Return to home1661 Feb 5,
Kangxi ascended the throne of China as a child. He was the 1st of
three Qing emperors who reigned for 133 years until 1795. Kangxi
ruled over China until 1722. The film “Forbidden City: The Great
Within," depicts the period. Kangxi was followed by Yongzheng and
p.A-12)(Econ, 11/5/05, p.90)
1661 Mar 9, Cardinal Jules
Mazarin (58), the chief minister of France, died, leaving King Louis
the 14th in full control.
1661 Mar 19, English occupied
St. Andrew Island and other Courlander possessions in Gambia. They
renamed the island James Island with administration by the Royal
Adventurers in Africa Company.
1661 Mar 24, William Leddra
became the last Quaker to be hanged in Boston. Quakers were last
hanged on Boston Common. Charles II ordered the executions stopped.
(WSJ, 4/4/01, p.A18)(MC, 3/24/02)
1661 Apr 23, English king
Charles II was crowned in London.
1661 Apr 29, Chinese Ming
dynasty occupied Taiwan.
1661 May 25, King Charles II
married Portuguese princess Catherina the Bragança. India’s city of
Mumbai, formed from seven islands, was given by Portugal to Charels
II of England as dowry for his marriage to Catherine of Braganza.
(SC, 5/25/02)(Econ, 12/22/12, p.119)
1661 May 27, Archibald Campbell
(~53), Scottish politician, was beheaded.
1661 Jun 3, Gottfried Scheidt
(67), composer, died.
1661 Jun 5, Isaac Newton was
admitted as a student to Trinity College, Cambridge.
1661 Aug 6, Holland sold Brazil
to Portugal for 8 million guilders.
1661 Aug 7, Benedetta Carlini
(b.1590), a Catholic mystic and lesbian nun who lived in
counter-reformation Italy, died after having spent thirty-five years
in prison. In 2021 a biographical film about Benedetta Carlini
called Benedetta, directed by Paul Verhoeven, was released.
1661 Aug 29, Louis Couperin
(b.1626), French composer, died.
1661 Oct 1, A yacht race from
Greenwich to Gravesend between King Charles and James, Duke of York,
made the sport fashionable.
1661 Oct 11, Melchior de
Polignac, French diplomat (Anti-Lucretius), was born.
1661 Oct 13, "I went to see
Major General Harrison being drawn and quartered. He was
looking as cheerful as any man could in that condition." Harrison
(b.1606) had sided with Parliament in the English Civil War. During
the Interregnum he was a leader of the Fifth Monarchists. In 1649 he
signed the death warrant of Charles I and in 1660, shortly after the
Restoration, he was found guilty of regicide.
1661 Massachusetts merchant
William Payne willed a spectacular 35-acre seafront property for the
benefit of public school children, decreeing the land should never
be sold or wasted. The land gift was intended to help Ipswich comply
with a 1647 colonial law that required communities with more than
100 families to set up a grammar school to prepare students for
admission to Harvard.
1661 White Virginians who
wanted to keep their servants legalized the enslavement of African
(SFC, 12/18/96, p.A25)
1661 The Bourla Theatre of
Antwerp, Belgium can be traced back to this date.
(Hem., 7/95, p.28)
1661 Robert Boyle (1627-1691),
English chemist, authored “The Sceptical Chymist: or
Chymico-Physical Doubts & Paradoxes."
1661 Charles II appointed
Christopher Wren (29) assistant to the surveyor general of the
king’s works (assistant to the royal architect).
(NYTBR, 2/2/03, p.12)
1661 Henry Slingsby, master of
the London Mint, proposed the "standard solution" a mix of fiat
rules and free markets, to resolve the ongoing problem of money
supply and coin value. Britain adopted the idea in 1816 and the US
followed in 1853.
(WSJ, 4/2/02, p.A20)
1661 In China the Manchus
forced the whole population of the southern coast to move 30 km
inland to prevent contact with the outside world.
(Econ., 9/12/20, p.71)
1661 The Paris Opera Ballet was
(WSJ, 7/10/96, p.A16)
1661 In France Nicolas Fouquet,
treasurer to Louis XIV, invited the king to his new chateau Vaux le
Vicomte. The king, peeved by the wealth of the nonroyal, ordered his
arrest and had him imprisoned for embezzlement. The property was
confiscated and Louis hired Fouquet's architects and designers to
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R8)
1661 In Japan the Takanoshi
family started producing food seasonings and became known for its
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)
1661 Sweden became the first
European country to introduce bank notes.
1661-1714 Peter Strudel, Austrian painter. He was
a court painter of the Habsburgs and founded an art school that
later became the Academy of Fine Arts in Vienna.
(StuAus, April '95, p.47)
1661-1722 Di Zi Gui (Standards for being a Good
Pupil and Child) was written in the Qing Dynasty during the reign of
the Kangxi Emperor (r. 1661-1722) by Li Yuxiu.
1662 Jan 27, 1st American lime
kiln began operation in Providence, RI.
1662 Feb 11, The Prins Willem,
built in 1643 as flagship of the Dutch East India Company, sank off
Madagascar. A replica, built in the 1980s, burned down at Den Helder
1662 Apr 23, Connecticut was
chartered as an English colony.
1662 Apr 27, Netherlands and
France signed a treaty of alliance in Paris.
1662 May 3, John Winthrop the
Younger, the son of the first governor of Massachusetts was honored
by being made a fellow of the Royal Society, England's new
scientific society. Winthrop gained a new charter from the king,
uniting the colonies of Connecticut and New Haven.
1662 Jun, Mary Sanford (~39) of
Hartford, Connecticut, was convicted of “familiarity with Satan."
Historians later surmised that she was hanged for her crimes. In
2006 a descendant of Sanford worked on legislation to clear her
ancestor as well as a dozen or so other women and men convicted for
witchcraft in Connecticut from 1647 to the 1660s.
(WSJ, 9/15/06, p.A1)
1662 Aug 24, An Act of
Uniformity, a part of the Clarendon Code (1661-1665), was passed by
the English Parliament and required that England's college fellows
and clergymen accept the newly published Book of Common Prayer.
Charles II attempted to suspend the operation of the Clarendon Code
by issuing a 2nd Declaration of Indulgence, but opposition from
Parliament forced him to retract it in 1663.
1662 Sep 12, Gov. Berkley of
Virginia was denied his attempts to repeal the Navigation Acts.
1662 Oct 26, Charles II of
England sold Dunkirk to France.
1662 Moliere authored his
satirical play “The School for Wives."
(SFC, 8/17/05, p.G9)
1662 Edward Collier painted a
still life that sold for $442,500 in 1999.
(WSJ, 6/4/99, p.W10)
1662 Rembrandt depicted himself
in a painting as the fifth-century Greek painter Zeuxis. His work
this year also included “The Syndics of the Clothmakers' Guild."
(WSJ, 8/11/99, p.A16)(Econ, 6/23/07, p.96)
1662 Cavalli composed his opera
"Ercole Amante" (Hercules in Love). It was written to celebrate the
marriage of Louis XIV and Maria Theresa of Austria.
(WSJ, 6/21/99, p.A24)
1662 John Bowne (34) was
arrested in Vlissingen (later Flushing, Queens, NY) on orders from
Gov. Peter Stuyvesant for aiding and abetting an “abomination"
(Quakerism). In a hearing 19 months later Bowne invoked a 1657
declaration of religious freedom called the Flushing Remonstrance.
(SSFC, 4/17/05, Par p.12)
1662 The British Parliament
approved the Licensing of the Press Act, which censored “seditious,
treasonable and unlicensed Bookes and Pamphlets." It failed renewal
in 1695 and was repealed by the Statute Law Revision Act 1863.
1662 British law established
that mourning clothes had to be made of English wool. [see 1667]
(NG, 5.1988, pp. 574)
1662 Englishman Christopher
Merret presented a paper to the Royal Society on making sparkling
wine. This was noted in the 1998 "World Encyclopedia of Champagne
and Sparkling Wine" by Tom Stevenson.
(WSJ, 10/16/98, p.W13)
1662 London haberdasher John
Graunt published the first quantitative account of death.
(Econ, 4/29/17, p.9)
1662 John Tradescant the
younger (b.1608), English traveler, horticulturalist, collector and
gardener to Queen Henrietta Maria, died. His home in South Lambeth,
called The Ark, was filled with his Museum Tradescantianum, a
collection of rarities which included birds, fish, shells, insects,
minerals, coins, medals and unusual plants. After his death the
collection went to Elias Ashmole, who subsequently presented it to
Oxford University, where it formed the basis of the Ashmolean
Museum. In 2008 Jennifer Potter authored “Strange Blooms: The
Curious Lives and Adventures of the John Tradescants.
1662 Dutch fortune seekers
killed over 400 members of the Nayar warrior caste in Kerala, India.
(SFEM, 7/18/99, p.12)
1662-1938 This period is examined by Judy L. Klein
in Statistical Visions in Time: a History of Time Series Analysis:
1662-1938, from Cambridge Univ. Press.
(WSJ, 9/28/95, p.A-18)
1663 Jan 6, There was a great
earthquake in New England.
1663 Jan 10, King Charles II
affirmed the charter of Royal African Company.
1663 Jan 29, Robert Sanderson,
Bishop of Lincoln (1660-63), died.
1663 Feb 12, Cotton Mather
(d.1728), American clergyman and witchcraft specialist, was born.
(WUD, 1994, p.884)(MC, 2/12/02)
1663 Feb 28, Thomas Newcomen,
English co-inventor of the steam engine, was born.
1663 Mar 7, Tomaso Antonio
Vitali, composer, was born.
1663 Mar 24, Charles II of
England awarded lands known as Carolina in America to eight members
of the nobility who assisted in his restoration. [see Apr 6]
1663 Apr 6, King Charles II
signed the Carolina Charter. [see Mar 24]
1663 Apr 10, Samuel Pepys,
London-based diarist, noted that he had enjoyed a French wine called
Ho Bryan at the Royal Oak Tavern. This same year the Pontacs, a top
wine-making family in Bordeaux, founded a fashionable London
restaurant called Pontack’s Head. Ho Bryan later came to be called
Chateau Haut Brion.
(Econ, 12/19/09, p.131)
1663 Apr 18, Osman declared war
1663 May 7, Theatre Royal in
Drury Lane, London, opened.
1663 May 20, William Bradford,
printer, was born.
1663 Jul 15, King Charles II of
England granted John Clarke a charter for the colony of Rhode Island
guaranteeing freedom of worship. He granted the charter giving the
Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations an elected
governor and legislature. Roger Williams (1603-1683) authored the
Rhode Island and Providence Plantation Charter, which stated that
religion and conscience should never be restrained by civil
(http://avalon.law.yale.edu/17th_century/ri04.asp)(AH, 4/07, p.21)
1663 Jul 27, British Parliament
passed a second Navigation Act, requiring all goods bound for the
colonies be sent in British ships from British ports.
1663 Sep 13, The 1st serious
American slave conspiracy occurred in Virginia.
1663 Dec 5, Severo Bonini (80),
1663 Rembrandt depicted himself
as a bit player in his painting "The Raising of the Cross."
(WSJ, 8/11/99, p.A16)
1663 Reverend John Eliot
(1604-1690) published the first Bible in North America in the
Algonquian language. An English missionary in Massachusetts called
the "Apostle to the Indians," the Puritan Eliot learned the
Algonquian language and preached to the Indians. He translated the
Bible into Algonquian and published it in 1663.
1663 The 1998 historic thriller
"An Instance of the Fingerpost" by Iain Pears was set in this year.
(WSJ, 3/18/98, p.A20)
1663 Robert Boyle (1627-1691),
English chemist and author of “The Sceptical Chymist: or
Chymico-Physical Doubts & Paradoxes" (1661), wrote an essay
apologizing for his interest in chrysopoeia, the chemical pursuit of
transmutation of base metals into gold.
1663 London featured 82 coffee
(Econ, 12/20/03, p.89)
1663 The 1st turnpike was
authorized to collect tolls in order to cover maintenance costs.
(Econ, 10/23/04, p.78)
1663 Quebec became the capital
of New France.
1663 The Reichstag, the
imperial parliament of the Holy Roman Empire, began sitting
(Econ, 4/16/15, p.72)
1663 Abraham Blauvelt, Dutch
pirate, died about this time. In the early 1630's He explored the
coasts of Honduras and Nicaragua. Afterwards, he went to England and
with a proposal for a settlement at site in Nicaragua, which is near
the town and river of Bluefields, Nicaragua.
1663-1665 Jan Steen, Dutch painter, painted "The
(SFC, 6/4/96, p.E5)
1663-1742 Jean Baptiste Massillon, French
clergyman: "To be proud and inaccessible is to be timid and weak."
1663-1789 This period in US history is covered in
the 1st volume of the Oxford History of the US by Robert Middlekauff
titled: "The Glorious Cause: The American Revolution, 1663-1789."
(WSJ, 6/7/96, p.A12)
1664 Jan 21, Count Miklos of
Zrinyi set out to battle the Turkish invasion army.
1664 Mar 12, England’s King
Charles II granted land in the New World, known as New Netherland
(later New Jersey), to his brother James, the Duke of York.
(HN, 3/12/98)(AP, 3/12/08)
1664 Mar 22, Charles II gave
large tracks of land from west of the Connecticut River to the east
of Delaware Bay in North America to his brother James, the Duke of
York and Albany. The entire Hudson Valley and New Amsterdam was
given to James.
(AP, 3/22/99)(ON, 4/00, p.2)
1664 May 28, 1st Baptist Church
was organized (Boston).
1664 May, Benoit Rencorel, a
shepherd girl in the French Alps, alleged that she began receiving
apparitions of the Virgin Mary. Her apparitions continued to 1718.
In 2008 the Vatican officially recognized the “supernatural origin"
of the apparitions and made the site of Notre-Dame-du-Laus an
official pilgrimage site.
(SFC, 5/5/08, p.A13)
1664 Jun 24, New Jersey, named
after the Isle of Jersey, was founded.
1664 Jul 21, Matthew Prior,
English poet, was born.
1664 Jul 23, Wealthy non-church
members in Massachusetts were given the right to vote.
1664 Jul 23, 4 British ships
arrived in Boston to drive the Dutch out of NY.
1664 Aug 1, The Turkish army
was defeated by French and German troops at St. Gotthard, Hungary.
1664 Aug 4, Louis Lully,
composer, was born.
1664 Aug 6, Johann Christoph
Schmidt, composer, was born.
1664 Aug 28, Four English
warships under Colonel Richard Nicolls sailed into New Amsterdam.
450 English soldiers disembarked and took control of Brooklyn, a
village of mostly English settlers.
(ON, 4/00, p.2)
1664 Aug 29, Adriaen
Pieck/Gerrit de Ferry patented a wooden firespout in Amsterdam.
1664 Sep 5, After days of
negotiation, the Dutch settlement of New Amsterdam surrendered to
the British, who would rename it New York. The citizens of New
Amsterdam petitioned Peter Stuyvesant to surrender to the English.
The "Articles of Capitulation" guaranteed free trade, religious
liberty and a form of local representation. In 2004 Russell Shorto
authored "The Island At the Center of the World," a history of New
York's Dutch period.
(HN, 9/5/98)(ON, 4/00, p.3)(WSJ, 3/16/04, p.D6)
1664 Sep 8, The Dutch formally
surrendered New Amsterdam to 300 English soldiers. The British soon
renamed it New York.
(AP, 9/8/97)(ON, 4/00, p.3)
1664 Sep 20, Maryland passed
the 1st anti-amalgamation law to stop intermarriage of English women
and black men.
1664 Stephen Blake wrote "The
Compleat Gardeners Practices."
(WSJ, 7/7/98, p.A14)
1664 Moliere wrote Tartuffe,
his satire on holier-than-thou hypocrites and their fatuous dupes.
(SFC, 8/16/96, p.D1)
1664 The Jesuit scholar
Athanasius Kircher wrote the "Mundus subterraneus." His work also
included an ethnography of China and major treatises on music and
magnetism. He also assembled in Rome a natural history collection.
(NH, 5/97, p.58)(NH, 6/00, p.32)
1664 There was no litigation in
London, England due to the Black plague.
(SFC, 7/14/96, zone 1 p.2)
1664 Michael Sweerts (b.1618),
Belgium-born artist, died in Goa, India. He did much of his
important work in Rome, moved to the Netherlands, and traveled in
Asia with a band of missionaries. His major work included a series
depicting the Seven Acts of Mercy.
(WSJ, 7/2/02, p.D7)
1664-1667 The Second Anglo-Dutch War.
1664-1769 The French East India Company was
chartered to carry on trade in the East Indies.
(WUD, 1994, p.449)
1665 Jan 12, Pierre de Fermat
(b.1601), French lawyer, mathematician (Fermat’s Principle), died.
His equation xn + yn = zn is called Fermat’s Last Theorem and
remained unproven for many years. The history of its resolution and
final proof by Andrew Wiles is told by Amir D. Aczel in his 1996
book Fermat’s Last Theorem. "Fermat’s Enigma: The Epic Quest to
Solve the World’s Greatest Mathematical Problem" by Simon Singh was
published in 1997. In 1905 Paul Wolfskehl, a German mathematician,
bequeathed a reward of 100,000 marks to whoever could find a proof
to Fermat’s "last theorem." It stumped mathematicians until
1993, when Andrew John Wiles made a breakthrough.
(MC, 1/12/02)(SFC, 10/2/02, p.D7)
1665 Feb 6, Anne Stuart, queen
of England (1702-14), was born.
1665 Feb 12, Rudolph J.
Camerarius, German botanist, physician (sexuality plant), was born.
1665 Feb 20, Michel Dorigny
(b.1617), French painter, died.
1665 Mar 4, English King
Charles II declared war on Netherlands.
1665 Mar 6, Philosophical
Transactions of Royal Society started publishing.
1665 Mar 11, A new legal code
was approved for the Dutch and English towns, guaranteeing religious
1665 May 15, Pope Alexander VII
1665 May 31, Jerusalem's rabbi
Sjabtai Tswi proclaimed himself Messiah.
1665 Jun 12, England installed
a municipal government in New York, formerly the Dutch settlement of
1665 Aug 15-22, The London
weekly "Bill of Mortality" recorded 5,568 fatalities with teeth
holding the no. 5 spot. 4,237 were killed by the plague.
(SFEC, 8/2/98, BR p.7)
1665 Aug 27, "Ye Bare & Ye
Cubb," the 1st play performed in N. America, was performed at
1665 Nov 7, The London Gazette,
the oldest surviving journal, was first published.
1665 Dec 4, Jean Racine's
"Alexandre le Grand," premiered in Paris.
c1665 Gerrit Dou, Dutch artist,
painted "Woman at the Clavichord" and a "Self-Portrait" in which he
(WSJ, 5/24/00, p.A24)
1665 Jacob van Ochtervelt
(1634-1682), Dutch artist, painted his “Street Musicians in the
Doorway of a House."
1665 Robert Hooke authored
“Micrographia," in which he described not only the microscopic
world, but also astronomy, geology and the nature of light. This was
the first great scientific book written in English.
(WSJ, 4/14/07, p.P10)
1665 The 1st horse racing track
in America was laid out on Long Island.
(SFEC, 10/17/99, Z1 p.3)
1665 In France Louis XIV began
to systematically hollow out formal guarantees to the Protestants
until they became little more than scraps of paper.
(WSJ, 1/11/98, p.R23)
1665 French finance minister
Jean-Baptiste Colbert founded the Saint Gobain company to replace
imports of Venetian glass with home-made wares. The glass was to be
used for the mirrors at the Palace of Versailles.
(Econ, 3/25/06, p.71)(Econ, 11/17/07, p.74)
1665 The villagers of Eyam in
Derbyshire, England, voluntarily isolated themselves so as not to
spread the plague. 250 of 350 people died and the town became known
as the Plague Village.
(SFEM, 10/11/98, p.22)
1665 Joseph Smith arrived in
North America and became secretary to William Penn.
(SFC, 8/21/97, p.C4)
1665 The British briefly
recaptured the Banda Island of Run from the Dutch.
(WSJ, 5/21/99, p.W7)
1665 In London at least 68,000
people died of the plague this year. In 1722 Daniel Defoe published
his novel “A Journal of the Plague Year." The novel posed as a
historical document covering the London plague. The Lord Mayor of
London exterminated all the city’s cats and dogs, which allowed the
rats, the real transmitters of the disease, to increase
(NG, 5/88, p.684)(WSJ, 9/9/06, p.P8)(WSJ,
1665 Nicolas Poussin (b.1594),
painter, known as the founder of French Classicism, died. He spent
most of his career in Rome which he reached at age 30 in 1624. His
Greco-Romanism work includes "The Death of Chione" (1622-1623) and
"The Abduction of the Sabine Women." [WUD ends his life in 1655] In
1997 Elizabeth Cropper and Charles Dempsey authored "Nicholas
Poussin: Friendship and the Love of Painting."
(WSJ, 2/26/96, p.A-10)(AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994,
p.1126)(SFC,11/22/97, p.D5)(WSJ, 11/6/02, p.D8)y
1665 Dutch artist Johannes
Vermeer painted his "Girl With a Pearl Earring" about this time.
[see Vermeer, 1632-1675] In 1999 Tracy Chevalier authored the novel
"Girl With a Pearl Earring," a fictionalization based on one of
(WSJ, 11/15/95, p.A-20)(SFEC, 1/2/00, BR
p.3)(SFC, 1/24/13, p.E1)
1665-1666 Over a span of 18 months Isaac Newton
invented calculus, explained how gravity works, and discovered his
laws of motion. This period came to be called his annus mirabilis.
(Econ, 1/1/05, p.59)
1666 Jan 22, Shah Jahan died.
He had built the Taj Mahal.
(HT, 4/97, p.24)
1666 Feb 15, Antonio M.
Valsalva, Italian anatomist (eardrums, glottis), was born.
1666 Apr 19, Sarah Kembel
Knight, diarist, was born.
1666 Aug 4, Johan Evertsen,
Italian admiral of Zeeland, was lynched in Brielle.
1666 Sep 2, The Great Fire of
London, having started at Pudding Lane, began to demolish about
four-fifths of London. It started at the house of King Charles II's
baker, Thomas Farrinor, after he forgot to extinguish his oven. The
flames raged uncontrollably for the next few days, helped along by
the wind, as well as by warehouses full of oil and other flammable
substances. Approximately 13,200 houses, 90 churches and 50 livery
company halls burned down or exploded. But the fire claimed only 16
lives, and it actually helped impede the spread of the deadly Black
Plague, as most of the disease-carrying rats were killed in the
(CFA, '96, p.54)(AP, 9/2/97)(HNPD, 9/2/98)(HNQ,
1666 Sep 5, The great fire of
London, begun on Sep 2, was extinguished. Old St. Paul’s was among
the 87 churches burned down.
1666 Nov 5, Attilio Ariosti,
composer, was born.
1666 Nov 14, Samuel Pepys
reported the on 1st blood transfusion, which was between dogs.
(HFA, '96, p.42)(MC, 11/14/01)
1666 Dec 5, Francesco Antonio
Nicola Scarlatti, composer, was born.
c1666 Sir Peter Lely painted
Barbara Villiers 1640-1709, mistress to King Charles II, as a
Shepherdess. Charles had raised her stature to Countess of
Castlemaine and later Duchess of Cleveland.
(WSJ, 3/7/02, p.A22)
1666 Moliere wrote his play The
Misanthrope. It condemned the falseness and intrigue of French
(WSJ, 10/11/95, p. A-10)
1666 Pierre-Paul Riquet
convinced French finance minister Colbert for a canal from the
Mediterranean port of Sete to Toulouse and the River Garonne. He
oversaw the Canal du Midi project for 15 years and died 6 months
before it was completed.
(SSFC, 1/14/01, p.T9)
1666 King Charles II
granted 50 men of Bruges the right to fish UK waters for “eternity"
after staying in the city during his 1656 to 1659 exile after the
English Civil War that ended with the execution of his father,
Charles I. This was confirmed by a UK lawyer in 1820.
(The Telegraph, 10/9/20)
1666 John Locke met Sir Anthony
Ashley Cooper, later the Earl of Shaftsbury, and served him as
physician, secretary and counselor for the next 15 years.
1666 The plague decimated
London and Isaac Newton moved to the country. He had already
discovered the binomial theorem at Cambridge and was offered the
post of professor of mathematics. Newton formulated his law of
1666 The French Academy of
Sciences was founded.
(Econ, 1/9/10, p.57)
1666 Giovanni Domenico Cassini
(1625-1712), Italian-born French astronomer, discovered one of the
polar ice caps of Mars.
1666 Giovanni Francesco
Barbieri Guercino, Italian painter, died. His work included "Erminia
finding the wounded Tancred." In 1996 it was purchased by the
Scottish National Gallery for $3.1 million.
(TOH, 1982, p.1591d)(SFC, 8/17/96, p.E4)
1666 Pier Francesco Mola
(b.1612), Italian Baroque artist, died in Rome.
1666 Franz Hals (b.1581?),
painter, died in the Oudemannenhuis almshouse in Haarlem. The
almshouse later became the Frans Hals Museum.
(SFEC, 9/3/00, p.T7)
1666 In Cholula, Mexico, the
chapel Nuestra de los Remedios was built atop a Teotihuacan pyramid.
(SFEC, 11/8/98, p.T10)
1667 Jan 30, Lithuania, Poland
and Russia signed a 13.5 year treaty at Andrusov, near Smolensk.
Russia received Smolensk and Kiev.
1667 Feb 20, David ben Samuel
Halevi, rabbi, author (Shulchan Aruch), died.
1667 Apr 9, 1st public art
exhibition (Palais Royale, Paris).
1667 Apr 29, John Arbuthnot
(d.1735), Scottish mathematician, was born. With Alexander Pope,
Jonathan Swift, John Gay and Thomas Parnell he founded the
Scriblerus Club in 1714, whose purpose was to satirize bad poetry
and pedantry. The club was short-lived.
1667 May 6, Johann Jacob
Froberger (50), German singer, organist, composer, died.
1667 May 7, Johann Jakob
Froberger (50), German organist, singer, composer, died.
1667 May 9, Marie Louise de
Gonzague-Nevers, French Queen of Poland (1645-48), died.
1667 May 26, Abraham De Moivre,
mathematician, was born.
1667 Jun 15, Dr. Jean-Baptiste
Denys, French doctor, performed the 1st animal to human blood
transfusion. He successfully transfused a few ounces of blood from a
lamb into boy (15). Another experimental transfusion this year
resulted in the patient’s death and Denys was accused of murder. In
2011 Holly Tucker authored “Blood Work: A Tale of Medicine and
Murder in the Scientific Revolution."
1667 Jun 18, The Dutch fleet
sailed up the Thames and threatened London. They burned 3 ships and
captured the English flagship in what came to be called the Glorious
Revolution, in which William of Orange replaced James Stuart.
(HN, 6/18/98)(WSJ, 3/14/00, p.A28)
1667 Jul 21, The Peace of Breda
ended the Second Anglo-Dutch War and ceded Dutch New Amsterdam to
the English. The South American country of Surinam, formerly Dutch
Guiana, including the nutmeg island of Run was ceded by
England to the Dutch in exchange for New York in 1667 after the
second Anglo-Dutch War.
(WUD, 1994, p.961)(HN, 7/21/98)(HNQ,
8/21/98)(WSJ, 5/21/99, p.W7)
1667 Aug 3, Francesco Borromini
(b.1599), Italian Baroque architect and sculptor, died. He designed
the San Ivo della Sapienza church in Rome. In 2005 Jake Morrissey
authored “The Genius in the Design: Bernini, Borromini and the
Rivalry that Transformed Rome."
1667 Aug 20, John Milton
published "Paradise Lost," an epic poem about the fall of Adam and
1667 Aug 31, Johann Rist,
composer, died at 60.
1667 Sep 23, Slaves in Virginia
were banned from obtaining their freedom by converting to
1667 Sep 24, Jean-Louis Lully,
composer, was born.
1667 Nov 7, Jean Racine's
"Andromaque," premiered in Paris.
1667 Nov 30, Jonathan Swift
(d.1745), English satirist who wrote "Gulliver's Travels," was born
in Ireland. "We have enough religion to make us hate, but not enough
to make us love one another."
(WUD, 1994, p.1437)(HN, 11/30/98)(AP, 4/16/00)
1667 Connecticut adopted
America’s first divorce law.
(SFC, 7/18/98, p.A15)
1667 British law required that
everyone be buried in wool. [see 1662]
(NG, 5.1988, pp. 574)
1667 The first insurance
company was formed in London.
(Econ, 2/25/12, SRp.4)
1667 A Baroque palace was built
in Dubrovnik, Croatia. It later became a 400 student elementary
(Hem. 1/95, p. 67)
1667 In France Louis XIV opened
the 1st stretch of the Champs-Elysees: a short extension of the
Tuileries Gardens leading to the palace at Versailles.
(SSFC, 2/11/07, p.G3)
1667 Arequipa, Peru, was hit by
(SSFC, 6/24/01, p.A16)
1667 The Cossack Stench Razing
led a peasant uprising.
1667 Cassiopeia A, the gaseous
remains of a supernova, would have been visible from Earth at about
this time, but no record indicates that it was noticed. It was first
detected in 1947 as a radio source.
(Econ, 9/2/06, p.72)
1667-1668 The War of Devolution was fought between
France and Spain as a result of the claim by Louis XIV of France
that the ownership of the Spanish Netherlands devolved to his wife,
Marie Therese, upon the death of her father, Philip IV of Spain.
France conquered the area, now Belgium, and also seized the
Franche-Comte, a Spanish possession that bordered on Switzerland.
1667-1748 Johan Bernouilli, Swiss mathematician,
brother of Jacob.
(WUD, 1994, p.141)
1668 Feb 7, English King
William III danced in the premiere of "Ballet of Peace."
1668 Feb 7, The Netherlands,
England and Sweden concluded an alliance directed against Louis XIV
1668 Mar 5, Francesco
Gasparini, composer, was born.
1668 Mar 25, The first horse
race in America took place.
1668 Mar 26, England took
control of Bombay, India.
1668 Mar 27, English king
Charles II gave Bombay to the East India Company.
1668 Apr 13, John Dryden (36)
became 1st English poet laureate.
1668 May 2, Peace of
Aix-la-Chapelle ended the War of Devolution in France.
1668 May 8, Alain Rene Lesage,
French novelist and dramatist, was born. He is best known for his
works "The Adventures of Gil Blas" and "Turcaret."
1668 May 27, Three colonists
were expelled from Massachusetts for being Baptists.
1668 Sep 16, King John Casimer
II of Poland abdicated the throne.
(HN, 9/16/98)(PCh, 1992, p.241)
1668 Oct 23, Jews of Barbados
were forbidden to engage in retail trade.
1668 Nov 10, Francois Couperin,
composer and organist (Concerts Royaux), was born in Paris, France.
1668 Dec 22, Stephen Day, 1st
British colonial printer, died.
1668 Bernini sculpted a terra
cotta study for one of the angels of Rome’s Port Santa Angelo.
(WSJ, 10/22/96, p.A20)
1668 The British trading ship
Nonsuch 1st sailed into Hudson Bay.
(SSFC, 12/22/02, p.C6)
1668 Louis XIV of France
purchased the 112 carat blue diamond from John Baptiste Tavernier
for 220,000 livre. Tavernier was also given a title of nobility.
(THC, 12/3/97)(EB, 1993, V6 p.51)
1668 Charles Alphonse Dufresnoy
(b.1611), French artist, died. His work included the painting “The
Death of Socrates" (1650).
(WSJ, 11/24/07, p.W8)
1668 The Spaniards established
a permanent settlement on Guam. They forced the Chamorros to convert
to Catholicism. Under Spanish rule the Chamorro numbers were reduced
to some 2,000.
(SFEC, 3/7/99,Z1 p.4)
1668 A fortified wall was
completed at Campeche, Mexico, to ward off pirate attacks.
(SSFC, 1/25/09, p.E4)
1668 Arequipa, Peru, was hit by
(SSFC, 6/24/01, p.A16)
1668 Sweden’s Sveriges
Riksbank, the first central bank, was set up as a tool of government
(Econ, 2/25/12, SR p.4)(Econ, 4/29/17, p.56)
1669 Feb 1, French King Louis
XIV limited the freedom of religion.
1669 Mar 11, Mount Etna in
Sicily began erupting. Lava flows that destroyed at least 10
villages on its southern flank before reaching the city walls of the
town of Catania five weeks later, on 15 April. Contemporaneous
accounts written both in Italian and English mention no deaths
related to this eruption (but give very precise figures of the
number of buildings destroyed, the area of cultivated land lost, and
the economic damage).
1669 Jul 6, LaSalle left
Montreal to explore Ohio River.
1669 Jul 21, John Locke's
Constitution of English colony Carolina was approved.
1669 Aug 24, Alessandro
Marcello (d.1747), composer, was born in Venice.
1669 Sep 26, The island of
Crete fell to the Ottoman Turks after 465 years as a colony of
(WSJ, 7/21/08, p.A11)
1669 Oct 4, Rembrandt H. van
Rijn (b.1606), painter and etcher (Steel Masters, Night Watch),
died. In 1999 Simon Schama published the biography "Rembrandt's
(WSJ, 11/24/99, p.A16)(MC, 10/4/01)
1669 Dec 20, The 1st American
jury trial was held in Delaware. Marcus Jacobson was condemned for
insurrection and sentenced to flogging, branding & slavery.
1669 Vermeer painted "The Art
of Painting." The 3' by 4' work was larger than most of his
(SFC, 11/24/99, p.E8)
1669 Nils Steensen’s
"Prodromus" was first published in Italy and translated to English
two years later. It explained the authors determination of the
successive order of the earth strata.
1669 The semicircular
Sheldonian Theater at Oxford, England, designed by Christopher Wren,
(SSFC, 2/4/01, p.T8)
1669 Emperor Leopold I
sanctioned the foundation of a higher school in Innsbruck, Austria.
This is considered to mark the founding of the Univ. of Innsbruck.
(StuAus, April '95, p.97)
1669 A French ordnance created
a forest code.
(Econ, 9/2/17, p.46)
1669 While Mount Etna erupted,
German scholar Athanasius Kircher was busy devising a machine that
would clean out volcanoes the way a chimney sweep cleaned out
(PacDisc. Spring/’96, p.26)
1670 Jan 3, George Monck (61),
English general (to the-sea), died.
1670 Feb 10, William Congreve,
English writer (Old Bachelor, Way of the World), was born.
1670 Feb 14, Roman Catholic
emperor Leopold I chased the Jews out of Vienna.
1670 Feb 27, Jews were expelled
from Austria by order of Leopold I.
1670 Apr, Colonists landed on
the western bank of the Ashley River, five miles from the sea, and
named their settlement Charles Town in honor of Charles II, King of
(Hem., 1/95, p.70)
1670 May 2, The Company of
Adventurers of England Trading into Hudson Bay (the Hudson Bay Co.)
was chartered by England's King Charles II to exploit the resources
of the Hudson Bay area. By 2006 it had mutated into Canada’s largest
(AP, 5/2/97)(HN, 5/2/98)(AH, 4/01, p.36)(Econ,
1670 May 12, August II, the
Strong One, King of Poland (355 children), was born.
1670 May 26, A treaty was
signed in secret in Dover, England, between Charles II and Louis XIV
ending hostilities between them.
1670 Jul 18, Giovanni Battista
Bononcini, Italian (opera) composer, was born.
1670 Jul 25, Jews were expelled
from Vienna, Austria.
1670 Oct 13, Virginia passed a
law that blacks arriving in the colonies as Christians could not be
used as slaves.
1670 Nov 28, Pierre Corneille's
"Tite et Berenice," premiered in Paris.
1670 Vermeer painted his "A
Young Woman Standing at a Virginal" and "A Young Woman Seated at a
Virginal." Estimates for auction in 2004 for the seated one reached
(WSJ, 6/19/00, p.a42)(SFC, 4/1/04, p.E7)
1670 John Ray printed a book of
aphorisms such as: "Blood is thicker than water..." and "Haste makes
(SFC, 11/23/96, p.E4)
1670 Spinoza (1632-1677), Dutch
philosopher, authored "Tractatus Theologico-Politicus" an
enlightened assessment of the Old Testament and a plea for religious
toleration. Spinoza, revived Erasmian tradition and put the notion
of skepticism at the heart of his treatise.
(WSJ, 12/15/05, p.D8)(Econ., 12/19/20, p.64)
1670 Cafe Procope, the first
cafe in Paris, began serving ice cream.
(SFC, 11/23/96, p.E4)
1670 Le Notre, the royal
landscaper of Louis XIV, laid out the Triumphal Way in Paris.
(SSFC, 1/25/04, p.C12)
1670 Minute hands on watches
(SFC, 7/14/99, p.3)
1670 Ashanti, a West African
chiefdom (later part of Ghana), prospered from trade of cola nuts,
gold and slaves.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)
1670-1680 In Oman the Nizwa Fort was built 100
miles southwest of Muscat.
(AM, May/Jun 97 p.46)
1670-1712 Osei Tutu, ruler of the Ashanti Empire
in what later became Ghana. He amassed a fortune by supplying slaves
to British and Dutch traders in exchange for firearms.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R8)
1670-1752 In 2006 Jonathan I. Israel authored
“Enlightenment Contested: Philosophy, Modernity, and the
Emancipation of Man 1670-1752."
(Econ, 12/2/06, p.85)
1670-1850 Daniel Cohen's 1993 Pillars of Salt,
Monuments of Grace is a book that follows the shifts in social
authority and attitudes toward authority in New England as
demonstrated by changes in the crime literature of this period.
(LSA., Fall 1995, p.19)
1670s French explorer Rene
Robert Cavelier (LaSalle), Sieur de La Salle, explored the Great
Lakes region of the New World.
(SFC, 11/30/96, p.A7)
1671 Jan 27, Welsh privateer
Sir Henry Morgan (1635-1688) landed at Panama City and attacked the
city the following day.
1671 Feb 19, Charles-Hubert
Gervais, composer, was born.
1671 Apr 6, Jean-Baptiste
Rousseau, French playwright, poet (Sacred Odes & Songs), was
1671 Apr 22, King Charles II
sat in on English parliament after which he gave his Royal Assent to
the several Bills that were presented to him, fourteen private Acts,
and eighteen public, including an act for exporting “Beer, Ale, and
1671 Apr 30, Peter Zrinyi (49),
Hungarian banished to Croatia, was beheaded.
1671 May 9, Colonel Thomas
Blood (1618-1680), Irish adventurer, attempted to steal the Crown
Jewels from the Tower of London.
(MC, 5/9/02)(Reuters, 8/24/01)
1671 Jun 6 (OS), Stenka, Stepan
Razin, Russian Cossack, was killed. [see Jun 16]
1671 Jun 8, Tomaso Albinoni,
Italian composer (Adagio in G-minor), was born.
1671 Jun 16 (NS), Stenka Razin,
Cossack rebel leader, was tortured & executed in Moscow. [see
1671 Nov 6, Colley Cibber,
England, dramatist, poet laureate (Love's Last Shift), was born.
1671 Dec 1, Francesco
Stradivari, Italian violin maker and son of Antonius, was born.
1671 Vermeer painted his
"Allegory of Faith." [see Vermeer, 1632-1675]
(WSJ, 11/15/95, p.A-20)
1671 Moliere wrote his farce
"Les Fourberies de Scapin" (The Wiles of Scapin or Scapin the
(WSJ, 1/10/97, p.A9)(SFC, 6/15/98, p.D3)
1671 Rice arrived in South
Carolina from Madagascar but nobody knew how to husk it for food.
(Hem., 12/96, p.82)
1671 Charles II banned anyone
without property worth £100 a year from owning guns, bows or
ferrets. Game stocks were the motive.
(Econ, 6/5/10, p.63)
1671 English Protestants became
alarmed when they learned that James, Duke of York, had converted to
(ON, 7/06, p.8)
1671 In Germany Gottfried
Wilhelm Leibnitz (Leibniz) devised a mechanical calculator to add,
subtract, multiply and divide.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)
1671 Mar 7, In Scotland Rob Roy
MacGregor (d.1734) was baptized. He was later forced to become a
p.D7)(Econ, 12/22/12, p.109)
1671-1743 Kaigetsudo Ando (d.1743), Japanese
artist, was born. He is also called Okazaki Genshichi.
1671-1729 John Law, Scotsman and financier for
France. He controlled France's foreign trade, mints, revenue,
national debt and the Louisiana territory. [see 1694]
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R8)
1672 Jan 1, The beginning of
the current Dionysian Period, named for the monk Dionysius Exiguous
who, in the AD 500s, introduced the present custom of reckoning time
by counting the years from the birth of Christ.
(CFA, '96, p.22)
1672 Feb 8, Isaac Newton read
his 1st optics paper before Royal Society in London.
1672 Mar 15, England’s King
Charles II enacted a 3rd Declaration of Indulgence.
1672 Apr 2, Pedro Calungsod
(b.1654), a Filipino teenager, was killed in Tumon, Guam, along with
Diego Luis de San Vitores, his Jesuit missionary priest, by natives
resisting their conversion efforts. In 2012 Pedro was named a saint
in the Catholic church.
1672 Apr 6, Andre Ardinal
Destouches, composer, was born.
1672 Apr 29, King Louis XIV of
France invaded the Netherlands. A French army of 100,000 crossed the
Rhine and invaded the Dutch Republic. The Dutch Golden Age fell
apart when England, France and a pair of German principalities
teamed up to attack the Netherlands and seize its colonies.
(HN, 4/29/99)(PC, 1992ed., p.255)(Econ, 4/18/20,
1672 Apr 30, Marie of the
Incarnation (b.1599, French Ursuline nun and the leader of the group
of nuns sent to establish the Ursuline Order in New France, died in
Quebec City. She was canonized a saint on April 2, 2014.
1672 May 1, Joseph Addison
(d.1719), English essayist (Spectator) and poet, was born. "We are
always doing, says he, something for posterity, but I would fain see
posterity do something for us." "A man must be both stupid and
uncharitable who believes there is no virtue or truth but on his own
(AHD, 1971, p.14)(AP, 11/21/97)(AP, 7/14/98)(MC,
1672 May 15, 1st copyright law
was enacted by Massachusetts.
1672 May 17, Frontenac became
governor of New France (Canada).
1672 May 30, Peter I
(the Great) Romanov, great czar (tsar) of Russia (1682-1725), was
born. [see Jun 9]
(HN, 5/30/98)(MC, 5/30/02)
1672 Jun 9, Peter I (d.1725),
"The Great," was born. He grew to be almost 7 feet tall and was the
Russian Czar from 1682 to 1725 and modernized Russia with sweeping
reforms. He moved the Russian capital to the new city he built, St.
Petersburg. [see May 30]
(CFA, '96, p.48)(WUD, 1994, p.1077)(HN,
6/9/99)(SFC, 12/25/99, p.C3)
1672 Jun 15, The Sluices were
opened in Holland to save Amsterdam from the French.
1672 Jun 25, 1st recorded
monthly Quaker meeting in US was held at Sandwich, Mass.
1672 Jul 4, States of Holland
declared "Eternal Edict" void.
1672 Aug 9, Jose Ximenez (70),
Spanish composer, died.
1672 Aug 20, Jan de Witt, Dutch
politician and mathematician, was assassinated by a carefully
organized lynch "mob" after visiting his brother Cornelis de Witt in
prison. He was killed by a shot in the neck; his naked body was
hanged and mutilated and the heart was carved out to be exhibited.
1672 Nov 1, Heinrich
Schutz (87), composer, died. Pupil of Giovanni Gabrielli from
1609-1672, he was employed by the Elector of Saxony in 1615 and
became Kapellmeister two years later. While employed by the Elector,
Schütz made several visits to Italy and served three two-year terms
as guest court conductor in Copenhagen. Schütz's works include one
opera (a first in the German language), Easter and Christmas
oratorios, three passions, numerous polychoral Psalm settings in the
style of his teacher, Gabrielli, other sacred concerted works in
Latin and German, and Italian madrigals.
1672 Dec 10, Gov. Lovelace
announced monthly mail service between NY and Boston.
1672 Peter Stuyvesant died on
his farm in NY. In 1959 Henry H. Kessler and Eugene Rachlis authored
"Peter Stuyvesant and his New York." In 1970 Adele de Leeuw authored
(ON, 4/00, p.3)
1672 In Bolivia the Royal Mint
in Potosi was established. It required the construction of
reservoirs, dams and a canal system to deliver water used in the
1672 Gerhard Altzenbach
(b.1609), German artist, died.
(SFC, 9/23/06, p.E2)
1672 Christian Huygens of
Holland discovered the southern polar caps on Mars.
1672 The Royal African Co. was
granted a charter to expand the slave trade and its stockholders
included philosopher John Locke. The operation supplied English
sugar colonies with 3,000 slaves annually.
(SFC, 10/19/98, p.D3)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)
1673 Feb 17, Moliere, [Jean
Baptiste Poquelin], French author (Tartuffe, Le Malade Imaginaire),
1673 Feb 20, The 1st recorded
wine auction was held in London.
1673 Mar 28, Adam Pijnacker
(51), Dutch landscape painter, etcher, was buried.
1673 Mar 29, The English
Parliament passed the Test Act. It in effect excluded Roman
Catholics from public functions. King Charles II was unable to stop
1673 May 17, Louis Joliet and
Jacques Marquette began exploring the Mississippi.
1673 May 29, Cornelis van
Bijnkershoek, lawyer, president of High Council, was born.
1673 Jun 25, In France Charles
de Batz (b.1611), a commander known as D’Artagnan, was slain in the
service of Louis XIV. He died at the Siege of Maastricht in the
Franco-Dutch War and was one of the musketeers who inspired Dumas’
1673 Jul 24, Edmund Halley
entered Queen's College, Oxford, as an undergraduate.
1673 Aug 9, Dutch recapture NY
from English. It was regained by English in 1674.
1673 Sep 21, James Needham
returned to Virginia after exploring the land to the west, which
would become Tennessee.
1673 Dec 28, Joan Blaeu (77),
Dutch cartographer, publisher (Atlas Major), died.
1673 In London the Worshipful
Society of Apothecaries started the Chelsea Physic Garden as an
educational tool for apprentices learning to grow medicinal plants.
(SFC, 3/26/08, p.G1)
1673 Cuba began a program of
(SFC, 3/17/99, p.A14)
1673 The most important of
Christian Huygens' written works, the "Horologium Oscillatorium,"
was published in Paris. It discussed the mathematics surrounding
pendulum motion and the law of centrifugal force for uniform
1673 The French Blue Diamond
was recut to a 67 carat stone.
(EB, 1993, V6 p.51)
1673 In Japan the Mitsukoshi
store introduced fixed prices.
(Econ, 8/25/07, p.58)
1674 Feb 9, English reconquered
NY from Netherlands.
1674 Feb 19, Netherlands and
England signed the Peace of Westminster. NYC became English.
1674 Feb 21, Johann Augustin
Kobelius, composer, was born.
1674 Mar 6, Johann Paul Schor
(58), German baroque painter, died.
1674 May 20, John Sobieski
became Poland’s first King. [see May 11, 1573]
1674 May 21, Gen. Jan Sobieski
was chosen King of Poland. [see May 20]
1674 Jun 6, Sivaji crowned
himself King of India.
1674 Jun 20, Nicholas Rowe,
poet laureate of England, was born.
1674 Jul 17, Isaac Watts,
English minister and hymn writer, was born.
1674 Aug 18, Jean Racine's
"Iphigenie," premiered in Versailles.
1674 Oct 15, Robert Herrick,
British poet (Together), was born in Mass.
1674 Nov 8, John Milton (65),
English poet (Paradise Lost), died. His work included
"Paradise Lost," Paradise Regained," and "Samson Agonistes." Milton
lost one eye at 36 and the other when he was 44. In 1952 Prof.
Sensabaugh (d.2002 at 95) authored "In That Grand Whig, Milton," an
examination of Milton’s political tracts. In 1996 Paul West wrote a
novel: "Sporting with Amaryllis," that begins in 1626 and gives a
fictional account of his life. In 1997 Peter Levy wrote a biography
of Milton titled: "Eden Renewed."
(WUD, '94, p.911)(WSJ, 5/6/97, p.A20)(AP,
12/9/97)(MC, 11/8/01)(SFC, 2/28/02, p.A20)
1674 Nov 10, Dutch formally
ceded New Netherlands (NY) to English.
1674 Nov 24, Franciscus van
Enden (72), Flemish Jesuit and free thinker, was executed.
1674 Dec 4, Father Marquette
built the 1st dwelling at what is now Chicago.
1675 Jan 20, Christian Huygens,
Dutch scientist, transformed a theoretical insight on springs into a
practical mechanism with the 1st sketch of a watch balance regulated
by a coiled spring.
1675 Jan 31, Cornelia Dina
Olfaarts was found not guilty of witchcraft.
1675 Mar 2, Prince William III
was installed as Governor of Overijssel.
1675 Mar 4, John Flamsteed was
appointed 1st Astronomer Royal of England.
1675 May 18, Jacques Marquette
(37), Jesuit, missionary in Chicago, died.
1675 Jun 8, Three Wampanoag
Indians were hanged in Plymouth, Massachusetts. On the testimony of
a Native American witness, Plymouth Colony arrested three
Wampanoags, including a counselor to Metacom, a Pokanoket sachem. A
jury among whom were some Indian members convicted them of the
recent murder of John Sassamon, an advisor to Metacom.
1675 Jun 11, France and Poland
formed an alliance.
1675 Jun 20, King Philip’s War
began when Indians--retaliating for the execution of three of their
people who had been charged with murder by the English--massacred
colonists at Swansea, Plymouth colony. Abenaki, Massachusetts,
Mohegan & Wampanoag Indians formed an anti English front.
Wampanoag warriors attacked livestock and looted farms.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/King_Philip%27s_War)(AH, 6/02, p.46)
1675 Jun 21, Sir Christopher
Wren (1632-1723) began to rebuild St Paul’s Cathedral in London,
replacing the old building which had been destroyed by the Great
fire. St Paul’s Cathedral was dedicated in 1708 but work continued.
1675 Jun 22, Royal Greenwich
Observatory was established in England by Charles II.
1675 Jun 23, An English youth
shot a Marauding Wampanoag warrior.
(AH, 6/02, p.46)
1675 Jun 28, Frederick William
of Brandenburg crushed the Swedes.
1675 Aug 6, Russian Czar
Aleksei banned foreign haircuts.
1675 Aug 10, King Charles II
laid the foundation stone of Royal Observatory, Greenwich. [see Jun
1675 Aug 27, The Strasbourg
Agreement, signed between France and the Holy Roman Empire, banned
the use of poison bullets in conflict.
1675 Sep 9, New England
colonial authorities officially declared war on the Wampanoag
Indians. The war soon spread to include the Abenaki, Norwottock,
Pocumtuck and Agawam warriors.
(MC, 9/9/01)(AH, 6/02, p.47)
1675 Nov 22, English king
Charles II adjourned parliament.
1675 Dec 19, Some 1,000
colonial troops attacked the Narragansett winter village in Rhode
Island. The Great Swamp Fight ended with some 80 English killed and
600 Indians dead, mostly women and children. Wakefield, Rhode
Island, USA, The Great Swamp Memorial marks the site where 4,000
Indians died in defense of a secret fort.
(Postcard, Wakefield Chamber of Commerce)(AH,
1675 Lely painted a portrait of
Nell Gwynn, the favorite mistress of Charles II. It is now in the
London National Gallery. Charles II acknowledged 14 illegitimate
children and historians identified 13 mistresses.
(SFEC, 2/1/98, p.T8)(SFC, 7/22/00, p.E4)
1675 In Boston, Mass., a law
forbade American Indians from setting foot in the city, as settlers
warred with area tribes. In 2005 although the law wasn’t enforced
for centuries it was a lingering source of anger for American
1675 English king Charles II
issued a proclamation deploring the "evil and dangerous effects" of
(Econ, 12/20/03, p.90)
1675 In France Lully composed
"Thesee." The librettist was Philippe Quinault. This work
established the tragedie lyrique operatic form.
(WSJ, 7/5/01, p.A10)
1675 In France taxes imposed by
Louis XIV led to an uprising in Brittany. Protesters wore bonnets
rouges (red wooly hats).
(Econ, 11/30/13, p.50)
1675 The 9th Sikh guru was
executed in Delhi, India. His son, Gobind Rai, took up arms and
organized a new fraternity called the Khalsa (the pure), and gave
them the common surname Singh (lion), and changed his own name to
(WSJ, 10/12/01, p.W17)
1675 Wojciech Bobowski
(b.1610), Polish-Jewish musician and dragoman, died. He had been
taken prisoner by Crimean Tartars and was sold to the Ottoman court
where he converted to Islam and served as an interpreter, treasurer
and musician. He translated the Bible into Turkish and composed
1675 Johannes Vermeer (b.1632),
Dutch painter, died in poverty. In 2001 Anthony Bailey authored
"Vermeer: A View of Delft."
(WSJ, 11/15/95, p.A-20)(SSFC, 3/25/01, BR p.5)
1675 In northern Russia Solovki
monks resisted church reforms. Tsarist forces broke through, but
only following a 7-year siege.
(Econ, 12/18/04, p.83)
1675-1710 In London Old St. Paul’s Cathedral was
replaced with a new design by Sir Christopher Wren.
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.14)
c1675-1741 Antonio Vivaldi, Italian violinist and
composer. [see 1678]
(WUD, 1994, p.1598)
1675-1900 McDade's Annals of Murder is an
annotated bibliography that provides a list and description of
individual items and identifies multiple accounts of the same crimes
over this time period by career FBI man McDade.
(LSA., Fall 1995, p.17)
1676 Feb 10, In King Philip’s
War Narragansett and Nipmuck Indians raided Lancaster, Mass. Over 35
villagers were killed and 24 were taken captive including Mary
Rowlandson (1637-1711) and her 3 children. Rowlandson was freed
after 11 weeks and an account of her captivity was published
posthumously in 1682.
(AH, 6/02, p.48)(Econ, 2/21/09,
1676 Feb, Mohawk Indians
attacked and killed all but 40 Wampanoag Indians under Philip. NY
Gov. Edmund Andros had urged the Mohawks to attack the Wampanoags.
(AH, 6/02, p.48)
1676 Mar 29, Wampanoag allies
including Narragansetts destroyed Providence, Rhode Island. The
house of Roger Williams was destroyed as he negotiated with Indian
leaders on the outskirts of town.
(AH, 6/02, p.48)(AH, 4/07, p.29)
1676 Apr 14, Ernst Christian
Hesse, composer, was born in Thuringian town of Gros sengottern.
1676 Apr 17, Frederick I, king
of Sweden, was born.
1676 Apr 18, Sudbury,
Massachusetts was attacked by Indians.
1676 Apr 29, Michiel A. de
Ruyter (69), Dutch rear-admiral, (Newport), was killed.
1676 May 10, Bacon's Rebellion
began. It pitted frontiersmen against the government. Bacon’s
Rebellion in Virginia involved an attack on a local Indian community
and the sacking of the colonial capital in Jamestown. It is
described by Catherine McNicol Stock in her 1997 book "Rural
Radicals; Righteous Rage in the American Grain."
(SFEC, 2/2/97, BR. p.8)(HN, 5/10/98)
1676 Jul 21, Anthony Collins,
English philosopher (A discourse on free-thinking), was born.
1676 Jul 29, Nathaniel Bacon
was declared a rebel for assembling frontiersmen to protect settlers
from Indians. [see May 10, Sep 1]
1676 Aug 12, Indian chief King
Philip, also known as Metacom, was killed by a Pocasset Indian
named Alderman in the swamps of Rhode Island. This ended the King
Philip’s War. Benjamin Church, a Plymouth volunteer, ordered that
Philip be beheaded and quartered. [see Aug 28]
(AH, 6/02, p.50)
1676 Aug 26, Sir Robert Walpole
(d.1745), the first and longest serving prime minister of England,
was born. He was not then called the prime minister as the king held
all honors. He collected a large number of paintings by old masters
at his Houghton Hall home in Norfolk.
1676 Aug 28, Indian chief King
Philip, also known as Metacom, was killed by English soldiers,
ending the war between Indians and colonists. [see Aug 12]
1676 Sep 1, Nathaniel Bacon led
an uprising against English Governor William Berkeley at Jamestown,
Virginia, resulting in the settlement being burned to the ground.
Bacon's Rebellion came in response to the governor's repeated
refusal to defend the colonists against the Indians. [see May 10,
1676 Sep 19, Rebels under
Nathaniel Bacon set Jamestown, Va., on fire. [see Sep 1]
1676 Sep 21, Benedetto
Odescalchi was elected as Pope Innocent XI.
1676 Oct 18, Nathaniel Bacon,
who rallied against Virginian government, was killed at 29.
1676 Nov 16, 1st colonial
prison was organized at Nantucket Mass.
1676 Roger Williams published
“George Fox Digg’d Out of His Burrowes." It was an account of his
debates with the Quakers in Newport and Providence.
(AH, 4/07, p.28)
1676 Canonchet, the
Narragansett sachem, was executed.
(AH, 6/02, p.48)
1676 Lully composed his tragic
(SFEC, 1/18/98, DB p.33)
1676 Isaac Newton wrote: “If I
have seen further it is by standing on the shoulders of Giants."
(Econ, 8/7/04, p.64)
1676 Jean-Domenique Cassini,
director of the Paris Observatory, reported that there were 2 rings
around Saturn separated by a gap that came to be called the Cassini
(NH, 10/1/04, p.29)
1676 Ole Christensen Romer
(Roemer), Danish astronomer, derived a speed of light of 130,000
miles per second based on his observations of Io, the innermost moon
(http://inkido.indiana.edu/a100/timeline2.html)(NH, 2/05, p.19)
1676 Geminiamo Montanari,
Italian astronomer, documented a meteor with a sound "like the
rattling of a great Cart running over Stones." It was later
understood that meteors can detectable generate radio waves.
(NH, 7/02, p.38)
1676 Jeong Seon (d.1759),
Korean landscape painter, was born.
1676 King Carlos II of Spain,
having successfully outlawed a drink suspected of leading to
homicides, inattentiveness at church and moral turpitude, warned his
colonial rulers in Bogota of a drink "that is, beyond all
comparison, more dangerous and which goes by the name of
aguardiente." In 1988 Gilma Mora de Tovar's authored, "Aguardiente
and Social Conflicts in 18th Century New Granada,"
1676-1759 Chong Son, Korean painter. His work
included "Pine Tree at Sajik Altar" and "Landscape."
(SFC, 7/26/97, p.E1)
1677 Feb 15, King Charles II
reported an anti-French covenant with Netherlands.
1677 Feb 16, Earl of
Shaftesbury was arrested and confined to the London Tower. [see Oct
1677 Feb 21, [Benedictus]
Baruch Spinoza (b.1632), Dutch philosopher, died. In 2003 Antonio
Damasio authored "Looking for Spinoza," a look at contemporary
neurological research in contrast with the opposing philosophical
views of Spinoza and Descartes. In 2005 Matthew Stewart authored
“The Courtier and the Heretic: Leibniz, Spinoza, and the Fate of God
in the Modern World."
(WUD, 1994 p.1371)(SSFC, 2/2/03, p.M4)(WSJ,
1677 Mar 13, Massachusetts
gained title to Maine for $6,000.
1677 Apr 27, Colonel Jeffreys
became the governor of Virginia.
1677 May 29, King Charles II
and 12 Virginia Indian chiefs signed a treaty that established a
3-mile non-encroachment zone around Indian land. The Mattaponi
Indians in 1997 invoked this treaty to protect against encroachment.
(SFC, 6/2/97, p.A3)
1677 Sep 21, John and Nicolaas
van der Heyden patented a fire extinguisher.
1677 Nov 4, William and Mary
were married in England on William's birthday. William of Orange
married his cousin Mary (daughter to James, Duke of York and the
same James II who fled in 1688).
(HNQ, 12/28/00)(HN, 11/4/02)
1677 Racine wrote his drama
Phedre in alexandrine meter. It was based on Euripides’ tragic Greek
tale of Phaedra’s love for her stepson Hippolytus, son of Theseus.
(WSJ, 5/21/97, p.A12)(Econ, 6/20/09, p.89)(Econ,
1677 Pope Innocent XII
confirmed the imperial foundation of the Univ. of Innsbruck in a
papal bull that emphasized the Catholic character of the Univ. and
decreed that the important chairs of the Faculty of Theology be
filled by members of the Jesuit order.
(StuAus, April '95, p.97)
1677 The Episcopal Parish
called St. Michaels was established on the east coast of the
Chesapeake Bay. The town of St. Michaels derives its name after the
1677 Christopher Wren
redesigned the burned Church of St. Mary the Virgin in Aldermanbury,
England. His monument at St. Paul’s Cathedral in London reads: “Si
monumentum requires circumspice" (If you seek his monument, look
(SFC, 3/30/97, p.T5)(WSJ, 5/21/97, p.A15)
1678 Feb 18, John Bunyan's
"Pilgrim's Progress" was published. [see Sep 28]
1678 Mar 4, Antonio Vivaldi
(d.1741), Italian Baroque composer (4 Seasons) and violinist, was
born in Venice. [see 1675]
(HN, 3/4/01)(SC, 3/4/02)
1678 May 31, The Godiva
procession, commemorating Lady Godiva's legendary ride while naked,
became part of the Coventry Fair.
1678 Jun 17, Giacomo Torelli
(69), composer, died.
1678 Jul 26, Joseph I Habsburg,
German king, Roman catholic emperor (1705-11), was born.
1678 Aug 3, Robert LaSalle
built the 1st ship in America, Griffon.
(SC, 8/3/02)(AP, 12/10/03)
1678 Aug 16, Andrew Marvell
(b.1621), English poet (Definition of Love), died.
1678 Sep 28, "Pilgrim's
Progress" by John Bunyan (b.1628) was published. [see Feb 18]
1678 Nov 18, Giovanni Maria
Bononcini (36), composer, died.
1678 Nov 28, England's King
Charles II accused his wife, Catherine of Braganza, of treason. Her
crime? She had yet to bear him children.
1678 Nov 30, Roman Catholics
were banned from English parliament.
1678 Dec 3, Edmund Halley
received an MA from Queen's College, Oxford.
1678 Titus Oates (b.1649),
failed Catholic seminarian, and Israel Tonge concocted the Popish
Plot. They alleged that plotters planned to raise a Catholic army,
massacre Protestants, and poison Charles II in order to get James on
the throne. 9 Jesuit priests were executed. In 1681 it was revealed
to be a fabrication.
1678 Anthony Ashley Cooper, the
Earl of Shaftesbury and Protestant Parliamentary leader formed the
County Party, later known as the Whigs, to prevent James from
becoming king of England.
(ON, 7/06, p.9)
1678 Louis XIV claimed the
region of Alsace from Germany.
(SFEC, 1/31/99, p.T4)
1678 Frederick William,
Brandenburg’s Great Elector, gave Bielefeld the privilege of
certifying the quality of local linen. This cemented its position as
a center for the textile trade.
1678-1707 Georg Farquhar, Anglo-Irish dramatist.
(WSJ, 10/3/96, p.A12)
1678-1707 Aurangzeb was the 1st Muslim ruler to
fire his cannon at the giant Buddhas at Bamiyan, Afghanistan.
(WSJ, 11/16/01, p.W12)
1679 Jan 24, King Charles II
disbanded the English parliament.
1679 Jan 31, Jean-Baptiste
Lully's opera "Bellerophon" premiered in Paris.
1679 Mar, King Charles II sent
his brother James to the Netherlands for safety.
(ON, 7/06, p.9)
1679 Apr 3, Edmund Halley met
Johannes Hevelius in Danzig.
1679 Apr 17, John van Kessel
(53), Flemish painter, died.
1679 May 12, Giovanni Antonio
Ricieri, composer, was born.
1679 May 14, Peder [Nielsen]
Horrebow, Danish astronomer, was born.
1679 May 15, The Earl of
Shaftesbury introduced his Exclusion Bill into Parliament proposing
that James, the Catholic brother of King Charles II, be permanently
barred from the line of succession to the English throne.
(ON, 7/06, p.9)
1679 May 27, England’s House of
Lords passed the Habeas Corpus Act (have the body) to prevent false
arrest and imprisonment. King Charles adjourned Parliament before
the final reading of Shaftesbury’s Exclusion Bill.
1679 Jun 1, Battle at Bothwell
Bridge on Clyde: Duke of Monmouth beat the Scottish. (MC, 6/1/02)
1679 Jul 10, The British crown
claimed New Hampshire as a royal colony.
1679 Jul 12, Britain's King
Charles II ratified Habeas Corpus Act.
1679 Sep 18, New Hampshire
became a county Massachusetts Bay Colony.
1679 Oct 16, Jan Dismas
Zelenka, composer, was born.
1679 Oct 23, The Meal Tub Plot
took place against James II of England.
1679 Nov 3, A great panic
occurred in Europe over the close approach of a comet.
1679 Dec 4, Thomas Hobbes
(b.1588), English philosopher, died. "The reputation of power IS
power." Hobbes sought to separate politics from religion. In his
book “Leviathan" he argues that the only way to secure civil society
is through universal submission to the absolute authority of a
7/30/03, p.A12)(WSJ, 9/15/07, p.W10)
1679 Dec 17, Don Juan, ruler of
1679 Louis Hennepin, a Catholic
priest, sailed up the Detroit River aboard the Griffon, through Lake
St. Clair, which he named, and into Lake Huron and beyond. The
French ship Le Griffon, built by explorer Rene-Robert Sieur de La
Salle disappeared during its maiden voyage.
(DFP, 7/24/01, p.5A)(SFC, 6/5/13, p.A6)
1679 Elections in England
produced a new House of Commons, but King Charles II declined to let
(ON, 7/06, p.9)
1679-1947 Some 8,500 vessels have been lost in
Lake Michigan over this period.
(Hem., 7/96, p.25)
1680 Apr 3, Shivaji Raje Bhosle
(b.1627), warrior king and founder of the Maratha empire of western
1680 May 5, Giuseppe Porsile,
composer, was born.
1680 May 29, Abraham Megerle
(73), composer, died.
1680 Jul 26, John Wilmot, 2nd
Earl of Rochester, poet, courtier, died.
1680 Aug 10, Pueblo Indians
took possession of Santa Fe, N.M., after driving out the Spanish.
They destroyed almost all of the Spanish churches in Taos and Santa
Fe. The Pueblo Revolt, also known as Popé's Rebellion, was an
uprising of most of the indigenous Pueblo people against the Spanish
colonizers in the province of Santa Fe de Nuevo Mexico, present day
New Mexico. The Pueblo Revolt killed 400 Spaniards and drove the
remaining 2,000 settlers out of the province.
8/21/97)(SFEC, 6/21/98, Z1 p.8)
1680 Aug 21, New Mexico
Governor Antonio de Otermín, barricaded in the Palace of the
Governors, sallied outside the palace with all of his available men
and forced the Puebloans to retreat with heavy losses. He then led
the Spaniards out of Santa Fe and retreated southward along the Rio
Grande, headed for El Paso del Norte. The Puebloans shadowed the
Spaniards but did not attack. This marked the end of the Pueblo
1680 Aug 24, Colonel Thomas
Blood, Irish adventurer who stole the Crown Jewels from the Tower of
London in 1671, died. Captured after the theft, he insisted on
seeing King Charles II, who pardoned him.
1680 Sep 25, Samuel Butler
(b.1612), poet and satirist, died.
1680 Oct 13, Daniel Elsevier,
book publisher and publisher, died at 54.
1680 Oct, King Charles II of
England was forced to recall Parliament in order to ask for money to
fortify the port of Tangier, Morocco, which was under assault by
(ON, 7/06, p.9)
1680 Nov 18, Jean-Baptiste
Loeillet, composer, was born.
1680 Nov 27, Athanasius
Kircher, German Jesuit and inventor of a lantern, died.
1680 Nov 28 Giovanni "Gian"
Lorenzo Bernini (b.Dec 7,1598), Sculptor, Painter, Architect,
Italian, the greatest sculptor of the 17th century, died.
1680 Pierre Puget made his
bronze sculpture of Herakles (Hercules) struggling in the burning
tunic. Sophocles around 440-420 composed his tragedy "The Trachinian
Women." It described what happened when Hercules put on the robe
woven by his wife Deianeira.
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.55)
1680 John Locke completed two
works requested by the Earl of Shaftsbury. "The First Treatise on
Civil Government" was written to counter Robert Filmer’s old book
"Patriarcha." "The Second Treatise on Civil Government" was a more
general approach. It concerns the interconnection of three great
ideas: property, government, and revolution. Government comes into
existence, said Locke, because of property. If there is no property,
then government is not needed to protect it. For Locke the question
revolved around whether property was legitimate.
1680 Kateri Tekakwitha
(b.1656), known as the "Lily of the Mohawks," died in Canada. She
was born to a pagan Iroquois father and an Algonquin Christian
mother in upstate New York. Her parents and only brother died when
she was 4 during a smallpox epidemic that left her badly scarred and
with impaired eyesight. She went to live with her uncle, a Mohawk,
and was baptized Catholic by Jesuit missionaries. But she was
ostracized and persecuted by other natives for her faith. In 2012
she was named a saint in the Catholic church.
1680 Benedetto Ferrari composed
his oratorio "Il Sansone," (Samson). It was later discovered that he
wrote the text and probably the music for "Pur to miro," the final
duet for Monteverdi’s "L’Incoronazione di Poppea."
(SFC, 1/20/98, p.E1)(SFC, 6/9/98, p.D1)
1680 In Hamburg, Germany, a
cymbal was used for the 1st time in an orchestra.
(SFC, 9/18/99, p.B3)
1680 The original parish
of the Nuestra Senora de la Purisima Concepcion church in Socorro,
Texas, also known as San Miguel because it contains a statue of the
archangel Michael, was founded.
(AWAM, Dec. 94, p.65)
1680 Maryland colonists ran out
of supplies and survived starvation by eating oysters.
(SFC, 9/18/99, p.B3)
c1680 The first American tall
case clock, later called a "grandfather clock," was built.
(SFC,10/22/97, Z1 p.7)
1680 Chief Justice William
Scroggs was impeached for, among other things, browbeating
witnesses, cursing and drinking to excess.
(WSJ, 1/25/99, p.A19)
1680 An eclipse of the sun
occurred in this year. The oral tradition of one African culture
speaks of a strange darkness during chief Bo Kama Bomenchala’s
1680 Light from the supernova
of the star Cassiopeia A reached Earth. A remnant was observed by
the Chandra X-ray Observatory in 1999.
(USAT, 8/27/99, p.14A)(Econ, 8/28/04, p.71)
1680 Kateri Tekakwitha, a
Mohawk Indian, died. She became the first Native American to be
beatified by the Catholic Church in 1980.
(SFEC, 9/14/97, p.A18)
1680 Leavened bread was
developed in Egypt.
(SFC, 9/18/99, p.B3)
1680 Portuguese founded Colonia
del Sacramento (Uruguay) for smuggling contraband across the Rio de
la Plata to Spanish-controlled Argentina.
(SSFC, 10/30/05, p.F7)
c1680-1685 Simon Pietesz, Verelst, painted a
portrait of "Nell Gwyn," Protestant mistress to Charles II.
(WSJ, 3/7/02, p.A22)
1680-1786 On Senegal it was estimated that over 2
million slaves passed through Goree Island on their way to the
(SFC, 4/3/98, p.B3)
1680-1790 In 2020 Ritchie Robertson authored "The
Enlightenment: The Pursuit of Happiness 1680-1790."
(Econ., 12/12/20, p.83)
1681 Jan 6, 1st recorded boxing
match was between the Duke of Albemarle's butler and his butcher.
1681 Jan 8, The treaty of
Radzin ended a five year war between the Turks and the allied
countries of Russia and Poland.
1681 Jan 18, England's King
Charles II suspended Parliament and set its next meeting for March
(ON, 7/06, p.10)
1681 Mar 4, England's King
Charles II granted a charter to William Penn (37) for 48,000 square
miles that later became Pennsylvania. Penn’s father had bequeathed
him a claim of £15,000 against the king. Penn later laid out the
city of Philadelphia as a gridiron about 2 miles long, east to west,
and a mile wide.
(PCh, 1992, p.259)(AP, 3/4/98)(SFEC, 8/16/98,
1681 Mar 14, Georg Philipp
Telemann, late baroque composer, was born in Magdeburg, Germany.
1681 Apr 8, England's King
Charles II received the 1st installment of a 5-million livre subsidy
from King Louis of France. This provided him independence from
Parliament and he ruled without it until his death in 1685.
(ON, 7/06, p.10)
1681 Apr 11, Anne Danican
Philidor, composer, was born.
1681 May 17, Louis XIV sent an
expedition to aid James II in Ireland. As a result, England declared
war on France.
1681 May 25, Caldéron de la
Barca (b.1600), Spanish dramatist & poet, died.
(WUD, 1994 p.210)(SC, 5/25/02)
1681 Aug 22, Pierre Danican
Philidor, composer, was born.
1681 Oct 24, Earl of
Shaftesbury (d.1683) was accused of high treason in London. The Earl
of Shaftesbury had challenged the king on the question of
succession. The king dissolved Parliament and threw Shaftesbury into
the Tower of London and charged him with treason. Shaftesbury was
acquitted and went to Holland with John Locke.
(V.D.-H.K.p.220)(MC, 10/24/01)(PCh, 1992, p.260)
1681 Nov 9, Hungarian
parliament promised Protestants freedom of religion.
1681 Fa Jo-chen, Chinese
artist, created a 45-foot-long handscroll of a winding river with
the land on both sides rolled up in round, furry lumps.
(WSJ, 5/15/02, p.AD7)
1681 Nehemiah Grew, the first
scientist to call sloths by their common English name, described the
animal in his catalog of specimens owned by the Royal Society of
(Nat. Hist., 4/96, p.20-21)
1681 The dodo bird was last
seen on Mauritius. The dodo bird became extinct on Mauritius. In
2005 scientists reported the discovery of a complete skeleton of the
bird on Mauritius.
(SFC, 7/7/96, BR p.5)(NH, 11/96, p.24)(SFEC,
6/21/98, Z1 p.8)(SSFC, 12/25/05, p.A2)
1681-1730 French Protestants, known as Huguenots,
migrated in large numbers to England due to persecutions known as
dragonnades wherein rowdy soldiers were billeted in their homes.
They also lost a semblance of security in the 1685 revocation of the
Edict of Nantes.
(Econ, 12/20/03, p.85)
1681-1764 Johann Mattheson, German composer,
friend of Handel.
1682 Feb 13, Giovanni
Piazzetta, painter, was born.
1682 Apr 3, Esteban Murillo
(b.1617), Spanish painter, died. Some of his mid-century work in
Seville portrayed the effects of the Plague that killed 50% of the
population in 4 months.
(WSJ, 4/9/02, p.D19)(MC, 4/3/02)
1682 Apr 9, The French explorer
Rene Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, reached the Mississippi
River. La Salle claimed lower Mississippi River and all lands that
touched it for France.
(AP, 4/9/97)(SFC, 11/30/96, p.A7)(HN, 4/9/98)
1682 Apr 11, Jean-Joseph
Mouret, composer, was born.
1682 May 6, King Louis XIV
moved his court to Versailles, France.
1682 Jun 10, The first tornado
of record in colonial America hit New Haven, Conn.
(SFEC, 7/4/99, Z1 p.8)
1682 Jun 27, Charles XII
(d.1718), King of Sweden (1697-1718), was born.
(WUD, 1994, p.249)(SFC, 8/17/96, p.E5)(HN,
1682 Jul 14, Henry Purcell was
appointed organist of Chapel Royal, London.
1682 Aug 24, Duke James of York
gave Delaware to William Penn.
1682 Aug 30, William Penn left
England to sail to New World. He took along an insurance policy.
1682 Sep 4, English astronomer
Edmund Halley saw his namesake comet.
1682 Oct 26, William Penn
accepted the area around Delaware River from Duke of York.
1682 Oct 29, The founder of
Pennsylvania, William Penn, landed at what is now Chester, Pa.
William Penn founded Philadelphia. Penn founded Pennsylvania as a
"Holy Experiment" based on Quaker principles.
(AP, 10/29/97)(SFEC, 6/21/98, Z1 p.8)(SSFC,
1682 Nov 23, Claude Lorrain,
French painter (also known as Claude Gelée), died. His birth is
variously noted from 1600-1604.
1682 Nehemiah Grew (1641-1712),
English botanist and physician, postulated that plants reproduce
sexually in his book “Anatomy of Plants." His 1st book on plant
anatomy was titled “The Anatomy of Vegetable Begun" (1672).
1682 Thomas Otway wrote his
Restoration tragedy "Venice Preserv’d."
(WSJ, 2/6/97, p.A12)
1682 John Playford organized
the Musick’s Recreation on the Viol.
(EMN, 1/96, p.4)
1682 Wren’s Royal Hospital
Chelsea was founded by Charles II as a hostel for old soldiers.
(WSJ, 3/11/02, p.A16)
1682 William Penn established
Bucks County as one of Pennsylvania’s 3 original counties.
(WSJ, 3/22/08, p.R7)
1682 Nicholas Wise founded
(SFEC, 7/4/99, Z1 p.8)
1682 Pere Lachaise, a French
Jesuit priest, was confessor to Louis XIV. His order built a house
on the future site of the Paris cemetery named after him.
(SFC, 6/16/96, T-6)
1682 In Russia a rebellion by
government Streltsy regiments killed the grandfather, aunts and
other relatives of Peter the Great. The Monastery of Peter the
Metropolitan was reconstructed and as served as the family
(AM, Jul/Aug ‘97 p.38)
1682 In Tibet the Fifth Dalai
Lama (b.1617) died. His death kept hidden for 15 years by his prime
minister and possible son Desi Sangay Gyatso in order that the
Potala Palace could be finished and Tibet's neighbors not take
advantage of an interregnum in the succession.
1682-1725 The rule of Peter the Great. The
original stone cathedral of the Monastery of the Epiphany in Moscow
was built during this time. It was built over the remnants of an
earlier wooden church.
(AM, Jul/Aug ‘97 p.37)
1683 Feb 12, A Christian Army,
led by Charles, the Duke of Lorraine and King John Sobieski of
Poland, routed a huge Ottoman army surrounding Vienna.
1683 Feb 20, Philip V, first
Bourbon King of Spain, was born. [see Dec 19]
1683 Apr 1, Roger Williams
(b.1603) died in poverty in Rhode Island. Williams died at
Providence between, his wife Mary having predeceased him in 1676.
Williams was the first champion of complete religious toleration in
America. In 2005 Edwin S. Gaustad authored the biography “Roger
1683 Apr 15, Catherine I
(d.1727), empress of Russia (1725-1727), was born as Martha
Skravonskaya in Jacobstadt, Latvia. Catherine was the daughter of
Samuil Skavronski, a Lithuanian peasant.
1683 Jun 23, William Penn
signed a friendship treaty with Lenni Lenape Indians in
Pennsylvania. It became the only treaty "not sworn to, nor broken."
(HN, 6/23/98)(MC, 6/23/02)
1683 Jul 3, Edward Young,
English poet, dramatist and literary critic, was born. He wrote
1683 Jul 21, Lord William
Russell, English plotter against Charles II, was beheaded.
1683 Jul 24, The 1st settlers
from Germany to US left aboard the ship Concord.
1683 Sep 3, Turkish troops
broke through the defense of Vienna.
1683 Sep 6, Jean-Baptiste
Colbert (b.1619), French finance minister (1665-1683) under Louis
XIV, died. He pioneered “dirigisme," i.e. state control of the
economy and state intervention in industry. “The art of taxation
consists in so plucking the goose as to obtain the largest possible
amount of feathers with the smallest possible amount of hissing."
p.71)(Econ, 2/22/14, SR p.5)
1683 Sep 9, Algernon Sidney,
English Whig politician and plotter, was beheaded.
1683 Sep 12, A combined
Austrian and Polish army defeated the Ottoman Turks at Kahlenberg
and lifted the siege on Vienna, Austria. Prince Eugene of Savoy
helped repel an invasion of Vienna, Austria, by Turkish forces.
Marco d'Aviano, sent by Pope Innocent XI to unite the outnumbered
Christian troops, spurred them to victory. The Turks left behind
sacks of coffee which the Christians found too bitter, so they
sweetened it with honey and milk and named the drink cappuccino
after the Capuchin order of monks to which d'Aviano belonged. An
Austrian baker created a crescent-shaped roll, the Kipfel, to
celebrate the victory. Empress Maria Theresa later took it to France
where it became the croissant. In 2006 John Stoye authored “The
Siege of Vienna."
(Hem., Dec. '95, p.69)(WSJ, 3/27/96, p.A-16)(HN,
9/12/98)(SFEC, 2/6/00, p.A1)(Reuters, 4/28/03)(WSJ, 6/3/03, p.D5)
(WSJ, 12/6/06, p.D12)
1683 Sep 17, Antonie van
Leeuwenhoek reported the existence of bacteria.
1683 Sep 24, King Louis XIV
expelled all Jews from French possessions in America.
1683 Sep 25, Jean-Philippe
Rameau, composer, was born in Dijon, France.
1683 Sep 29, A small armada
sailed from the Mexican mainland across the Sea of Cortez to the
Baha Peninsula. Hostile natives had forced them back to the mainland
on a first landing and a storm forced them back on a 2nd attempt.
(SFEC, 5/18/97, p.T5)(WSJ, 12/26/97, p.A9)
1683 Oct 6, 13 Mennonite
families from Krefeld, Germany, arrived in present-day Philadelphia
to begin Germantown, one of America's oldest settlements. They were
encouraged by William Penn's offer of 5,000 acres of land in the
colony of Pennsylvania and the freedom to practice their religion.
1683 Oct 6, The small armada
from the Mexican mainland landed on their 3rd attempt at crossing to
the Baha peninsula and settled at the mouth of a river that they
named San Bruno. The site was abandoned after 2 years. Spanish
settlement on the Baha was later described by Father James Donald
Francez in "The Lost Treasures of Baha California."
(SFEC, 5/18/97, p.T5)(WSJ, 12/26/97, p.A9)
1683 Oct 30, George II, King of
Great Britain (1727-60), was born. [see Oct 30]
1683 Nov 10, George II, king of
England (1727-60), was born. [see Nov 10]
1683 Nov 22, Purcell's "Welcome
to All the Pleasures," premiered in London.
1683 Dec 19, Philip V, King of
Spain (1700-24, 24-46), was born in Versailles, France. [see Feb 20]
1683 Dec 25, Kara Mustapha
(b.~1634), chief of the Ottoman janissaries, appeared before the
grand vizier in Belgrade. He was sentenced to death and executed for
the military loss at Vienna.
1683 Giovanni Battista Foggini
created his sculpture "The Mass of Saint Andrea Corsini."
(WSJ, 1/29/02, p.A18)
1683 The Ashmolean Museum was
built in Oxford to house natural-history artifacts. It was the first
such public museum. It gained its name and its first collections
from Elias Ashmole (1617-1692), whose own collections were derived
in part from those of John Tradescant (1608-1662).
1683 Alessandro Scarlatti
(father of Domenico Scarlatti) wrote the score for his opera
"L’Aldimiro." The only know score extant was found in a library in
Berkeley, Ca., in 1989.
(SFC, 5/26/96, DB p.26)
1683 Secatogue Indians deeded
land on the South Shore of Long Island to William Nicoll.
(WSJ, 10/9/07, p.D6)
1683 French King Louis XIV
married Madame de Maintenon (1635-1719), his mistress for the last
11 years, shortly after the death of his wife. The marriage was kept
secret for the next 3 decades.
(Econ, 7/26/08, p.96)
1683 Taiwan was claimed by
China's Manchu dynasty after large-scale immigration from the
Chinese mainland to the island.
1683-1707 Adriaen Coorte (b.1665), a Dutch Golden
Age painter of still lifes, signed his work during this period. His
work included “Still Life With Sea Shells" (1698).
1684 Jan 11, In Switzerland
this day “was so frightfully cold that all of the communion wine
froze," said an entry by Brother Josef Dietrich, governor and
"weatherman" of the Einsiedeln Monastery. The Einsiedeln abbots,
princes within the Holy Roman Empire until 1798, were powerful
leaders who ruled over large swaths of central Switzerland's
1684 Apr 25, A patent was
granted for the thimble.
1684 Jun 21, King Charles II
revoked the 1629 Massachusetts Bay Colony charter. [see 1691]
(HNQ, 11/23/00)(MC, 6/21/02)
1684 Jun 22, Francesco Onofrio
Manfredini, composer, was born.
1684 Oct 1, Pierre Corneille,
French lawyer and dramatist (El Cid, Polyeucte), died at 42.
1684 Oct 10, Jean Antoine
Watteau (d.1721), French rococo painter, was born.
(WUD, 1994 p.1614)(AAP, 1964)(MC, 10/10/01)
1684 Dec 3, Ludvig Baron
Holberg, founder of Danish & Norwegian literature, was born.
1684 For one year Paris was the
world’s biggest city.
(SFEC, 2/22/98, Z1 p.8)
1684 French explorer Rene
Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, set sail for what is now
Louisiana with 4 ships commissioned from King Louis XIV. On the way
one ship was lost to pirates, another broke apart on a sand bar and
a third returned home. The 4th was sunk in a storm in 1686.
(SFC, 11/30/96, p.A7)
1684 Lorenzo de Tonti
(b.~1602), governor of Gaeta, Italy, and a Neapolitan banker,
died about this time. He is sometimes credited with the invention of
the tontine, a form of life insurance, although it has also been
suggested that he simply modified existing procedures.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lorenzo_de_Tonti)(Econ 6/17/17, p.68)
1685 Jan, French explorer Rene
Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, landed at Matagorda Bay, Texas.
He thought that he was at the mouth of the Mississippi River but
soon realized his mistake and went of looking for the river.
(SFC, 11/9/96, p.A12)(SFC, 11/30/96, p.A7)
1685 Feb 6, Charles II (54),
King of England, Scotland, Ireland (1660-85), died and was succeeded
by his Catholic brother James II. He made a deathbed conversion to
the Roman Catholic faith. He had earlier ordered Christopher Wren to
build an observatory and maritime college at Greenwich. In 2000
Stephen Coote authored the biography: "Royal Survivor."
(WSJ, 2/28/00, p.A36)(http://tinyurl.com/hkkln)
1685 Feb 11, David Teniers III
(46), Flemish painter, died.
1685 Feb 23, George Frideric
Handel (d.1759), composer and musician, was born in Halle, Germany.
(LGC-HCS, p.37)(AP, 2/23/98)(HN, 2/23/98)
1685 Mar 21, Composer Johann
Sebastian Bach (d.1750) was born in Eisenach, Germany, the youngest
of eight children. 2nd source says Mar 21. He composed cantatas,
sonatas, preludes, fugues and chorale preludes, and whose works
included "Brandenburg Concerto" and "Well-Tempered Clavier."
(AP, 3/21/97)(LGC-HCS.p.17)(HN, 3/21/99)
1685 May 28, Pieter de la Court
(~67), economist, historian, died.
1685 Jun 11, James Scott, Duke
of Monmouth, rebelled against Catholic king James II.
1685 Jun 30, John Gay,
playwright, was born. He wrote the Beggars' Opera which attacked the
court of George II,
1685 Jun 30, Dominikus
Zimmermann, German architect, painter (Liebfrauenkirche), was born.
1685 Jun 30, Archibald Campbell
(~55), Scottish politician, was beheaded.
1685 Jun, Qing Emperor Kangxi
sent Manchu, Chinese and Daurian forces in a siege against Russians
at Albazino on the far eastern Amur River. Some 100 of 800 Russians
were killed on the first day of the attack. The survivors
surrendered and returned to Nerchinsk.
(Econ, 12/19/09, p.71)
1685 Jul 6, James II defeated
James, the Duke of Monmouth, at the Battle of Sedgemoor, the last
major battle to be fought on English soil.
1685 Jul 15, James Scott, the
Duke of Monmouth and illegitimate son of Charles II, was executed on
Tower Hill in England, after his army was defeated at Sedgemoor.
(HN, 7/15/98)(MC, 7/15/02)
1685 Oct 18, King Louis the XIV
signed the Edict of Fontainebleau, revoking the Edict of Nantes that
had established legal toleration of France's Protestant population,
the Huguenots. The French Parliament recorded the new edict four
days later. The edict signed at Nantes, France, by King Henry IV in
1598, had given the Huguenots religious liberty, civil rights and
security. By revoking the Edict of Nantes, Louis XIV abrogated their
religious liberties. He declared France entirely Catholic again.
(HN, 4/13/98)(HN, 10/18/98)(AP, 10/18/07)
1685 Oct 26, Domenico Scarlatti
(d.1757, composer and harpsichordist was born in Naples, Italy.
Scarlatti, son of Alessandro, composed over 550 short, keyboard
sonatas or exercises.
(WUD, 1994 p.1275)(LGC-HCS, p.38)(MC, 10/26/01)
1685 Nov 8, Fredrick William of
Brandenburg issued the Edict of Potsdam, offering Huguenots refuge.
1685 Dec 3, Charles II barred
Jews from settling in Stockholm, Sweden.
1685 Dec 12, Lodovico Giustini,
composer, was born.
1685 Sylvestre Dufour published
"Traitez Nuveaux et Curieux de Cafe, du The, et du Chocolat."
(WSJ, 7/7/98, p.A14)
1685 Dutch mapmaker, Johannes
van Keulen, produced a map of New York and Long Island. He charted
the Hudson and Connecticut rivers with greater accuracy than ever
before. Long Island was labeled on the map as "Lange Eyland."
(WSJ, 11/24/95, p.B-8)
1685 In Canada there was a
shortage of currency and playing cards were assigned monetary values
for use as money.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)
1685 The Venetians returned to
(AM, May/Jun 97 p.56)
1685-1712 Celia Fiennes’ journal about her travels
throughout England have provided historians with valuable insight
into the social conditions of the country in the late 1600s. Celia
Fiennes, an enterprising young, single woman, rode side-saddle
through every county in England. She traveled alone except for two
servants, and the journal she kept, later published as "The Journeys
of Celia Fiennes 1685-c.1712," is the only evidence we have of her
c1685-1753 George Berkeley, Irish bishop and
philosopher. He argued that the things we see around us exist only
as ideas. This was in opposition to naive realism which held that we
perceive objects as they really are.
(WUD, 1994, p.140)(WSJ, 8/21/98, p.W13)
1685-1768 Hakuin Ekaku, Japanese Zen painter. His
work included "Side View of Daruma."
(SSFC, 9/23/01, DB p.48)
1686 Jan, A storm arose and
sank the French ship “La Belle," of explorer Rene Robert Cavelier,
Sieur de La Salle, in Matagorda Bay, Texas. La Salle was off
searching for the Mississippi River. This ended La Salle’s plan for
a French colony and opened the door to Spain to come and occupy
Texas. Archeologists found the ship in 1995 in 12-feet of water and
began a recovery project. In 1996 a skeleton was bound onboard. In
2014 the remains of the ship were transported to the Bullock State
History Museum in Austin.
(SFC, 11/9/96, p.A12)(SFC, 11/30/96, p.A7)(SFC,
8/16/12, p.A7)(AP, 7/18/14)
1686 Feb 15, Jean Baptiste
Lully's opera "Armide," premiered in Paris.
1686 Apr 4, English king James
II published a Declaration of Indulgence.
1686 May 14, Gabriel Daniel
Fahrenheit German physicist and instrument maker, was born. He
invented the thermometer. [see May 24]
1686 May 24, Gabriel Daniel
Fahrenheit (d.1736), German physicist, was born. He devised a
temperature scale and introduced the use of mercury in thermometers.
He assigned the number 32 for the melting point of ice, 96 to the
temperature of blood and 212 to the steam point.[see May 14]
(WUD, 1994, p.510)(SFEC, 3/22/98, Par. p.8)(HN,
1686 Jul 8, The Austrians took
Buda, Hungary, from the Turks and annexed the country. Hapsburg rule
lasted to 1918.
(HN, 7/8/98)(Sm, 3/06, p.76)
1686 Jul 22, Albany, New York,
began operating under an official charter.
(SFEC, 4/2/00, Z1 p.2)
1686 Jul 24, Benedetto
Marcello, composer, was born. [see Aug 1]
1686 Aug 1, Benedetto Marcello,
Italian author, composer (Lettera Famigliare), was born in Venice,
Italy. [see Jul 24]
1686 Dec 19, Robinson Crusoe
left his island after 28 years (as per Defoe).
1686 The British Royal Society
published “Historia Piscium" by John Ray and Francis Willughby. The
expense of the high quality illustrations almost bankrupted the
(Econ, 4/21/12, p.95)
1686 The NYC Charter of this
year incorporated the rights of the 1664 New Amsterdam "Articles of
(WSJ, 3/16/04, p.D6)
1686 The Lenape Indians
allegedly sold land along the Lehigh River to William Penn.
(ON, 1/03, p.6)
1686 Two Mohican Indians signed
a mortgage for their land in Schaghticoke, New York, with simple
markings. It was notarized by Robert Livingston, whose family became
one of the greatest agricultural landlords and int'l. merchants in
the colony of New York.
(WSJ, 11/19/99, p.W10)
1686 A Spaniard by the name of
Francisco Lazcano named a group of about 500 small coral islands
east of the Philippines, the Caroline Islands, after King Charles II
of Spain who funded the expedition.
1686 Russians returned to
Albazino on the far eastern Amur River and were again attacked by
the Manchus. After a year’s siege they surrendered with only 40 of
(Econ, 12/19/09, p.71)
1687 Feb 19, Johann Adam
Birkenstock, composer and sandal designer, was born.
1687 Feb 22, Jean-Baptiste
Lully, composer, died in Paris. Lully, Paris Opera director, had
stabbed himself in the foot with a baton and died of blood
(SFC, 8/21/99, p.B3)(MC, 2/22/02)
1687 Mar 19, French explorer
Robert Cavelier (b.1643), Sieur de La Salle, the first European to
navigate the length of the Mississippi River, was murdered by
mutineers while searching for the mouth of the Mississippi, along
the coast of the Gulf of Mexico in present-day Texas.
1687 Apr 4, King James II
ordered his Declaration of Indulgence read in church.
1687 Jul 5, The first volume of
Isaac Newton's "Philosophiae naturalis principia mathematica"
("Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy") was published in
Latin by Edmund Halley. His invention of differential and integral
calculus is here presented. Here also are stated Newton’s laws of
motion, that obliterated the Aristotelian concept of inertia.
1) Every physical body continues in its state of
rest, unless it is compelled to change that state by a force or
forces impressed upon it.
2) A change of motion is proportional to the
force impressed upon the body and is made in the direction of the
straight line in which the force is impressed.
3) To every action there is always opposed an
Book Three of the Principia opens with two pages
headed "Rules of Reasoning in Philosophy." There are four rules as
1) We are to admit no more causes of natural
things than such as are both true and sufficient to explain the
appearances. [A restatement of Ockham’s Razor: "What can be done
with fewer is done in vain with more."]
2) Therefore to the same natural effects we must,
as far as possible, assign the same causes.
3) The qualities of bodies which are found to
belong to all bodies within the reach of our experiments, are to be
esteemed the universal qualities of bodies whatsoever.
4) In experimental philosophy we are to look upon
propositions inferred by general induction from phenomena as
accurately or very nearly true notwithstanding any contrary
hypothesis that may be imagined, till such time as other phenomena
occur, by which they may either be made more accurate, or liable to
(V.D.-H.K.p.207-10)(http://tinyurl.com/6772jj)(Econ, 4/21/12, p.95)
1687 Aug 12, At the Battle of
Mohacs, Hungary, Charles of Lorraine defeated the Turks.
1687 Sep 26, The Venetian army
attacked the Acropolis in Athens while trying to eject Turks.
Marauding Venetians sent a mortar through a gable window of the
Parthenon and ignited a Turkish store of gunpowder. This damaged the
northern colonnade of the Parthenon. The Parthenon was destroyed in
the war between Turks and Venetians.
(SFEC, 6/6/99, p.A26)(MC, 9/26/01)
1687 Sep 28, Venetians took
Athens from the Turks.
1687 Oct 20, In Peru a massive
earthquake leveled most of Lima. It triggered a tsunami and overall
about 5,000 people died.
1687 Oct 27, The Connecticut
colony’s charter was stolen during a public meeting in which Gov.
Robert Treat defended the colony against demands by Sir Edmund
Andros. It was soon hidden under an oak tree (the Charter Oak) in
Hartford to protect it from seizure by agents of the King James II.
1687 Nov 13, Nell [Eleanor]
Gwyn (37), mistress of Charles II of England, died.
1687 Dec 5, Francesco Xaverio
Geminiani, composer, was born.
1687 Dec 16, William Petty
(b.1623), English designer, inventor and pioneering economist, died
in London. He came up with the “quantity theory of money" and was
the first to measure gross domestic product (GDP).
1687 Giovanni Battista Foggini
created a portrait bust of "Cosimo III de’ Medici."
(WSJ, 1/29/02, p.A18)
1687 William Penn authored “The
Excellent Privilege of Liberty and Property Being the Birth-Right of
the Free-born subjects of England."
1687 The Austrian Army captured
Petrovaradin (Serbia) after 150 years of Turkish control during the
Great Turkish War. The Austrians began to tear down the old fortress
and build new fortifications according to contemporary standards.
1687 Clocks began to be made
with 2 hands for the first time
(SFEC, 9/7/97, Z1 p.5)
1687 James II, a Roman
Catholic, supported unpopular policies that, by 1687, led to many
English subjects urging William to intervene. With the birth of a
son to James in 1688, fears of a Roman Catholic succession led to
opponents sending an invitation to William in July.
(HNQ, 12/28 /00)
1687 Newton declared that time
is absolute... "It flows equably without relation to anything
external." This view was held until Einstein’s relativity in 1905.
(NG, March 1990, J. Boslough p. 118)
1687-1691 Suleiman II succeeded Mehmed IV in the
Ottoman House of Osman.
(Ot, 1993, xvii)
1688 Feb 18, At a Quaker
meeting in Germantown, Pa, German Mennonites penned a memorandum
stating a profound opposition to Negro slavery. Quakers in
Germantown, Pa., adopted the fist formal antislavery resolution in
1688 Apr 15, Johann Friedrich
Fasch, composer, was born.
1688 Apr 27, King James II
issued another Declaration of Indulgence: “conscience ought not to
be constrained nor people forced in matters of mere religion."
1688 May 21, Alexander Pope
(d.1744), England, poet (Rape of the Lock), was born. His "Essay on
Criticism" contains the line: "A little learning is a dangerous
(NH, 9/97, p.24)(MC, 5/21/02)
1688 May 25, Christian August
Jacobi, composer, was born.
1688 Jun 10, Mary of Modena,
the wife of Britain’s King James II, gave birth to a male heir. This
placed England, much to the dismay of Parliament, in line for a
succession of Catholic monarchs.
(Econ, 2/4/06, p.77)(ON, 7/06, p.10)
1688 Jun 30, A jury proclaimed
7 English bishops not guilty of seditious libel against James II.
They had refused to comply with his April 27 Declaration of
Indulgence because it had not been approved by Parliament.
1688 Aug 15, Frederick-William
I, king of Prussia (1713-1740), was born.
1688 Aug 31, John Bunyan,
preacher, novelist (Pilgrim's Progress), died.
1688 Sep 6, Imperial troops
defeated the Turks and took Belgrade, Serbia.
1688 Oct 1, Seven British
noblemen sent a letter to Prince William of Orange inviting him to
invade England and rescue the country from James’ “popery." William
(Econ, 2/4/06, p.77)(ON, 7/06, p.10)
1688 Oct 27, King James II
fired premier Robert Spencer.
1688 Nov 1, William of Orange
set sail for England at the head of a fleet of 500 ships and 30,000
men. He intended too oust his father-in-law King James II. The Dutch
parliament, the States General, funded William with 4 million
guilders. Amsterdam financiers provided another 2 million. Some of
this was used to print 60,000 copies of his “Declaration" (of the
reasons inducing him to appear in arms in the Kingdom of England),
which were distributed in England. In 2008 Lisa Jardine authored
“Going Dutch: How England Plundered Holland’s Glory."
(WSJ, 8/28/08, p.A13)
1688 Nov 5, William of Orange
landed in southern England and marched with his army nearly
unopposed to London.
(WSJ, 8/28/08, p.A13)
1688 Nov 24, General strategist
John Churchill met William III.
1688 Nov 25, Princess Anne fled
from London to Nottingham.
1688 Nov 26, King James II
escaped back to London.
1688 Nov 26, Louis XIV declared
war on the Netherlands.
1688 Dec 4, General strategist
John Churchill (later Duke of Marlborough) joined with William III.
1688 Dec 9, King James II's
wife and son fled England for France.
1688 Dec 11, King James II
attempted to flee London as the "Glorious Revolution" replaced him
with King William (of Orange) and Queen Mary. James attempted to
flee to France, first throwing the Great Seal of the Realm into the
River Thames. He was, however, caught in Kent. Having no desire to
make James a martyr, the Prince of Orange let him escape on December
23, 1688. James was received by Louis XIV, who offered him a palace
and a generous pension. In 2007 Michael Barone authored “Our First
Revolution: The Remarkable British Upheaval That Inspired America’s
1688 Dec 18, William of Orange
made a triumphant march into London as James II fled in the
"Glorious Revolution." William of Orange, son of William II (Prince
of Orange) and Mary (daughter of Charles I of England), was fourth
in line to the English throne. In 2006 Edward Valance authored “The
Glorious Revolution: 1688 – Britain’s Fight for Liberty."
(WSJ, 2/6/02, p.A16)(Econ, 2/4/06, p.77)(ON,
1688 Dec 23, English King James
II fled to France.
1688 Dec 23, Jean-Louis Lully
(21), composer, died.
1688 Dec 25, English king James
II landed in Ambleteuse, France.
1688 French writer Pierre
d'Ortigue de Vaumoriere published anonymously his book, “The Art of
(WSJ, 5/13/05, p.W6)(http://tinyurl.com/d8tac)
1688 Joseph de la Vega
published his work "Confusion de Confusiones." It offered trading
strategies to speculators and was built around a conversation
between a merchant, a philosopher, and a shareholder. The book was
republished in 1996.
(WSJ, 3/5/96, p. A-12)
Notre-Dame-des-Victoires, the oldest stone church in North America,
was built in Quebec City, Canada.
(SSFC, 7/30/06, p.G8)
1688 In England Edward Lloyd
opened a London coffee shop where shipping insurance was bought and
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)
1688 In France a blind
Benedictine monk named Dom Perignon discovered the fermentation
process that led to champagne. [see 1662] He later devised a cork
stopper to hold the bubbles.
(WSJ, 10/16/98, p.W13)(Hem., 10/97, p.103)(WSJ,
1688 Persecuted Huguenots,
French Protestants, arrived in South Africa and improved the quality
of wine production.
(SSFC, 12/3/00, p.T6)
1688-1689 James II was replaced by the Dutch King
William. This process was masterminded by the group of seven, which
included the Earl of Devonshire, who was then promoted to Duke in
reward. William of Orange was a good Dutch Protestant and Mary was
his queen. From this point on the king was but a figurehead and
Parliament ruled England.
(NG, Nov. 1985, M. Girouard, p.671),
1688-1763 Pierre Marivaux, French playwright and
master of super-subtle dialogue.
(WSJ, 10/20/95, p. A-12)
1689 Jan 18, Charles Louis de
Montesquieu (d.1755), French philosopher and writer (Letters
Persanes), was born. "In most things success depends on knowing how
long it takes to succeed." He authored "The Spirit of the Laws," the
1st great comparative study of civilizations.
(AP, 4/13/99)(WSJ, 11/1/00, p.A24)(MC, 1/18/02)
1689 Jan 22, England's
"Bloodless Revolution" reached its climax when parliament invited
William and Mary to become joint sovereigns. A specially-called
parliament declared that James had abdicated and offered the throne
to William and Mary. In 1938 G.M. Trevelyan authored “The English
Revolution." In 2009 Steve Pincus authored “The First Modern
(HN, 1/22/99)(HNQ, 12/28/00)(Econ, 10/17/09,
1689 Feb 13, The British
Parliament adopted the Bill of Rights. It limited the right of a
king to govern without the consent of Parliament.
(MT, Dec. '95, p.16)(ON, 12/10, p.12)
1689 Feb 14, English parliament
placed Mary Stuart and Prince William III on the throne.
1689 Feb 23, Dutch prince
William III was proclaimed King of England.
1689 Mar 12, Former English
King James II landed in Ireland.
1689 Mar, In Northern Ireland
the gates of Londonderry were shut in the face of Catholic forces.
The event was later celebrated by the Protestant Apprentice Boys as
the Lundy’s Day demonstration. [see August 1, 1689]
1689 Apr 11, (OS) William III
and Mary II were crowned as joint sovereigns of Britain. As part of
their oaths, the new King William III and Queen Mary were required
to swear that they would obey the laws of Parliament. At this time,
the Bill of Rights was read to both William and Mary. "We thankfully
accept what you have offered us," William replied, agreeing to be
subject to law and to be guided in his actions by the decisions of
1689 Apr 15, French king Louis
XIV declared war on Spain.
1689 Apr 18, George Jeffreys,
1st Baron Jeffreys of Wem, infamous judge, died.
1689 Apr 19, Residents of
Boston ousted their governor, Edmond Andros.
1689 Apr 19, Christina
(b.1626), Queen of Sweden (1644-54), died. In 2004 Veronica Buckley
authored “Christina: Queen of Sweden."
(www.sweden.se)(WSJ, 10/29/04, p.W10)
1689 Apr 21, (NS) William III
and Mary II were crowned joint king and queen of England, Scotland
(HN, 4/21/98)(HNQ, 12/28/00)
1689 May 11, The French and
English naval battle took place at Bantry Bay.
1689 May 12, England’s King
William III joined the League of Augsburg and the Netherlands. The
"Grand Alliance" was formed to counter the war of aggression
launched by Louis XIV against the Palatinate states in Germany. This
is known as The War of the League of Augsburg (1689-97) also The
Nine Years' War, and the War of the Grand Alliance.
1689 May 24, English Parliament
passed the Act of Toleration, protecting Protestants. Roman
Catholics were specifically excluded from exemption.
1689 May 26, Mary Wortley
Montagu, English essayist, feminist, eccentric, was born.
1689 Jul 27, Government forces
defeated the Scottish Jacobites at the Battle of Killiecrankie.
1689 Jul, Maryland colonist
known as the Protestant Associators marched on St. Mary’s City and
seized the State House while Lord Baltimore was in England. They
went on to take over his plantation at Mattapany.
(Arch, 1/05, p.49)
1689 Aug 1, A siege of
Londonderry, Ireland, by the Catholic Army of King James II ended in
failure. The Protestants were victorious and the event led to the
annual Apprentice Boy’s March. The group is named in honor of 13
teenage apprentices, all Protestants, who bolted the city gates in
front of the advancing Catholic forces at the start of the 105-day
(SFEC, 8/11/96, p.A13)(HN, 8/1/98)(AP, 8/13/06)
1689 Aug 4-5, War between
England and France led them to use their native American allies as
proxies. In retaliation for the French attack on the Seneca in 1687,
one thousand, five hundred Iroquois, with English support, attacked
Lachine down river from the mission of the Mountain of Ville-Marie
(Montreal), killing some 400. They put everything to fire and
axe. Some suggest that this is a gross exaggeration and that
only 24-25 were killed and likely 90 were captured by the Iroquois,
but never returned.
1689 Aug 19, Samuel Richardson
(d.1761), English novelist (Pamela, Clarissa), was born in
1689 Aug 25, Battle at
Charleroi: Spanish and English armies chased the French.
1689 Aug 25, The Iroquois took
1689 Sep 1, Russia began taxing
1689 Oct 11, Peter the Great
became tsar of Russia.
1689 Dec 16, English Parliament
adopted a Bill of Rights after Glorious Revolution. The Bill of
Rights included a right to bear arms. William and Mary gave it Royal
Assent which represented the end of the concept of divine right of
1689 Dec 30, Henry Purcell's
opera "Dido and Aeneas," premiered in Chelsea.
1689 "Memorable Providences,
Related to Witchcrafts and Possessions," published by Cotton Mather,
contributed to the hysteria that led to the Salem witch trials of
1692. Mather was a Puritan clergyman and the eldest son of Increase
Mather. While Cotton Mather advised witch trial judges that
executions would not be necessary, during the mass executions he
remained uncritical. In his 1693 Wonders of the Invisible World
Mather defended the verdicts of various trials.
1689 John Locke returned to
England with his two Treatises which were published late in the same
year. He also published his letter on Toleration, in opposition to
the strong religious intolerance then prevalent.
1689 Racine wrote a drama based
on the Book of Esther. It tells the biblical story of how Esther,
the Jewish daughter of Mordecai, is persuaded by her father to
intervene on behalf of the Jews to her husband, King Ahaseurus of
Persia, who has been persuaded by his lieutenant, Haman, to have all
the Jews killed
(WSJ, 5/12/98, p.A20)
1689 Purcell composed his
musical tragedy "Dido and Aeneas."
(SFC, 9/23/00, p.B10)
1689 The White Hart Inn at
Ware, England, put up 26 butchers and their wives in one bed, the
"Great Bed of Ware," in a marketing ploy to attract customers.
(WSJ, 12/6/01, p.A19)
1689 The Macedonian city of
Skopje, under Ottoman rule at this time, was torched by the
(Econ, 1/5/12, p.69)
1689 Russian and Manchu
delegates met at Nerchinsk and drew up a treaty in Latin. This was
China’s first treaty with a European power. China agreed to open up
trade in exchange for Russia’s withdrawal from the Amur.
(Econ, 12/19/09, p.71)
1689-1697 The Abnaki War [Abenaki] of in North
America is better known as King William's War. It was the first of
the intercolonial wars between France and England in North America,
pitting the English and their Iroquois allies against the French and
their Abnaki allies. The Abnakis were a powerful Algonquian tribe
from Maine. King William’s War was a component of the European War
of the League of Augsburg and was based in part on the growing
rivalry between France and England over the control of North
1690 Jan 14, The clarinet was
invented in Germany.
1690 Feb 3, The first paper
money in America was issued by the colony of Massachusetts. The
currency was used to pay soldiers fighting a war against Quebec.
(SFC, 4/30/97, p.B3)(AP, 2/3/97)
1690 Feb 8, Some 200 French and
Indian troops burned Schenectady, NY, and massacred about 60 people
to avenge Iraquois raids on Canada.
(AH, 2/05, p.17)
1690 Feb 21, Christoph
Stoltzenberg, composer, was born.
1690 Feb 22, Charles Le Brun
(70), classical painter (Academie de Peinture), died.
1690 Mar 16, French king Louis
XIV sent troops to Ireland.
1690 May 11, In the first major
engagement of King William’s War, British troops from Massachusetts
seized Port Royal in Acadia (Nova Scotia and New Brunswick) from the
French, their objective was to take Quebec.
1690 May 20, England passed the
Act of Grace, forgiving followers of James II.
1690 Jun 11, English king
William III departed to Ireland.
(PC, 1992, p.265)
1690 Jun 24, King William III's
army landed at Carrickfergus, Ireland.
1690 Jul 1, England's
Protestant King William III of Orange was victorious over his
father-in-law, the Catholic King James II (from Scot) in Battle of
Boyne (in Ireland). This touched off three centuries of religious
bloodshed. Protestants took over the Irish Parliament. This marked
the beginning of the annual Drumcree parade, held by the Loyal
Orange Lodge on the first Sunday of July. Due to calendar changes in
1752 this later became commemorated on Jul 12.
(PC, 1992, p.265)(WSJ, 7/11/96, p.A1)(SFEC,
12/22/96, Z1 p.6)(SFEC, 7/4/99, p.A18)
1690 Jul 1, Led by Marshall
Luxembourg, the French defeated the forces of the Grand Alliance at
Fleurus in the Netherlands.
1690 Jul 7, Johann Tobias
Krebs, composer, was born.
1690 Jul 12, Due to
British calendar changes in 1752, the July 1, 1690, Battle of Boyne
(in Ireland) was adjusted for celebration on Jul 12.
(SFEC, 9/27/98, BR p.5)(AP, 7/11/05)
1690 Sep 6, King William III
escaped back to England.
1690 Sep 25, One of the
earliest American newspapers, “Publick Occurrences," published its
first and last edition in Boston. The colonial governor and council
disallowed the pamphlet due to its contents.
(AP, 9/25/00)(WSJ, 3/8/06, p.D14)
1690 Oct 7, The English
attacked Quebec under Louis de Buade.
1690 Oct 8, Belgrade was
retaken by the Turks.
1690 Oct 23, American colonial
forces from Boston led by Sir William Phips, failed in their attempt
to seize Quebec. Phips lost 4 ships on the return trip due to stormy
1690 Oct 23, There was a revolt
in Haarlem, Holland, after a public ban on smoking.
1690 Nov 11, Gerhard Hoffmann,
composer, was born.
1690 Nov 24, Charles Theodore
Pachelbel, composer, was born.
1690 A newspaper called
“Publick Occurences Both Forreign and Domestick" was published in
(WSJ, 12/29/07, p.A8)
1690 The 2nd Treatise on
Government by John Locke (1632-1704) was published in order to
justify the British Whig Revolution of 1688. In it he wrote that men
had the natural rights of life, liberty and estate.
1690 Khushal Khan Khattak
(b.1613), Pushtun poet, died. He wrote in Pashtu during the reign of
the Mongol emperors in the seventeenth century. He lived in the
foothills of the Hindu Kush mountains. He was a renowned fighter who
became known as the Afghan Warrior Poet.
1690 Emp. Kangxi commissioned
Wang Hui (1632-1717) to create a pictorial chronicle of a ceremonial
tour across a swath of China. “The Kangxi Emperor’s Southern
Inspection Tour" took 6 years and became a magnus opus of some 740
feet in 12 hand scrolls.
(WSJ, 10/29/08, p.D9)
1690 An Englishman made the 1st
landing on the Falkland Islands.
(Econ, 7/15/06, p.36)
c1690 "The Narrow Road" by
Basho Matsuo (1644?-1694) was written during a 1,500 mile journey
through the Japanese countryside. It was a 64-page collection of
prose and haiku poems and became a Japanese classic. A manuscript of
the work was found in 1996.
(SFC, 11/28/96, p.C16)(WUD, 1994, p.124)
1690 In Puebla, Mexico, the
ornate Capilla del Rosario, Chapel of the Rosary, was consecrated.
(SFEC,11/9/97, p.T5)(SFEC, 11/8/98, p.T8)
1690-1699 In the 1690s Kit Cat Club met in London
at the invitation of Jacob Tonson (1655/56-1736), a publisher and
bookseller, at the inn of Christopher Cat (Christopher Catling). In
2008 Ophelia Field authored “The Kit-Cat Club: Friends Who Imagined
1690s Giuseppe Ghezzi found the
Codex Leicester, a notebook of Leonardo da Vinci in Rome. It was
primarily a treatise on the nature of water in all its properties,
manifestations and uses.
(NH, 5/97, p.11,60)
1690s Henry Laurens landed 40%
of the slaves sold at Sullivan Island. He was the ancestor to the
Ball family that settled in South Carolina.
(SFEC, 2/22/98, BR p.1,8)
1690-1700 Particularly severe weather hit Germany
and prompted vintners use more wine sweeteners.
(NH, 7/96, p.51)
1691 Jan 13, George Fox
(b.1624), English Dissenter and a founder of the Religious Society
of Friends, died.
1691 Feb 8, Carlo di Girolamo
Rainaldi (79), Italian architect, composer, died.
1691 Feb 17, Thomas Neale was
granted a British patent for American postal service.
1691 May 16, Jacob Leisler, 1st
American colonist, was hanged for treason.
1691 May 26, Jacob Leiser,
leader of the popular uprising in support of William and Mary’s
accession to the throne, was executed for treason.
1691 May 29, Cornelis Tromp
(61), Admiral-General, son of Maarten Tromp, died.
1691 Jul 12, William III
defeated the allied Irish and French armies at the Battle of
1691 Aug 16, Yorktown, Va., was
1691 Sep 17, The Massachusetts
Bay Colony received a new charter. [see Oct 17]
1691 Oct 3, English and Dutch
armies occupied Limerick, Ireland.
1691 Oct 17, The Massachusetts
Bay Company along with Plymouth colony and Maine was incorporated
into the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
(HN, 10/17/98)(HNQ, 11/23/00)
1691 Father Eusebio Kino
founded the Tumacacori mission 45 miles south of Tucson, Arizona.
(SSFC, 3/29/02, p.C6)
1691 The British periodical
Athenian Gazette published the first regular problem page. It was
created by John Dunton who felt guilty for cheating on his wife.
(Econ, 12/19/15, p.118)
1691 In northwest Romania an
icon was painted at a monastery in Nicula. According to legend, the
icon of the Weeping Virgin, wept for 26 days in 1699. The first
recorded miracle occurred in 1701 when it is said to have cured an
army officer's wife who was going blind. The church attached to the
monastery is named after St. Mary and pilgrimages there are made
every year on Aug. 15, Mary's name day. In 1977, the church burned
down, but the icon was unharmed. In 2005 low water level revealed
1691 The Spanish Inquisition
killed 37 Jews from Mallorca for secretly practicing their faith. In
2011 the island’s leading government official issued an official
condemnation for the killing.
(SFC, 5/6/11, p.A2)
1691-1695 Ahmed II succeeded Suleiman II in the
Ottoman House of Osman.
(Ot, 1993, xvii)
1691-1765 Giovanni Paolo Panini, Italian artist.
He was later known for his portrayals of Rome.
(WSJ, 9/8/00, p.W2)
1692 Feb 13, In the Glen Coe
highlands of Scotland, 38 members of the MacDonald clan, the
smallest of the Clan Donald sects, were murdered by soldiers of the
neighboring Campbell clan for not pledging allegiance to William of
Orange. Ironically the pledge had been made but not communicated to
the clans. The event is remembered as the Massacre of Glencoe.
1692 Feb 28, The Salem witch
1692 Feb 29, Sarah Goode and
Tituba were accused of witchcraft in Salem, Massachusetts, sparking
the hysteria that started the Salem Witch Trials.
1692 Feb, William and Mary
granted a royal license for postal service in the American colonies.
It empowered Thomas Neale "to erect, settle and establish within the
chief parts of their majesties' colonies and plantations in America,
an office or offices for the receiving and dispatching letters and
pacquets, and to receive, send and deliver the same under such rates
and sums of money as the planters shall agree to give, and to hold
and enjoy the same for the term of twenty-one years."
1692 Mar 1, Sarah Goode, Sarah
Osborne and Tituba were arrested for the supposed practice of
witchcraft in Salem, Mass.
1692 Mar 14, Peter
Musschenbroek, Dutch physician, physicist (Leyden jar), was born.
1692 Mar 18, William Penn was
deprived of his governing powers.
1692 Mar 26, King Maximilian
was installed as land guardian of South Netherlands.
1692 Apr 8, Giuseppe Tartini,
Italy, violinist, composer (Trillo del Diavolo), was born.
1692 Apr 12, Giuseppe Tartini,
composer (Istria), was born.
1692 Apr 22, Edward Bishop was
jailed for proposing flogging as cure for witchcraft.
1692 May 18, Joseph Butler
Wantage Berkshire, theologian, was born.
1692 May 18, Elias Ashmole,
1692 May 29, Royal Hospital
Founders Day was 1st celebrated.
1692 May 29, Battle at La
Hogue: An English & Dutch fleet beat France.
1692 Jun 7, An earthquake
struck Jamaica. It rearranged the geology, splitting the rocks,
turning mountains to lakes, and engulfed two-thirds of Port Royal.
On that day and subsequently, five thousand of the inhabitants died.
1692 Jun 10, Bridget Bishop was
hanged in Salem, Mass., for witchcraft. This was the first official
execution of the Salem witch trials.
(HN, 6/10/01) (WSJ, 1/18/08, p.W10)
1692 Jun 24, Kingston, Jamaica,
1692 Aug 3, French forces under
Marshal Luxembourg defeated the English at the Battle of Steenkerke
in the Netherlands.
1692 Aug 19, Five women were
hanged in Salem, Massachusetts after being convicted of the crime of
witchcraft. Fourteen more people were executed that year and 150
others are imprisoned. In 2006 the governor of Massachusetts signed
legislation exonerating 5 women executed in the Salem witch trials
of 1692, whose names had not yet been cleared. In 2015 Stacy Schiff
authored “The Witches: Salem, 1692."
(HN, 8/19/00)(WSJ, 9/15/06, p.A10)(Econ,
1692 Sep 19, Giles Corey was
pressed to death for standing mute and refusing to answer charges of
witchcraft brought against him. He is the only person in America to
have suffered this punishment.
1692 Sep 21, Two men and seven
women were executed for witchcraft in Salem, Massachusetts.
1692 Sep 22, The last person
was hanged for witchcraft in Salem, Mass.
1692 Oct 8, Massachusetts Bay
Governor Phipps ordered that spectral evidence no longer be admitted
in witchcraft trials. Twenty people had died in the Salem witch
trials. In 2005 Richard Francis authored “Judge Sewall’s Apology."
Sewall was one of 3 judges presiding over the Salem trials. In 2006
the governor of Massachusetts signed legislation exonerating 5 women
executed in the Salem witch trials of 1692, whose names had not yet
(http://tinyurl.com/rlj1)(WSJ, 8/9/05, p.D8)(WSJ,
1692 Oct 12, Giovanni Battista
Vitali, composer, died at 60.
1692 Oct 18, Charles Eugene de
Croy, a field marshal fighting for Austrian forces, laid the
cornerstone for a new great fortress at Petrovaradin (later Serbia),
built to guard against the Ottoman Turks.
1692 Oct 25, Elisabeth Farnese,
princess of Parma and queen of Spain, was born.
1692 Nov 7, Johannes G.
Schnabel, German author and surgeon (Insel Felsenburg), was born.
1692 Nov 21, Carlo Fragoni,
Italian poet, was born.
1692 In Germany Rheinfels
castle withstood a siege of 28,000 French troops sent by Louis XIV.
French troops under Napoleon destroyed it in 1797.
1692 In Portugal Taylor’s
restaurant and lodge was founded in Porto.
(SFEC, 7/12/98, p.T10)
1692 In Russia Peter the Great
granted the Stroganoff family their lands in perpetuity.
(WSJ, 9/7/00, p.A24)
1693 Jan 11, An earthquake
struck parts of southern Italy near Sicily, Calabria and Malta. It
destroyed at least 70 towns and cities, seriously affecting an area
of 5,600 square km (2,200 sq. miles) and causing the death of about
1693 Jan 28, Anna "Ivanovna",
Tsarina of Russia, was born. [see Feb 7]
1693 Feb 7, Anna Ivanova
Romanova, empress of Russia (1730-40) [NS], was born. [see Jan 28]
1693 Feb 8, A charter was
granted for the College of William and Mary in Williamsburg, Va.
1693 Feb 13, The College of
William and Mary opened in Virginia.
1693 Mar 24, John Harrison
(d.1776), Englishman who invented the chronometer, was born.
1693 Jun 27, The 1st woman's
magazine "The Ladies' Mercury" was published in London.
1693 Jul 4, Battle at
Boussu-lez-Walcourt: French-English vs. Dutch army.
1693 Jul 29, The Army of the
Grand Alliance was destroyed by the French at the Battle of
Neerwinden in the Netherlands.
1693 Aug 4, Dom Perignon
invented champagne. [see 1688]
1693 English naturalist John
Ray noted that whales had more in common with 4-legged mammals than
(PacDis, Winter/’96, p.14)
1693 Heidelberg was torched by
the troops of Louis XIV in a dispute over a royal title.
(SFEC, 9/26/99, p.T8)
1693 The French explorer
Francois Leguat spent several months on Mauritius and looked hard
for a dodo bird, but found none.
(NH, 11/96, p.26)
1693 The history of the Amish
church began with a schism in Switzerland within a group of Swiss
and Alsatian Anabaptists led by Jakob Ammann (1656-1730).
1694 Apr 9, John Law
(1671-1729), Scotsman, killed rival Edward Wilson in a duel over the
affections of Elizabeth Villiers. Law found himself tried and
convicted of murder and sentenced to death. He later managed to
negotiate this down to a fine and fled after a brief imprisonment.
Law traveled in Europe, played the casinos and studied finance. He
set up a bank in France and issued paper money and established the
Mississippi Company to exploit the French-controlled territories in
America. [see 1720] In 2000 Janet Gleeson authored "Millionaire," a
pseudo-biography of Law.
1/11/99, p.R8)(WSJ, 6/30/00, p.W9)
1694 Jul 5, Composer
Louis-Claude Daquin was born.
1694 Jul 27, The Bank of
England received a royal charter as a commercial institution.
It was set up by William III, the ruler of Britain and the
Netherlands, in the midst of a war against France. The mission of
the bank was to provide war finance. Financiers agreed to lend the
crown £1.2 million in return for a partial monopoly on the issue of
(SFC, 5/7/97, p.C2)(AP, 7/27/97)(Econ, 1/10/09,
p.49)(Econ, 11/5/11, p.92)(Econ, 4/29/17, p.56)
1694 Sep 22, Philip Dormer
Stanhope, Lord Chesterfield, statesman of letters whose writings
provide a classic portrayal of an ideal 18th-century gentleman, was
born. He introduced the Gregorian calendar in 1752.
(HN, 9/22/98)(MC, 9/22/01)
1694 Nov 21, Francois Marie
Arouet Voltaire (d.1778), French philosopher, historian, dramatist
and essayist, was born. Born to middle class parents, he later
attended the Jesuit college of Louis-le-Grand in Paris. The
environment exposed him to the world of society and the arts. After
the success of his tragedy "Oedipe" in 1718, he was pronounced the
successor to the great dramatist Racine. He adopted the pen name
Voltaire, though its exact origins and meaning are uncertain. The
author of "Candide" (1759) and the "Philosophical Dictionary"
(1764), Voltaire's works often attacked injustice and intolerance
and epitomized the Age of Enlightenment. He wrote that "Self-love
resembles the instrument by which we perpetuate the species. It is
necessary, it is dear to us, it gives us pleasure and it has to be
concealed." "All styles are good except the tiresome sort." "Love
truth, but pardon error." "The great errors of the past are useful
in many ways. One cannot remind oneself too often of crimes and
disasters. These, no matter what people say, can be forestalled."
S.G. Tellentyre said on Voltaire: "I disapprove of what you say, but
I will defend to the death your right to say it."
(WUD, 1994, p.1600)(G&M, 2/1/96, p.A-22)(AP,
7/17/97)(SFEC, 1/4/98, Z1p.8)(HNQ, 10/1/98)(SFEC, 10/11/98, Z1
p.8)(HN, 11/21/98)(HNQ, 11/8/00)
1694 Dec 28, George I of
England got divorced. [He was crowned in 1714]
1694 Dec 28, Queen Mary II (32)
of England died after five years of joint rule with her husband,
King William III. The new style calendar puts her death on Jan 7,
1694 The Whigs of England
persuaded King William that if he wanted to win what became the nine
years’ war against France, he would have to embrace their political
and economic agenda.
(Econ, 10/17/09, p.98)
1694 The history of English
death duties began with the Stamp Act of this year which placed 5s
on probates over 20 pounds.
1694 Afaq Khoja (b.1626), a
religious and political leader with the title of Khwaja in Kashgaria
(in present-day Southern Xinjiang, China), died. The Muhammad
Yusuf tomb, later known as the Afaq Khoja mausoleum, was completed
in 1640 and is considered the holiest Muslim site in Xinjiang.
1694-1696 An outbreak of colic struck the region
around Ulm, Germany. Eberhard Gockel, the city physician, was able
to trace the cause to a wine sweetener that used a white oxide of
(NH, 7/96, p.48)
1694-1773 Lord Chesterfield, English author and
statesman: "In scandal, as in robbery, the receiver is always as bad
as the thief."
1695 Jan 6, Giuseppe
Sammartini, composer, was born.
1695 Jan 7, Mary II Stuart 32),
queen of England, died [OS=Dec 28 1694].
1695 Jan 27, Mustafa II became
the Ottoman sultan in Istanbul on the death of Amhed II. Mustafa
ruled to 1703.
(HN, 1/27/99)(Ot, 1993, xvii)
1695 Mar 7, In Britain John
Trevor (1637-1717), the speaker of the House of Commons office, was
found guilty of accepting a bribe of 1000 guineas (equivalent to
around £1.6 million in 2009) from the City of London to aid the
passage of a bill through the house. He was expelled from the House
of Commons, a move which he initially resisted on the ground of
ill-health, but retained his judicial position until his death.
1695 Apr 13, Jean de la
Fontaine (b.1621), French fabulist and poet, died. He is known above
all for his Fables, which provided a model for subsequent fabulists
across Europe and numerous alternative versions in France.
1695 Apr 17, Sor Juana Ines de
la Cruz (b.~1648), Mexican nun and poet, died of plague.
1695 Apr 30, William Congreve's
"Love for Love," premiered in London.
1695 Jul 8, Christian Huygens
(66), Dutch inventor, astronomer, died. He generally wrote his name
as Christiaan Hugens, and it is also sometimes written as Huyghens.
In his book “Cosmotheros," published in 1698, he speculated on life
on other planets.
1695 Sep 7, The pirate ship
Fancy, commanded by English Capt. Henry Every (b.~1653), ambushed
and captured the Ganj-i-Sawai, a royal vessel owned by Indian
emperor Aurangzeb, then one of the world's most powerful men. Aboard
were not only the worshipers returning from their pilgrimage, but
tens of millions of dollars' worth of gold and silver. The pirates
reportedly tortured and killed the men aboard the Indian ship and
raped the women before escaping to the Bahamas.
(WSJ, 11/22/08, p.W2)(AP, 3/31/21)
1695 Sep 11, Imperial troops
under Eugene of Savoy defeated the Turks at the Battle of Zenta.
1695 Sep 12, NY Jews petitioned
governor Dongan for religious liberties.
1695 Nov 20, Zumbi, a Brazilian
leader of a hundred-year-old rebel slave group, was killed in an
ambush in Palmares. In January 2003 legislation established November
20 as Black Consciousness Day.
p.A8)(SSFC, 11/18/12, p.G3)
1695 Nov 21, Henry Purcell
(36), English composer (Indian Queen), died.
1695 Nov 28, Giovanni Paulo
Colonna (58), composer, died.
c1695 Orazio Gentileschi,
painted "St. Francis and the Angel."
(WSJ, 4/28/98, p.A16)
1695 The Comediens Italiens
were expelled from Paris for indiscretion in their opera parodies.
The fair theaters took up where they left off with the use of
vaudevilles and comedia dell’arte characters.
(PNM, 1/25/98, p.4)
1695 The British Parliament
voted not to renew the 1662 Licensing of the Press Act, which had
censored “seditious, treasonable and unlicensed Bookes and
Pamphlets." It was repealed by the Statute Law Revision Act 1863.
1695 A London rag called “A
Collection for Improvement of Husbandry and Trade" included what
later was believed to be the first lonely-hearts advertisement: “A
Gentleman About 30 Years of Age, that says he had a Very Good
Estate, would willingly Match himself to some Good Young Gentlewoman
that has a Fortune of £3,000."
(Econ, 2/12/11, p.92)
1695 Portugal established
colonial rule in the eastern half of Timor Island. The western side
was incorporated into the Dutch East Indies.
(SFC, 5/18/02, p.A15)
1695-1705 This decade was the coldest of the
so-called Little Ice Age (1450-1850).
1696 Jan 31, An uprising of
undertakers took place after funeral reforms in Amsterdam.
1696 Mar 5, Giambattista
Giovanni Battista Tiepolo (d.1770), Venetian Rococo painter (Isaac's
Sacrifice), was born. He painted for the Dolfin family in the 1720s.
His work included: "The Annunciation" (c1765-1770), "Apelles
Painting a Portrait of Campaspe," "Martyrdom of St. Agatha,"
"Sacrifice of Isaac," "The Finding of Moses," "Nobility and Virtue"
(1743), "Satyress with a Putto," "Satyress With Two Putti and a
Tambourine," and "Halberdier in a Landscape." His contemporaries
included Francesco Fontebasso, Allesandro Longhi, and Louis-Joseph
(AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.1483)(WSJ, 10/14/96,
p.A14)(SFC, 3/25/97, p.E3)(MC, 3/5/02)
1696 Mar 7, English King
William III departed Netherlands.
1696 Jun 17, Jan Sobieski (72),
King of Lithuania and Poland (1674-96), died.
(MC, 6/17/02)(LHC, 5/21/03)
1696 Sep 23, A squall drove the
ship Reformation aground on the east coast of Florida. Quaker
merchant Jonathan Dickinson along with his family, 11 slaves, 8
seamen and Capt. Joseph Kirle were on route to Philadelphia from
(ON, 9/00, p.3)
1696 Sep 27, Alfonsus M. de'
Liguori, Italian theologian, bishop, and religious order founder,
1696 cSep 30, The Reformation
castaways encountered a 2nd Indian tribe after paddling north for 2
days in a canoe provided by Indians at their initial landing. They
were taken to a village, near present-day Vero Beach, and
encountered castaways from the bark Nantwich, which had sailed from
Port Royal in the same convoy.
(ON, 9/00, p.5)
1696 Oct 6, Savoy Germany
withdrew from the Grand Alliance.
1696 Nov 2, In Florida a
Spanish company of soldiers took the Dickinson and Nantwich party
into custody and escorted them north to St. Augustine. They arrive
on Nov 19 after 5 people died from exposure enroute.
(ON, 9/00, p.5)
1696 Nov 11, Andrea Zani,
composer, was born.
1696 Nov 19, Louis Tocque,
French painter, was born.
1696 Dec 22, James Oglethorpe,
England, General, author, colonizer of Georgia, was born.
1696 August III (d.1738), son
of August II, was born. He was crowned King of Lithuania and Poland
(SSFC, 4/25/04, p.D12)
1696 William Hogarth, British
artist, was born. He believed that visual art could have a morally
improving effect on viewers, and that individual betterment led to
(SFEC, 1/25/98, DB p.7)(SFC, 1/28/98, p.E1)
1696 A ship called the Sea
Flower, used by pirates after they ditched the Fancy (commanded by
English Capt. Henry Every), sailed along the Eastern US seaboard. It
arrived with nearly four dozen slaves in Newport, Rhode Island,
which became a major hub of the North American slave trade in the
1696 In the late 1600s the
Xukuru Indians fought the Portuguese to a stand off in what was
later referred to as the "War of the Barbarians."
(WSJ, 8/20/99, p.A1)(http://tinyurl.com/bhqlp)
1696 The Chinese painter Bada
Shanren created his work: "Ducks and Lotuses."
(WSJ, 2/19/98, p.A20)
1696 In England a Jacobite plot
to assassinate King William III and restore James II failed.
1696 In England Isaac Newton
(1642-1727) became Warden of the Mint and started combing his hair.
(Econ, 8/23/03, p.68)
1696 New York sea captain
William Kidd reluctantly became a privateer for England and was
expected to fight pirates on the open sea, seize their cargoes, and
provide a hefty share of the spoils to the Crown. According to his
British accusers, Kidd turned to piracy himself as the deadline for
reporting to his employers in New York approached and he had not
taken enough booty to fulfill his commission. Kidd himself did not
know he was a wanted man until he dropped anchor in the West Indies
in April 1699. He chose to surrender to the authorities and submit
to a London trial, believing to the end that he could clear his
name. After a trial in which important evidence in his favor was
suppressed, William Kidd was found guilty of piracy and hanged.
1696 Rotifers, a
microscopic and near-microscopic pseudocoelomate group of asexual
animals, were first described by Rev. John Harris. Other forms were
described by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek in 1703.
1696 Jacques Ozanam, a
visionary Frenchman, 1st proposed a “self-moving vehicle."
(Econ, 2/5/05, p.77)
1696 Duke Eberhard Ludwig of
Wurttenburg, Germany, learned of Eberhard Gockel’s findings on lead
poisoning in wine and banned all lead-based wine additives.
(NH, 7/96, p.49)
1696 The Hotel Elephant was
founded in Weimar, the capital of the German state of Thuringia.
(SFC, 8/3/99, p.A8)
1696 The Company of Scotland
began raising money for a colony at Darien on the Isthmus of Panama.
The venture collapsed after 4 years and only 3 of 13 ships returned
(Econ, 8/28/10, p.74)
1697 Mar 9, Czar Peter the
Great began tour of West Europe. [see Mar 21]
1697 Mar 21, Czar Peter the
Great began a tour through West Europe. [see Mar 9]
1697 Apr 1, Abbe Prevost,
French novelist, journalist (Manon Lescaut), was born.
1697 Apr 16, Johann Gottlieb
Gorner, composer, was born.
1697 May 10, Jean Marie I'aine
Leclair, composer, was born.
1697 May 12, The fall of the
(SFC, 5/10/97, p.A10)
1697 Jun 7, John Aubrey
(b.1626), author of "Monumenta Britanica," died. In 1948 Anthony
Powell authored the biography "John Aubrey." In 2015 Ruth Scurr
authored “John Aubrey: My Own Life," an autobiography in the form of
a diary that he never wrote.
4/02, p.12)(Econ., 4/11/15, p.76)
1697 Sep 11, Prince Eugene of
Savoy led the Austrians to victory over the Ottoman Turks at Senta
(Serbia). This resulted in creating the conditions for the 1699
conclusion of the peace at Karlowitz.
1697 Sep 20, The Treaty of
Ryswick was signed in Holland. It ended the War of the Grand
Alliance (aka War of the League of Augsburg,1688-1697) between
France and the Grand Alliance. Under the Treaty France’s King Louis
XIV (1638-1715) recognized William III (1650-1702) as King of
England. The Dutch received trade concessions, and France and the
Grand Alliance members (Holland and the Austrian Hapsburgs) gave up
most of the land they had conquered since 1679. The signees included
France, England, Spain and Holland. By the Treaty of Ryswick, a
portion of Hispaniola was formally ceded to France and became known
as Saint-Domingue. The remaining Spanish section was called Santo
1697 Oct 19, Settlers from
Mexico sailed across the Sea of Cortez to build a new settlement.
(SFEC, 5/18/97, p.T5)
1697 Oct 25, Settlers from
Mexico founded the town of Loreto in honor of the Virgin Nuestra
Senoro de Loreto, on the Baha Peninsula. It served as the capital of
Baha California for the next 132 years.
(SFEC, 5/18/97, p.T5)
1697 Oct 30, The Treaty
of Ryswick ended the War of the Grand Alliance (aka War of the
League of Augsburg,1688-1697) between France and the Grand Alliance.
France’s King Louis XIV (1638-1715) recognized King William III’s
(1650-1702) right to the English throne, the Dutch received trade
concessions, and France and the Grand Alliance members (Holland and
the Austrian Hapsburgs) gave up most of the land they had conquered
(HN, 10/30/98)(DoW, 1999)
1697 Nov 2, Constantine Huygens
Jr, poet, painter and cartoonist, was buried.
1697 Nov 10, William Hogarth,
English caricaturist, was born.
1697 Dec 2, St. Paul's
Cathedral opened in London.
1697 William Dampier
(1651-1715), English explorer, naturalist and privateer, authored “A
New Voyage Around the World." A sequel appeared 2 years later. In
2004 Diana and Michael Preston authored "A Pirate of Exquisite Mind:
Explorer, Naturalist and Bucaneer," a biography of Dampier.
(WSJ, 4/16/04, p.W8)(NH, 6/4/04, p.59)
1697 Eberhard Gockel published:
"A Remarkable Account of the Previously Unknown Wine Disease."
(NH, 7/96, p.49)
1697 Charles Perrault first
penned "La Petit Chaperon Rouge" (Little Red Riding Hood) as a
sexual morality tale for the loose ladies of Louis XIV’s court. In
2002 Catherine Orenstein authored "Little Red Riding Hood Uncloaked:
Sex, Morality and the Evolution of a Fairy Tale."
(WSJ, 8/7/02, p.D14)(NW, 8/26/02, p.57)
1697 The play "Le Distrait" by
Regnard was written and later accompanied by the music of Joseph
(WSJ, 7/31/97, p.A16)
1697 In Boston’s Old South
Church Judge Sewall told the congregation that he accepted “blame
and shame" for the 1692 Salem witch trials. None of the other judges
joined him in repenting.
(Econ, 8/6/05, p.70)
1697 Hannah Duston in what is
now New Hampshire was attacked and captured by 12 Indians who killed
her daughter. She managed to kill 10 of them with a knife and took
home their scalps for the bounty money. She was the first woman in
the US to have a statue erected in her honor.
(SFEC, 11/17/96, zone 1 p.2)
1697 Two relatives of Galdan
Boshugtu Khan surrendered to China’s Qing Kangxi Emperor. Their
people were then organized into two Oolod banners and resettled in
modern Bayankhongor Province, Mongolia. The Dzungar (or Zunghar),
Oirat Mongols who lived in an area that stretched from the west end
of the Great Wall of China to present-day eastern Kazakhstan and
from present-day northern Kyrgyzstan to southern Siberia (most of
which is located in present-day Xinjiang), were the last nomadic
empire to threaten China.
1697 The Royal Palace in
Stockholm, Sweden, burned down. It was rebuilt in Italian Baroque
style with 608 rooms.
(SSFC, 8/19/07, p.G4)
1697-1718 Charles XII (1682-1718) was king of
(WUD, 1994, p.249)(SFC, 8/17/96, p.E5)
1697-1798 Antonio Canal, Italian topographical
view painter. He was the uncle to Bernardo Belotto.
(WSJ, 9/13/01, p.A18)
1697-1773 Johann Quantz, flutist-composer.
1698 Jan 1, The Abenaki
[Abnaki] Indians and the Massachusetts colonists signed a treaty
ending the conflict in New England.
1698 Apr 5, Georg Gottfried
Wagner, composer, was born.
1698 Aug 18, After invading
Denmark and capturing Sweden, Charles XII of Sweden forced Frederick
IV of Denmark to sign the Peace of Travendal.
1698 Aug 25, Czar Peter the
Great returned to Moscow after his trip through West-Europe.
1698 Sep 5, Russia's Peter the
Great imposed a tax on beards.
1698 Oct 23, Ange-Jacques
Gabriel, French court architect (Place de la Concorde), was born.
1698 Missionary John St. Cosme
celebrated the first Mass in what became St. Louis, Mo.
(SFC, 1/28/99, p.A3)
1698 The Spanish established
Presidio Santa Maria de Galve (later Pensacola, Florida).
1698 Elias "Red Cap " Ball
sailed from England to claim his inheritance, a plantation called
Comingtee on the banks of the Cooper River in South Carolina. The
Ball family kept a history and in 1998 descendant Edward Ball
published "Slaves in the Family."
(SFEC, 2/22/98, BR p.1,8)(SFEC, 4/19/98, p.A22)
1698 The Virginia statehouse at
Jamestown burned and the capital was moved to Williamsburg.
(Arch, 1/06, p.26)
1698 The British pint, a 568
milliliter pour, was introduced. Bars were allowed to serve beer
only as a pint, or a third or half of that measure. This became the
standard size for beer and cider.
(SFC, 1/5/11, p.A2)
1698 English engineer Thomas
Savery devised a way to pump water out of mines by the use of
1698 Abraham or Ibrahim (Abram
Petrovich Gannibal) was born about this time in the Eritrean
highland, north of the Mareb River in a town called Logon. Abraham's
father was a local chief or a "prince". Within a few years Turks
invaded the area and abducted Abraham following a battle lost by his
father. Abraham spent a year in Constantinople and was sold with a
bribe for service to Russia’s Peter the Great.
1698 Peter the Great spent
several months at the Shipwright’s Palace in England learning how to
build the Russian navy.
(WSJ, 5/24/00, p.A24)
1698-1701 The Portuguese built the Old Fort in
Stone Town on Zanzibar to defend against the sultan of Oman.
(SFEC, 4/23/00, p.T6)
1699 Jan 14, Massachusetts held
a day of fasting for wrongly persecuting "witches."
1699 Jan 26, The Treaty of
Karlowitz, Croatia, ended the war between Austria and the Turks.
1699 Feb 4, Czar Peter the
Great executed 350 rebellious Streltsi in Moscow.
1699 Mar 4, Jews were expelled
from Lubeck, Germany.
1699 Mar 23, John Bartram,
naturalist, explorer, father of American botany, was born.
1699 Apr 17, Robert Blair,
Scottish poet (Grave), was born.
1699 Apr 21, Jean Racine (59),
French playwright (Phèdre), died.
1699 Jul 6, Pirate Capt.
William Kidd was captured in Boston.
1699 Dec 20, Peter the Great
ordered Russian New Year changed from Sept 1 to Jan 1.
1699 Jonathan Dickinson, after
resuming his mercantile business in Philadelphia, authored "God’s
Protecting Providence," a journal of his Florida ordeal.
(ON, 9/00, p.5)
1699 A wooden wall on the
northern edge of New Amsterdam (later NYC), built for protection
from the Indians, was destroyed by the British.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R43)
1699 Williamsburg became the
capital of Virginia and served as the capital of the British colony
(SSFC, 12/17/00, p.T7)(AH, 6/07, p.27)
1699 Prince Eugene of Savoy
looted and burned Sarajevo, Bosnia.
(SSFC, 12/4/05, p.F5)
1699 The British established a
rule over the colonies that all wool trade must be with England, and
violations were punishable by stiff fines.
(NG, 5.1988, pp. 583)
1699 The Jews in London
commissioned Joseph Avis, a Quaker, to build a synagogue on a street
called Bevis Marks.
(WSJ, 10/28/06, p.P16)
1699 The Sikhs were founded by
a series of 10 prophets or gurus and believe in one God but many
paths to heaven. In 1999 some 20,000 thousands of Sikhs gathered to
march in SF on the 300th anniversary of their religion. [see Nanak
(SFEC, 4/25/99, p.C1)
1699 The Republic of Lucca
promulgated the first regulations designed to prevent the spread of
(WP, 1952, p.29)
1699 References from the Ching
dynasty of China refer to the Diaoyu Island located between Taiwan
(SFEC, 10/8/96, A8)
1699 The King of Spain, due to
competition, banned the production of wine in the Americas, except
for that made by the church.
(SFEC, 11/7/99, p.T8)
1699-1783 Johann Adolph Hasse, popular composer of
1699-1799 Jean Baptiste Simeon Chardin, French
(WSJ, 7/6/00, p.A24)