.28)

1800        The population of London, the largest city in Europe, was about one million.
    (Econ, 6/30/12, SR p.3)
1800        William Herschel (1738-1822), German-born English astronomer, detected what later became known as infra-red red light in experiments with glass prisms and thermometers.
    (NH, 11/1/04, p.54)

1800        Alessandro Volta (1745-1827), Italian physicist, first demonstrated the electric pile or battery.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.269)(Econ, 3/8/08, TQ p.22)

1800        Robert Fulton (35) tested a 20-foot model of his torpedo-armed submarine on the Seine. He made two 20-minute dives himself.
    (WSJ, 9/24/01, p.A22)

1800        John Chapman (1774-1845), Johnny Appleseed, a Swedenborgian missionary, a land speculator, a heavy drinker and an eccentric dresser, began planting orchards across western Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Indiana from seed. (T&L, 10/1980, p.42) )(AHD, p.225)(HNQ, 1/2/01)

1800        Lieven Bauwens stole a spinning "mule jenny" machine from Britain. He had it dismantled and smuggled out in a cargo of coffee. This enabled the textile industry in Ghent, Belgium, to greatly expand. Britain sentenced Bauwens to death in absentia and Ghent made him a hero.
    (SFEC, 11/21/99, p.T11)

1800        Mary Robinson (42/43), writer, actress, courtesan and fashion icon, died. In 2005 Sarah Gristwood authored “Perdita: Royal Mistress, Writer and Romantic." Paula Byrne authored Perdita: The Literary, Theatrical, Scandalous Life of Mary Robinson."
    (SSFC, 3/27/05, p.E2)

1800        The French regained the territory of Louisiana from Spain by the secret Treaty of Ildefenso.
    (CO, Grolier’s, 11/10/95)

1800        Dessalines, a lieutenant of Haitian rebel leader Toussaint L'Ouverture (Louverture),  butchered many mulattoes (the estimates range from 200 to 10,000).
    (http://tinyurl.com/22xwby)(WSJ, 1/19/07, p.W4)

1800        The Althing of Iceland was abolished by the Danish king.
    (HNQ, 4/28/00)

1800        About this time an Arab nomadic tribe settled in the southern Israeli desert of Negev. The Al-Sayyid community that developed there grew with a high incidence of profound deafness due to a recessive gene. The village developed a sign language in response that came to be called the Al-Sayyid Bedouin Sign Language (ABSL). In 2007 Margalit Fox authored “Signs and Wonders," which told the Al-Sayyid story as part of a history of linguistics and sign language in American and the world.
    (WSJ, 8/23/07, p.D7)

1800        Ito Jakuchu (b.1716), Japanese painter based in Kyoto, died.
    (SFC, 12/8/05, p.E12)

1800        In Sweden Count Balthazar Von Platen started the Gut Canal.
    (SFEC, 4/20/97, p.T8)

c1800    Many Bantu people from Malawi, Mozambique and Tanzania were taken from their homes and sold as slaves in Somalia.
    (NW, 9/2/02, p.35)

1800-1825 Kurdish emir Bedr Han rose up against the Ottomans in the early 19th century.
    (Econ, 2/14/15, p.46)

1800-1830    The Regency Period of England. It was named after George Augustus Frederick, Prince of Wales, who became prince regent in 1811.
    (WSJ, 3/26/99, p.W10)

1800-1861    This period was covered by Nicholas E. Tawa in his 2000 book: "High-Minded and Low-Down: Music in the Lives of Americans, 1800-1861."
    (WSJ, 5/31/00, p.A24)

c1800-1900    Charles M. Russell, 19th century American landscape painter. In 2001 his painting "A Disputed Trail" sold for $2.4 million.
    (WSJ, 9/7/01, p.W11)

1800-1900    In the 1990s Claude Rawson wrote Vol. 4 of "The Cambridge History of Literary Criticism: The Eighteenth Century."
    (WSJ, 1/15/98, p.A17)

1800-1900    In California floods turned the Central Valley into a lake 700 miles long.
    (SFC, 1/7/97, p.A10)

c1800-1900    Sir David Brewster, 19th cent. Scottish scientist, inventor of the kaleidoscope.
    (Hem., Nov.’95, p.126)

c1800-1900    J.H. Salisbury was a 19th century English dietician who recommended a diet of ground steak for a variety of ailments including pernicious anemia, tuberculosis and hardening of the arteries. His name gave rise to "Salisbury steak."
    (WUD, 1994, p.1262)

1800-1900    19th century Tokyo was called Edo and served as the shogun’s power seat.
    (SFEC, 8/9/98, p.T5)

1800-1900    In what later became Pakistan feudal families came to power when the British made weak vassals into a hereditary land-owning elite loyal to London.
    (WSJ, 8/7/98, p.A1)

1800-1900    In South Africa the Witwatersrand gold mines were discovered, the largest gold reserve find in the world. The gold came from a strip of land 62 miles long and 25 miles wide and produced three-fourths of all the gold ever mined.
    (SFEC, 4/21/97, p.A10)(SFEC, 8/8/99, Z1 p.8)

1800-1900    Tamil people of southern India were taken by the British to Ceylon to clear the jungles and work plantations.
    (SFC, 11/3/99, p.C6)

1800-1900    The main river channel at Hoi An, Vietnam, shifted toward Danang and made navigation by deep-draft ships difficult, and thus lost its commercial importance. A new port was built on the Han River at Da Nang.
    (AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.H)(SFEC, 4/26/98, p.T4)

1801        Jan 1, The Act of Union formally binding Ireland with England and abolishing the Irish parliament, became effective.
    (www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/614673/Act-of-Union)(SFEC, 12/22/96, Z1 p.6)(WSJ, 11/20/98, p.W6)
1801        Jan 1, Giuseppi Piazzi (d.1826), Italian astronomer, discovered an asteroid orbiting between Mars and Jupiter. He believed it to be a planet and named it Ceres, after the Roman goddess of the harvest. Ceres was later measured to be about 974km in diameter, roughly the length of Great Britain and 1% the mass of Earth’s moon.
    (NH, 7/02, p.36)(Econ., 2/28/15, p.70)

1801        Jan 11, Domenico Cimarosa (51), Italian composer (Matrimonio segreto), died.
    (MC, 1/11/02)

1801        Jan 20, US Secretary of State John Marshall was nominated by President Adams to be chief justice. He was sworn in on Feb. 4, 1801. Marshall effectively created the legal framework within which free markets in goods and services could establish themselves.
    (WSJ, 3/10/99, p.A22)(AP, 1/20/08)

1801        Jan 28, Francis Barber (ca. 1735 – 1801), the Jamaican manservant of Samuel Johnson (1752-1784), died at the Staffordshire General Infirmary.

1801        Jan, Toussaint Louverture, ignoring the commands of Napoleon Bonaparte, overran Spanish Santo Domingo, where slavery persisted.

1801        Feb 4, John Marshall was sworn in as chief justice of the United States.
    (AP, 2/4/97)

1801        Feb 7, John Rylands, merchant, philanthropist, was born in England.
    (MC, 2/7/02)

1801        Feb 17, The House of Representatives broke an electoral tie between Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr, electing Jefferson president. Burr became vice president. When George Washington announced that he would retire from office, he set the stage for the nation’s first two-party presidential campaign.
    (AP, 2/17/98)(HN, 2/17/98)
1801        Feb 17, Thomas Jefferson won the White House vowing to get rid of all federal taxes. He was supported by a new coalition of anti-Federalists that was the ancestor of the Democratic Party. In 2003 Jules Witcover authored "Party of the People: A History of the Democrats."
    (WSJ, 10/10/97, p.A1)(WSJ, 6/10/98, p.A18)(SSFC, 11/23/03, p.M1)

1801        Feb 21, John Henry Newman, was born. He was the Protestant vicar who converted to Catholicism and became a Roman Catholic Cardinal. He authored "Dream of Gerontius."
    (HN, 2/21/99)(MC, 2/21/02)

1801        Feb 27, The District of Columbia was placed under the jurisdiction of Congress. The Organic Act officially established Washington DC as a district separate from its adjacent states.
    (https://tinyurl.com/y6ocwq93)(AP, 2/27/98)

1801          Feb 28, Motiejus Valancius, Lithuanian educator, historian, writer and bishop, was born in Nasrenai in the Kretinga region. He died May 29, 1875, in Kaunas. His portrait is on the 2-litas note.
    (LC, 1998, p.4,10)(LHC,2/28/03)

1801        Mar 3, 1st US Jewish Governor, David Emanuel, took office in Georgia.
    (SC, 3/3/02)

1801        Mar 4, Thomas Jefferson became the first President to be inaugurated in Washington, D.C. (1801-1809). James Madison became secretary of state. In his inaugural address Jefferson said: "Though the will of the majority is in all cases to prevail, that will, to be rightful, must be reasonable; the minority possesses their equal right, which equal laws must protect, and to violate would be oppression."
    (WSJ, 2/2/95, p.A-16)(SFC, 1/3/97, p.A26)(HN, 3/4/98)

1801        Mar 10, Britain conducted its first census in order to find out how many men were available for conscription.
    (Econ, 1/12/08, p.75)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/UK_Census)

1801        Mar 11, Paul I (46), Czar of Russia (1796-1801), was strangled in his bedroom in St. Petersburg ending 4 years of insane rule. His son Alexander I Pavlovich (23) succeeded him.
    (PCh, 1992, p.360)(SS, 3/23/02)

1801        Mar 14, Christian Friedrich Penzel (63), composer, died.
    (MC, 3/14/02)

1801        Mar 21, The Kingdom of Etruria was created by the Treaty of Aranjuez. It was made up a large part of modern Tuscany and its name from Etruria, the old Roman name for the land of the Etruscans. The first king (Louis I) died young in 1803. His underage son Charles Louis succeeded him  and continued to 1807 when Napoleon dissolved the kingdom and integrated it into France.
1801        Mar 21, Andrea Lucchesi (59), composer, died.
    (MC, 3/21/02)

1801        Mar 24, Aleksandr P. Romanov became emperor of Russia.
    (MC, 3/24/02)

1801        Mar 25, Anthony Ziesenis (69), architect, sculptor (Camper), died.
    (MC, 3/25/02)

1801        Apr 2, The British navy defeated the Danish at the Battle of Copenhagen.
    (AP, 4/2/99)

1801        Apr 8, Soldiers rioted in Bucharest and killed 128 Jews.
    (MC, 4/8/02)

1801        Apr 11, Johann von Schiller's "Die Jungfrau von Orleans (The Maid of Orleans)," premieres in Leipzig.
    (MC, 4/11/02)

1801        Apr 12, Josef Franz Karl Lanner, Austrian composer, violist, was born.
    (MC, 4/12/02)

1801        May 14, The Pasha of Tripoli symbolically declared war on the US by cutting down the glagstaff in front of the US Consulate, after learning that Pres. Jefferson had refused to pay a renewed tribute of $225,000.
    (ON, 10/06, p.8)

1801        Apr 21, Saudi Arabs led Sunni raids into Karbala, Iraq, killing about 5,000 people.
    (Econ, 10/11/08, p.65)(http://tinyurl.com/5qdnf3)

1801        Apr 24, The 1st performance of Joseph Haydn's oratorio "Die Jahreszeiten (The Seasons)."
    (MC, 4/24/02)

1801        Apr 28, Anthony Ashley-Cooper, the seventh Earl of Shaftesbury and a leading social reformer of the Victorian Age, was born in England. Shaftesbury labored to establish schools, to abolish the use of small children as chimney sweeps, and to wipe out child prostitution. He was a vocal opponent of slavery but had little respect for the United States’ President Abraham Lincoln and thought the South should be permitted to secede from the Union.
    (HNQ, 6/10/01)

1801        May 6, British Lt. Thomas Cochrane, commander of the 14-gun sloop HMS Speedy, engaged and captured the 32-gun Spanish frigate El Gamo. The climactic battle in Patrick O’Brian’s novel “Master and Commander" is based on the Speedy’s fight with El Gamo. Cochrane was later elected to Parliament, pointed out corruption and was arrested on trumped up charges. After that he served as the first commander of Chile’s navy, then Brazil’s navy and the Greek navy before returning to England. In 2000 Robert Harvey authored “Cochrane: The Life and Exploits of a Fighting Captain."
    (ON, 11/04, p.1)

1801        May 16, William Henry Seward was born. He was later Gov. of New York and the American Sec. of State from 1861-1869. Under Pres. Lincoln he purchased Alaska for the United States at 2 cents per acre.
    (HFA, '96, p.30)(AHD, p.1187)(HN, 5/16/99)(WSJ, 11/20/01, p.A16)(MC, 5/16/02)

1801        May, Russian General Carl Heinrich Knorring removed the Georgian heir to the throne David Batonishvili from power and deployed a provisional government headed by General Ivan Petrovich Lasarev.

1801        Jun 1, Mormon leader Brigham Young (d.1877), the second president of the Mormon Church, was born in Whitingham, Vt.
    (AP, 6/1/97)

1801        Jun 6, The Treaty of Badajoz (also known as the Peace of Badajoz) was signed in Badajoz between John VI of Portugal and representatives from the Kingdom of Spain.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Badajoz_%281801%29)(Econ, 8/31/13, p.14)

1801        Jun 10, The North African state of Tripoli declared war on the United States in a dispute over safe passage of merchant vessels through the Mediterranean. Tripoli declared war on the U.S. for refusing to pay tribute.
    (AP, 6/10/97)(HN, 6/10/98)

1801        Jun 14, Former American Revolutionary War General Benedict Arnold died in London.
    (AP, 6/14/01)(ON, 11/01, p.5)

1801        Jun 29, Frederic Bastiat (d.1850), French free-market economist, was born in Bayonne. "The state is the great fictitious entity in which everyone seeks to live at the expense of everyone else."
    (WSJ, 7/5/01, p.A12)

1801        Jul 3, Johann Nepomuk Went (56), composer, died.
    (MC, 7/3/02)

1801        Jul 5, David G. Farragut (d.1870), American naval hero, was born in Knoxville, Tenn.
    (AP, 7/5/97)

1801        Jul 7, A new constitution, drafted by a committee appointed by Toussaint Louverture (L’Ouverture), went into effect and declared the independence of Hispaniola. The constitution made him governor general for life with near absolute powers.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Toussaint_L'Ouverture)(WSJ, 3/1/04, p.A16)

1801        Jul 15, Pope Pius VII and Napoleon signed the Concordat of 1801 brokering religious peace with Rome and granting equality to Jews. It solidified the Roman Catholic Church as the majority church of France and brought back most of its civil status.
    (Econ, 10/18/14, p.18)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Concordat_of_1801)

1801        Jul 17, The U.S. fleet arrived in Tripoli after Pasha Yusuf Karamanli declared war for being refused tribute.
    (HN, 7/17/99)

1801        Aug 1, The American schooner Enterprise captured the Barbary cruiser Tripoli.
    (HN, 8/1/98)

1801        Aug 6, A 9-day revival began at the Cane Ridge Presbyterian Church in Bourbon County, Kentucky. Some 20,000 people showed up for the revival called by Rev. Barton W. Stone. 3 evangelistic Christian groups grew out of the meeting.
    (WSJ, 8/10/01, p.W15)

1801        Oct 6, Napoleon Bonaparte imposed a new constitution on Holland.
    (HN, 10/6/98)

1801        Oct 23, Gustav Albert Lortzing, composer, was born.
    (MC, 10/23/01)
1801        Oct 23, Johann Gottlieb Naumann (60), German composer, died.
    (MC, 10/23/01)

1801        Nov 3, Karl Baedeker (d.1859), German publisher, was born. He became well known for travel guides. His 1835 "Travel on the Rhine" is widely considered as the 1st modern guidebook.
    (HN, 11/3/00)(SSFC, 12/1/02, p.C3)
1801        Nov 3, Vincenzo Bellini, Italian opera composer (La Sonnambula, Norma), was born.
    (MC, 11/3/01)

1801        Nov 9, Carl Philipp Stamitz, composer, died.
    (MC, 11/9/01)

1801        Nov 10, Samuel Gridley Howe (d.1876), educator of the blind, was born. He was the husband of Julia Ward Howe, author of the "Battle Hymn of the Republic."
    (NH, 6/96, p.20)(HN, 11/10/00)
1801        Nov 10, Kentucky banned dueling.
    (MC, 11/10/01)

1801        Nov 16, The 1st edition of New York Evening Post was published. Alexander Hamilton helped found the paper and served as editor. In 1976, Rupert Murdoch bought the Post for US$30.5 million. Since 1993, the Post has been owned by News Corporation and its successor, News Corp, which had owned it previously from 1976 to 1988.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_York_Post)(WSJ, 12/3/01, p.A17)   

1801        Dec 24, Richard Trevithick, inventor of the steam locomotive, completed a road test of his 1st "traveling engine" in Camborne, England.
    (ON, 4/04, p.5)

1801        Nov 9, Gail Borden (d.1874), inventor of condensed milk, was born in New York.
    (ON, 5/04, p.4)(Internet)

1801        Rembrandt Peale painted his brother’s portrait: "Rubens Peale with Geranium."
    (SFEM, 2/2/97, p.6)

1801        Francois Rene de Chateaubriand (1768-1848), French writer, authored his novel “Atala" following a trip to the US.
    (WSJ, 5/8/08, p.A13)
1801        Samuel Taylor Coleridge, English poet, wrote to Sir Humphrey Davy a letter in which he says: "I seem to sink in upon myself in a ruin, like a Column of Sand, informed and animated only by a Whirl-Blast of the Dessert." Coleridge had become addicted to opium in this year.
    (OAPOC-TH, p.71)(WSJ, 4/15/99, p.A20)

1801        Beethoven composed Op. 25 Serenade for flute, Violin and Viola.
    (WSJ, 8/17/00, p.A20)

1801        Thomas Bruce, the 7th Earl of Elgin, took the 2,500 year-old bas-reliefs from the Parthenon while he served as the British ambassador to the Ottoman Empire. 17 figures and 56 panels were put on display at the British Museum in 1816. Around 1939 the marbles were subjected to a botched scouring operation that damaged 40% of the collection. Elgin had hired Giovanni Lusieri, an Italian artist from the court of the King of Naples, to oversee the Parthenon project.
    (SFC, 12/2/99, p.D6)(ON, 11/99, p.2)

1801        Thomas Jefferson began a set of proper rules for the Senate when he wrote: " No one is to disturb another in his speech by hissing, coughing, spitting, speaking, or whispering to another."
    (SFC, 9/20/97, p.A9)
1801        Elder John Leland, a Baptist minister, helped commission a 1,235-pound wheel of Cheshire cheese as a gift of gratitude for Thomas Jefferson's steadfast support of religious liberties.
    (SSFC, 8/17/03, p.M1)

1801        The London Stock Exchange formed. British government debt was the only security traded and this remained so until 1822.
    (Econ, 4/2/05, p.70)(Econ, 12/24/05, p.104)

1801        French artist Girodet depicted Ossian, the mythical 3rd century blind Scottish poet, before the story was exposed as a fraud.
    (WSJ, 7/26/08, p.W8)
1801        In France Napoleon opened the Louvre to the public.
    (SFC, 2/11/97, p.E5)
1801        Napoleon's army in Egypt surrendered to Turkish and English forces. The French civilian toll topped 25 of 150, while the military toll topped 25,000 over the 3-year expedition.
    (ON, 12/99, p.4)(SFC, 12/14/07, p.E3)

1801        Friedrich von Hardenberg (b.1772), German poet (Novalis), died. He was later known as the father of German romantic nationalism.
    (WUD, 1994 p.645)(WSJ, 4/8/03, p.D4)

1801        In Mexico La Iglesia de Nuestra Senora del Refugio was a Franciscan-style mission church built in the border town of Guerrero Viejo.
    (SFC, 6/4/98, p.C2)

1801        South Ossetia was absorbed into the Russian Empire along with Georgia.
    (WSJ, 8/27/08, p.A12)

1801-1803     Mahmood ruled Afghanistan. Constant internal revolts continued.

1801-1806    Alexandre Dumas (d.1870) covered these years of French history in an 1869 serialized novel printed in the journal, "The Universal Monitor." In the 1980s Claude Schopp, a retired French lecturer, discovered the epic novel on microfilm. He got it published under the title "Le Chevalier de Sainte-Hermine," and in 2005 it became a top ten seller.
    (Reuters, 7/20/05)

1801-1835    John Marshall (1755-1835) was chief justice of the US Supreme Court. In 1996 Charles F. Hobson wrote "The Great Chief Justice: John Marshall and the Law" and Jean Edward Smith wrote "John Marshall: Definer of a Nation."
    (WSJ, 12/10/96, p.A20)

1801-1848    Thomas Cole, English born US painter. He and Asher B. Durand became fathers of the Hudson River School of painting and founded the National Academy of Design.
    (WUD, 1994, p.288)(WSJ, 8/10/99, p.A22)

1801-1864    Caroline Matilda Stansbury Kirkland, American author: "Like other spurious things, fastidiousness is often inconsistent with itself, the coarsest things are done, and the cruelest things said by the most fastidious people."
    (AP, 5/28/00)

1801-1866     Jane Welsh Carlyle, English writer: "In spite of the honestest efforts to annihilate my ‘I-ity,’ or merge it in what the world doubtless considers my better half (historian Thomas Carlyle), I still find myself a self-subsisting and alas! self-seeking ME."
    (AP, 8/27/98)

1801-1921    A single Parliament legislated all the British Isles. A history of the archipelago was written in 2000 by Norman Davies: "The Isles."
    (WSJ, 3/9/00, p.A24)

1802        Jan 25, Napoleon was elected president of Italian (Cisalpine) Republic.
    (MC, 1/25/02)

1802        Jan 26, Congress passed an act calling for a library to be established within the U.S. Capitol.
    (AP, 1/26/98)

1802        Jan 29, John Beckley of Virginia was appointed 1st Librarian of Congress.
    (MC, 1/29/02)

1802        Jan, In London, England, William Cobbett (1763-1835) set up the Weekly Political Register. It spread dissent during the post-war recession.
    (Econ, 12/23/06, p.103)(www.nndb.com/people/245/000049098/)

1802        Feb 4, Mark Hopkins, US  educator, philosopher (Williams College), was born.
    (MC, 2/4/02)

1802        Feb 8, Simon Willard patented a banjo clock.
    (MC, 2/8/02)

1802        Feb 23, Dewitt Clinton (1769-1828) began serving as US Senator from New York and continued to 1803.

1802        Feb 26, Victor Hugo (d.1885), French novelist and poet, was born in Besancon. In 1998 Graham Robb published the biography: "Victor Hugo." "Initiative is doing the right thing without being told."
    (WSJ, 2/10/98, p.A16)(HN, 2/26/98)(AP, 6/13/99)

1802        Feb, Napoleon sent a large army under his brother-in-law, Charles Leclerc, to regain control of St. Domingue. Thousands of soldiers died mainly to yellow fever and French control was abandoned so as to support military ventures in Europe. Toussaint L'Ouverture  (Louverture) turned to guerrilla warfare inspired by the ideals of the French Revolution and its motto of "Liberty, Equality, Fraternity."
    (CO, Grolier's, 11/10/95)(AP, 4/7/03)

1802        Mar 16, The US Congress authorized the establishment of the US Military Academy at West Point, N.Y. President Jefferson signed a measure authorizing the establishment of the US Military Academy at West Point, N.Y.
    (www.usma.edu/history.asp)(AP, 3/16/97)

1802        Mar 24, Richard Trevithick was granted a patent in London for his steam locomotive.
    (ON, 4/04, p.5)

1802        Mar 27, Treaty of Amiens was signed. The French Revolutionary War ended.
    (HN, 3/27/98)

1802        Apr 4, Dorothea Dix, American proponent of treatment of mental inmates, was born.
    (HN, 4/4/98)

1802        Apr 8, French Protestant church became state-supported and controlled.
    (MC, 4/8/02)

1802        Apr 19, Spain reopened the New Orleans port to American merchants.
    (HN, 4/19/97)

1802        Apr 27, Abraham Louis Niedermeyer, composer, was born.
    (MC, 4/27/02)

1802        May 3, Washington, D.C., was incorporated as a city, with the mayor appointed by the president and the council elected by property owners.
    (AP, 5/3/97)

1802        May 15, Isaac Ridgeway Trimble (d.1888), Major General (Confederate Army), was born.
    (MC, 5/15/02)

1802        May 18, Great Britain declared war on Napoleon's France.
    (HN, 5/18/99)

1802        May 19 Napoleon established the French Order of Legion d'Honneur award (Legion of Honor). It was a general military and civil order of merit conferred without regard to birth or religion, provided that anyone admitted swore to uphold liberty and equality.
    (DrEE, 9/28/96, p.5)(SFC, 10/19/96, A7)

1802        May, In Saint-Domingue (later Haiti) Gen. Toussaint L’Ouverture surrendered to French forces. Many of his generals continued to wage a guerilla campaign against the French.
    (ON, 2/10, p.9)

1802         Jul 4, The United State Military Academy opened its doors at West Point, New York, welcoming the first 10 cadets.
    (AP, 7/4/97)(IB, Internet, 12/7/98)

1802        Jul 7, The first comic book was published in Hudson, NY. "The Wasp" was created by Robert Rusticoat.
    (MC, 7/7/02)

1802        Jul 8, Gen. Toussaint L'Ouverture of Saint-Domingue (later Haiti) was sent to France in chains.
    (AP, 4/7/03)(ON, 2/10, p.9)

1802        Jul 9, Thomas Davenport, invented 1st commercial electric motor, was born.
    (MC, 7/9/02)

1802        Jul 24, Alexandre Dumas (d.1870), French novelist and dramatist who wrote "The Count of Monte Cristo" and "The Three Musketeers," was born. Alexandre Dumas, pere, French author of romantic plays and novels. He wrote "The Man in the Iron Mask." He was the father of Alexandre Dumas fils (1824-1895), French author of plays of social realism.
    (HFA, ‘96, p.34)(AHD, 1971, p.403)(WUD, 1994, p.441)(HN, 7/24/98)

1802        Aug 2, Napoleon Bonaparte was proclaimed "Consul for Life" by the French Senate after a plebiscite from the French people.
    (HN, 8/2/98)

1802        Aug 5, Niels Henrik Abel (d.1829), mathematician, was born in Frindoe, Norway.
    (Internet)(SFC, 3/26/04, p.A15)

1802        Aug 7, Napoleon ordered the re-instatement of slavery on St. Domingue (Haiti).
    (MC, 8/7/02)

1802        Aug 25, Toussaint L'Ouverture (Louverture) was imprisoned in Fort de Joux, Jura, France.
    (MC, 8/25/02)

1802        Aug 31, Captain Meriwether Lewis left Pittsburgh to meet up with Captain William Clark and begin their trek to the Pacific Ocean.
    (HN, 8/31/98)

1802        Sep 4, A French aeronaut dropped eight-thousand feet equipped with a parachute.
    (MC, 9/4/01)

1802        Sep 11, Piedmont, Italy, was annexed by France.
    (HN, 9/11/98)

1802        Sep 19, Louis Kossuth (d.1894), later president of Hungary, was born. "The instinctive feeling of a great people is often wiser than its wisest men."
    (AP, 7/2/97)(MC, 9/19/01)

1802        Oct 10, The 1st non-Indian settlement in Oklahoma was made.
    (MC, 10/10/01)

1802        Oct 22, Samuel Arnold (62), English composer, died.
    (MC, 10/22/01)

1802        Oct 28, The 34-gun Spanish frigate Juno, enroute back to Spain from Mexico [Puerto Rico], ran into a storm off the coast of Virginia. Captain Don Juan Ignacio Bustillo perished along with 425 men, women and children and an estimated half-billion dollars in treasure. A boy from the wreck survived on Assateague Island and was named James Alone. He later changed his name to James Lunn. Many Chincoteague islanders later traced their descent to James.
    (USAT, 5/7/98, p.9A)(WSJ, 7/17/98, p.A1)(SFC, 8/14/00, p.A3)

1802        Oct 31, Benoit Fourneyron, inventor of the water turbine, was born.
    (HN, 10/31/00)

1802        Nov 9, Elijah P. Lovejoy, American newspaper publisher and abolitionist, was born.
    (MC, 11/9/01)

1802        Dec 20, The United States bought the Louisiana territory from France. [see Jan 11, 1803]
    (HN, 12/20/98)

1802        James Gillnay painted "Cow-Pock," a satirization of the new cowpox vaccination to prevent smallpox.
    (NH, 9/98, p.9)

1802        Nathaniel Bowditch (1773-1838) published "The New American Practical Navigator," later known as the "seaman’s bible." It was a revision of his 1799 and 1800 works, which in turn revised the 1722 work of John Hamilton Moore.
    (AH, 12/02, p.22)

1802        French author Chateaubriand (1768-1848) authored “Rene" and introduced to the world the French youth whose existence embodied the mal du siècle.
    (Econ, 12/21/13, p.84)
1802        Vivant Denon (1747-1825), French author and archeologist, authored Voyage dans la Basse et la Haute Egypte" (Travels in Upper and Lower Egypt during the campaigns of General Bonaparte in that country).
    (Econ, 12/21/13, p.127)
1802        John Playfair published a more readable volume of Hutton’s Theory of the Earth as Illustrations of the Huttonian Theory of the Earth.
     (DD-EVTT, p.21)

1802        James Callender, an English-born journalist, published a report in the Richmond, Va., Recorder about Thomas Jefferson and his relationship with the slave Sally Hemmings [Hemings]. In 1997 Annette Gordon-Reed published: "Thomas Jefferson and Sally Hemmings, an American Controversy." DNA tests of descendants in 1998 indicated that Jefferson fathered at least one child with Hemmings, her youngest son Eston Hemmings in 1808. Dr. Eugene Foster, author of the DNA report, later said the DNA tests showed that any one of 8 Jefferson males could have fathered Eston. In 2008 Annette Gordon-Reed authored “The Hemmingses of Monticello: An American Family."
    (WSJ, 9/23/97, p.A1)(SFC, 4/29/98, p.A6)(SFEC, 11/1/98, p.A1,7)(WSJ, 11/2/98, p.B11)(WSJ, 2/26/99, p.W15)(SFC, 1/27/00, p.A3)(SSFC, 10/19/08, Books p.4)

1802        Beethoven composed the 6 Gellert songs of Op. 48.
    (WSJ, 8/17/00, p.A20)

1802        Congress repealed all taxes except for a tax on salt and left the government dependent on import tariffs.
    (WSJ, 10/10/97, p.A1)

1802        Andrew Jackson was elected to command the Tennessee militia.
    (SSFC, 10/30/05, p.M3)

1802        Eleuthere Irenee du Pont de Nemours (d.1834), a French immigrant, set up a saltpeter mill in Wilmington, Del., on the banks of the Brandywine River. In 8 years it grew to become America's largest black-powder plant as it supplied gunpowder to the US for the War of 1812.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R46)(SFC, 9/17/01, p.B2)

1802        Joseph Ellicott, New York Quaker surveyor, founded Genessee County and the town of Batavia: "God made Buffalo, I will try and make Batavia."
    (WSJ, 6/28/02, p.W13)

1802        Heinrich Olbers, German astronomer, discovered an asteroid orbiting between Mars and Jupiter, He believed it to be a planet and named it Pallas after Pallas Athena (goddess of wisdom and war).
    (NH, 7/02, p.36)

1802        Edward Howard, English chemist, determined that the iron in meteorites was a unique blend of iron and nickel that did not occur in known terrestrial rocks.
    (ON, 7/02, p.5)

1802        An American captain of the ship Palmyra blew ashore on a southern atoll 1,052 miles south of Hawaii and named it Palmyra after his ship.
    (SFC, 5/4/00, p.A9)

1802        Harriot Wilson was publicly executed by the state of Pennsylvania for the murder of her infant child. An account of the "exploits of the murderess" is published in 1822 by J. Wilkey.
    (LSA., Fall 1995, p.20)

1802        In Australia the Aboriginal warrior Pemulwuy (b.~1750) was shot dead. His head was cut off and believed to have been placed in a jar and sent to England. He opposed British settlement and was described by Sydney's then governor Philip King as "a terrible pest to the colony" but also "a brave and independent character."
    (AFP, 1/15/10)

1802        Britain levied the first English income tax to raise money to fight Napoleon. William Pit the Younger 1st introduced the income tax to finance the war against France.
    (SFEC, 4/5/98, Z1 p.8)(Econ, 9/10/05, p.53)
1802        England passed its first law regulating child labor.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R28)
1802        A British exploring party led by Matthew Flinders landed on a 96-mile-long island southwest of Adelaide and slaughtered 31 kangaroos for a feast. This 3rd largest island off Australia was thus named Kangaroo Island. Flinders named the Great Barrier Reef and found a passage to the Corral Sea. He is best remembered for circumnavigating Australia and giving the continent its name.
    (SFEC,12/21/97, p.T6)(SSFC, 3/24/02, p.C22)(WSJ, 7/23/04, p.W12)(Econ, 5/31/14, p.77)
1802        The Rosetta Stone was seized by the British in Egypt after the defeat of Napoleon’s army and was sent to England.
    (RFH-MDHP, p.182)

1802        France legalized prostitution.
    (NY Daily News, 10/27/21)

1802        The Rome stock exchange was founded. The Borsa di Roma occupied the site of a temple completed in 145 AD as a tribute to Emperor Hadrian.
    (WSJ, 12/13/96, p.B11A)

1802        Emperor Gia Long, born as Nguyen Phuc An, took over Hue and established it as the capital of Vietnam. Its palaces, tombs and monuments are located along the banks of the Perfume River.
    (SSFC, 1/29/17, p.F4)(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.H)

1802-1803    George Friedrich Grotefend published his account of translating cuneiform script.
    (RFH-MDHP, p.193)

1802-1828    Richard Parkes, English watercolorist.
    (Hem., 3/97, p.94)

1802-1838     Letitia Landon, English poet: "Few, save the poor, feel for the poor."
    (AP, 1/21/00)

1802-1876    Harriet Martineau, English writer and social critic: "Religion is a temper, not a pursuit."
    (AP, 6/7/99)

1802-1880     Lydia Maria Child, American author Thought for Today: "It is right noble to fight with wickedness and wrong; the mistake is in supposing that spiritual evil can be overcome by physical means."
    (AP, 12/3/97)

1802-1889    Juana Briones Y Tapia de Miranda was born in Santa Cruz, Ca. She was a battered wife and became the first California woman to get a divorce. She was the first to settle on Powell St. in what is now North Beach, SF. In 1989 the Women’s Heritage Museum persuaded the state to authorize a plaque in her honor to be set in Washington Square.
    (SFEC, 5/26/97, p.A11)(SFC,11/17/97, p.A1,21)

1803        Jan 11, Monroe and Livingston sailed for Paris to buy New Orleans; they ended up buying Louisiana. [see Dec 20, 1802]
    (MC, 1/11/02)

1803        Jan, Lord Elgin concluded his diplomatic mission to Constantinople.
    (ON, 11/99, p.2)

1803        Feb 2, Albert Sidney Johnston, Genl. (Confederate Army), was born. He died in 1862 at Shiloh.
    (MC, 2/2/02)

1803        Feb 14, An apple parer was patented by Moses Coats in Downington, Penn.
    (MC, 2/14/02)

1803        Feb 15, John Augustus Sutter (d.1880), Swiss-US colonist (New Helvetia, Ca., Sutter Mill), was born.
    (MC, 2/15/02)

1803        Feb 19, Congress voted to accept Ohio’s borders and constitution. However, Congress did not get around to formally ratifying Ohio statehood until 1953.
    (AP, 2/19/98)

1803        Feb 21, The British return the Cape of Good Hope to the Dutch (Batavian Republic) under the Treaty of Amiens.
    (EWH, 4th ed, p.884)
1803        Feb 21, Colonel Edward Marcus Despard (b.1751) became the last person drawn & quartered in England. He was executed for high treason for his part in the failed Despard Plot. Evidence presented in court had suggested that Despard planned to assassinate the monarch George III and seize key strong points in London such as the Bank of England and Tower of London as a prelude to a wider uprising by the population of the city.  

1803        Feb 24, The US Supreme Court ruled itself the final interpreter of constitutional issues. Chief Justice John Marshall, by refusing to rule on the case of Marbury vs. Madison, asserted the authority of the judicial branch. The US Supreme Court 1st ruled a law unconstitutional (Marbury v Madison).
    (AP, 2/24/98)(HN, 2/24/98)

1803        Feb 25, The 1,800 sovereign German states united into 60 states.
    (MC, 2/25/02)

1803         Mar 1, Ohio became the 17th US state and was given a grant of land to support public education.
    (HN, 3/1/98)(Econ, 4/15/17, p.22)

1803        Mar 3, The first impeachment trial of a U.S. Judge, John Pickering, began.
    (HN, 3/3/99)

1803        Mar 14, Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock (78), German poet, died.
    (MC, 3/14/02)

1803        Mar 19, Johann von Schiller's "Die Braut von Messina," premiered in Weimar.
    (MC, 3/19/02)

1803        Apr 5, 1st performance of Beethoven's 2nd Symphony in D.
    (MC, 4/5/02)

1803        Apr 7, Francois D. Toussaint L'Ouverture (Louverture), Haitian revolutionary, died in a dungeon at Fort Joux in the French Alps. In 2007 Madison Smartt Bell authored “Toussaint Louverture: A Biography."
    (AP, 4/7/03)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Toussaint_L'Ouverture)(SFC, 1/15/07, p.D7)

1803        Apr 26, Villagers of L’Aigle, France, witnessed a meteor shower. The rocks helped to convince scientists that meteors were of extraterrestrial origin.
    (ON, 7/02, p.5)

1803        Apr 30, The US under Thomas Jefferson signed a treaty that accepted the purchase of the Louisiana Territory from Napoleon Bonaparte's government of France for 60 million francs or about $15 mil. The area included most of the thirteen states that lie between the Mississippi River and the Rocky Mountains. American envoys sent to France were originally instructed to buy only the port city of New Orleans and were astonished when Napoleon, abandoning plans for an American empire, offered them all of Louisiana. The United States doubled in size through the Louisiana Purchase. The federal government spent less than $8 million in operations and borrowed the money needed for the purchase.
    (CO, 11/10/95)(WSJ, 3/12/97, p.A18)(AP, 4/30/97)(HN, 4/30/98)(HNPD, 5/1/99)

1803        May 7, Johan Peter Cronhamm, composer, was born.
    (MC, 5/7/02)

1803        May 16, Great Britain and France renewed their war.
    (PCh, 1992, p.362)

1803        May 17, John Hawkins and Richard French patented a reaping machine.
    (MC, 5/17/02)

1803        May 18, Great Britain declared war on France after General Napoleon Bonaparte continued interfering in Italy and Switzerland.
    (HN, 5/18/99)(ON, 11/99, p.4)(SC, 5/18/02)

1803        May 22, The 1st US public library opened in Connecticut.
    (MC, 5/22/02)

1803        May 23, Lord Elgin and his family were detained in Paris. Elgin's family was allowed to proceed but he was arrested and declared a prisoner of war.
    (ON, 11/99, p.4)

1803        May 24, Charles LJL Bonaparte, Corsican, French prince of Canino, Musignano, was born.
    (MC, 5/24/02)

1803        May 25, Ralph Waldo Emerson (d.1882), American essayist and philosopher, was born. A biography of Emerson that includes information about his friends was written in 1996 by Carlos Baker and titled: "Emerson Among the Eccentrics: A Group Portrait." It includes such people as: the transcendental visionary Bronson Alcott, essayist Henry David Thoreau, mad poet Jones Very, activist Margaret Fuller, poet Ellery Channing. Other people included are Hawthorne, Melville, Theodore Parker, and the family of Henry James. "Money often costs too much." "Nothing astonishes men so much as common sense and plain dealing."
    (AP, 10/22/97)(HN, 5/25/98)(AP, 7/8/98)

1803        Jul 8, Frederick Augustus Hervey (b.1730), the 4th Earl of Bristol and Bishop of Derry, died. He had toured Europe with his own cook and entourage and inspired a number of hotels to take on the Bristol name.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frederick_Hervey,_4th_Earl_of_Bristol)(WSJ, 9/27/08, p.A1)

1803        Jul 23, Irish patriots throughout the country rebelled against Union with Great Britain. Robert Emmett led the insurrection in Dublin.
    (HN, 7/23/98)(MC, 7/23/02)

1803        Jul 31, John Ericsson, inventor of the screw propeller, was born.
    (HN, 7/31/98)

1803        Aug 31, The government-sponsored transcontinental expedition under the leadership of Captain Meriwether Lewis and Lieutenant William Clark set off down the Ohio River. The 40-member expedition wintered and trained near St. Louis before starting up the Missouri River in three boats on May 14, 1804. Lewis and Clark’s three-year journey of exploration and discovery to the Pacific Coast and back stimulated western settlement and proved that an overland route to the West Coast was possible.
    (HNPD, 8/31/98)

1803        Sep 5, Francois Devienne, composer, died at 44.
    (MC, 9/5/01)

1803        Sep 8, A high pressure steam boiler, made by Richard Trevithick, exploded at a corn mill in Greenwich, England, and 3 men were killed. A worker had left a heavy wrench on the safety valve and gone fishing.
    (ON, 4/04, p.5)

1803        Sep 13, Commodore John Barry, considered by many the father of the American Navy, died in Philadelphia.
    (AP, 9/13/97)

1803        Sep 17, Franz Xaver Sussmayr, composer, died.
    (MC, 9/17/01)

1803        Sep 23, British Major General Sir Arthur Wellesley defeated the Marathas at Assaye, India.
    (HN, 9/23/98)

1803        Sep 20, Robert Emmet, Irish nationalist, was executed.
    (MC, 9/20/01)

1803        Sep 27, Samuel Francis DuPont (d.1865), Rear Admiral (Union Navy), was born.
    (MC, 9/27/01)

1803        Sep 28, Prosper Merimee, playwright (Carmen), was born in Paris, France.
    (MC, 9/28/01)

1803        Oct 2, Samuel Adams (b.1722), former Gov. of Mass. (1793-1797), died. He was a propagandist, political figure, revolutionary patriot and statesman who helped to organize the Boston Tea Party. In 2008 Ira Stoll authored “Samuel Adams: A Life."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samuel_Adams)(AHD, 1971, p.14)(WSJ, 11/3/08, p.A17)

1803        Oct 3, John Gorrie, inventor of the cold-air process of refrigeration, was born.
    (MC, 10/3/01)

1803        Oct 20, The US Senate voted to ratify Jefferson’s Louisiana Purchase.
    (CO, Grolier’s, 11/10/95)(AP, 10/20/97)

1803        Oct 31, Congress ratified the purchase of the entire Louisiana area in North America, which added territory to the United States for 13 subsequent states.
    (HN, 10/31/98)

1803        Oct, The USS Philadelphia was captured by the Tripolitans. 307 sailors were held for ransom by the Pasha of Tripoli.
    (www.history.navy.mil/photos/events/barb-war/burn-phl.htm)(ON, 10/06, p.8)

1803        Nov 3, Henri Moreau, composer (75), died.
    (MC, 11/3/01)

1803        Nov 5, Chalderon de Laclos, writer, died.
    (MC, 11/5/01)

1803        Nov 18, The Battle of Vertieres was fought. Jean-Jacques Dessalines (b.1758), Haitian rebel leader, led his army to decisive victory over the French with his slogan "Cut off their heads and burn down their houses."
    (www.hartford-hwp.com/archives/43a/168.html)(HFA, ‘96, p.42)(AP, 4/7/03)

1803        Nov 29, Christian Doppler (d.1853), Austrian physicist who discovered the Doppler effect, was born. Hubble used his name for the Doppler Effect, that describes the apparent change in the frequency of a wave depending on whether the wave is approaching or receding.
    (WUB, 1994, p.426)(HN, 11/29/98)

1803        Nov 30, Spain, in a ceremony at New Orleans, completed the process of ceding Louisiana to France, which had sold it to the United States.
    (CO, Grolier’s, 11/10/95)(AP, 11/30/04)

1803        Dec 3, Hector Berlioz, French composer (Symphony Fantastique), was born. [see Dec 11]
    (MC, 12/3/01)

1803        Dec 11, Hector Berlioz (d.1869), French composer and conductor, was born. He introduced arresting and gaudy instrumental colors in combinations that had not been dreamed of before him. He composed "Romeo and Juliet" in 1939 and conducted its first performance. He also composed the "Death of Cleopatra." He composed "Symphonie Fantastique" and "La Damnation de Faust." [see Dec 3]
    (T&L, 10/80, p. 58)(SFC, 10/5/96, p.E1)(HN, 12/11/99)

1803        Dec 20, The Louisiana Purchase was completed as the territory was formally transferred from France to the United States during ceremonies in New Orleans. French Prefect Pierre Clement Laussat, US Gov. William CC Claiborne and US Gen. James Wilkinson signed 4 copies the treaty. The Louisiana Purchase effectively doubled the size of the existing U.S. With 827,987 square miles in the deal, that price translates to roughly $18 per square mile- under 3 cents/acre.
    (AP, 12/20/97)(SFC, 12/21/03, p.A2)

1803        Dec 23, Lt. Stephen Decatur, commanding the schooner Enterprise, captured a Barbary ketch, which was entered into the US Navy as the Intrepid.
    (ON, 2/03, p.2)

1803        The Pinkster Ode was Dedicated To Carolus Africanus, Rex: Thus Rendered in English: King Charles, Capital-General and Commander in Chief of the Pinkster Boys in Albany, NY. Despite Pinkster’s Dutch origins, Africans in New York and New Jersey were so successful at incorporating their own cultures into the celebration that by the early 1800s Pinkster was actually considered an African-American holiday.

1803        Beethoven composed his "Kreutzer Sonata" dedicated to the French violinist Rudolphe Kreutzer.
    (WUD, 1994, p.795)(SFC, 4/2/98, p.E4)

1803         One of the architects of the US Capitol, Benjamin Henry Latrobe, who succeeded William Thornton and Stephen Hallet as Capitol architect in 1803, modified the original design of the Capitol and used Greek inspiration in the details. Latrobe was chiefly responsible for introducing the Greek Revival in the U.S. His Bank of Pennsylvania building in Philadelphia was the first Greek building in the country and was characteristic of his free adaptation of ancient precedent and vaulted construction.
    (HNQ, 3/11/99)
1803        The US Mint struck its last silver dollars until 1934, when special 1804 silver dollars were minted as gifts from left over dies.
    (SFEC, 8/8/99, p.A6)

1803        Dewitt Clinton (1769-1828) began serving his 1st term as Mayor of New York City and continued to 1807. His 2nd term as mayor was from 1808-1810 and again from 1811-1815.
1803        In  NYC the industrial district surrounded the Collect Pond. It got so polluted that the Common Council called for it to be filled and the process was begun in this year.
    (AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.47)

1803        In Virginia the Alexandria Baptist Society was formed when members split from another church. A slave was soon baptized as its first black member. In 1818 the Alfred Street Baptist Church in Alexandria was founded.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alfred_Street_Baptist_Church)(SFC, 4/6/15, p.A6)

1803        John Dalton, British chemist and physicist, pointed out that the fact that chemical compounds always combined in certain proportions could be explained by the grouping together of atoms to form units called molecules.
    (BHT, Hawking, p.63)
1803        The steel ink pen was developed in Birmingham, England.
    (SFC, 12/13/06, p.E3)   

1803        Thomas Robert Malthus (1766-1834), English political economist, authored the 2nd edition of his 1798 “An Essay on the Principle of Population." This edition introduced the idea of moral restraint.
    (Econ, 5/17/08, p.94)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malthus)
1803        The French Academy of Sciences insisted that meteorites could not exist because no specimens had been produced.
    (WSJ, 4/2/96, p.A-15)
1803        French economist Jean-Baptiste Say (1767-1832) penned "A Treatise on Political Economy,"  an exposition and expansion of the economic ideas of Adam Smith. Here he said that management is a factor of production.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Say%27s_Political_Economy)(Econ, 8/12/17, p.54)

1803        Alexander Von Humboldt, German explorer and scientist, spent some time in Taxco, Mexico. The house where he stayed later became the Museum of Colonial Religious Art.
    (SFEC, 11/10/96, p.T7)

1803        Denmark became the first country to ban slave trade.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R25)

1803        Sweden made vaccination compulsory to stop the spread of smallpox.
    (Econ., 2/13/21, p.20)

1803-1809     Shah Shujah ruled Afghanistan.

1803-1812    Lord Elgin organized the removal of sculptures from the Parthenon.
    (AM, 5/01, p.14)

1803-1815    In 2007 Charles Esdaile covered this period in his book: “Napoleon’s Wars: An International History, 1803-1815."
    (Econ, 11/10/07, p.103)

1803-1862    Barend Cornelis Koekkoek of Holland came from a renowned family of artists. He considered the painting of nature the only true calling of an artist.
    (WSJ, 12/10/99, p.W16)

1803-1876     Orestes Augustus Brownson, American author and clergyman was born in  Stockbridge, Vt. At first a Presbyterian, he later became a Universalist, a Unitarian minister, head of his own church, a transcendentalist, and finally (1844) a Roman Catholic. As a writer and magazine editor, Brownson dealt with religious questions and fought social injustice: "We have heard enough of the liberties and the rights of man, it is high time to hear something of the duties of men and the rights of authority." In 1992 Gregory Butler wrote the biography: "In Search of the American Spirit," and in 1999 R.A. Herrera published "Orestes Brownson: Sign of Contradiction."
    http://encyclopedia.com/articles/01924.html (WSJ, 5/28/99, p.W11)

1804        Jan 1, Jean-Jacques Dessalines proclaimed the Republic of Haiti and declared independence from France. Documentation of his speech was then lost and only re-discovered in 2010 by a Canadian graduate student searching in the British National Archives.
    (WSJ, 3/1/04, p.A16)(SFCM, 5/30/04, p.19)(SFC, 4/2/10, p.A2)

1804        Jan 5, Ohio legislature passed the 1st laws restricting free blacks movement. [see Mar 28]
    (MC, 1/5/02)

1804        Jan 31, British vice-admiral William Bligh (of HMS Bounty infamy) fleet reached Curacao (Antilles).
    (MC, 1/31/02)

1804        Feb 6, Joseph Priestley (b.1733), English-born US writer, philosopher and chemist, died in Pennsylvania. He became best known for having discovered oxygen. Priestley also figured out how to manufacture carbonated water and is sometimes called “the father of the soft-drink industry." In 2008 Steven Johnson authored “The Invention of Air: A Story of Science, Faith, Revolution, and the Birth of America."
    (www.britannica.com/eb/article-9061366)(ON, 10/05, p.1)(SFC, 1/9/09, p.E3)

1804        Feb 7, John Deere, farm equipment manufacturer, was born.
    (HN, 2/7/99)

1804        Feb 15, New Jersey became the last northern state to abolish slavery.
    (HN, 2/15/98)

1804        Feb 16, Lt. Stephen Decatur attacked Tripoli, where pirates held the USS Philadelphia. Decatur and 76 volunteers, aboard the captured Intrepid, attempted to recapture the Philadelphia, which caught fire, exploded and sank. Decatur and his crew escaped.
    (AP, 2/16/98)(HN, 2/16/98)(ON, 2/03, p.2)

1804        Feb 20, Hobart, Tasmania, was founded as a penal colony.

1804        Feb 25, Thomas Jefferson was nominated for president at the Democratic-Republican caucus.
    (HN, 2/25/98)

1804        Feb 26, Vice-Admiral William Bligh ended the siege of Fort Amsterdam, Willemstad.
    (SC, 2/26/02)

1804        Mar 7, John Wedgwood, founder (Royal Horticulture Society), died.
    (MC, 3/7/02)

1804        Mar 8, Alvan Clark, telescope manufacturer, was born.
    (HN, 3/8/98)

1804        Mar 12, Judge John Pickering, a federal district judge in New Hampshire, was the first American official impeached and then found guilty by the Senate. Pickering, a Federalist, was impeached as unfit based on charges related to his habitual drunkenness and bizarre handling of cases. He was adjudged guilty and removed from office in spite of evidence establishing that he was insane and hence not culpable of high crimes or misdemeanors. Impeached during the same period, Chief Justice Samuel Chase was acquitted by the Senate on March 1, 1805, ending the Republican campaign against the Federalist bench and discouraging subsequent administrations from using impeachment to remove politically obnoxious judges.
    (HNQ, 1/21/99)

1804        Mar 14, Johann Strauss (d.1849), Austrian orchestra conductor and composer, was born. His son was also named Johann (1825-1899).
    (WUD, 1994, p.1405)(HN, 3/14/98)

1804        Mar 21, The French civil code, later called the "Code Napoleon," was adopted.
    (AP, 3/21/08)

1804        Mar 26, Congress ordered the removal of Indians east of the Mississippi to Louisiana.
    (HN, 3/25/98)
1804        Mar 26, The Louisiana Purchase was divided into the Territory of Orleans and the District of Louisiana.
    (AP, 3/26/97)

1804        Mar 28, Ohio passed law restricting movement of Blacks. [see Jan 5]
    (MC, 3/28/02)

1804        Apr 20, Jean-Jacques Dessalines, Haitian rebel leader, commanded a massacre of the French at town of Cape Francois. It is generally thought that Dessalines had around 20,000 French slaughtered in early 1804.

1804        Apr 22, Gioacchino Rossini (12) performed in Imola.
    (MC, 4/22/02)

1804        May 14, The Lewis and Clark expedition to explore the Louisiana Territory left St. Louis. Explorer William Clark sets off from St. Louis, Missouri, to travel upriver to wait for Meriwether Lewis. The two will soon depart together on a journey to reach the Pacific. The trip was retold in a TV movie by Ken Burns in 1997. [see May 22]
    (AP, 5/14/97)(SFC,11/4/97, p.B1)(HN, 5/14/99)

1804        May 16, Elizabeth Palmer Peabody, founder of the first U.S. kindergarten, was born.
    (HN, 5/16/98)

1804        May 18, The French Senate proclaimed Napoleon Bonaparte emperor.
    (AP, 5/18/97)(HN, 5/18/98)

1804        May 22, The Lewis and Clark Expedition officially began as the Corps of Discovery departed from St. Charles, Missouri. [see May 14]
    (HN, 5/22/99)

1804        Jun 3, Richard Cobden, English economist and politician, was born. He became known as 'the Apostle of free trade.' He led the Anti-Corn League, which in 1839-1846 fought to remove price controls and import barriers for wheat.
    (HN, 6/3/99)(Econ, 6/5/04, p.10)

1804        Jun 26, The Lewis and Clark Expedition reached the mouth of the Kansas River after completing a westward trek of nearly 400 river miles.
    (HN, 6/26/98)

1804        Jun 29, Privates John Collins and Hugh Hall of the Lewis and Clark Expedition were found guilty by a court-martial consisting of members of the Corps of Discovery for getting drunk on duty. Collins receives 100 lashes on his back and Hall receives 50.
    (HN, 6/29/98)

1804         Jul 1, George Sand (Amandine-Aurore Lucille Dupin de Francueil, d.1876), French novelist, was born in Paris. She wrote some 80 novels that included “Consuelo" (1842) and “La Comtesse de Rudolstadt" (1843). In 1975 Curtis Cate published the biography: "George Sand." "I would rather believe that God did not exist than believe that He was indifferent."
    (WUD, 1994, p.1265)(HN, 7/1/01) (AP, 10/17/98)(HN, 7/1/01)(Econ, 7/31/04, p.72)

1804        Jul 4, Nathaniel Hawthorne (d.1864) American novelist and short-story writer, was born in Marblehead, [Salem], Massachusetts. Hawthorne was born to a prominent but decaying family. One of his ancestors, a judge in the Salem witchcraft trials, became the model for the accursed founder of The House of the Seven Gables. Hawthorne would often wonder whether the decline of his family’s fortune was a punishment for the sins of his "sable-cloaked steeple-crowned progenitors." Marblehead is also the location of the house in his book "The House of Seven Gables." He also wrote "The Scarlet Letter."
    (WUD, 1994, p.651)(SFEC, 7/13/97, p.T9)(HN, 7/4/98)(IB, 12/7/98)

1804        Jul 11, Vice President Aaron Burr mortally wounded Alexander Hamilton (47), former first Treasury Secretary, in a pistol duel near Weehawken, N.J. A warrant for Burr’s arrest was soon issued in New Jersey and New York, where Hamilton died. In 1999 Richard Brookhiser wrote "Alexander Hamilton: American." In 2001 Joanne B. Freeman edited his writings and published: Alexander Hamilton: Writings."
    (AP, 7/11/97)(HN, 7/11/98)(WSJ, 2/25/99, p.A16)(WSJ, 12/3/01, p.A17)(ON, 12/08, p6)

1804        Jul 12, Alexander Hamilton (47), US Sec. of Treasury, died in New York of wounds from a pistol duel in New Jersey with VP Aaron Burr. In 1920 Frederick Scott Oliver authored a Hamilton biography. In 2002 Stephen Knott authored "Alexander Hamilton and the Persistence of Myth." In 2004 Ron Chernow authored the biography "Alexander Hamilton." Lawyer Ambrose Spencer (1765-1848) said Hamilton “more than any man, did the thinking of his time."
    (WSJ, 2/4/04, p.A1)(SSFC, 4/25/04, p.M3)(WSJ, 10/20/04, p.D12)

1804        Jul 21, Victor Schoelcher, abolished French slavery, was born in Guadeloupe.
    (MC, 7/21/02)

1804        Aug 3, US Commodore Edward Prebble’s squadron bombarded Tripoli inflicting heavy damages on the city.
    (ON, 2/03, p.4)

1804        Aug 20, Charles Floyd died, the only fatality of the Lewis & Clark Expedition. In 1901 a memorial was erected at his gravesite in Sioux City, Iowa.
    (MC, 8/20/02)(Internet)

1804        Aug 25, In England Alice Meynell became the 1st woman jockey.
    (chblue.com, 8/25/01)

1804        Aug 31, Lewis and Clark held a council with local Sioux Indian chiefs in what is now eastern North Dakota.
    (ON, 4/12, p.9)

1804        Sep 5, In a daring night raid, American sailors under Lieutenant Stephen Decatur, boarded the captured USS Philadelphia and burned the ship to keep it out of the hands of the Barbary pirates who captured her.
    (HN, 9/5/98)

1804        Sep 21, Another major hurricane hit Puerto Rico on the feast day of St. Matthew and became known as the San Mateo II hurricane [see 1575].
    (SSFC, 8/6/06, Par p.24)

1804        Sep 25, The 12th Amendment was ratified. It required electors to vote separately for the president and vice-president.
    (HN, 9/25/98)(WSJ, 10/27/99, p.A16)(WSJ, 12/11/00, p.A18)

1804        Oct 2, England mobilized to protect against an expected French invasion by Napoleon.
    (MC, 10/2/01)

1804        Oct 5, Robert Parker Parrott (d.1877), Inventor (Parrot Gun- 1st machine gun), was born.
    (MC, 10/5/01)
1804        Oct 5, The Nuestra Senora de las Mercedes, a Spanish galleon, was sunk by the British navy southwest of Portugal with more than 200 people on board. In May 2007, Odyssey Marine Exploration announced that it had discovered a wreck in the Atlantic and its cargo of 500,000 silver coins and other artifacts worth an estimated $500 million. Spain claimed this was the Nuestra Senora de las Mercedes. In 2009 Peru pushed claims to the silver coins arguing that they were minted in Lima. In 2012 a US judge ordered that the treasure be returned to Spain.
    (AP, 5/8/08)(www.guardian.co.uk/world/2008/mar/24/usa.spain)(AP, 1/29/09)(SFC, 2/18/12, p.A7)

1804        Oct 6, Jean-Jacques Dessalines (b.1758) had himself crowned James I, Emperor of Haiti. He was murdered two years later in a conspiracy under Christophe and Pétion.

1804        Oct 26, Lewis and Clark accepted an invitation to camp for the winter near a cluster of villages inhabited by the Mandan and Hidatsa Indians.
    (ON, 4/12, p.10)

1804        Nov 18, Palver Purim (Feast of Lots) was 1st celebrated to commemorate miraculous escape. The Jewish festival marked the deliverance of the Jews in Persia from Haman.
    (WUD, 1994 p.1167)(MC, 11/18/01)

1804        Nov 23, Franklin Pierce, 14th president of the United States, was born in Hillsboro, N.H.
    (HN, 11/23/98)

1804        Nov 27, Pres. Jefferson issued a nationwide proclamation to military and public officials warning of a conspiracy to attack Spanish territory in Texas. He had opened negotiations with Spain to purchase Texas territory west of New Orleans. Jefferson had heard rumors that Aaron Burr had begun plotting an invasion of Texas. Jefferson ordered Gen. James Wilkinson to move federal troops into defensive positions between the Sabine River and New Orleans. Wilkinson, unbeknownst to Jefferson, was a close confidant of Burr and also worked as a spy in the employ of Spanish officials in Mexico.
    (ON, 12/08, p6)

1804        Nov 30, Supreme Court Justice Samuel Chase went on trial, accused of political bias. He was acquitted by the Senate in 1805.
    (AP, 11/30/97)

1804        Nov, Thomas Jefferson was re-elected US president. George Clinton, the seven-term governor of New York, was elected vice president under Jefferson and again under Madison in 1808. Clinton died in office on April 20, 1812.
    (HNQ, 8/19/99)(www.sparknotes.com/biography/jefferson/timeline.html)
1804        Nov, Lewis and Clark hired French-Canadian fur trapper Toussaint Charbonneau as an interpreter, with the understanding that Sacagawea, who was only about 16 and pregnant, would come along to interpret the Shoshone language. She and another woman had been purchased by Charbonneau, who lived among the Hidatsa and Mandan Indians, to be his wives.
    (HN, 2/11/99)(HNQ, 12/1/99)

1804        Dec 1, Emperor Napoleon married Josephine de Beauharnais, of Martinique.
    (MC, 12/1/01)

1804        Dec 2, Napoleon crowned himself emperor of France with Josephine as Empress as Pope Pius VII looked on. In 1807 Jacques-Louis David completed his painting of the event.
    (WSJ, 12/14/04, p.D10)(AP, 12/2/07)

1804        Dec 21, Benjamin Disraeli (d.1881), Prime Minister of Great Britain (1868, 1874-80), was born. He instituted reforms in housing, public health and factory regulations. "Youth is a blunder; manhood a struggle; old age a regret." In 1993 Stanley Weintraub published "Disraeli: A Biography."
    (AP, 10/21/97)(WSJ, 11/17/98, p.21)(HN, 12/21/98)(MC, 12/21/01)

1804        John Quincy Adams published his travel book: "Letters on Silesia."
    (WSJ, 10/22/97, p.A20)

1804        Fort Dearborn was erected on the Chicago River on the site of present-day downtown Chicago. With the outbreak of the War of 1812, the garrison of 67 soldiers, their dependents and settlers were ordered to evacuate to Fort Wayne. Most of them were massacred en route by Pottawatomie Indians, who then burned the fort. Fort Dearborn was rebuilt in 1816 and around it grew the settlement that would become Chicago. Abandoned in 1837, Fort Dearborn was demolished in 1856.
    (HNQ, 2/13/00)

1804        Meriwether Lewis and William Clark packed up 5,555 rations of flour, and 120 gallons of whiskey for their western journey of exploration that would last 2 ½ years. In 1996 Stephen Ambrose published an account of their trip titled: "Undaunted Courage: Meriwether Lewis, Thomas Jefferson, and the opening of the American West." The cutthroat trout, Onchorhynchus clarki lewisi, was found to be highly abundant. In 1997 the fish was on the brink of extinction.
    (WSJ, 1/30/96, p.A-12)(SFC, 5/21/97, p.A2)

1804        The town of St. Michaels on the Chesapeake Bay was incorporated, resurveyed and laid out in three squares: Harrison’s square to the north, Thompson’s square to the west and Braddock’s square to the east.
    (SMBA, 1996)

1804        Australian soldiers fired on an aboriginal hunting party on Tasmania and killed some 50 people. Some were salted down and sent to Sydney as anthropological curiosities.
    (WSJ, 8/2100, p.A1)

1804        The British Royal Horticultural Society was formed.
    (WSJ, 5/30/01, p.A1)
1804        The British Royal Watercolour Society was formed.
    (Hem., 3/97, p.94)
1804        Samuel Taylor Coleridge (32), English poet, fled to Malta and worked as an assistant to the civilian governor. He returned to England in 1806.
    (WSJ, 4/15/99, p.A20)
1804        A motion in British Parliament for abolition of the slave trade passed in the House of Commons 124 to 29, but was defeated in the House of Lords.
    (ON, 4/05, p.2)
1804        In England John Barrow (1764-1848) was appointed Second Secretary to the Admiralty by Viscount Melville, a post which he held for forty years (apart from a short period in 1806-07 when there was a Whig government in power).
1804        Sir George Cayley, England’s “father of aeronautics," built and flew the world’s first successful model glider.
    (NPub, 2002, p.4)

1804        The Botanical Gardens of Antwerp, Belgium, began as a large herb garden dedicated to medicinal plants.
    (Hem., 7/95, p.27)

1804        A stone signal tower was built on Clare Island as part of a series along the Irish west coast in fear of an invasion by Napoleon.
    (SFEC, 4/12/98, p.T8)

1804        The Pere Lachaise Cemetery of Paris was founded.
    (SFC, 6/16/96, T-6)

1804        Empress Josephine, wife of Napoleon I, began a rose collection at Malmaison, and sparked a wide interest in rose culture.
    (SFC, 7/14/99, p.4)
1804        French economist Jean-Baptiste Say (1767-1832) enrolled in the National Conservatory of Arts in Paris to learn the principles of spinning cotton.
    (Econ, 8/12/17, p.54)

1804        The Wahabis captured Medina, Arabia.
    (NW, 9/30/02, p.33)

1804        Immanuel Kant (b. 1724), German philosopher, died. His "categorical imperative" helped to ascertain the proper course under any circumstances: "Act only on the maxim through which you can at the same time will that it should become a universal law." Kant had described how the sun and planets might have condensed from a primordial cloud with no divine intervention.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.40)(HN, 4/22/98)(SFC, 4/25/01, p.E5)(SFC, 6/17/02, p.A6)

1804-1866    Eliphalet Nott, Presbyterian minister, president of Union College during this period. UC was the first non-denominational college in the US. It emphasized practical education as well as classical studies.
    (WSJ, 3/21/95, p.A-12)

1804-1999    In 2000 Misha Glenny authored "The Balkans, 1804-1899."
    (WSJ, 5/1/00, p.A32)

1805        Jan 11, The Michigan Territory was created.
    (AP, 1/11/98)

1805        Jan 31, Mungo Park set sail from Portsmouth to Africa where he planned to navigate the Niger River to its mouth.
    (ON, 7/00, p.10)

1805        Feb 11, At Fort Mandan ND Sacajawea (16), the Shoshoni guide for Lewis & Clark, gave birth to a son, with Meriwether Lewis serving as midwife. Sacagawea, the young Native American girl who aided the Lewis and Clark Expedition, was of the Lemhi Shoshones, who made their home in what is now southeastern Idaho and southwestern Montana. About 1800 Sacagawea was captured by a Hidatsa raiding party at the Three Forks of the Missouri River.  Sometime in 1804, she and another woman were purchased by French-Canadian fur trapper Toussaint Charbonneau, who lived among the Hidatsa and Mandan Indians, to be his wives.
    (HN, 2/11/99)(HNQ, 12/1/99)(AH, 2/05, p.17)

1805        Feb 18, Louis Malesherbes Goldsborough, Rear Admiral (Union Navy), was born.
    (MC, 2/18/02)

1805          Feb 26, Alexander Stulginskis, the 2nd president of Lithuania, was born at Kutaliai in the Silale region. He died Sep 22, 1969 in Kaunas.
    (LHC, 2/26/03)

1805        Mar 1, Chief Justice Samuel Chase was acquitted by the Senate ending the Republican campaign against the Federalist bench and discouraging subsequent administrations from using impeachment to remove politically obnoxious judges.
    (HNQ, 1/21/99)

1805        Mar 3, Louisiana-Missouri Territory formed.
    (SC, 3/3/02)

1805        Mar 4, Pres. Thomas Jefferson delivered his 2nd inaugural address.

1805        Apr 2, Hans Christian Andersen (d.1875), author of 150 fairy tales, was born in Odense, Denmark.
    (CFA, '96, p.44)(HN, 4/2/98)(AP, 4/2/99)

1805        Apr 7, Francis Wilkinson Pickens (d.1869), later Confederate governor of South Carolina, was born in South Carolina.
1805        Apr 7, The Lewis and Clark Corps of Discovery resumed their journey to the headwaters of the Missouri River.
    (ON, 4/12, p.10)
1805        Apr 7, Beethoven conducted the fist public performance of his Third Symphony, "Eroica." It was completed in 1804 and 1st published in Vienna.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Symphony_No._3_(Beethoven))(Econ., 11/21/20, p.76)

1805        Apr 24, U.S. Marines attacked and captured the town of Derna in Tripoli from the Barbary pirates. [see Apr 27]
    (HN, 4/24/99)

1805        Apr 27, US navy ships began to bombard the Tripoli port of Derna. Mercenaries gathered in Egypt and a small contingent of US Marines under former Tunis consul William Eaton attacked Tripoli and captured the city of Derna [later part of Libya].
    (AP, 4/27/97)(HN, 4/27/98)(ON, 10/06, p.9)

1805        May 1, The state of Virginia passed a law requiring all freed slaves to leave the state, or risk either imprisonment or deportation.
    (HN, 5/1/99)

1805        May 9, Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller (45), poet, playwright, died in Weimar.
    (MC, 5/9/02)(SSFC, 8/1/04, p.D10)

1805        May 14, Johann Peter Emilius Hartmann, composer, was born.
    (MC, 5/14/02)

1805        May 25, William Paley (b.1805), orthodox Anglican writer, died. He is remembered today primarily for classical formulation of the teleological argument for the existence of God. Arguing from the analogy of a watch and watchmaker, Paley suggested that the analogy offered evidence that the universe includes order and design, hence a Designer.

1805        May 26, Lewis and Clark first saw the Rocky Mountains.
    (MC, 5/26/02)
1805        May 26, Napoleon Bonaparte was crowned king of Italy. [see May 28}
    (AP, 5/26/97)

1805        May 28, Napoleon was crowned in Milan, Italy. [see May 26]
    (HN, 5/28/98)
1805        May 28, Ridolfo Luigi Boccherini (62), Italian composer, cellist (Minuet), died.
    (MC, 5/28/02)

1805        Jun 4, The US signed a Treaty of Peace and Amity at Tripoli. The US agreed to pay Tripoli $60,000 in war reparations and was in turn absolved of tribute demands. The treaty was ratified by the US on Apr 17, 1806.
    (ON, 2/03, p.4)(www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/diplomacy/barbary/bar1805t.htm)

1805        Jun 11, A fire nearly destroyed Detroit. The Latin hope of a French Catholic priest: “Speramus meliora resurget cinerbus" (We hope that better things may rise from the ashes, became the city’s motto. After the fire territorial Judge Augustus Woodward created a street plan modeled after Washington, D.C.
    (http://tinyurl.com/ycozewlu)(Econ, 9/16/17, p.21)

1805        Jun 14, Robert Anderson (d.1871), Bvt. Major General (Union Army), defender of Ft. Sumpter, was born.
    (MC, 6/14/02)

1805        Jul 19, Members of the Lewis & Clark expedition made their way up river through the limestone walled gorge they called the Gates of the Mountains on the Missouri River in Montana.
    (GOTM, brochure)

1805        Jul 25, Aaron Burr visited New Orleans with plans to establish a new country, with New Orleans as the capital city.
    (HN, 7/25/98)

1805        Jul 26, Constantine Brumidi, artist (Myrtle Murdock), was born.
    (MC, 7/26/02)
1805        Jul 26, Naples and Calabria were struck by an earthquake and some 26,000 died.
    (MC, 7/26/02)

1805        Jul 29, Alexis de Tocqueville (d.1859), French historian who wrote "Democracy in America, was born. "America is a land of wonders, in which everything is in constant motion and every change seems an improvement."
    (HN, 7/29/98)(AP, 1/20/01)

1805        Aug 3, Mohammed Ali became the new ruler of Egypt.
    (HN, 8/3/98)

1805         Aug 4, William Rowan Hamilton (d.1865), Irish scientist, was born.
    (HN, 8/4/00)

1805        Aug 9, Austria joined Britain, Russia, Sweden and the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia in the Third Coalition against Napoleonic France and Spain.
    (HN, 8/9/98)(HNQ, 10/19/98)

1805        Aug 17, Sacagawea, while traveling with the Lewis and Clark Corps of Discovery, reunited with her brother Cameahwait, a Shoshoni Indian chief on the Lemhi River (Idaho).
    (ON, 4/12, p.12)(http://sacajaweahome.com/august.htm)

1805        Aug 30, The Lewis and Clark Corps of Discovery resumed their westward journey with 29 horses and 6 guides provided by Shoshoni Chief Cameahwait. They spent the next 4 weeks crossing the Bitterroot Mountains (Idaho).
    (ON, 4/12, p.12)

1805        Sep 23, Lieutenant Zebulon Pike paid $2,000 to buy from the Sioux a 9-square-mile tract at the mouth of the Minnesota River that would be used to establish a military post, Fort Snelling.
    (HN, 9/23/98)

1805        Sep 30, Napoleon's army entered the Rhine valley.
    (MC, 9/30/01)

1805        Oct 17, Vice Adm. Horatio Nelson wrote a letter to the governor, Rear Admiral John Knight just four days before the historic Battle of Trafalgar, in which Nelson was killed. In it Nelson declared he was "anxious for an Easterly wind," as that would encourage the enemy to leave port and finally face the British.
    (Reuters, 7/13/10)

1805        Oct 19, Austrian general Karl Mac surrendered to Napoleon’s army at the battle of Ulm.

1805        Oct 21, A British fleet commanded by Vice Adm. Horatio Nelson defeated a French-Spanish fleet in the Battle of Trafalgar fought off Cape Trafalgar, Spain. Admiral Nelson won his greatest victory and though fatally wounded in the battle aboard his flagship, he lived long enough to see victory: "England expects every man to do his duty." The crew fittingly preserved his body in rum. Over 8,500 Englishmen, Frenchmen and Spaniards were lost in the battle or the hurricane that swept over the ships the next day. In 1807 Nelson’s surgeon William Beatty authored “authentic narrative of the Death of Lord Nelson." In 1999 Barry Unsworth authored the novel "Losing Nelson." In 2001 Joseph F. Callo edited "Nelson Speaks: Admiral Lord Nelson in His Own Words." In 2005 Adam Nicolson authored “Men of Honour: Trafalgar and the Making of the English Hero;" Roy Adkins authored “Nelson’s Trafalgar," and Adam Nicolson authored “Seize the Fire."
    (WSJ, 5/24/01, p.A20)(Econ, 6/25/05, p.82)(WSJ, 8/19/05, p.W6)(ON, 3/06, p.2)(Reuters, 7/13/10)

1805        Nov 7, Lewis and Clark vamped opposite Pillar Rock, between Brookfield and Dahlia, Washington, west of Jim Crow Point, in the estuary of the Columbia River.

1805        Nov 14, Fanny Cecilia Mendelssohn Hensel (d.1847), composer, was born in Hamburg, Germany.
1805        Nov 14, Napoleon took control of Vienna, Austria.
    (SFC, 4/26/12, p.A2)(www.pbs.org/empires/napoleon/n_war/campaign/page_6.html)

1805        Nov 15, Captain Meriwether Lewis and four men of the Corps of Discovery reached the Pacific Ocean near what is now Seaview, Washington. On November 18, Captain Clark and eleven men left Station Camp for their turn to view the Pacific Ocean.

1805        Nov 19, Ferdinand de Lesseps, French diplomat and engineer (built Suez Canal), was born.
    (MC, 11/19/01)

1805        Nov 20, Beethoven's "Fidelio," premiered in Vienna.
    (MC, 11/20/01)

1805        Nov 28, John Stephens, US archaeologist, was born. He founded the study of Central America.
    (MC, 11/28/01)

1805        Dec 2, Napoleon Bonaparte celebrated the first anniversary of his coronation with a victory at Austerlitz over a Russian and Austrian army.
    (HN, 12/2/98)

1805        Dec 6, Nicholas-Jacques Conti (b.1755), French pencil maker, died in Paris. He created the number system used to rate pencil lead hardness: the higher the number, the harder the graphite.
    (SSFC, 1/23/05, p.C2)

1805        Dec 10, William Lloyd Garrison (d.1879), abolitionist publisher, was born in Newburyport, Mass. In 1831 he published "The Liberator." In 1998 Henry Mayer published "All On Fire: William Lloyd Garrison and the Abolition of American Slavery."
    (SFEC, 1/3/99, BR p.1)(MC, 12/10/01)

1805        Dec 12, Henry Wells, founder of American Express and Wells Fargo, was born.
    (MC, 12/12/01)

1805        Dec 23, Joseph Smith Junior (d.1844), principal founder of the Mormon religious movement, was born in Sharon, Vermont.
    (SFC, 4/9/96, A-7)(AP, 12/23/05)

1805        Dec 31, The French Revolutionary calendar law was abolished. France returned to the Gregorian calendar.
    (K.I.-365D, p.43)(MC, 12/31/01)

1805        Charles Willson Peale, American painter began his painting "The Exhumation of the Mastodon." It was based on an 1881 real exhumation in rural New York that helped topple biblically inspired beliefs of the history of the earth.
    (SFC, 1/25/97, p.E3)

1805        Pierre-Paul Prud’hon (1758-1823), French artist, painted "Empress Josephine at Malmaison."
    (WSJ, 4/8/98, p.A20)

1805        Joseph Mallord William Turner (1775-1851), English painter and printmaker, created his painting “The Shipwreck."

1805        "Leonore," the only opera by Beethoven, premiered. It later became known as "Fidelio" and was based on a play by Jean Nicolas Bouilly.
    (SFEC, 5/25/97, DB p.21)

1805        Louisiana passed legislation against sodomy. The law was upheld in 2002.
    (SFC, 11/23/02, p.A5)

1805        The Massachusetts state Legislature staged a mock impeachment trial of Pres. Jefferson. His affair with Sally Hemmings was one of the charges.
    (SFEC, 11/1/98, p.A1)

1805        The Philadelphia harbor was dredged with a high-pressure steam engine invented by Oliver Evans. He was unable to get a proper patent for it.
    (WSJ, 6/4/08, p.A19)

1805        As early as 1805, Bostonian Frederic Tudor (b.1783) considered ways to make money by exporting ice, a valueless commodity in New England, to the tropics. Tudor supported technical innovations, like the horse-drawn sleigh with saw-like runners, which improved the cutting, shipping and storage of large ice blocks. Recognizing that people living in warm climates were not familiar with cool food and drinks, Tudor traveled to prospective markets making ice cream and providing free ice for barkeepers. By 1856, Tudor's role as the "Ice King" was firmly established as 146,000 tons of ice shipped from Boston transformed the eating habits of people from the Philippines to the southern United States.
    (HNPD, 4/13/99)

1805        Napoleon defeated Austria and Prussia. In 1997 Alistair Horne wrote: "How Far from Austerlitz? Napoleon 1805-1815."
    (WSJ, 7/10/96, p.A16)(WSJ, 5/19/97, p.A16)

1805         Lord Charles Cornwallis, governor general of India, died in India.
    (HNQ, 9/9/02)

1805        Jean-Baptiste Greuze (b.1725), French artist, died. Diderot said: "This man draws like an angel."
    (WSJ, 5/14/02, p.D7)

1805        A Persian attack on Herat, Afghanistan, failed. Internal fighting in Afghanistan continued.

1805        Prussia sent Baron Wilhelm von Humboldt as envoy to the Vatican, the first Protestant state to do so.
    (Econ, 7/21/07, p.59)

1805        Walter Scott (1771-1832) of Edinburgh, Scotland, published his first long poem: “The Lay of the Last Minstrel."
    (Econ, 7/31/10, p.67)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Walter_Scott)

1805        Spanish soldiers under Lt. Francisco Ruiz discovered badgers in a canyon during an expedition in southern California. The area was thus named El Tejon (the badger).
    (SFC, 5/9/08, p.A1)

1805        The slave ship Tryal, under Captain Don Benito Cereno, was taken over in a slave insurrection led by a man named Babo. The rebellion failed and the slaves were tried and executed in Concepcion, Chile. In 1854 Herman Melville’s authored his novella “Benito Cereno," based on the Tryal revolt. In 2014 Greg Grandin authored “The Empire of Necessity: Slavery, Freedom and Deception in the New World," also covering the Tryal story.
    (SSFC, 1/26/14, p.F3)

1805-1815    The 1997 book by British historian Alistair Horne: "How Far From Austerlitz," covered this period Napoleon Bonaparte.
    (SFEC,11/2/97, Par p.10)

1805-1848    Khachatur Abovian, Armenian novelist, helped develop a nationalist literature.
    (Compuserve Online Enc. / Armenia)
1805-1848    Mehemet Ali (Muhammad Ali) served as the viceroy of Egypt.
    (WUD, 1994, p.892)(SSFC, 7/24/11, p.F7)

1805-1859    Alexis de Tocqueville, French writer and social observer.

1805-1882    Ralph Waldo Emerson, American essayist and poet, author of English Notes. [this date is incorrect, see 1803-1882]

1806        Jan 1, Bavaria was proclaimed as a kingdom. A crowning celebration for the crown prince Max Joseph, however, never took place.

1806        Jan 8, Lewis & Clark found the skeleton of 105' blue whale in Oregon.
    (MC, 1/8/02)

1806        Jan 10, The Capitulation of Papendorp: The Dutch in Cape Town surrendered to a British fleet.
    (EWH, 4th ed, p.884)

1806        Jan 17, James Madison Randolph, Thomas Jefferson's grandson, was the 1st to be born in White House. His mother was Martha Randolph one of President Thomas Jefferson's two daughters, this was her 8th child.
    (AP, 1/17/06)

1806        Jan 23, William Pitt (46), the Younger, PM Great Britain (1783-1801 and 1804-1806), died. Pitt was the founder of the modern Conservative Party. In 2004 William Hague authored the biography “William Pitt The Younger."
    (http://dspace.dial.pipex.com/town/terrace/adw03/pms/pitt.htm)(WSJ, 2/9/05, p.D10)

1806        Feb 11, Vicente Martin y Soler (51), composer, died.
    (MC, 2/11/02)

1806        Feb 22, James Barry (b.1741), Irish-born Neoclassical painter, died.
    (www.artnet.com/library/00/0065/T006539.asp)(Econ, 2/18/06, p.78)

1806        Feb, Mungo Park (b.1771), Scottish explorer of West Africa, died of drowning during an attack by armed men early this year in the Niger River in Bussa, Nigeria. He had traveled some 1500 miles down the Niger River. Mungo was the author of "Travels in the Interior Districts of Africa" (1799).
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mungo_Park_(explorer))(ON, 7/00, p.12)

1806        Mar 6, Elizabeth Barrett Browning (d.1861), English poet, was born in Durham, England. She wrote "Sonnets from the Portuguese." "Since when was genius found respectable?"
    (AP, 3/6/98)(HN, 3/6/99)(AP, 8/12/99)

1806        Mar 16, Norbert Rillieux, inventor (sugar refiner), was born.
    (MC, 3/16/02)   

1806        Mar 21, Mexican statesman Benito Juarez, who was Mexico’s first president of Indian ancestry, was born in Oaxaca.
    (AP, 3/21/97)

1806        Mar 23, Explorers Lewis and Clark, having reached the Pacific coast, left Fort Clatsop, Oregon, and began their journey back East.
    (ON, 4/12, p.12)(http://lewisandclarktrail.com/section2/ndcities/timeline1805.htm)

1806        Mar 29, President Thomas Jefferson commissioned the National Road, the first federally financed interstate. Although it took decades to finish, the National Road helped open the land west of the Appalachians to settlers and commerce. It was later lengthened, paved and renamed U.S. 40, but was eclipsed in the 1960s by Interstate 70, a parallel superhighway.
    (AP, 6/3/06)

1806        Mar 30, In England Lady Georgiana Cavendish, an adept negotiator for the Whigs, died at age 49. In 1999 Amanda Foreman authored "Georgiana," a biography of Georgiana Spencer.
    (WSJ, 1/7/00, p.W4)

1806        Mar, Frederic Tudor arrived in the brigantine Favorite at a Martinique port with 130 toms of New England ice. An anticipated icehouse and his partners were nowhere to be found, so Tudor peddled the ice directly from the ship and convinced a local restaurateur to sell the previously unknown dessert, ice cream.  Despite his efforts, Tudor lost $4,000 on the venture, the first of several setbacks throughout his rocky business career.
    (HNQ, 1/6/01)

1806        Apr 4, Friedrich Gottlob Fleischer (84), composer, died.
    (MC, 4/4/02)

1806        Apr 5, Isaac Quintard patented apple cider.
    (MC, 4/5/02)

1806        Apr 10, Leonidas Polk (d.1864), bishop, Lt Gen (Confederate Army), was born.
    (MC, 4/10/02)

1806        Apr 13, Jean-Jacques Bachelier (~82), French painter, died.
    (MC, 4/13/02)

1806        Apr 21, Saudi Arabs led Sunni raids into Najaf, Iraq, killing about 5,000 people.
    (Econ, 10/11/08, p.65)(http://tinyurl.com/5qdnf3)

1806        Apr, Nicolai Rezanov (42), a director of the Russian-American Co., arrived in SF aboard the Juno. He had proposed a California outpost to serve the Russian colonies in Alaska and sailed south to establish a settlement on the Columbia River but could not land there due to difficult seas. He sailed south to the Presidio at Monterey and negotiated a trade deal with Commander Jose Arguello. He also fell in love with Concepcion Arguello (d.1857), the daughter of Commander Arguello, and proposed marriage. He died that winter while crossing Siberia. In 2013 Owen Matthews “Glorious Misadventures: Nikolai Rezanov and the Dream of a Russian American."
    (SFEC, 3/23/97,  p.T5)(SFC, 2/18/06, p.A1)(Econ, 7/20/13, p.74)

1806        May 6, Chapin Aaron Harris, founder of the America Society of Dental Surgeons, was born.
    (MC, 5/6/02)

1806        May 12, J.V. Snellman, Finnish journalist, statesman and nationalist, was born. The day is remembered in Finland as Snellman day.
    (SC, Internet, 5/12/97)

1806        May 20, John Stuart Mill (d.1873), British philosopher and economist, was born. He promoted utilitarianism and is known as the last great economist of the classical school. He authored "Principles of Political Economy" wherein in theorized that production was the real basis for economic law. He felt that the market was capable of allocating resources but not of distributing income. "If all mankind minus one, were of one opinion, and only one person were of the contrary opinion, mankind would be no more justified in silencing that one person, than he, if he had the power, would be justified in silencing mankind."
    (V.D.-H.K.p.253)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R20)(AP, 1/13/00)(HN, 5/20/01)

1806        May 21, Nicolai Rezanov (1764-1806), a director of the Russian-American Co., departed SF for Sitka, Alaska. He died that winter while crossing Siberia.
    (SFEC, 3/23/97,  p.T5)(SFC, 2/18/06, p.A1)

1806        Jun 12, John Roebling, civil engineer, pioneer in designing suspension bridges, was born.
    (HN, 6/12/01)

1806        Jun 27, Buenos Aires was captured by British. [see Jul 5]
    (SC, 6/27/02)

1806        Jun, Lord Elgin was paroled by the French government.
    (ON, 11/99, p.4)

1806        Jul 3, Michael Keens exhibited the 1st cultivated strawberry.
    (MC, 7/3/02)

1806        Jul 5, A Spanish army repelled the British during their attempt to retake Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    (HN, 7/5/98)

1806        Jul 10, George Stubbs (b.1724), British artist, died. His work included the publication “Anatomy of the Horse" (1766).
    (WSJ, 4/28/05, p.D8)(www.abcgallery.com/S/stubbs/stubbsbio.html)

1806        Jul 12, The Confederation of the Rhine was established in Germany.
    (HN, 7/12/98)
1806        Jul 12, Napoleon granted Liechtenstein sovereignty.
    (AP, 7/12/06)

1806        Jul 15, Lieutenant Zebulon Pike began his famous western expedition from Fort Belle Fountaine, near St. Louis, Missouri. Pike was the US Army officer who in 1805 led an exploring party in search of the source of the Mississippi River.
    (HN, 7/15/99)(MC, 7/15/02)

1806        Aug 6, The Holy Roman Empire went out of existence as Emperor Francis I abdicated.
    (AP, 8/6/97)

1806        Aug 10, Johann Michael Haydn (68), composer, died.
    (MC, 8/10/02)

1806        Aug 22, Jean-Honore Fragonard (74), French painter, engraver, died.
    (MC, 8/22/02)

1806        Sep 20, Explorers Meriwether Lewis and William Clark passed the French village of La Charette, the first white settlement they had seen in more than two years.
    (HN, 9/20/98)

1806        Sep 23, The Lewis and Clark expedition returned to St. Louis from the Pacific Northwest over three years after its departure. In 2004 Larry E. Morris authored “The Fate of the Corps," a look at what happened to all the members of the expedition.
    (AP, 9/23/97)(HN, 9/23/98)(WSJ, 7/2/04, p.W10)

1806        Oct 7, Carbon paper was patented in London by inventor Ralph Wedgewood.
    (MC, 10/7/01)

1806        Oct 8, British forces laid siege to French port of Boulogne using Congreve rockets, invented by Sir William Congreve.
    (MC, 10/8/01)

1806        Oct 14, The forces of French Emperor Napoleon I defeated the Prussians in the twin battles of Jena and Auerstadt.
    (AP, 10/14/07)

1806        Oct 17, Jean-Jacques Dessalines (b.1758), Emp. Jacques I of Haiti, was assassinated.

1806        Oct 27, Emperor Napoleon entered Berlin.
    (HN, 10/27/98)

1806        Oct, Gen. James Wilkinson, senior brigadier general of the United States Army and the first Governor of Louisiana Territory, sent to President Jefferson a letter in which he painted the actions of Aaron Burr in the worst possible light, while portraying himself as innocent of any involvement in an alleged Burr conspiracy to create an independent country in the center of North America including the Southwestern United States and parts of Mexico. Jefferson ordered Burr's arrest, and Burr was apprehended near Natchez, Mississippi.

1806        Nov 16, Moses Cleaveland (52), the land surveyor for whom the city of Cleveland is named, died in Canterbury, Conn.
    (AP, 11/16/06)

1806        Nov 13, The 14,110-foot Pike's Peak was discovered, but not climbed, by Lieutenant Zebulon Montgomery Pike during an expedition to locate the source of the Mississippi. Explorations by Lt. Zebulon Pike and Kit Carson mapped out much of the state. [see Nov 15]
    (HN, 11/13/98)(Time, 1990s Almanac CD)
1806        Nov 13, Emilija Pliaterytė, Lithuanian rebel leader, was born in Vilnius, Lithuania. In 1831 she organized a rebel detachment in Dusetos with her cousin Cesar Pliateris (1810-1869) and both took an active part in the uprising. [see Dec 23, 1831]

1806        Nov 15, 1st US college magazine, Yale Literary Government, published its 1st issue.
    (MC, 11/15/01)
1806        Nov 15, Explorer Zebulon Pike discovered the Colorado mountaintop, originally called "The Long One" by Ute Indians, and now known as Pikes Peak. Lt. Pike was leading a survey party into the newly acquired Louisiana Purchase when he spotted the snow capped peak in the distance. He didn’t climb it. [see Nov 13]
    (AP, 11/15/97)(HN, 11/15/98)(MC, 11/15/01)

1806        Nov 21, In the Decree of Berlin Emperor Napoleon  banned all trade with England.
    (MC, 11/21/01)

1806        Nov 28, French forces led by Joachim Murat entered Warsaw.
    (AP, 11/28/06)

1806        Dec 3, Henry Alexander Wise (d.1876), Brig General (Confederate Army), was born.
    (MC, 12/3/01)

1806        Dec 6, The African Meeting House was dedicated in Boston. It was later used by Frederick Douglass and other prominent abolitionists to rail against slavery. In 1974 it was named as a National History Landmark. In 2011 a $9 million restoration was completed.
    (SFC, 11/28/11, p.A5)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/African_Meeting_House)

1806        Dec 26, Napoleon’s army was checked by the Russians at the Battle of Pultusk.
    (HN, 12/26/98)

1806        Jean-Gabriel Charvet painted his wallpaper panel "Savages of the Pacific Ocean."
    (SFEC, 6/7/98, Z1 p.2)

1806        Jean Ingres painted his magnificent: "Napoleon I on His Imperial Throne."
    (WSJ, 5/28/99, p.W12)

1806        In London James Beresford published his bestselling book “The Miseries of Human Life, or the groans of Samuel Sensitive and Timothy Testy. With a few supplementary sighs from Mrs. Testy. In twelve dialogues."

1806        Charles and Mary Lamb authored “Tales from Shakespeare." [see 1796: Mad Mary Lamb]
    (WSJ, 2/18/05, p.W6)

1806        Noah Webster (1758-1843), a Connecticut schoolmaster, published a short dictionary. He then began work on a longer work: “An American Dictionary of the English language," which was completed in England 1825 and published as a 2-volume set in 1828.
    (ON, 12/09, p.9)

1806        Wordsworth (1770-1850) composed the lines: "The world is too much with us."
    (NOHY, 3/90, p.163)

1806        A catalog of the plants at Elgin Botanical Garden was published. This was the first botanical garden in NYC and was located at what later became Rockefeller Center.
    (WSJ, 7/7/98, p.A14)

1806        A printed reference to a mixed drink cocktail first appeared in the US.
    (SFC,12/24/97, Z1 p.6)

1806        In San Francisco an epidemic of measles and flu killed 343 of the 850 native people at the Dolores Street mission.
    (SSFC, 9/20/15, p.A14)

1806        William Strickland, architect of the first Town Hall in New York, introduced the technique of the suspension bridge in the United States, which he learned in France.
    (AP, 5/3/03)

1806        In Baltimore, Maryland, ground was broken for a cathedral designed by Benjamin Henry Latrobe. Bungles and war delayed dedication until 1821. In 1937 Pope Pius XI elevated the cathedral to a basilica.
    (WSJ, 11/2/06, p.D8)

1806        Jesse Wood of Poughkeepsie, N.Y. was tried for the murder of his son.
    (LSA., Fall 1995, p.20)

1806        Aaron Burr, Vice-President under Thomas Jefferson, was implicated in a reputed plot among northeastern Federalists to break up the Union rather than to submit to four more years of Republican rule. One of the goals of the Burr Conspiracy was to separate Louisiana and other Western states from the Union and establish an empire with Burr at the head. Aaron Burr, formerly vice president under Thomas Jefferson, had recently slain Alexander Hamilton in a duel in July 1804 when he began plotting a movement to separate the Western states from the Union. Burr was later tried for treason in federal court and acquitted. Burr was captured in 1806 on the Ohio River and charged with recruiting forces to further plot the disunion.
    (A&IP, ESM, p.28)(HNQ, 11/30/98)

1806        Shoemakers in Philadelphia formed a union.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R27)

1806        Ye Old Pepper Companie was founded in Salem, Mass., USA. It claims to be the country’s oldest candy company.
    (Hem., Dec. ‘95, p.35)

1806        NYC Mayor DeWitt Clinton, having read the work of Englishman Joseph Lancaster, formed the New York Free School Society to found Lancastrian schools.
    (ON, 3/06, p.10)

1806         Andrew Jackson killed Charles Dickinson in a duel over a debt owed on a horse race bet. Jackson was struck in the chest by Dickinson‘s shot but returned fire and killed his opponent. "I should have hit him," he reportedly said, "if he had shot me through the brain." His duel with Dickinson was one of several the often ill-tempered Jackson engaged in. Jackson, who became the seventh U.S. president in 1829, carried Dickinson‘s bullet in his chest until he died in 1845.
    (HNQ, 3/22/00)

1806        Lord Grenville succeeded William Pitt as British prime minister.
    (ON, 4/05, p.3)
1806        The British wrested power over South Africa from the Dutch and prompt the Boer farmers to later move into the interior.
    (NG, Oct. 1988, p. 564)
1806        The British began the construction of Dartmoor Prisoner to house French soldiers captured in the Napoleonic Wars. It was capable of housing 10,500 prisoners and 2,000 guards.
    (AH, 10/02, p.33)

1806        In Paris the 3-mile Canal St. Marten waterway was built to connect the Seine to northeast France.
    (SFEC, 6/28/98, p.T7)
1806        Napoleon issued his Berlin Decrees. They established the Continental System to restrict European trade with Britain.
    (WSJ, 7/10/96, p.A16)
1806        Napoleon ordered that all French citizens be vaccinated against smallpox.
    (NW, 10/14/02, p.50)

1806        A ruling by the Spanish king set a boundary between Honduras and Nicaragua projecting eastward along the 15th parallel from the mouth of the Coco River. In 1999 Nicaragua filed a border case against Honduras with the UN. It was resolved in 2007.
    (AP, 10/8/07)

1806        In Switzerland a landslide into Lake Lauerz triggered a tsunami 20 meters high.
    (Econ, 11/3/12, p.79)

1806-1813    Trieste was held under French rule.

1806-1914    In 1996 Public Broadcasting featured "The West," a historical documentary covering this period in the US.
    (SFC, 7/17/96, p.E5)

1807        Jan 2, Lord Grenville presented to British Parliament a “Bill for the Abolition of the Slave Trade," effective May 1. He introduced it directly to the House of Lords. It passed the House of Lords by 64 votes and cleared the House of Commons on March 25.
    (ON, 4/05, p.3)

1807        Jan 7, Responding to Napoleon's blockade of the British Isles, The British blockaded Continental Europe.
    (HN, 1/7/99)

1807        Jan 11, Ezra Cornell, founder of Western Union Telegraph and Cornell University (NY), was born in Westchester, NY.
    (AP, 1/11/07)

1807        Jan 19, Robert E. Lee, the commander-in-chief of the Civil War Confederate Armies, was born in Stratford, Va.
    (AP, 1/19/98)(HN, 1/19/99)

1807        Jan 20, Napoleon convened the great Sanhedrin in Paris.
    (MC, 1/20/02)

1807        Jan 22, President Thomas Jefferson exposed a plot by Aaron Burr to form a new republic in the Southwest.
    (HN, 1/22/99)

1807        Jan 28, London's Pall Mall was 1st street lit by gaslight.
    (MC, 1/28/02)

1807        Feb 5, Pasquale Paoli (80), Corsican freedom fighter, died.
    (MC, 2/5/02)

1807        Feb 8, At Eylau, Poland, Napoleon’s Marshal Pierre Agureau attacked Russian forces in a heavy snowstorm. Like Napoleon, to whom he is most often compared, Alexsandr Suvorov believed that opportunities in battle are created by fortune but exploited by intelligence, experience and an intuitive eye. To him, mastery of the art and science of war was not, therefore, purely instinctive. Napoleon’s forces ran low on supplies at Eylau and ate their horses.
    (HN, 2/7/97)(WSJ, 9/21/05, p.A8)

1807        Feb 9, French Sanhedrin was convened by Napoleon.
    (MC, 2/9/02)

1807        Feb 19, Former Vice President Aaron Burr was arrested in Alabama. He was subsequently tried for treason and acquitted. [see May 22, Sep 1]
    (HN, 2/19/98)(AP, 2/19/98)

1807        Feb 24, In a crush to witness the hanging of Holloway, Heggerty and Elizabeth Godfrey in England 17 died and 15 were wounded.
    (MC, 2/24/02)

1807        Feb 27, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (d.1882), was born in Portland, Maine. He was an American poet famous for "The Children's Hour," and "Evangeline." "What is time? The shadow on the dial, the striking of the clock, the running of the sand, day and night, summer and winter, months, years, centuries—these are but arbitrary and outward signs, the measure of Time, not Time itself. Time is the Life of the soul."
    (AP, 10/11/97)(AP, 2/27/98)(HN, 2/27/99)

1807        Mar 2, US Congress banned slave trade effective January 1, 1808. The further importation of slaves was abolished but an inter-American slave trade continued.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.276)(WSJ, 12/16/97, p.A18)(WSJ, 10/19/98, p.A24)(SC, 3/2/02)

1807        Mar 3, US Pres. Thomas Jefferson signed into law a bill passed by Congress a day earlier to shut down the foreign slavery trade. Congress gave all traders nine months to cease their operations in the United States.
1807        Mar 3, The US Insurrection Act became effective. It permitted the president to send in US forces to suppress a domestic insurrection. It was invoked in 1992 by Pres. George H.W. Bush when the acquittal of four Los Angeles police officers in the beating of Black motorist Rodney King led to deadly riots.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Insurrection_Act_of_1807)(Reuters, 10/27/20)

1807        Mar 5, 1st performance of Ludwig von Beethoven's 4th Symphony in B.
    (MC, 3/5/02)

1807        Mar 25, William Wilberforce (1759-1833), evangelical member of Parliament, piloted a slave-trade abolition bill through the British House of Commons. This led to a labor problem in South Africa. In 1833 Britain abolished slavery throughout the British Empire when the Slavery Abolition Bill was read a third time. The British government eventually paid £20 million to slavers for the loss of their human property.
    (WSJ, 5/26/04, p.A8)(www.anti-slaverysociety.addr.com/huk-wilberforce.htm)(Econ., 11/14/20, p.75)
1807        Mar 25, 1st railway passenger service began in England.
    (MC, 3/25/02)

1807        Apr 4, Joseph Jerome Le Francaise de Lalande, French astronomer, died.
    (MC, 4/4/02)

1807        Apr 18, Erasmus Darwin, physician, writer (Influence), died.
    (MC, 4/18/02)

1807        Apr 20, Aloysius Bertrand ("Gaspard de la Nuit"), French poet, was born.
    (HN, 4/20/01)

1807        May 1, John Bankhead "Prince John" Magruder, Major General (Confederate Army), was born.
    (MC, 5/1/02)

1807        May 22, The treason trial of former VP Aaron Burr began in Richmond, Va. [see Sep 1]
    (PCh, 1992, p.367)(MC, 5/22/02)
1807        May 22, Townsend Speakman 1st sold fruit-flavored carbonated drinks in Phila.
    (MC, 5/22/02)

1807        May 28, Jean Louis Agassiz (d.1873), Swiss naturalist and educator, was born.  He wrote a succession of papers [1840] outlining continental glaciation not only of Europe but of North America.
    (DD-EVTT, p.129)(AHD,1971, p.24)(HN, 5/28/01)

1807        Jun 25, Napoleon I of France and Russian Czar Alexander I met near Tilsit, in northern Prussia, to discuss terms for ending war between their empires.
    (AP, 6/25/07)

1807        Jun 22, British officers of the HMS Leopard boarded the USS Chesapeake after she had set sail for the Mediterranean, and demanded the right to search the ship for deserters. Commodore James Barron refused and the British opened fire with broadsides on the unprepared Chesapeake and forced her to surrender. The British provocation led to the War of 1812.
    (NG, Sept. 1939, p.363)(HN, 6/22/98)

1807        Jun 24, A grand jury in Richmond, Va., indicted former Vice President Aaron Burr on charges of treason and high misdemeanor. He was later acquitted.
    (AP, 6/24/07)

1807        Jun 25, Napoleon I of France and Russian Czar Alexander I met near Tilsit, in northern Prussia, to discuss terms for ending war between their empires.
    (AP, 6/25/07)

1807        Jul 2, In the wake of the Chesapeake incident, in which the crew of a British frigate boarded an American ship and forcibly removed four suspected deserters, President Thomas Jefferson ordered all British ships to vacate U.S. territorial waters.
    (AP, 7/2/07)

1807        Jul 4, Giuseppe Garibaldi (1807-1882) Italian military leader, was born in Nice, France. He led the movement to make Italy one nation.
    (HN, 7/4/98)(IB, Internet, 12/7/98)

1807        Jul 7, Napoleon I of France and Czar Alexander I of Russia signed a treaty at Tilsit ending war between their empires. It divided Europe among themselves and isolated Britain.
    (HN, 7/7/98)(AP, 7/7/07)

1807        Aug 3, Former Vice President Aaron Burr went on trial before a federal court in Richmond, Va., charged with treason. He was acquitted less than a month later.
    (AP, 8/3/07)

1807        Aug 5, Jeanne Baret (b.1740), botanist, died in France. She had joined the (1766-1769) expedition of Louis Antoine de Bougainville, disguised as a man, and enlisting as valet and assistant to the expedition's naturalist, Philibert Commerson, shortly before Bougainville's ships sailed on a voyage to circumnavigate the globe. In 2013 Glynis Ridley authored “The Discovery of Jeanne Baret: A Story of Science, the High Seas, and the First Woman to Circumnavigate the Globe."

1807        Aug 11, David Atchison, legislator, was born. He was president pro tempore of the U.S. Senate, and president of U.S. for one day [March 4, 1849], the Sunday before Zachary Taylor was sworn in.
    (MC, 8/11/02)
1807        Aug 11, The Eclipse, a Yankee fur trading vessel, sank in the Shumagin Islands, south of the Alaska Peninsula. It is the oldest known American shipwreck in Alaska and as of 2007 had not been found.
    (AP, 10/8/07)

1807        Aug 17, Robert Fulton’s "North River Steam Boat" (popularly, if erroneously, known to this day as the Clermont) began heading up New York’s Hudson River on its successful round-trip to Albany. It was 125 feet (142-feet) long and 20 feet wide with side paddle wheels and a sheet iron boiler. He averaged 5 mph for the 300-mile round trip. The boat was developed with business partner Robert Livingston.
    (SFC, 6/20/98, p.F4)(WSJ, 9/21/01, p.A22)(AP, 8/17/07)(ON, 6/12, p.1)

1807        Aug 18, Charles Francis Adams (d.1886), U.S. diplomat and public official whose father was John Quincy Adams, was born.
    (AHD, 1971, p.14)(HN, 8/18/98)
1807        Aug 18, Robert Stevenson (1772-1850) began work on the 117-foot Bell Rock lighthouse at the mouth of Scotland’s Firth of Forth based on a proposal he submitted in 1800. The lighthouse began operating on Feb 1, 1811.
    (ON, 5/06, p.6)

1807        Aug 19, Robert Fulton's North River Steamboat arrived in Albany, two days after leaving New York.
    (AP, 8/19/07)

1807        Aug 21, Robert Fulton's North River Steamboat set off from Albany on its return trip to New York, arriving some 30 hours later.
    (AP, 8/21/07)

1807        Sep 1, Former Vice President Aaron Burr was found innocent of treason. [see 1806] Burr had been arrested in Mississippi for complicity in a plot to establish a Southern empire in Louisiana and Mexico. Burr was then tried on a misdemeanor charge, but was again acquitted.
    (www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/burr/burrchronology.html)(AP, 9/1/07)

1807        Sep 2, British forces began bombarding Copenhagen for several days, until the Danes agreed to surrender their naval fleet.
    (AP, 9/2/07)

1807        Sep 4, Robert Fulton began operating his steamboat. [see Aug 17]
    (MC, 9/4/01)

1807        Sep 7, Denmark surrendered to British forces that had bombarded the city of Copenhagen for four days.
    (AP, 9/7/07)

1807        Sep 15, Former Vice President Aaron Burr was acquitted of a misdemeanor charge two weeks after he was found innocent of treason.
    (AP, 9/15/07)

1807        Oct 17, Britain declared it would continue to reclaim British-born sailors from American ships and ports regardless of whether they held US citizenship.
    (AP, 10/17/07)

1807        Dec 14, A number of meteorites fell onto Weston, Connecticut.
    (Econ, 12/23/06, p.122)

1807        Dec 17, John Greenleaf Whittier, American poet, was born in Haverhill, Mass. He was an abolitionist, reformer and founder of the Liberal Party.
    (HN, 12/17/99)(AP, 12/17/07)

1807        Dec 22, Congress passed the Embargo Act, designed to force peace between Britain and France by cutting off all trade with Europe. It was hoped that the act would keep the United States out the European Wars.
    (AP, 12/22/97)(HN, 12/22/98)

1807        The US Congressional Cemetery near Capital Hill was established.
    (WSJ, 10/16/98, p.A1)
1807        The US Survey of the Coast formed. It later developed into the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).

1807        Lieutenant Zebulon Montgomery Pike strayed beyond the limits of the territory into the Spanish-held territory of New Mexico, and was accused of spying by Spanish authorities. The Spaniards released Pike and his men after they could find no evidence against him. Pike’s explorations the previous November had taken him to the Rockies, where he reached the base of a mountain that would later be named Pikes Peak in his honor. Pike’s mission was to explore the southwestern limits of the Louisiana Territory, the vast tract of land that the United States had purchased from France in 1803 in a deal known as the Louisiana Purchase.
    (HNQ, 7/15/02)

1807        The Geological Society of London was born. It was the first body of men devoted to the earth sciences.
    (DD-EVTT, p.16)
c1807        Englishmen William and John Cockerill brought the Industrial Revolution to continental Europe around 1807 by developing machine shops in Liege, Belgium, transforming the country’s coal, iron and textile industries much as it had done in Britain. From roughly 1760 to about 1830, the Industrial Revolution largely occurred in Britain. Realizing the economic advantages, Britain did not allow the export of any machinery, methods or skilled men that might blunt its technological edge. Eventually, the lure of new opportunities convinced continental entrepreneurs and British businessmen to evade England’s official edict.
    (HNQ, 5/16/01)
1807        After Britain outlawed the slave trade people called “Recaptives," those freed from slave ships, were sent to join the settlers in Sierra Leone. The settlers formed a new tribe called the Kri and created a language called Krio.
    (MT, summer 2003, p.8)
1807        Britain opened factories to make sailing blocks for the Royal Navy as part of the war effort against France. The factories were later cited as the world’s first standardized mass production line.
    (Econ, 11/23/13, p.82)

1807        Zheng Yi Sao took over a confederation of pirates in the South China Sea about this time following the death if her husband. At its peak the confederation numbered some 50-70 thousand mend and controlled 800 large vessels. The group disbanded in 1810 under an offer of amnesty.
    (WSJ, 11/22/08, p.W2)

1807        Napoleon gave Danzig (later Gdansk) 6 years of formal independence.
    (WSJ, 8/31/98, p.A4)
1807        France’s Pleyel piano company was founded by Ignaz Pleyel, a composer and music publisher who studied with Franz Joseph Haydn. In 2013 the company closed its factory, unable to keep up with cheaper and more agile competition.
    (SFC, 10/30/96, Z1 p.8) (AP, 11/16/13)

1807        Bavaria made vaccination compulsory to stop the spread of smallpox.
    (Econ., 2/13/21, p.20)

1807        Saud al-Saud invaded Karbala, Iraq, for the second time in 1807, but he could not occupy it.

1807        In Naples, Italy, Major Leopold Hugo, the father of Victor Hugo, was promoted after a successful campaign against the Calabrian banditti.
    (WSJ, 2/10/98, p.A16)

1807        Serfdom was abolished in the Lithuanian territories known as Suvalkija and Dzukija as far as the Nemunas river. This area had been given to Prussia in the 1795 division and then included into the Warsaw Principality.
    (DrEE, 10/12/96, p.2)

1807-1808    In South Carolina some 700 black people froze to death this winter in a warehouse near Charleston’s Gadsden Wharf.
    (Econ, 1/7/17, p.24)
1807-1808    Mustafa IV succeeded Selim III in the Ottoman House of Osman.
    (Ot, 1993, xvii)

1807-1809    A Jefferson imposed embargo kept American ships at home. [see Dec 22 1807]
    (SFC, 3/31/98, p.F4)

1807-1815    Britain and the Defeat of Napoleon, 1807-1915 by Rory Muir was published in 1996.
    (WSJ, 7/10/96, p.A16)

1807-1859     Gamaliel Bailey, American abolitionist: "Who never doubted, never half believed. Where doubt is, there truth is—it is her shadow."
    (AP, 1/27/98)

1807-1877    US Sen. John Petit. He once called the Declaration of Independence a "self-evident-lie" in reference to the freedom of blacks.
    (WSJ,2/12/97, p.A16)

1807-1881    Giovanni Ruffini, Italian writer: "Curses are like processions. They return to the place from which they came."
    (AP, 1/8/00)

1808        Jan 1, A US law banning the import of slaves came into effect, but was widely ignored.
    (HN, 1/1/99)(AP, 1/1/08)

1808        Jan 13, Salmon P. Chase, US Treasury secretary during the American Civil War and 6th Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, was born. His picture was later put on the $10,000 bill.
    (HN, 1/13/99)

1808        Feb 11, Anthracite coal was 1st burned as fuel, experimentally, in Wilkes-Barre, Pa.
    (MC, 2/11/02)

1808        Feb 16, The Peninsular War began when Napoleon ordered a large French force into Spain under the pretext of sending reinforcements to the French army occupying Portugal.
    (MC, 6/21/02)

1808        Feb 20, Honoré Daumier (d.1879), French painter, sculptor, caricaturist and lithographer, was born in Marseilles. He painted Crispin and Scapin.
    (AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.369)(WSJ, 3/10/00, p.W16)(HN, 2/20/01)

1808        Mar 1, In France, Napoleon created an imperial nobility.
    (HN, 3/1/99)

1808        Mar 6, 1st college orchestra in US was founded at Harvard.
    (MC, 3/6/02)

1808        Mar 15, Gaetano Gaspari, composer, was born.
    (MC, 3/15/02)

1808        Mar 19, Spain's King Charles IV abdicated.
    (AP, 3/19/03)

1808        Mar 23, Napoleon's brother Joseph took the throne of Spain.
    (SS, 3/23/02)

1808        Mar 27, Joseph Haydn’s oratorio "The Seasons," premiered in Vienna.
    (MC, 3/27/02)

1808        Mar 31, French created the Kingdom of Westphalia and ordered Jews to adopt family names.
    (MC, 3/31/02)

1808        Apr 13, William Henry Lane ("Juda") perfected the tap dance.
    (MC, 4/13/02)

1808        Apr 17, The Bayonne Decree by Napoleon I of France ordered the seizure of U.S. ships.
    (HN, 4/17/98)

1808        Apr 20, Charles Louis Napoleon (d.1873), nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte, was born. He later served as president (1848-1852) and as emperor of France (1852-1870).
    (WUD, 1994, p.950)(WSJ, 1/13/98, p.A20)(HN, 4/20/98)

1808        Apr 30, Italian Pellegrini Turri built the 1st practical typewriter for the blind Countess Carolina Fantoni da Fivizono, the world's first typist.
    (SFEC, 1/10/99, Z1 p.8)(SFC, 7/26/00, p.D3)(MC, 4/30/02)   

1808        May 2, The citizens of Madrid rose up against Napoleon. It culminated in a fierce battle fought out in the Puerta del Sol, Madrid's central square. The Spanish were defeated, and during the night the French army lead by Grand Duke Joachim Murat slaughtered hundreds of citizens along the Prado promenade in reprisal.
    (HN, 5/2/98)(MC, 5/2/02)

1808        May 3, Spanish executions took place and were later commemorated in Goya’s painting "Executions of 3rd of May."
    (Econ., 1/23/21, p.68)

1808        May 15, Michael William Balfe, composer ("The Bohemian Girl"), was born.
    (MC, 5/15/02)

1808        May 18, Jacob Albright [Albrecht] (49), German-US preacher, died.
    (SC, 5/18/02)

1808        May 21, Eston Hemmings was born to slave Sally Hemmings, who was owned by Thomas Jefferson. Genetic tests in 1998 showed that DNA from Jefferson's descendants was consistent with DNA from descendants of Hemmings. Some argued that Randolph Jefferson, brother of Thomas, was Eston's father.
    (USAT, 1/7/99, p.3A)

1808        May 30, Napoleon annexed Tuscany and gave it seats in French Senate.
    (MC, 5/30/02)

1808        Jun 1, The first US land-grant university was founded-Ohio Univ., Athens, Ohio.
    (DTnet, 6/1/97)

1808        Jun 3, Jefferson Davis -- the first and only president of the Confederacy -- was born in Christian County, Ky. He was imprisoned and indicted for treason, but the case was dropped.
    (AP, 6/3/97)(HN, 6/3/99)

1808        Jul 2, Simon Fraser completed his trip down Fraser River, BC. He landed at Musqueam.
    (SC, 7/2/02)

1808        Jul 9, A leather-splitting machine was patented by Samuel  Parker of Billerica, MA.
    (MC, 7/9/02)

1808        Jul 20, Napoleon decreed that all French Jews adopt family names.
    (MC, 7/20/02)

1808        Jul 28, Sultan Mustapha IV of the Ottoman Empire was deposed and his cousin Mahmud II gained the throne and ruled to 1839.
    (HN, 7/28/98)(Ot, 1993, xvii)

1808        Aug 1, Joachim Murat (1767-1815), French marshal and Napoleon's brother in law, became king of Naples (1808-1815) and Sicily.

1808        Aug 21, Napoleon Bonaparte's General Junot was defeated by Wellington at the first Battle of the Peninsular War at Vimiero, Portugal.
    (HN, 8/21/02)

1808        Sep 12, Jose Celestino Mutis (b.1732-1808), Spanish naturalist, died in Santa Fe de Bogote (Colombia). He spent 40 years on his unfinished work “Flora de Nueva Granada."

1808        Oct 17, The political rights of Jews was suspended in Duchy of Warsaw.
    (MC, 10/17/01)

1808        Oct 24, Ernst Friedrich Richter, composer, was born.
    (MC, 10/24/01)

1808        Nov 22, Thomas Cook, founder (Cook travel bureau), was born.
    (MC, 11/22/01)

1808        Dec 1, Anton Fischer (30), composer, died.
    (MC, 12/1/01)

1808        Dec 7, Electors chose James Madison to be the fourth president of the United States in succession to Thomas Jefferson.
    (HN, 12/7/98)(AP, 12/7/08)

1808        Dec 21, Ludwig van Beethoven's Symphony No. 5 in C Minor and Symphony No. 6 in F Major had their world premieres in Vienna, Austria.
    (AP, 12/22/06)

1808        Dec 29, Andrew Johnson, the 17th president of the United States who succeeded Lincoln, was born in a 2-room shack in Raleigh, N.C. [Waxhaw, South Carolina]
    (AP, 12/29/97)(SFC, 12/21/98, p.A3)(HN, 12/29/98)(HNPD, 3/15/99)

1808        Yi Eung-nok, Korean court painter, was born.
    (SFC, 3/11/03, p.D1)

1808        Charles Willson Peale painted the only known portrait of his friend William Bartram, the naturalist. [see Bartram 1739-1823]
    (Nat. Hist., 4/96, p.10)

1808        Pierre-Paul Prud’hon (1758-1823), French artist, painted "Justice and Divine Vengeance Pursuing Crime."
    (WSJ, 4/8/98, p.A20)

1808        Goethe completed the first part of Faust at the insistence of his friend, the poet Friedrich Schiller. Part two was not finished until a few months before Goethe's death.

1808        Heinrich von Kleist wrote his novella "Michael Kohlhaas." It later inspired the screenplay for a 1999 HBO movie "The Jack Bull," written by Dick Cusack.
    (WSJ, 4/15/99, p.A20)

1808        The libretto for Rossini’s "L’Italiana in Algeri" was written by Anelli.
    (WSJ, 8/12/97, p.A12)

1808        John Randel Jr., the secretary, surveyor and chief engineer for New York City’s street commissioners, and his colleagues began drafting and executing the street grid plan for Manhattan.

1808        The first US newspaper west of the Mississippi was founded in St. Louis by Joseph Charles, an Irish refugee. He was financed by Meriwether Lewis, the local territorial governor, who needed someone to print the local laws. In 1998 David Dary published: "Red Blood and Black Ink: Journalism in the Old West."
    (SFEC, 3/8/98, BR p.6)

1808        In the 1st test of the US Constitution Chief Justice Marshall ruled in favor of Gideon Olmstead and against the state of Pennsylvania to enforce a 1779 decree that only the federal government, and not individual states, had the power to determine the legality of captures on the high seas.
    (ON, 12/01, p.9)

1808        John Dalton, chemist, argued that for each chemical element there is a corresponding atom, and that all else is made from a combination of those atoms.
    (NG, May 1985, , p. 642)

1808        Sir Humphrey Davy showed that electricity could produce heat or light between two electrodes separated in space and connected by an arc.

1808        The American whaling ship Topaz found one of the bounty mutineers living on Pitcairn Island among many women and children. The other men had all died mostly in conflict over the Tahitian women.
    (ON, 3/04, p.11)

1808        Napoleon chased Portugal’s royal family to Brazil. King Joao VI of Portugal and his court were installed in Rio de Janeiro by a British fleet.
    (Econ, 4/14/07, SR p.5)(Econ, 9/11/10, SR p.3)
1808        Napoleon codified the French educational curriculum.
    (Econ, 12/19/09, p.91)
1808        Emperor Alexander I of Russia met with Napoleon I at Erfurt, Thuringia, Ger.
    (Hem., Nov.’95, p.114)

1808        A 56-foot oarfish washed ashore in Scotland. This was the first documented sighting of the rare fish.
    (SFC, 12/4/10, p.A7)

1808-1814    The Duke of Wellington led the Peninsular Campaign wherein the British send troops to Spain to assist the Spanish revolt against Joseph Bonaparte.
    (WSJ, 1/6/95, A-10)

1808-1821    Rio de Janeiro was made the capital of the Portuguese empire.
    (USA Today, OW, 4/22/96, p.3)

1808-1830    In 2005 William Anthony Hay authored “The Whig Revival, 1808-1830," a picture of the British Whigs in the early 19th century.
    (WSJ, 4/6/05, p.D11)

1809        Jan 4, Louis Braille (d.1852), inventor of a universal reading system for the blind, was born in Coupvray, France. He was blinded at age four as the result of an accident in his father's shop. He became an accomplished organist and cellist and won a scholarship in 1819 to attend the National Institute for Blind Youth in Paris. In 1821 Louis learned of a communication system devised by Captain Charles Barbier of the French Army. While Barbier's system was too complex to be practical, Braille simplified and adapted it to a six-dot code representing letters that enabled people with impaired vision to not only read but also write for themselves. In 1829 his first Braille book was published, but Braille himself died of tuberculosis at age 43--before his system gained widespread acceptance.
    (AP, 1/4/98)(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_Braille)

1809        Jan 19, Edgar Allan Poe (d.1949), American writer, was born in Boston. His father, David Poe, was an Irish-American actor and abandoned his family shortly after Edgar’s birth. His mother, Elizabeth Arnold Hopkins, died in 1811 and he grew up with a foster family. Poe studied briefly at the University of Virginia, but then he quarreled with his foster father and went to Boston in 1827, where he published his first volume of poetry anonymously. In the early 1840s Poe became known for his lyrical, brooding poems and detective stories, such as "The Gold Bug" and "Murders at the Rue Morgue." In fact, he is recognized as the father of the modern detective story. Poe was unafraid to criticize literary practices of the time, stressing the importance of artistic value more than moral value. After battles with alcoholism and his wife Virginia's illness and death, Poe became depressed but continued to write. He became engaged again in 1849 but soon died at the age of 40. His best known stories include: "Fall of the House of Usher " and "The Tell-Tale Heart." His most famous poems are "The Raven" and Annabel Lee." "I hold that a long poem does not exist. I maintain that the phrase, 'a long poem,' is simply a flat contradiction in terms."
    (CFA, '96,Vol 179, p.38)(SFEC, 1/12/97, p.T5)(AP, 1/19/98)(HNPD, 1/19/99)(AP, 1/29/99)

1809        Jan 20, The 1st US geology book was published by William Maclure.
    (MC, 1/20/02)

1809        Feb 3, US Congress passed an act establishing the Illinois Territory.
    (AP, 2/3/97)

1809        Feb 11, Robert Fulton patented the steamboat.
    (HN, 2/11/97)

1809        Feb 12, Charles Robert Darwin (d.1882) was born. He proposed that evolution was the principle that underlay the development of all species and that man, an animal, had evolved from nonhuman ancestors. Shortly after his graduation from Cambridge, Darwin sailed as a naturalist with the surveying ship HMS Beagle. All life, he said, is a struggle for existence and some species are better able to adapt to the environment and survive to pass along their characteristics. During the five-year voyage, Darwin's observations of wildlife led to the writing of his 1859 book "The Origin of the Species," in which he proposed the theory of natural selection. Besides the "Origin of the Species," he wrote three books on geology and devoted 8 years to his monograph on barnacles. His last book was "The Formation of Vegetable Mould Through the Action of Worms." In 1871 Darwin wrote "Descent of Man," which demonstrated that man and ape could have had a common ancestor. Darwin's theories were highly controversial and unsettling to those who believed in creationism. Many Victorians condemned Darwin as blasphemous, but many important scientists of the day agreed with his theories. "How can anyone not see that all observation must be for or against some view if it is to be of any service."
    (V.D.-H.K.p.281)(PacDis., Spg. 96, p.52)(NH, 2/97, p.69)(NH, 5/97, p.11)(HNPD, 2/13/99)

1809        Feb 12, Abraham Lincoln, 16th president of the US, was born in Hardin County (present-day Larue County), Kentucky. Lincoln was president of the United States during one of the most turbulent times in American history. Although roundly criticized during his own time, he is recognized as one of history's greatest figures who preserved the Union during the Civil War and proved that democracy could be a lasting form of government. Lincoln entered national politics as a Whig congressman from Illinois, but he lost his seat after one term due to his unpopular position on the Mexican War and the extension of slavery into the territories. The 1858 Lincoln-Douglas debates for the Senate gave him a national reputation. In 1860, Lincoln became the first president elected from the new Republican Party. Abraham Lincoln was fatally shot by John Wilkes Booth at Ford's Theater in Washington, D.C., on April 14, 1865. In 1996 a new biography of Abraham Lincoln by David Donald was published.
    (AP, 2/12/98)(AHD, 1971, p.759)(WSJ, 2/10/95, p.A-8) (SFC, 9/1/96, Par. p.12)(http://rogerjnorton.com/Lincoln88.html)

1809        Feb 15, Cyrus Hall McCormick (d.1884), inventor of the mechanical reaper, was born.
    (MC, 2/15/02)(WUD, 1994 p.887)

1809        Feb 20, The Supreme Court ruled that the power of the federal government is greater than that of any individual state.
    (AP, 2/20/98)

1809        Mar 1, Embargo Act of 1807 was repealed and the Non-Intercourse Act signed.
    (SC, 3/1/02)

1809        Mar 4, Madison became 1st President inaugurated in American-made clothes.
    (SC, 3/4/02)

1809        Mar 12, Great Britain signed a treaty with Persia forcing the French out of the country.
    (HN, 3/12/99)

1809        Mar 15, Joseph Jenkins Roberts, first president of Liberia, was born.
    (HN, 3/15/98)

1809        Mar 27, Georges-Eugene Haussmann (d.1891), French town planner, was born. He designed modern-day Paris.
    (HN, 3/27/01)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baron_Haussmann)

1809        Mar 31, Edward Fitzgerald, American writer, was born. He is famous for writing "Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam."
    (HN, 3/31/99)
1809        Mar 31, Nikolai V. Gogol (d.1852), Ukrainian-born Russian writer, was born (NS) in Sorochyntsi, Poltava Governorate (later Ukraine). Some sources give April 1 as his birthday. His work included the play “The Inspector General" (1836) and the novels  “Taras Bulba" (1835) and “Dead Souls" (1842).
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nikolai_Gogol)(WSJ, 4/14/09, p.D7)
1809        Mar 31, Otto Jonas Lindblad, composer, was born.
    (MC, 3/31/02)

1809        Apr 10, Austria declared war on France and her forces entered Bavaria.
    (HN, 4/10/99)

1809        Apr 20, Napoleon defeated Austria at Battle of Abensberg, Bavaria.
    (HN, 4/20/98)

1809        Apr 22, At the Battle at Eckmahl Napoleon beat Austrian archduke Karl.
    (MC, 4/22/02)

1809        Apr 23, Eugene-Prosper Prevost, composer, was born.
    (MC, 4/23/02)

1809        May 5, Mary Kies was 1st woman issued a US patent (weaving straw).
    (MC, 5/5/02)
1809        May 5, Citizenship was denied to Jews of Canton of Aargau, Switzerland.
    (MC, 5/5/02)

1809        May 12, Napoleon’s troops captured Vienna, Austria.
    (SFC, 4/26/12, p.A2)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Wagram)

1809        May 17, The Papal States were annexed by France. Pope Pius VII responded by excommunicating Napoleon.
    (MC, 5/17/02)(PTA, 1980, p.502)

1809        May 21, Robert Milligan (b.1746), prominent Scottish merchant and ship-owner, died. Milligan headed a group of powerful businessmen who planned and built London's West India Docks (1800). At the time of his death Milligan owned 526 slaves in Jamaica who worked at his sugar plantation called Kellet's and Mammee Gully. On June 9, 2020, a statue of Milligan was removed from the front of the Museum of London Docklands by the local authority to "recognise the wishes of the community".

1809        May 24, Dartmoor Prison opened to house French prisoners of war.
    (MC, 5/24/02)

1809        May 31, Composer Franz Joseph Haydn died in Vienna, Austria on his 77th birthday. When Napoleon’s armies marched into Vienna, the commanding general posted guards in front of Haydn’s house to protect Haydn from trouble, and a young officer was sent to sing for the old man.
    (AP, 5/31/97)(WSJ, 1/8/98, p.A7)

1809        Jun 3, John "Christmas" Beckwith (58), composer, died.
    (MC, 6/3/02)

1809        Jun 6, Sweden declared independence and a constitutional monarchy was established.
    (MC, 6/6/02)

1809        Jun 8, Thomas Paine (b.1737), British born political essayist, died in poverty and obscurity in NYC at age 72. His revolutionary essays included “Common Sense" (1776) and "The Rights of Man" (1991) and "The Age of Reason." His body was exhumed in 1819 by William Cobbett, shipped to England, and kept in an attic trunk till Cobbett died in 1835. Parts of his skeleton were later said to be sold at auction. In 2006 Craig Nelson authored “Thomas Paine" and Harvey J. Kaye authored “Thomas Paine and the Promise of America."
    (HN, 1/29/99)(HNQ, 9/21/99)(SSFC, 4/1/01, p.A7)(WSJ, 9/22/06, p.W4)

1809        Jul 3, Joseph Quesne (62), composer, died.
    (MC, 7/3/02)

1809        Jul 5, Pope Pius VII was taken prisoner to France and held there until 1814.
    (PC, 1992 ed, p.371)
1809        Jul 5-1809 Jul 6, Napoleon beat Austria’s archduke Charles at the Battle of Wagram. He annexed the Illyrian Provinces (now part of Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, and Montenegro), and abolished the Papal States.

1809        Jul 16, A well-prepared revolutionary insurrection burst out in La Paz, Bolivia.

1809        Jul 27, In Bolivia a proclamation of independence of the La Paz colony, said to have been written by Priest Medina and the first proclamation of that kind, was released and sent to the other main cities of the colony, hoping they would support the uprising.

1809        Jul 27-1809 Jul 28, Arthur Wellesley led the British army to triumph against the Spanish King Joseph Bonaparte at Talavera de la Reina against a French army twice his size. For this he was made Lord (the Duke of) Wellington.
    (WSJ, 6/6/96, p.A15)(PC, 1992 ed, p.371)

1809        Aug 4, Hapsburg Emp. Francis I appointed Count Clemens von Metternich (36) minister of state.
    (PC, 1992 ed, p.371)

1809        Aug 6, Alfred Lord Tennyson (d.1892), English poet laureate (1850), was born. His work included: "The Charge of the Light Brigade." "Knowledge comes, but wisdom lingers."
    (HN, 8/6/98)(AP, 10/6/00)

1809        Aug 10, Ecuador struck its first blow for independence from Spain.
    (AP, 8/10/97)

1809        Aug 17, In Canada work commenced on Nelson’s column, a tribute Adm. Horatio Nelson, was erected Place Jacques-Cartier, Montreal, Quebec.

1809        Aug 29, Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr., poet, essayist and father of Supreme Court Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., was born.
    (HN, 8/29/98)

1809        Sep 7, Rama I (b.1737), King Phra Buddha Yodfa Chulaloke, died. He founded the Chakri dynasty and established Bangkok as the capital of Siam, as Thailand was known, in 1782. He ruled for 27 years and is best known for repelling the last major Burmese attack on Siam, known as the Nine Armies' Wars, from 1785 to 1786.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rama_I)(Reuters, 5/2/19)

1809        Sep 27, Raphael Semmes (d.1877), Rear Admiral (Confederate Navy), was born.
    (MC, 9/27/01)

1809        Sep, The Old Price Riots broke out in England when Covent Garden manager John Philip Kemble raised ticket prices. The riots continued to December.
    (SFC, 12/31/08, p.E2)

1809        Oct 8, Hapsburg Emp. Francis I appointed Count Clemens von Metternich (36) foreign minister of Austria.
    (PC, 1992 ed, p.371)(ON, 5/04, p.1)

1809        Oct 11, Meriwether Lewis committed suicide at 35. [see Oct 12]
    (MC, 10/11/01)

1809        Oct 12, Meriwether Lewis, of the Lewis and Clark expedition, died under mysterious circumstances in St. Louis. [see Oct 11]
    (HN, 10/12/98)

1809        Oct 14, The Treaty of Schönbrunn, also known as the Treaty of Vienna, ended hostilities between France and Austria. This treaty ended the Fifth Coalition during the Napoleonic Wars.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Sch%C3%B6nbrunn)(PC, 1992 ed, p.371)

1809        Oct 22, Federico Ricci, composer, was born.
    (MC, 10/22/01)

1809        Oct 27, President James Madison ordered the annexation of the western part of West Florida. Settlers there had rebelled against Spanish authority.
    (HN, 10/27/98)

1809        Nov 13, John A.B. Dahlgren, US Union Lt Adm and inventor (Civil war Dahlgren cannon), was born.
    (MC, 11/13/01)

1809        Nov 22, Peregrine Williamson of Baltimore patented a steel pen.
    (MC, 11/22/01)

1809        Nov 27, Frances Anne "Fanny" Kemble (d.1893), Shakespearian actress, writer and anti-slavery activist, was born in London, England.  Her work included "Journal of a Residence on a Georgia Plantation. She died in London.
    (WSJ, 9/21/00, p.A24)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fanny_Kemble)

1809        Dec 9, William Barret Travis, Commander of the Texas troops at the battle of the Alamo, was born.
    (HN, 12/9/98)

1809        Dec 16, Napoleon Bonaparte was divorced from the Empress Josephine by an act of the French Senate. Metternich had convinced Francis I of Austria to offer his daughter Marie Louise as a bride to Napoleon.
    (AP, 12/16/97)(ON, 5/04, p.2)

1809        Dec 24, Kit Carson, one of the most famous mountain men and scouts in the West, was born in Kentucky.
    (HN, 12/24/98)(MC, 12/24/01)

1809         Dec 29, William Gladstone (1809-1898), British statesman and four times Prime Minister from 1868-1894, was born. He was called the Grand Old Man of Victorian England. He began as a devout Tory but moved over to the liberal camp. A biography by Roy Jenkins, "Gladstone," was published in 1995.
    (CFA, '96, p.60)(AHD, p.559)(WSJ, 1/14/03, p.D6)

1809        Dec 30, Wearing masks at balls was forbidden in Boston.
    (MC, 12/30/01)

1809        Dec, In Danville, Kentucky, Dr. Ephraim McDowell (1771-1830) performed a successfully surgery on Jane Crawford (45) in which he removed an ovary and a large tumor with no anesthesia. Crawford lived to age 78 and was the world’s first known survivor of an elective exploration of the abdomen and removal of an ovary. The story was later told by David Dary in “Frontier Medicine: From the Atlantic to the Pacific 1492-1941" (2008).
    (ON, 12/99, p.11)(WSJ, 11/28/08, p.A13)

1809        William Cave created his painting "The Trusty Servant," a uniformed pig with a padlocked mouth.
    (WSJ, 11/26/03, p.D10)
1809        Lamarck wrote his classic "Philosophie zoologique." In 1997 this edition was valued at $3,500-$5,000.
    (NH, 5/96, p.22)(HT, 3/97, p.74)
1809        Boston’s Exchange Coffee House, which also contained a hotel and offices, opened and was said to be the largest building in the country. It burned down in 1818.
    (Econ, 11/24/07, p.91)(www.nmrls.org/news/nov07/mhl.shtml)
1809        Elizabeth Bayley Seton founded the Roman Catholic Sisters of Charity. She was later made a Catholic saint.
    (SFC, 3/30/97, Z1. p.6)(SFEC, 9/14/97, p.A18)
1809        Thomas Leiper laid the first railroad track in the US at Crum Creek, Pa. They were wooden.
    (SFC, 8/17/96, p.E5)
1809        Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826), US president (1801-1809) retired to Monticello, Va.
1809        Connecticut Sen. James Hillhouse proposed a constitutional amendment under which the president would be elected by lot from among the senators.
    (WSJ, 1/28/03, p.D6)
1809        Meriwether Lewis died of gunshot wounds near present-day Hohenwald, Tenn. It was uncertain whether he was killed or committed suicide.
    (SFC,12/17/97, p.A7)

1809        A large volcanic eruption took place, but the exact location was unknown. Evidence was later found in ice cores of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets.
    (Econ., 4/11/15, p.22)

1809        Lord Byron (1788-1824) traveled to Spain, Albania and Greece with John Cam Hobhouse and soon met with Ali Pasha.
1809        English poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge published his essay “On the Vulgar Errors Respecting Taxes and Taxation."
    (Econ, 5/19/12, p.21)
1809         Humphry Davy (1778-1809), an English chemist, invented the first electric light. Davy connected two wires to a battery and attached a charcoal strip between the other ends of the wires. The charged carbon glowed making the first arc lamp.
1809        Bourne’s Pottery in Denby, Derbyshire, England, dates to this time. In 1850 it began using the J. Bourne & Son mark.
    (SFC, 4/12/06, p.G4)

1809        Finland broke free of Sweden to become a Grand Duchy of Russia. Finland fell into Russian hands after Europe's Napoleonic wars, though it was allowed to develop as an autonomous part of the Czarist empire until 1917.
    (SFEC, 4/11/99, p.T4)(AP, 12/6/17)

1809        Nicholas Appert won a French prize of 12,000 francs for his method of keeping food in glass bottles. Napoleon had offered the prize with military needs in mind.
    (SFC, 9/19/07, p.G6)

1809        Sibbet House at 26 Northumberland St. was constructed in a Georgian design in Edinburgh, Scotland.
    (SFC, 7/7/96, T8)

1809        The Portuguese crown, now in Brazil, granted authors and inventors exclusive rights to their works in Brazil fro 14 years.
    (Econ, 11/3/12, p.38)

1809        Russia took the Aland island group from the Swedes and held it until the Russian Revolution.
    (WSJ, 12/5/97, p.A1)

1809-1817    James Madison served as President of the US.
    (A&IP, ESM, p.96b)

1809-1818     Mahmood returned to the Afghan throne. War with Persia--indecisive victory. Internal fighting continued.

1809-1826    Civilians and soldiers who returned home from Napoleon’s expedition to Egypt (1798-1801) published during this period in serial form “Description de l’Egypte" (The Description of Egypt), the most comprehensive view of Egypt to date.
    (SFC, 12/14/07, p.E3)(WSJ, 11/17/08, p.A17)

1809-1891    Alexander William Kinglake, English historian.
    (WUD, 1994, p.788)

1809-1894     Tryon Edwards, American clergyman: "One of the great lessons the fall of the leaf teaches, is this: Do your work well and then be ready to depart when God shall call."
    (AP, 9/22/97)
1809-1894     Oliver Wendell Holmes, American author: "A man may fulfill the object of his existence by asking a question he cannot answer, and attempting a task he cannot achieve."
    (AP, 8/10/98)

1809-1917    Finland was an autonomous grand duchy under the Czar of Russia.
    (WSJ, 12/17/98, p.A1)

1810        Jan 10, French church annulled the marriage of Napoleon I & Josephine.
    (MC, 1/10/02)

1810        Feb 20, Andreas Hofer (42), military leader (fought Napoleon's France), was executed.
    (MC, 2/20/02)

1810        Feb 24, Henry Cavendish (b.1731), British natural philosopher, died. He is noted for his discovery of hydrogen or what he called "inflammable air" (1766).

1810        Feb 28, The 1st US fire insurance joint-stock company was organized in Philadelphia.
    (MC, 2/28/02)

1810        Mar 1, Frederic Chopin (d.1849), Polish composer and pianist, was born. He studied in Poland but spent most of his adult life in Paris. He met George Sand in Paris in 1838 and they were together until 1847. His works include the Waltz #2 in C# Minor (1835).
    (BAAC PN, Chambers, 1/8/96)(HN, 3/1/98)

1810        Mar 2, Leo XIII (Vincenzo G Pecci), 256th Catholic Pope (1878-1903), was born.
    (HN, 3/2/99)(SC, 3/2/02)

1810        Mar 6, Illinois passed the 1st state vaccination legislation in US.
    (MC, 3/6/02)

1810        Mar 10, John McCloskey, president of St. Johns College, was born.
    (HN, 3/10/98)

1810        Mar 11, Emperor Napoleon of France was married by proxy to Archduchess Marie Louise of Austria.
    (AP, 3/11/98)(HN, 3/11/98)

1810        Apr 17, Lewis Norton of Troy, PA., introduced his pineapple cheese.
    (440 Int'l, 4/17/03)

1810        Apr, In Hawaii Kaumualiʻi, king of Kauai became a vassal of King Kamehameha I (c.1736-1810), who therefore emerged as the sole sovereign of the unified Hawaiian islands.

1810        May 3, Lord Byron swam the Hellespont.
    (MC, 5/3/02)

1810        May 9, Louis Gallait, historical painter, was born.
    (MC, 5/9/02)

1810        May 21, Charles Chevalier d'Eon de Beaumont (81), French spy, cross dresser, died.
    (MC, 5/21/02)

1810        May 23, Margaret Fuller (d.1850), American social reformer, writer and critic, was born. She was the first female journalist for the New York Tribune. "Man is not made for society, but society is made for man. No institution can be good which does not tend to improve the individual."
    (AP, 7/12/97)(HN, 5/23/99)

1810        May 25, Argentina declared independence and began its revolt from Napoleonic Spain.
    (AP, 5/25/97)(HN, 5/25/98)

1810        May 29, Erasmus Darwin Keyes (d.1895), Major General (Union volunteers), was born.
    (SC, 5/29/02)
1810        May 29, Solomon Meredith (d,1875), Bvt Major General (Union volunteers), was born.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1810        Jun 8, Robert Schumann (d.1856), German composer, was born in Zwickau, Germany.
    (BLW, Geiringer, 1963 ed. p.49)(HN, 6/8/01)

1810        Jun 9, Carl Otto Ehrenfried Nicolai, composer (Merry Wives of Windsor), was born.
    (MC, 6/9/02)

1810        Jun 15, Englishman William Cobbett (1763-1810) was found guilty of treasonous libel after objecting in The Register to the flogging at Ely of local militiamen by Hanoverians. He was sentenced to two years imprisonment in infamous Newgate Prison. While in prison he wrote the pamphlet Paper against Gold, warning of the dangers of paper money, as well as many Essays and Letters. On his release a dinner in London, attended by 600 people, was given in his honor, presided over by Sir Francis Burdett who, like Cobbett, was a strong voice for parliamentary reform.

1810        Jun 23, John Jacob Astor (1763-1848) organized the Pacific Fur Co. in Astoria, Oregon.
    (MC, 6/23/02)

1810        Jul 5, P.T. Barnum (d.1891), American showman who formed the Barnum and Bailey Circus, was born. Years before founding the famous circus that bears his name, Barnum was recognized as the greatest showman and museum-owner of his time. Barnum’s goal was to attract attention, and it never bothered him if the wonders he exhibited in his New York American Museum were genuine or fake. Barnum opened the American Museum on Broadway in 1842, luring in customers by installing festive flags and New York’s first revolving spotlight on the roof of the building, both visible in this contemporary engraving. Abandoning the high-minded tone of most other museums, Barnum attracted huge audiences with marvels like the Feejee Mermaid, a grotesque composite of the top half of a monkey and the bottom half of a fish, and General Tom Thumb, a 25-inch-tall dwarf.
    (HN, 7/5/98)(HNPD, 3/18/99)

1810        Jul 11, The Australian-Briton Frederick Hasselborough discovered the uninhabited Macquarie island, half-way between New Zealand and Antarctica, accidentally when looking for new sealing grounds. The island took its name after Colonel Lachlan Macquarie, Governor of New South Wales from 1810 to 1821.

1810        Jul 20, Colombia declared independence from Spain.
    (AP, 7/20/97)

1810        Aug 10, Camillo di Cavour, helped bring about the unification of Italy under the House of Saxony.
    (HN, 8/10/99)

1810        Aug 14, Samuel Sebastian Wesley (d.1876), English composer, was born in London.
    (MC, 8/14/02)

1810        Aug 21, Sweden’s Riksdag elected Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte, Marshal of France under Napoleon, as heir apparent to the Swedish throne.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bernadotte)(Econ, 10/14/06, p.73)

1810        Aug 24, Theodore Parker, anti-slavery movement leader, was born.
    (HN, 8/24/98)

1810        Aug 29, Juan Bautista Alberdi (d.1884), Argentine politician, writer, was born.

1810        Sep 4, Donald McKay, US naval architect, built fastest clipper ships, was born.
    (MC, 9/4/01)

1810        Sep 16, In Mexico Father Miguel Hidalgo-Costilla delivered the cry for freedom in front of a small crowd of his parishioners (The Grito de Dolores). This action stemmed from meetings of the literary and social club of Queretaro (now a central state of Mexico), which included the priest, the mayor of the town, and a local military captain named Ignacio Allende. They believed that New Spain should be governed by the Creoles (criollos) rather than the Gachupines (peninsulares). Rev. Hidalgo was joined by Rev. Jose Maria Morelos. Both priests were later executed by firing squads. When Mexico revolted the Spanish settlements began to fall apart. Under Mexican rule the missions were secularized and the huge land holdings were broken up.
    (SFC, 5/19/96,City Guide, p.16)(SCal, Sept. 1995)(WSJ, 8/13/97, p.A12)(AP, 9/16/97)

1810        Sep 18, Chile declared its independence from Spain (National Day). Bernardo O’Higgins helped lead Chile to independence.
    (AP, 9/18/97)(SFEC, 10/27/96, p.T9)

1810        Oct 4, Alexander Walewski, French earl, foreign minister, son of Napoleon I, was born.
    (MC, 10/4/01)

1810        Oct 8, James Wilson Marshall, discoverer of gold in California, was born.
    (HN, 10/8/99)

1810        Oct 12, Bavarian Crown Prince Ludwig, later to become King Ludwig I, was married to Princess Therese of Saxony-Hildburghausen.  In honor of the wedding a horse race took place at the Theresienwiese (the Theresien meadow). The decision to repeat the horse races in subsequent years gave rise to the tradition of the Oktoberfest.

1810        Oct 16, Rabbi Nachman (b.1772) of Bratslav died and was buried in Uman, Ukraine. Nachman  was renowned for his mystical interpretations of Jewish texts and his belief that higher spirituality could be achieved through a combination of prayer, meditation and good deeds. On his deathbed, he is said to have promised to be an advocate for anyone who would come and pray beside his tomb.
    (AP, 9/9/10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nachman_of_Breslov)

1810        Oct 19, Cassius Marcellus Clay (d.1903), Major General (Union volunteers), was born.
    (MC, 10/19/01)

1810        Oct 27, US annexes West Florida from Spain.
    (MC, 10/27/01)

1810        Nov 2, Andrew Atkinson Humphreys (d.1883), Mjr. Gen. (Union volunteers), was born.
    (MC, 11/2/01)

1810        Nov 18, Asa Gray (d.1888), American botanist, was born. He wrote "Gray's Manual."
    (HN, 11/18/00)

1810        Nov 30, Oliver Fisher Winchester, rifle maker, was born.
    (MC, 11/30/01)

1810        Dec 7, Theodor Schwann, German physiologist, was born.
    (HN, 12/7/00)

1810        Dec 22, British frigate Minotaur sank killing 480.
    (MC, 12/22/01)

1810        Dec, Gen. Andre Rigaud (1761-1811) returned to Haiti yet a third time, establishing himself as President of the Department of the South, in opposition to both Alexandre Petion and Henri Christophe.

1810        The Maryland legislature authorizes a lottery for the erection of a memorial to George Washington, a 188 foot Doric column in Baltimore’s Mt Vernon Place.
    (NG, Sept. 1939, J. Maloney p.390)

1810        In New York City St. James’ Episcopal Church in Manhattan was founded. In 2019 the church dedicated a plaque with the inscription: “In solemn remembrance of the enslaved persons whose labor created wealth that made possible the founding of St. James’ Church".
    (AP, 12/13/20)
1810        Ephraim Basher (b.1744), NYC silversmith, died. He marked his pieces “EB" inside a square or an oval.
    (SFC, 1/30/08, p.G4)

1810        Salzburg, Austria was annexed by Bavaria during the Napoleonic Wars and the Univ. of Salzburg was suspended.
    (StuAus, April ‘95, p.87)

1810        In Bristol, England, the Commercial Rooms were constructed under architect C.A. Busby.
    (SFEC, 7/13/97, p.T3)
1810        The British Bullion Committee pronounced that it was folly to let governments print as much money as they wanted and not expect inflation.
    (WSJ, 11/9/00, p.A24)
1810        Peter Durand, a British merchant, was granted a patent by King George III for his idea of preserving food in "vessels of glass, pottery, tin (tin can), or other metals or fit materials."
1810        Sake Dean Mahomed founded the Hindoostane Coffee House, London's first known curry establishment. Born in Patna, India in 1759, Mahomed was also the first known Indian to write a book in English. Published in 1786, it describes his adventures as a soldier with the East India Company's army, his journey to Europe, his marriage to an Irish woman and their move to London.
    (AP, 9/29/05)
1810        The British wrestled Mauritius from France. Indians were brought in as indentured laborers and later waves of Chinese immigrants arrived.
    (SFC, 6/24/96, p.A8)

1810        A typhoon devastated the Caroline Islands, 500 miles south of the Marianas. The survivors sailed to Guam but only half survived. Spanish authorities sent the Carolinians to Saipan and Tinian to manage the Spanish cattle herds.
    (SFEC, 3/7/99,Z1 p.4)

1810        A German folk tale appeared in “Gespensterbuch" (The Book of Ghosts), which formed the basis for the 1821 opera “Der Freishutz" (The Free-Shooter) by Carl Maria von Weber. In 1991 American writer William Burroughs wrote “The Black Rider," an English version of the story with music by Tom Waits.
    (SFC, 8/31/04, p.E7)
1810        In Germany Friedrich Wilhelm III began the construction of Museum Island in Berlin.
    (WSJ, 2/1/96, p.A-16)
1810        In Germany construction of the first brew kettle at the Hallerbräustadel, the "factory," as it is called in the books, that Gabriel Sedlmayr leased in 1808 at the west end of the Neuhauserstraße. The kettle is only used to refine vinegar. Today at this site stands the Hertie department store.
1810        Wilhelm von Humboldt founded the Univ. of Berlin, later Humboldt University, to give students a broad humanist education.
    (WSJ, 2/26/00, p.A8)(Econ, 12/13/14, p.56)

1810        Juan Jose de los Reyes Martinez, miner and revolutionary hero (El Pipila), joined some 20,000 rebels who stormed Guanajuato, Mexico, and cornered Spanish colonists inside a granary. Martinez set fire to the granary and died in the flames.
    (SSFC, 5/4/03, p.D6)

1810        Saartjie Baartman (~21) left South Africa with 2 white men who promised to make her rich. [see 1816]
    (SFC, 5/4/02, p.A8)

1810        In Spain General Count Hugo, the father of Victor Hugo, governed Central Spain during the Peninsula War. He exterminated guerrillas and nailed up their severed heads.
    (WSJ, 2/10/98, p.A16)

1810-1811    The Duke of Wellington has the Lines of Torres Vedras heavily fortified and blocks all French movement forcing them to slow starvation during this winter. The resulting French retreat is considered the turning point of the Peninsular Campaign.
    (WSJ, 1/6/95, A-10)

1810-1813    Boston-based whalers slaughtered an estimated 150,000 fur seals on the Farallon Islands, 28 miles west of San Francisco. Russian hunters followed and occupied the islands for the next 25 years during which they wiped out the remaining fur seals. Fur seals began to return around 1977, but their first pup wasn’t born until 1996.
    (Bay, 4/07, p.33)

1810-1832    The 54-mile Göta Canal was built to connect Sweden's east and west coasts to circumvent Danish shipping controls between the Baltic and North Seas. The project was conceived and led by Count Baltzar von Platen (d.1830).
    (SSFC, 4/18/04, p.D12)

1810-1857    Alfred de Musset, French author: "How glorious it is -- and also how painful -- to be an exception."
    (AP, 5/6/00)

1810-1860     Theodore Parker, American religious leader: "Religion without joy—it is no religion."
    (AP, 10/26/97)

1810-1862    The Regency Period in English architecture. Oriental curves and cupolas influenced English architecture.
    (SFC, 9/30/98, Z1 p.3)

1810-1891    PT Barnum (Phineas Taylor Barnum), US showman and founder of "The Greatest Show On Earth." He established his circus in 1871. He served in the Connecticut State House of Representatives for 2 terms, was mayor of Bridgeport, and was the first president of Bridgeport Hospital. "More persons, on the whole, are humbugged by believing nothing, than by believing too much."
    (WUD, 1994, p.121)(WSJ, 1/7/97, p.A19)(AP, 6/28/98)

1810-1893    Ferenc Erkel, Hungarian composer, founder of the Nationalist school. His works include The Festive Overture.
    (WSJ, 8/24/95, p.A-14)

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