Timeline Seventeenth Century: 1661-1699

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1661        Feb 5, Kangxi ascended the throne of China as a child. He was the 1st of three Qing emperors who reigned for 133 years until 1795. Kangxi ruled over China until 1722. The film “Forbidden City: The Great Within," depicts the period. Kangxi was followed by Yongzheng and Qianlong.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kangxi_Emperor)(WSJ, 11/2/95, p.A-12)(Econ, 11/5/05, p.90)

1661        Mar 9, Cardinal Jules Mazarin (58), the chief minister of France, died, leaving King Louis the 14th in full control.
    (AP, 3/9/01)

1661        Mar 19, English occupied St. Andrew Island and other Courlander possessions in Gambia. They renamed the island James Island with administration by the Royal Adventurers in Africa Company.

1661        Mar 24, William Leddra became the last Quaker to be hanged in Boston. Quakers were last hanged on Boston Common. Charles II ordered the executions stopped.
    (WSJ, 4/4/01, p.A18)(MC, 3/24/02)

1661        Apr 23, English king Charles II was crowned in London.
    (MC, 4/23/02)

1661        Apr 29, Chinese Ming dynasty occupied Taiwan.
    (HN, 4/29/98)

1661        May 25, King Charles II married Portuguese princess Catherina the Bragança. India’s city of Mumbai, formed from seven islands, was given by Portugal to Charels II of England as dowry for his marriage to Catherine of Braganza.
    (SC, 5/25/02)(Econ, 12/22/12, p.119)

1661        May 27, Archibald Campbell (~53), Scottish politician, was beheaded.
    (MC, 5/27/02)

1661        Jun 3, Gottfried Scheidt (67), composer, died.
    (MC, 6/3/02)

1661        Jun 5, Isaac Newton was admitted as a student to Trinity College, Cambridge.

1661        Aug 6, Holland sold Brazil to Portugal for 8 million guilders.
    (MC, 8/6/02)

1661        Aug 7, Benedetta Carlini (b.1590), a Catholic mystic and lesbian nun who lived in counter-reformation Italy, died after having spent thirty-five years in prison. In 2021 a biographical film about Benedetta Carlini called Benedetta, directed by Paul Verhoeven, was released.

1661        Aug 29, Louis Couperin (b.1626), French composer, died.

1661        Oct 1, A yacht race from Greenwich to Gravesend between King Charles and James, Duke of York, made the sport fashionable.

1661        Oct 11, Melchior de Polignac, French diplomat (Anti-Lucretius), was born.
    (MC, 10/11/01)

1661        Oct 13, "I went to see Major General Harrison being drawn and quartered.  He was looking as cheerful as any man could in that condition." Harrison (b.1606) had sided with Parliament in the English Civil War. During the Interregnum he was a leader of the Fifth Monarchists. In 1649 he signed the death warrant of Charles I and in 1660, shortly after the Restoration, he was found guilty of regicide.
    (Samuel Pepys Diary)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Harrison_%28soldier%29)

1661        Massachusetts merchant William Payne willed a spectacular 35-acre seafront property for the benefit of public school children, decreeing the land should never be sold or wasted. The land gift was intended to help Ipswich comply with a 1647 colonial law that required communities with more than 100 families to set up a grammar school to prepare students for admission to Harvard.
    (AP, 2/24/12)
1661        White Virginians who wanted to keep their servants legalized the enslavement of African immigrants.
    (SFC, 12/18/96, p.A25)

1661        The Bourla Theatre of Antwerp, Belgium can be traced back to this date.
    (Hem., 7/95, p.28)

1661        Robert Boyle (1627-1691), English chemist, authored “The Sceptical Chymist: or Chymico-Physical Doubts & Paradoxes."
1661        Charles II appointed Christopher Wren (29) assistant to the surveyor general of the king’s works (assistant to the royal architect).
    (NYTBR, 2/2/03, p.12)
1661        Henry Slingsby, master of the London Mint, proposed the "standard solution" a mix of fiat rules and free markets, to resolve the ongoing problem of money supply and coin value. Britain adopted the idea in 1816 and the US followed in 1853.
    (WSJ, 4/2/02, p.A20)

1661        In China the Manchus forced the whole population of the southern coast to move 30 km inland to prevent contact with the outside world.
    (Econ., 9/12/20, p.71)

1661        The Paris Opera Ballet was founded.
    (WSJ, 7/10/96, p.A16)
1661        In France Nicolas Fouquet, treasurer to Louis XIV, invited the king to his new chateau Vaux le Vicomte. The king, peeved by the wealth of the nonroyal, ordered his arrest and had him imprisoned for embezzlement. The property was confiscated and Louis hired Fouquet's architects and designers to build Versailles.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R8)

1661        In Japan the Takanoshi family started producing food seasonings and became known for its soy sauce.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)

1661        Sweden became the first European country to introduce bank notes.
    (AP, 3/17/12)

1661-1714    Peter Strudel, Austrian painter. He was a court painter of the Habsburgs and founded an art school that later became the Academy of Fine Arts in Vienna.
    (StuAus, April '95, p.47)

1661-1722    Di Zi Gui (Standards for being a Good Pupil and Child) was written in the Qing Dynasty during the reign of the Kangxi Emperor (r. 1661-1722) by Li Yuxiu.

1662        Jan 27, 1st American lime kiln began operation in Providence, RI.
    (MC, 1/27/02)

1662        Feb 11, The Prins Willem, built in 1643 as flagship of the Dutch East India Company, sank off Madagascar. A replica, built in the 1980s, burned down at Den Helder in 2009.
    (AP, 7/30/09)(http://tinyurl.com/mteqbf)

1662        Apr 20, Gerard Terborch, the elder, painter, died.
    (MC, 4/20/02)

1662        Apr 23, Connecticut was chartered as an English colony.
    (MC, 4/23/02)

1662        Apr 27, Netherlands and France signed a treaty of alliance in Paris.

1662        May 3, John Winthrop the Younger, the son of the first governor of Massachusetts was honored by being made a fellow of the Royal Society, England's new scientific society. Winthrop gained a new charter from the king, uniting the colonies of Connecticut and New Haven.
    (HN, 5/3/99)

1662        Jun, Mary Sanford (~39) of Hartford, Connecticut, was convicted of “familiarity with Satan." Historians later surmised that she was hanged for her crimes. In 2006 a descendant of Sanford worked on legislation to clear her ancestor as well as a dozen or so other women and men convicted for witchcraft in Connecticut from 1647 to the 1660s.
    (WSJ, 9/15/06, p.A1)

1662        Aug 24, An Act of Uniformity, a part of the Clarendon Code (1661-1665), was passed by the English Parliament and required that England's college fellows and clergymen accept the newly published Book of Common Prayer. Charles II attempted to suspend the operation of the Clarendon Code by issuing a 2nd Declaration of Indulgence, but opposition from Parliament forced him to retract it in 1663.
    (PC, 1992, p.249)(www.everything2.com/index.pl?node=the%20Clarendon%20Code)

1662        Sep 12, Gov. Berkley of Virginia was denied his attempts to repeal the Navigation Acts.
    (HN, 9/12/98)

1662        Oct 26, Charles II of England sold Dunkirk to France.
    (MC, 10/26/01)

1662        Moliere authored his satirical play “The School for Wives."
    (SFC, 8/17/05, p.G9)

1662        Edward Collier painted a still life that sold for $442,500 in 1999.
    (WSJ, 6/4/99, p.W10)

1662        Rembrandt depicted himself in a painting as the fifth-century Greek painter Zeuxis. His work this year also included “The Syndics of the Clothmakers' Guild."
    (WSJ, 8/11/99, p.A16)(Econ, 6/23/07, p.96)

1662        Cavalli composed his opera "Ercole Amante" (Hercules in Love). It was written to celebrate the marriage of Louis XIV and Maria Theresa of Austria.
    (WSJ, 6/21/99, p.A24)

1662        John Bowne (34) was arrested in Vlissingen (later Flushing, Queens, NY) on orders from Gov. Peter Stuyvesant for aiding and abetting an “abomination" (Quakerism). In a hearing 19 months later Bowne invoked a 1657 declaration of religious freedom called the Flushing Remonstrance.
    (SSFC, 4/17/05, Par p.12)

1662        The British Parliament approved the Licensing of the Press Act, which censored “seditious, treasonable and unlicensed Bookes and Pamphlets." It failed renewal in 1695 and was repealed by the Statute Law Revision Act 1863.
1662        British law established that mourning clothes had to be made of English wool. [see 1667]
    (NG, 5.1988, pp. 574)
1662        Englishman Christopher Merret presented a paper to the Royal Society on making sparkling wine. This was noted in the 1998 "World Encyclopedia of Champagne and Sparkling Wine" by Tom Stevenson.
    (WSJ, 10/16/98, p.W13)
1662        London haberdasher John Graunt published the first quantitative account of death.
    (Econ, 4/29/17, p.9)
1662        John Tradescant the younger (b.1608), English traveler, horticulturalist, collector and gardener to Queen Henrietta Maria, died. His home in South Lambeth, called The Ark, was filled with his Museum Tradescantianum, a collection of rarities which included birds, fish, shells, insects, minerals, coins, medals and unusual plants. After his death the collection went to Elias Ashmole, who subsequently presented it to Oxford University, where it formed the basis of the Ashmolean Museum. In 2008 Jennifer Potter authored “Strange Blooms: The Curious Lives and Adventures of the John Tradescants.
    (www.npg.org.uk/live/search/person.asp?LinkID=mp04533)(WSJ, 4/3/08, p.B19)

1662        Dutch fortune seekers killed over 400 members of the Nayar warrior caste in Kerala, India.
    (SFEM, 7/18/99, p.12)

1662-1938    This period is examined by Judy L. Klein in Statistical Visions in Time: a History of Time Series Analysis: 1662-1938, from Cambridge Univ. Press.
    (WSJ, 9/28/95, p.A-18)

1663        Jan 6, There was a great earthquake in New England.
    (MC, 1/6/02)

1663        Jan 10, King Charles II affirmed the charter of Royal African Company.
    (MC, 1/10/02)

1663        Jan 29, Robert Sanderson, Bishop of Lincoln (1660-63), died.
    (MC, 1/29/02)

1663        Feb 12, Cotton Mather (d.1728), American clergyman and witchcraft specialist, was born.
    (WUD, 1994, p.884)(MC, 2/12/02)

1663        Feb 28, Thomas Newcomen, English co-inventor of the steam engine, was born.
    (MC, 2/28/02)

1663        Mar 7, Tomaso Antonio Vitali, composer, was born.
    (MC, 3/7/02)

1663        Mar 24, Charles II of England awarded lands known as Carolina in America to eight members of the nobility who assisted in his restoration. [see Apr 6]
    (HN, 3/24/99)

1663        Apr 6, King Charles II signed the Carolina Charter. [see Mar 24]
    (MC, 4/6/02)

1663        Apr 10, Samuel Pepys, London-based diarist, noted that he had enjoyed a French wine called Ho Bryan at the Royal Oak Tavern. This same year the Pontacs, a top wine-making family in Bordeaux, founded a fashionable London restaurant called Pontack’s Head. Ho Bryan later came to be called Chateau Haut Brion.
    (Econ, 12/19/09, p.131)

1663        Apr 18, Osman declared war on Austria.
    (MC, 4/18/02)

1663        May 7, Theatre Royal in Drury Lane, London, opened.
    (MC, 5/7/02)

1663        May 20, William Bradford, printer, was born.
    (HN, 5/20/01)

1663        Jul 15, King Charles II of England granted John Clarke a charter for the colony of Rhode Island guaranteeing freedom of worship. He granted the charter giving the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations an elected governor and legislature. Roger Williams (1603-1683) authored the Rhode Island and Providence Plantation Charter, which stated that religion and conscience should never be restrained by civil supremacy.
    (http://avalon.law.yale.edu/17th_century/ri04.asp)(AH, 4/07, p.21)

1663        Jul 27, British Parliament passed a second Navigation Act, requiring all goods bound for the colonies be sent in British ships from British ports.
    (HN, 7/27/98)

1663        Sep 13, The 1st serious American slave conspiracy occurred in Virginia.
    (MC, 9/13/01)

1663        Dec 5, Severo Bonini (80), composer, died.
    (MC, 12/5/01)

1663        Rembrandt depicted himself as a bit player in his painting "The Raising of the Cross."
    (WSJ, 8/11/99, p.A16)

1663         Reverend John Eliot (1604-1690) published the first Bible in North America in the Algonquian language. An English missionary in Massachusetts called the "Apostle to the Indians," the Puritan Eliot learned the Algonquian language and preached to the Indians. He translated the Bible into Algonquian and published it in 1663.
    (HNQ, 6/7/98)

1663        The 1998 historic thriller "An Instance of the Fingerpost" by Iain Pears was set in this year.
    (WSJ, 3/18/98, p.A20)

1663        Robert Boyle (1627-1691), English chemist and author of “The Sceptical Chymist: or Chymico-Physical Doubts & Paradoxes" (1661), wrote an essay apologizing for his interest in chrysopoeia, the chemical pursuit of transmutation of base metals into gold.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Sceptical_Chymist)(Econ, 2/26/11, p.85)

1663        London featured 82 coffee houses.
    (Econ, 12/20/03, p.89)

1663        The 1st turnpike was authorized to collect tolls in order to cover maintenance costs.
    (Econ, 10/23/04, p.78)

1663        Quebec became the capital of New France.
    (HNQ, 10/3/99)

1663        The Reichstag, the imperial parliament of the Holy Roman Empire, began sitting permanently.
    (Econ, 4/16/15, p.72)

1663        Abraham Blauvelt, Dutch pirate, died about this time. In the early 1630's He explored the coasts of Honduras and Nicaragua. Afterwards, he went to England and with a proposal for a settlement at site in Nicaragua, which is near the town and river of Bluefields, Nicaragua.

1663-1665    Jan Steen, Dutch painter, painted "The Drawing Lesson."
    (SFC, 6/4/96, p.E5)

1663-1742     Jean Baptiste Massillon, French clergyman: "To be proud and inaccessible is to be timid and weak."
    (AP, 7/23/97)

1663-1789    This period in US history is covered in the 1st volume of the Oxford History of the US by Robert Middlekauff titled: "The Glorious Cause: The American Revolution, 1663-1789."
    (WSJ, 6/7/96, p.A12)

1664        Jan 21, Count Miklos of Zrinyi set out to battle the Turkish invasion army.
    (MC, 1/21/02)

1664        Mar 12, England’s King Charles II granted land in the New World, known as New Netherland (later New Jersey), to his brother James, the Duke of York.
    (HN, 3/12/98)(AP, 3/12/08)

1664        Mar 22, Charles II gave large tracks of land from west of the Connecticut River to the east of Delaware Bay in North America to his brother James, the Duke of York and Albany. The entire Hudson Valley and New Amsterdam was given to James.
    (AP, 3/22/99)(ON, 4/00, p.2)

1664        Apr 4, Adam Willaerts, Dutch seascape painter, died.
    (MC, 4/4/02)

1664        May 28, 1st Baptist Church was organized (Boston).
    (MC, 5/28/02)

1664        May, Benoit Rencorel, a shepherd girl in the French Alps, alleged that she began receiving apparitions of the Virgin Mary. Her apparitions continued to 1718. In 2008 the Vatican officially recognized the “supernatural origin" of the apparitions and made the site of Notre-Dame-du-Laus an official pilgrimage site.
    (SFC, 5/5/08, p.A13)

1664        Jun 24, New Jersey, named after the Isle of Jersey, was founded.
    (HN, 6/24/98)

1664        Jul 21, Matthew Prior, English poet, was born.
    (MC, 7/21/02)

1664        Jul 23, Wealthy non-church members in Massachusetts were given the right to vote.
    (HN, 7/23/98)
1664        Jul 23, 4 British ships arrived in Boston to drive the Dutch out of NY.
    (MC, 7/23/02)

1664        Aug 1, The Turkish army was defeated by French and German troops at St. Gotthard, Hungary.
    (HN, 8/1/98)

1664        Aug 4, Louis Lully, composer, was born.
    (MC, 8/4/02)

1664        Aug 6, Johann Christoph Schmidt, composer, was born.
    (MC, 8/6/02)

1664        Aug 28, Four English warships under Colonel Richard Nicolls sailed into New Amsterdam. 450 English soldiers disembarked and took control of Brooklyn, a village of mostly English settlers.
    (ON, 4/00, p.2)

1664        Aug 29, Adriaen Pieck/Gerrit de Ferry patented a wooden firespout in Amsterdam.
    (MC, 8/29/01)

1664        Sep 5, After days of negotiation, the Dutch settlement of New Amsterdam surrendered to the British, who would rename it New York. The citizens of New Amsterdam petitioned Peter Stuyvesant to surrender to the English. The "Articles of Capitulation" guaranteed free trade, religious liberty and a form of local representation. In 2004 Russell Shorto authored "The Island At the Center of the World," a history of New York's Dutch period.
    (HN, 9/5/98)(ON, 4/00, p.3)(WSJ, 3/16/04, p.D6)

1664        Sep 8, The Dutch formally surrendered New Amsterdam to 300 English soldiers. The British soon renamed it New York.
    (AP, 9/8/97)(ON, 4/00, p.3)

1664        Sep 20, Maryland passed the 1st anti-amalgamation law to stop intermarriage of English women and black men.
    (MC, 9/20/01)

1664        Stephen Blake wrote "The Compleat Gardeners Practices."
    (WSJ, 7/7/98, p.A14)

1664        Moliere wrote Tartuffe, his satire on holier-than-thou hypocrites and their fatuous dupes.
    (SFC, 8/16/96, p.D1)

1664        The Jesuit scholar Athanasius Kircher wrote the "Mundus subterraneus." His work also included an ethnography of China and major treatises on music and magnetism. He also assembled in Rome a natural history collection.
    (NH, 5/97, p.58)(NH, 6/00, p.32)

1664        There was no litigation in London, England due to the Black plague.
    (SFC, 7/14/96, zone 1 p.2)

1664        Michael Sweerts (b.1618), Belgium-born artist, died in Goa, India. He did much of his important work in Rome, moved to the Netherlands, and traveled in Asia with a band of missionaries. His major work included a series depicting the Seven Acts of Mercy.
    (WSJ, 7/2/02, p.D7)

1664-1667    The Second Anglo-Dutch War.
    (HN, 6/21/98)

1664-1769    The French East India Company was chartered to carry on trade in the East Indies.
    (WUD, 1994, p.449)

1665        Jan 12, Pierre de Fermat (b.1601), French lawyer, mathematician (Fermat’s Principle), died. His equation xn + yn = zn is called Fermat’s Last Theorem and remained unproven for many years. The history of its resolution and final proof by Andrew Wiles is told by Amir D. Aczel in his 1996 book Fermat’s Last Theorem. "Fermat’s Enigma: The Epic Quest to Solve the World’s Greatest Mathematical Problem" by Simon Singh was published in 1997. In 1905 Paul Wolfskehl, a German mathematician, bequeathed a reward of 100,000 marks to whoever could find a proof to  Fermat’s "last theorem." It stumped mathematicians until 1993, when Andrew John Wiles made a breakthrough.
    (MC, 1/12/02)(SFC, 10/2/02, p.D7)

1665        Feb 6, Anne Stuart, queen of England (1702-14), was born.
    (MC, 2/6/02)

1665        Feb 12, Rudolph J. Camerarius, German botanist, physician (sexuality plant), was born.
    (MC, 2/12/02)

1665        Feb 20, Michel Dorigny (b.1617), French painter, died.

1665        Mar 4, English King Charles II declared war on Netherlands.
    (SC, 3/4/02)

1665        Mar 6, Philosophical Transactions of Royal Society started publishing.
    (MC, 3/6/02)

1665        Mar 11, A new legal code was approved for the Dutch and English towns, guaranteeing religious observances unhindered.
    (HN, 3/11/99)

1665        May 15, Pope Alexander VII condemned Jansenism.
    (MC, 5/15/02)

1665        May 31, Jerusalem's rabbi Sjabtai Tswi proclaimed himself Messiah.
    (MC, 5/31/02)

1665        Jun 12, England installed a municipal government in New York, formerly the Dutch settlement of New Amsterdam.
    (AP, 6/12/97)

1665        Aug 15-22, The London weekly "Bill of Mortality" recorded 5,568 fatalities with teeth holding the no. 5 spot. 4,237 were killed by the plague.
    (SFEC, 8/2/98, BR p.7)

1665        Aug 27, "Ye Bare & Ye Cubb," the 1st play performed in N. America, was performed at Acomac, Va.
    (MC, 8/27/01)

1665        Sep 22, Moliere's "L'amour Medecin," premiered in Paris.
    (MC, 9/22/01)

1665        Nov 7, The London Gazette, the oldest surviving journal, was first published.
    (HN, 11/7/98)

1665        Dec 4, Jean Racine's "Alexandre le Grand," premiered in Paris.
    (MC, 12/4/01)

c1665        Gerrit Dou, Dutch artist, painted "Woman at the Clavichord" and a "Self-Portrait" in which he resembled Rembrandt.
    (WSJ, 5/24/00, p.A24)
1665        Jacob van Ochtervelt (1634-1682), Dutch artist, painted his “Street Musicians in the Doorway of a House."
    (WSJ, 1/30/09, p.W2)(http://wwar.com/masters/o/ochtervelt-jacob.html)

1665        Robert Hooke authored “Micrographia," in which he described not only the microscopic world, but also astronomy, geology and the nature of light. This was the first great scientific book written in English.
    (WSJ, 4/14/07, p.P10)

1665        The 1st horse racing track in America was laid out on Long Island.
    (SFEC, 10/17/99, Z1 p.3)

1665        In France Louis XIV began to systematically hollow out formal guarantees to the Protestants until they became little more than scraps of paper.
    (WSJ, 1/11/98, p.R23)
1665        French finance minister Jean-Baptiste Colbert founded the Saint Gobain company to replace imports of Venetian glass with home-made wares. The glass was to be used for the mirrors at the Palace of Versailles.
    (Econ, 3/25/06, p.71)(Econ, 11/17/07, p.74)

1665        The villagers of Eyam in Derbyshire, England, voluntarily isolated themselves so as not to spread the plague. 250 of 350 people died and the town became known as the Plague Village.
    (SFEM, 10/11/98, p.22)

1665        Joseph Smith arrived in North America and became secretary to William Penn.
    (SFC, 8/21/97, p.C4)

1665        The British briefly recaptured the Banda Island of Run from the Dutch.
    (WSJ, 5/21/99, p.W7)
1665        In London at least 68,000 people died of the plague this year. In 1722 Daniel Defoe published his novel “A Journal of the Plague Year." The novel posed as a historical document covering the London plague. The Lord Mayor of London exterminated all the city’s cats and dogs, which allowed the rats, the real transmitters of the disease, to increase exponentially.
    (NG, 5/88, p.684)(WSJ, 9/9/06, p.P8)(WSJ, 10/21/06, p.P8)

1665        Nicolas Poussin (b.1594), painter, known as the founder of French Classicism, died. He spent most of his career in Rome which he reached at age 30 in 1624. His Greco-Romanism work includes "The Death of Chione" (1622-1623) and "The Abduction of the Sabine Women." [WUD ends his life in 1655] In 1997 Elizabeth Cropper and Charles Dempsey authored "Nicholas Poussin: Friendship and the Love of Painting."
    (WSJ, 2/26/96, p.A-10)(AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.1126)(SFC,11/22/97, p.D5)(WSJ, 11/6/02, p.D8)y

1665        Dutch artist Johannes Vermeer painted his "Girl With a Pearl Earring" about this time. [see Vermeer, 1632-1675] In 1999 Tracy Chevalier authored the novel "Girl With a Pearl Earring," a fictionalization based on one of Vermeer's models.
    (WSJ, 11/15/95, p.A-20)(SFEC, 1/2/00, BR p.3)(SFC, 1/24/13, p.E1)

1665-1666    Over a span of 18 months Isaac Newton invented calculus, explained how gravity works, and discovered his laws of motion. This period came to be called his annus mirabilis.
    (Econ, 1/1/05, p.59)

1666        Jan 22, Shah Jahan died. He had built the Taj Mahal.
    (HT, 4/97, p.24)

1666        Feb 15, Antonio M. Valsalva, Italian anatomist (eardrums, glottis), was born.
    (MC, 2/15/02)

1666        Apr 19, Sarah Kembel Knight, diarist, was born.
    (HN, 4/1901)

1666        Aug 4, Johan Evertsen, Italian admiral of Zeeland, was lynched in Brielle.
    (MC, 8/4/02)

1666        Sep 2, The Great Fire of London, having started at Pudding Lane, began to demolish about four-fifths of London. It started at the house of King Charles II's baker, Thomas Farrinor, after he forgot to extinguish his oven. The flames raged uncontrollably for the next few days, helped along by the wind, as well as by warehouses full of oil and other flammable substances. Approximately 13,200 houses, 90 churches and 50 livery company halls burned down or exploded. But the fire claimed only 16 lives, and it actually helped impede the spread of the deadly Black Plague, as most of the disease-carrying rats were killed in the fire.
    (CFA, '96, p.54)(AP, 9/2/97)(HNPD, 9/2/98)(HNQ, 12/2/00)

1666        Sep 5, The great fire of London, begun on Sep 2, was extinguished. Old St. Paul’s was among the 87 churches burned down.
    (HN, 9/5/98)(www.stpauls.co.uk)

1666        Nov 5, Attilio Ariosti, composer, was born.
    (MC, 11/5/01)

1666        Nov 14, Samuel Pepys reported the on 1st blood transfusion, which was between dogs.
    (HFA, '96, p.42)(MC, 11/14/01)

1666        Dec 5, Francesco Antonio Nicola Scarlatti, composer, was born.
    (MC, 12/5/01)

c1666        Sir Peter Lely painted Barbara Villiers 1640-1709, mistress to King Charles II, as a Shepherdess. Charles had raised her stature to Countess of Castlemaine and later Duchess of Cleveland.
    (WSJ, 3/7/02, p.A22)

1666        Moliere wrote his play The Misanthrope. It condemned the falseness and intrigue of French aristocratic society.
    (WSJ, 10/11/95, p. A-10)

1666        Pierre-Paul Riquet convinced French finance minister Colbert for a canal from the Mediterranean port of Sete to Toulouse and the River Garonne. He oversaw the Canal du Midi project for 15 years and died 6 months before it was completed.
    (SSFC, 1/14/01, p.T9)
1666         King Charles II granted 50 men of Bruges the right to fish UK waters for “eternity" after staying in the city during his 1656 to 1659 exile after the English Civil War that ended with the execution of his father, Charles I. This was confirmed by a UK lawyer in 1820.
    (The Telegraph, 10/9/20)
1666        John Locke met Sir Anthony Ashley Cooper, later the Earl of Shaftsbury, and served him as physician, secretary and counselor for the next 15 years.
1666        The plague decimated London and Isaac Newton moved to the country. He had already discovered the binomial theorem at Cambridge and was offered the post of professor of mathematics. Newton formulated his law of universal gravitation.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.206)(JST-TMC,1983, p.70)

1666        The French Academy of Sciences was founded.
    (Econ, 1/9/10, p.57)
1666        Giovanni Domenico Cassini (1625-1712), Italian-born French astronomer, discovered one of the polar ice caps of Mars.
1666        Giovanni Francesco Barbieri Guercino, Italian painter, died. His work included "Erminia finding the wounded Tancred." In 1996 it was purchased by the Scottish National Gallery for $3.1 million.
    (TOH, 1982, p.1591d)(SFC, 8/17/96, p.E4)
1666        Pier Francesco Mola (b.1612), Italian Baroque artist, died in Rome.

1666        Franz Hals (b.1581?), painter, died in the Oudemannenhuis almshouse in Haarlem. The almshouse later became the Frans Hals Museum.
    (SFEC, 9/3/00, p.T7)

1666        In Cholula, Mexico, the chapel Nuestra de los Remedios was built atop a Teotihuacan pyramid.
    (SFEC, 11/8/98, p.T10)

1666        Russia’s orthodox “Old Believers" split over liturgical reforms.
    (Econ, 2/2/13, p.73)

1667        Jan 30, Lithuania, Poland and Russia signed a 13.5 year treaty at Andrusov, near Smolensk. Russia received Smolensk and Kiev.
    (LHC, 1/30/03)

1667        Feb 20, David ben Samuel Halevi, rabbi, author (Shulchan Aruch), died.
    (MC, 2/20/02)

1667        Apr 9, 1st public art exhibition (Palais Royale, Paris).
    (MC, 4/9/02)

1667        Apr 29, John Arbuthnot (d.1735), Scottish mathematician, was born. With Alexander Pope, Jonathan Swift, John Gay and Thomas Parnell he founded the Scriblerus Club in 1714, whose purpose was to satirize bad poetry and pedantry. The club was short-lived.
    (MC, 4/29/02)

1667        May 6, Johann Jacob Froberger (50), German singer, organist, composer, died.
    (MC, 5/6/02)

1667        May 7, Johann Jakob Froberger (50), German organist, singer, composer, died.
    (MC, 5/7/02)

1667        May 9, Marie Louise de Gonzague-Nevers, French Queen of Poland (1645-48), died.
    (MC, 5/9/02)

1667        May 26, Abraham De Moivre, mathematician, was born.
    (HN, 5/26/98)

1667        Jun 15, Dr. Jean-Baptiste Denys, French doctor, performed the 1st animal to human blood transfusion. He successfully transfused a few ounces of blood from a lamb into boy (15). Another experimental transfusion this year resulted in the patient’s death and Denys was accused of murder. In 2011 Holly Tucker authored “Blood Work: A Tale of Medicine and Murder in the Scientific Revolution." 
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blood_transfusion)(Econ, 3/19/11, p.95)

1667        Jun 18, The Dutch fleet sailed up the Thames and threatened London. They burned 3 ships and captured the English flagship in what came to be called the Glorious Revolution, in which William of Orange replaced James Stuart.
    (HN, 6/18/98)(WSJ, 3/14/00, p.A28)

1667        Jul 21, The Peace of Breda ended the Second Anglo-Dutch War and ceded Dutch New Amsterdam to the English. The South American country of Surinam, formerly Dutch Guiana,  including the nutmeg island of Run was ceded by England to the Dutch in exchange for New York in 1667 after the second Anglo-Dutch War.
    (WUD, 1994, p.961)(HN, 7/21/98)(HNQ, 8/21/98)(WSJ, 5/21/99, p.W7)

1667        Aug 3, Francesco Borromini (b.1599), Italian Baroque architect and sculptor, died. He designed the San Ivo della Sapienza church in Rome. In 2005 Jake Morrissey authored “The Genius in the Design: Bernini, Borromini and the Rivalry that Transformed Rome."
    (www.bookrags.com/biography-francesco-borromini/)(Econ, 7/25/05, p.71)

1667        Aug 20, John Milton published "Paradise Lost," an epic poem about the fall of Adam and Eve.
    (HN, 8/20/98)

1667        Aug 31, Johann Rist, composer, died at 60.
    (MC, 8/31/01)

1667        Sep 23, Slaves in Virginia were banned from obtaining their freedom by converting to Christianity.
    (HN, 9/23/98)

1667        Sep 24, Jean-Louis Lully, composer, was born.
    (MC, 9/24/01)

1667        Nov 7, Jean Racine's "Andromaque," premiered in Paris.
    (MC, 11/7/01)

1667        Nov 30, Jonathan Swift (d.1745), English satirist who wrote "Gulliver's Travels," was born in Ireland. "We have enough religion to make us hate, but not enough to make us love one another."
    (WUD, 1994, p.1437)(HN, 11/30/98)(AP, 4/16/00)

1667        Connecticut adopted America’s first divorce law.
    (SFC, 7/18/98, p.A15)

1667        British law required that everyone be buried in wool. [see 1662]
    (NG, 5.1988, pp. 574)
1667        The first insurance company was formed in London.
    (Econ, 2/25/12, SRp.4)

1667        A Baroque palace was built in Dubrovnik, Croatia. It later became a 400 student elementary school.
    (Hem. 1/95, p. 67)

1667        In France Louis XIV opened the 1st stretch of the Champs-Elysees: a short extension of the Tuileries Gardens leading to the palace at Versailles.
    (SSFC, 2/11/07, p.G3)

1667        Arequipa, Peru, was hit by an earthquake.
    (SSFC, 6/24/01, p.A16)

1667        The Cossack Stench Razing led a peasant uprising.
    (SFC,10/28/97, p.A8)

1667        Cassiopeia A, the gaseous remains of a supernova, would have been visible from Earth at about this time, but no record indicates that it was noticed. It was first detected in 1947 as a radio source.
    (Econ, 9/2/06, p.72)

1667-1668    The War of Devolution was fought between France and Spain as a result of the claim by Louis XIV of France that the ownership of the Spanish Netherlands devolved to his wife, Marie Therese, upon the death of her father, Philip IV of Spain. France conquered the area, now Belgium, and also seized the Franche-Comte, a Spanish possession that bordered on Switzerland.
    (HNQ, 2/7/00)

1667-1748    Johan Bernouilli, Swiss mathematician, brother of Jacob.
    (WUD, 1994, p.141)

1668        Feb 7, English King William III danced in the premiere of "Ballet of Peace."
    (MC, 2/7/02)
1668        Feb 7, The Netherlands, England and Sweden concluded an alliance directed against Louis XIV of France.
    (HN, 2/7/99)

1668        Mar 5, Francesco Gasparini, composer, was born.
    (MC, 3/5/02)

1668        Mar 25, The first horse race in America took place.
    (HN, 3/24/98)

1668        Mar 26, England took control of Bombay, India.
    (SS, 3/26/02)

1668        Mar 27, English king Charles II gave Bombay to the East India Company.
    (MC, 3/27/02)

1668        Apr 13, John Dryden (36) became 1st English poet laureate.
    (MC, 4/13/02)

1668        May 2, Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle ended the War of Devolution in France.
    (HN, 5/2/99)

1668        May 8, Alain Rene Lesage, French novelist and dramatist, was born. He is best known for his works "The Adventures of Gil Blas" and "Turcaret."
    (HN, 5/8/99)

1668        May 27, Three colonists were expelled from Massachusetts for being Baptists.
    (HN, 5/27/99)

1668        Sep 16, King John Casimer II of Poland abdicated the throne.
    (HN, 9/16/98)(PCh, 1992, p.241)

1668        Oct 23, Jews of Barbados were forbidden to engage in retail trade.
    (MC, 10/23/01)

1668        Nov 10, Francois Couperin, composer and organist (Concerts Royaux), was born in Paris, France.
    (MC, 11/10/01)

1668        Dec 22, Stephen Day, 1st British colonial printer, died.
    (MC, 12/22/01)

1668        Bernini sculpted a terra cotta study for one of the angels of Rome’s Port Santa Angelo.
    (WSJ, 10/22/96, p.A20)

1668        The British trading ship Nonsuch 1st sailed into Hudson Bay.
    (SSFC, 12/22/02, p.C6)

1668        Louis XIV of France purchased the 112 carat blue diamond from John Baptiste Tavernier for 220,000 livre. Tavernier was also given a title of nobility.
    (THC, 12/3/97)(EB, 1993, V6 p.51)
1668        Charles Alphonse Dufresnoy (b.1611), French artist, died. His work included the painting “The Death of Socrates" (1650).
    (WSJ, 11/24/07, p.W8)

1668        The Spaniards established a permanent settlement on Guam. They forced the Chamorros to convert to Catholicism. Under Spanish rule the Chamorro numbers were reduced to some 2,000.
    (SFEC, 3/7/99,Z1 p.4)

1668        A fortified wall was completed at Campeche, Mexico, to ward off pirate attacks.
    (SSFC, 1/25/09, p.E4)

1668        Arequipa, Peru, was hit by another earthquake.
    (SSFC, 6/24/01, p.A16)

1668        Sweden’s Sveriges Riksbank, the first central bank, was set up as a tool of government financial management.
    (Econ, 2/25/12, SR p.4)(Econ, 4/29/17, p.56)

1669        Feb 1, French King Louis XIV limited the freedom of religion.
    (MC, 2/1/02)

1669        Mar 11, Mount Etna in Sicily began erupting. Lava flows that destroyed at least 10 villages on its southern flank before reaching the city walls of the town of Catania five weeks later, on 15 April. Contemporaneous accounts written both in Italian and English mention no deaths related to this eruption (but give very precise figures of the number of buildings destroyed, the area of cultivated land lost, and the economic damage).

1669        Jul 6, LaSalle left Montreal to explore Ohio River.
    (MC, 7/6/02)

1669        Jul 21, John Locke's Constitution of English colony Carolina was approved.
    (MC, 7/21/02)

1669        Aug 24, Alessandro Marcello (d.1747), composer, was born in Venice.
    (MC, 8/24/02)

1669        Sep 26, The island of Crete fell to the Ottoman Turks after 465 years as a colony of Venice.
    (WSJ, 7/21/08, p.A11)

1669        Oct 4, Rembrandt H. van Rijn (b.1606), painter and etcher (Steel Masters, Night Watch), died. In 1999 Simon Schama published the biography "Rembrandt's Eyes."
    (WSJ, 11/24/99, p.A16)(MC, 10/4/01)

1669        Dec 20, The 1st American jury trial was held in Delaware. Marcus Jacobson was condemned for insurrection and sentenced to flogging, branding & slavery.
    (MC, 12/20/01)

1669        Vermeer painted "The Art of Painting." The 3' by 4' work was larger than most of his paintings.
    (SFC, 11/24/99, p.E8)

1669        Nils Steensen’s "Prodromus" was first published in Italy and translated to English two years later. It explained the authors determination of the successive order of the earth strata.
    (RFH-MDHP, p.7)

1669        The semicircular Sheldonian Theater at Oxford, England, designed by Christopher Wren, was completed.
    (SSFC, 2/4/01, p.T8)

1669        Emperor Leopold I sanctioned the foundation of a higher school in Innsbruck, Austria. This is considered to mark the founding of the Univ. of Innsbruck.
    (StuAus, April '95, p.97)

1669        A French ordnance created a forest code.
    (Econ, 9/2/17, p.46)

1669        While Mount Etna erupted, German scholar Athanasius Kircher was busy devising a machine that would clean out volcanoes the way a chimney sweep cleaned out clogged chimneys.
    (PacDisc. Spring/’96, p.26)

1670        Jan 3, George Monck (61), English general (to the-sea), died.
    (MC, 1/3/02)

1670        Feb 10, William Congreve, English writer (Old Bachelor, Way of the World), was born.
    (MC, 2/10/02)

1670        Feb 14, Roman Catholic emperor Leopold I chased the Jews out of Vienna.
    (MC, 2/14/02)

1670        Feb 27, Jews were expelled from Austria by order of Leopold I.
    (MC, 2/27/02)

1670        Apr, Colonists landed on the western bank of the Ashley River, five miles from the sea, and named their settlement Charles Town in honor of Charles II, King of England.
    (Hem., 1/95, p.70)

1670        May 2, The Company of Adventurers of England Trading into Hudson Bay (the Hudson Bay Co.) was chartered by England's King Charles II to exploit the resources of the Hudson Bay area. By 2006 it had mutated into Canada’s largest non-food retailer.
    (AP, 5/2/97)(HN, 5/2/98)(AH, 4/01, p.36)(Econ, 2/4/06, p.36)

1670        May 12, August II, the Strong One, King of Poland (355 children), was born.
    (MC, 5/12/02)

1670        May 26, A treaty was signed in secret in Dover, England, between Charles II and Louis XIV ending hostilities between them.
    (HN, 5/26/99)

1670        Jul 18, Giovanni Battista Bononcini, Italian (opera) composer, was born.
    (MC, 7/18/02)

1670        Jul 25, Jews were expelled from Vienna, Austria.
    (SC, 7/25/02)

1670        Oct 13, Virginia passed a law that blacks arriving in the colonies as Christians could not be used as slaves.
    (HN, 10/13/98)

1670        Nov 28, Pierre Corneille's "Tite et Berenice," premiered in Paris.
    (MC, 11/28/01)

1670        Vermeer painted his "A Young Woman Standing at a Virginal" and "A Young Woman Seated at a Virginal." Estimates for auction in 2004 for the seated one reached $5.4 million.
    (WSJ, 6/19/00, p.a42)(SFC, 4/1/04, p.E7)

1670        John Ray printed a book of aphorisms such as: "Blood is thicker than water..." and "Haste makes waste."
    (SFC, 11/23/96, p.E4)

1670        Spinoza (1632-1677), Dutch philosopher, authored "Tractatus Theologico-Politicus" an enlightened assessment of the Old Testament and a plea for religious toleration. Spinoza, revived Erasmian tradition and put the notion of skepticism at the heart of his treatise.
    (WSJ, 12/15/05, p.D8)(Econ., 12/19/20, p.64)

1670        Cafe Procope, the first cafe in Paris, began serving ice cream.
    (SFC, 11/23/96, p.E4)

1670        Le Notre, the royal landscaper of Louis XIV, laid out the Triumphal Way in Paris.
    (SSFC, 1/25/04, p.C12)

1670        Minute hands on watches first appeared.
    (SFC, 7/14/99, p.3)

1670        Ashanti, a West African chiefdom (later part of Ghana), prospered from trade of cola nuts, gold and slaves.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)

1670-1680    In Oman the Nizwa Fort was built 100 miles southwest of Muscat.
    (AM, May/Jun 97 p.46)

1670-1712    Osei Tutu, ruler of the Ashanti Empire in what later became Ghana. He amassed a fortune by supplying slaves to British and Dutch traders in exchange for firearms.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R8)

1670-1752    In 2006 Jonathan I. Israel authored “Enlightenment Contested: Philosophy, Modernity, and the Emancipation of Man 1670-1752."
    (Econ, 12/2/06, p.85)   

1670-1850    Daniel Cohen's 1993 Pillars of Salt, Monuments of Grace is a book that follows the shifts in social authority and attitudes toward authority in New England as demonstrated by changes in the crime literature of this period.
    (LSA., Fall 1995, p.19)

1670s        French explorer Rene Robert Cavelier (LaSalle), Sieur de La Salle, explored the Great Lakes region of the New World.
    (SFC, 11/30/96, p.A7)

1671        Jan 27, Welsh privateer Sir Henry Morgan (1635-1688) landed at Panama City and attacked the city the following day.

1671        Feb 19, Charles-Hubert Gervais, composer, was born.
    (MC, 2/19/02)

1671        Apr 6, Jean-Baptiste Rousseau, French playwright, poet (Sacred Odes & Songs), was born.
    (MC, 4/6/02)

1671        Apr 22, King Charles II sat in on English parliament after which he gave his Royal Assent to the several Bills that were presented to him, fourteen private Acts, and eighteen public, including an act for exporting “Beer, Ale, and Mum."

1671        Apr 30, Peter Zrinyi (49), Hungarian banished to Croatia, was beheaded.
    (MC, 4/30/02)

1671        May 9, Colonel Thomas Blood (1618-1680), Irish adventurer, attempted to steal the Crown Jewels from the Tower of London.
    (MC, 5/9/02)(Reuters, 8/24/01)

1671        Jun 6 (OS), Stenka, Stepan Razin, Russian Cossack, was killed. [see Jun 16]
    (MC, 6/6/02)

1671        Jun 8, Tomaso Albinoni, Italian composer (Adagio in G-minor), was born.
    (MC, 6/8/02)

1671        Jun 16 (NS), Stenka Razin, Cossack rebel leader, was tortured & executed in Moscow. [see Jun 6]
    (MC, 6/16/02)

1671        Nov 6, Colley Cibber, England, dramatist, poet laureate (Love's Last Shift), was born.
    (MC, 11/6/01)

1671        Dec 1, Francesco Stradivari, Italian violin maker and son of Antonius, was born.
    (MC, 12/1/01)

1671        Vermeer painted his "Allegory of Faith." [see Vermeer, 1632-1675]
    (WSJ, 11/15/95, p.A-20)

1671        Moliere wrote his farce "Les Fourberies de Scapin" (The Wiles of Scapin or Scapin the Cheat).
    (WSJ, 1/10/97, p.A9)(SFC, 6/15/98, p.D3)

1671        Rice arrived in South Carolina from Madagascar but nobody knew how to husk it for food.
    (Hem., 12/96, p.82)

1671        Charles II banned anyone without property worth £100 a year from owning guns, bows or ferrets. Game stocks were the motive.
    (Econ, 6/5/10, p.63)
1671        English Protestants became alarmed when they learned that James, Duke of York, had converted to Catholicism.
    (ON, 7/06, p.8)

1671        In Germany Gottfried Wilhelm Leibnitz (Leibniz) devised a mechanical calculator to add, subtract, multiply and divide.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)

1671        Mar 7, In Scotland Rob Roy MacGregor (d.1734) was baptized. He was later forced to become a highland fugitive.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rob_Roy_MacGregor)(SFC, 8/19/96, p.D7)(Econ, 12/22/12, p.109)

1671-1743    Kaigetsudo Ando (d.1743), Japanese artist, was born. He is also called Okazaki Genshichi.

1671-1729    John Law, Scotsman and financier for France. He controlled France's foreign trade, mints, revenue, national debt and the Louisiana territory. [see 1694]
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R8)

1672        Jan 1, The beginning of the current Dionysian Period, named for the monk Dionysius Exiguous who, in the AD 500s, introduced the present custom of reckoning time by counting the years from the birth of Christ.
    (CFA, '96, p.22)

1672        Feb 8, Isaac Newton read his 1st optics paper before Royal Society in London.
    (MC, 2/8/02)

1672        Mar 15, England’s King Charles II enacted a 3rd Declaration of Indulgence.

1672        Apr 2, Pedro Calungsod (b.1654), a Filipino teenager, was killed in Tumon, Guam, along with Diego Luis de San Vitores, his Jesuit missionary priest, by natives resisting their conversion efforts. In 2012 Pedro was named a saint in the Catholic church.
    (AP, 10/20/12)( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pedro_Calungsod)

1672        Apr 6, Andre Ardinal Destouches, composer, was born.
    (MC, 4/6/02)

1672        Apr 29, King Louis XIV of France invaded the Netherlands. A French army of 100,000 crossed the Rhine and invaded the Dutch Republic. The Dutch Golden Age fell apart when England, France and a pair of German principalities teamed up to attack the Netherlands and seize its colonies.
    (HN, 4/29/99)(PC, 1992ed., p.255)(Econ, 4/18/20, p.38)

1672        Apr 30, Marie of the Incarnation (b.1599, French Ursuline nun and the leader of the group of nuns sent to establish the Ursuline Order in New France, died in Quebec City. She was canonized a saint on April 2, 2014.

1672        May 1, Joseph Addison (d.1719), English essayist (Spectator) and poet, was born. "We are always doing, says he, something for posterity, but I would fain see posterity do something for us." "A man must be both stupid and uncharitable who believes there is no virtue or truth but on his own side."
    (AHD, 1971, p.14)(AP, 11/21/97)(AP, 7/14/98)(MC, 5/1/02)

1672        May 15, 1st copyright law was enacted by Massachusetts.
    (MC, 5/15/02)

1672        May 17, Frontenac became governor of New France (Canada).
    (MC, 5/17/02)

1672          May 30, Peter I (the Great) Romanov, great czar (tsar) of Russia (1682-1725), was born. [see Jun 9]
    (HN, 5/30/98)(MC, 5/30/02)

1672        Jun 9, Peter I (d.1725), "The Great," was born. He grew to be almost 7 feet tall and was the Russian Czar from 1682 to 1725 and modernized Russia with sweeping reforms. He moved the Russian capital to the new city he built, St. Petersburg. [see May 30]
    (CFA, '96, p.48)(WUD, 1994, p.1077)(HN, 6/9/99)(SFC, 12/25/99, p.C3)

1672        Jun 15, The Sluices were opened in Holland to save Amsterdam from the French.
    (HT, 6/15/00)

1672        Jun 25, 1st recorded monthly Quaker meeting in US was held at Sandwich, Mass.
    (MC, 6/25/02)

1672        Jul 4, States of Holland declared "Eternal Edict" void.

1672        Aug 9, Jose Ximenez (70), Spanish composer, died.
    (MC, 8/9/02)

1672        Aug 20, Jan de Witt, Dutch politician and mathematician, was assassinated by a carefully organized lynch "mob" after visiting his brother Cornelis de Witt in prison. He was killed by a shot in the neck; his naked body was hanged and mutilated and the heart was carved out to be exhibited.

1672          Nov 1, Heinrich Schutz (87), composer, died. Pupil of Giovanni Gabrielli from 1609-1672, he was employed by the Elector of Saxony in 1615 and became Kapellmeister two years later. While employed by the Elector, Schütz made several visits to Italy and served three two-year terms as guest court conductor in Copenhagen. Schütz's works include one opera (a first in the German language), Easter and Christmas oratorios, three passions, numerous polychoral Psalm settings in the style of his teacher, Gabrielli, other sacred concerted works in Latin and German, and Italian madrigals.

1672        Dec 10, Gov. Lovelace announced monthly mail service between NY and Boston.
    (MC, 12/10/01)

1672        Peter Stuyvesant died on his farm in NY. In 1959 Henry H. Kessler and Eugene Rachlis authored "Peter Stuyvesant and his New York." In 1970 Adele de Leeuw authored "Peter Stuyvesant."
    (ON, 4/00, p.3)

1672        In Bolivia the Royal Mint in Potosi was established. It required the construction of reservoirs, dams and a canal system to deliver water used in the minting process.

1672        Gerhard Altzenbach (b.1609), German artist, died.
    (SFC, 9/23/06, p.E2)

1672        Christian Huygens of Holland discovered the southern polar caps on Mars.

1672        The Royal African Co. was granted a charter to expand the slave trade and its stockholders included philosopher John Locke. The operation supplied English sugar colonies with 3,000 slaves annually.
    (SFC, 10/19/98, p.D3)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)

1673        Feb 17, Moliere, [Jean Baptiste Poquelin], French author (Tartuffe, Le Malade Imaginaire), died.
    (MC, 2/17/02)

1673        Feb 20, The 1st recorded wine auction was held in London.
    (MC, 2/20/02)

1673        Mar 28, Adam Pijnacker (51), Dutch landscape painter, etcher, was buried.
    (MC, 3/28/02)

1673        Mar 29, The English Parliament passed the Test Act. It in effect excluded Roman Catholics from public functions. King Charles II was unable to stop the action.

1673        Apr 5, Francois Caron (~72), admiral, governor (Formosa), drowned.
    (MC, 4/5/02)

1673        May 17, Louis Joliet and Jacques Marquette began exploring the Mississippi.
    (MC, 5/17/02)

1673        May 29, Cornelis van Bijnkershoek, lawyer, president of High Council, was born.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1673        Jun 25, In France Charles de Batz (b.1611), a commander known as D’Artagnan, was slain in the service of Louis XIV. He died at the Siege of Maastricht in the Franco-Dutch War and was one of the musketeers who inspired Dumas’ fiction.
    (SSFC, 4/13/08, p.E4)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/D'Artagnan)

1673        Jul 24, Edmund Halley entered Queen's College, Oxford, as an undergraduate.
    (MC, 7/24/02)

1673        Aug 9, Dutch recapture NY from English. It was regained by English in 1674.
    (MC, 8/9/02)

1673        Sep 21, James Needham returned to Virginia after exploring the land to the west, which would become Tennessee.
    (HN, 9/21/98)

1673        Dec 28, Joan Blaeu (77), Dutch cartographer, publisher (Atlas Major), died.
    (MC, 12/28/01)

1673        In London the Worshipful Society of Apothecaries started the Chelsea Physic Garden as an educational tool for apprentices learning to grow medicinal plants.
    (SFC, 3/26/08, p.G1)

1673        Cuba began a program of scientific research.
    (SFC, 3/17/99, p.A14)

1673        The most important of Christian Huygens' written works, the "Horologium Oscillatorium," was published in Paris. It discussed the mathematics surrounding pendulum motion and the law of centrifugal force for uniform circular motion.
1673        The French Blue Diamond was recut to a 67 carat stone.
    (EB, 1993, V6 p.51)

1673        In Japan the Mitsukoshi store introduced fixed prices.
    (Econ, 8/25/07, p.58)

1674        Feb 9, English reconquered NY from Netherlands.
    (MC, 2/9/02)

1674        Feb 19, Netherlands and England signed the Peace of Westminster. NYC became English.
    (MC, 2/19/02)

1674        Feb 21, Johann Augustin Kobelius, composer, was born.
    (MC, 2/21/02)

1674        Mar 6, Johann Paul Schor (58), German baroque painter, died.
    (MC, 3/6/02)

1674        May 20, John Sobieski became Poland’s first King. [see May 11, 1573]
    (HN, 5/20/98)

1674        May 21, Gen. Jan Sobieski was chosen King of Poland. [see May 20]
    (MC, 5/21/02)

1674        Jun 6, Sivaji crowned himself King of India.
    (HN, 6/6/98)

1674        Jun 20, Nicholas Rowe, poet laureate of England, was born.
    (HN, 6/20/98)

1674        Jul 17, Isaac Watts, English minister and hymn writer, was born.
    (HN, 7/17/01)

1674        Aug 18, Jean Racine's "Iphigenie," premiered in Versailles.
    (MC, 8/18/02)

1674        Oct 15, Robert Herrick, British poet (Together), was born in Mass.
    (MC, 10/15/01)

1674        Nov 8, John Milton (65), English poet (Paradise Lost), died.  His work included "Paradise Lost," Paradise Regained," and "Samson Agonistes." Milton lost one eye at 36 and the other when he was 44. In 1952 Prof. Sensabaugh (d.2002 at 95) authored "In That Grand Whig, Milton," an examination of Milton’s political tracts. In 1996 Paul West wrote a novel: "Sporting with Amaryllis," that begins in 1626 and gives a fictional account of his life. In 1997 Peter Levy wrote a biography of Milton titled: "Eden Renewed."
    (WUD, '94, p.911)(WSJ, 5/6/97, p.A20)(AP, 12/9/97)(MC, 11/8/01)(SFC, 2/28/02, p.A20)

1674        Nov 10, Dutch formally ceded New Netherlands (NY) to English.
    (MC, 11/10/01)

1674        Nov 24, Franciscus van Enden (72), Flemish Jesuit and free thinker, was executed.
    (MC, 11/24/01)

1674        Dec 4, Father Marquette built the 1st dwelling at what is now Chicago.
    (MC, 12/4/01)

1675        Jan 20, Christian Huygens, Dutch scientist, transformed a theoretical insight on springs into a practical mechanism with the 1st sketch of a watch balance regulated by a coiled spring.
    (www.princeton.edu/~mike/articles/huygens/timelong/timelong.html)(Econ, 2/4/06, p.73)

1675        Jan 31, Cornelia Dina Olfaarts was found not guilty of witchcraft.
    (MC, 1/31/02)

1675        Mar 2, Prince William III was installed as Governor of Overijssel.
    (SC, 3/2/02)

1675        Mar 4, John Flamsteed was appointed 1st Astronomer Royal of England.
    (SC, 3/4/02)

1675        May 18, Jacques Marquette (37), Jesuit, missionary in Chicago, died.
    (SC, 5/18/02)

1675        Jun 8, Three Wampanoag Indians were hanged in Plymouth, Massachusetts. On the testimony of a Native American witness, Plymouth Colony arrested three Wampanoags, including a counselor to Metacom, a Pokanoket sachem. A jury among whom were some Indian members convicted them of the recent murder of John Sassamon, an advisor to Metacom.

1675        Jun 11, France and Poland formed an alliance.
    (AP, 6/11/03)

1675        Jun 20, King Philip’s War began when Indians--retaliating for the execution of three of their people who had been charged with murder by the English--massacred colonists at Swansea, Plymouth colony. Abenaki, Massachusetts, Mohegan & Wampanoag Indians formed an anti English front. Wampanoag warriors attacked livestock and looted farms.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/King_Philip%27s_War)(AH, 6/02, p.46)

1675        Jun 21, Sir Christopher Wren (1632-1723) began to rebuild St Paul’s Cathedral in London, replacing the old building which had been destroyed by the Great fire. St Paul’s Cathedral was dedicated in 1708 but work continued.
    (Econ, 6/7/08, p.98)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St_Paul%27s_Cathedral)

1675        Jun 22, Royal Greenwich Observatory was established in England by Charles II.
    (YarraNet, 6/22/00)

1675        Jun 23, An English youth shot a Marauding Wampanoag warrior.
    (AH, 6/02, p.46)

1675        Jun 28, Frederick William of Brandenburg crushed the Swedes.
    (HN, 6/28/98)

1675        Aug 6, Russian Czar Aleksei banned foreign haircuts.
    (MC, 8/6/02)

1675        Aug 10, King Charles II laid the foundation stone of Royal Observatory, Greenwich. [see Jun 22]
    (MC, 8/10/02)

1675        Aug 27, The Strasbourg Agreement, signed between France and the Holy Roman Empire, banned the use of poison bullets in conflict.
    (AP, 12/4/12)

1675        Sep 9, New England colonial authorities officially declared war on the Wampanoag Indians. The war soon spread to include the Abenaki, Norwottock, Pocumtuck and Agawam warriors.
    (MC, 9/9/01)(AH, 6/02, p.47)

1675        Nov 22, English king Charles II adjourned parliament.
    (MC, 11/22/01)

1675        Dec 19, Some 1,000 colonial troops attacked the Narragansett winter village in Rhode Island. The Great Swamp Fight ended with some 80 English killed and 600 Indians dead, mostly women and children. Wakefield, Rhode Island, USA, The Great Swamp Memorial marks the site where 4,000 Indians died in defense of a secret fort.
    (Postcard, Wakefield Chamber of Commerce)(AH, 6/02, p.48)

1675        Lely painted a portrait of Nell Gwynn, the favorite mistress of Charles II. It is now in the London National Gallery. Charles II acknowledged 14 illegitimate children and historians identified 13 mistresses.
    (SFEC, 2/1/98, p.T8)(SFC, 7/22/00, p.E4)

1675        In Boston, Mass., a law forbade American Indians from setting foot in the city, as settlers warred with area tribes. In 2005 although the law wasn’t enforced for centuries it was a lingering source of anger for American Indians.
    (AP, 5/20/05)

1675        English king Charles II issued a proclamation deploring the "evil and dangerous effects" of coffee houses.
    (Econ, 12/20/03, p.90)

1675        In France Lully composed "Thesee." The librettist was Philippe Quinault. This work established the tragedie lyrique operatic form.
    (WSJ, 7/5/01, p.A10)
1675        In France taxes imposed by Louis XIV led to an uprising in Brittany. Protesters wore bonnets rouges (red wooly hats).
    (Econ, 11/30/13, p.50)

1675        The 9th Sikh guru was executed in Delhi, India. His son, Gobind Rai, took up arms and organized a new fraternity called the Khalsa (the pure), and gave them the common surname Singh (lion), and changed his own name to Gobind Singh.
    (WSJ, 10/12/01, p.W17)

1675        Wojciech Bobowski (b.1610), Polish-Jewish musician and dragoman, died. He had been taken prisoner by Crimean Tartars and was sold to the Ottoman court where he converted to Islam and served as an interpreter, treasurer and musician. He translated the Bible into Turkish and composed Turkish psalms.
    (Econ, 9/15/07, p.104)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wojciech_Bobowski)

1675        Johannes Vermeer (b.1632), Dutch painter, died in poverty. In 2001 Anthony Bailey authored "Vermeer: A View of Delft."
    (WSJ, 11/15/95, p.A-20)(SSFC, 3/25/01, BR p.5)

1675        In northern Russia Solovki monks resisted church reforms. Tsarist forces broke through, but only following a 7-year siege.
    (Econ, 12/18/04, p.83)

1675-1710    In London Old St. Paul’s Cathedral was replaced with a new design by Sir Christopher Wren.
    (AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.14)

c1675-1741    Antonio Vivaldi, Italian violinist and composer. [see 1678]
    (WUD, 1994, p.1598)

1675-1900    McDade's Annals of Murder is an annotated bibliography that provides a list and description of individual items and identifies multiple accounts of the same crimes over this time period by career FBI man McDade.
    (LSA., Fall 1995, p.17)

1676        Feb 10, In King Philip’s War Narragansett and Nipmuck Indians raided Lancaster, Mass. Over 35 villagers were killed and 24 were taken captive including Mary Rowlandson (1637-1711) and her 3 children. Rowlandson was freed after 11 weeks and an account of her captivity was published posthumously in 1682.
    (AH, 6/02, p.48)(Econ, 2/21/09, p.83)(http://tinyurl.com/cvrhcv)

1676        Feb, Mohawk Indians attacked and killed all but 40 Wampanoag Indians under Philip. NY Gov. Edmund Andros had urged the Mohawks to attack the Wampanoags.
    (AH, 6/02, p.48)

1676        Mar 29, Wampanoag allies including Narragansetts destroyed Providence, Rhode Island. The house of Roger Williams was destroyed as he negotiated with Indian leaders on the outskirts of town.
    (AH, 6/02, p.48)(AH, 4/07, p.29)

1676        Apr 14, Ernst Christian Hesse, composer, was born in Thuringian town of Gros sengottern.

1676        Apr 17, Frederick I, king of Sweden, was born.
    (HN, 4/17/98)

1676        Apr 18, Sudbury, Massachusetts was attacked by Indians.
    (HN, 4/18/98)

1676        Apr 29, Michiel A. de Ruyter (69), Dutch rear-admiral, (Newport), was killed.
    (MC, 4/29/02)

1676        May 10, Bacon's Rebellion began. It pitted frontiersmen against the government. Bacon’s Rebellion in Virginia involved an attack on a local Indian community and the sacking of the colonial capital in Jamestown. It is described by Catherine McNicol Stock in her 1997 book "Rural Radicals; Righteous Rage in the American Grain."
    (SFEC, 2/2/97, BR. p.8)(HN, 5/10/98)

1676        Jul 21, Anthony Collins, English philosopher (A discourse on free-thinking), was born.
    (MC, 7/21/02)

1676        Jul 29, Nathaniel Bacon was declared a rebel for assembling frontiersmen to protect settlers from Indians. [see May 10, Sep 1]
    (MC, 7/29/02)

1676        Aug 12, Indian chief King Philip, also known as Metacom, was killed by  a Pocasset Indian named Alderman in the swamps of Rhode Island. This ended the King Philip’s War. Benjamin Church, a Plymouth volunteer, ordered that Philip be beheaded and quartered. [see Aug 28]
    (AH, 6/02, p.50)

1676        Aug 26, Sir Robert Walpole (d.1745), the first and longest serving prime minister of England, was born. He was not then called the prime minister as the king held all honors. He collected a large number of paintings by old masters at his Houghton Hall home in Norfolk.
    (WSJ, 3/3/97, p.A16)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Walpole)

1676        Aug 28, Indian chief King Philip, also known as Metacom, was killed by English soldiers, ending the war between Indians and colonists. [see Aug 12]
    (HN, 8/28/98)

1676        Sep 1, Nathaniel Bacon led an uprising against English Governor William Berkeley at Jamestown, Virginia, resulting in the settlement being burned to the ground. Bacon's Rebellion came in response to the governor's repeated refusal to defend the colonists against the Indians. [see May 10, Sep 19]
    (HN, 9/1/99)

1676        Sep 19, Rebels under Nathaniel Bacon set Jamestown, Va., on fire. [see Sep 1]
    (MC, 9/19/01)

1676        Sep 21, Benedetto Odescalchi was elected as Pope Innocent XI.
    (MC, 9/21/01)

1676        Oct 18, Nathaniel Bacon, who rallied against Virginian government, was killed at 29.
    (MC, 10/18/01)

1676        Nov 16, 1st colonial prison was organized at Nantucket Mass.
    (MC, 11/16/01)

1676        Roger Williams published “George Fox Digg’d Out of His Burrowes." It was an account of his debates with the Quakers in Newport and Providence.
    (AH, 4/07, p.28)

1676        Canonchet, the Narragansett sachem, was executed.
    (AH, 6/02, p.48)

1676        Lully composed his tragic opera "Atys."
    (SFEC, 1/18/98, DB p.33)

1676        Isaac Newton wrote: “If I have seen further it is by standing on the shoulders of Giants."
    (Econ, 8/7/04, p.64)

1676        Jean-Domenique Cassini, director of the Paris Observatory, reported that there were 2 rings around Saturn separated by a gap that came to be called the Cassini Division.
    (NH, 10/1/04, p.29)

1676        Ole Christensen Romer (Roemer), Danish astronomer, derived a speed of light of 130,000 miles per second based on his observations of Io, the innermost moon of Jupiter.
    (http://inkido.indiana.edu/a100/timeline2.html)(NH, 2/05, p.19)

1676        Geminiamo Montanari, Italian astronomer, documented a meteor with a sound "like the rattling of a great Cart running over Stones." It was later understood that meteors can detectable generate radio waves.
    (NH, 7/02, p.38)

1676        Jeong Seon (d.1759), Korean landscape painter, was born.

1676        King Carlos II of Spain, having successfully outlawed a drink suspected of leading to homicides, inattentiveness at church and moral turpitude, warned his colonial rulers in Bogota of a drink "that is, beyond all comparison, more dangerous and which goes by the name of aguardiente." In 1988 Gilma Mora de Tovar's authored, "Aguardiente and Social Conflicts in 18th Century New Granada,"
    (AP, 9/2/03)

1676-1759    Chong Son, Korean painter. His work included "Pine Tree at Sajik Altar" and "Landscape."
    (SFC, 7/26/97, p.E1)

1677        Feb 15, King Charles II reported an anti-French covenant with Netherlands.
    (MC, 2/15/02)

1677        Feb 16, Earl of Shaftesbury was arrested and confined to the London Tower. [see Oct 24, 1681]
    (MC, 2/16/02)

1677        Feb 21, [Benedictus] Baruch Spinoza (b.1632), Dutch philosopher, died. In 2003 Antonio Damasio authored "Looking for Spinoza," a look at contemporary neurological research in contrast with the opposing philosophical views of Spinoza and Descartes. In 2005 Matthew Stewart authored “The Courtier and the Heretic: Leibniz, Spinoza, and the Fate of God in the Modern World."
    (WUD, 1994 p.1371)(SSFC, 2/2/03, p.M4)(WSJ, 12/15/05, p.D8)

1677        Mar 13, Massachusetts gained title to Maine for $6,000.
    (MC, 3/13/02)

1677        Apr 27, Colonel Jeffreys became the governor of Virginia.
    (HN, 4/27/98)

1677        May 29, King Charles II and 12 Virginia Indian chiefs signed a treaty that established a 3-mile non-encroachment zone around Indian land. The Mattaponi Indians in 1997 invoked this treaty to protect against encroachment.
    (SFC, 6/2/97, p.A3)

1677        Sep 21, John and Nicolaas van der Heyden patented a fire extinguisher.
    (MC, 9/21/01)

1677        Nov 4, William and Mary were married in England on William's birthday. William of Orange married his cousin Mary (daughter to James, Duke of York and the same James II who fled in 1688).
    (HNQ, 12/28/00)(HN, 11/4/02)

1677        Racine wrote his drama Phedre in alexandrine meter. It was based on Euripides’ tragic Greek tale of Phaedra’s love for her stepson Hippolytus, son of Theseus.
    (WSJ, 5/21/97, p.A12)(Econ, 6/20/09, p.89)(Econ, 6/27/09, p.92)

1677        Pope Innocent XII confirmed the imperial foundation of the Univ. of Innsbruck in a papal bull that emphasized the Catholic character of the Univ. and decreed that the important chairs of the Faculty of Theology be filled by members of the Jesuit order.
    (StuAus, April '95, p.97)

1677        The Episcopal Parish called St. Michaels was established on the east coast of the Chesapeake Bay. The town of St. Michaels derives its name after the parish.
    (SMBA, 1996)

1677        Christopher Wren redesigned the burned Church of St. Mary the Virgin in Aldermanbury, England. His monument at St. Paul’s Cathedral in London reads: “Si monumentum requires circumspice" (If you seek his monument, look around you).
    (SFC, 3/30/97, p.T5)(WSJ, 5/21/97, p.A15)

1678        Feb 18, John Bunyan's "Pilgrim's Progress" was published. [see Sep 28]
    (MC, 2/18/02)

1678        Mar 4, Antonio Vivaldi (d.1741), Italian Baroque composer (4 Seasons) and violinist, was born in Venice. [see 1675]
    (HN, 3/4/01)(SC, 3/4/02)

1678        May 31, The Godiva procession, commemorating Lady Godiva's legendary ride while naked, became part of the Coventry Fair.
    (HN, 5/31/01)

1678        Jun 17, Giacomo Torelli (69), composer, died.
    (MC, 6/17/02)

1678        Jul 26, Joseph I Habsburg, German king, Roman catholic emperor (1705-11), was born.
    (MC, 7/26/02)

1678        Aug 3, Robert LaSalle built the 1st ship in America, Griffon.
    (SC, 8/3/02)(AP, 12/10/03)

1678        Aug 16, Andrew Marvell (b.1621), English poet (Definition of Love), died.
    (MC, 8/16/02)

1678        Sep 28, "Pilgrim's Progress" by John Bunyan (b.1628) was published. [see Feb 18]
    (MC, 9/28/01)

1678        Nov 18, Giovanni Maria Bononcini (36), composer, died.
    (MC, 11/18/01)

1678        Nov 28, England's King Charles II accused his wife, Catherine of Braganza, of treason. Her crime? She had yet to bear him children.
    (DTnet, 11/28/97)

1678        Nov 30, Roman Catholics were  banned from English parliament.
    (MC, 11/30/01)

1678        Dec 3, Edmund Halley received an MA from Queen's College, Oxford.
    (MC, 12/3/01)

1678        Titus Oates (b.1649), failed Catholic seminarian, and Israel Tonge concocted the Popish Plot. They alleged that plotters planned to raise a Catholic army, massacre Protestants, and poison Charles II in order to get James on the throne. 9 Jesuit priests were executed. In 1681 it was revealed to be a fabrication.
    (www.newadvent.org/cathen/11173c.htm)(ON, 7/06, p.9)

1678        Anthony Ashley Cooper, the Earl of Shaftesbury and Protestant Parliamentary leader formed the County Party, later known as the Whigs, to prevent James from becoming king of England.
    (ON, 7/06, p.9)

1678        Louis XIV claimed the region of Alsace from Germany.
    (SFEC, 1/31/99, p.T4)

1678        Frederick William, Brandenburg’s Great Elector, gave Bielefeld the privilege of certifying the quality of local linen. This cemented its position as a center for the textile trade.
    (Econ, 4/14/12, p.30)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brandenburg)

1678-1707    Georg Farquhar, Anglo-Irish dramatist.
    (WSJ, 10/3/96, p.A12)
1678-1707    Aurangzeb was the 1st Muslim ruler to fire his cannon at the giant Buddhas at Bamiyan, Afghanistan.
    (WSJ, 11/16/01, p.W12)

1679        Jan 24, King Charles II disbanded the English parliament.
    (MC, 1/24/02)

1679        Jan 31, Jean-Baptiste Lully's opera "Bellerophon" premiered in Paris.
    (MC, 1/31/02)

1679        Mar, King Charles II sent his brother James to the Netherlands for safety.
    (ON, 7/06, p.9)

1679        Apr 3, Edmund Halley met Johannes Hevelius in Danzig.
    (MC, 4/3/02)

1679        Apr 17, John van Kessel (53), Flemish painter, died.
    (MC, 4/17/02)

1679        May 12, Giovanni Antonio Ricieri, composer, was born.
    (MC, 5/12/02)

1679        May 14, Peder [Nielsen] Horrebow, Danish astronomer, was born.
    (MC, 5/14/02)

1679        May 15, The Earl of Shaftesbury introduced his Exclusion Bill into Parliament proposing that James, the Catholic brother of King Charles II, be permanently barred from the line of succession to the English throne.
    (ON, 7/06, p.9)

1679        May 27, England’s House of Lords passed the Habeas Corpus Act (have the body) to prevent false arrest and imprisonment. King Charles adjourned Parliament before the final reading of Shaftesbury’s Exclusion Bill.
    (WUD, 1994 p.634)(www.british-history.ac.uk/report.asp?compid=11707)(ON, 7/06, p.9)

1679        Jun 1, Battle at Bothwell Bridge on Clyde: Duke of Monmouth beat the Scottish. (MC, 6/1/02)

1679        Jul 10, The British crown claimed New Hampshire as a royal colony.
    (HN, 7/10/98)

1679        Jul 12, Britain's King Charles II ratified Habeas Corpus Act.
    (MC, 7/12/02)

1679        Sep 18, New Hampshire became a county Massachusetts Bay Colony.
    (MC, 9/18/01)

1679        Oct 16, Jan Dismas Zelenka, composer, was born.
    (MC, 10/16/01)

1679        Oct 23, The Meal Tub Plot took place against James II of England.
    (MC, 10/23/01)

1679        Nov 3, A great panic occurred in Europe over the close approach of a comet.
    (MC, 11/3/01)

1679        Dec 4, Thomas Hobbes (b.1588), English philosopher, died. "The reputation of power IS power." Hobbes sought to separate politics from religion. In his book “Leviathan" he argues that the only way to secure civil society is through universal submission to the absolute authority of a sovereign.
    (www.thefreedictionary.com/Hobbesian)(WSJ, 7/30/03, p.A12)(WSJ, 9/15/07, p.W10)

1679        Dec 17, Don Juan, ruler of Spain, died.
    (MC, 12/17/01)

1679        Louis Hennepin, a Catholic priest, sailed up the Detroit River aboard the Griffon, through Lake St. Clair, which he named, and into Lake Huron and beyond. The French ship Le Griffon, built by explorer Rene-Robert Sieur de La Salle disappeared during its maiden voyage.
    (DFP, 7/24/01, p.5A)(SFC, 6/5/13, p.A6)
1679        Elections in England produced a new House of Commons, but King Charles II declined to let it assemble.
    (ON, 7/06, p.9)

1679-1947    Some 8,500 vessels have been lost in Lake Michigan over this period.
    (Hem., 7/96, p.25)

1680        Apr 3, Shivaji Raje Bhosle (b.1627), warrior king and founder of the Maratha empire of western India, died.
    (Econ, 7/12/08, p.73)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shivaji)

1680        May 5, Giuseppe Porsile, composer, was born.
    (MC, 5/5/02)

1680        May 29, Abraham Megerle (73), composer, died.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1680        Jul 26, John Wilmot, 2nd Earl of Rochester, poet, courtier, died.
    (MC, 7/26/02)

1680        Aug 10, Pueblo Indians took possession of Santa Fe, N.M., after driving out the Spanish. They destroyed almost all of the Spanish churches in Taos and Santa Fe. The Pueblo Revolt, also known as Popé's Rebellion, was an uprising of most of the indigenous Pueblo people against the Spanish colonizers in the province of Santa Fe de Nuevo Mexico, present day New Mexico. The Pueblo Revolt killed 400 Spaniards and drove the remaining 2,000 settlers out of the province.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pueblo_Revolt)(AP, 8/21/97)(SFEC, 6/21/98, Z1 p.8)

1680        Aug 21, New Mexico Governor Antonio de Otermín, barricaded in the Palace of the Governors, sallied outside the palace with all of his available men and forced the Puebloans to retreat with heavy losses. He then led the Spaniards out of Santa Fe and retreated southward along the Rio Grande, headed for El Paso del Norte. The Puebloans shadowed the Spaniards but did not attack. This marked the end of the Pueblo Revolt.

1680        Aug 24, Colonel Thomas Blood, Irish adventurer who stole the Crown Jewels from the Tower of London in 1671, died. Captured after the theft, he insisted on seeing King Charles II, who pardoned him.
    (Reuters, 8/24/01)

1680        Sep 25, Samuel Butler (b.1612), poet and satirist, died.
    (MC, 9/25/01)

1680        Oct 13, Daniel Elsevier, book publisher and publisher, died at 54.
    (MC, 10/13/01)

1680        Oct, King Charles II of England was forced to recall Parliament in order to ask for money to fortify the port of Tangier, Morocco, which was under assault by Moorish forces.
    (ON, 7/06, p.9)

1680        Nov 18, Jean-Baptiste Loeillet, composer, was born.
    (MC, 11/18/01)

1680        Nov 27, Athanasius Kircher, German Jesuit and inventor of a lantern, died.
    (MC, 11/27/01)

1680        Nov 28 Giovanni "Gian" Lorenzo Bernini (b.Dec 7,1598), Sculptor, Painter, Architect, Italian, the greatest sculptor of the 17th century, died.
    (DTnet, 11/28/97)

1680        Pierre Puget made his bronze sculpture of Herakles (Hercules) struggling in the burning tunic. Sophocles around 440-420 composed his tragedy "The Trachinian Women." It described what happened when Hercules put on the robe woven by his wife Deianeira.
    (AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.55)

1680        John Locke completed two works requested by the Earl of Shaftsbury. "The First Treatise on Civil Government" was written to counter Robert Filmer’s old book "Patriarcha." "The Second Treatise on Civil Government" was a more general approach. It concerns the interconnection of three great ideas: property, government, and revolution. Government comes into existence, said Locke, because of property. If there is no property, then government is not needed to protect it. For Locke the question revolved around whether property was legitimate.

1680        Kateri Tekakwitha (b.1656), known as the "Lily of the Mohawks," died in Canada. She was born to a pagan Iroquois father and an Algonquin Christian mother in upstate New York. Her parents and only brother died when she was 4 during a smallpox epidemic that left her badly scarred and with impaired eyesight. She went to live with her uncle, a Mohawk, and was baptized Catholic by Jesuit missionaries. But she was ostracized and persecuted by other natives for her faith. In 2012 she was named a saint in the Catholic church.
    (AP, 10/20/12)

1680        Benedetto Ferrari composed his oratorio "Il Sansone," (Samson). It was later discovered that he wrote the text and probably the music for "Pur to miro," the final duet for Monteverdi’s "L’Incoronazione di Poppea."
    (SFC, 1/20/98, p.E1)(SFC, 6/9/98, p.D1)

1680        In Hamburg, Germany, a cymbal was used for the 1st time in an orchestra.
    (SFC, 9/18/99, p.B3)

1680         The original parish of the Nuestra Senora de la Purisima Concepcion church in Socorro, Texas, also known as San Miguel because it contains a statue of the archangel Michael, was founded.
    (AWAM, Dec. 94, p.65)

1680        Maryland colonists ran out of supplies and survived starvation by eating oysters.
    (SFC, 9/18/99, p.B3)

c1680        The first American tall case clock, later called a "grandfather clock," was built.
    (SFC,10/22/97, Z1 p.7)

1680        Chief Justice William Scroggs was impeached for, among other things, browbeating witnesses, cursing and drinking to excess.
    (WSJ, 1/25/99, p.A19)

1680        An eclipse of the sun occurred in this year. The oral tradition of one African culture speaks of a strange darkness during chief Bo Kama Bomenchala’s reign.
    (ATC, p.147)

1680        Light from the supernova of the star Cassiopeia A reached Earth. A remnant was observed by the Chandra X-ray Observatory in 1999.
    (USAT, 8/27/99, p.14A)(Econ, 8/28/04, p.71)

1680        Kateri Tekakwitha, a Mohawk Indian, died. She became the first Native American to be beatified by the Catholic Church in 1980.
    (SFEC, 9/14/97, p.A18)

1680        Leavened bread was developed in Egypt.
    (SFC, 9/18/99, p.B3)

1680        Hykos tribesmen wore sandals and successfully overcame barefoot Egyptians.
    (SFC, 9/18/99, p.B3)

1680        Portuguese founded Colonia del Sacramento (Uruguay) for smuggling contraband across the Rio de la Plata to Spanish-controlled Argentina.
    (SSFC, 10/30/05, p.F7)

c1680-1685    Simon Pietesz, Verelst, painted a portrait of "Nell Gwyn," Protestant mistress to Charles II.
    (WSJ, 3/7/02, p.A22)

1680-1786    On Senegal it was estimated that over 2 million slaves passed through Goree Island on their way to the American colonies.
    (SFC, 4/3/98, p.B3)

1680-1790    In 2020 Ritchie Robertson authored "The Enlightenment: The Pursuit of Happiness 1680-1790."
    (Econ., 12/12/20, p.83)

1681        Jan 6, 1st recorded boxing match was between the Duke of Albemarle's butler and his butcher.
    (MC, 1/6/02)

1681        Jan 8, The treaty of Radzin ended a five year war between the Turks and the allied countries of Russia and Poland.
    (HN, 1/8/99)

1681        Jan 18, England's King Charles II suspended Parliament and set its next meeting for March in Oxford.
    (ON, 7/06, p.10)

1681        Mar 4, England's King Charles II granted a charter to William Penn (37) for 48,000 square miles that later became Pennsylvania. Penn’s father had bequeathed him a claim of £15,000 against the king. Penn later laid out the city of Philadelphia as a gridiron about 2 miles long, east to west, and a mile wide.
    (PCh, 1992, p.259)(AP, 3/4/98)(SFEC, 8/16/98, p.T1)

1681        Mar 14, Georg Philipp Telemann, late baroque composer, was born in Magdeburg, Germany.
    (MC, 3/14/02)

1681        Apr 8, England's King Charles II received the 1st installment of a 5-million livre subsidy from King Louis of France. This provided him independence from Parliament and he ruled without it until his death in 1685.
    (ON, 7/06, p.10)

1681        Apr 11, Anne Danican Philidor, composer, was born.
    (MC, 4/11/02)

1681        May 17, Louis XIV sent an expedition to aid James II in Ireland. As a result, England declared war on France.
    (HN, 5/17/99)

1681        May 25, Caldéron de la Barca (b.1600), Spanish dramatist & poet, died.
    (WUD, 1994 p.210)(SC, 5/25/02)

1681        Aug 22, Pierre Danican Philidor, composer, was born.
    (MC, 8/22/02)

1681        Oct 24, Earl of Shaftesbury (d.1683) was accused of high treason in London. The Earl of Shaftesbury had challenged the king on the question of succession. The king dissolved Parliament and threw Shaftesbury into the Tower of London and charged him with treason. Shaftesbury was acquitted and went to Holland with John Locke.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.220)(MC, 10/24/01)(PCh, 1992, p.260)

1681        Nov 9, Hungarian parliament promised Protestants freedom of religion.
    (MC, 11/9/01)

1681        Fa Jo-chen, Chinese artist, created a 45-foot-long handscroll of a winding river with the land on both sides rolled up in round, furry lumps.
    (WSJ, 5/15/02, p.AD7)

1681        Nehemiah Grew, the first scientist to call sloths by their common English name, described the animal in his catalog of specimens owned by the Royal Society of London.
    (Nat. Hist., 4/96, p.20-21)

1681        The dodo bird was last seen on Mauritius. The dodo bird became extinct on Mauritius. In 2005 scientists reported the discovery of a complete skeleton of the bird on Mauritius.
    (SFC, 7/7/96, BR p.5)(NH, 11/96, p.24)(SFEC, 6/21/98, Z1 p.8)(SSFC, 12/25/05, p.A2)

1681-1730    French Protestants, known as Huguenots, migrated in large numbers to England due to persecutions known as dragonnades wherein rowdy soldiers were billeted in their homes. They also lost a semblance of security in the 1685 revocation of the Edict of Nantes.
    (Econ, 12/20/03, p.85)

1681-1764    Johann Mattheson, German composer, friend of Handel.
    (LGC-HCS, p.38)

1682        Feb 13, Giovanni Piazzetta, painter, was born.
    (HN, 2/13/98)

1682        Apr 3, Esteban Murillo (b.1617), Spanish painter, died. Some of his mid-century work in Seville portrayed the effects of the Plague that killed 50% of the population in 4 months.
    (WSJ, 4/9/02, p.D19)(MC, 4/3/02)

1682        Apr 9, The French explorer Rene Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, reached the Mississippi River. La Salle claimed lower Mississippi River and all lands that touched it for France.
    (AP, 4/9/97)(SFC, 11/30/96, p.A7)(HN, 4/9/98)

1682        Apr 11, Jean-Joseph Mouret, composer, was born.
    (MC, 4/11/02)

1682        May 6, King Louis XIV moved his court to Versailles, France.
    (HN, 5/6/98)

1682        Jun 10, The first tornado of record in colonial America hit New Haven, Conn.
    (SFEC, 7/4/99, Z1 p.8)

1682        Jun 27, Charles XII (d.1718), King of Sweden (1697-1718), was born.
    (WUD, 1994, p.249)(SFC, 8/17/96, p.E5)(HN, 6/27/98)

1682        Jul 14, Henry Purcell was appointed organist of Chapel Royal, London.
    (MC, 7/14/02)

1682        Aug 24, Duke James of York gave Delaware to William Penn.
    (MC, 8/24/02)

1682        Aug 30, William Penn left England to sail to New World. He took along an insurance policy.
    (MC, 8/30/01)

1682        Sep 4, English astronomer Edmund Halley saw his namesake comet.
    (MC, 9/4/01)

1682        Oct 26, William Penn accepted the area around Delaware River from Duke of York.
    (MC, 10/26/01)

1682        Oct 29, The founder of Pennsylvania, William Penn, landed at what is now Chester, Pa. William Penn founded Philadelphia. Penn founded Pennsylvania as a "Holy Experiment" based on Quaker principles.
    (AP, 10/29/97)(SFEC, 6/21/98, Z1 p.8)(SSFC, 8/5/01, p.C10)

1682        Nov 23, Claude Lorrain, French painter (also known as Claude Gelée), died. His birth is variously noted from 1600-1604.
    (WSJ, 11/6/02, p.D8)(www.britannica.com/eb/article-9024243/Claude-Lorrain)

1682        Nehemiah Grew (1641-1712), English botanist and physician, postulated that plants reproduce sexually in his book “Anatomy of Plants." His 1st book on plant anatomy was titled “The Anatomy of Vegetable Begun" (1672).
    (www.britannica.com/eb/article-9038079)(Econ, 11/12/05, p.88)

1682        Thomas Otway wrote his Restoration tragedy "Venice Preserv’d."
    (WSJ, 2/6/97, p.A12)

1682        John Playford organized the Musick’s Recreation on the Viol.
    (EMN, 1/96, p.4)

1682        Wren’s Royal Hospital Chelsea was founded by Charles II as a hostel for old soldiers.
    (WSJ, 3/11/02, p.A16)

1682        William Penn established Bucks County as one of Pennsylvania’s 3 original counties.
    (WSJ, 3/22/08, p.R7)

1682        Nicholas Wise founded Norfolk, Va.
    (SFEC, 7/4/99, Z1 p.8)

1682        Pere Lachaise, a French Jesuit priest, was confessor to Louis XIV. His order built a house on the future site of the Paris cemetery named after him.
    (SFC, 6/16/96, T-6)

1682        In Russia a rebellion by government Streltsy regiments killed the grandfather, aunts and other relatives of Peter the Great. The Monastery of Peter the Metropolitan was reconstructed and as served as the family necropolis.
    (AM, Jul/Aug ‘97 p.38)

1682        In Tibet the Fifth Dalai Lama (b.1617) died. His death kept hidden for 15 years by his prime minister and possible son Desi Sangay Gyatso in order that the Potala Palace could be finished and Tibet's neighbors not take advantage of an interregnum in the succession.

1682-1725    The rule of Peter the Great. The original stone cathedral of the Monastery of the Epiphany in Moscow was built during this time. It was built over the remnants of an earlier wooden church.
    (AM, Jul/Aug ‘97 p.37)

1683        Feb 12, A Christian Army, led by Charles, the Duke of Lorraine and King John Sobieski of Poland, routed a huge Ottoman army surrounding Vienna.
    (HN, 2/12/99)

1683        Feb 20, Philip V, first Bourbon King of Spain, was born. [see Dec 19]
    (HN, 2/20/01)

1683        Apr 1, Roger Williams (b.1603) died in poverty in Rhode Island. Williams died at Providence between, his wife Mary having predeceased him in 1676. Williams was the first champion of complete religious toleration in America. In 2005 Edwin S. Gaustad authored the biography “Roger Williams."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roger_Williams_%28theologian%29)(WSJ, 6/21/05, p.D10)

1683        Apr 15, Catherine I (d.1727), empress of Russia (1725-1727), was born as Martha Skravonskaya in Jacobstadt, Latvia. Catherine was the daughter of Samuil Skavronski, a Lithuanian peasant.
    (HN, 4/15/98)(www.arthistoryclub.com/art_history/Catherine_I_of_Russia)

1683        Jun 23, William Penn signed a friendship treaty with Lenni Lenape Indians in Pennsylvania. It became the only treaty "not sworn to, nor broken."
    (HN, 6/23/98)(MC, 6/23/02)

1683        Jul 3, Edward Young, English poet, dramatist and literary critic, was born. He wrote "Night Thoughts."
    (HN, 7/3/99)

1683        Jul 21, Lord William Russell, English plotter against Charles II, was beheaded.
    (MC, 7/21/02)

1683        Jul 24, The 1st settlers from Germany to US left aboard the ship Concord.

1683        Sep 3, Turkish troops broke through the defense of Vienna.
    (MC, 9/3/01)

1683        Sep 6, Jean-Baptiste Colbert (b.1619), French finance minister (1665-1683) under Louis XIV, died. He pioneered “dirigisme," i.e. state control of the economy and state intervention in industry. “The art of taxation consists in so plucking the goose as to obtain the largest possible amount of feathers with the smallest possible amount of hissing."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jean-Baptiste_Colbert)(Econ, 3/25/06, p.71)(Econ, 2/22/14, SR p.5)

1683        Sep 9, Algernon Sidney, English Whig politician and plotter, was beheaded.
    (MC, 9/9/01)

1683        Sep 12, A combined Austrian and Polish army defeated the Ottoman Turks at Kahlenberg and lifted the siege on Vienna, Austria. Prince Eugene of Savoy helped repel an invasion of Vienna, Austria, by Turkish forces. Marco d'Aviano, sent by Pope Innocent XI to unite the outnumbered Christian troops, spurred them to victory. The Turks left behind sacks of coffee which the Christians found too bitter, so they sweetened it with honey and milk and named the drink cappuccino after the Capuchin order of monks to which d'Aviano belonged. An Austrian baker created a crescent-shaped roll, the Kipfel, to celebrate the victory. Empress Maria Theresa later took it to France where it became the croissant. In 2006 John Stoye authored “The Siege of Vienna."
    (Hem., Dec. '95, p.69)(WSJ, 3/27/96, p.A-16)(HN, 9/12/98)(SFEC, 2/6/00, p.A1)(Reuters, 4/28/03)(WSJ, 6/3/03, p.D5) (WSJ, 12/6/06, p.D12)

1683        Sep 17, Antonie van Leeuwenhoek reported the existence of bacteria.
    (MC, 9/17/01)

1683        Sep 24, King Louis XIV expelled all Jews from French possessions in America.
    (MC, 9/24/01)

1683        Sep 25, Jean-Philippe Rameau, composer, was born in Dijon, France.
    (MC, 9/25/01)

1683        Sep 29, A small armada sailed from the Mexican mainland across the Sea of Cortez to the Baha Peninsula. Hostile natives had forced them back to the mainland on a first landing and a storm forced them back on a 2nd attempt.
    (SFEC, 5/18/97, p.T5)(WSJ, 12/26/97, p.A9)

1683        Oct 6, 13 Mennonite families from Krefeld, Germany, arrived in present-day Philadelphia to begin Germantown, one of America's oldest settlements. They were encouraged by William Penn's offer of 5,000 acres of land in the colony of Pennsylvania and the freedom to practice their religion.
    (AP, 10/6/97)(www.ulib.iupui.edu/kade/germantown.html)
1683        Oct 6, The small armada from the Mexican mainland landed on their 3rd attempt at crossing to the Baha peninsula and settled at the mouth of a river that they named San Bruno. The site was abandoned after 2 years. Spanish settlement on the Baha was later described by Father James Donald Francez in "The Lost Treasures of Baha California."
    (SFEC, 5/18/97, p.T5)(WSJ, 12/26/97, p.A9)

1683        Oct 30, George II, King of Great Britain (1727-60), was born. [see Oct 30]
    (MC, 10/30/01)

1683        Nov 10, George II, king of England (1727-60), was born. [see Nov 10]
    (MC, 11/10/01)

1683        Nov 22, Purcell's "Welcome to All the Pleasures," premiered in London.
    (MC, 11/22/01)

1683        Dec 19, Philip V, King of Spain (1700-24, 24-46), was born in Versailles, France. [see Feb 20]
    (MC, 12/19/01)

1683        Dec 25, Kara Mustapha (b.~1634), chief of the Ottoman janissaries, appeared before the grand vizier in Belgrade. He was sentenced to death and executed for the military loss at Vienna.
    (WSJ, 12/5/06, p.D12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kara_Mustafa)

1683        Giovanni Battista Foggini created his sculpture "The Mass of Saint Andrea Corsini."
    (WSJ, 1/29/02, p.A18)

1683        The Ashmolean Museum was built in Oxford to house natural-history artifacts. It was the first such public museum. It gained its name and its first collections from Elias Ashmole (1617-1692), whose own collections were derived in part from those of John Tradescant (1608-1662).
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)(http://myweb.tiscali.co.uk/speel//otherart/ashmole.htm)

1683        Alessandro Scarlatti (father of Domenico Scarlatti) wrote the score for his opera "L’Aldimiro." The only know score extant was found in a library in Berkeley, Ca., in 1989.
    (SFC, 5/26/96, DB p.26)

1683        Secatogue Indians deeded land on the South Shore of Long Island to William Nicoll.
    (WSJ, 10/9/07, p.D6)

1683        French King Louis XIV married Madame de Maintenon (1635-1719), his mistress for the last 11 years, shortly after the death of his wife. The marriage was kept secret for the next 3 decades.
    (Econ, 7/26/08, p.96)

1683        Taiwan was claimed by China's Manchu dynasty after large-scale immigration from the Chinese mainland to the island.
    (AP, 8/12/06)

1683-1707    Adriaen Coorte (b.1665), a Dutch Golden Age painter of still lifes, signed his work during this period. His work included “Still Life With Sea Shells" (1698).

1684        Jan 11, In Switzerland this day “was so frightfully cold that all of the communion wine froze," said an entry by Brother Josef Dietrich, governor and "weatherman" of the Einsiedeln Monastery. The Einsiedeln abbots, princes within the Holy Roman Empire until 1798, were powerful leaders who ruled over large swaths of central Switzerland's mountainous terrain.
    (AP, 9/15/07)

1684        Apr 25, A patent was granted for the thimble.
    (SS, 4/25/02)

1684        Jun 21, King Charles II revoked the 1629 Massachusetts Bay Colony charter. [see 1691]
    (HNQ, 11/23/00)(MC, 6/21/02)

1684        Jun 22, Francesco Onofrio Manfredini, composer, was born.
    (MC, 6/22/02)

1684        Oct 1, Pierre Corneille, French lawyer and dramatist (El Cid, Polyeucte), died at 42.
    (MC, 10/1/01)

1684        Oct 10, Jean Antoine Watteau (d.1721), French rococo painter, was born.
    (WUD, 1994 p.1614)(AAP, 1964)(MC, 10/10/01)

1684        Dec 3, Ludvig Baron Holberg, founder of Danish & Norwegian literature, was born.
    (MC, 12/3/01)

1684        For one year Paris was the world’s biggest city.
    (SFEC, 2/22/98, Z1 p.8)
1684        French explorer Rene Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, set sail for what is now Louisiana with 4 ships commissioned from King Louis XIV. On the way one ship was lost to pirates, another broke apart on a sand bar and a third returned home. The 4th was sunk in a storm in 1686.
    (SFC, 11/30/96, p.A7)
1684        Lorenzo de Tonti (b.~1602),  governor of Gaeta, Italy, and a Neapolitan banker, died about this time. He is sometimes credited with the invention of the tontine, a form of life insurance, although it has also been suggested that he simply modified existing procedures.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lorenzo_de_Tonti)(Econ 6/17/17, p.68)

1685        Jan, French explorer Rene Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, landed at Matagorda Bay, Texas. He thought that he was at the mouth of the Mississippi River but soon realized his mistake and went of looking for the river.
    (SFC, 11/9/96, p.A12)(SFC, 11/30/96, p.A7)

1685        Feb 6, Charles II (54), King of England, Scotland, Ireland (1660-85), died and was succeeded by his Catholic brother James II. He made a deathbed conversion to the Roman Catholic faith. He had earlier ordered Christopher Wren to build an observatory and maritime college at Greenwich. In 2000 Stephen Coote authored the biography: "Royal Survivor."
    (WSJ, 2/28/00, p.A36)(http://tinyurl.com/hkkln)

1685        Feb 11, David Teniers III (46), Flemish painter, died.
    (MC, 2/11/02)

1685        Feb 23, George Frideric Handel (d.1759), composer and musician, was born in Halle, Germany.
    (LGC-HCS, p.37)(AP, 2/23/98)(HN, 2/23/98)

1685        Mar 21, Composer Johann Sebastian Bach (d.1750) was born in Eisenach, Germany, the youngest of eight children. 2nd source says Mar 21. He composed cantatas, sonatas, preludes, fugues and chorale preludes, and whose works included "Brandenburg Concerto" and "Well-Tempered Clavier."
    (AP, 3/21/97)(LGC-HCS.p.17)(HN, 3/21/99)

1685        May 28, Pieter de la Court (~67), economist, historian, died.
    (MC, 5/28/02)

1685        Jun 11, James Scott, Duke of Monmouth, rebelled against Catholic king James II.
    (AP, 6/11/03)

1685        Jun 30, John Gay, playwright, was born. He wrote the Beggars' Opera which attacked the court of George II,
    (HN, 6/30/99)
1685        Jun 30, Dominikus Zimmermann, German architect, painter (Liebfrauenkirche), was born.
    (MC, 6/30/02)
1685        Jun 30, Archibald Campbell (~55), Scottish politician, was beheaded.
    (MC, 6/30/02)

1685        Jun, Qing Emperor Kangxi sent Manchu, Chinese and Daurian forces in a siege against Russians at Albazino on the far eastern Amur River. Some 100 of 800 Russians were killed on the first day of the attack. The survivors surrendered and returned to Nerchinsk.
    (Econ, 12/19/09, p.71)

1685        Jul 6, James II defeated James, the Duke of Monmouth, at the Battle of Sedgemoor, the last major battle to be fought on English soil.
    (HN, 7/6/98)

1685        Jul 15, James Scott, the Duke of Monmouth and illegitimate son of Charles II, was executed on Tower Hill in England, after his army was defeated at Sedgemoor.
    (HN, 7/15/98)(MC, 7/15/02)

1685        Oct 18, King Louis the XIV signed the Edict of Fontainebleau, revoking the Edict of Nantes that had established legal toleration of France's Protestant population, the Huguenots. The French Parliament recorded the new edict four days later. The edict signed at Nantes, France, by King Henry IV in 1598, had given the Huguenots religious liberty, civil rights and security. By revoking the Edict of Nantes, Louis XIV abrogated their religious liberties. He declared France entirely Catholic again.
    (HN, 4/13/98)(HN, 10/18/98)(AP, 10/18/07)

1685        Oct 26, Domenico Scarlatti (d.1757, composer and harpsichordist was born in Naples, Italy. Scarlatti, son of Alessandro, composed over 550 short, keyboard sonatas or exercises.
    (WUD, 1994 p.1275)(LGC-HCS, p.38)(MC, 10/26/01)

1685        Nov 8, Fredrick William of Brandenburg issued the Edict of Potsdam, offering Huguenots refuge.
    (HN, 11/6/98)

1685        Dec 3, Charles II barred Jews from settling in Stockholm, Sweden.
    (MC, 12/3/01)

1685        Dec 12, Lodovico Giustini, composer, was born.
    (MC, 12/12/01)

1685        Sylvestre Dufour published "Traitez Nuveaux et Curieux de Cafe, du The, et du Chocolat."
    (WSJ, 7/7/98, p.A14)

1685        Dutch mapmaker, Johannes van Keulen, produced a map of New York and Long Island. He charted the Hudson and Connecticut rivers with greater accuracy than ever before. Long Island was labeled on the map as "Lange Eyland."
    (WSJ, 11/24/95, p.B-8)

1685        In Canada there was a shortage of currency and playing cards were assigned monetary values for use as money.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)

1685        The Venetians returned to the Peloponnesus.
    (AM, May/Jun 97 p.56)

1685-1712    Celia Fiennes’ journal about her travels throughout England have provided historians with valuable insight into the social conditions of the country in the late 1600s. Celia Fiennes, an enterprising young, single woman, rode side-saddle through every county in England. She traveled alone except for two servants, and the journal she kept, later published as "The Journeys of Celia Fiennes 1685-c.1712," is the only evidence we have of her travels.
    (HNQ, 4/22/01)

c1685-1753    George Berkeley, Irish bishop and philosopher. He argued that the things we see around us exist only as ideas. This was in opposition to naive realism which held that we perceive objects as they really are.
    (WUD, 1994, p.140)(WSJ, 8/21/98, p.W13)

1685-1768    Hakuin Ekaku, Japanese Zen painter. His work included "Side View of Daruma."
    (SSFC, 9/23/01, DB p.48)

1686        Jan, A storm arose and sank the French ship “La Belle," of explorer Rene Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, in Matagorda Bay, Texas. La Salle was off searching for the Mississippi River. This ended La Salle’s plan for a French colony and opened the door to Spain to come and occupy Texas. Archeologists found the ship in 1995 in 12-feet of water and began a recovery project. In 1996 a skeleton was bound onboard. In 2014 the remains of the ship were transported to the Bullock State History Museum in Austin.
    (SFC, 11/9/96, p.A12)(SFC, 11/30/96, p.A7)(SFC, 8/16/12, p.A7)(AP, 7/18/14)

1686        Feb 15, Jean Baptiste Lully's opera "Armide," premiered in Paris.
    (MC, 2/15/02)

1686        Apr 4, English king James II published a Declaration of Indulgence.
    (MC, 4/4/02)

1686        May 14, Gabriel Daniel Fahrenheit German physicist and instrument maker, was born. He invented the thermometer. [see May 24]
    (HN, 5/14/98)

1686        May 24, Gabriel Daniel Fahrenheit (d.1736), German physicist, was born. He devised a temperature scale and introduced the use of mercury in thermometers. He assigned the number 32 for the melting point of ice, 96 to the temperature of blood and 212 to the steam point.[see May 14]
    (WUD, 1994, p.510)(SFEC, 3/22/98, Par. p.8)(HN, 5/24/98)

1686        Jul 8, The Austrians took Buda, Hungary, from the Turks and annexed the country. Hapsburg rule lasted to 1918.
    (HN, 7/8/98)(Sm, 3/06, p.76)

1686        Jul 22, Albany, New York, began operating under an official charter.
    (SFEC, 4/2/00, Z1 p.2)

1686        Jul 24, Benedetto Marcello, composer, was born. [see Aug 1]
    (MC, 7/24/02)

1686        Aug 1, Benedetto Marcello, Italian author, composer (Lettera Famigliare), was born in Venice, Italy. [see Jul 24]
    (MC, 8/1/02)

1686        Dec 19, Robinson Crusoe left his island after 28 years (as per Defoe).
    (MC, 12/19/01)

1686        The British Royal Society published “Historia Piscium" by John Ray and Francis Willughby. The expense of the high quality illustrations almost bankrupted the academy.
    (Econ, 4/21/12, p.95)

1686        The NYC Charter of this year incorporated the rights of the 1664 New Amsterdam "Articles of Capitulation."
    (WSJ, 3/16/04, p.D6)

1686        The Lenape Indians allegedly sold land along the Lehigh River to William Penn.
    (ON, 1/03, p.6)

1686        Two Mohican Indians signed a mortgage for their land in Schaghticoke, New York, with simple markings. It was notarized by Robert Livingston, whose family became one of the greatest agricultural landlords and int'l. merchants in the colony of New York.
    (WSJ, 11/19/99, p.W10)

1686        A Spaniard by the name of Francisco Lazcano named a group of about 500 small coral islands east of the Philippines, the Caroline Islands, after King Charles II of Spain who funded the expedition.

1686        Russians returned to Albazino on the far eastern Amur River and were again attacked by the Manchus. After a year’s siege they surrendered with only 40 of 900 alive.
    (Econ, 12/19/09, p.71)

1687        Feb 19, Johann Adam Birkenstock, composer and sandal designer, was born.
    (MC, 2/19/02)

1687        Feb 22, Jean-Baptiste Lully, composer, died in Paris. Lully, Paris Opera director, had stabbed himself in the foot with a baton and died of blood poisoning.
    (SFC, 8/21/99, p.B3)(MC, 2/22/02)

1687        Mar 19, French explorer Robert Cavelier (b.1643), Sieur de La Salle, the first European to navigate the length of the Mississippi River, was murdered by mutineers while searching for the mouth of the Mississippi, along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico in present-day Texas.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ren%C3%A9-Robert_Cavelier,_Sieur_de_La_Salle)(AP, 3/19/97)

1687        Mar 28, Constantine Huygens (90), diplomat, poet, composer (Bluebottles), died.
    (MC, 3/28/02)

1687        Apr 4, King James II ordered his Declaration of Indulgence read in church.

1687        Jul 5, The first volume of Isaac Newton's "Philosophiae naturalis principia mathematica" ("Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy") was published in Latin by Edmund Halley. His invention of differential and integral calculus is here presented. Here also are stated Newton’s laws of motion, that obliterated the Aristotelian concept of inertia.
    1) Every physical body continues in its state of rest, unless it is compelled to change that state by a force or forces impressed upon it.
    2) A change of motion is proportional to the force impressed upon the body and is made in the direction of the straight line in which the force is impressed.
    3) To every action there is always opposed an equal reaction.
    Book Three of the Principia opens with two pages headed "Rules of Reasoning in Philosophy." There are four rules as follows:
    1) We are to admit no more causes of natural things than such as are both true and sufficient to explain the appearances. [A restatement of Ockham’s Razor: "What can be done with fewer is done in vain with more."]
    2) Therefore to the same natural effects we must, as far as possible, assign the same causes.
    3) The qualities of bodies which are found to belong to all bodies within the reach of our experiments, are to be esteemed the universal qualities of bodies whatsoever.
    4) In experimental philosophy we are to look upon propositions inferred by general induction from phenomena as accurately or very nearly true notwithstanding any contrary hypothesis that may be imagined, till such time as other phenomena occur, by which they may either be made more accurate, or liable to exceptions.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.207-10)(http://tinyurl.com/6772jj)(Econ, 4/21/12, p.95)

1687        Aug 12, At the Battle of Mohacs, Hungary, Charles of Lorraine defeated the Turks.
    (HN, 8/12/98)

1687        Sep 26, The Venetian army attacked the Acropolis in Athens while trying to eject Turks. Marauding Venetians sent a mortar through a gable window of the Parthenon and ignited a Turkish store of gunpowder. This damaged the northern colonnade of the Parthenon. The Parthenon was destroyed in the war between Turks and Venetians.
    (SFEC, 6/6/99, p.A26)(MC, 9/26/01)

1687        Sep 28, Venetians took Athens from the Turks.
    (MC, 9/28/01)

1687        Oct 20, In Peru a massive earthquake leveled most of Lima. It triggered a tsunami and overall about 5,000 people died.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1687_Peru_earthquake)(SSFC, 11/3/13, p.A6)

1687        Oct 27, The Connecticut colony’s charter was stolen during a public meeting in which Gov. Robert Treat defended the colony against demands by Sir Edmund Andros. It was soon hidden under an oak tree (the Charter Oak) in Hartford to protect it from seizure by agents of the King James II.

1687        Nov 13, Nell [Eleanor] Gwyn (37), mistress of Charles II of England, died.
    (MC, 11/13/01)

1687        Dec 5, Francesco Xaverio Geminiani, composer, was born.
    (MC, 12/5/01)

1687        Dec 16, William Petty (b.1623), English designer, inventor and pioneering economist, died in London. He came up with the “quantity theory of money" and was the first to measure gross domestic product (GDP).
    (Econ, 12/21/13, p.116)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Petty)

1687        Giovanni Battista Foggini created a portrait bust of "Cosimo III de’ Medici."
    (WSJ, 1/29/02, p.A18)

1687        William Penn authored “The Excellent Privilege of Liberty and Property Being the Birth-Right of the Free-born subjects of England."
    (www.magnacartaworldheritage.com/magna-carta-us-history/)(Econ, 12/20/14, p.35)

1687        The Austrian Army captured Petrovaradin (Serbia) after 150 years of Turkish control during the Great Turkish War. The Austrians began to tear down the old fortress and build new fortifications according to contemporary standards.

1687        Clocks began to be made with 2 hands for the first time
    (SFEC, 9/7/97, Z1 p.5)

1687        James II, a Roman Catholic, supported unpopular policies that, by 1687, led to many English subjects urging William to intervene. With the birth of a son to James in 1688, fears of a Roman Catholic succession led to opponents sending an invitation to William in July.
    (HNQ, 12/28 /00)

1687        Newton declared that time is absolute... "It flows equably without relation to anything external." This view was held until Einstein’s relativity in 1905.
    (NG, March 1990, J. Boslough p. 118)

1687-1691    Suleiman II succeeded Mehmed IV in the Ottoman House of Osman.
    (Ot, 1993, xvii)

1688        Feb 18, At a Quaker meeting in Germantown, Pa, German Mennonites penned a memorandum stating a profound opposition to Negro slavery. Quakers in Germantown, Pa., adopted the fist formal antislavery resolution in America.
    (HN, 2/18/99)(www.germanheritage.com/Publications/cronau/cronau4.html)

1688        Apr 15, Johann Friedrich Fasch, composer, was born.
    (MC, 4/15/02)

1688        Apr 27, King James II issued another Declaration of Indulgence: “conscience ought not to be constrained nor people forced in matters of mere religion."

1688        May 21, Alexander Pope (d.1744), England, poet (Rape of the Lock), was born. His "Essay on Criticism" contains the line: "A little learning is a dangerous thing..."
    (NH, 9/97, p.24)(MC, 5/21/02)

1688        May 25, Christian August Jacobi, composer, was born.
    (SC, 5/25/02)

1688        Jun 10, Mary of Modena, the wife of Britain’s King James II, gave birth to a male heir. This placed England, much to the dismay of Parliament, in line for a succession of Catholic monarchs.
    (Econ, 2/4/06, p.77)(ON, 7/06, p.10)

1688        Jun 30, A jury proclaimed 7 English bishops not guilty of seditious libel against James II. They had refused to comply with his April 27 Declaration of Indulgence because it had not been approved by Parliament.

1688        Aug 15, Frederick-William I, king of Prussia (1713-1740), was born.
    (MC, 8/15/02)

1688        Aug 31, John Bunyan, preacher, novelist (Pilgrim's Progress), died.
    (MC, 8/31/01)

1688        Sep 6, Imperial troops defeated the Turks and took Belgrade, Serbia.
    (HN, 9/6/98)

1688        Oct 1, Seven British noblemen sent a letter to Prince William of Orange inviting him to invade England and rescue the country from James’ “popery." William accepted.
    (Econ, 2/4/06, p.77)(ON, 7/06, p.10)

1688        Oct 27, King James II fired premier Robert Spencer.
    (MC, 10/27/01)

1688        Nov 1, William of Orange set sail for England at the head of a fleet of 500 ships and 30,000 men. He intended too oust his father-in-law King James II. The Dutch parliament, the States General, funded William with 4 million guilders. Amsterdam financiers provided another 2 million. Some of this was used to print 60,000 copies of his “Declaration" (of the reasons inducing him to appear in arms in the Kingdom of England), which were distributed in England. In 2008 Lisa Jardine authored “Going Dutch: How England Plundered Holland’s Glory."
    (WSJ, 8/28/08, p.A13)

1688        Nov 5, William of Orange landed in southern England and marched with his army nearly unopposed to London.
    (WSJ, 8/28/08, p.A13)

1688        Nov 24, General strategist John Churchill met William III.
    (MC, 11/24/01)

1688        Nov 25, Princess Anne fled from London to Nottingham.
    (MC, 11/25/01)

1688        Nov 26, King James II escaped back to London.
    (MC, 11/26/01)
1688        Nov 26, Louis XIV declared war on the Netherlands.
    (HN, 11/26/98)

1688        Dec 4, General strategist John Churchill (later Duke of Marlborough) joined with William III.
    (MC, 12/4/01)

1688        Dec 9, King James II's wife and son fled England for France.
    (MC, 12/9/01)

1688        Dec 11, King James II attempted to flee London as the "Glorious Revolution" replaced him with King William (of Orange) and Queen Mary. James attempted to flee to France, first throwing the Great Seal of the Realm into the River Thames. He was, however, caught in Kent. Having no desire to make James a martyr, the Prince of Orange let him escape on December 23, 1688. James was received by Louis XIV, who offered him a palace and a generous pension. In 2007 Michael Barone authored “Our First Revolution: The Remarkable British Upheaval That Inspired America’s Founding Fathers."
    (HN, 12/11/98)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_II_of_England)

1688        Dec 18, William of Orange made a triumphant march into London as James II fled in the "Glorious Revolution." William of Orange, son of William II (Prince of Orange) and Mary (daughter of Charles I of England), was fourth in line to the English throne. In 2006 Edward Valance authored “The Glorious Revolution: 1688 – Britain’s Fight for Liberty."
    (WSJ, 2/6/02, p.A16)(Econ, 2/4/06, p.77)(ON, 12/10, p.12)

1688        Dec 23, English King James II fled to France.
    (MC, 12/23/01)
1688        Dec 23, Jean-Louis Lully (21), composer, died.
    (MC, 12/23/01)

1688        Dec 25, English king James II landed in Ambleteuse, France.
    (MC, 12/25/01)

1688        French writer Pierre d'Ortigue de Vaumoriere published anonymously his book, “The Art of Pleasing Conversation."
    (WSJ, 5/13/05, p.W6)(http://tinyurl.com/d8tac)

1688        Joseph de la Vega published his work "Confusion de Confusiones." It offered trading strategies to speculators and was built around a conversation between a merchant, a philosopher, and a shareholder. The book was republished in 1996.
    (WSJ, 3/5/96, p. A-12)

1688        The Notre-Dame-des-Victoires, the oldest stone church in North America, was built in Quebec City, Canada.
    (SSFC, 7/30/06, p.G8)

1688        In England Edward Lloyd opened a London coffee shop where shipping insurance was bought and sold.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)

1688        In France a blind Benedictine monk named Dom Perignon discovered the fermentation process that led to champagne. [see 1662] He later devised a cork stopper to hold the bubbles.
    (WSJ, 10/16/98, p.W13)(Hem., 10/97, p.103)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)

1688        Persecuted Huguenots, French Protestants, arrived in South Africa and improved the quality of wine production.
    (SSFC, 12/3/00, p.T6)

1688-1689    James II was replaced by the Dutch King William. This process was masterminded by the group of seven, which included the Earl of Devonshire, who was then promoted to Duke in reward. William of Orange was a good Dutch Protestant and Mary was his queen. From this point on the king was but a figurehead and Parliament ruled England.
    (NG, Nov. 1985, M. Girouard, p.671), (V.D.-H.K.p.222,300)

1688-1763    Pierre Marivaux, French playwright and master of super-subtle dialogue.
    (WSJ, 10/20/95, p. A-12)

1689        Jan 18, Charles Louis de Montesquieu (d.1755), French philosopher and writer (Letters Persanes), was born. "In most things success depends on knowing how long it takes to succeed." He authored "The Spirit of the Laws," the 1st great comparative study of civilizations.
    (AP, 4/13/99)(WSJ, 11/1/00, p.A24)(MC, 1/18/02)

1689        Jan 22, England's "Bloodless Revolution" reached its climax when parliament invited William and Mary to become joint sovereigns. A specially-called parliament declared that James had abdicated and offered the throne to William and Mary. In 1938 G.M. Trevelyan authored “The English Revolution." In 2009 Steve Pincus authored “The First Modern Revolution."
    (HN, 1/22/99)(HNQ, 12/28/00)(Econ, 10/17/09, p.97)

1689        Feb 13, The British Parliament adopted the Bill of Rights. It limited the right of a king to govern without the consent of Parliament.
    (MT, Dec. '95, p.16)(ON, 12/10, p.12)

1689        Feb 14, English parliament placed Mary Stuart and Prince William III on the throne.
    (MC, 2/14/02)

1689        Feb 23, Dutch prince William III was proclaimed King of England.
    (MC, 2/23/02)

1689        Mar 12, Former English King James II landed in Ireland.
    (MC, 3/12/02)

1689        Mar, In Northern Ireland the gates of Londonderry were shut in the face of Catholic forces. The event was later celebrated by the Protestant Apprentice Boys as the Lundy’s Day demonstration. [see August 1, 1689]
    (SFEC,12/14/97, p.A26)

1689        Apr 11, (OS) William III and Mary II were crowned as joint sovereigns of Britain. As part of their oaths, the new King William III and Queen Mary were required to swear that they would obey the laws of Parliament. At this time, the Bill of Rights was read to both William and Mary. "We thankfully accept what you have offered us," William replied, agreeing to be subject to law and to be guided in his actions by the decisions of Parliament.
    (AP, 4/11/97)(www.bessel.org/billrts.htm)

1689        Apr 15, French king Louis XIV declared war on Spain.
    (MC, 4/15/02)

1689        Apr 18, George Jeffreys, 1st Baron Jeffreys of Wem, infamous judge, died.
    (MC, 4/18/02)

1689        Apr 19, Residents of Boston ousted their governor, Edmond Andros.
    (HN, 4/19/97)
1689        Apr 19, Christina (b.1626), Queen of Sweden (1644-54), died. In 2004 Veronica Buckley authored “Christina: Queen of Sweden."
    (www.sweden.se)(WSJ, 10/29/04, p.W10)

1689        Apr 21, (NS) William III and Mary II were crowned joint king and queen of England, Scotland and Ireland.
    (HN, 4/21/98)(HNQ, 12/28/00)

1689        May 11, The French and English naval battle took place at Bantry Bay.
    (HN, 5/11/98)

1689        May 12, England’s King William III joined the League of Augsburg and the Netherlands. The "Grand Alliance" was formed to counter the war of aggression launched by Louis XIV against the Palatinate states in Germany. This is known as The War of the League of Augsburg (1689-97) also The Nine Years' War, and the War of the Grand Alliance.

1689        May 24, English Parliament passed the Act of Toleration, protecting Protestants. Roman Catholics were specifically excluded from exemption.
    (HN, 5/24/99)

1689        May 26, Mary Wortley Montagu, English essayist, feminist, eccentric, was born.
    (MC, 5/26/02)

1689        Jul 27, Government forces defeated the Scottish Jacobites at the Battle of Killiecrankie.
    (HN, 7/27/98)

1689        Jul, Maryland colonist known as the Protestant Associators marched on St. Mary’s City and seized the State House while Lord Baltimore was in England. They went on to take over his plantation at Mattapany.
    (Arch, 1/05, p.49)

1689        Aug 1, A siege of Londonderry, Ireland, by the Catholic Army of King James II ended in failure. The Protestants were victorious and the event led to the annual Apprentice Boy’s March. The group is named in honor of 13 teenage apprentices, all Protestants, who bolted the city gates in front of the advancing Catholic forces at the start of the 105-day siege.
    (SFEC, 8/11/96, p.A13)(HN, 8/1/98)(AP, 8/13/06)

1689        Aug 4-5, War between England and France led them to use their native American allies as proxies. In retaliation for the French attack on the Seneca in 1687, one thousand, five hundred Iroquois, with English support, attacked Lachine down river from the mission of the Mountain of Ville-Marie (Montreal), killing some 400. They put everything to fire and axe.  Some suggest that this is a gross exaggeration and that only 24-25 were killed and likely 90 were captured by the Iroquois, but never returned.

1689        Aug 19, Samuel Richardson (d.1761), English novelist (Pamela, Clarissa), was born in Derbyshire.
    (MC, 8/19/02)

1689        Aug 25, Battle at Charleroi: Spanish and English armies chased the French.
    (MC, 8/25/02)
1689        Aug 25, The Iroquois took Montreal.
    (MC, 8/25/02)

1689        Sep 1, Russia began taxing men's beards.
    (MC, 9/1/02)

1689        Oct 11, Peter the Great became tsar of Russia.
    (MC, 10/11/01)

1689        Dec 16, English Parliament adopted a Bill of Rights after Glorious Revolution. The Bill of Rights included a right to bear arms. William and Mary gave it Royal Assent which represented the end of the concept of divine right of kings.
    (WSJ, 8/6/02, p.D6)(www.britannia.com/history/monarchs/mon49.html)

1689        Dec 30, Henry Purcell's opera "Dido and Aeneas," premiered in Chelsea.
    (MC, 12/30/01)

1689        "Memorable Providences, Related to Witchcrafts and Possessions," published by Cotton Mather, contributed to the hysteria that led to the Salem witch trials of 1692. Mather was a Puritan clergyman and the eldest son of Increase Mather. While Cotton Mather advised witch trial judges that executions would not be necessary, during the mass executions he remained uncritical. In his 1693 Wonders of the Invisible World Mather defended the verdicts of various trials.
    (HNQ, 10/31/98)

1689        John Locke returned to England with his two Treatises which were published late in the same year. He also published his letter on Toleration, in opposition to the strong religious intolerance then prevalent.

1689        Racine wrote a drama based on the Book of Esther. It tells the biblical story of how Esther, the Jewish daughter of Mordecai, is persuaded by her father to intervene on behalf of the Jews to her husband, King Ahaseurus of Persia, who has been persuaded by his lieutenant, Haman, to have all the Jews killed
    (WSJ, 5/12/98, p.A20)

1689        Purcell composed his musical tragedy "Dido and Aeneas."
    (SFC, 9/23/00, p.B10)

1689        The White Hart Inn at Ware, England, put up 26 butchers and their wives in one bed, the "Great Bed of Ware," in a marketing ploy to attract customers.
    (WSJ, 12/6/01, p.A19)

1689        The Macedonian city of Skopje, under Ottoman rule at this time, was torched by the Austrians.
    (Econ, 1/5/12, p.69)

1689        Russian and Manchu delegates met at Nerchinsk and drew up a treaty in Latin. This was China’s first treaty with a European power. China agreed to open up trade in exchange for Russia’s withdrawal from the Amur.
    (Econ, 12/19/09, p.71)

1689-1697    The Abnaki War [Abenaki] of in North America is better known as King William's War. It was the first of the intercolonial wars between France and England in North America, pitting the English and their Iroquois allies against the French and their Abnaki allies. The Abnakis were a powerful Algonquian tribe from Maine. King William’s War was a component of the European War of the League of Augsburg and was based in part on the growing rivalry between France and England over the control of North America.
    (HNQ, 8/26/99)

1690        Jan 14, The clarinet was invented in Germany.
    (MC, 1/14/02)

1690        Feb 3, The first paper money in America was issued by the colony of Massachusetts. The currency was used to pay soldiers fighting a war against Quebec.
    (SFC, 4/30/97, p.B3)(AP, 2/3/97)

1690        Feb 8, Some 200 French and Indian troops burned Schenectady, NY, and massacred about 60 people to avenge Iraquois raids on Canada.
    (AH, 2/05, p.17)

1690        Feb 21, Christoph Stoltzenberg, composer, was born.
    (MC, 2/21/02)

1690        Feb 22, Charles Le Brun (70), classical painter (Academie de Peinture), died.
    (MC, 2/22/02)

1690        Mar 16, French king Louis XIV sent troops to Ireland.
    (MC, 3/16/02)

1690        May 11, In the first major engagement of King William’s War, British troops from Massachusetts seized Port Royal in Acadia (Nova Scotia and New Brunswick) from the French, their objective was to take Quebec.
    (HN, 5/11/99)

1690        May 20, England passed the Act of Grace, forgiving followers of James II.
    (HN, 5/20/98)

1690        Jun 11, English king William III departed to Ireland.
    (PC, 1992, p.265)

1690        Jun 24, King William III's army landed at Carrickfergus, Ireland.
    (MC, 6/24/02)

1690        Jul 1, England's Protestant King William III of Orange was victorious over his father-in-law, the Catholic King James II (from Scot) in Battle of Boyne (in Ireland). This touched off three centuries of religious bloodshed. Protestants took over the Irish Parliament. This marked the beginning of the annual Drumcree parade, held by the Loyal Orange Lodge on the first Sunday of July. Due to calendar changes in 1752 this later became commemorated on Jul 12.
    (PC, 1992, p.265)(WSJ, 7/11/96, p.A1)(SFEC, 12/22/96, Z1 p.6)(SFEC, 7/4/99, p.A18)
1690        Jul 1, Led by Marshall Luxembourg, the French defeated the forces of the Grand Alliance at Fleurus in the Netherlands.
    (HN, 7/1/98)

1690        Jul 7, Johann Tobias Krebs, composer, was born.
    (MC, 7/7/02)

1690        Jul 10, Domenico Gabrielli (39), composer, died.
    (MC, 7/10/02)

1690        Jul 12,  Due to British calendar changes in 1752, the July 1, 1690, Battle of Boyne (in Ireland) was adjusted for celebration on Jul 12.
    (SFEC, 9/27/98, BR p.5)(AP, 7/11/05)

1690        Sep 6, King William III escaped back to England.
    (MC, 9/6/01)

1690        Sep 25, One of the earliest American newspapers, “Publick Occurrences," published its first and last edition in Boston. The colonial governor and council disallowed the pamphlet due to its contents.
    (AP, 9/25/00)(WSJ, 3/8/06, p.D14)

1690        Oct 7, The English attacked Quebec under Louis de Buade.
    (MC, 10/7/01)

1690        Oct 8, Belgrade was retaken by the Turks.
    (HN, 10/8/98)

1690        Oct 23, American colonial forces from Boston led by Sir William Phips, failed in their attempt to seize Quebec. Phips lost 4 ships on the return trip due to stormy weather.
    (Arch, 1/05, p.50)(http://www.biographi.ca/EN/ShowBio.asp?BioId=34586)
1690        Oct 23, There was a revolt in Haarlem, Holland, after a public ban on smoking.
    (MC, 10/23/01)

1690        Nov 11, Gerhard Hoffmann, composer, was born.
    (MC, 11/11/01)

1690        Nov 24, Charles Theodore Pachelbel, composer, was born.
    (MC, 11/24/01)

1690        A newspaper called “Publick Occurences Both Forreign and Domestick" was published in Boston, Mass.
    (WSJ, 12/29/07, p.A8)

1690        The 2nd Treatise on Government by John Locke (1632-1704) was published in order to justify the British Whig Revolution of 1688. In it he wrote that men had the natural rights of life, liberty and estate.

1690        Khushal Khan Khattak (b.1613), Pushtun poet, died. He wrote in Pashtu during the reign of the Mongol emperors in the seventeenth century. He lived in the foothills of the Hindu Kush mountains. He was a renowned fighter who became known as the Afghan Warrior Poet.

1690        Emp. Kangxi commissioned Wang Hui (1632-1717) to create a pictorial chronicle of a ceremonial tour across a swath of China. “The Kangxi Emperor’s Southern Inspection Tour" took 6 years and became a magnus opus of some 740 feet in 12 hand scrolls.
    (WSJ, 10/29/08, p.D9)

1690        An Englishman made the 1st landing on the Falkland Islands.
    (Econ, 7/15/06, p.36)

c1690        "The Narrow Road" by Basho Matsuo (1644?-1694) was written during a 1,500 mile journey through the Japanese countryside. It was a 64-page collection of prose and haiku poems and became a Japanese classic. A manuscript of the work was found in 1996.
    (SFC, 11/28/96, p.C16)(WUD, 1994, p.124)

1690        In Puebla, Mexico, the ornate Capilla del Rosario, Chapel of the Rosary, was consecrated.
    (SFEC,11/9/97, p.T5)(SFEC, 11/8/98, p.T8)

1690-1699    In the 1690s Kit Cat Club met in London at the invitation of Jacob Tonson (1655/56-1736), a publisher and bookseller, at the inn of Christopher Cat (Christopher Catling). In 2008 Ophelia Field authored “The Kit-Cat Club: Friends Who Imagined a Nation."
    (Econ, 8/16/08, p.82)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jacob_Tonson)

1690s        Giuseppe Ghezzi found the Codex Leicester, a notebook of Leonardo da Vinci in Rome. It was primarily a treatise on the nature of water in all its properties, manifestations and uses.
    (NH, 5/97, p.11,60)
1690s        Henry Laurens landed 40% of the slaves sold at Sullivan Island. He was the ancestor to the Ball family that settled in South Carolina.
    (SFEC, 2/22/98, BR p.1,8)

1690-1700    Particularly severe weather hit Germany and prompted vintners use more wine sweeteners.
    (NH, 7/96, p.51)

1691        Jan 13, George Fox (b.1624), English Dissenter and a founder of the Religious Society of Friends, died.

1691        Feb 8, Carlo di Girolamo Rainaldi (79), Italian architect, composer, died.
    (MC, 2/8/02)

1691        Feb 17, Thomas Neale was granted a British patent for American postal service.
    (MC, 2/17/02)

1691        May 16, Jacob Leisler, 1st American colonist, was hanged for treason.
    (MC, 5/16/02)

1691        May 26, Jacob Leiser, leader of the popular uprising in support of William and Mary’s accession to the throne, was executed for treason.
    (HN, 5/26/99)

1691        May 29, Cornelis Tromp (61), Admiral-General, son of Maarten Tromp, died.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1691        Jul 12, William III defeated the allied Irish and French armies at the Battle of Aughrim, Ireland.
    (HN, 7/12/98)

1691        Aug 16, Yorktown, Va., was founded.
    (MC, 8/16/02)

1691        Sep 17, The Massachusetts Bay Colony received a new charter. [see Oct 17]
    (MC, 9/17/01)

1691        Oct 3, English and Dutch armies occupied Limerick, Ireland.
    (MC, 10/3/01)

1691        Oct 17, The Massachusetts Bay Company along with Plymouth colony and Maine was incorporated into the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
    (HN, 10/17/98)(HNQ, 11/23/00)

1691        Father Eusebio Kino founded the Tumacacori mission 45 miles south of Tucson, Arizona.
    (SSFC, 3/29/02, p.C6)

1691        The British periodical Athenian Gazette published the first regular problem page. It was created by John Dunton who felt guilty for cheating on his wife.
    (Econ, 12/19/15, p.118)

1691        In northwest Romania an icon was painted at a monastery in Nicula. According to legend, the icon of the Weeping Virgin, wept for 26 days in 1699. The first recorded miracle occurred in 1701 when it is said to have cured an army officer's wife who was going blind. The church attached to the monastery is named after St. Mary and pilgrimages there are made every year on Aug. 15, Mary's name day. In 1977, the church burned down, but the icon was unharmed. In 2005 low water level revealed its skeleton.
    (AP, 8/15/05)

1691        The Spanish Inquisition killed 37 Jews from Mallorca for secretly practicing their faith. In 2011 the island’s leading government official issued an official condemnation for the killing.
    (SFC, 5/6/11, p.A2)

1691-1695    Ahmed II succeeded Suleiman II in the Ottoman House of Osman.
    (Ot, 1993, xvii)

1691-1765    Giovanni Paolo Panini, Italian artist. He was later known for his portrayals of Rome.
    (WSJ, 9/8/00, p.W2)

1692        Feb 13, In the Glen Coe highlands of Scotland, 38 members of the MacDonald clan, the smallest of the Clan Donald sects, were murdered by soldiers of the neighboring Campbell clan for not pledging allegiance to William of Orange. Ironically the pledge had been made but not communicated to the clans. The event is remembered as the Massacre of Glencoe.

1692        Feb 28, The Salem witch hunts began.
    (MC, 2/28/02)

1692        Feb 29, Sarah Goode and Tituba were accused of witchcraft in Salem, Massachusetts, sparking the hysteria that started the Salem Witch Trials.
    (HN, 2/29/00)

1692        Feb, William and Mary granted a royal license for postal service in the American colonies. It empowered Thomas Neale "to erect, settle and establish within the chief parts of their majesties' colonies and plantations in America, an office or offices for the receiving and dispatching letters and pacquets, and to receive, send and deliver the same under such rates and sums of money as the planters shall agree to give, and to hold and enjoy the same for the term of twenty-one years."
    (Econ, 8/20/11, p.32)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Postal_Service)

1692         Mar 1, Sarah Goode, Sarah Osborne and Tituba were arrested for the supposed practice of witchcraft in Salem, Mass.
    (HN, 3/1/98)

1692        Mar 14, Peter Musschenbroek, Dutch physician, physicist (Leyden jar), was born.
    (MC, 3/14/02)

1692        Mar 18, William Penn was deprived of his governing powers.
    (HN, 3/18/98)

1692        Mar 26, King Maximilian was installed as land guardian of South Netherlands.
    (SS, 3/26/02)

1692        Apr 8, Giuseppe Tartini, Italy, violinist, composer (Trillo del Diavolo), was born.
    (MC, 4/8/02)

1692        Apr 12, Giuseppe Tartini, composer (Istria), was born.
    (MC, 4/12/02)

1692        Apr 22, Edward Bishop was jailed for proposing flogging as cure for witchcraft.
    (MC, 4/22/02)

1692        May 18, Joseph Butler Wantage Berkshire, theologian, was born.
    (SC, 5/18/02)
1692        May 18, Elias Ashmole, antiquary, died.
    (SC, 5/18/02)

1692        May 29, Royal Hospital Founders Day was 1st celebrated.
    (SC, 5/29/02)
1692        May 29, Battle at La Hogue: An English & Dutch fleet beat France.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1692        Jun 7, An earthquake struck Jamaica. It rearranged the geology, splitting the rocks, turning mountains to lakes, and engulfed two-thirds of Port Royal. On that day and subsequently, five thousand of the inhabitants died.

1692        Jun 10, Bridget Bishop was hanged in Salem, Mass., for witchcraft. This was the first official execution of the Salem witch trials.
    (HN, 6/10/01) (WSJ, 1/18/08, p.W10)

1692        Jun 24, Kingston, Jamaica, was founded.
    (MC, 6/24/02)

1692        Aug 3, French forces under Marshal Luxembourg defeated the English at the Battle of Steenkerke in the Netherlands.
    (HN, 8/3/98)

1692        Aug 19, Five women were hanged in Salem, Massachusetts after being convicted of the crime of witchcraft. Fourteen more people were executed that year and 150 others are imprisoned. In 2006 the governor of Massachusetts signed legislation exonerating 5 women executed in the Salem witch trials of 1692, whose names had not yet been cleared. In 2015 Stacy Schiff authored “The Witches: Salem, 1692."
    (HN, 8/19/00)(WSJ, 9/15/06, p.A10)(Econ, 11/14/15, p.84)

1692        Sep 19, Giles Corey was pressed to death for standing mute and refusing to answer charges of witchcraft brought against him. He is the only person in America to have suffered this punishment.
    (HN, 9/19/98)

1692        Sep 21, Two men and seven women were executed for witchcraft in Salem, Massachusetts.
    (MC, 9/21/01)

1692        Sep 22, The last person was hanged for witchcraft in Salem, Mass.
    (MC, 9/22/01)

1692        Oct 8, Massachusetts Bay Governor Phipps ordered that spectral evidence no longer be admitted in witchcraft trials. Twenty people had died in the Salem witch trials. In 2005 Richard Francis authored “Judge Sewall’s Apology." Sewall was one of 3 judges presiding over the Salem trials. In 2006 the governor of Massachusetts signed legislation exonerating 5 women executed in the Salem witch trials of 1692, whose names had not yet been cleared.
    (http://tinyurl.com/rlj1)(WSJ, 8/9/05, p.D8)(WSJ, 9/15/06, p.A10)

1692        Oct 12, Giovanni Battista Vitali, composer, died at 60.
    (MC, 10/12/01)

1692        Oct 18, Charles Eugene de Croy, a field marshal fighting for Austrian forces, laid the cornerstone for a new great fortress at Petrovaradin (later Serbia), built to guard against the Ottoman Turks.

1692        Oct 25, Elisabeth Farnese, princess of Parma and queen of Spain, was born.
    (MC, 10/25/01)

1692        Nov 7, Johannes G. Schnabel, German author and surgeon (Insel Felsenburg), was born.
    (MC, 11/7/01)

1692        Nov 21, Carlo Fragoni, Italian poet, was born.
    (MC, 11/21/01)

1692        In Germany Rheinfels castle withstood a siege of 28,000 French troops sent by Louis XIV. French troops under Napoleon destroyed it in 1797.
    (SSFC, 11/29/15, p.G6)(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rheinfels_Castle)

1692        In Portugal Taylor’s restaurant and lodge was founded in Porto.
    (SFEC, 7/12/98, p.T10)

1692        In Russia Peter the Great granted the Stroganoff family their lands in perpetuity.
    (WSJ, 9/7/00, p.A24)

1693        Jan 11, An earthquake struck parts of southern Italy near Sicily, Calabria and Malta. It destroyed at least 70 towns and cities, seriously affecting an area of 5,600 square km (2,200 sq. miles) and causing the death of about 60,000 people.

1693        Jan 28, Anna "Ivanovna", Tsarina of Russia, was born. [see Feb 7]
    (HN, 1/28/99)

1693        Feb 7, Anna Ivanova Romanova, empress of Russia (1730-40) [NS], was born. [see Jan 28]
    (MC, 2/7/02)

1693        Feb 8, A charter was granted for the College of William and Mary in Williamsburg, Va.
    (AP, 2/8/99)

1693        Feb 13, The College of William and Mary opened in Virginia.
    (MC, 2/13/02)

1693        Mar 24, John Harrison (d.1776), Englishman who invented the chronometer, was born.

1693        Jun 27, The 1st woman's magazine "The Ladies' Mercury" was published in London.
    (SC, 6/27/02)

1693        Jul 4, Battle at Boussu-lez-Walcourt: French-English vs. Dutch army.

1693        Jul 29, The Army of the Grand Alliance was destroyed by the French at the Battle of Neerwinden in the Netherlands.
    (HN, 7/29/98)

1693        Aug 4, Dom Perignon invented champagne. [see 1688]
    (MC, 8/4/02)

1693        English naturalist John Ray noted that whales had more in common with 4-legged mammals than with fish.
    (PacDis, Winter/’96, p.14)

1693        Heidelberg was torched by the troops of Louis XIV in a dispute over a royal title.
    (SFEC, 9/26/99, p.T8)

1693        The French explorer Francois Leguat spent several months on Mauritius and looked hard for a dodo bird, but found none.
    (NH, 11/96, p.26)

1693        The history of the Amish church began with a schism in Switzerland within a group of Swiss and Alsatian Anabaptists led by Jakob Ammann (1656-1730).

1694        Apr 9, John Law (1671-1729), Scotsman, killed rival Edward Wilson in a duel over the affections of Elizabeth Villiers. Law found himself tried and convicted of murder and sentenced to death. He later managed to negotiate this down to a fine and fled after a brief imprisonment. Law traveled in Europe, played the casinos and studied finance. He set up a bank in France and issued paper money and established the Mississippi Company to exploit the French-controlled territories in America. [see 1720] In 2000 Janet Gleeson authored "Millionaire," a pseudo-biography of Law.
    (https://www.undiscoveredscotland.co.uk/usbiography/l/johnlaw.html)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R8)(WSJ, 6/30/00, p.W9)

1694        Jul 5, Composer Louis-Claude Daquin was born.

1694        Jul 27, The Bank of England received a royal charter as a commercial institution.  It was set up by William III, the ruler of Britain and the Netherlands, in the midst of a war against France. The mission of the bank was to provide war finance. Financiers agreed to lend the crown £1.2 million in return for a partial monopoly on the issue of currency.
    (SFC, 5/7/97, p.C2)(AP, 7/27/97)(Econ, 1/10/09, p.49)(Econ, 11/5/11, p.92)(Econ, 4/29/17, p.56)

1694        Sep 22, Philip Dormer Stanhope, Lord Chesterfield, statesman of letters whose writings provide a classic portrayal of an ideal 18th-century gentleman, was born. He introduced the Gregorian calendar in 1752.
    (HN, 9/22/98)(MC, 9/22/01)

1694        Nov 21, Francois Marie Arouet Voltaire (d.1778), French philosopher, historian, dramatist and essayist, was born. Born to middle class parents, he later attended the Jesuit college of Louis-le-Grand in Paris. The environment exposed him to the world of society and the arts. After the success of his tragedy "Oedipe" in 1718, he was pronounced the successor to the great dramatist Racine. He adopted the pen name Voltaire, though its exact origins and meaning are uncertain. The author of "Candide" (1759) and the "Philosophical Dictionary" (1764), Voltaire's works often attacked injustice and intolerance and epitomized the Age of Enlightenment. He wrote that "Self-love resembles the instrument by which we perpetuate the species. It is necessary, it is dear to us, it gives us pleasure and it has to be concealed." "All styles are good except the tiresome sort." "Love truth, but pardon error." "The great errors of the past are useful in many ways. One cannot remind oneself too often of crimes and disasters. These, no matter what people say, can be forestalled." S.G. Tellentyre said on Voltaire: "I disapprove of what you say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it."
    (WUD, 1994, p.1600)(G&M, 2/1/96, p.A-22)(AP, 7/17/97)(SFEC, 1/4/98, Z1p.8)(HNQ, 10/1/98)(SFEC, 10/11/98, Z1 p.8)(HN, 11/21/98)(HNQ, 11/8/00)

1694        Dec 28, George I of England got divorced. [He was crowned in 1714]
    (HN, 12/28/98)
1694        Dec 28, Queen Mary II (32) of England died after five years of joint rule with her husband, King William III. The new style calendar puts her death on Jan 7, 1695.
    (AP, 12/28/97)

1694        The Whigs of England persuaded King William that if he wanted to win what became the nine years’ war against France, he would have to embrace their political and economic agenda.
    (Econ, 10/17/09, p.98)
1694        The history of English death duties began with the Stamp Act of this year which placed 5s on probates over 20 pounds.
    (Econ, 10/27/07, p.90)(www.econlib.org/LIBRARY/Bastable/bastbPF29.html)

1694        Afaq Khoja (b.1626), a religious and political leader with the title of Khwaja in Kashgaria (in present-day Southern Xinjiang, China), died. The  Muhammad Yusuf tomb, later known as the Afaq Khoja mausoleum, was completed in 1640 and is considered the holiest Muslim site in Xinjiang.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Afaq_Khoja)(Econ., 1/2/21, p.30)

1694-1696    An outbreak of colic struck the region around Ulm, Germany. Eberhard Gockel, the city physician, was able to trace the cause to a wine sweetener that used a white oxide of lead.
    (NH, 7/96, p.48)

1694-1773     Lord Chesterfield, English author and statesman: "In scandal, as in robbery, the receiver is always as bad as the thief."
    (AP, 2/21/98)

1695        Jan 6, Giuseppe Sammartini, composer, was born.
    (MC, 1/6/02)

1695        Jan 7, Mary II Stuart 32), queen of England, died [OS=Dec 28 1694].
    (MC, 1/7/02)

1695        Jan 27, Mustafa II became the Ottoman sultan in Istanbul on the death of Amhed II. Mustafa ruled to 1703.
    (HN, 1/27/99)(Ot, 1993, xvii)

1695        Mar 7, In Britain John Trevor (1637-1717), the speaker of the House of Commons office, was found guilty of accepting a bribe of 1000 guineas (equivalent to around £1.6 million in 2009) from the City of London to aid the passage of a bill through the house. He was expelled from the House of Commons, a move which he initially resisted on the ground of ill-health, but retained his judicial position until his death.

1695        Apr 13, Jean de la Fontaine (b.1621), French fabulist and poet, died. He is known above all for his Fables, which provided a model for subsequent fabulists across Europe and numerous alternative versions in France.

1695        Apr 17, Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz (b.~1648), Mexican nun and poet, died of plague.
    (SSFC, 9/3/06, p.M3)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sor_Juana)

1695        Apr 20, Georg Caspar Weckler (63), composer, died.
    (MC, 4/20/02)

1695        Apr 30, William Congreve's "Love for Love," premiered in London.
    (MC, 4/30/02)

1695        Jul 8, Christian Huygens (66), Dutch inventor, astronomer, died. He generally wrote his name as Christiaan Hugens, and it is also sometimes written as Huyghens. In his book “Cosmotheros," published in 1698, he speculated on life on other planets.

1695        Sep 7, The pirate ship Fancy, commanded by English Capt. Henry Every (b.~1653), ambushed and captured the Ganj-i-Sawai, a royal vessel owned by Indian emperor Aurangzeb, then one of the world's most powerful men. Aboard were not only the worshipers returning from their pilgrimage, but tens of millions of dollars' worth of gold and silver. The pirates reportedly tortured and killed the men aboard the Indian ship and raped the women before escaping to the Bahamas.
    (WSJ, 11/22/08, p.W2)(AP, 3/31/21)

1695        Sep 11, Imperial troops under Eugene of Savoy defeated the Turks at the Battle of Zenta.
    (HN, 9/11/98)

1695        Sep 12, NY Jews petitioned governor Dongan for religious liberties.
    (MC, 9/12/01)

1695        Nov 20, Zumbi, a Brazilian leader of a hundred-year-old rebel slave group, was killed in an ambush in Palmares. In January 2003 legislation established November 20 as Black Consciousness Day.
    (http://tinyurl.com/gsg6wt8)(SFC, 8/16/01, p.A8)(SSFC, 11/18/12, p.G3)

1695        Nov 21, Henry Purcell (36), English composer (Indian Queen), died.
    (MC, 11/21/01)

1695        Nov 28, Giovanni Paulo Colonna (58), composer, died.
    (MC, 11/28/01)

c1695        Orazio Gentileschi, painted "St. Francis and the Angel."
    (WSJ, 4/28/98, p.A16)

1695        The Comediens Italiens were expelled from Paris for indiscretion in their opera parodies. The fair theaters took up where they left off with the use of vaudevilles and comedia dell’arte characters.
    (PNM, 1/25/98, p.4)

1695        The British Parliament voted not to renew the 1662 Licensing of the Press Act, which had censored “seditious, treasonable and unlicensed Bookes and Pamphlets." It was repealed by the Statute Law Revision Act 1863.
    (Econ, 5/23/09, p.57)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Licensing_of_the_Press_Act_1662)
1695        A London rag called “A Collection for Improvement of Husbandry and Trade" included what later was believed to be the first lonely-hearts advertisement: “A Gentleman About 30 Years of Age, that says he had a Very Good Estate, would willingly Match himself to some Good Young Gentlewoman that has a Fortune of £3,000."
    (Econ, 2/12/11, p.92)

1695        Portugal established colonial rule in the eastern half of Timor Island. The western side was incorporated into the Dutch East Indies.
    (SFC, 5/18/02, p.A15)

1695-1705     This decade was the coldest of the so-called Little Ice Age (1450-1850).
    (Bloomberg, 2/2/20)

1696        Jan 31, An uprising of undertakers took place after funeral reforms in Amsterdam.
    (MC, 1/31/02)

1696        Mar 5, Giambattista Giovanni Battista Tiepolo (d.1770), Venetian Rococo painter (Isaac's Sacrifice), was born. He painted for the Dolfin family in the 1720s. His work included: "The Annunciation" (c1765-1770), "Apelles Painting a Portrait of Campaspe," "Martyrdom of St. Agatha," "Sacrifice of Isaac," "The Finding of Moses," "Nobility and Virtue" (1743), "Satyress with a Putto," "Satyress With Two Putti and a Tambourine," and "Halberdier in a Landscape." His contemporaries included Francesco Fontebasso, Allesandro Longhi, and Louis-Joseph Le Lorrain.
    (AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.1483)(WSJ, 10/14/96, p.A14)(SFC, 3/25/97, p.E3)(MC, 3/5/02)

1696        Mar 7, English King William III departed Netherlands.
    (MC, 3/7/02)

1696        Jun 17, Jan Sobieski (72), King of Lithuania and Poland (1674-96), died.
    (MC, 6/17/02)(LHC, 5/21/03)

1696        Sep 23, A squall drove the ship Reformation aground on the east coast of Florida. Quaker merchant Jonathan Dickinson along with his family, 11 slaves, 8 seamen and Capt. Joseph Kirle were on route to Philadelphia from Jamaica.
    (ON, 9/00, p.3)

1696        Sep 27, Alfonsus M. de' Liguori, Italian theologian, bishop, and religious order founder, was born.
    (MC, 9/27/01)

1696        cSep 30, The Reformation castaways encountered a 2nd Indian tribe after paddling north for 2 days in a canoe provided by Indians at their initial landing. They were taken to a village, near present-day Vero Beach, and encountered castaways from the bark Nantwich, which had sailed from Port Royal in the same convoy.
    (ON, 9/00, p.5)

1696        Oct 6, Savoy Germany withdrew from the Grand Alliance.
    (HN, 10/6/98)

1696        Nov 2, In Florida a Spanish company of soldiers took the Dickinson and Nantwich party into custody and escorted them north to St. Augustine. They arrive on Nov 19 after 5 people died from exposure enroute.
    (ON, 9/00, p.5)

1696        Nov 11, Andrea Zani, composer, was born.
    (MC, 11/11/01)

1696        Nov 19, Louis Tocque, French painter, was born.
    (MC, 11/19/01)

1696        Dec 22, James Oglethorpe, England, General, author, colonizer of Georgia, was born.
    (MC, 12/22/01)

1696        August III (d.1738), son of August II, was born. He was crowned King of Lithuania and Poland in 1734.
    (SSFC, 4/25/04, p.D12)

1696        William Hogarth, British artist, was born. He believed that visual art could have a morally improving effect on viewers, and that individual betterment led to social improvement.
    (SFEC, 1/25/98, DB p.7)(SFC, 1/28/98, p.E1)

1696        A ship called the Sea Flower, used by pirates after they ditched the Fancy (commanded by English Capt. Henry Every), sailed along the Eastern US seaboard. It arrived with nearly four dozen slaves in Newport, Rhode Island, which became a major hub of the North American slave trade in the 18th century.
    (AP, 3/31/21)

1696        In the late 1600s the Xukuru Indians fought the Portuguese to a stand off in what was later referred to as the "War of the Barbarians."
    (WSJ, 8/20/99, p.A1)(http://tinyurl.com/bhqlp)

1696        The Chinese painter Bada Shanren created his work: "Ducks and Lotuses."
    (WSJ, 2/19/98, p.A20)

1696        In England a Jacobite plot to assassinate King William III and restore James II failed.
1696        In England Isaac Newton (1642-1727) became Warden of the Mint and started combing his hair.
    (Econ, 8/23/03, p.68)
1696        New York sea captain William Kidd reluctantly became a privateer for England and was expected to fight pirates on the open sea, seize their cargoes, and provide a hefty share of the spoils to the Crown. According to his British accusers, Kidd turned to piracy himself as the deadline for reporting to his employers in New York approached and he had not taken enough booty to fulfill his commission. Kidd himself did not know he was a wanted man until he dropped anchor in the West Indies in April 1699. He chose to surrender to the authorities and submit to a London trial, believing to the end that he could clear his name. After a trial in which important evidence in his favor was suppressed, William Kidd was found guilty of piracy and hanged.
    (HNPD, 8/27/00)
1696         Rotifers, a microscopic and near-microscopic pseudocoelomate group of asexual animals, were first described by Rev. John Harris. Other forms were described by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek in 1703.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rotifer)(Econ., 1/23/21, p.64)

1696        Jacques Ozanam, a visionary Frenchman, 1st proposed a “self-moving vehicle."
    (Econ, 2/5/05, p.77)

1696        Duke Eberhard Ludwig of Wurttenburg, Germany, learned of Eberhard Gockel’s findings on lead poisoning in wine and banned all lead-based wine additives.
    (NH, 7/96, p.49)

1696        The Hotel Elephant was founded in Weimar, the capital of the German state of Thuringia.
    (SFC, 8/3/99, p.A8)

1696        The Company of Scotland began raising money for a colony at Darien on the Isthmus of Panama. The venture collapsed after 4 years and only 3 of 13 ships returned home.
    (Econ, 8/28/10, p.74)

1697        Mar 9, Czar Peter the Great began tour of West Europe. [see Mar 21]
    (MC, 3/9/02)

1697        Mar 21, Czar Peter the Great began a tour through West Europe. [see Mar 9]
    (MC, 3/21/02)

1697        Apr 1, Abbe Prevost, French novelist, journalist (Manon Lescaut), was born.
    (MC, 4/1/02)

1697        Apr 16, Johann Gottlieb Gorner, composer, was born.
    (MC, 4/16/02)

1697        May 10, Jean Marie I'aine Leclair, composer, was born.
    (MC, 5/10/02)

1697        May 12, The fall of the Venetian Republic.
    (SFC, 5/10/97, p.A10)

1697        Jun 7, John Aubrey (b.1626), author of "Monumenta Britanica," died. In 1948 Anthony Powell authored the biography "John Aubrey." In 2015 Ruth Scurr authored “John Aubrey: My Own Life," an autobiography in the form of a diary that he never wrote.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Aubrey)(ON, 4/02, p.12)(Econ., 4/11/15, p.76)

1697        Sep 11, Prince Eugene of Savoy led the Austrians to victory over the Ottoman Turks at Senta (Serbia). This resulted in creating the conditions for the 1699 conclusion of the peace at Karlowitz.

1697        Sep 20, The Treaty of Ryswick was signed in Holland. It ended the War of the Grand Alliance (aka War of the League of Augsburg,1688-1697) between France and the Grand Alliance. Under the Treaty France’s King Louis XIV (1638-1715) recognized William III (1650-1702) as King of England. The Dutch received trade concessions, and France and the Grand Alliance members (Holland and the Austrian Hapsburgs) gave up most of the land they had conquered since 1679. The signees included France, England, Spain and Holland. By the Treaty of Ryswick, a portion of Hispaniola was formally ceded to France and became known as Saint-Domingue. The remaining Spanish section was called Santo Domingo.

1697        Oct 19, Settlers from Mexico sailed across the Sea of Cortez to build a new settlement.
    (SFEC, 5/18/97, p.T5)

1697        Oct 25, Settlers from Mexico founded the town of Loreto in honor of the Virgin Nuestra Senoro de Loreto, on the Baha Peninsula. It served as the capital of Baha California for the next 132 years.
    (SFEC, 5/18/97, p.T5)

1697          Oct 30, The Treaty of Ryswick ended the War of the Grand Alliance (aka War of the League of Augsburg,1688-1697) between France and the Grand Alliance. France’s King Louis XIV (1638-1715) recognized King William III’s (1650-1702) right to the English throne, the Dutch received trade concessions, and France and the Grand Alliance members (Holland and the Austrian Hapsburgs) gave up most of the land they had conquered since 1679.
    (HN, 10/30/98)(DoW, 1999)

1697        Nov 2, Constantine Huygens Jr, poet, painter and cartoonist, was buried.
    (MC, 11/2/01)

1697        Nov 10, William Hogarth, English caricaturist, was born.
    (HN, 11/10/00)

1697        Dec 2, St. Paul's Cathedral opened in London.
    (MC, 12/2/01)

1697        William Dampier (1651-1715), English explorer, naturalist and privateer, authored “A New Voyage Around the World." A sequel appeared 2 years later. In 2004 Diana and Michael Preston authored "A Pirate of Exquisite Mind: Explorer, Naturalist and Bucaneer," a biography of Dampier.
    (WSJ, 4/16/04, p.W8)(NH, 6/4/04, p.59)

1697        Eberhard Gockel published: "A Remarkable Account of the Previously Unknown Wine Disease."
    (NH, 7/96, p.49)

1697        Charles Perrault first penned "La Petit Chaperon Rouge" (Little Red Riding Hood) as a sexual morality tale for the loose ladies of Louis XIV’s court. In 2002 Catherine Orenstein authored "Little Red Riding Hood Uncloaked: Sex, Morality and the Evolution of a Fairy Tale."
    (WSJ, 8/7/02, p.D14)(NW, 8/26/02, p.57)

1697        The play "Le Distrait" by Regnard was written and later accompanied by the music of Joseph Haydn.
    (WSJ, 7/31/97, p.A16)

1697        In Boston’s Old South Church Judge Sewall told the congregation that he accepted “blame and shame" for the 1692 Salem witch trials. None of the other judges joined him in repenting.
    (Econ, 8/6/05, p.70)

1697        Hannah Duston in what is now New Hampshire was attacked and captured by 12 Indians who killed her daughter. She managed to kill 10 of them with a knife and took home their scalps for the bounty money. She was the first woman in the US to have a statue erected in her honor.
    (SFEC, 11/17/96, zone 1 p.2)

1697        Two relatives of Galdan Boshugtu Khan surrendered to China’s Qing Kangxi Emperor. Their people were then organized into two Oolod banners and resettled in modern Bayankhongor Province, Mongolia. The Dzungar (or Zunghar), Oirat Mongols who lived in an area that stretched from the west end of the Great Wall of China to present-day eastern Kazakhstan and from present-day northern Kyrgyzstan to southern Siberia (most of which is located in present-day Xinjiang), were the last nomadic empire to threaten China.

1697        The Royal Palace in Stockholm, Sweden, burned down. It was rebuilt in Italian Baroque style with 608 rooms.
    (SSFC, 8/19/07, p.G4)

1697-1718    Charles XII (1682-1718) was king of Sweden.
    (WUD, 1994, p.249)(SFC, 8/17/96, p.E5)

1697-1798    Antonio Canal, Italian topographical view painter. He was the uncle to Bernardo Belotto.
    (WSJ, 9/13/01, p.A18)

1697-1773    Johann Quantz, flutist-composer.
    (LGC-HCS, p.44)

1698        Jan 1, The Abenaki  [Abnaki] Indians and the Massachusetts colonists signed a treaty ending the conflict in New England.
    (HN, 1/1/99)

1698        Apr 5, Georg Gottfried Wagner, composer, was born.
    (MC, 4/5/02)

1698        Aug 18, After invading Denmark and capturing Sweden, Charles XII of Sweden forced Frederick IV of Denmark to sign the Peace of Travendal.
    (HN, 8/18/98)

1698        Aug 25, Czar Peter the Great returned to Moscow after his trip through West-Europe.
    (MC, 8/25/02)

1698        Sep 5, Russia's Peter the Great imposed a tax on beards.
    (AP, 9/5/97)

1698        Oct 23, Ange-Jacques Gabriel, French court architect (Place de la Concorde), was born.
    (MC, 10/23/01)

1698        Missionary John St. Cosme celebrated the first Mass in what became St. Louis, Mo.
    (SFC, 1/28/99, p.A3)

1698        The Spanish established Presidio Santa Maria de Galve (later Pensacola, Florida).
    (AP, 3/24/06)

1698        Elias "Red Cap " Ball sailed from England to claim his inheritance, a plantation called Comingtee on the banks of the Cooper River in South Carolina. The Ball family kept a history and in 1998 descendant Edward Ball published "Slaves in the Family."
    (SFEC, 2/22/98, BR p.1,8)(SFEC, 4/19/98, p.A22)

1698        The Virginia statehouse at Jamestown burned and the capital was moved to Williamsburg.
    (Arch, 1/06, p.26)

1698        The British pint, a 568 milliliter pour, was introduced. Bars were allowed to serve beer only as a pint, or a third or half of that measure. This became the standard size for beer and cider.
    (SFC, 1/5/11, p.A2)
1698        English engineer Thomas Savery devised a way to pump water out of mines by the use of condensed steam.
    (HNQ, 1/18/01)

1698        Abraham or Ibrahim (Abram Petrovich Gannibal) was born about this time in the Eritrean highland, north of the Mareb River in a town called Logon. Abraham's father was a local chief or a "prince". Within a few years Turks invaded the area and abducted Abraham following a battle lost by his father. Abraham spent a year in Constantinople and was sold with a bribe for service to Russia’s Peter the Great.

1698        Peter the Great spent several months at the Shipwright’s Palace in England learning how to build the Russian navy.
    (WSJ, 5/24/00, p.A24)

1698-1701    The Portuguese built the Old Fort in Stone Town on Zanzibar to defend against the sultan of Oman.
    (SFEC, 4/23/00, p.T6)

1699        Jan 14, Massachusetts held a day of fasting for wrongly persecuting "witches."
    (MC, 1/14/02)

1699        Jan 26, The Treaty of Karlowitz, Croatia, ended the war between Austria and the Turks.
    (HN, 1/26/99)(www.san.beck.org/1-10-Ottoman1300-1730.html)

1699        Feb 4, Czar Peter the Great executed 350 rebellious Streltsi in Moscow.
    (MC, 2/4/02)

1699        Mar 4, Jews were expelled from Lubeck, Germany.
    (SC, 3/4/02)

1699        Mar 23, John Bartram, naturalist, explorer, father of American botany, was born.
    (SS, 3/23/02)

1699        Apr 17, Robert Blair, Scottish poet (Grave), was born.
    (MC, 4/17/02)

1699        Apr 21, Jean Racine (59), French playwright (Phèdre), died.
    (MC, 4/21/02)

1699        Jul 6, Pirate Capt. William Kidd was captured in Boston.
    (MC, 7/6/02)

1699        Dec 20, Peter the Great ordered Russian New Year changed from Sept 1 to Jan 1.
    (MC, 12/20/01)

1699        Jonathan Dickinson, after resuming his mercantile business in Philadelphia, authored "God’s Protecting Providence," a journal of his Florida ordeal.
    (ON, 9/00, p.5)

1699        A wooden wall on the northern edge of New Amsterdam (later NYC), built for protection from the Indians, was destroyed by the British.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R43)

1699        Williamsburg became the capital of Virginia and served as the capital of the British colony until 1780.
    (SSFC, 12/17/00, p.T7)(AH, 6/07, p.27)

1699        Prince Eugene of Savoy looted and burned Sarajevo, Bosnia.
    (SSFC, 12/4/05, p.F5)

1699        The British established a rule over the colonies that all wool trade must be with England, and violations were punishable by stiff fines.
    (NG, 5.1988, pp. 583)
1699        The Jews in London commissioned Joseph Avis, a Quaker, to build a synagogue on a street called Bevis Marks.
    (WSJ, 10/28/06, p.P16)

1699        The Sikhs were founded by a series of 10 prophets or gurus and believe in one God but many paths to heaven. In 1999 some 20,000 thousands of Sikhs gathered to march in SF on the 300th anniversary of their religion. [see Nanak c1500, 1519]
    (SFEC, 4/25/99, p.C1)

1699        The Republic of Lucca promulgated the first regulations designed to prevent the spread of tuberculosis.
    (WP, 1952, p.29)

1699        References from the Ching dynasty of China refer to the Diaoyu Island located between Taiwan and Okinawa.
    (SFEC, 10/8/96, A8)

1699        The King of Spain, due to competition, banned the production of wine in the Americas, except for that made by the church.
    (SFEC, 11/7/99, p.T8)

1699-1783    Johann Adolph Hasse, popular composer of now-forgotten operas.
    (LGC-HCS, p.32)

1699-1799    Jean Baptiste Simeon Chardin, French painter.
    (WSJ, 7/6/00, p.A24)

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