Return to home1626 Feb 2,
Charles I was crowned King of England. His wife was Queen Henrietta
(HN, 2/2/99)(WSJ, 10/31/02, p.D6)
1626 Feb 6, Huguenot rebels and
the French signed the Peace of La Rochelle.
1626 Feb 20, John Dowland,
1626 Feb 28, Cyril Tourneur
(c51), English poet, dramatist, died.
1626 Mar 15, In Bolivia the
Potosi (San Ildefonso) dam collapsed. It was one of the major
hydraulic disasters in the world with some 4,000 human lives lost.
1626 Apr 5, Jan van Kessel
(d.1679), Flemish painter, was born. He was the grandson of Jan
Breughel. He is known for his small paintings on copper and wood.
His "Study of Butterflies, Spiders, Lizards, a Beetle, an Ant, a
Grasshopper and Other Insects" sold at a Sotheby’s auction in 2000
(WSJ, 6/9/00, p.W10)(MC, 4/5/02)
1626 Apr 9, Francis Bacon
(b.1561), English philosopher, statesman, scientist, jurist, orator,
and author, died. Bacon has been called the father of empiricism.
His works argued for the possibility of scientific knowledge based
only upon inductive reasoning and careful observation of events in
1626 May 4, Dutch explorer
Peter Minuit (~1594-1638), director-general of New Netherlands,
bought Manhattan Island for 60 guilders (about $24 in 1839 dollars)
worth of cloth and buttons. Minuit conducted the transaction with
Seyseys, chief of the Canarsees, who were only too happy to accept
valuable merchandise in exchange for an island that was actually
mostly controlled by the Weckquaesgeeks. The Sixty guilders were
valued at approximately $1,060 in 2013. The site of the deal was
later marked by Peter Minuit Plaza at South Street and Whitehall
5/4/97)(HN, 5/4/98)(WSJ, 11/19/99, p.W10)
1626 Jul 30, An earthquake hit
Naples and some 10,000 died.
1626 Aug 27, The Danes were
crushed by the Catholic League in Germany, marking the end of Danish
intervention in European wars.
1626 Oct 4, Richard Cromwell
(d.1659), lord protector of England (1658-59), was born.
1626 Nov 7, Peter Schager of
Amsterdam informed the States General that the ship "The Arms of
Amsterdam" had arrived with a cargo of furs and timber from New
Netherlands and that the settlers there had bought the Island of
Manhattes for 60 guilders.
(WSJ, 11/19/99, p.W10)
1626 Nov 15, The Pilgrim
Fathers, who settled in New Plymouth, bought out their London
1626 Nov 18, Pope Urban VIII
consecrated St. Peter’s Cathedral in Rome. Construction had begun in
(HN, 11/18/98)(SSFC, 2/18/07, p.A2)
1626 Dec 1, Pasha Muhammad ibn
Farukh, tyrannical governor of Jerusalem, was driven out.
1626 Dec 8, Christina (d.1689),
queen of Sweden (1644-1654), was born. She negotiated the Peace of
Westphalia (1648), ending the Thirty Years' War. "Fools are more to
be feared than the wicked." "Dignity is like a perfume; those who
use it are scarcely conscious of it."
(AP, 7/8/97)(AP, 1/14/99)(HN, 12/8/99)
1626 Andrea Guarneri (d.1698),
violin maker, was born.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R53)
1626 Rembrandt van Rijn
depicted part of himself in his painting "History Piece."
(WSJ, 8/11/99, p.A16)
c1626 Peter Paul Rubens painted
“The Succession of the Popes (Allegory of Eternity)."
(SFC, 3/5/05, p.E1)
1626 Domenico Zampieri
(Domenichino) painted the 7-foot-long "The Rebuke of Adam and Eve."
(WSJ, 1/21/00, p.W12)
1626 In London Queen Henrietta
Maria, wife of Charles I, was presented Jeffrey Hudson (7), whom she
made her royal dwarf. In 2002 Nick Page authored "Lord Minimus," a
biography of Hudson.
(HN, 2/2/99)(WSJ, 10/31/02, p.D6)
1626 China’s city of Peking
(later Beijing) experienced a major flood.
(Econ, 7/28/12, p.37)
1626 In Prague Adriaen de Vries
began his last sculpture, "Hercules." It was completed in 1627.
(WSJ, 12/7/99, p.A24)
1626 The F.E. Trimbach winery
was established in Ribeauville, Alsace.
(SFC, 3/31/05, p.F2)
c1626-1627 Dutch artist Hendrick ter Brugghen
painted "The Concert."
(SFEM, 8/31/97, p.12)
1626-1636 Francois Mansart, French royal
architect, built the Chateau de Balleroy in Normandy.
(SSFC, 6/6/04, D6)
1626-1679 Jan Steen, Dutch painter. His work
includes Girl Offering Oysters. "He specialized in painting scenes,
such as tavern brawls, seductions and family turmoil, that satirized
(SFC, 6/4/96, p.E5)
1627 Mar 3, Piet Heyn conquered
22 ships in Bay of Salvador, Brazil.
1627 May 29, Anne of Orléans,
duchess of Montpensier (Grand Mademoiselle), was born.
1627 Jul 10, English fleet
under George Villiers reached La Rochelle, France, a Huguenot
(MC, 7/10/02)(WUD, 1994, p.808)
1627 Jul 20, English fleet
under George Villiers reached La Rochelle. [see Jul 10]
1627 Jul 23, Sir George Calvert
arrived in Newfoundland to develop his land grant.
1627 Aug 10, Cardinal Richelieu
began a siege of La Rochelle.
1627 Sep 25, Jacques-Benigne
Bossuet, theologian, was born.
1627 Oct 28, Djehangir
(Jahangir), great mogul of India, died.
1627 James Morton changed the
name of the New England Mount Wollaston settlement to Merrymount and
organized a trading company to compete with Plymouth for the Indian
trade in beaver pelts.
(ON, 3/00, p.11)
1627 Barbados was uninhabited
as the first English settlers arrived. Sugarcane fields later began
to cover the island, a 14 x 21 mile stack of coral terraces.
(NH, 12/96, p.35)(Econ, 6/16/12,
1627 In Bhutan Ngawang Namgyal
built Simtokha Dzong at the entrance to Thimphu valley. From this
dzong he could exert control over traffic between the powerful Paro
valley to the west and Trongsa valley to the east.
1627 Two Portuguese Jesuits,
Estevao Cacella and Joao Cabral, arrived in Bhutan, the first
westerners to do so.
1627 In Norway the stave church
at Vaga was rebuilt by architect Werner Olsen. His design included a
few fragments of the original building.
(WSJ, 8/27/96, p.A12)
1627 Japan banned contact with
foreigners and closed its ports except for limited trade with
Holland. [see 1639]
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)
1627 The last wild cow in
(SFC, 12/4/94, p. S-4)
1627 Luis de Gongora y Argote
(b.1561), Spanish poet, died.
c1627-1628 Dutch artist Hendrick ter Brugghen
(SFC, 9/12/97, p.C1)
1627-1637 In northern Pakistan Jahangir’s
mausoleum on the right bank of the Navi River in Lahore was built by
his son Shah Jahan.
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.C)
1628 Jan 13, Charles Perrault,
lawyer, writer (Mother Goose), was born in France.
1628 Mar 10, Constantine
Huygens Jr., Dutch poet, painter, cartoonist, was born.
1628 Mar 19, Massachusetts
colony was founded by Englishmen.
1628 May 1, A May festival in
Quincy, Mass., degenerated into an orgy with Indian women.
1628 Jun 9, Thomas Morton of
Mass. became the 1st person deported from what is now US.
1628 Aug 1, Emperor Ferdinand
II demanded that Austria Protestants convert to Catholicism.
1628 Aug 1, Francesco Gonzaga
(37), composer, died.
1628 Aug 10, The Swedish
228-foot warship Vasa capsized and sank in Stockholm harbor on her
maiden voyage because the ballast was insufficient to counterweight
the 64 guns and ballast. The wreckage was found in 1956. It opened
as part of the Vasa museum in 1990. Twenty-five men and women
drowned when the ship sank. Vasa was the most expensive and richly
ornamented warship of its time in Sweden. She was recovered in 1961
and the skeletal remains were exhumed in 1989.
(NG, 5/95, Geographica)(WSJ, 7/21/00, p.W12)(HN,
1628 Aug 25, There was as
assault on sultan of Mantarams of Batavia (the former name of
(chblue.com, 8/25/01)(WUD, 1994 p.420)
1628 Sep 6, Puritans landed at
Salem, from the Mass. Bay Colony.
1628 Sep 8, John Endecott
arrived with colonists at Salem, Massachusetts, where he would
become the governor.
1628 Oct 14, Iacopo Nigreti
(b.~1548-50), prolific and facile Venetian Mannerist painter, died.
He is best known as Jacopo Palma il Giovane or simply Palma Giovane
("Young Palma"). His paintings included “Yael Killing Sisera," a
depiction of the Book of Judges Biblical story of the heroine, Yael
of Jael, who killed Sisera to deliver Israel from the troops of king
Jabin. She was the wife of Heber the Kenite.
1628 Oct 28, After a
fifteen-month siege, the Huguenot town of La Rochelle surrendered to
Cardinal Richelieu's Catholic forces. John Tradescant, an English
gardener who accompanied Duke George Villiers to rescue the
Huguenots, had designed siege trenches prior to the surrender.
(HN, 10/28/98)(MC, 10/28/01)(WSJ, 4/3/08, p.B19)
1628 Nov 24, John Ford
(1586-1640) had the premier of his play: "Lover's Melancholy"
(MC, 11/24/01)(WUD, 1994 p.554)
1628 Nov 28, John Bunyan,
English preacher and writer who wrote Pilgrim’s Progress, was born.
1628 Abraham Bloemaert, Dutch
mannerist, painted his "Virgin and Child."
(SFEM, 8/31/97, p.13)
1628 Rembrandt Harmenszoom van
Rizn (Rijn)(1606-1669), Dutch painter, painted "Self Portrait
(AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.1213)(WSJ, 10/1/96,
1628 Gerrit van Honthorst
painted "Portrait of Charles I."
(WSJ, 2/29/00, p.B16)
1628 The Reformed Protestant
Dutch Church was established by settlers in New York. In 1867 it
became the Reformed Church of America.
(SFEC, 4/20/97, Par p.18)(SFC, 7/21/97, p.A11)
1628 Margherita de Medici was
wed to Duke Odoardo Farnese in the Teatro Farnese in Parma. Music
was composed by Claudio Monteverdi.
(SFEC, 9/15/96, p.T6)
1628 Charlestown was founded in
the New World. Much of it was burned in the Revolutionary War.
(HT, 3/97, p.34)
1628 The Petition of Right was
established in England
(MT, Dec. '95, p.16)
1628 Peter Paul Rubens, Flemish
painter, was called upon to broker a peace between Catholic Spain
and Protestant England.
(Econ, 5/15/04, p.81)
1628-1658 Shah Jahan (1592-1666), a descendent of
the Moghuls, ruled India. He was India’s 3rd Mughal emperor. The
manuscript "Padshahnama" (King of the World) by Abdul-Hamid Lahawri
documents the reign of Shah Jahan. In 1997 Wheeler Thackston made a
(WUD, 1994, p.1309)(HT, 4/97, p.22)(WSJ, 12/4/97,
1628-1695 Enku was an Japanese artist-priest who
took a vow to sculpt 120,000 images of the Buddha.
(WSJ, 12/1/98, p.A20)
1629 Jan 21, Abbas I (b.1571),
Shah of Persia (1588-1629), died.
1629 Jan 27, Hieronymus
Praetorius (68), composer, died.
1629 Mar 2, English King
Charles I fleeced the house of commons.
1629 Mar 10, England's King
Charles I dissolved Parliament and did not call it back for 11
1629 Mar 14, A Royal charter
was granted to the Massachusetts Bay Company. About 1,000 puritans
under the leadership of John Winthrop received a charter from King
Charles I to trade and colonize between the Charles and Merrimack
rivers. The official seal to the document was reported found in
1997. [see 1684, Oct 17, 1691]
(SFC, 7/12/97, p.A21)(HN, 3/14/98)(HNQ, 11/23/00)
1629 Mar 19, Aleksei M.
Romanov, Romanov tsar of Russia, was born.
1629 Apr 14, Christian Huygens
(d.1695), Dutch astronomer, discoverer of Saturn's rings, was born.
He invented the pendulum and along with Newton showed that any body
revolving around a center is actually accelerating constantly toward
that center, even though the rate of rotation remains constant.
1629 Apr 30, John Endecott
became governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
1629 May 29, Arnold Baert (~74)
Flemish lawyer, member of Great Council, died.
1629 Jun 18, Piet Heyn (51),
lt. admiral (Spanish silver fleet), died in battle.
1629 Jul 31, Johann Jakob Lowe
von Eisenach, composer, was born.
1629 Oct 13, Dutch West Indies
Co. granted religious freedom in West Indies.
1629 Oct 30, King Charles I
gave the Bahamas to Sir Robert Heath.
1629 Peter Paul Rubens, Flemish
painter, created an allegorical design depicting "Honor and Virtue."
The painting was commissioned in this year and in 1998 was part of
the collection of the Prince of Liechtenstein. A separate small oil
sketch for the painting was first made and made public in 1998.
Rubens also made a copy of Titian’s "The Rape of Europa," and he
painted the portrait of "Thomas Howard, Earl of Arundel."
(SFC, 2/19/98, p.E4)(WSJ, 3/9/98, p.A16)
1629 In New Mexico construction
began on the Mission church of San Esteban del Rey at the Acoma
Pueblo mesa. It took 14 years to complete and required more than
20,000 tons of earth and rock to be hauled up the mesa on foot.
(SSFC, 9/24/06, p.G6)
1629 The weekly Bills of
Mortality in London, begun in 1603, began to include causes of
(Econ, 12/22/07, p.97)
1629 In Japan women performers
were banned in Kabuki theaters to prevent prostitution and were
replaced by young boys. The ban spawned a new breed of male actors.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)(SFC, 6/14/05, p.B3)
1629 The Batavia, a Dutch East
India ship, struck a reef off the western coast of Australia. Some
300 survivors made it to a tiny island in the Houtman Abrolhos
archipelago, where Jeronimus Cornelisz, a junior officer, took power
after a vicious struggle. He ran a regime of murder, rape and
torture for 3 months when helped arrived from the Dutch colony on
Java. 70 of the 300 initial survivors were still alive. Cornelisz
was quickly tried and executed. In 2005 Simon Leys authored “The
Wreck of the Batavia."
(WSJ, 1/10/06, p.D8)
1629-1684 Pieter de Hooch, Dutch painter of
contemplative scenes of everyday life.
(WSJ, 2/2/99, p.A20)
1630 Feb 22, Indians introduced
pilgrims to popcorn at Thanksgiving.
1630 Mar 22, The first American
legislation prohibiting gambling was enacted in Boston.
1630 Mar 23, French troops
occupied Pinerolo, Piedmont.
1630 Apr 17, Christian I, ruler
of Anhalt-Bernburg (battle of White Mt), died.
1630 May 17, Italian Jesuit
Niccolo Zucchi saw the belts on Jupiter's surface.
1630 May 29, Charles Stuart
(d.1685), later Charles II, king of England (1660 to 1685), was
born. He was the son of Charles I. Charles II was restored to the
English throne after the Puritan Commonwealth. Charles made a deal
with George Monck, a general of the New Model Army, and with the old
parliamentary foes of his father. The British experiment with
republicanism came to an end with the restoration of Charles II.
(V.D.-H.K.p.218)(WUD, 1994, p.249)(SFC, 5/25/96,
p.A12)(WSJ, 5/6/97, p.A20)(HN, 5/29/98)(WSJ, 2/28/00, p.A36)
1630 May 29, Gov. John Winthrop
began his "History of New England."
1630 Jun 12, John Winthrop
aboard the Isabella, landed at North River near Salem. Winthrop
eventually decided to locate the colony in Charlestown because of
its proximity to the harbor.
1630 Jun 25, The fork was
introduced to American dining by Gov. Winthrop.
1630 Jul 12, New Amsterdam's
governor bought Gull Island from Indians for cargo and renamed it
Oyster Island. It later became Ellis Island.
1630 Aug 13, Emperor Frederick
II of Bohemia fired Albrecht von Wallenmanders, his best military
1630 Sep 7, The Massachusetts
town of Trimontaine (Shawmut), was renamed Boston, and became the
state capital. It was named after a town of the same name in
1630 Sep 11, John de White,
Calvinist banker to Prague, committed suicide.
1630 Sep 30, John Billington,
one of the original pilgrims who sailed to the New World on the
Mayflower, became the first criminal in the American colonies to be
executed for murder. He was hanged for having shot John Newcomin
following a quarrel.
(HN, 9/30/01)(MC, 9/30/01)
1630 Oct 19, In Boston the 1st
general court was held.
1630 Nov 1-1630 Nov 30, In
Italy 12,000 inhabitants of Venice died of plague. 80,000 people
died over a period of 17 months.
1630 Nov 10, In France there
was a failed palace revolution against Richelieu government.
1630 Nov 15, Johann Kepler
(b.1571), German astronomer, died at 58.
1630 Nov 19, Johann Hermann
Schein (44), German composer (Opella Nova), died.
1630 Frans Hals painted his
"Portrait of a Man."
(WSJ, 7/16/02, p.D6)
1630 Georges de La Tour began
his masterwork painting "The Cheat With the Ace of Clubs." It was
completed about 1634.
(WSJ, 11/13/96, p.A20)
c1630 Poussin completed his
painting "Rinaldo and Armida" and the "Plague at Ashdod."
(WSJ, 7/20/01, p.W11)(SFC, 6/17/02, p.D1)
1630 Tirso de Molina, Spanish
dramatist, wrote the tragic drama "The Seducer of Seville", wherein
Don Juan was first given a literary personality, though it was
already an old myth of libertinism from the medieval past.
1630 John Winthrop made his
famous sermon “A Model of Christian Charity," also known as his
“City Upon a Hill" sermon. The speech was likely made in England
prior to his departure for Massachusetts.
1630 The Boston Common was
first used by the Pilgrims as a common grazing ground for their
livestock. It remained open to livestock until 1830.
(AH, 10/07, p.72)
1630 Staten Island was acquired
by Dutch settlers. [see 1659]
(WSJ, 11/19/99, p.W10)
1630 The southern wall of the
Wallenstein Garden in central Prague was built as part of Gen.
Albrecht von Wallenstein’s palace complex.
(WSJ, 8/7/07, p.D10)
1630 In Hungary Mate Szepsy
Laczko described the method for producing Tokaj wine made from
(WSJ, 10/5/00, p.A24)
1630 In Peru Jesuit
missionaries about this time found that natives would ingest the
powdered bark of the cinchona tree when they shivered with cold.
They found that this also could treat the shivers of malaria. In
1820 quinine was isolated from the cinchona bark.
c1630 The widow of a samurai
set up a business that grew to become the Kikkoman Corp., the
world’s leading maker of soy sauce.
(WSJ, 12/27/99, p.A1)(Econ, 12/18/04, p.105)
1630s Inigo Jones built the
portico of London’s Old St. Paul’s Cathedral.
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.14)
1630-1631 There was a great famine in India.
Records indicate that cannibalism became so rampant that human flesh
was sold on the open market.
(SFC, 7/6/96, p.E4)
1631 Jan 1, Thomas Hobson
(b.~1544), English carrier, died. He had discovered that his fastest
horses were the most popular, and thus overworked. So as not to
exhaust them, he established a strict rotation system, allowing
customers to rent only the next horse in line. This singular choice
became known as Hobson's choice.
1631 Feb 5, A ship from
Bristol, the Lyon, arrived with provisions for the Massachusetts Bay
Colony (Massachusetts Bay Company). Puritan Roger Williams,
proponent of religious freedom and later founder of Rhode Island,
arrived with his wife in Boston from England and joined the
Separatist colony at Plymouth.
6/21/05, p.D10)(AH, 4/07, p.25)
1631 Mar 31, John Donne
(b.1572), British metaphysical poet, died in London. In 2006 John
Stubbs authored “Donne: The Reformed Soul."
(www.luminarium.org/sevenlit/donne/donnebio.htm)(Econ, 9/9/06, p.79)
1631 Apr 6, Vincenzo De
Grandis, composer, was born.
1631 May 4, Mary I Henriette
Stuart, daughter of Charles I (later queen of England), was born.
1631 May 17, Earl Johann Tilly
1631 May 18, English colony of
Massachusetts Bay granted Puritans voting rights and John Winthrop
was elected 1st governor of Massachusetts.
1631 May 20, A German army
under earl Johann Tilly conquered Magdeburg.
1631 Jun 17, Mumtax Mahal, wife
of Shah Jahan of India, her tomb (Taj Mahal), died. Arjumand Shah
Begum (aka Mumtaz Mahal -Jewel of the Palace), was the 2nd wife of
Shah Jahan. She had bore him 14 children and died in childbirth. He
build the Taj Mahal (1654) in her memory. The project took 22 years
and cost $18 million.
(HT, 4/97, p.22)(SFEC, 5/21/00, p.T8)
1631 Jun 17, The Spanish
galleon San Jose smashed into rock off the Pacific coast of Panama.
It was overloaded with 200 passengers and 700 tons of cargo. Silver
coins and bars were lost over a 40-mile trail.
(http://tinyurl.com/hmy8v7f)(SFC, 12/1/15, p.A7)
1631 Jun 21, John Smith
(baptized. 6 January 1580), English sailor, soldier and author, died
in England. John Smith was also an explorer, colonial governor,
Admiral of New England and played an important role in the
establishment of the colony at Jamestown, Virginia, the first
permanent English settlement in America. He was a leader of the
Virginia Colony between September 1608 and August 1609, and he led
an exploration along the rivers of Virginia and the Chesapeake Bay,
during which he became the first English explorer to map the
Chesapeake Bay area. Later, he explored and mapped the coast of New
1631 Jun 26, Justinus van
Nassau, Italian admiral (Armada), died.
1631 Jul 19, Cesare Cremonini
(b.1550), Italian philosopher and lecturer at Padua Univ., died. His
skepticism influenced the culture of the late Renaissance. In 2007
Edward Muir authored “The Culture Wars of the Late Renaissance."
(WSJ, 5/5/07, p.P10)
1631 Jul 23, Sweden's King
Gustavus II Adolfus repulsed an imperialist force at Werben, Russia.
1631 Aug 9, John Dryden, the
1st official poet laureate of England (1668-1700), was born at
1631 Sep 17, At the Battle of
Breitenfeld (Leipzig) Sweden’s King Gustaaf Adolf led a
Saxon-Swedish army and defeated Gen. Tilly.
(MC, 9/17/01)(PCh, 1992, p.231)
1631 Oct 10, A Saxon army
1631 Oct 14, The ship Our Lady
of Juncal set sail from the Gulf coast port of Veracruz, as part of
a 19-ship fleet bearing described only as "a valuable shipment of
the goods obtained by the king's ministers to feed the Spanish
empire." Most of the fleet never made it.
1631 Nov 7, Pierre Gassendi
observed a transit of Mercury as predicted by Kepler.
1631 Dec 6, The 1st predicted
transit of Venus took place. It had been predicted by Kepler, but he
died a year before the event.
(MC, 12/6/01)(Econ, 5/29/04, p.78)
1631 Dec 16, In Italy Mount
Vesuvius erupted and destroyed 6 villages. Some 3.5-4,000 people
(SFEC, 5/2/99, p.T8)(MC, 12/16/01)
1631 The General Court of
Massachusetts gave voting rights only to Puritan church members.
(AH, 4/07, p.30)
1631 Barker and Lucas, the
king’s printers at Blackfriars were fined 300 pounds for their bible
misprint that omitted "not" from the 7th commandment. The fine
helped to ruin the printer. The edition was called "The Wicked
Bible." A list of variant bible editions due to misprints is in
Brewer’s Dictionary of Phrase and Fable
(SFC, 8/11/97, p.D8)
1631 French artist Jean Lhomme
painted “Pardon in Assisi." In 2016 the work was stolen from a
village church in Nottoria, Italy, after it was damaged by a series
of powerful earthquakes.
(SFC, 11/8/16, p.A2)
1631 The French naval dockyards
were created in order to give France sufficient maritime power to
rival that of England. This laid the foundation for the French
defense firm DCNS.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DCNS_(company))(Econ, 5/14/16, p.55)
1631 Marco d'Aviano, an
itinerant preacher for the Capuchins, a branch of the Franciscan
friars, was born in Aviano, northern Italy. He led Catholics and
Protestants in prayer on the eve of the 1683 battle for Vienna,
Austria, which was critical in stopping the advance of Turkish
soldiers in Europe.
1632 Feb 18, Giovanni Battista
Vitali, composer, was born.
1632 Feb 20, Thomas Osborne,
Duke of Leeds, English PM (1690-94)/founder (Tories), was born.
1632 Feb 28, Jean-Baptiste
Lully, composer, was born in Florence, Italy. [see Nov 28]
1632 Apr 15, Swedish and Saxon
army beat Earl Tilly.
1632 Apr 16, Albrecht von
Wallenstein was appointed supreme commander of Holy Roman Empire
1632 Apr 20, Nicolas Antione,
converted to Judaism, was burned at the stake. [see Dec 20]
1632 May 25, Albrecht von
Wallenstein recaptured Prague on Saksen.
1632 Jun 20, Britain granted
2nd Lord Baltimore rights to Chesapeake Bay area.
1632 Aug 29, English
philosopher John Locke was born in Somerset, England. The
philosopher of liberalism influenced the American founding fathers
and was famous for his treatise "An Essay Concerning Human
Understanding." It was he who stated that the child is born with a
tabula rasa, a blank state. On it, he said, experience wrote words,
and thus knowledge and understanding came about, through the
interplay of the senses and all that they perceived. "New opinions
are always suspected, and usually opposed, without any other reason
but because they are not already common."
(V.D.-H.K.p.64,219)(AP, 8/4/97)(AP, 8/29/97)(HN,
1632 Sep 3, Battle at
Nuremberg: Duke Wallenstein beat Sweden.
1632 Oct 20, Sir Christopher
Wren (d.1723), astronomer and architect, was born. He designed the
current St. Paul’s Cathedral in London.
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.14)(HN, 10/20/98)
1632 Oct 24, Antoni van
Leeuwenhoek, Dutch naturalist, was born.
1632 Oct 30, Henri de
Montmorency, French duke and plotter, was beheaded.
1632 Oct 31, [Johannes] Jan
Vermeer (d.1675), tavern keeper and Dutch painter (Procuress,
Astronomer), was born in Delft. Only 35 of his pictures are known to
survive. These include: "Girl With a Pearl Earring" (1665-1666),
"The Little Street" (1657), "Saint Praxedis" (1655), "Allegory of
Faith" (1671) and "The Artist in His Studio." His wife was Catharina
(WSJ, 11/15/95, p.A-20)(AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994,
1632 Nov 6, Gustavus II
Adolphus (37), king of Sweden, died in battle.
1632 Nov 16, Battle at Lutzen:
Sweden beat the imperial armies under Wallenstein.
1632 Nov 24, Baruch (Benedict)
de Spinoza (d.1677), Dutch rationalist philosopher, was born in
Amsterdam. "Fear cannot be without hope nor hope without fear."
(AP, 9/24/99)(MC, 11/24/01)
1632 Nov 28, Jean-Baptiste
Lully, composer, was born in Florence, Italy. [see Feb 28]
1632 Dec 20, Nicolas Antoine,
French Catholic pastor who converted to Judaism, was executed. [see
1632 Rembrandt van Rijn painted
his work "Europa" and "Portrait of a Lady Aged 62." The portrait
sold for $28.7 million in 2000.
(WSJ, 3/9/98, p.A16)(SFC, 12/15/00, p.C15)
1632 The "Portrait of a Young
Woman" was created in the studio of Remrandt. In 1961 the portrait
was bequethed to Pennsylvania's Allentown Art Museum. In 2020 art
experts declared it to be an authentic Rembrandt.
(SFC, 2/18/20, p.A6)
1632 Galileo’s book "Dialogue
Concerning the Two Chief World Systems" was published with the full
backing of the church censors. It was soon recognized to support
Copernican theory and Galileo was put under house arrest for life.
(BHT, Hawking, p.180)
1632 John Tuttle arrived from
England to a settlement near the Maine-New Hampshire border, using a
small land grant from King Charles I to start a farm. In 2010 the
134-acre Tuttle Farm went on the market for $3.35 million.
1632 Colonial Williamsburg,
Virginia, a small city between the York and James rivers was
1632 Cardinal Richelieu ordered
the construction of the Palais Royale in Paris, France. It was
expanded by the Duke of Orleans, who in the 1800s gave it its
present form by enclosing the garden on three sides with buildings
filled with commercial shops and income-producing apartments.
(Hem., 10/'95, p.109)
1632 The British colonized
(NH, Jul, p.20)
1632 Olivier Le Jeune (7), a
black boy born in Madagascar, was sold to a clerk in the future
province of Quebec. He was later considered the first known black
enslaved in Canada.
(SFC, 2/12/10, p.A18)
1632 Tartu Univ. was founded in
Tartu, on the banks of the Emajogi River.
(Hem, 4/96, p.23)
1632 The French explorer
Etienne Brule was killed by the Huron Indians for unknown reasons.
1632 In India Arjumand Shah
Begum (aka Mumtaz Mahal -Jewel of the Palace), 2nd wife of Shah
Jahan, died. She had bore him 14 children and died in childbirth. He
build the Taj Mahal in her memory. The project took 22 years and
cost $18 million.
(HT, 4/97, p.22,24)
1632 In Poland King Ladislas IV
began his rule.
(PCh, 1992, p.241)
1632 Pope Urban VIII's nephew
stole two altar paintings from a provincial church and smuggled them
to Rome. The clandestine move from the central Italian city of
Urbino on the back of a mule, hid the link between the two paintings
and their creator, Dominican friar Fra Carnevale.
1632-1635 Velazquez painted "The Jester Pablo de
(WSJ, 4/16/03, p.D10)
1633 Feb 1, The tobacco laws of
Virginia were codified, limiting tobacco production to reduce
dependence on a single-crop economy.
1633 Feb 13, Italian astronomer
Galileo Galilei arrived in Rome for trial before the Inquisition.
1633 Feb 23, Samuel Pepys
(d.1703), English diarist, was born. Pepys was an informal and
spontaneous English diarist. In 1999 Ferdinand Mount wrote the novel
"Jem (and Sam)," about Pepys and his drinking partner Jeremiah
Mount. In 1999 Sara George authored "The Journal of Mrs. Pepys," a
novel based on Pepys' young wife Elizabeth.
(WSJ, 6/2/99, p.A24)(HN, 2/23/01)
1633 Apr 10, Werner Fabricius,
composer, was born.
1633 May 1, Sebastien le
Prestre de Vauban, French fortress architect, was born.
1633 Jun 21, Galileo Galilei
was tortured and threatened by Inquisition to "abjure, curse, &
detest" his Copernican heliocentric views.
(JST-TMC,1983, p.7)(MC, 6/21/02)
1633 Jun 22, Galileo Galilei
was again forced by the Pope to recant that the Earth orbits the
Sun. On Oct 31, 1992, the Vatican admitted it was wrong.
1633 Oct 14, James II Stuart,
king of England and Scotland (James VII) (1685-88), was born.
1633 Dec 18, Willem van de
Velde the Younger, Dutch marine painter, was baptized.
1633 Rembrandt van Rijn painted
the "Portrait of a Bearded Man in a Red Coat." It sold for $9.1
million in 1998.
(SFC, 2/3/98, p.E3)
1633 Francisco de Zurbaran
(1598-1644), Spanish artist, painted his “Still Life With Lemons
Oranges and a Rose," later described as symbolic objects to the
Virgin Mary. It was the work that Zurbaran ever signed and dated. In
1998 it was held by the Los Angeles Norton Simon Museum of Art.
(SFEC, 1/11/98, p.D7)(WSJ, 2/21/09, p.W7)
1633 Captain John Davis wrote
(WSJ, 7/2/03, p.D8)
1633 Rene Descartes wrote "Le
Monde" in which he upheld the theories of Copernicus but halted
publication to prevent conflict with the Church.
(Dr, 7/20/96, supl p.1)
1633 In Oberammergau, Germany,
plague victims swore an oath to portray the suffering and death of
the Lord every 10 years. Their first Passion Play was performed in
1633 The Blessing, a ferry
carrying gold and silver of King Charles I and 30 passengers, sank
in Scotland’s Firth of Forth. A documentary of the story for TV was
shown in 1996 on the Discovery Channel titled: "The Lost Treasure of
King Charles I."
(WSJ, 6/13/96, p.A12)
1634 Feb 17, William Prynne
(1600-1669), English Puritan leader and pamphleteer, was tried in
Star Chamber for publishing "Histrio-masti."
(WUD, 1994 p.1159)(MC, 2/17/02)
1634 Feb 18, Emperor Ferdinand
II ordered General Albrecht von Wallenstein's execution.
1634 Feb 19, At the Battle at
Smolensk Polish king Wladyslaw IV beat the Russians. [see Mar 1]
1634 Feb 22, Petrus "Pieter"
van Schooten, fortress architect, was born.
1634 Mar 1, Battle at Smolensk;
Polish King Wladyslaw IV beat the Russians. [see Feb 19]
1634 Mar 4, Samuel Cole opened
the first tavern in Boston, Massachusetts. (HN, 3/4/99)
1634 Mar 13, Academie Francaise
was established. Its task was to preserve the purity of the French
language, which included maintaining a dictionary. Members came to
be known as the "immortals" and by 1998 they were struggling to with
masculine nouns of positions held by women who desired feminine
(SFC, 1/17/98, p.A12)(MC, 3/13/02)
1634 Mar 25, English colonists
sent by Cecil Calvert, the second Lord Baltimore, arrived in
present-day Maryland. Maryland was founded as a Catholic colony.
(HN, 3/24/98)(AP, 3/25/08)(AH, 4/07, p.30)
1634 May 31, Massachusetts Bay
colony annexed the Maine colony.
1634 Jul 14, Pasquier Quesnel,
French theologian, Jansenist (Jesus-Christ Penitent), was born.
1634 Sep 5, Battle at
Nordlingen: King Ferdinand III & Catholic Spain beat Sweden
& German protestants.
1634 Sep 18, Anne Hutchinson,
the first female religious leader in American colonies, arrived at
the Massachusetts Bay Colony with her family. She preached that
faith alone was sufficient for salvation. As her following grew, she
was brought to trial and found guilty of heresy against Puritan
orthodoxy and banished from Massachusetts. She left with 70
followers to Providence, Rhode Island, Roger Williams's colony based
on religious freedom.
1634 Gov. John Winthrop of the
Massachusetts Bay Colony estimated the local population rather
counting it directly.
(Econ, 12/22/07, p.97)
1634 Rembrandt van Rijn painted
"Portrait of a Woman." It hangs in the Speed Museum of Louisville,
(WSJ, 12/18/97, p.A20)
1634 Ngawang Namgyal, in the
Battle of Five Lamas, prevailed over the Tibetan and Bhutanese
forces allied against him and was the first to unite Bhutan into a
1634 French explorer Jean
Nicolet, looking for Cathay, traveled the western shores of Lake
Michigan and landed on Wisconsin soil.
1634 In Oberammergau, Germany,
a re-enactment of the last days of Jesus began to be performed. The
Passion Play was performed from then on every ten years with a few
rare exceptions. In 1633 plague victims had sworn an oath to portray
the suffering and death of the Lord every 10 years.
1634 Ligdan Khan (reigned
1604-34), the last great Mongol leader, died. After his death, the
Mongols were subdued by the Manchu and became part of the Ch’ing
(Manchu) dynasty of China.
1634-1635 Construction began on the Wazir Khan
Mosque. It built by Hakim Shaikh Ilm-ud-din Ansari (commonly known
as Wazir Khan), a native of Chiniot, who rose to be the court
physician to Shah Jahan and a governor of Lahore.
1634-1637 The Dutch tulip craze was known as the
"tulipomania." A futures market was created for tulip bulbs in Dutch
taverns and prices crashed 95% in the end. In 2000 Peter M. Garber
authored "Famous First Bubbles," and restored a sense of proportion
to the inflated notions of the mania.
(WSJ, 7/7/98, p.A14)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)(WSJ,
1/18/00, p.C14)(WSJ, 8/2/00, p.A20)
1634-1644 Hugo Grotius (d.1645) of Holland, father
of international law, served the Swedish government as ambassador to
(HN, 4/10/98)(HNQ, 3/15/00)
1635 Feb 22, King Louis XIII at
the urging of Cardinal Richelieu granted letters patent to formally
establish the Academie Francaise in Paris. The Académie française
was responsible for the regulation of French grammar, orthography,
1635 Feb 13, In Massachusetts
the oldest public school in the United States, the Boston Public
Latin School, was founded.
(SFC,12/11/97, p.A1)(AP, 2/13/98)
1635 Apr 16, Frans van Mieris,
the Elder, Dutch painter, was born.
1635 Apr 28, Virginia Governor
John Harvey was accused of treason and removed from office.
1635 May 5, Philippe Quinault,
French playwright (L'amant indiscret), was born.
1635 May 19, Cardinal Richelieu
of France intervened in the great conflict in Europe by declaring
war on the Hapsburgs in Spain.
(DTnet, 5/19/97)(HN, 5/19/99)
1635 Jun 3, Philippe Quinault
(d.1688), French dramatist whose popular librettos included Amadis,
Roland and Armida, was born.
1635 Jun 28, The French colony
of Guadeloupe was established in the Caribbean.
1635 Aug 27, Lope Felix de Vega
(72), playwright, poet (Angelica, Arcadia), died.
1635 Sep 6, Adrian A. Metius,
mathematician and fort architect, died at 63.
1635 Sep 7, Pal Esterhazy,
composer, was born.
1635 Oct 9, Religious dissident
Roger Williams was banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony (Mass.
Bay Company). He became a founder of Rhode Island. Enforcement was
delayed until the following January due to illness.
(AP, 10/9/01)(AH, 4/07, p.26)
1635 Dec 1, Melchior Teschner
(51), composer, died.
1635 Dec 25, Samuel de
Champlain (b.1575), French navigator and founder of Quebec City,
died in Quebec. In 2008 David Hackett Fischer authored “Champlain’s
1635 Britain established
binding numerical limits on horse-drawn coaches.
(Econ, 2/11/12, p.76)
1635 European ships carrying
African slaves to the West Indies sank off the coast of St. Vincent.
The surviving salves escaped and gradually intermarried with the
island’s Carib Indian natives.
(SFEC, 5/4/97, p.T11)
1635 A Cistercian nunnery and
surrounding villages of Sorbs in Germany’s Upper Lusatia remained
Catholic after Protestant Saxony priced the land away from Bohemia.
(Econ, 6/28/08, p.59)
1635-1637 Rembrandt Harmenszoom van Rizn
(Rijn)(1606-1669), Dutch painter, painted "Two Studies of Saskia
(AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.1213)(WSJ, 10/1/96,
1635-1682 Johann Joachim Becher, German alchemist.
""It is always better to sell goods to others than to buy goods from
others, for the former brings a certain advantage and the latter
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R50)
1635-1703 Robert Hooke, English scientist, and
friend of Newton suggested that the properties of matter, especially
gases, could be understood in terms of the motion and collision of
1636 Feb 3, The infamous Dutch
tulip bubble burst during an outbreak of the bubonic plague,
illustrating that asset prices can plummet just as quickly as they
soar, leaving only pain behind.
1636 Mar 26, University of
Utrecht held its opening ceremony.
1636 Apr 29, Esaias Reusner,
composer, was born.
1636 Jun, Roger Williams and
his followers founded Providence, Rhode Island, on land purchased
from the Narragansett Indians. The settlement was governed by
policies of democracy and religious tolerance.
1636 Jul 20, John Oldham,
trader in Mass., was murdered by Indians.
1636 Aug 8, The invading armies
of Spain, Austria and Bavaria were stopped at the village of
St.-Jean-de-Losne, only 50 miles from France.
1636 Sep 8, Harvard College,
the first college in America, was founded as Cambridge College. It
changed its name two years later in honor of the Reverend John
Harvard, who gave the institution three hundred books and a large
sum of money for the day. [see Oct 28]
1636 Sep 18, Pietro Sanmartini,
composer, was born.
1636 Oct 4, The Massachusetts
Plymouth Company drafted its 1st law.
1636 Oct 28, The General Court
of Massachusetts passed a legislative act establishing Harvard
College in Cambridge, Mass. It was the first corporation in the US.
Harvard Univ. was named after John Harvard who bequeathed books to
the Univ. that included “The Christian Warfare Against the Devil
World and Flesh" by John Downame. Englishman George Downing was the
first graduate. London’s Downing St. was named after him. [see Sep
(SFEC, 6/28/98, Z1 p.8)(HN, 10/28/98)(SFEC,
12/6/98, Z1p.10)(AP, 10/28/07)
1636 Nov 1, Nicholas Boileaus,
French poet and historian, was born.
1636 Nov 17, Henrique Dias,
Brazilian general, won a decisive battle against the Dutch in
1636 Rembrandt van Rijn made
his etching "Self-portrait with Saskia."
(HT, 5/97, p.60)
1636 Peter Paul Rubens painted
“Aurora and Cephalus."
(SFC, 3/5/05, p.E1)
1636 Henry Adams reached
Massachusetts and settled on 40 acres of land in Braintree and
fathered eight sons. He was the great-grandfather of John Adams, 2nd
president of the US.
(A&IP, Miers, p.17)
1636 The first militia units in
the Massachusetts Bay Colony were formed.
(SFC, 5/17/06, p.A11)
1636 Tung Ch’ich’ang (b.1555),
Chinese painter, died.
(SFC, 12/8/05, p.E12)
1636 Westerners in Japan were
sequestered on the man-made island of Dejima in Nagasaki's harbor as
the government cracked down on all things foreign. The island later
disappeared in land reclamation projects.
(SSFC, 8/10/03, p.C11)
1636 In Mexico a city wall was
built around Veracruz.
(SFEC, 5/17/98, p.T12)
1636 The Caribbean island of
St. Eustatius was colonized by the Dutch. It became an important
transit port for the regional trade in sugar and slaves from West
(SFC, 6/2/21, p.A4)
1637 Feb 15, Ferdinand II (58),
King of Bohemia, Hun, German Emperor (1619-37), died. Ferdinand III
succeeded him as Holy Roman Emperor.
(440 Int’l., 2/15/99)(MC, 2/15/02)
1637 Mar 5, John van der
Heyden, Dutch painter, inventor (fire extinguisher), was born.
1637 May 13, Cardinal Richelieu
of France created the table knife.
1637 May 26, The Connecticut
English militia and their Mohegan allies killed over 600 Pequot
Indians at their village at Mystic. The survivors were parceled out
to other tribes. Those given to the Mohegans eventually became the
1637 Jul 23, King Charles of
England handed over the American colony of Massachusetts to Sir
Fernando Gorges, one of the founders of the Council of New England.
1637 Aug 6, Ben Johnson (65),
English dramatist and poet, died. In 1960 Jonas Barish wrote "Ben
Jonson and the Language of Prose Comedy."
(AP, 1/4/98)(WUD, 1994, p.771)(SFC, 4/4/98,
1637 Oct 20, Nicolaas van der
Veken, Flemish sculptor (confessional chairs), was born.
1637 Nov 7, Anne Hutchinson was
banished from the Mass Bay colony as a heretic.
1637 Nov 20, Peter Minuit &
1st Dutch and Swedish immigrants to Delaware sailed from Sweden.
Peter later purchased Manhattan Island for 60 guilders.
1637 Dec 7, Barnardo Pasquini,
composer, was born.
c1637 Poussin completed his
painting "The Nurture of Jupiter."
(WSJ, 7/20/01, p.W11)
1637 James Morton published
"New English Canaan," a satiric book describing his encounters with
the New England Pilgrims.
(ON, 3/00, p.12)
1637 A King James version of
the Bible was printed with only 14 known copies made.
(Ind, 12/26/98, p.5A)
1637 To solve any problem, it
is helpful to divide the question into a set, or series, of smaller
problems, and solve each one in turn. Descartes, "Discourse on
1637 John Tradescant the
younger, a widower with a son and daughter, undertook the first of
three voyages from England to Virginia “to gather up all raritye of
flowers, plants, shells." The King’s request to search for useful
trees and herbs, no doubt played a role in Tradescant’s decision to
take this trip during what must have been a very difficult time.
1637 Rene Descartes, French
mathematician, began using the final letters of the alphabet to
represent unknowns. He published his 6 tome "Discours de la Methode"
(Alg, 1990, p.115)
1637 The Dutch tulip bulb craze
crashed as futures prices became too high for speculators to pay off
and take delivery.
(WSJ, 7/7/98, p.A14)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)(WSJ,
1637 The Dutch attacked and
captured Elmina (Ghana), which up to that point was the centre of
Portuguese activity in West Africa.
1637 Ferdinand II Holy Roman
emperor, king of Bohemia and king of Hungary, died.
(WUD, 1994, p.524)
1637 Gekkeikan began making
sake in Kyoto, Japan. The company began supplying the imperial
household in 1909.
(SSFC, 9/26/04, p.D12)
1637 The last recorded auroch,
a wild antecedent of modern domestic cattle, died in Poland's
(Econ., 10/3/20, p.68)
c1637-1638 Peter Paul Rubens painted “The
Elevation of the Cross."
(SFC, 3/5/05, p.E1)
1637-1638 The Christians of Shimabara, Japan,
(Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 215)
1637-1707 Dietrich Buxtehude, German composer. He
was a transitional figure between early and later baroque. Bach made
a legendary journey on foot to hear the aging composer perform.
Handel also journeyed to see him 3 years before Bach. His works
include Jubilate Domino and the Trio Sonata for violin, gamba and
(EMN, 1/96, p.1)
1638 Jan 5, Petition in Recife,
Brazil, led to the closing of its two synagogues.
1638 Feb 28, Scottish
Presbyterians signed the National Covenant at Greyfriars, Edinburgh.
1638 Feb 28, Henri duc de
Rohan, French soldier, Huguenot leader, died.
1638 Mar 3, Duke Bernard van
Saksen-Weimar occupied Rheinfelden.
1638 Mar 22, Religious
dissident Anne Hutchinson was expelled from the Massachusetts Bay
1638 Mar 23, Frederik Ruysch,
Dutch anatomist, was born.
1638 Mar 29, The first
permanent white settlement was established in Delaware. Swedish
Lutherans who came to Delaware were the first to build log cabins in
America. The first English colonists did not know how to build
houses from logs but those who lived in the forests of Scandinavia,
Germany and Switzerland did. German pioneers who settled in
Pennsylvania built the first log cabins there in the early 1700s.
The Scotch-Irish immigrants who settled in the Appalachian highlands
after 1720 made the widest use of log cabins and by the time of the
American Revolution, log cabins were the mainstay among settlers all
along the western frontier.
(HNQ, 9/15/99)(AP, 3/29/08)
1638 Apr 13, Duke Henri II
(58), French Huguenot leader, died.
1638 May 6, Cornelius Jansen,
theologian (Jansenism), died.
1638 Jun 1, The first
earthquake was recorded in the U.S. at Plymouth, Mass.
1638 Aug 9, Jonas Bronck of
Holland became the 1st European settler in the Bronx.
1638 Sep 5, Louis XIV, "The Sun
King" (1643-1715) of France, was born. He built the palace at
Versailles. [see Sep 16]
1638 Sep 14, John Harvard
(B.1607), a Massachusetts Puritan minister died. On his deathbed he
bequeathed half his estate to Harvard College.
1638 Sep 16, France's King
Louis XIV, the Sun King, was born. He ruled from 1643-1715 and died
in 1715. [see Sep 5]
(WUD, 1994, p.848)(AP, 9/16/97)
1638 Dec 18, Pere Joseph
(Francois du Tremblay, b.1577), French Capuchin friar, confidant and
agent of Cardinal Richelieu, died. He was the original éminence
grise -- the French term ("grey eminence") for a powerful advisor or
decision-maker who operates secretly or unofficially. Richelieu was
known as Éminence Rouge (red eminence); from the colors of their
1638 Dec 24, The Ottomans under
Murad IV recaptured Baghdad from Safavid Persia.
1638 Rembrandt van Rijn painted
the "Portrait of Willem Bartolsz Ruyter," a Dutch actor.
(SFC, 10/12/96, p.E3)
1638 Galileo smuggled out his
book "Dialogue Concerning Two New Sciences" to a publisher in
(BHT, Hawking, p.180)(NH, 2/05, p.19)
1638 Monteverdi composed the
madrigal "Il Combattimento de Tanncredi e Corinda."
(WSJ, 7/22/99, p.A24)
1638 Thomas Emerson came from
England and settled in Ipswich, Massachusetts. Ralph Waldo Emerson
came along 5 generations later.
(WP, 1952, p.39)
1638 John Tradescant (b.1570),
English gardener and father of John Tradescant (1608-1662), died. In
2008 Jennifer Potter authored “Strange Blooms: The Curious Lives and
Adventures of the John Tradescants.
(WSJ, 4/3/08, p.B19)
1638 Joachim Wytawael (Wtewael,
b.1566), Dutch mannerist painter, died. His work included "The
Adoration of the Shepherds."
(SFEM, 8/31/97, p.13)(SFEM, 9/17/00, p.96)
1638-1686 Nils Steenson, Danish doctor, better
known as Nicolaus Steno, explained stratigraphy. He was convinced
that fossils are the remains of ancient organic forms.
1638-1709 Meindert Hobbema, Dutch painter. He
painted "The Avenue."
(AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.675)
1638-1715 Louis XIV, the French Sun King. He ruled
(WUD, 1994, p.848)
1638-1715 Dom Perignon, a French monk. He
introduced blending, vineyard and cellaring practices that made
champagne a better wine.
(Hem., 10/97, p.104)
1639 Jan 6, Virginia became the
1st colony to order surplus crops (tobacco) destroyed.
1639 Jan 14, (Julian Calendar)
"Fundamental Orders," the first constitution of Connecticut, was
adopted [see Jan 24].
1639 Jan 23, Francisco
Maldonado da Silva Solis, Peruvian poet, was burned at stake.
1639 Jan 24, (Gregorian
Calendar) The Fundamental Orders, the first constitution in the New
World, was adopted in Connecticut [see Jan 14].
1639 Feb 7, Academie Francaise
began its Dictionary of French Language.
1639 Mar 13, Cambridge College
was re-named Harvard University for clergyman John Harvard.
(AP, 3/13/98)(MC, 3/13/02)
1639 May 8, William Coddington
founded Newport, RI.
1639 May 20, Dorchester, Mass.,
formed the 1st school funded by local taxes.
1639 May 21, Tommaso Campanella
(b.1568), Italian philosopher, theologian, astrologer, and poet,
died. He spent 27 years imprisoned in Naples (1599-1626) for leading
a conspiracy against the Spanish rule. During his detention, he
wrote his most important works: The Monarchy of Spain (1600),
Political Aphorisms (1601), Atheismus triumphatus (Atheism
Conquered, 1605–1607), Quod reminiscetur (1606?), Metaphysica
(1609–1623), Theologia (1613–1624), and his most famous work, The
City of the Sun (originally written in Italian in 1602; published in
Latin in Frankfurt (1623) and later in Paris (1638)).
1639 Jun 6, Massachusetts
granted 500 acres of land to erect a gunpowder mill.
1639 Jun 10, The 1st American
log cabin at Fort Christina (Wilmington, Delaware).
1639 Aug 10, "Ten fair pippins"
were planted on Governor’s Island in Boston Harbor.
(WSJ, 9/9/96, p.A16)
1639 Sep 25, The 1st printing
press in America began operating.
1639 Nov 3, Martinus de Porres
(69), Peru saint (patron of social justice), died.
1639 Nov 5, 1st post office in
the colonies opened in Massachusetts.
1639 Nov 24, A 2nd predicted
transit of Venus occurred. Jeremiah Horrocks of England predicted
and observed the event with his friend William Crabtree.
(MC, 11/24/01)(Econ, 5/29/04, p.78)
1639 Descartes published his
"Discourse on Method." It is here that his famous statement "I
doubt; therefore I am," was expounded. "He then proceeded to
discover a method of achieving similar certainty in other realms,
based on the reduction of all problems to a mathematical form and
solution." He invented analytic geometry in order to reduce the
description of phenomena to a set of numbers. His Discourse was
placed by Catholic theologians on the Index of forbidden books.
1639 Francois Citois, the
physician of Cardinal Richelieu, published a book that described the
disease colica Pictonum, and noted the prevalence of the disease to
the wine region of Poitou, where tart wines needed sweetening.
(NH, 7/96, p.48)
1639 Roger Williams of
Providence, Rhode Island, embraced the Baptist faith long enough to
help found the first Baptist church in America. After 4 months he
abandoned the Baptist congregation and left organized religion
(AH, 4/07, p.27)
1639 Hugel Corp. first bottled
wine in France.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R46)
1639 In India the walled city
of Old Delhi, the 6th Delhi city, was erected by Shah Jahan. It came
to be called Shajahanabad after the construction of new Delhi by the
(SFEC, 5/21/00, p.T1)
1639 Japan was closed to the
outside world except for a Dutch trading post.
(Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 215)
1639 Jesuit Father Petro Kassui
Kibe, a convert to Christianity, was captured, tortured and martyred
in Tokyo. He had initially managed to escape persecution and
traveled to Rome, where he became a Jesuit and was ordained to the
priesthood. He then returned to Japan to minister to other oppressed
Christians. The 188 other martyrs included four Jesuit priests,
other priests, brothers and nuns, lay men and women, all
killed in different cities between 1603 and 1639 after the Japanese
government outlawed Christianity. In 2007 Pope Benedict XVI approved
recognition of their martyrdom.
1639-1699 Racine, French dramatist. His plays
included "Phedre" and "Ariadne’s Thread" based on Greek myths.
(WUD, 1994, p.1184)(WSJ, 10/8/02, p.D8)
1640 Jan 25, Robert Burton,
author (Anatomy of Melancholy), died.
1640 Feb 9, Murad IV (27),
sultan of Turkey (1623-40), died in Baghdad. Ibrahim (1640-1648)
succeeded Murad IV in the Ottoman House of Osman.
(Ot, 1993, xvii)(MC, 2/9/02)
1640 Mar 9, Pierre Corneille’s
"Horace," premiered in Paris.
1640 May 5, English Short
1640 May 30, Peter Paul Rubens
(b.1577), Flemish painter, died in Antwerp.
1640 Jun 9, Leopold I, Emperor
of the Holy Roman Empire (1658-1705), was born.
(HN 6/9/98)(MC, 6/9/02)
1640 Aug 28, The Indian War in
New England ended with the surrender of the Indians.
1640 Aug 29, English King
Charles I signed a peace treaty with Scotland.
1640 Nov 11, John Pym, earl of
Strafford, was locked in Tower of London.
1640 Nov 25, Giles Farnaby,
1640 Nov 26, Carl Rosier,
composer, was born.
1640 Dec 1, Spain lost Portugal
as the Duke of Braganza was proclaimed João IV (John IV), king of
1640 Dec 6, Matthijs Elsevier
(75), Flemish-Dutch book publisher and merchant, died.
1640 Dec 9, Settler Hugh Bewitt
was banished from the Massachusetts colony when he declared himself
to be free of original sin.
1640 Rembrandt van Rijn painted
his "Portrait of a Man Seated in an Armchair" about this time.
(WSJ, 11/3/95, p.A-12)
c1640 In Connecticut Roger
Williams prepared the first primer of the Algonquian Indian
(SFEM, 11/15/98, p.23)
1640 The Bay Psalm Book, the
first book printed in British North America, was published in
Cambridge, Mass., on a press shipped from England. In 2013 a copy
sold at a Sotheby’s auction for a recored $14.2 million.
(Econ, 11/30/13, p.31)
c1640 "The Great Tulip Book,"
an album with 158 illustrations used by a merchant and grower to
show available varieties, was created.
(WSJ, 4/24/01, p.A22)
1640 Monteverdi composed his
opera "The Return of Ulysses."
(WSJ, 11/15/01, p.A24)
1640 The towns of Southampton
and East Hampton, NY, were founded. (In 2004 Steven Petrow authored
“The Lost Hamptons."
(SSFC, 7/18/04, p.M2)
1640 English colonists founded
Greenwich, Connecticut. It evolved into an exclusive retreat from
(WSJ, 4/12/08, p.A6)
1640 The Massachusetts Bay
Company sent 300,000 codfish to market.
(SFC, 5/24/97, p.E3)
1640 Chemical lighters came out
in London that used phosphorus and sulfur.
(SFC, 5/17/97, p.E3)
1640 John Ford (b.c1586)
English playwright, died. In 1944 Prof. Sensabaugh (d.2002 at 95)
authored "The Tragic Muse of John Ford."
(WUD, 1994 p.554)(SFC, 2/28/02, p.A20)
1640 In Canada three French
nuns in Quebec established Le Monastere des Augustines (the
Augustine Monastery). In 1962 the remaining nuns donated the
building to a non-profit. In 2015 it was re-opened as a luxury
65-room hotel, retreat and wellness center.
(SSFC, 7/2/17, p.F6)
1640 The Cathedral of Morelia,
Mexico, 185 miles northwest of Mexico City, was begun. It was
completed 100 years later and is considered to be Mexico's best
example of Platersque architecture, an ornate style that resembles
(Hem, Nov.'95, p.144)
1640 Spain’s medieval kingdom
of Aragon rebelled against Madrid.
(Econ, 11/8/08, SR p.10)
1640 Pope Urban VIII ordered
Spanish priests to stop smoking cigars.
(SFC, 5/24/97, p.E3)
1640 Russia completed its
conquest of Siberia and reached the Pacific Ocean.
(ON, 2/04, p.5)
1640s In England the
parliamentary battles that led up to the English Civil War were
recorded in 7 tomes known as Rushworth's Collections.
(WSJ, 3/10/99, p.A22)
1640s In England an agrarian
commune was created by Gerard Winstanley, a merchant turned
pamphleteer whose elegant prose derided the class system. The 1975
film "Winstanley" was co-directed by Andrew Mollow and Kevin
Brownlow was based on Winstanley.
(SFEC, 1/30/00, DB p.42)
1640s In Sweden the violin was
introduced, possibly by French musicians at the court of Queen
(NH, 4/97, p.32)
1640s The Fifth Dalai Lama
(1617-1682) invented a unique institution to rule his country, a
collaboration of monastics and aristocrats. It gradually
accomplished demilitarization and elevated monasticism with an
emphasis on education and spiritual development.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R55)
1640-1688 Elector Friedrich Wilhelm acquired a
collection of paintings by Titian, Rubens, Rembrandt and others at
his home in Oranien. His nephew was Frederick the Great.
(WSJ, 7/29/98, p.A13)
1640-1706 John Evelyn (1620-1706), English writer
and gardener, kept a diary over this period.
1640-1945 In 1955 Stanford Prof. Gordon A. Craig
(1913-2005) authored “The Politics of the Prussian Army, 1640-1945."
(SFC, 11/9/05, p.B11)
1641 Jan 3, Jeremiah Horrocks
(22), English astronomical prodigy, died.
1641 Feb 16, English king
Charles I accepted the Triennial Act.
1641 Feb, Sara Copia Sullam
(b1592), poet, essayist and resident of the Venetian Jewish ghetto,
died. Her literary salon had been open to Jewish and Christian
1641 May 12, Thomas Wentworth
(48), chief advisor to Charles I and English viceroy of Ireland, was
beheaded in the Tower of London.
(HN, 5/12/01)(MC, 5/12/02)`
1641 Sep 23, Adrian "Aart" van
Wijck, theologian, was born. He fought Jansenism.
1641 Oct 21, A Catholic
uprising took place in Ulster. Thousands of English and Scots were
killed. [see Oct 23]
1641 Oct 23, Catholics in
Ireland, under Phelim O'Neil, rose against the Protestants and
cruelly massacred men, women and children to the number of 40,000
(some say 100,000). [see Oct 21]
1641 Dec 1, Massachusetts
became the 1st colony to give statutory recognition to slavery. It
was followed by Connecticut in 1650 and Virginia in 1661.
(MC, 12/1/01)(HNQ, 5/20/02)
1641 Dec 9, Anthonie "Antoon"
van Dyck (42), Flemish painter, died.
1641 The "Pharmacopoeia
medicochymica" by Johann Schroder was first printed in Ulm.
(NH, 6/00, p.28)
1641 Cristoval de Acuna, a
Jesuit missionary, first wrote about the Amazon River to the king of
(SFC, 12/16/00, p.A22)
1641 Puritans wrote a statute
that enjoined husband from beating their wives: the Massachusetts
Body of Liberties.
(WSJ, 4/1/02, p.A13)
1641 The Spanish warship
Nuestra Senora de la Concepcion sank off of the coast of Florida.
(AM, Jul-Aug/99, p.8)
1641 The English Court of Star
Chamber was abolished. It had been used by unpopular kings to
enforce unpopular policies.
(ON, 11/04, p.10)
1641 In Ireland a Catholic
uprising in Ulster was suppressed. English Gen’l. Oliver Cromwell
took away the land rights of 44,000 Catholics in Ulster and adjacent
(SFEC, 12/22/96, Z1 p.6)
1641 Japan designated an
artificial island in Nagasaki harbor as the only place that
foreigners could live.
(Econ, 11/24/07, p.47)
1641 The Dutch pushed the
Portuguese out of Malacca and renamed Our Lady of the Hill church to
(Econ, 11/15/14, SR p.5)
1641 Gerritt van Wuysthoff, a
Dutchman, struggled up the Mekong River through Cambodia and reached
(Econ, 1/3/04, p.29)
1642 Jan 4, King Charles I
attacked the English House of Commons with an armed guard. He was
forced to retire, empty-handed.
1642 Jan 8, Astronomer Galileo
Galilei (77) died in Arcetri, Italy. Galileo had 2 daughters
consigned to a nunnery and one son, whom he got married into a rich
Florentine family. In 1614, Father Tommaso Caccini denounced the
opinions of Galileo on the motion of the Earth from the pulpit of
Santa Maria Novella, judging them to be erroneous. Galileo went to
Rome and defended himself against charges that had been made against
him. In 1616, he was admonished by Cardinal Bellarmino and told that
he could not defend Copernican astronomy because it went against the
doctrine of the Church. Later, in 1632 he was summoned by the Holy
Office to Rome. The tribunal passed a sentence condemning him and
compelled Galileo to solemnly abjure his theory. He was sent to
exile in Siena. Galileo spent his last years almost totally
blind and poor. In 1999 Dava Sobel published "Galileo's Daughter."
(BHT, Hawking, p.180)(AP, 1/8/98)(WSJ, 10/19/99,
1642 Jan 10, King Charles I and
his family fled London for for Hampton Court Palace and moved two
days later to Windsor Castle.
1642 Feb 25, Dutch settlers
slaughtered lower Hudson Valley Indians in New Netherland, North
America, who sought refuge from Mohawk attackers.
1642 Mar 1, Georgeana (York),
Maine, became the first American city to incorporate.
(HN, 3/1/98)(SC, 3/1/02)
1642 Mar 12, Abel Tasman became
the 1st European to land in New Zealand. [see Nov 24, Dec 13]
1642 May 6, Frans Francken, the
Younger, Flemish painter, died on 61st birthday.
1642 May 17, Paul de Chomedy de
Maisonneuve landed on the Island of Montreal and gave the name
Ville-Marie to the town he constructed at the foot of Mont Royal.
1642 May 18, The Canadian city
of Montreal was founded by French colonists.
1642 Jul 3, Maria de' Medici
(~69), French queen-mother, died.
1642 Aug 7, A Royalist force
laid siege to Warwick Castle. Soldiers loyal to the king tried
without success to unseat the Parliamentarian forces that held it.
While a minor skirmish, the outcome would foreshadow the broader
struggle for the country. The siege was lifted on 23 August 1642
when the garrison was relieved by the forces of Robert Devereux, 3rd
Earl of Essex, and the Royalists were forced to retreat to
1642 Aug 13, Christian Huygens
discovered the Martian south polar cap.
1642 Aug 22, Civil war in
England began as Charles I declared war on the Puritan Parliament at
Nottingham. Charles I went to the House of Commons to arrest some of
its members and was refused entry. From this point on no monarch was
(HN, 8/22/98)(SFC, 10/16/98, p.D3)(ON, 12/00,
1642 Sep 12, Cinq Mars, French
plotter, was executed.
1642 Sep 23, Giovanni Maria
Bononcini, composer, was born.
1642 Sep 23, Harvard College in
Cambridge, Mass., held its first commencement.
1642 Oct 23, The Battle of
Edgehill was the first major clash between Royalist and
Parliamentary forces in the English Civil Wars. King Charles I and
11-15,000 Cavaliers held the high ground against 13-15,000
Roundheads led by the Earl of Essex and Oliver Cromwell. The
conflict began with a smattering of cannon exchanges. The Royalist
artillery was hampered by its uphill position, rendering its cannons
largely ineffective against the enemy below. As a result, Royalist
cavalry, led by the King’s nephew, Prince Rupert, swept down the
hill toward the Parliamentarians, decimating a large section of
their ranks. The Royalists did not capitalize on this initial
success, however, as the troops became more interested in plundering
the town than in finishing the fight. This allowed Parliamentarian
troops to regroup and break up enemy formations. After several hours
of hard fighting, both sides withdrew to their original positions,
leaving a field scattered with debris and casualties.
1642 Oct 23, Sir Edmund Verneys
rode into the battle of Edgehill as the standard bearer of Charles I
and died there. In 2007 Adrian Tinniswood authored “The Verneys: A
True Story of Love, War and Madness in Seventeenth-Century England."
(Econ, 3/3/07, p.87)
1642 Nov 13, Battle at Turnham
Green, London: King Charles I vs. English parliament.
1642 Nov 24, Abel Janszoon
Tasman (d.1659) discovered Van Diemen's Land (Tasmania).
1642 Dec 4, Cardinal
Armand-Jean Duplessis Richelieu (57), French statesman and bishop of
Luzon, died. "If you give me six lines written by the most honest
man, I will find something in them to hang him." "He did too much
harm to be praised, and too much good to be damned."
(MC, 12/4/01)(WSJ, 9/24/02, p.D8)(Econ, 1/24/04,
1642 Dec 13, Dutch navigator
and explorer Abel Janszoon sighted present-day New Zealand. He fled
after Maori cannibals feasted on the “friendship party" he sent
(NG, Aug., 1974, p.196)(SFEC, 10/4/98, p.T4)(AP,
1642 Dec 25, (OS) Isaac Newton
(d.1727), English physicist, mathematician and scientist, was born
in Woolsthorpe (Grantham), Lincolnshire, England. He enunciated the
laws of motion and the law of gravity [see Jan 4, 1643].
1642 Descartes published:
"Meditationes de prima philosophia, in quibus Dei Existentia et
animae humanae a corpore distinctio demonstrantur." [2nd source says
(Dr, 7/20/96, supl p.1)(WSJ, 3/18/97, p.A20)
1642 Rembrandt van Rijn painted
(WSJ, 3/904, p.D8)
1642 London's Globe theater
closed as the Puritan-controlled British Parliament suppressed
theaters and other forms of popular entertainment.
(ON, 11/03, p.2)
1642 In England Speaker William
Lenthall refused Charles I’s request that he identify 5 uppity MPs,
whom the king had come to the House of Commons to arrest.
(Econ, 12/6/08, p.75)
1642 Monteverdi composed
"L’Incoronazione di Poppea."
(WSJ, 6/1/98, p.A16)
1642 Le Vau, the French royal
architect, built the Hotel Lambert on the Ile of Saint Louis.
(SFCM, 10/14/01, p.32)
1642 A diamond, said to be
stolen from a Hindu statue, was acquired in India by Jean Baptiste
Tavernier, a noted French traveler. The 45.52 carat steel blue
diamond was found in India back in remote times as a rough crystal
weighing 112 carats. Tavernier later sold to King Louis XIV of
France. The diamond, known as the French Blue or the Tavernier Blue,
disappeared. For many years it was not heard from at all. In 1830, a
large steel blue diamond of a different shape, and weighing only
44.50 carats appeared on the market in England and was purchased by
Henry Thomas Hope, an English banker. It changed hands a number of
times and in 1911 it was sold to Evelyn Walsh McLean of Washington,
DC, who had it placed in a Cartier setting.
c1642 Gretje Reyniers had
sailed to New Amsterdam [now New York] from Holland and built a life
as a prostitute, moneylender and pelt dealer. Her story was expanded
in a 1996 novel by Michael Pye titled "The Drowning Room."
(SFC, 6/3/96, BR p.14)
1642 Curacao became a colony of
(Econ, 6/19/04, p.72)
1642 In France Blaise Pascal
invented a calculating machine to ease the drudgery of his
tax-collector father. It was considered too complicated.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)
1642-1648 The English civil war severely damaged
St. Paul’s Cathedral in London.
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.14)
1642-1651 Period of English civil wars.
1643 Jan 4, (NS) Sir Isaac
Newton, scientist, was born. He developed the laws of gravity and
planetary relations [See Dec 25, 1642].
1643 Mar 1, Girolamo
Frescobaldi (59), Italian composer, organist, died.
1643 Apr 20, Christoph
Demantius (75), composer, died.
1643 May 13, Battle at
Grantham: English parliamentary armies beat royalists.
1643 May 14, Louis XIV became
King of France at age 4 upon the death of his father, Louis XIII.
1643 May 18, Queen Anne, the
widow of Louis XIII, was granted sole and absolute power as regent
by the Paris parliament, overriding the late king's will.
1643 May 19, Delegates from
four New England colonies, Massachusetts Bay, Plymouth, Connecticut
and New Harbor, met in Boston to form a confederation: the United
Colonies of New England.
1643 May 19, A French army
destroyed Spanish army at the Battle at Rocroi - Allersheim in
(DTnet, 5/19/97)(HN, 5/19/98)
1643 Jun 18, In England the
bloody battle of Chalgrove Field occurred. Royalist strategy
meetings were held at the Horsenden Manor at Buckinghamshsire.
1643 Jun 30, Battle at Atherton
Moor: Royalists beat parliamentary armies.
1643 Jul 5, 1st recorded
tornado in US was at Essex County, Massachusetts.
1643 Jul 13, In England, the
Roundheads, led by Sir William Waller, were defeated by royalist
troops under Lord Wilmot in the Battle of Roundway Down.
1643 Jul 27, Cromwell defeated
the Royalists at the Battle of Gainsborough.
1643 Nov 22, Rene R. Cavelier,
sieur de La Salle, French explorer, was born. [see Dec 22]
1643 Nov 29, Claudio Giovanni
Monteverdi (76), Italian composer (L'Arianna), died.
1643 Dec 8, John Pym (59),
English House of Commons member, died.
1643 Dec 22, Rene-Robert
Cavelier La Salle, French explorer (Louisiana), was born. [see Nov
1643 Dec 25, Captain William
Mynors of the Royal Mary, a British East India Company vessel, named
Christmas Island when he sailed past it on Christmas Day.
Sovereignty of the island was transferred to Australia in 1957.
1643 Tinicum township, founded
by Swedes, was the first European settlement in Pennsylvania.
1643 Roger Williams of
Providence, Rhode Island, published “A Key into the Language of
America," a dictionary of the Narragansett Indian language and a
commentary on the culture and customs of the southern New England
Indians. The work was printed in England by Gregory Dexter.
(AH, 4/07, p.27)
1643 Ann Radcliffe established
the first scholarship at Harvard Univ.
(SFC, 4/21/99, p.A2)
1643 The English parliament
first introduced levies on beer and meat to finance its fight
against the Crown.
(Econ, 12/31/11, p.39)
1643 Fang Yizhi, a Chinese
scholar, wrote that smoking tobacco for too long would blacken the
lungs and lead to death.
(Econ, 1/28/12, p.44)
1643 Wu Bin (b.1580), Ming
Dynasty painter, died. His work included "Pine Lodge Amid Tall
(SFC, 3/13/03, p.E1)
1643 A novel by Umberto Eco,
Italian philosopher and novelist, written in 1995 was set in this
period. It was titled "The Island of the Day Before," (Harcourt
Brace, 513 pp., $25).
(WSJ, 11/27/95, p.A-1)
1643 The opera "Il Capricio"
with libretto by Francesco Buti and music by Marco Marazzoli had its
first performance at the home of the French ambassador in Rome. The
sole manuscript then languished in the Vatican library until a
revived performance in SF in 1997.
(SFC, 3/10/97, p.D2)
1643 The great marble dome of
the Taj Mahal was first completed.
(WSJ, 3/31/07, p.P10)
1643 Piotr Golovin, the Cossack
governor of Russia’s Yakutsk province, sent an expedition under
Vasily Poyarkov into the far eastern Amur watershed. After 3 winters
Poyarkov returned to Yakutsk with fewer than a quarter of his 160
(Econ, 12/19/09, p.71)
1643-1715 Louis XIV was King of France. "L'etat
c'est moi" (I am the state). Francois Michelle Le Tellier, the
Marquis de Louvois, was his secretary of state for war. A portrait
of the Marquis was painted by Herault.
(WUD, 1994, p.848)(SFC,10/23/97, p.E1)(WSJ,
1644 Jan 18, 1st reported UFO
sighting in America was made by perplexed pilgrims in Boston.
1644 Feb 5, The 1st US
livestock branding law was passed by Connecticut.
1644 Mar 7, Massachusetts
established 1st 2-chamber legislature in colonies.
1644 Mar 14, Roger Williams of
Providence, Rhode Island, was issued a charter in the name of the
king, which connected the towns of Providence, Portsmouth, and
Newport under the title of "the Incorporation of Providence
Plantations in the Narragansett Bay in New England." A March 24 date
is also common for this and reflects later use of the new style
1644 Apr 25, The Ming Chongzhen
emperor committed suicide by hanging himself as Beijing fell to the
bandit and rebel leader Li Dzucheng (39). The Qing, or Chi’ing,
dynasty of China began when the Manchus invaded from Northeast China
and overthrew the 300-year-old Ming Dynasty.
(WSJ, 9/13/96, p.B8)(HN, 4/25/98)(PCh, 1992,
1644 Jul 2, Lord Cromwell
crushed the Royalists at the Battle of Marston Moor near York,
England. Cromwell came from minor gentry in Huntingdon and had
served in Parliament before the wars, during which he commanded the
Ironsides, a cavalry regiment famous for its discipline and
tenacity. Although he had had no previous military experience, he
showed amazing courage and tactical brilliance, particularly at the
Battle of Marston Moor.
(HN, 7/2/98)(HNQ, 8/8/00)
1644 Jul 2, William Gascoigne
(24), introduced telescopic sights, was killed.
1644 Jul 11, A Florentine
scientist described the invention of barometer.
1644 Aug 12, Heinrich Ignaz
Franz von Biber, composer, was born.
1644 Aug 12, Georg Christoph
Leuttner, composer, was born.
1644 Sep 2, At the Battle at
Lostwithiel: Robert Devereux's infantry surrendered.
1644 Sep 25, Olaus Rímer, 1st
to accurately measured speed of light, was born in Denmark.
1644 Oct 1, Jean Rousseau,
composer, was born.
1644 Oct 1, Alessandro
Stradella, Italian violinist and composer, was born.
1644 Oct 14, William Penn,
founder of Pennsylvania, or Penn's Woods, was born.
1644 Oct 27, The 2nd Battle at
Newbury: King Charles I beat parliamentary armies.
1644 Nov 6, Sir Thomas Roe
(b.~1581), English scholar and a patron of learning, died. He was an
English diplomat of the Elizabethan and Jacobean periods and He sat
in the House of Commons at various times between 1614 and 1644. “It
is no good state of a body to have a fat head, thin guts and lean
6/30/12, SR p.15)
1644 Dec 23, Tomas de Torrejon
y Velasco, composer, was born.
1644 Antonio Stradivari
(d.1737), violin maker, was born.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R53)
1644 Velazquez painted the
portrait: "King Philip IV of Spain."
(WSJ, 12/29/99, p.A12)
1644 "Principia Philosophiae"
by Rene Descartes was published in Amsterdam.
(Dr, 7/20/96, supl p.1)
1644 Johan Baptista von
Helmont, Flemish alchemist and physician, had a manuscript published
post mortem where he described invisible spirits bubbling from
flasks in his laboratory. He coined the word "Gas" from the Greek
word for chaos to describe the invisible spirits. One of the gases
he studied was carbon dioxide which he called gas sylvestris, or
spirit of wood.
(NOHY, Weiner, 3/90, p.16)
1644 Poet John Milton published
"Areopagitica," an essay in defense of a free press.
(SFC, 1/21/04, p.D2)
1644 Roger Williams published
“The Bloudy Tenent of Persecution," a sweeping condemnation of
Massachusetts’s intolerance and a manifesto defending the rights of
each individual to decide, according to his own conscience, how best
to worship god without interference from any civil authority.
(AH, 4/07, p.27)
1644 A house was constructed
for the Reverend John Lothrop, the founder of Barnstable, Mass. It
later formed the original part of the Sturgis Library, the oldest
Library building in the United States. The building is also one of
the oldest houses remaining on Cape Cod."
1644 Pope Innocent X was
elected Pope. He was from the noble Roman Pamphili family.
(SFC, 11/20/00, p.A20)
1644 A land grant for "The
Beach" was given for a fifty acre tract that covers the present
harbor area of St. Michaels on the Chesapeake Bay.
1644 Lambert Jochemse Van
Valckenburg and his wife Annetje arrived in New Amsterdam and
promptly purchased a house and 50 acres.
(SFEC, 8/11/96, p.A17)
1644 Trongsa Dzong was built.
Trongsa was the ancestral home of Bhutan’s royal family.
1644 The Globe Theater in
London was dismembered.
(SFC, 8/20/96, p.E4)
1644 The Manchu emperors of
China ordered all subjects to shave the top of their heads and wear
the rest of their hair in a braid. The men complied until 1911 but
the women did not.
(SFEC, 9/8/96, Z1 p.6)
c1644 In China the later
Zhengyici Theater in Beijing started as a temple in the late Ming
(WSJ, 1/9/97, p.A8)
1644 Many Chinese mandarins
fled to the port of Hoi An, Vietnam, when the Ming Dynasty was
overthrown. Hoi An at this time was known as Faifo.
(SFEC, 4/26/98, p.T4)
1644 In Sikkim the beginning of
a 330 year dynasty.
(WSJ, 3/6/97, p.A1)
1644-1694 Matsuo Basho, Japanese poet. His work
include "The Narrow Road to the Deep North" (Oku no Hosomichi). One
of his poems celebrated the entrancing cry of the cicada.
(SFC, 11/28/96, p.C16)(WUD, 1994, p.124)(SFC,
7/29/97, p.C3)(Econ, 7/5/14, p.67)
1644-1911 "The Qing Dynasty" by Nie Chongzheng is
the 4th section of Wu Hung’s 1997 "The Origins of Chinese Painting."
The period is marked by the emergence of the literati-amateur
(WSJ, 1/2/98, p.6)
1644-1912 The period of the Ching (Qing) dynasty
of China. Others end it at 1911. Chinese GDP per person fell
relentlessly during the Qing dynasty.
(WSJ, 9/19/96, p.A18)(SFC, 10/14/96, p.B3)(Econ
1645 Jan 10, William Laud (71),
the Archbishop of Canterbury, was beheaded on Tower Hill, accused of
acting as an enemy of the Parliament.
1645 Feb 14, Robert Ingle,
commissioned by the English Parliament and captain of the tobacco
ship Reformation, sailed to St. Mary’s (Maryland) and seized a Dutch
trading ship. This marked the beginning of what came to known as
“The Plundering Time."
(Arch, 1/05, p.48)
1645 Apr 2, Robert Devereux
resigned as parliament supreme commander.
1645 Apr 7, Michael Cardozo
became the 1st Jewish lawyer in Brazil.
1645 Jun 14, Oliver Cromwell’s
army routed the King’s army at Naseby.
1645 Jul 12, In Russia Michael
Romanov (b.1596), the first RomanovTsar (1613-1645), died.
1645 Aug 9, Settlers in New
Amsterdam gained peace with the Indians after conducting talks with
1645 Aug 16, Jean de la
Bruyere, French writer and moralist famous for his work "Characters
of Theophratus," was born.
1645 Aug 28, Hugo Grotius,
Dutch jurist and politician, died. In 1917 Hamilton Vreeland
authored “Hugo Grotius: The Father of Modern Science and
(RTH, 8/28/99)(ON, 10/04, p.4)
1645 Aug 30, Dutch &
Indians signed peace treaty in New Amsterdam (NY).
1645 Sep 20, Louis Joliet,
French-Canadian explorer in the New World, was born.
1645 Sep 24, The Battle of
Rowton Heath took place during the English Civil War between the
Parliamentarians, commanded by Sydnam Poyntz, and the Royalists
under the personal command of King Charles I. The result was a
significant defeat for the Royalists, with heavy losses and Charles
prevented from relieving the Siege of Chester. William Lawes
(b.1602), Cavalier composer, died at the Battle of Rowton Heath.
1645 In Brazil two priests and
28 lay people were slaughtered by Dutch Calvinists and indigenous
people, and in some cases had their hearts torn from their chests
after being tortured and mutilated.
1645 The construction of Saint
Sulpice in Paris, France, began over a Romanesque church and
(SSFC, 1/25/04, p.C12)
1645 The San Marcoul Hospital
was established in Rheims, France, by a devout woman for the care of
scrofulous [tubercular] patients.
(WP, 1951, p.7)
1645 Mikhail Guryev, a Russian
trader, founded the Ural River port city known as Guryev. The
Kazakhstan oil town was later named Atyrau.
(WSJ, 7/25/01, p.A1)
1646 George Fox (b.1624)
abandoned the church in England and began following the "inner
light." He told listeners that the truth could be found by listening
to an inner voice of God speaking directly to the soul. His
teachings formed the basis to the Religious Society of Friends, aka
Quakers. Believers reportedly sat and quivered waiting for the Holy
Spirit to move them to speak.
(SSFC, 8/5/01, p.C10)
1645 In Sweden the Post Och
Inrikes Tidningar began daily publication for bankruptcies,
corporate and government announcements. On Jan 1, 2007, the world’s
oldest newspaper stopped publishing on paper and moved to the
(WSJ, 1/2/07, p.B4)
1645 Turkish invaders of the
Ottoman Empire captured Hania on the island of Crete and built a
(SFEC, 8/17/97, p.T10)
1645-1651 During the English civil war of this
period almost every silver and gold object in the country was melted
down or smashed.
(Econ, 3/9/13, p.86)
1645-1715 The Maunder Minimum. A 70-year period,
named after astronomer E.W. Maunder, who documented a lack of solar
activity during this time. It also marked the coldest period of the
"Little Ice Age" that gripped Europe from c1450-c1890.
(SFC, 11/29/02, p.J6)(SFC, 12/8/03, p.A2)
1646 Feb 28, Roger Scott was
tried in Massachusetts for sleeping in church.
1646 Mar 6, Joseph Jenkes
received the 1st colonial machine patent.
1646 Apr 27, King Charles I
1646 May 5, King Charles I
surrendered at Scotland.
1646 Jul 1, Gottfried Von
Leibniz (Leibnitz, d.1716), German philosopher and mathematician,
(HN, 7/1/98)(WUD, 1994, p.819)
1646 Jul 30, English parliament
set the Newcastle Propositions of King Charles I.
1646 Aug 28, Fulvio Testi (53),
Italian poet (Poesie liriche), died.
1646 Sep 14, Robert Devereux
(b.1591), 3rd earl of Essex, died.
1646 Oct 28, The 1st Protestant
church assembly for Indians took place in Massachusetts.
1646 Gluckel of Hameln was born
in Hamburg. She married at 14 and had 12 children and was widowed at
age 44. She continued for 3 more decades as a single businesswoman
and devoted diarist. Her story was made into a theater production in
1999 by the New York based Great Small Works.
(SFC, 10/16/99, p.D1,4)
1646 A treaty with Virginia
Indians required the state to protect the Mattaponi from "enemies,"
but only on the reservation in King William County. The peace treaty
unraveled the powerful confederation of local Indian tribes and
large amounts of land were ceded to English settlers.
(SFC, 6/4/97, p.A7)(AH, 6/07, p.27)
1646 James Morton, author of
the "New English Canaan," died in Maine.
(ON, 3/00, p.12)
1646 Charles I (1600-1649),
king of England, Scotland and Ireland, licensed the Silver Cross to
serve as both a brothel and drinking establishment.
1646 The Cheng Hoon Teng
Buddhist temple was built in Malacca, Malaysia.
(SFEC, 3/19/00, p.T8)
1646 In Satevo, Mexico, at the
bottom of the Copper Canyon near Batopilas is a 350 year old church.
(SFC, 5/19/96, T-1)
1646 Akzo Nobel, a Dutch
multinational firm, traced its origins to a foundry established this
year in the Swedish countryside by Paul Hossman. Milestone mergers
and divestments led to the formation of AKZO in 1969 and the merger
with Nobel Industries in 1994 to form Akzo Nobel.
1646-1707 Jules Hardouin Mansart, French
architect. He became the chief architectural director for Louis XIV.
(WUD, 1994, p.873)
1647 Jan 2, Nathaniel Bacon,
leader of Bacon's Rebellion, Va., (1676), was born.
1647 Jan 23, Scottish
Presbyterians sold captured Charles I to English Parliament.
1647 Jan 30, King Charles I was
handed over to the English parliament.
1647 Mar 14, The 1647 Treaty of
Ulm was reached between the French and the Bavarians during the
Thirty Years' War. In negotiations with the French, Maximilian I of
Bavaria abandoned his alliance with the Holy Roman emperor Ferdinand
III through the Treaty of Ulm. In 1648 Bavaria returned to the side
of the emperor.
1647 Apr 1, John Wilmot
(d.1680) Second Earl of Rochester, poet (A Satyr Upon Mankinde),
scandalous pornographer and bawdy playwright, was born. He married
Elizabeth Malet, and carried on an affair with the actress Elizabeth
Barry. His friend, playwright George Etherege modeled the character
Dorimont after him in "Man of Mode." A 1994 play by Stephen Jeffrey
titled "The Libertine," is based on Wilmot’s life.
(WSJ, 3/28/96,p.A-12)(WSJ, 1/14/98, p.A17)
1647 May 11, Peter Stuyvesant
(37) arrived in New Amsterdam to become governor of New Netherland.
The one-legged professional soldier was sent from the Netherlands to
head the Dutch trading colony at the southern end of Manhattan
Island. Stuyvesant lost a leg in a minor skirmish in the Caribbean
(ON, 4/00, p.1)(AH, 10/04, p.74)(AP, 5/11/08)
1647 May 26, A new law banned
Catholic priests from the colony of Massachusetts. The penalty was
banishment or death for a second offense.
1647 May 27, In Salem,
Massachusetts, Achsah Young became the first recorded American woman
to be executed for being a "witch."
(AP, 5/27/97)(HN, 5/27/98)
1647 Jun 4, The English army
seized King Charles I as a hostage.
(AP, 6/4/97)(HN, 6/4/98)
1647 Jun 24, Margaret Brent
(d.1671), a niece of Lord Baltimore, was ejected from the Maryland
Assembly after demanding a place and vote in the body. Brent, acted
as attorney for Lord Baltimore, and saved the colony from mutinous
soldiers and from a Protestant revolt against the Catholic
1647 Jul 7, In Naples an
outbreak began with a riot at the city gates between the
fruit-vendors of the environs and the customs officers.
Misgovernment and fiscal oppression during the Thirty Years' War had
aroused much discontent throughout the Kingdom of Naples.
1647 Jul 16, Masaniello
(b.1622), an Italian fisherman, was murdered in Naples after leading
a doomed revolt against Habsburg rule.
1647 Aug 22, Denis Papin,
inventor of the pressure cooker, was born.
1647 Nov 8, Pierre Bayle
(d.1706), French-Dutch theologian, philosopher, and writer, was
born. He authored the "Historical and Critical Dictionary." "If an
historian were to relate truthfully all the crimes, weaknesses and
disorders of mankind, his readers would take his work for satire
rather than for history."
(WUD, 1994, p.128)(AP, 11/19/97)(WSJ, 12/2/97,
1647 Nov 10, The all Dutch-held
area of New York was returned to English control by the treaty of
1647 Nov 11, Massachusetts
passed the 1st US compulsory school attendance law.
1647 Velazquez (1599-1660)
began his painting "Toilet of Venus." It was completed in 1651.
(WSJ, 2/24/00, p.A16)
1647 William Bradford authored
"History of Plymouth Plantation."
(ON, 3/00, p.12)
1647 Samuel Danforth, a Puritan
minister, authored “An Almanack for the Year of Lord 1647." It
included a 20-year chronology of notable events in the Massachusetts
(WSJ, 11/22/08, p.W11)
1647 Gian Francesca Abela,
vice-chancellor of the Knights of St. John and the father of Maltese
historiography, authored "Descrittione di Malta." His antiquities,
willed to the College of Jesuit Fathers in Valetta, later formed the
nucleus of Malta’s National Museum of Archeology.
(AM, 7/97, p.48)
1647 Pietro della Valle first
published an illustration of a cuneiform inscription.
1647 "L’Orfeo" was produced in
France. It was composed by Luigi Rossi who was imported by Cardinal
Mazarin who sought to bring the Italian operatic tradition to France
and mate it with the court orchestra, Les Vingt-Quatre Vuiolons du
(WSJ, 6/19/97, p.A16)
1647 Elizabeth Throckmorton
(b.1565), wife of Sir Walter Raleigh, died. In 2003 Anna Beer
authored her biography "My Just Desire."
(WSJ, 1/6/04, p.D10)
1647 The British Parliament
under Oliver Cromwell banned Christmas celebrations. The ban was
lifted after Cromwell's downfall in 1660.
1647-1649 “An Agreement of the People" was a
series of manifestos, published during this period, for
constitutional changes to the English state. They have been most
associated as the manifestos of the Levellers but were also
published by the Agitators and the General Council of the New Model
1648 Jan 21, In Maryland, the
first woman lawyer in the colonies, Margaret Brent, was denied a
vote in the Maryland Assembly.
1648 Apr 5, Spanish troops and
feudal barons struck down people's uprising in Naples.
1648 Apr 16, John Luyken, poet,
etcher (Duytse Lyre), was born.
1648 Apr 22, English army
claimed king Charles I was responsible for bloodshed.
1648 May 6, Battle at Zolty
Wody-Bohdan: Chmielricki's Cossacks beat John II Casimir.
1648 May 13, Margaret Jones of
Plymouth was found guilty of witchcraft and was sentenced to be
hanged by the neck.
1648 May 15, The independence
of the Netherlands was finally recognized with the Dutch and Spanish
ratification of the Treaty of Munster, initially signed on January
1648 May 20, In Poland King
Ladislas IV died at age 55. His Jesuit brother (39) took rule as
John Casimir II.
(PCh, 1992, p.241)
1648 Jun 18, The Eighty Years’
War between the Dutch and Spain ended following the signing of the
Treaty of Munster.
1648 Jun 24, Cossacks
slaughtered 2,000 Jews and 600 Polish Catholics in Ukraine.
1648 Jul 22, Some 10,000 Jews
of Polannoe were murdered in a massacre led by Cossack Bogdan
(PC, 1992, p.241)(MC, 7/22/02)
1648 Aug 8, Ibrahim, the sultan
of Istanbul, was thrown into prison, then assassinated.
1648 Aug 26, There was a
people's uprising, the Fronde, against Anna of Austria, regent for
Louis XIV of France, and Cardinal Mazarin (d.1661), the effective
(PC, 1992, p.241)(MC, 8/26/02)
1648 Sep 21, In Poland at the
Battle at Pilawce Bohdan Chmielricki beat John II Casimir.
(PCh, 1992, p.241)(MC, 9/21/01)
1648 Oct 4, Peter Stuyvesant
established America's 1st volunteer firemen.
1648 Oct 18, Boston shoemakers
were authorized to form a guild to protect their interests; it's the
first American labor organization on record. The guild was
authorized by the Massachusetts Bay Colony (Mass. Bay Company).
(HN, 10/18/98)(AP, 10/18/07)
1648 Oct 24, The Peace of
Westphalia ended the German Thirty Years War and effectively
destroyed the Holy Roman Empire. The Treaties of Osnabruck and
Munster, that ended the Thirty Years" War, divided Pomerania, a
historic region that once stretched from Stralsund to the Vistula
along the Baltic Sea in north-central Europe, into two parts known
as Hither Pomerania and Farther Pomerania. Hither Pomerania, the
area west of the Oder River, was granted to Sweden. Farther
Pomerania was east of the Oder and went to the state of Brandenburg.
Hither Pomerania is now part of the German state of Mecklenburg-West
Pomerania; Farther Pomerania is now part of Poland. The 30 years war
had spread from one end of Germany to the other, and left the
country a scene of desolation and disorder, wasted by fire, sword
and plague. The war was followed by great scarcity, due to the lack
of laborers. San Marino did not attend the conference or sign the
treaty because it had not been involved in the fighting, however it
was linked to states that were fighting and was therefore still at
war with Sweden until 1996 when an official end was declared. The
treaty abolished private armies and the nation-state acquired a
monopoly on maintaining armies and fighting wars.
(AP, 10/24/97)(WSJ, 6/1/99, p.A22)(HNQ,
10/6/99)(Econ, 5/24/08, p.80)
1648 Oct 24, Switzerland's
independence was recognized with the Peace of Westphalia.
1648 Nov 2, 12,000 Jews were
massacred by Chmielnicki hordes in Narol Podlia (Ukraine). Cossack
Bogdan Chmielnicki led the pogrom in quest of Ukrainian independence
from the Polish nobility, who employed Jews to collect taxes.
(PCh, 1992, p.241)(MC, 11/2/01)
1648 Nov 26, Pope Innocent X
condemned the Peace of Westphalia, which ended 30 Years War one
1648 Nov 30, English army
captured King Charles I.
1648 Dec 6, Pride's Purge:
Thomas Pride prevented 96 Presbyterians from sitting in English
1648 Aldrovandus illustrated an
Aztec sacrificial knife with a flaked blade (probably of obsidian)
and a Brazilian anchor axe of ground stone set in a wooden haft as
examples of stone implements of ancient type but of recent
manufacture and used by primitive peoples.
1648 William Blaeu, Dutch
master, illustrated 26-inch heaven and Earth orbs and depicted lions
in the sky and sea monsters in the Pacific. Their value in 1996 was
(WSJ, 11/1/96, p.B10)
1648 The painting "Holy Family
on the Steps," later acquired by the US National Gallery of Art, was
initially attributed to Nicolas Poussin. The original turned out to
be at the Cleveland Museum of Art and the National Gallery changed
the authorship to a "follower of Poussin."
(WSJ, 4/9/99, p.W16)
1648 Van Ruisdael painted
"Dunes at Haarlem." His work this year also included his print
"Christ Preaching (The Hundred Guilder Print).
(SFEC, 9/3/00, p.T7)(WSJ, 3/904, p.D8)
1648 Van Ruisdael painted
"Dunes at Haarlem."
(SFEC, 9/3/00, p.T7)
1648 The French Royal Academy
of Painting and Sculpture was founded.
(AM, 7/05, p.54)
1648 At the end of the Thirty
years’ War the Swedes got to Prague and picked up the remains of
works collected by Rudolf II.
(WSJ, 7/10/97, p.A13)
1648 The island of St. Martin
in the Lesser Antilles was divided between the French and Dutch. The
southern half went to the Dutch as Sint Maarten, while the northern
half, Saint Martin, became part of the French department of
Guadeloupe. Legend has it that a Dutchman and a Frenchman stood back
to back at the center of the island and paced of their shares. The
Dutchman stopped often to drink beer and was left with the smaller
(NH, 10/96, p.60)(SFEC,2/16/97, p.T6)
1648-1687 Mehmed IV succeeded Ibrahim in the
Ottoman House of Osman.
(Ot, 1993, xvii)
1648-1815 This period of European history was
covered by Tim Blanning in his 2007 book “The Pursuit of Glory:
(Econ, 6/23/07, p.94)
1649 Jan 30, King Charles I of
England, who ruled from 1625-1649, was beheaded for treason at
Banqueting House, Whitehall, by the hangman Richard Brandon. He lost
his capital trial by one vote, 68-67. "For the people, and I truly
desire their liberty and freedom as much as anybody whomsoever, but
I must tell you that their liberty and their freedom consists in
having of government those laws by which their life and their goods
may be most their own. It is not for having a share in government,
sirs; that is nothing pertaining to them. A subject and a sovereign
are clean different things." Charles I was canonized by the church
of England 13 years later. Parliament became the supreme power under
the rule of Oliver Cromwell, who ruled over Parliament as Lord
Protector of the New Commonwealth from 1649-1658. He argued against
his soldiers having a voice in government because they owned no
property. He stated in so many words that government "has always
been, and should always continue to be, of property, by property,
and for property."
(SFEC, 8/11/96, p.T7)(V.D.-H.K.p.218)(WSJ,
5/6/97, p.A20)(HN, 1/30/99)(SFEC, 7/2/00, Z1 p.2)(WSJ, 2/7/03,
1649 Jan 30, Jester Muckle John
lost his job when King Charles 1 was beheaded.
1649 Jan, The prosecution of
England’s King Charles I was led by John Cooke (1608-1660), who
suffered a horrible death with the Restoration in 1660.
(SSFC, 9/24/06, p.M3)
1649 Feb 5, The Prince of Wales
became king Charles II. Charles II (18), while living in exile at
the Hague, was recently informed that his father was beheaded at
Whitehall on Jan 30.
(WSJ, 2/28/00, p.A36)(MC, 2/5/02)
1649 Feb 23, John Blow,
composer of 1st English opera (Venus and Adonis), was baptized.
1649 Feb 27, Johann Philipp
Krieger, composer, was born.
1649 Mar 11, The peace of Rueil
was signed between the Frondeurs (rebels) and the French government.
1649 Mar 26, John Winthrop,
Puritan and 1st Gov. of Massachusetts, died. [see Apr 5]
1649 Apr 3, Joseph-Francois
Salomon, composer, was born.
1649 Apr 5, Elihu Yale (1721),
the English philanthropist for whom Yale University is named, was
(WUD, 1994, p.1652)(AP, 4/5/99)
1649 Apr 5, John Winthrop (61),
1st governor of the colony at Mass. Bay, died. [see Mar 26]
1649 Apr 9, James Scott Duke of
Monmouth (d.1685), was born. He was the illegitimate son of Charles
II of England and pretender to the throne of James II
(HN, 4/9/98)(WUD, 1994, p.925)
1649 Apr 21, The Maryland
Toleration Act, which provided for freedom of worship for all
Christians, was passed by the Maryland assembly.
(AP, 4/21/97)(HN, 4/21/98)
1649 May 12, Isaac Doreslaer,
English lawyer, diplomat, was murdered.
1649 Aug 15, Oliver Cromwell
landed in Ireland with his New Model Army on behalf of England's
1649 Sep 1, Descartes departed
Amsterdam to go to Sweden at the invitation of Queen Kristina.
(Dr, 7/20/96, supl p.1)
1649 Sep 6, Robert Dudley,
English navigator and writer (Arcano del Mare), died.
1649 Sep 11, Oliver Cromwell
seized Drogheda, Ireland in a siege that began September 3. The week
after the storming of Drogheda, the Royalist press in England
claimed that 2,000 of the 3,000 dead were civilian.
1649 Oct, English
Parliamentarian troops broke into the town of Wexford while the
commander of the garrison, David Sinnot, was trying to negotiate a
surrender – massacring soldiers and civilians alike. Much of the
town was burned and its harbor was destroyed.
1649 Poussin created his
painting "Moses Striking the Rock."
(WSJ, 1/04/00, p.A16)
1649 Salomon van Ruysdael
(1602-1670), Dutch landscape artist, created his painting “Ferry on
1649 The Prins Willem was built
in Middelburg, Netherlands, as the flagship of the Dutch East India
Company. The 3-masted ship, launched on Jan 1, 1650, sank in 1662
1649 Descartes published
"Traite des passions de l’ame" in Paris.
(Dr, 7/20/96, supl p.1)
1649 Gov. Peter Stuyvesant
granted Lambert Jochemse Van Valckenburg and his wife Annetje 50
acres, now nine blocks in the heart of Manhattan.
(SFEC, 8/11/96, p.A17)
1649 Marblehead, Mass., was
founded by Cornwall fishermen.
(SFEC, 7/13/97, p.T7)
1649 Iroquois attacks and
starvation decimated the Huron nation from some 12,000 to a few
(AH, 4/01, p.33)
1649 Alessandro Turchi
(b.1578), Italian painter, died in Rome. His work included “The
Lamentation Over the Dead Christ" (1617).
1649 In Russia serfs were made
part of the land that they inhabited. A later edict allowed them to
be sold with the land.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R25)
1649 In Seville, Spain, one in
three died of the Black Plague.
(SFEC, 10/13/96, p.T6)
1649 The Potala Palace in
Lhasa, Tibet, the world's highest palace was built and served as the
winter palace for Dalai Lamas until 1959.
1649-1653 This period marks the Cromwellian
conquest of Ireland or Cromwellian war in Ireland. The
Parliamentarians deported about 50,000 people as indentured
laborers. They were sent to the English colonies of America and West
Indies. Ten percent of the Irish population was killed.
1649-1743 Hyacinthe Rigaud, painter. Painted the
"Portrait of Louis XIV."
1649-1815 In 2004 N.A.M. Rodger authored “The
Command of the Ocean: A Naval History of Britain, 1649-1815."
(Econ, 11/20/04, p.88)
1650 Feb 1, Rene Descartes,
philosopher: "I think therefore I am", died. [see Feb 11]
1650 Feb 2, Nell [Eleanor]
Gwyn, English actress, mistress to King Charles II, was born.
1650 Feb 11, Rene Descartes
(b.1596), French mathematician and philosopher: "I think therefore I
am", died in Stockholm. [see Feb 1]
(Dr, 7/20/96, supl p.1)(MC, 2/11/02)
1650 Apr 27, Scottish general
Montrose was defeated.
1650 May 21, James, Marquis of
Montrose, Scottish general, was hanged.
1650 May 24, John Churchill,
1st duke of Marlborough, English general strategist, was born.
1650 May 28, Gilles Hayne (59),
1650 May, Oliver Cromwell left
Ireland to fight the Third English Civil War against the new
Scottish-Royalist alliance. He passed his command onto Henry Ireton.
1650 Jun 28, Lord Cromwell set
off for Scotland at the head of an army of 16,354 men.
1650 Jun, The Ulster army met a
Parliamentarian army composed mainly of British settlers and
commanded by Charles Coote at the Battle of Scarrifholis in Donegal.
The Ulster army was routed and as many as 2000 of its men were
1650 Jun, Jean Rotrou (b.1609),
French playwright, died of the plague. In his day he was considered
second only to Corneille.
1650 Sep 3, The English under
Cromwell defeated a superior Scottish army under David Leslie at the
Battle of Dunbar.
1650 Sep, Peter Stuyvesant
traveled from New Amsterdam to Hartford, Conn., to negotiate
boundaries for their colonies.
(ON, 4/00, p.1)
1650 Oct 3, The English
parliament declared its rule over the fledgling American colonies.
1650 Oct 21, Jean Bart, French
captain and sea hero, was born. He escaped from Plymouth.
1650 Nov 4, William III, Prince
of Orange and King of England, was born. [see Nov 14]
1650 Nov 14, William III, King
of England (1689-1702), was born. [see Nov 4]
1650 Nov 24, Manuel Cardoso
(83), composer, died.
c1650 Dutch artist Jan Baptist
Weenix painted "Mother and Child in an Italian Landscape."
(SFEM, 8/31/97, p.12)
c1650 Velazquez painted the
portrait: "Juan de Pareja."
(WSJ, 12/29/99, p.A12)
1650 The Fontana dei Quattro
Fiumi, fountain of Four Rivers, in Rome’s Piazza Navona was designed
(SFEC, 7/2/00, p.T5)
1650 The Khaju bridge in
Esfahan, Persia (Iran), was built over the Zayandeh Rood river.
(SSFC, 1/14/07, p.G5)
c1650 The Kagyupa sect of
Buddhism, known as the "Black Hats," under the leadership of the
Karmapa was supplanted by the Gelupga school of the Dalai Lamas as
Tibet's most politically powerful group.
(SFC, 1/800, p.A8)
c1650 Mother St. John Fontbonne
founded the Sisters of St. Joseph.
(SFC, 11/13/00, p.A3)
1650 Ludlow's Code, Colonial
American laws, came about when Connecticut's general court asked
Roger Ludlow, a member of the court, to draft a body of laws.
Without the impartiality of an established set of laws, Connecticut
colonists had complained of the capriciousness of magistrates.
c1650 The Cinder Cone at Mt.
Lassen volcano (California) was formed.
(SFEC, 8/13/00, p.T1)
1650 In Barbados St. Nicholas
Abbey was built as a plantation house in the Jacobean style.
(SFEC, 2/15/98, p.T10)
c1650 Andres Manso de Contreras
of Cuba built a vast fortune by intercepting Caribbean pirates in
the mid-17th century. In 1704 and 1776 his heirs sailed to London
and allegedly deposited the equivalent of some $60 million in gold
at a London bank at 5% interest.
(WSJ, 4/20/01, p.A1)
1650 Portuguese rule ended in
(SSFC, 3/30/08, p.E4)
1650s In Massachusetts the
Puritans ordered Obadiah Holmes to be "well whipped" for holding a
(SFC, 6/24/96, p.A19)
1650-1695 St. Croix island in the West Indies was
taken over by the French and then abandoned.
(NG, Jan, 1968, C. Mitchell, p.84)
1650-1700 This period marks the approximate end of
the Renaissance and the beginning of the Age of Revolution. In 2006
Theodore K. Rabb authored “The Last Days of the Renaissance."
(WSJ, 5/27/06, p.P8)
1650-1700 Germany during the last half of the
1600s was composed of 234 independent countries, 51 free cities and
some 1,500 knightly manors governed by their lords.
(SFEC, 8/29/99, Z1 p.8)
1651 Jan 1, Charles II (20),
Charles Stuart, was crowned king of Scotland at Scone.
(PC, 1992, p.243)(ON, 8/12, p.1)
1651 Apr 15, Domenico
Gabrielli, composer, was born.
1651 Apr 30, Jean-Baptiste de
la Salle, French priest, theorist, saint, was born.
1651 Aug 6, Francois Fenelon
(d.1715), French theologian and writer (Playing for Time), was born.
"Nothing is more despicable than a professional talker who uses his
words as a quack uses his remedies."
(AP, 11/27/98)(MC, 8/6/02)
1651 Aug 13, Litchfield,
Connecticut, was founded.
1651 Sep 3, In the Battle at
Worcester Oliver Cromwell destroyed English royalists. Charles II
led the Scots Covenanters to a disastrous defeat at the battle of
Worcester. Some 3,000 of his soldiers were killed and 10,000 taken
(WSJ, 2/28/00, p.A36)(ON, 12/00, p.1)
1651 Oct 14, Laws were passed
in Massachusetts forbidding the poor to adopt excessive styles of
1651 Oct 15, Charles II boarded
the ship Surprise to cross the Channel to France.
(ON, 12/00, p.5)
1651 Oct 17, Future King
Charles II fled from England. [see Oct 15]
1651 Oct 22, Jacob Praetorius
(65), composer, died.
1651 Oct 26, Courlander Gambia
was established as a Latvian colony.
1651 Nov 7, King Louis XIV of
France (13) was declared of full age.
1651 Nov 26, Henry Ireton (40),
English gen. and parliament leader (Marston Moor), died.
1651 Dec 25, The General Court
of Boston levied a five shilling fine on anyone caught "observing
any such day as Christmas."
1651 Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679),
English philosopher, authored “Leviathan." In it he tried to deduce
from 1st principles the shape that society should take.
(SSFC, 6/27/04, p.M3)
1651 The opera "La Calisto" by
Francesco Cavalli was produced. It was based on Ovid’s
"Metamorphoses" and the text was by Giovanni Faustini.
1651 Giuseppe Vaz was born in
Goa, India. He chose to work in Sri Lanka amid persecution of
Catholics by Dutch colonial rulers, who were Calvinists. He was
later credited with having revived the Catholic faith in the
country. Pope Francis planned to canonize Rev. Giuseppe Vaz during
his January, 2015, visit to Sri Lanka.
1652 Feb 17, Gregorio Allegri
(67), Italian singer, composer (Miserere), died.
1652 Mar 28, Samuel Sewall,
British colonial merchant and one of the Salem witch trial judges,
1652 Apr 7, The Dutch
established settlement at Cape Town, South Africa.
1652 May 10, John Johnson, a
free black, was granted 550 acres in Northampton, Va.
1652 May 18, A law was passed
in Rhode Island banning slavery in the colonies but it caused little
stir and was not enforced. More than 1,000 slave voyages were
mounted from Rhode Island, mostly in the 18th century, carrying more
than 100,000 Africans into slavery.
(HN, 5/18/99)(Reuters, 3/29/07)
1652 May 29, English Admiral
Robert Blake drove out the Dutch fleet under Lieutenant-Admiral
1652 Jun 27, New Amsterdam
(later NYC) passed the 1st speed limit law in US.
1652 Jun 29, Massachusetts
declared itself an independent commonwealth.
1652 Jul 4, Prince of Cond‚
started a blood bath in Paris.
1652 Jul 22, Prince Conde's
rebels narrowly defeated Chief Minister Mazarin's loyalist forces at
St. Martin, near Paris.
1652 Aug 14, Abraham Elsevier
(60), Dutch book publisher, publisher, died.
1652 Sep 17, Bonaventura
Elsevier, book publisher and merchant, died at about 69.
1652 Oct 13, Abraham Verhoeven,
Flemish printer and newspaper publisher, died.
1652 Oct 21, King Louis XIV
returned to Paris.
1652 Michael Sweerts, Flemish
artist, painted "Plague in an Ancient City" in Rome. In 1998 it held
by the Los Angeles County Museum of Art (LACMA).
(SFEC, 1/11/98, p.D7)
1652 Under the "Liberty Tree,"
a tulip poplar at St. John's College campus in Annapolis, Md.,
Virginia Puritans were welcomed as colonists by Lord Baltimore, and
smoked peace pipes with the Susquehanna Indians.
(NG, Sept. 1939, J. Maloney p.391)
1652 A silver sixpence minted
in colonial New England was set for auction in 2003 with an
estimated value of $33-31k.
(SFC, 10/10/03, p.B2)
1652 Massachusetts produced a
silver colonial coin that was found with a metal detector in 1989 in
a potato field. In 2012 it was auctioned off for $430,000.
(SFC, 11/24/12, p.A5)
1652 The English Parliament
passed the Act for the Settlement of Ireland which classified the
Irish population into one of several categories according to their
degree of involvement in the uprising and subsequent war. Dr.
William Petty, Physician-General to Cromwell's Army, estimated that
as many as 100,000 Irish men, women and children were transported to
the colonies in the West Indies and in North America as slaves.
1652 Inigo Jones (b.1573),
father of English classical architecture, died. His work included a
book titled "Stonehenge Restored," which considered Stonehenge to
have been Roman temple.
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.14)(ON, 4/02, p.11)
1652 War broke out between the
Netherlands and England.
(ON, 4/00, p.2)
1652 Officials [farmers] of the
Dutch East India Company were sent from Europe to run the small
victualing station at the cape of South Africa. They were
distinguished from the native born Dutch people who are called
Afrikaner. It marked the beginning of Cape Town. Jan Van Riebeck, a
Dutch ship’s surgeon, founded Dap Town.
(NG, Oct. 1988, p. 563)(SFEC, 6/22/97, Z1
p.5)(SFEC, 10/15/00, p.T8)
1653 Feb 2, New Amsterdam --
now New York City -- was incorporated.
1653 Apr 20, Oliver Cromwell
dissolved the English parliament. “You have sat too long for any
good you have been doing lately…"
1653 May 18, Carel Reyniersz
(48), Governor-General of Netherlands and East Indies, died.
1653 Jul 4, British Barebones
Parliament went into session.
1653 Sep 1, Johann Pachelbel
(d.1706), German organist and composer, was born. He is best known
for his "Canon in D."
(WUD, 1994, p.1034)(SI-WPC, 1997)(MC, 9/1/02)
1653 Oct 1, Russian parliament
accepted annexation of Ukraine.
1653 Nov 5, The Iroquois League
signed a peace treaty with the French, vowing not to wage war with
other tribes under French protection.
1653 Nov 26, Andreas Anton
Schmelzer, composer, was born.
1653 Dec 1, An athlete from
Croydon was reported to have run 20 miles from St. Albans to London
in less than 90 minutes.
1653 Dec 16, Oliver Cromwell
took on dictatorial powers with the title of lord protector" of
England, Scotland and Ireland. He served as dictator of England to
(CFA, '96, p.44)(AHD, p.315)(AP, 12/16/97)(HN,
1653 Rembrandt van Rijn painted
his "Aristotle With a Bust of Homer."
(WSJ, 11/3/95, p.A-12)
1653 Izaak Walton (b.1593-1683)
wrote "The Compleat Angler."
(SFEC, 11/3/96, Par p.19)
1653 Peter Stuyvesant, governor
of New Netherland, ordered a wall built to protect the Dutch
settlers from the Indians. The wall gave New York’s Wall Street its
(WSJ, 10/9/97, p.A16)
1653 King Emanuele Filiberto
moved Savoy’s capital across the Alps from Chambery to Turin to
escape French clutches.
(SSFC, 1/22/06, p.E6)
1653 Shah Jahan completed the
Taj Mahal. Master builders, masons, calligraphers, etc. along with
more than 20,000 laborers, worked for 22 years under orders of
Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan to complete the great mausoleum for the
shah's beloved wife. In 2007 Diana and Michael Preston authored “Taj
Mahal" and Ebba Koch authored “the Complete Taj Mahal."
1653 Paris physician Louis
Morin the thrice-daily temperature and pressure measurements as part
of a short-lived international meteorological network created by the
Grand Duke of Tuscany.
1653 The English palace of
Oatlands was pulled down by the Commonwealth. John Tradescant and
his son John had worked there under Charles 1 as gardeners. In 1790
Duke of York purchased Oatlands House, built in the grounds of Henry
VIII's 1537 Oatlands Palace.
1654 Jan 10, Russia’s Czar
Alexander announced a war against Lithuania and Poland. It lasted to
1654 Apr 12, England, Ireland
and Scotland united.
1654 Apr 26, Jews were expelled
1654 May 3, A bridge in Rowley,
Mass., was permitted to charge a toll for animals, while people
crossed for free.
1654 Jun 6, Queen Christina of
Sweden resigned and converted to Catholicism.
1654 Jun 7, Louis XIV was
crowned King of France in Rheims.
(AP, 6/7/97)(HN, 6/7/98)
1654 Aug 22, Jacob Barsimson,
the 1st Jewish immigrant to US, arrived in New Amsterdam.
1654 Sep 8, Peter Claver,
Spanish saint (baptized 300,000 slaves), died.
1654 Oct 12, Carel Fabritius
(b.1622), Dutch painter, died in a gunpowder explosion in Delft. He
was one of Rembrandt’s most gifted pupils.
p.W11)(Econ, 10/26/13, p.93)
1654 Nov 21, Richard Johnson, a
free black, was granted 550 acres in Virginia.
1654 Nov 23, Blaise Pascal
(1623-1662), scientist and philosopher, underwent a mystical
experience. He entered a hermitage at Port-Royal des Champs and
never again published in his own name. He came up with the idea that
believing in God is safer than not believing because it might gain
one eternal life. He was a Jansenist, and thereby rejected free will
in favor of predestination. Pascal and Fermat devised the laws of
probability by trying to determine who 2 players should share the
stakes when they leave a game of chance uncompleted.
(SFC, 9/22/96, Par. p.21)(WSJ, 10/15/98, p.A20)
1654 Jacob van Loo painted "An
Allegory of Venus and Cupid as Lady World and Homo Bulla." It hangs
in the Speed Museum of Louisville, Ky.
(WSJ, 12/18/97, p.A20)
1654 Rembrandt van Rijn painted
a portrait of poet-businessman Jan Six, one of the richest
Amsterdammers of his time. His work this year also included "A Woman
Bathing in a Stream" and "Flora." His work this year also included
the etching and drypoint “The Descent From the Cross by Torchlight."
(WSJ, 6/19/00, p.A42)(WSJ, 3/904, p.D8)(SFC,
1/28/06, p.E4)(Econ, 6/23/07, p.96)
1654 Roger Williams (1603-1683)
was elected as the 9th president of President of the Colony of Rhode
Island and Providence Plantations.
c1654 Samuel Stockhausen, a
physician in Goslar in the Harz Mountains of Germany, identified the
ailment of Huttenkatze as stemming from lead poisoning in the local
mining towns. This find later made possible Gockel’s discovery of
the cause of colica Pictonum.
(NH, 7/96, p.51)
1654 The earliest circular coin
bearing the inscription "rouble" on it in Russia was struck by Czar
1654-1656 Rembrandt van Rijn painted a medallion
portrait of Muhammed Adil Shah of Bijapur.
(SFEM, 2/1/98, p.16)(SFC, 2/7/98, p.E8)
1654-1705 Jacob Bernouilli, Swiss mathematician
and physicist. The Bernouilli effect is named after him.
(WUD, 1994, p.141)
1655 Mar 25, Puritans jailed
Governor Stone after a military victory over Catholic forces in the
colony of Maryland.
1655 Mar 25, Christiaan
Huygens, Dutch inventor and astronomer, discovered Titan, Saturn's
1655 Apr 4, Battle at Postage
Farina, Tunis: English fleet licked Barbarian pirates.
1655 Apr 26, Dutch West Indies
Co. denied Peter Stuyvesant's desire to exclude Jews from New
1655 Apr 28, English admiral
Blake beat a Tunisian pirate fleet.
1655 May 10, Jamaica was
captured by English.
1655 Jul 28, French dramatist
and novelist Cyrano de Bergerac, the inspiration for a play by
Edmond Rostand, died in Paris.
1655 Aug 8, Eastern Lithuania
was occupied by Russian and Cossack forces. Western Lithuania was
occupied by Swedish forces. Following three days of pillaging
Vilnius was burned in a fire the lasted 17 days.
1655 Aug 13, Johann Christoph
Denner, inventor of the clarinet, was born.
1655 Aug 28, New Amsterdam
& Peter Stuyvesant barred Jews from military service.
1655 Aug 29, Swedish king Karel
X Gustaaf occupied Warsaw.
1655 Sep 26, Peter Stuyvesant
recaptured Dutch Ft. Casimir from Swedish in Delaware.
1655 Oct 15, Jews of Lublin,
Poland, were massacred.
1655 Nov 24, English Lord
Protector Cromwell banned Anglicans.
c1655 Esteban Murillo
(1617-1682), Spanish artist, painted a self-portrait. Some of his
mid-century work in Seville portrayed the effects of the Plague that
killed 50% of the population in 4 months. [see 1649]
(WSJ, 4/9/02, p.D19)
1655 Rembrandt van Rijn painted
(WSJ, 12/5/96, p.A16)
1655 Vermeer painted his Saint
Praxedis. [see Vermeer, 1632-1675]
(WSJ, 11/15/95, p.A-20)
1655 In Bologna Domenico
Cassini persuaded the builders of the Basilica of San Petronio that
they should include a major upgrade of Danti's old meridian with a
new entry hole for daylight to track the projected sun on the
cathedral floor. Sassini was able to use the observatory to confirm
Kepler's version of the Copernican theory.
(SFC, 10/25/99, p.A4)
1655 In Paris the church of St.
Medard was built. Medard was a 6th century counselor to the
Merovingian kings who bestowed wreaths of roses upon virtuous
(SSFC, 7/28/02, p.C1)
c1655 Archbishop James Usher of Dublin, Ireland,
developed a timetable that set the creation of the world to 4004BC,
and Noah's landing on Mt. Ararat in 2348BC.
(NG, Nov. 1985, edit. p.559)
1655 The first slave auction
was held in New Amsterdam (later NYC).
(SFC, 10/19/98, p.D3)
1655 Peter Stuyvesant launched
an offensive against Swedish soldiers who had seized control of the
fur trade along the Delaware. In his absence Indians attacked New
Amsterdam and took dozens of hostages.
(ON, 4/00, p.2)
1655 The three Cayman
Islands came under British control when Oliver Cromwell's army
captured nearby Jamaica from the Spanish.
1655 By this time a house had
been built on Ghana’s cape, and over the coming years it was
enlarged using slave labor into Carolusburg Fort, named after the
then Swedish king. This fort was captured and enlarged by the Danish
in 1657, and after a few more shuffles of power the English got
their hands on it 1664. In 2006 William St. Clair authored “The
Grand Slave Emporium: Cape Coast Castle and the British Slave Trade.
1655-1660 Rembrandt van Rijn painted his picture
called "The Auctioneer."
(WSJ, 11/3/95, p.A-12)
1655-1661 In Vilnius some 8-10 thousand residents
were killed by occupying Russian forces.
1656 Jan 8, Oldest surviving
commercial newspaper began in Haarlem, Netherlands.
1656 Mar 10, In the colony of
Virginia, suffrage was extended to all free men regardless of their
1656 Jan 24, Jacob Lumbrozo,
1st Jewish doctor in US, arrived in Maryland.
1656 Feb 20, James Ussher (76),
Irish bible scholar, Anglican archbishop, died. [see Mar 21]
1656 Feb 22, New Amsterdam was
granted a Jewish burial site.
1656 Mar 13, Jews were denied
the right to build a synagogue in New Amsterdam.
1656 Mar 21, Armagh James
Ussher (76), Archbishop (said world began 4004 BC), died. [see Feb
1656 Jul 1, The 1st Quakers,
Mary Fisher and Ann Austin, arrived in Boston and were promptly
1656 Jul 26, Rembrandt declared
he is insolvent.
1656 Sep 22, In Patuxent, Md.,
the first colonial all-female jury heard the case of a woman accused
of murdering her child. The jury voted for acquittal.
(HFA, '96, p.38)(AP, 9/22/98)
1656 Oct 2, US colony
Connecticut passed a law against Quakers.
1656 Oct 24, Treaty of Vilnius
(Lithuania): Russia and Poland signed an anti-Swedish covenant.
1656 Oct 25, A party of Oneida
Indians killed 3 Frenchmen near Montreal. In response Gov. Gen.
Louis d’Ailleboust arrested a hunting party of 12 Mohawks and
Onondagas and ordered the arrest of all Iroquois in the French
(AH, 4/01, p.34)
1656 Oct 29, Edmund Halley
(d.1742), astronomer, was born about this time in Hagerston,
Middlesex, England. The birth date is somewhat uncertain because it
is not known if at that time in his village the Gregorian or the
Julian calendar was in use. There's also some dispute over the year.
[see Nov 8]
1656 Nov 8, Edmond Halley,
mathematician and astronomer who predicted the return of the comet
which is named for him, was born. [see Oct 29]
1656 Dec 14, Artificial pearls
were 1st manufactured by M. Jacquin in Paris. They were made of
gypsum pellets covered with fish scales.
1656 Diego de Velazquez painted
(WSJ, 1/14/00, p.W12)
1656 Vermeer created his
painting "The Procuress."
(WSJ, 11/15/95, p.A-20)
1656 Christiaan Huygens
interpreted Saturn’s “ears" as a simple flat ring.
(NH, 10/1/04, p.29)
1656 Christian Huygens
invented the first pendulum clock, as described in his 1658 article
"Horologium". It was built by Solomon Coster and was later put on
exhibit at the Time Museum in Rockford, Ill. The time-pieces
previously in use had been balance-clocks, Chris Huygens' pendulum
clock was regulated by a mechanism with a "natural" period of
oscillation and had an error of less than 1 minute a day.
E&C, 1/15/1995, T-10)
1656 The first performance of
an English opera was given in a room at the Smithfield home of Sir
(Econ, 11/27/10, p.41)
1656 Oliver Cromwell allowed
Jews to return to England. They soon established their first
synagogue on Creechurch Lane.
(WSJ, 10/28/06, p.P16)
1656 French King Louis XIV
charged the architect Liberal Bruant to build a hospital on the
location of a gun powder factory, founding the Hospice de la
Salpetriere in Paris. The building was expanded in 1684.
1656 In Norway merchant Herman
Leopoldus (d.1696) began doing business after immigrating from
Lübeck to Christiania. His son, also named Herman Leopoldus
(1677–1750), became very rich and was in 1739 ennobled by letters
c1656 European settlers arrived
at the cape of South Africa. Robben Island in Cape Town’s Table Bay
from this time on was variously used as a mental institution, leper
colony and prison.
(SFC, 9/5/96, p.A10)
1657 Feb 11, Bernard
Fontenelle, French scientist, writer (Plurality of Worlds), was
1657 Mar 23, France and England
formed an alliance against Spain.
1657 Mar 31, English Humble
Petition offered Lord Protector Cromwell the crown.
1657 Apr 3, English Lord
Protector Cromwell refused the crown.
1657 Apr 20, English Admiral
Robert Blake fought his last battle when he destroyed the Spanish
fleet in Santa Cruz Bay.
1657 May 5, Jacques Danican
Philidor, composer, was born.
1657 May 9, William Bradford,
Governor (Plymouth Colony, Mass), died.
1657 Jun 1, 1st Quakers arrived
in New Amsterdam (NY). (MC, 6/1/02)
1657 Jul 13, Oliver Cromwell
constrained English army leader John Lambert.
1657 Aug 7, Bogdan Chmielnicki
(b.1593), Ukraine-born Cossack leader, murderer of 300,000 Jews,
1657 Sep 24, The 1st autopsy
and coroner's jury verdict was recorded in the state of Maryland.
1657 The last wolf in Boston,
Mass., was killed.
(Econ, 12/22/12, p.125)
1657 Vermeer painted his "The
Little Street" about this time.
(WSJ, 11/15/95, p.A-20)
1657 Settlers in Vlissingen
(later Flushing, Queens, NY) signed a declaration of religious
freedom called the Flushing Remonstrance.
(SSFC, 4/17/05, Par p.12)
1657 Thomas Middleton
(1580-1627), English playwright, published his play "Women Beware
Women." The date of authorship of the play is deeply uncertain.
Scholars have estimated its origin anywhere from 1612 to 1627;
1623–24 has been plausibly suggested. The play was entered into the
Stationers' Register on 9 September 1653 by the bookseller Humphrey
1657 By this time the White
Tower of London was no longer inhabited by royalty and was almost
completely given over to the storage of gunpowder.
(Hem, 9/04, p.28)
1657 Pope Alexander VII
entrusted Italian Baroque master Gian Lorenzo Bernini with building
the colonnade surrounding St. Peter’s Square. A restoration project
was lauched in 2009. In 2012 the Vatican sought funds directly from
pilgrims, stamp collectors and tourists to pay for the ambitious
1657 Venice re-admitted the
Jesuits ushering in a period of cultural conservatism that marked
the end of the “Renaissance project."
(WSJ, 5/5/07, p.P10)
1658 Mar 5, Antoine de la Mothe
Cadillac, French colonial governor of America, was born.
1658 Apr 22, Giuseppe Torelli,
composer (Concert Grossi op 8), was born in Italy.
1658 Jun 15, The Mogul emperor
Aurangzeb imprisoned his father the Shah, after winning a battle at
1658 Jun 25, In India Aurangzeb
proclaimed himself emperor of the Moghuls. Aurangzeb, son of Shah
Jahan, overthrew his father and locked him up in the Jasmine tower.
(HT, 4/97, p.24)(HN, 6/25/98)
1658 Aug 12, The 1st US police
corps formed in New Amsterdam.
1658 Sep 3, Oliver Cromwell,
Lord Protector of the New Commonwealth, i.e. ruler over England’s
Puritan parliament (1653-58), died of malaria at age 59. Richard
Cromwell had succeeded his father as English Lord Protector.
Cromwell was responsible for shipping Romanichal Gypsies (i.e.,
Gypsies from Britain) as slaves to the southern plantations; there
is documentation of Gypsies being owned by freed black slaves in
9/3/97)(http://tinyurl.com/q7kfjwn) (ON, 12/00, p.5)
1658 Vermeer (1632-1675), Dutch
artist, completed his painting “The Milkmaid" about this time.
(Econ, 9/19/09, p.98)
1658 In New Amsterdam (later
NYC) a night watchman kept a lookout for Indian attacks.
(WSJ, 11/3/98, p.A20)
1658 The sultan of Brunei gave
Sabah, the northeastern part of Borneo, to the sultan of Sulu, who
ruled a part of what later became the Philippines.
(Econ, 2/23/13, p.39)
1658 Construction began on the
Royal Palace in Turin, Italy.
(SSFC, 1/22/06, p.E6)
1658 In France Moliere was
anointed with the patronage of King Louis XIV.
(SFC, 6/20/96, p.D2)
1658-1716 Ogata Korin, Japanese artist. The artist
created the cartoonish "Gods of Wind and Thunder."
(WSJ, 12/1/98, p.A20)
1658-1742 Nicholas Roosevelt, the common ancestor
of later US presidents Theodore and Franklin Roosevelt.
(WSJ, 12/18/97, p.A20)
1659 Jan 18, Benedikt Lechler
(64), composer, died.
1659 Mar 7, Henry Purcell,
English organist, composer (Dido & Aeneas), was born.
1659 Mar 22, The Warsaw
parliament decided to issue metal currency, shillings, for Lithuania
1659 Mar 26, William Wollaston,
English philosopher, was born.
1659 Apr 22, Lord protector
Cromwell disbanded the English parliament.
1659 May 25, Richard Cromwell
resigned as English Lord Protector.
1659 Sep 30, Robinson Crusoe
was shipwrecked (according to Defoe). [see Feb 12, 1709]
1659 Sep 30, Peter Stuyvesant
of New Netherlands forbade tennis playing during religious services
(1st mention of tennis in US).
1659 Oct 13, Gen. John Lambert
drove out the English Rump government. The "Rump Parliament" was
restored in Dec.
(PCh, 1992, p.247)(MC, 10/13/01)
1659 Oct 10, Able Janszoon
Tasman, navigator, died at about 56. He discovered Tasmania.
(WUD, 1994 p.1455)(MC, 10/10/01)
1659 Oct 12, English Rump
government fired John Lambert and other generals. [see Oct 13]
1659 Oct 13, Gen. John Lambert
drove out the English Rump government. The "Rump Parliament" was
restored in Dec. [see Oct 12]
(PCh, 1992, p.247)(MC, 10/13/01)
1659 Rembrandt Harmenszoom van
Rizn (Rijn)(1606-1669), Dutch painter, made "Jupiter and Antiope"
(AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.1213)(WSJ, 10/1/96,
1659 Cornelius Meylin, patroon
of Staten Island, wrote in his recollections that Staten Island was
acquired in 1630 in exchange for "kittles, axes, Hoos, wampum,
drilling awles, Jews Harps and diverse small wares." Wampum was also
referred to as peag or seawan by Native Americans and consisted of
strung cylindrical beads made from polished shells. It was formerly
used by some North American Indians as currency and jewelry. It was
also used to record events, as a medium of communication and
sometimes for ceremonial and spiritual purposes.
(WSJ, 11/19/99, p.W10)(HNQ, 3/23/02)
1659 Christiaan Huygens
published “Systema Saturnium," his observations on Saturn.
(NH, 10/1/04, p.29)
1659 Christien Huygens of
Holland used a 2-inch telescope lens and discovered that the Martian
day is nearly the same as an Earth day.
(SFC, 11/29/96, p.A16)
1659 Quaker leader Mary Dyer
was sentenced to death by a Puritan court in Massachusetts Bay
Colony amid the Salem witch trials. She refused to leave the colony
and was hanged in 1660.
(SFC, 3/30/97, Z1. p.6)(SFEC, 1/16/00, Z1 p.1)
c1659 The British Parliament
invoked law that made it a crime, punishable by burning at the
stake, to forecast the weather.
(SFEC, 8/3/97, Z1 p.2)
1659 A London discussion group
called the Amateur Parliament met at Miles' coffee house.
(Econ, 12/20/03, p.90)
1659 In Britain a check was
written and made out for 400 pounds (equivalent to around 42,000
pounds in 2009). It was signed by Nicholas Vanacker, made payable to
a Mr Delboe and drawn on Messrs Morris and Clayton, scriveners and
bankers of the City of London. As of 2009 it was the oldest
surviving British check.
1659 The French colony of
Saint-Domingue was founded on the Caribbean island of Hispaniola and
continued to 1804.
1659 Christian Huygens of
Holland used a 2-inch telescope lens and discovered that the Martian
day is nearly the same as an Earth day.
(SFC, 11/29/96, p.A16)
1659 Senegal's second city,
Saint-Louis, was founded and was the capital of the west African
nation until 1957. It also served as the capital of French West
Africa, as it was then known, between 1895 and 1902.
1659-1661 Michael Sweerts, Flemish painter,
created his rosy "Portrait of a Youth."
(SFC, 6/17/02, p.D1)
1660 Mar 13, A statute was
passed limiting the sale of slaves in the colony of Virginia.
1660 Mar 28, Georg Ludwig,
German monarch of Hanover, King George I of Great Britain, was born.
1660 Apr 16, Hans Sloane,
founder of British Museum, was born.
1660 May 3, Prince Charles, Son
of King Charles I, returned to England from France.
(ON, 7/06, p.8)
1660 May 7, Isaack B. Fubine of
Savoy, in The Hague, patented macaroni.
1660 May 8, The son of the late
Charles I is proclaimed King ending 11 years of civil war.
(PCh, 1992, p.248)
1660 May 26, Charles II (29),
returning from exile, landed at Dover.
(PCh, 1992, p.248)
1660 May 28, George I, king of
England (1714-1727), was born.
(HN, 5/28/98)(MC, 5/28/02)
1660 May 29, Charles II, who
had fled to France, was restored to the English throne after
the Puritan Commonwealth. Charles made a deal with George Monck, a
general of the New Model Army, and with the old parliamentary foes
of his father. The British experiment with republicanism came to an
end with the restoration of Charles II.
(V.D.-H.K.p.218)(WSJ, 5/6/97, p.A20)(HN,
5/29/98)(WSJ, 2/28/00, p.A36)
1660 May 29, Gyorgy Rakosi II
prince of Transylvania, died in battle.
1660 May 29, Peter Scriverius
(44), lawyer, historian, died.
1660 Aug 6, Diego Rodriguez de
Silva Velazquez (b.1599), Spanish court painter, died in Madrid. In
1906 C. Lewis Hind authored “Days with Velazquez." In 1986 Jonathan
Brown authored “Velazquez: Painter and Courtier." In 2016 Laura
Cumming authored “The Vanishing Man: In Pursuit of Velazquez."
1660 Aug 21, Hubert Gautier,
engineer, wrote 1st book on bridge building, was born in Nimes,
1660 Sep 27, St. Vincent de
Paul, Vincentian founder, died.
1660 Oct 15, Asser Levy was
granted a butcher's license for kosher meat in New Amsterdam.
1660 Oct 16, John Cooke
(b.1608), England’s solicitor-general during the 1649 trial of
Charles 1, was hanged as Charles II looked on in approval. Cooke was
hanged slowly until he passed out and then was revived to watch as
his genitals were sliced off. A length of his bowel was yanked from
his body, pulled before his face and set alight as he bled to death.
In 2006 Geoffrey Robertson authored “The Tyrannicide Brief," an
account of Cooke during this period.
1660 Oct, England’s King
Charles II enacted his first Declaration of Indulgence.
1660 Nov 28, The London Royal
Society formed. Members included Christopher Wren, William Petty,
Robert Boyle, John Wilkins and Lawrence Rooke.
1660 Dec 3, Jacques Sarazin
(70), French sculptor and painter, died.
1660 Dec 8, The first
Shakespearian actress to appear on an English stage (she is
believed to be a Ms. Norris) made her debut as 'Desdemona.'
1660 Dec 24, Mary I Henriette
Stuart (29), queen of England, died.
1660 Rembrandt van Rijn painted
"The Old Woman Cutting Her Nails" about this time.
(WSJ, 11/3/95, p.A-12)
c1660 The Dutch crafted an
early version of a boat they called a "yacht."
(SFC, 7/18/98, p.E3)
1660 The Royal African Company,
an English mercantile company, was set up by the royal Stuart family
and City of London merchants to trade along the west coast of
Africa. It shipped more African slaves to the Americas than any
other institution in the history of the Atlantic slave trade. Under
the tenure of Edward Colston it trafficked some 84,000 people to
slavery. The company was dissolved by the African Company Act 1750.
1660 In the 1660s the British
began to dominate the trade in port wine from Portugal after a
political spat with the French denied them the French Bordeaux
wines. Brandy was added to the Portuguese wines to fortify them for
the Atlantic voyage.
(SFEC, 1/12/97, p.T7)(SFEC, 7/12/98, p.T8)
1660 Bartholomew Sharpe, a
British pirate, turned Belize into a base to harvest logwood.
British buccaneers settled the coast.
(SFC, 11/2/00, p.A12)
1660 The Palacio Clavijero was
built as a Jesuit temple in Valladolid (later Morelia), Mexico.
(SSFC, 5/22/05, p.E6)
1660-1669 Samuel Pepys (1633-1703), administrator
of the navy of England and Member of Parliament, kept a diary over
this period. His entries included the course of the plague that hit
London in 1665.
p.73)(Econ., 5/23/20, p.70)
1660-1685 King Charles II was ruler of Great
Britain. He was the son of Charles I. Under his reign the Italian
artist Antonio Verrio painted 2 huge frescoes that covered the
entire walls and ceiling of what is now St. George’s Hall. One
painting depicted Christ healing the sick in the Temple of Jerusalem
and the other was of King Charles II. The frescoes were destroyed in
the 1820s under King George IV to reflect a new national style. One
fresco was rediscovered in 1996 during reconstruction after a fire
in 1992. Charles is known as "the Merry Monarch" because of his many
mistresses, enthusiasm for parties and mockery of Puritan values.
(SFC, 5/25/96, p.A12)(WUD, 1994, p.249)(ON,
1660-1725 Alessandro Scarlatti, Italian musician
and composer, father of Domenico.
1660-1731 Daniel Defoe, English novelist and
political journalist. He was born as Daniel Foe and became a
successful merchant in woolen goods. For a time he was jailed due to
his debts. He became a supporter of William of Orange and wrote over
500 publications on his behalf. Some regard him as the father of
modern journalism. Among other works he wrote "Robinson Crusoe,"
"Moll Flanders," "General Histories of the Robberies and Murders of
the Most Notorious Pirates," "A Tour of the Whole Island of Great
Britain," and "Journal of the Plague Year." In 1999 Richard West
published "Daniel Defoe: The Life and Strange Surprising
(WUD, 1994, p.379)(WSJ, 8/25/98, p.A12)
1660-1830 In the 1990s literary critic Claude
Rawson wrote "Satire and Sentiment: 1660-1830."
(WSJ, 1/15/98, p.A17)