Timeline 17th Century: 1600-1625

Return to home

1600        Feb 4, Tycho Brahe and Johannes Kepler met for 1st time near Prague.
    (MC, 2/4/02)

1600        Feb 8, Vatican sentenced scholar Giordano Bruno to death.
    (MC, 2/8/02)

1600        Feb 17, Giordano Bruno (b.1548), Italian philosopher, occasional alchemist and advocate of Copernican theory, was burned at stake by the Catholic Church. In 2008 Ingrid D. Rowland authored “Giordano Bruno: Philosopher / Heretic."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Giordano_Bruno)(WSJ, 8/21/01, p.A17)(WSJ, 12/19/08, p.A15)

1600        Feb 19, Arequipa, Peru, was destroyed as the Huaynaputina volcano exploded catastrophically, in the largest volcanic explosion in South America in historic times. The eruption continued with associated earthquakes into March and devastated the socioeconomic fabric of southern Peru and neighboring Chile and Bolivia. The explosion had effects on climate around the Northern Hemisphere, where 1601 was the coldest year in six centuries, leading to a famine in Russia.
    (SSFC, 6/24/01, p.A16)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Huaynaputina)

1600        Apr 19, The Dutch ship Liefde, piloted by Will Adams, reached Japan with a crew of 24 men. 6 of the crew soon died. 4 other ships in the expedition were lost.
    (ON, 11/02, p.8)

1600        Oct 21, Tokugawa leyasu defeated his enemies in the battle of Sekigahara and affirmed his position as Japan's most powerful warlord. The win enabled Ieyasu to found a 265-year ruling dynasty.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Sekigahara)(Econ, 10/31/09, p.54)

1600        Nov 19, Charles I of England was born. Charles I, ruled Great Britain from 1625-1649. He was executed by Parliament in 1649.
    (WUD, 1994, p.249)(HN, 11/19/98)

1600        Dec 12, John Craig, Scottish church reformer and James VI's court vicar, died.
    (MC, 12/12/01)

1600        Dec 31, The British East India Company (d.1874) was chartered by Queen Elizabeth I in London to carry on trade in the East Indies in competition with the Dutch, who controlled nutmeg from the Banda Islands. A company of 218 merchants were granted a monopoly to trade east of the Cape of Good Hope. For its first 20 years the company operated out of the home of its governor, Sir Thomas Smythe.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)(www.theeastindiacompany.com/history.html)(Econ, 12/17/11, p.109)

c1600        Mahmud al-Kati authored the Tarikh al-Fattash, a history of the Sudan up to the late 16th century.
    (AM, 7/04, p.36)

1600        William Gilbert authored “On the Loadstone And Magnetic Bodies." He pioneered the scientific method of testing hypothesis by experiment.
    (WSJ, 4/14/07, p.P10)

1600        Dona Maria, a Timucua Indian woman, was chief of Nombre de Dios, a Spanish Franciscan mission town in Florida. 6 years later she inherited the position of chief of San Pedro de Mocama on Cumberland Island, Georgia.
    (AM, 7/01, p.22)

1600        Hartheim Castle was built at Alkoven in Upper Austria. During WWII it became one of several notorious institutions that Adolf Hitler and his regime turned into the main venues for what they called "euthanasia" and where individuals who did not meet their ideals were gassed or given lethal injections.
    (AP, 11/5/10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schloss_Hartheim)

1600        A clock was built in Augsburg, Germany, that shows a king riding in an elephant pulled chariot. His huge belly has a tiny clock placed where his navel would be. When the clock strikes, the king rolls his eyes, licks his lips and drinks from a tankard, while elephants pull the chariot along a table and other figures built around the chariot dance. On exhibit at the Time Museum in Rockford, Ill.
    (SF E&C, 1/15/1995, T-10)

1600        A sculptor, later known as Furienmeister (master of the furies), worked in Florence, Vienna and perhaps Dresden about this time. In 2006 only about 25 works were attributed to the artist who carved in ivory.
    (Econ, 5/13/06, p.96)

1600        Caravaggio signed a contract with Tibor Cerasi, Pope Clement VIII’s treasurer-general, to decorate the Cerasi Chapel of Rome’s Church of Santa Maria Del Popolo with 2 paintings. One would depict the “Martyrdom of St. Peter" and the other the conversion of Paul.
    (WSJ, 10/15/05, p.P11)

c1600        The Tairona civilization, coerced by the Spaniards to convert to Christianity, fled from their coastal settlements and moved to the mountains. They were skilled masons, farmers, weavers and goldsmiths. They had established the city now known as Ciudad Perdida (lost city) east of Santa Maria in the 5th century BCE, whose ruins were only rediscovered in 1975. The indigenous Arhuaco, Assario, and Kogi Indians are thought to be their descendants.
    (WSJ, 7/28/97, p.A16)(AM, 11/04, p.19)

c1600        French fishermen and their families settled the islands of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon off the coast of Newfoundland. The 9-island was later made a French territory.
    (WSJ, 6/30/00, p.B4)

c1600        Spanish explorers Alvaro de Mendana and Pedro Fernandez de Quiros visited the Cook Islands but overlooked Rarotonga, the largest one.
    (SFEC, 1/5/97, p.T5)

c1600        Christian missionaries arrived in India with the first European traders.
    (SFC, 11/6/99, p.A14)

1600        Rudolph II, King of the Holy Roman Empire, ruled from Prague and lured the astronomer, Tycho Brahe, from Denmark as well as his student Johannes Kepler.
    (WSJ, 9/24/96, p.A18)
1600        Cardinal Filippo Spinelli, Pope Clement VIII’s ambassador in Prague, wrote to the Pope that Emperor Rudolf II was bewitched by the devil.
    (WSJ, 9/9/06, p.P9)

1600s        The Kongo kingdom broke apart as a result of the Portuguese induced revolts and slave trade.
    (ATC, p.153)

1600s        In France the contractor Jean-Christophe Marie built bridges on the Seine to the Ile St.-Louis and laid out lots on straight streets for sale.
    (SFEC, 6/22/97, p.T8)

1600s        In Japan the ancient art of Sumo wrestling became a professional sport.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)

1600s        Pirates Anne Bonny and Mary Read plundered the Caribbean region.
    (SFEC, 2/14/99, p.T4)

1600s        Portuguese traders brought the cassava root to Africa from Brazil to feed their slaves.
    (NH, 7/96, p.13)

1600-1603    Sir Walter Raleigh (1552-1618) governed Jersey, a British Channel Island.
    (Econ, 5/23/09, p.59)

1600-1681    Pedro Calderon de la Barca, Spanish baroque master dramatist. His work included: "Life Is a Dream." "Cuando amor no es locura, no es amor." (When love is not madness, it is not love).
    (WSJ, 10/20/95, p. A-12)(WSJ, 4/5/96, p.A-6)(AP, 10/30/98)

1600-1700    In late 2007 Timothy Brook authored “Vermeer’s Hat: The Seventeenth Century and the Dawn of the Global World."
    (SFC, 2/14/08, p.E3)
c1600-1700    In Early America, fire buckets were typically made out of leather.  Because the man at the top of the bucket brigade had to toss empty buckets back down to be refilled, the buckets had to be unbreakable and soft enough so they wouldn‘t injure anyone standing below.
    (HNQ, 1/13/00)
1600-1700    Brazil’s Ouro Preto which means Black Gold in Portuguese, was founded in the 17th century after huge gold deposits were discovered under its steep hills.
    (AP, 4/19/03)
1600-1700    Cognac 1st appeared when Dutch sea merchants found that they could better preserve white wine shipped from France to northern Europe by distilling it. They then learned the wine got better as it aged in wooden barrels.
    (WSJ, 7/14/03, p.A1)
1600-1700    Shabettai Zvi [Sabbatai Zevi], a Kabbalist from the Ottoman Empire, became the central figure in a widespread Messianic craze. He declared himself the Messiah and caused an uproar throughout the Jewish world.
    (WSJ, 5/22/98, p.W11)(SFEC, 3/12/00, BR p.2)(Econ, 10/16/04, p.80)
1600-1700    Grass mats called kunaa were made on the island of Gadu and sent by the Maldivian sultan as part of an annual tribute to the kingdom of Sri Lanka. "The Fine Mat Industry of the Suvadiva Atoll" by Andrew Forbes was publ. by the British Museum.
    (WSJ, 7/22/96, p.A12)
1600-1700    The Windsor chair originated in Windsor, England.
    (WSJ, 8/15/97, p.A1)
1600-1700    Britain waged wars against the Dutch. The English fleet sailed in three segments, the 3rd of which was commanded by a Rear Admiral.
    (SFEC, 8/3/97, Z1 p.3)
1600-1700    In England the Roundheads were members or adherents of the Parliamentarians or Puritan party during the civil wars of the 17th century. They were called roundheads by the Cavaliers in derision because they wore their hair cut short.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1248)
1600-1700    In Colombia legend held that U’wa Indians led by Chief Guaiticu committed mass suicide to protest Spanish colonialism. A historical record was lacking.
    (SFC, 4/25/97, p.A3)
1600-1700    A Jesuit priest wrote in Latin the first recorded description of the magic lantern, a forerunner of later movie and slide projectors: "Ars Magna Lucis et Umbrae."
    (SFC, 10/28/96, p.A24)
c1600-1700    Marin Mersenne, French monk and mathematician. Mersenne numbers, which come from multiplying 2 over and over and subtracting one, are named after him. A small percentage of mersenne numbers are also prime numbers.
    (SFC, 11/23/98, p.A3)
c1600-1700    In Naples Giovan Battista Basile wrote his classic collection of folktales known as the "Pentamerone." It included "La Gatta Cennerentola," or "Cinderella the Cat."
    (SFC,11/4/97, p.B3)
c1600-1700    In Norway a local commander in Varda burned over 70 women alive as witches.
    (WSJ, 6/6/00, p.A1)
1600-1700    Ladakh was a West Tibetan kingdom of this time with lands that extended into what is now Nepal.
    (SFEC,12/14/97, p.T4)
1600-1700    In the 17th century the Geluk sect of Buddhism cultivated the Mongols under Altyn Khan. The Khan named the Geluk Lama Sonam Gyatso, "dalai," in reference to his oceanic wisdom. The 4th Dalai Lama was discovered in the great-grandson of Altyn Khan. The Gelukpa school gained power over the Kagyud (Black Hat) school of Tibetan Buddhism.
    (SFEM, 12/20/98, p.19)(Econ, 12/24/05, p.56)

1600-1750    The Baroque Era in music, as practiced by its greatest figures, has pronounced mannerist qualities: mysticism, exuberance, complexity, decoration, allegory, distortion, the exploitation of the supernatural or grandiose, all commingled. The baroque saw the rise of four-part harmony and the figured bass, in which numerals indicated the harmonies to be used. In 1968 Claude Palisca authored "Baroque Music." The Baroque style (1620-1680) extended to art, architecture and theater, represented by a spirit of opulence, drama and sensuality.
    (LGC-HCS, p.24-25)(SFC, 1/23/01, p.C2)(Econ, 4/11/09, p.86)

c1600-1800    The period of the enlightenment, a philosophical movement characterized by the power of human reason and by innovations in political, religious and educational doctrine. Peter Gay later wrote a 2-volume history of the Enlightenment.
    (WUD, 1994, p.474)(SFEC, 1/11/98, BR p.9)
1600-1800    About two-thirds of the Albanians converted to Islam.
    (www, Albania, 1998)
1600-1800    In the Southern American colonies, large land accumulation was fostered by headrights, a program where generally 50-acres per head was awarded to each person who transported an emigrant to America at his own expense. The systems fostered land accumulation and speculation in land warrants, often raising the price of land beyond the means of servants who had worked out their time.
    (HNQ, 1/25/99)
1600-1800    A mass migration of nearly 1 million people from Holland in the 17th and 18th century led to the decline of this small nation.
    (SFC, 3/31/98, p.F4)

1600-1867     The Tokugawa (or Edo) Period in Japan.
    (Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 215)
1600-1868    The cosmopolitan Edo period, the heyday of the woodblock print.
    (WSJ, 4/24/96, A-12)
1600-1681    Pedro Calderon de la Barca, Spanish dramatist: "Cuando amor no es locura, no es amor." (When love is not madness, it is not love.)
    (AP, 10/30/98)
1600-1900    In Benin a succession of 12 kings ruled from Abomey and each one built a lavish palace.
    (SFEC, 8/28/98, p.T4)
1600-1972    This period was covered by R.F. Foster in "Modern Ireland 1600-1972" (1989).
    (WSJ, 11/13/96, p.A22)

1601        Jan 7, Robert, Earl of Essex led a revolt in London against Queen Elizabeth.
    (MC, 1/7/02)

1601        Jan 17, The Treaty of Lyons ended a short war between France and Savoy.
    (HN, 1/17/99)

1601        Feb 8, The armies of Earl Robert Devereux of Essex drew into London.
    (MC, 2/8/02)

1601        Feb 13, John Lancaster led the 1st East India Company voyage from London.
    (MC, 2/13/02)

1601        Feb 25, Robert Devereux (b.1566), 2nd earl of Essex, was beheaded following a conviction of treason. His plan to capture London and the Tower had failed.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Devereux,_2nd_Earl_of_Essex)(HN, 2/25/99)

1601        Mar 19, Alonzo Cano, Spanish painter, sculptor (Cathedral Granada), was born.
    (MC, 3/19/02)

1601        May 2, Athanasius Kircher, German Jesuit, inventor (magic lantern), was born.
    (MC, 5/2/02)

1601        Aug 17, Pierre de Fermat (d.1665), French mathematician, was born. [There is some dispute as to his exact birthdate.]
    (WSJ, 11/25/96, p.A16)(SFEC,12/797, BR p.5)(SC, 8/17/02)

1601        Aug 22, Georges de Scudery, French writer (Observations sur le Cid), was born.
    (MC, 8/22/02)

1601        Sep 27, Maria de Medicis (1575-1642), the 2nd wife of King Henry IV of France, gave birth to Louis XIII, who later became king of France (1610-43). Henry IV, in honor of the birth, revived a tapestry scheme by poet Nicholas Houel and artist Antoine Caron, that had been conceived in honor of Caterina de Medici (1519-1589). Louis ascended to the throne at the age of nine following the assassination of his father. At 17, he seized control of the empire from his mother Marie de' Medici. Louis XIII proved to be a strongly pro-Catholic ruler.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marie_de%27_Medici)(Econ, 11/1/08, p.98)

1601        Oct 13, Tycho Brahe, astronomer, died in Prague.
    (MC, 10/13/01)

1601        Adriaen de Vries, Dutch sculptor, supplied Augsburg, Germany, the cast the "Man Pouring Water From a Conch Shell."
    (WSJ, 1/8/99, p.C13)

1601        Caravaggio painted "Supper at Emmaus."
    (WSJ, 8/4/04, p.D8)

1601        Dutch artist Joachim Wtewael painted "Mars and Venus Discovered by Vulcan."
    (SFEM, 8/31/97, p.8)

1601        A British measure, funded by taxes, provided jobs for the able-bodied poor and apprentice programs for children.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R25)

1601        Large portions of  Russia received heavy rains in the summer of 1601, and by the end of the growing season it was clear that most crops would fail. This was later related to a major earthquake in Peru in 1600.

1601        Ottoman Sultan Mehmed III issued an order for the seizure of able youths aged 10-20 to be trained as janissaries, his special forces. "The infidel parents or anybody else who resists are to be hanged at once in front of their house gate, their blood being considered of no importance whatsoever."
    (WSJ, 9/17/01, p.A20)

1601-1658    Baltasar Gracian, Spanish philosopher: "You should avoid making yourself too clear even in your explanations."
    (AP, 8/13/00)

1602        Jan 2, Battle at Kinsale, Ireland: English army beat the Spanish.
    (MC, 1/2/02)

1602        Feb 2, The first recorded performance of Shakespeare’s comedy “Twelfth Night" took place. It was not published until 1623.
    (Econ, 3/9/13, p.86)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Twelfth_Night)

1602        Feb 9, Franciscus van de Enden, Flemish Jesuit, free thinker, tutor of Spinoza, was born.
    (MC, 2/9/02)

1602        Feb 14, Pier Francesco Cavalli, Italian opera composer, was born.
    (MC, 2/14/02)

1602        Mar 20, The Dutch East India Company (Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie) was chartered to carry on trade in the East Indies. The VOC traded to 1798 whereupon its possessions were dissolved into the Dutch empire. In 2010 a student found a share in the company issued to an official named Pieter Harmenz dating to Sep 9, 1606. As a result, continuous trade in company stock emerged on the Amsterdam Exchange.
    (SFC, 9/10/10, p.A2)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stock_market)(Econ, 2/25/12, SRp.4)

1602        Apr 2, Maria de Jesus de Agreda (Maria Coronel), Spanish Franciscan, was born.
    (MC, 4/2/02)

1602        Apr 11, Johann Neukrantz, composer, was born.
    (MC, 4/11/02)

1602        Apr 30, William Lilly, astrologer, author, almanac compiler, was born in England.
    (MC, 4/30/02)

1602        May 15, Bartholomew Gosnold, English navigator, discovered Cape Cod.
    (AP, 5/15/97)(HN, 5/15/98)

1602        May 21, Martha's Vineyard was first sighted by Captain Bartholomew Gosnold.
    (HN, 5/21/98)

1602        May, Sebastian Vizcaino, a Basque merchant, led 4 small ships north from Acapulco, Mexico, to chart the coast of California.
    (SFC, 11/13/02, p.A8)

1602        Jul 14, Jules Mazarin, French cardinal, French 1st Minister (1642-61), was born.
    (MC, 7/14/02)

1602        Jul 29, The Duke of Biron was executed in Paris for conspiring with Spain and Savoy against King Henry IV of France.
    (HN, 7/29/98)

1602        Nov 12, The Vizcaino expedition held Mass on the feast day of San Diego de Alcala. He named the California landing port after the saint.
    (SFC, 11/13/02, p.A8)

1602        Nov 20, Otto von Guericke, inventor (air pump), was born.
    (MC, 11/20/01)

1602        Dec 5, Giulio Caccini's "Euridice," premiered in Florence.
    (MC, 12/5/01)

1602        Dec 16-Jan 3, The Vizcaino expedition stopped at Monterey, Ca., and grizzly bears were seen feeding on a whale carcass. Sebastian Vizcaino, Spanish Explorer, discovered an island off the coast of California that he named San Nicolas. It is the outermost of the eight Channel Islands about 75 miles southwest of Los Angeles. It was later used as the site for Scott O'Dell’s novel: "Island of the Blue Dolphins." [see 1835-1853] Santa Barbara was named by the Vizcaino expedition.
    (Pac. Disc., summer, ‘96, p.12)(IBD, 1960, p.183)(Via, 3-4/99, p.38)

1602        Caravaggio painted "The Taking of Christ." In 2005 Jonathan Harr authored “The Lost Painting: The Quest for a Caravaggio Masterpiece."
    (WSJ, 5/13/99, p.A28)(SSFC, 12/11/05, p.M6)

1602        An atlas made by the Flemish mapmaker Abraham Ortelius, bound in vellum with text in Spanish, was one of dozens issued between 1570 and 1612. It is available in 1995 for $160,000 from New York dealer W.G. Arader III.
    (WSJ, 11/24/95, p.B-8)
1602        Matteo Ricci, a Jesuit missionary from Italy, created the first Chinese map to show the Americas, at the request of Emperor Wanli. The map identified Florida as "the Land of Flowers" and put China at the center of the world. Ricci was among the first Westerners to live in what is now Beijing in the early 1600s. He became known for introducing Western science to China. In October, 2009, one such Ricci maps, one of only two in good condition, was purchased by the James Ford Bell Trust for $1 million, making it the 2nd most expensive rare map ever sold.
    (AP, 1/12/10)

1602        Bartholomew Gosnold camped for a few months in a party of 24 gentlemen and 8 sailors on Cuttyhunk Island, Mass.
    (SFEM, 11/15/98, p.23)

1602        Denmark imposed a strict trade monopoly and cut off Iceland's products from lucrative markets.
    (SFEC, 9/19/99, p.A18)

1602        Japan’s Shogun Ieyasu seized the Dutch ship Liefde and granted its crew allowances to live in Japan.
    (ON, 11/02, p.9)

1602        In Macau the Mother of God Church, begun in 1582 by the Jesuits, was completed. At the time it was the largest Catholic church in Asia. Next to the Mother of God Church is the University College of St Paul. For some unknown reason, the name "St Paul" came to be attached to the church facade which is actually a "next door neighbor".

1602-1603    In Russia agricultural failure in 1601 led to widespread starvation in both 1602 and 1603. It claimed the lives of an estimated 2 million people, or about one-third of the population, and more than 100,000 died in  Moscow alone. Government inability to alleviate both the calamity and the subsequent unrest eventually led to the overthrow of Czar Boris Godunov, a defining event in Russian history.

1602-1674    Phillipe de Champaigne, painter. His work included the "Portrait of Arnauld D’Andilly."
    (AAP, 1964)

1602-1686    Otto von Guericke helped to overthrow the guesswork physics of Aristotle through experiments with air pressure.
    (SFC, 10/2/97, p.E5)

1603        Jan 1, The Spanish party of Sebastion Vizcaino sighted a point off the Central California coast that they named Ano Nuevo.
    (SFEC, 2/27/00, p.T8)

1603        Mar 24, Tudor Queen Elizabeth I (69), the "Virgin Queen," died. She had reigned from 1558-1603. Scottish King James VI, son of Mary, became King James I of England in the union of the crowns. Each country retained its own parliament until 1707. In 2006 Leanda de Lisle authored “After Elizabeth." In 2016 John Guy authored “Elizabeth: The Forgotten Years."
    (WSJ, 4/16/97, p.A13)(WSJ, 2/4/06, p.P9)(Reuters, 2/16/12)(Econ, 4/30/15, p.77)

1603        Mar 30, Battle at Mellifont: English army under Lord Mountjoy beat the Irish.
    (MC, 3/30/02)

1603        Apr 3, William Smith, composer, was born.
    (MC, 4/3/02)

1603        Apr 5, New English king James I departed Edinburgh for London.
    (MC, 4/5/02)

1603        Jul 17, Sir Walter Raleigh (1552-1618) was arrested. He was prosecuted by Sir Edward Coke. James I suspended his death sentence and had him incarcerated in the Tower of London for 13 years during which time he wrote his "History of the World."
    (www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/TUDrayleigh.htm)(WSJ, 1/6/04, p.D10)

1603        Jul 29, Bartholomew Gilbert was killed in the colony of Virginia by Indians, during a search for the missing Roanoke colonists.
    (HN, 7/29/98)

1603        Oct 20, A Chinese uprising in the Philippines failed after 23,000 killed.
    (MC, 10/20/01)

1603        Nov 5, Irini Fedorovna, Russian daughter of Czar Boris Godunov, died.
    (MC, 11/5/01)

1603        Dec 27, Thomas Cartwright (~68), English Presbyterian publicist, died.
    (MC, 12/27/01)

1603        Roger Williams (d.1683) was born in London. After a brief period as a Baptist, the founder of the Rhode Island Colony and colonial religious leader, became a Seeker—one who adhered to the basic tenets of Christianity but refused to recognize any creed. Williams was the first champion of complete religious toleration in America.
    (HNQ, 5/1/99)(WSJ, 6/21/05, p.D10)
1603        The Church of England canon law required priests to hold morning and evening prayers and a communion service each Sunday in every church they oversaw.
    (AP, 2/22/19)
1603        Francis Bacon (1561-1626), English philosopher and statesman who served as Attorney General and as Lord Chancellor of England, was knighted.
1603        King James I of England allowed the public limited access to Hyde Park.
    (SFEM, 3/21/99, p.8)
1603        Following the London plague in this year weekly Bills of Mortality began to be published.
    (Econ, 12/22/07, p.97)

1603        In Prague Adriaen de Vries made a bust of Emperor Rudolf.
    (WSJ, 12/7/99, p.A24)

1603        Kabuki theater started in Japan when a shrine maiden named Okuni traveled to Kyoto and performed a dance of ecstasy dressed in men’s clothing while chanting Buddha’s name. [see 1586]
    (SFC, 7/12/01, p.A23)
1603        In Japan the wooden Nihonbashi bridge, half way between Edo Bay and Edo Castle, was built. In 1911 it was replaced by a stone version.
    (Econ, 10/7/06, p.52)
1603        The Nijo Castle was built in Kyoto, Japan, as a residence for the Shogun. The castle's Ninomaru Palace is famous for its "nightingale" (creaking) floors that warn of intruders.
    (Hem., 2/96, p.60)
1603        Tokyo replaced Kyoto as the administrative center of Japan.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R51)

1603        The Dutch East India Company seized a Portuguese ship laden with raw silk and gold near the straight of Malacca and hired Dutch jurist Hugo Grotius (1583-1645) to defend its action. In 1625 Grotius authored “Mare Liberum" (The Free Sea) arguing that the seas were international territory and should be open to all.
    (Econ, 11/15/14, SR p.11)

1603        Galileo invented the thermometer.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)

1603-1617    Ahmed I succeeded Mehmed III in the Ottoman House of Osman. Ahmet I had the Blue Mosque constructed to show that Muslim architects could rival the Byzantine glories of the Haghia Sophia. Construction was completed in 1616, a year before Ahmet I died at age 27.
    (Ot, 1993, xvii)(AP, 11/30/06)

1603-1868    The founding and era of the Tokugawa Shogunate.
    (Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 215)(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.34)

1604        Apr 4, Thomas Churchyard, poet, pamphleteer, died.
    (MC, 4/4/02)

1604        May 4, Claudio Merulo (71), Italian organist, composer, died.
    (MC, 5/4/02)

1604        May 18, (OS)England and Spain agreed signed the Treaty of London ending the 19 year Anglo-Spanish war.
    (AH, 6/07, p.31)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_London_%281604%29)

1604        Jun 26, French explorer Samuel de Champlain, Pierre Dugua and 77 others landed on the island of St. Croix and made friends with the native Passamaquoddy Indians. It later became part of Maine on the US-Canadian border.
    (PacDis, Spring/'94, p. 43)(SSFC, 6/20/04, p.D10)

1604        Sep 20, After a two-year siege, the Spanish retook Ostend [NW Belgium], the Netherlands, from the Dutch.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1019)(HN, 9/20/98)

1604        Oct 9, "Kepler's Nova" was 1st sighted. Kepler saw the supernova on Oct 17.

1604        Nov 1, William Shakespeare's tragedy "Othello" was first presented at Whitehall Palace in London.
    (AP, 11/1/99)

1604        Nov, Richard Bancroft (1544-1610) became the Archbishop of Canterbury. He was the "chief overseer" of the production of the King James Bible (1604-1611).
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Bancroft)(SFC, 4/17/17, p.A2)

1604        Claude Lorrain (b.1682), French painter (also known as Claude Gelée), was born.
    (WSJ, 11/6/02, p.D8)

1604        Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra (1547-1616) published the first part of "The Ingenious Hidalgo Don Quixote de la Mancha." Don Quixote and his friend Sancho Panza seek what a modern poet has called an impossible dream, a dream of justice in an earthly paradise, a contradiction in terms, as practical men have always known... Cervantes was the first to see that the new world coming into being needed such heroes; otherwise it would go mad." In 2006 Manuel Duran and Fay R. Rogg authored “Fighting Windmills."
    (V.D.-H.K.p.150)(HN, 9/29/02)(WSJ, 6/10/06, p.P8)

1604        The “Moor of Venis" (Othello) by Shaxberd (Shakespeare) was performed in London.
    (http://ise.uvic.ca/Library/SLTnoframes/plays/othsubj.html)(WSJ, 10/22/05, p.P13)
1604        Christopher Marlowe, English writer, published his version of the "Tragical History of Dr. Faustus."
1604        The first official condemnation of tobacco was made by King James I, who cited the health hazards of smoking in his Counterblaste to Tobacco.
    (HNQ, 11/10/98)

1604        Juan de Onate, Spanish colonizer of New Mexico, explored along the Colorado.
    (NG, 5.1988, Mem For)

1604        Samuel de Champlain sailed into the river estuary at what later became the seaport of St. John in New Brunswick, Canada.
    (SFEC, 7/30/00, p.T5)

1604        Johannes Kepler, German astronomer, observed a supernova with his naked eye. He also worked out an elliptical orbit for Mars.
    (NG, 5/88, p.619)(SFC, 11/29/96, p.A16)

c1604        Arjun, the 5th Sikh guru, compiled the sacred book "Granth Sahib," a compilation of over 6,000 hymns meant to be sung to classical Indian ragas. Arjun was responsible for the Harimandir (temple of God) in the city of Amritsar. Arjun was later executed by Muslim rulers in Lahore. In 2004 Sikhs marked the 400th anniversary of the book’s arrival to Amritsar.
    (WSJ, 10/12/01, p.W17)(AP, 9/1/04)

1604-1605    Caravaggio painted "St. John the Baptist in the Wilderness."
    (WSJ, 4/28/98, p.A16)

1604-1606    Caravaggio painted "Madonna di Loreto."
    (WSJ, 2/8/00, p.A20)

1604-1634    Ligdan Khan (reigned 1604-34), the last great Mongol leader, ruled. He united many Mongol tribes to defend their homeland against the rising power of the Manchu.

1604-1690    Reverend John Eliot was an English missionary in Massachusetts called the "Apostle to the Indians." The Puritan Eliot learned the Algonquian language and preached to the Indians. He translated the Bible into Algonquian and published it in 1663 in Cambridge, Mass.
    (HNQ, 6/7/98)(WSJ, 8/7/98, p.W13)

1605        Apr 8, Philip IV king of Spain and Portugal (1621-65), was born.
    (HN, 4/8/98)
1605        Apr 8, Louis de Vadder, Flemish painter, was born.
    (MC, 4/8/02)

1605        Apr 12, Boris Godunov, Tsar of Russia (1598-1605), died.
    (MC, 4/12/02)

1605        Apr 16, New Mexico’s Gov. Don Juan de Onate y Salazar passed by the sandstone bluff of El Morro where he left his mark in the stone. He was returning from an expedition to the Gulf of California, which he called the South Sea.
    (SSFC, 4/10/05, p.F9)(Econ., 3/14/15, SR p.3)

1605        Apr 18, Giacomo Carissimi, composer, was born.
    (MC, 4/18/02)

1605        Jun 10, False Dimitri was crowned Russian tsar for 1st time.
    (MC, 6/10/02)

1605        Jun 15, Thomas Randolph, English poet and playwright, was born.
    (HT, 6/15/00)

1605        Jun, Pierre Dugua moved the French settlement at St. Croix, Maine, to Nova Scotia at a site named Port Royal.
    (SSFC, 6/27/04, p.A2)

1605        Sep 27, Jan Karol Chodkiewicz (1560-1621), Lithuanian Hetman (Jonas Karolis Katkevičius-Katkus), led Lithuanian and Polish forces to victory against a Swedish army at Kircholm, Latvia. Chodkiewicz carried the day in a victory that, taking into account the disparity of power and strategic result, was huge. It is estimated that 6000 Swedes died. Sweden’s King Charles IX was wounded.

1605        Oct 19, Thomas Browne (d.1682), British writer (Garden of Cyrus), was born.

1605        Nov 5, The Gunpowder Plot was planned in response to strict enforcement of anti-Catholic laws by King James I. Several prominent English Catholics plotted to blow up Parliament when the King was to address the House of Lords. Robert Catesby gathered a dozen young men to smuggle barrels of gunpowder into the basement of the House of Parliament. 36 barrels of gunpowder were placed in the cellar. The plot was discovered and one of the conspirators, Guy Fawkes, was arrested as he entered the cellar before the planned explosion. Fawkes was supposed to light the fuse but was caught and horribly tortured. Fawkes, after persuasion on the rack in the White Tower of London, confessed to trying to blow up Parliament. Fawkes and other conspirators were tried, convicted and executed. November 5 is known as Guy Fawkes Day in England and is celebrated by shooting firecrackers and burning effigies of Fawkes. The story is told in the 1996 book "Faith and Treason: The Story of the Gunpowder Plot" by Antonia Fraser. In 2005 Alice Hogge authored “God’s Secret Agents: Queen Elizabeth’s Forbidden Priests and the Hatching of the Gunpowder Plot."
    (NG, V184, No. 4, 10/1993, p. 54)(AP, 11/5/97)(HNQ, 3/15/00)(Econ, 11/5/05, p.92)

1605        Dec 1, Juan de Padilla, composer, was born.
    (MC, 12/1/01)

1605        Dec 27, English sea captain John Davis was killed by Japanese pirates whose ship he had captured off the coast of Sumatra. In 1889 Clements Markham authored “A Life of John Davis, the Navigator, 1550-1605, Discoverer of Davis Straits."
    (ON, 11/05, p.9)

1605        The painting "Death of Samson," attributed to Peter Paul Rubens, may have been done by a student and completed as late as 1650. The work was later purchased by the Getty Museum for $6 million through Italian art dealers from the Corsini family and contested whether or not it was a national treasure.
    (WSJ, 4/2/99, p.W12)

1605        Bacon published his "Advancement of Learning."

1605        Pope Paul V (d.1621) was elected following Clement VIII. After 2 months he elevated his young law-student nephew, Scipione Borghese, to the office of cardinal.
    (WSJ, 9/15/98, p.A20)(WSJ, 2/8/00, p.A20)

1605        The American Indian Tisquantum, aka Squanto, was picked up by seafarer George Weymouth and taken to England. He spent 9 years there and returned to the New World as the interpreter for John Smith.
    (SFEM, 11/15/98, p.28)

1605        The first scientific description of the dodo bird was made by the Dutch botanist Carolus Clusius from an observation of a dodo at the home of the anatomist Peter Paauw.
    (NH, 11/96, p.24)

1605        In France Henry IV and his minister, Duc de Sully, decided to build a square over the former site of the Hotel Royal des Tournelles. The new square was named the Place Royale until the Revolution when it was renamed the Place des Vosges after the first administrative department, Les Vosges, that paid taxes.
    (SFEM, 3/15/98, p.16)

1605        Henry IV established a building code that set architectural themes and specified that pavilions had to be owned by a single family.
    (SFEM, 3/15/98, p.35)

1605        In India Akbar the Great died. He was succeeded by Juhangir the ineffectual and his "evil queen" Nur Jahan.
    (HT, 4/97, p.23)

1605        Japan’s Shogun Ieyasu allowed some of the Dutch crew of the ship Liefde to return home, but kept Will Adams in Japan. Adams soon married Magoma Oyuki, a young noblewoman.
    (ON, 11/02, p.10)

1605-1612    Don Pedro de Zuniga served as the Spanish ambassador to England. Zuniga actively engaged in espionage while serving as ambassador to England, sending various reports and maps concerning the English colony in Virginia to the Spanish court.
    (AH, 6/07, p.31)(www.she-philosopher.com/ib/bios/zuniga.html)

1605-1704    Marc-Antoine Charpentier, French composer. His work included "Antiennes "O" de l’Avent."
    (WSJ, 11/27/01, p.A20)    

1606        Jan 31, Guy Fawkes, convicted for his part in the "Gunpowder Plot" against the English Parliament and King James I, was hanged, drawn and quartered.
    (AP, 1/31/98)(HN, 1/31/99)

1606        Apr 12, England's King James I decreed the design of the original Union Flag (also referred to as the Union Jack), which combined the flags of England and Scotland.
    (HN, 4/12/98)(AP, 4/12/06)

1606        May 6, Lorenzo Lippi, [Perlone Zipoli], poet, painter, was born.
    (MC, 5/6/02)

1606        Jun 6, Pierre Corneille (d.1684), French dramatist, poet and writer of Le Cid, was born: "Guess, if you can, and choose, if you dare."
    (AP, 3/28/98)(HN, 6/6/98)

1606        Jul 15, The painter Rembrandt (d.1669) Harmenszoom van Rizn (Rijn), was born in Leiden, Netherlands. His paintings included "Old Woman Cutting Her Nails," "Night Watch," "Self Portrait Leaning Forward" (1628), "Two Studies of Saskia Asleep" (1635-1637), "Jupiter and Antiope" (1659) and "Aristotle Contemplating the Bust of Homer." He started making etchings in the 1620s when the medium was barely a 100 years old.
(WSJ, 10/1/96, p.A20)(SFC, 10/12/96, p.E3)(SFC, 5/17/97, p.E1)(AP, 7/15/97)

1606        Dec 20, Virginia Company settlers left London to establish Jamestown.
    (HFA, '96, p.44)(MC, 12/20/01)

c1606        Caravaggio painted "St. John the Baptist."
    (WSJ, 4/28/98, p.A16)
1606        Caravaggio fled Rome after he accidentally killed a man.
    (Econ, 2/26/05, p.82)

c1606        Peter Paul Rubens painted "The Massacre of the Innocents." In 2002 it sold for $76.7 million at auction.
    (WSJ, 7/11/02, p.B8)

1606        Shakespeare wrote the tragedy "King Lear." William Shakespeare wrote "Antony and Cleopatra." He also wrote "The Tragedy of Macbeth." A shorter version was made in 1623 Folio.
    (WUD, 1994, p.788)(WSJ, 3/13/97, p.A12)(WSJ, 10/27/97, p.A1)

1606        Dona Maria, a Timucua Indian woman, inherited the position of chief of San Pedro de Mocama on Cumberland Island, Georgia. She had been chief of Nombre de Dios, a Spanish Franciscan mission town in Florida.
    (AM, 7/01, p.22)

1606        The order of the Sisters of Ursula was founded in France. Like their Jesuit brethren they try to fuse contemplative withdrawal with worldly engagement.
    (WSJ, 12/3/98, p.W17)

1606        Venice expelled the Jesuits as part of a larger jurisdictional dispute with the Vatican.
    (WSJ, 5/5/07, p.P10)

1606-1612    A drought in the American southeast was the worst in 770 years and caused the deaths of many Jamestown colonists in 1910.
    (SFC, 4/24/98, p.A3)

1607        Jan 30, A sudden flood around the Bristol Channel in southwest Britain killed at least 2,000 people. It was the worst natural disaster ever recorded in Britain.
    (Econ, 5/5/07, p.101)

1607        Feb 24, Claudio Monteverdi's opera "Orfeo," premiered at the Court Theater in Mantua.
    (WSJ, 6/19/97, p.A16)(AP, 2/24/07)

1607        Mar 8, Johann Rist, composer, was born.
    (MC, 3/8/02)

1607        Apr 26, Ships under the command of Capt. Christopher Newport sought shelter in Chesapeake Bay. The forced landing led to the founding of Jamestown on the James River, the first English settlement. An expedition of English colonists, including Capt. John Smith, went ashore at Cape Henry, Va., to establish the first permanent English settlement in the Western Hemisphere.
    (NG, Sept. 1939, p.356)(AP, 4/26/98)(HN, 4/26/98)

1607         Apr, The Midland Revolt was a popular uprising which took place in the Midlands of England. From late April to throughout May riots took place as a protest against the enclosure of common land. In the Midland Revolt the term “Leveller" was used to refer to those who 'levelled' hedges in the enclosure riots.

1607        May 13, English colonists landed near the James River in Virginia. They went shore the next day and founded a colony named Jamestown. In 1996 archeologist discovered the original Jamestown Fort and the remains of one settler, a young white male who died a violent death. In 2003 David A. Price authored "Love and Hate in Jamestown."
    (SFC, 9/13/96, p.A2)(AP, 5/13/97)(HN, 5/24/98)(WSJ, 11/25/03, p.D8)(AP, 5/13/07)

1607        May 14, Some 104 men and boys filed ashore from the small sailing ships Susan Constant, Godspeed, and Discovery, onto what English adventurers came to call Jamestown Island in Virginia. Capt. John Smith (27) was among the Englishmen who founded Jamestown.
    (HN, 10/3/00)(AP, 5/14/97)(SFEC, 10/15/00, p.T12)(ON, 2/07, p.7)

1607        May 24, Captain Christopher Newport and 105 followers founded Jamestown on the mouth of the James River in Virginia. They had left England with 144 members, 39 died on the way over. The colony was near the large Indian village of Werowocomoco, home of Pocahontas, the daughter Powhatan, an Algonquin chief. In 2003 archeologists believed that they had found the site of Werowocomoco, where Powhatan resided from 1607-1609.
    (HN, 5/24/99)(SFC, 5/7/03, p.A2)(Arch, 1/06, p.27)

1607        May 26, Some 200 Indian warriors stormed the unfinished stockade at Jamestown, Va. 2 settlers were killed and 10 seriously wounded before they were repulsed by cannon fire from the colonists’ 3 moored ships.
    (ON, 2/07, p.7)

1607        Jun 15, Colonists in North America completed James Fort in Jamestown. Hostilities with the Indians ended as ambassadors said their emperor, Powhatan, had commanded local chiefs to live in peace with the English.
    (HN, 6/15/98)(ON, 2/07, p.7)

1607        Jun 21, The Church of England Episcopal Church, the 1st Protestant Episcopal parish in America, was established at Jamestown, Va. The 39 articles of the Episcopal Faith included the statement: "There is but one living and true God, everlasting, without body, parts, or passions; of infinite power, wisdom and goodness; the Maker, and Preserver of all things both visible and invisible."
    (SFC, 7/21/97, p.A11)(MC, 6/21/02)(WSJ, 6/20/03, p.W15)

1607        Jul 7, "God Save the King" was 1st sung.
    (MC, 7/7/02)

1607        Aug 14, The Popham expedition reached the Sagadahoc River in the northeastern North America (Maine), and settled there.
    (HN, 8/14/98)

1607        Sep 28, Samuel de Champlain and his colonists returned to France from Port Royal Nova Scotia.
    (HN, 9/28/98)

1607        Nov 26, This day is believed to be the birth date of London-born clergyman John Harvard, the principal benefactor of the original Harvard College in Cambridge, Mass.
    (AP, 11/26/07)

1607        “The Knight of the Burning Pestle," a play by Francis Beaumont (1584-1616), was first performed. It was first published in a quarto in 1613.

1607        In Aceh Sultan Iskandar Muda fielded the largest fighting force of the region with an army that had Persian horses an elephant corps and 800-man galleys to control the seas.
    (SFC, 1/20/00, p.A12)

1607        In China the Great Wall’s largest stone tower, Zhenbeitai, was built at Yulin, near the border of Inner Mongolia.
    (SSFC, 9/1/02, p.C6)

1607        In Japan a fortification in the city of Kumamoto was built by Kiyomasa Kato, a veteran military campaigner and feudal lord who took part in the reunification of Japan, which had been ravaged by a century of war.
    (AP, 4/16/16)

1607        Francisco de Rojas Zorrilla (d.c1660), Spanish dramatist, was born at Toledo. He became a knight of Santiago in 1644. The exact date of his death is unknown.

1607-1677    Wenceslaus Hollar, Bohemian artist. He made an engraving of old St. Paul’s Cathedral in London.
    (AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.14)

1608        Jan 7, An accidental fire devastated the Jamestown settlement in the Virginia Colony.
    (AP, 1/7/08)

1608        Jan 28, Giovanni Alfonso Borelli, mathematician, astronomer, was born in Naples.
    (MC, 1/28/02)

1608        Jan, John Smith met with the Indian emperor Powhatan at Werocomoco on the Pamunkey River. He studied the Powhattan language and culture. The Powhattans were an aggressive tribe and under Chief Powhatan’s leadership, they had conquered and subjugated more than 20 other tribes. Pocahontas was a Powhattan Indian girl of 10-11 years when she new Smith in Virginia. Records of the colony were kept by William Strachey, its official historian. The Powhattans were an aggressive tribe and under Chief Powhattan’s leadership, they conquered and subjugated more than 20 other tribes. Before coming to Virginia, John Smith had served as a mercenary in Hungary and was wounded, captured and sold into slavery by his Turkish adversaries; he escaped by killing his owner.
    (WSJ, 6/13/95, p.A-18)(ON, 2/07, p.8)

1608        May 19, The Protestant states formed the Evangelical Union of Lutherans and Calvinists under the direction of the elector of Brandenburg.
    (HN, 5/19/99)

1608        May 28, Claudio Monteverdi's "Arianna," premiered in Mantua.
    (MC, 5/28/02)

1608        Jun 4, Francesco Caracciolo (44), Italian religious founder, saint, died.
    (MC, 6/4/02)

1608        Jul 3, The city of Quebec was founded as a trading post by Samuel de Champlain. The French adventurer Etienne Brule accompanied Champlain to North America and was reportedly eaten by the Huron Indians.
    (AP, 7/3/97)(www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1608champlain.html)

1608        Aug 13, John Smith's story of Jamestown's 1st days was submitted for  publication.
    (MC, 8/13/02)

1608        Sep 1, Giacomo Torelli, composer, was born.
    (MC, 9/1/02)

1608        Sep 10, John Smith was elected president of the Jamestown colony council in Virginia. Records of the colony were kept by William Strachey, its official historian.
    (WSJ, 6/13/95, p.A-18)(AP, 9/10/97)

1608        Sep 25, Hans Lipperhey applied to the government of Zeeland for a patent for the telescope. In 2005 Fred Watson authored “Stargazer: The Life and Times of the Telescope."
    (SSFC, 8/14/05, p.F2)(http://tinyurl.com/93lb6)

1608        Oct 1, Some 200 new settlers arrived at the Jamestown colony, including Dutch and Polish glass-makers, artisans and the first European women in the colony.
    (http://spuscizna.org/spuscizna/1608.html)(AH, 6/07, p.27)

1608        Oct 2, Jan Lippershey, spectacle maker, formally offered to the Estates of Holland his new spyglass for warfare. He was the 1st to file a patent claim for a spyglass.
    (www.britannica.com/eb/article?tocId=9048449)(CW, Spring ‘99, p.33)

1608        Dec 6, George Monck (Monk), English general and gov. of Scotland, was born.
    (MC, 12/6/01)

1608        Dec 9, English blind poet and polemical pamphleteer John Milton (1608-1674) was born in London. His work included "Paradise Lost," Paradise Regained," and "Samson Agonistes." Milton lost one eye at 36 and the other when he was 44. In 1996 Paul West wrote a novel: "Sporting with Amaryllis," that begins in 1626 and gives a fictional account of his life. In 1997 Peter Levy wrote a biography of Milton titled: "Eden Renewed."
    (WUD, '94, p.911)(WSJ, 5/6/97, p.A20)(AP, 12/9/97)

1608        Italian artist Caravaggio was expelled from the Knights of Malta after he murdered one young man and got into a brawl that left a knight seriously injured.
    (AP, 2/5/13)

1608        Rubens painted "Adoration of the Shepherds."
    (WSJ, 2/8/00, p.A20)

1608        Shakespeare wrote his play "Pericles." It was about a prince who journeys through evil kingdoms until he meets his bride and then loses her at sea.
    (WSJ, 11/11/98, p.A21)

1608        Monteverdi wrote his opera "Arianna." It was based on a libretto by Ottavio Rinuccini. Only fragments survived into the 20th century when Alexander Goehr composed a contemporary version that premiered in 1998 in St. Louis.
    (WSJ, 7/2/98, p.A20)

1608        Bowling in Jamestown was banned after workers were found bowling instead of building the fort.
    (SFC, 7/28/97, p.A3)
1608        Capt. John Smith seeking passage to the Pacific and the South Seas sailed through a Chesapeake Bay tributary and was amazed at Indian skill in building log canoes.
    (NG, Sept. 1939, J. Maloney p.357)
1608        Settlers in Jamestown, Virginia, shipped distilled tar back to its sponsors in England, the first manufactured item exported from the US.
    (SFEC, 7/6/97, Z1 p.6)
1608        Robert Hunt (b.1568), the 1st chaplain at Jamestown, Va., died. The remains of Hunt and 3 other Jamestown leaders were found in 2015 amid the ruins of a church on the site of Fort James. The others were identified as Capt. Gabriel Archer, Sir Ferdinando Wainman and Capt. William West.
    (http://tinyurl.com/pnlxcqm)(SFC, 7/29/15, p.A6)

1608        Bushmills Distillery in Northern Ireland acquired a license for whiskey production. They had been producing whiskey since the 1100s.
    (SFEC, 1/10/99, p.T8)

1608        Shakespeare’s theater group, The King’s Men, incorporated technical changes in their plays with the acquisition of the indoor Blackfriars theater.
    (WSJ, 5/1/97, p.A16)

1608        Inigo Jones built an oak-paneled hall for Queen Elizabeth’s ambassador to France. The room was later bought intact by William Randolph Hearst and shipped to New York. It was later purchased by the developer of the SF Cannery and shipped to SF. It was set up as the interior of Jack’s.
    (SFEC, 7/12/98, DB p.32)

1608        In England Bess of Hardwick died at age 80. Know as the Dowager Countess of Shrewsbury, she built the Hardwick Hall in Derbyshire. Bess had married and disposed of four husbands, each leaving her richer than the last. She had been a moneylender, property dealer, exploiter of iron works, coal mines, and glass works, and ended up the richest woman in England after the Queen. She only had children by her second husband, Sir William Cavendish. Her fortune was divided between two sons, William and Charles.
    (NG, Nov. 1985, M. Girouard, p.662,671)(SFEM, 10/11/98, p.20)

1608        Shogun Ieyasu ordered Will Adams to go to the Philippines to invite the Spanish Gov. Don Diego Vevero y Velasco to compete with the Portuguese for trade with Japan.
    (ON, 11/02, p.10)

1609        Jan 21, Joseph Justus Scaliger (b.1540), French Calvinist religious leader and scholar, died. He is known for expanding the notion of classical history from Greek and ancient Roman history to include Persian, Babylonian, Jewish and ancient Egyptian history. He spent the last sixteen years of his life in the Netherlands. The Julian period was the brainchild of the 16th century historian Joseph Justus Scaliger and begins on Jan. 1, 4713 B.C.E. This date is one where several cycles coincide:  the 28-year solar cycle in the Julian calendar, after which the days of the year fall on the same days of the week; the 19-year Metonic cycle, when lunar phases recur on the same days of the year; and the 15 year indiction cycle, the tax cycle of the Roman Empire, which was another method for recording dates.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Justus_Scaliger)(Astronomy Magazine, 12/2021)

1609        Feb 7, Ferdinand I, cardinal, ruler of Tuscany, died.
    (MC, 2/7/02)

1609        Feb 10, John Suckling, English Cavalier poet, dramatist, courtier, was born.
    (MC, 2/10/02)

1609        Feb 28, Paul Sartorius (39), composer, died.
    (MC, 2/28/02)

1609        Mar 21, Jan II Kazimierz, cardinal, King of Poland (1648-68), was born.
    (MC, 3/21/02)

1609        Mar 25, Henry Hudson embarked on an exploration for Dutch East India Co.
    (MC, 3/25/02)

1609        Mar, John Dee (b.1527), English mathematician, astronomer, astrologer, occultist, navigator, imperialist and consultant to Queen Elizabeth I, died about this time. Dec 1608 is also given as his time of death.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Dee)(Econ, 6/30/12, p.86)

1609        Apr 9, Spain’s King Philip III decreed the expulsion of the Moriscos,  descendants of the Muslim population that converted to Christianity under threat of exile from Ferdinand and Isabella in 1502.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Expulsion_of_the_Moriscos)(Econ, 2/22/14, p.44)

1609        Jul, Emperor Rudolf II granted Bohemia freedom of religion with his Letter of Majesty (Majestatsbrief).

1609        Jul 10, The Catholic states in Germany set up a league under the leadership of Maximillian of Bavaria.
    (HN, 7/10/98)

1609        Jul 15, Annibale Carracci (b.1560), Italian Baroque painter, died.

1609        Jul 25, Admiral William Somers, head of a 7-ship fleet enroute to Virginia, spied land after being blown off course and soon drove his ship, the Sea Venture, onto the reefs of Bermuda. William Strachey (1572-1621), was also aboard the Sea Venture and later sent a letter to England that described the event. The letter is thought by many to have been the inspiration for Shakespeare’s "Tempest." Strachey became secretary of the colony at Jamestown, Virginia, after his arrival there on May 23, 1610. In 2009 Hobson Woodward authored: A Brave Vessel: The True Tale of the Castaways Who Rescued Jamestown and Inspired Shakespeare’s “The Tempest."
    (AM, May/Jun 97 p.29)(SFC, 8/18/09, p.E2)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sea_Venture)

1609        Aug 25, Galileo demonstrated his 1st telescope to Venetian lawmakers. Galileo Galilei had improved the newly invented telescope and pointed it at the moon.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.200)(Econ, 8/15/09, p.12)   

1609        Aug 28, Henry Hudson discovered Delaware Bay.
    (AP, 8/28/97)

1609        Sep 3-4, Henry Hudson discovered the island of Manhattan. The exact date is not known.
    (MC, 9/3/01)(www.hudsonriver.com)

1609         Sep 12, English explorer Henry Hudson sailed his ship, the Half Moon, into the river that later took his name. Hudson sailed for the Dutch East India Company in search of the Northwest Passage, a water route linking the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.
    (AP, 9/12/97)(Econ, 7/4/09, p.28)

1609        Oct 12, The song "Three Blind Mice" was published in London, believed to be the earliest printed secular song.
    (HN, 10/12/00)

1609        Nov 30, Galileo began observing the moon with his perspicullum from Padua, Italy.
    (CW, Spring ‘99, p.34)

1609        Caravaggio (1571-1610) completed his "Adoration of the Shepherds," during a brief stay in Messina, Sicily.
    (AP, 10/7/09)
c1609    Peter Paul Rubens painted “Samson and Delilah."
    (SFC, 3/5/05, p.E1)
c1609    Rubens painted "The Head of St. John the Baptist." In 1998 it sold for $5.5 mil to Alfred Bader.
    (SFC, 2/3/98, p.E3)

1609        Dutchman Huig de Groot authored a treatise titled “Mare Liberum" (The Open Sea) in which he argued that seas were open to anyone.
    (Econ, 1/18/14, p.80)
1609        Ben Johnson wrote his play "The Silent Woman."
    (WSJ, 2/7/03, p.W2)
1609        Johannes Kepler (1571-1630), German astronomer and mathematician, authored “Astronomia Nova." Written in 1605, but not published until 1609, it discussed how Mars moves in an elliptical orbit.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Johannes_Kepler)(SFC, 10/25/99, p.A4)(Econ, 8/15/09, p.75)
1609        Shakespeare wrote his play "Cymbeline." It was based on the story of Cymbeline, king of Britain during the reign of Augustus Caesar in Rome.
    (WSJ, 6/10/98, p.A16)(WSJ, 8/19/98, p.A16)
1609        The original text of Shakespeare's 154 sonnets was published. In 1997 a poem-by-poem commentary was published by Helen Vendler: "The Art of Shakespeare's Sonnets." A new Arden edition: "Shakespeare’s Sonnets" to elucidate the context of the poems was also published in 1997.
    (WSJ, 11/12/97, p.A20)
1609        The song "Three Blind Mice" was published in London.
    (SFC,12/5/97, p.C3)
1609        The British attempted to settle Grenada.

1609        Henry Hudson gave brandy to the local Indians and their chief passed out. The place was renamed "Manahachtanienk," meaning "where everybody got drunk." Authorities say that "Manhattan" came form an Indian word meaning "high island."
    (SFEC, 1/25/98, Z1 p.8)

1609        Capt. John Smith returned to England from Jamestown (Virginia) after being wounded in an accidental explosion of gunpowder.
    (ON, 2/07, p.9)
1609        In 2013 the US Smithsonian Institution reported that settlers at Virginia's Jamestown Colony resorted to cannibalism to survive the harsh winter of 1609, dismembering and consuming a 14-year-old English girl.
    (Reuters, 5/1/13)

1609        The 1st newspaper was published in Germany.
    (SFC, 7/26/04, p.F4)

1609        Forces from the Japanese feudal domain of Satsuma invaded the Ryukyu Islands and took the king hostage. Heavy tribute was soon demanded.
    (NH, 9/01, p.56)

1609        Rabbi Loew (b.1525), also known as the Maharal of Prague, died. He became well-remembered for a legend about him creating a clay figure known as Golem, which he is said to have brought to life to protect Prague's Jewish community from attacks.
    (AP, 8/5/09)

1609        Sultan Ahmet commissioned the Blue Mosque to rival the other mosques of Istanbul, Turkey.
    (CAM, Nov. Dec. '95, p.29)

1609        Don Alonzo Perez de Guzman el Bueno, the Duke of Medina Sedonia and head of the failed Spanish Armada, died.
    (ON, 3/02, p.6)

1609-1610    A dry spell that began in 1606 was responsible for "the starving time" at the Jamestown colony. Nearly half of the 350 colonists alive in June, 1610, were dead by the end of the summer.
    (SFC, 4/24/98, p.A17)

1609-1611    The painting "The Massacre of the Innocents" was attributed to Peter Paul Rubens in 2002 and expected to sell for $5.7-8.5 million.
    (SFC, 3/7/02, p.D12)

1610        Jan 7, The astronomer Galileo Galilei sighted four of Jupiter's moons. Galileo discovered the 1st 3 Jupiter satellites, Io, Europa & Ganymede. He discovered mountains and valleys on the moon, that Jupiter has a moon of its own, and that the sun has spots which change. Galileo discovered multiple moons around Jupiter. He also observed Mars.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.200)(SFC, 11/5/96, p.A4)(SFC, 11/29/96, p.A16)(AP, 1/7/98)(MC, 1/7/02)

1610        Feb 14, Polish king Sigismund III forced Dimitri #2 and the Romanov family to sign covenant against Czar Vasili Shuishki (sequel to story of "Boris Godunov").
    (MC, 2/14/02)

1610        Feb 28, Thomas West, Baron de La Mar, was appointed governor of Virginia.
    (HN, 2/28/98)(MC, 2/28/02)

1610        Mar 13, Galileo published his observations of the night sky under the title “Siderius Nuncius" (Starry Messenger).
    (CW, Spring ‘99, p.36)

1610        Mar 21, King James I addressed the English House of Commons.
    (MC, 3/21/02)

1610        Apr 18, Robert Parsons (63), English Jesuit leader, plotter, died.
    (MC, 4/18/02)

1610        Apr 22, Alexander VIII, [Pietro Ottoboni], Italian lawyer, Pope (1689-91), was born.
    (MC, 4/22/02)

1610        May 11, Matteo Ricci, Italian Jesuit missionary (China), died.
    (MC, 5/11/02)

1610        May 14, King Henri IV, Henri de Navarre (56), Bourbon King of France (1572, 89-1610) was assassinated by a fanatical monk, François Ravillac. Henri IV was succeeded by 11-year-old Louis XIII, under the eye of Cardinal Richelieu. Henry’s legacy included straight roads flanked by arbres d’alignement on both sides.
    (SFEM, 3/15/98, p.17)(HN, 5/14/99)(MC, 5/14/02)(Econ, 2/14/04, p.48)

1610        May 15, Parliament of Paris appointed Louis XIII (8) as French king.
    (MC, 5/15/02)

1610        May 24, Sir Thomas Gates instituted "laws divine moral and marshal, " a harsh civil code for Jamestown, Va.
    (HN, 5/24/99)

1610        Jun 3, Jacob Neefs, Flemish engraver, publisher, was baptized.
    (MC, 6/3/02)

1610        Jun 10, The 1st Dutch settlers arrived from NJ to colonize Manhattan Island.
    (MC, 6/10/02)
1610        Jun 10, English Lord De La Ware and his supply ships arrived at Jamestown allowing the colony to recover and survive.

1610        Jul 4, Battle at Klushino: King Sigismund II [III] of Poland beat Russia & Sweden.

1610        Jul 18, Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio (b.1571), Italian artist, died in Porto Ercole at age 38. His paintings included “David With the Head of Goliath," in which he used his own image for Goliath. In 1999 Helen Langdon authored the biography: "Caravaggio: A Life." In 2000 Peter Robb authored the biography: "M: The Man Who Became Caravaggio." In 2010 Andrew Graham-Dixon authored “Caravaggio: A Life Sacred and Profane."
    (Econ, 2/26/05, p.82)(WSJ, 5/4/05, p.D8)(http://tinyurl.com/8jjs6)(SFC, 7/22/10, p.79)

1610        Aug 3, Henry Hudson of England discovered a great bay on the east coast of Canada and named it for himself.
    (HN, 8/3/98)(HNQ, 7/23/00)

1610        Aug 27, Polish King Wladyslaw was crowned king of Russia.
    (MC, 8/27/01)

1610        Ben Jonson wrote his satirical play: "The Alchemist." It was about 3 creative crooks in London bilking everyone in sight.
    (SFC, 4/26/97, p.E3)
1610        Shakespeare’s play “The Winter’s Tale" was first performed.
1610        Claudio Monteverdi (1567-1643), Italian musician, singer and priest, composed his Vespers.
    (SFC, 11/15/14, p.E1)

1610        A map of Asia viewed from the sea was drawn about this by a Chinese cartographer in Java. John Seldon, English lawyer, acquired this map through an English sea captain and bequeathed it to Oxford’s Bodleian library in 1654.
    (Econ, 1/18/14, p.80)

1610        Spanish colonists founded Santa Fe. They built the block long adobe El Palacio as a seat for the governor-general.
    (SFEC, 7/6/97, p.T7)(SSFC, 6/10/01, p.T9)

1610        Galileo observed Saturn and noted that it appeared to be triple-bodied.
    (NH, 10/1/04, p.28)

1610        In France Henri IV was killed by an assassin. He was succeeded by 11-year-old Louis XIII, under the eye of Cardinal Richelieu.
    (SFEM, 3/15/98, p.17)

1610        Ustad Mansur, a seventeenth century Mughal painter, painted a picture depicting the Dodo bird. As a court artist of Jehangir (1605-1627) Mansur specialized in depicting plants and animals.

1610        In Ireland the settlement at Derry was colonized by the English, who built a fortress surrounded by stone walls and renamed it Londonderry.
    (SFC, 12/1/97, p.A14)

1610        Retired-Japanese Samurai Hachirobei Mitsui pawned a couple of his swords and started a ribbon and kimono shop. It grew to become the world’s oldest department store, Tokyo’s Mitsukoshi.
    (SFC, 7/7/96, zone 1 p.5)

1610        The Dutch ousted the Portuguese from Indonesia by this time, but the Portuguese retained the eastern half of Timor.
    (SFC, 9/8/99, p.A17)

1610        The first cargo of Asian tea arrived in Amsterdam
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)

1610        Leon, Nicaragua, was buried by the Mombotombo volcano.
    (SSFC, 4/10/05, p.F5)

1610        In Cracow (Krakow), Poland, bagels were listed in the community regulations as a suitable gift for pregnant women.
    (SFC, 10/16/96, zz1 p.6)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)

1610        Sigismund III ruled Poland.
    (AM, Jul/Aug ‘97 p.29)

c1610-1615    Orazio Gentileschi, the father of Artemisia (one of the most gifted women painters of all time), painted "Judith and her Maidservant With the head of Holofernes." The 1998 film "Artemisia" was based on the life of Artemisia.
    (WSJ, 4/28/98, p.A16)(SFEC, 5/10/98, DB p.48)

1610-1643    Louis XIII (1601-1643) was King of France. He was the son of Henry IV of Navarre. He started the fashion of men’s wigs do to loss of hair.
    (WUD, 1994, p.524)(SFC, 12/29/96, zone 1 p.2)

1610-1650    In the Netherlands painters from Utrecht worked in the style of Caravaggio.
    (WSJ, 10/20/97, p.A19)

1610-1664    The Chinese painter Hong Ren. His work included "Peaks and Ravines at Jiuqi."
    (WSJ, 2/19/98, p.A20)

1610-1680    Baldassare Ferri, the first of the famous Castrato vocalists. Some of them had ranges of four octaves, up to A or even B above high C in full voice. Some of them could sustain a note for well over a minute.
    (LGC-HCS, p.42)

1611        Mar 4, George Abbot was appointed archbishop of Canterbury.
    (SC, 3/4/02)

1611        Apr 1, Gillis van Valkenborch (~72), Flemish painter, was buried.
    (MC, 4/1/02)

1611        Apr 14, Word "telescope" was 1st used by Prince Federico Cesi.
    (MC, 4/14/02)

1611        May 23, Matthias von Habsburg was chosen king of Bohemia.
    (MC, 5/23/02)

1611        Jun 22, English explorer Henry Hudson, his son and several other people were set adrift in present-day Hudson Bay by mutineers. The starving crew of the Discovery, which had spent the  winter trapped by ice in Hudson Bay, mutinied against Hudson, who was never seen again.
    (AP, 6/22/97)(SFEM, 11/15/98, p.26)(MC, 6/23/02)

1611        Nov 1, Shakespeare's romantic comedy "The Tempest" was first presented at Whitehall.
    (AP, 11/1/99)

1611        Nov 3, Henry Ireton, English general and MP (Edgehill), was born.
    (MC, 11/3/01)

1611        Dutch artist Joachim Wtewael painted "Andromeda." He and Bloemaert helped transmit the Italian mannerist influence and a preference for figure painting over landscape
    (SFC, 9/12/97, p.C8) 

1611        The Aqua Paola aqueduct was built in Rome.
    (SFEC, 7/2/00, p.T5)

1611        The Jamestown settlement in Virginia pushed west with the establishment of Henricus (later Henrico) on the James River.
    (AH, 6/07, p.27)
1611        Don Diego de Molina, a Spanish spy, was taken prisoner in Jamestown. Molina managed to send reports about the colony to agents in London. When he eventually returned to Spain, Molina urged King Philip to eliminate the English presence in Virginia, but Philip again demurred.
    (AH, 6/07, p.31)

1611        Galileo went to Rome to describe his observations to the pontifical court.

1611        The authorized version of the King James Bible was published and it incorporated the translation of William Tyndale. In 2001 Alister McGrath authored "In the Beginning: The Story of the King James Bible and How It Changed a Nation, a Language and a Culture." In 2003 Adam Nicolson authored "God's Secretaries," which covered the tumult behind the creation of the King James Bible.
    (WSJ, 12/22/94, A-20)(SSFC, 6/3/01, DB p.71)(WSJ, 5/9/03, p.W10)

1611        Matthias, brother of Rudolf II, occupied Prague and captured Rudolf II.
    (WSJ, 1/8/99, p.C13)

1611-1670    Antonio de Pareda, Spanish allegorist painter. His work included "El Sueño del Caballero" (The Gentleman’s Dream).
    (WSJ, 1/09/00, p.A20)

1612        Jan 20, Rudolf II von Habsburg (59), emperor of Germany (1576-1612), died in Prague and Matthias became Holy Roman Emperor. In 1912 an enigmatic manuscript, once owned by Rudolf II, was acquired by Wilfrid Voynich and came to be known as the Voynich manuscript. In 2006 Peter Marshall authored “The Magic Circle of Rudolf II."
    (WSJ, 1/8/99, p.C13)(www.historylearningsite.co)(Econ, 1/10/04, p.71)(WSJ, 9/9/06, p.P9)

1612        Feb 7, Thomas Killigrew, English humorist, playwright, leader (King's Men), was born.
    (MC, 2/7/02)

1612        Feb 8, Samuel Butler (d.1680), England, poet, satirist (Hudibras) was baptized.
    (MC, 2/8/02)

1612        Feb 17, Ernst of Bayern (57), prince, bishop of Luik, archbishop of Cologne, died.
    (MC, 2/17/02)

1612        Aug 12, Giovanni Gabrieli (60), Italian composer (Madrigals), died.
    (MC, 8/12/02)

1612        Sep 12, Russia’s Tsar Vasili IV (b.1552) died.

1612        Oct 22, Russian forces, inspired by a vision of the captive Greek Archbishop Arsenios, won a sweeping victory and took the Chinese quarter, and two days later, the Kremlin itself.

1612        Oct 27, A Polish army which invaded Russia capitulated to Prince Dimitri Pojarski and his Cossacks.
    (HN, 10/27/98)

1612        Nov 4, Russia drove Catholic Poles and Lithuanians out of Moscow. This marked the end of the "Time of Troubles," a period of popular uprisings and fighting between noblemen and pretenders to the throne. Russian Orthodox Church celebrated this day as the victory of the forces of Eastern Orthodoxy over the forces of Western Catholicism. In 2005 Russia chose this day for the new “People’s Unity Day" holiday.
    (http://bildt.blogspot.com/2005/11/meaning-of-1612.html)(Econ, 11/12/05, p.56)(Econ, 3/17/07, p.65)

1612        St. George, Bermuda, was first settled.
    (SSFC, 12/7/14, p.G5)

1612        Shakespeare was commissioned to write a serious play about Henry VIII. The commission was probably made to celebrate the marriage of one of King James’ daughters.
    (WSJ, 6/27/97, p.A13)
1612        Shakespeare handed over the role of scriptwriter for the King’s Men to John Fletcher and retired to his hometown of Stratford-upon-Avon.
    (WSJ, 5/1/97, p.A16)
1612        John Webster, English playwright, wrote his play "The White Devil." It was a tale of treachery, revenge, sexual corruption and murder.
    (WSJ, 1/09/00, p.A20)

1612        "Le Carrousel du Roi," an equestrian ballet, was choreographed by Antoine de Pluvinel and scored by Robert Ballard. It was performed as part of an engagement ceremony for Louis XIII of France to Anne of Austria, princess of Spain. An estimated 200,000 people viewed the performance in Paris’ Place Royale (later the Place des Vosges).
    (SFEC, 6/4/00, DB p.38)(SFEC, 6/11/00, p.D9)
1612        In France the Pavillon du Roi, begun under Henri IV, was completed. It was occupied by the king’s court and then the Duc de Sully, after which it was called the Hotel de Sully.
    (SFEM, 3/15/98, p.17)
1612        The French explorer Etienne Brule (1592-1632) is believed to be the first European to see the Great Lakes. Brule journeyed to North America with Samuel de Champlain in 1608 and helped found Quebec. Brule explored Lake Huron in 1612 and is believed to have also explored Lakes Ontario, Erie and Superior after 1615. Brule is the first European to live among the Indians and was probably the first European to set foot in what is now Pennsylvania.
    (HNQ, 6/29/98)
1612        French explorer Samuel de Champlain compiled a 17 by 30 inch map depicting the coast of New England and the Canadian maritime provinces.
    (SFC, 12/5/15, p.A6)

1612        The Passau state library was founded as part of a Jesuit college. In 2011 the library claimed to be home to one of the oldest book collections in Germany.
    (ABCNews, 12/7/11)

1612        The square of Esfanan, Persia, was built.
    (SSFC, 1/14/07, p.G5)

1612-1626     Johannes Kepler, the Imperial Court Mathematician of the Habsburgs, taught at the provincial academy of Linz. Here he published his famous work Harmonices Mundi.
    (StuAus, April '95, p.79)

1612-1656    Harmen Van Steenwijck, Dutch painter, included skulls in his paintings of objects of everyday life.
    (NH, 10/96, p.38)

1612-1672    Anne Bradstreet, American poet: "Authority without wisdom is like a heavy ax without an edge, fitter to bruise than polish."
    (AP, 2/22/99)

1612-1759    The French dominated the interior of America.
    (SFC, 7/7/96, BR p.7)

1613        Jan 28, Thomas Bodley (b.1545), English diplomatist and scholar, died in London. He founded the Bodleian Library at Oxford.
1613        Jan 28, Galileo may have unknowingly viewed the undiscovered planet Neptune.
    (MC, 1/28/02)

1613        Feb 21, Mikhail Romanov (17), son of Patriarch of Moscow, was elected czar of Russia. He was crowned Jun 22. The Romanovs began to rule over Russia and lasted until 1917.
    (PCh, 1992, p.220)(SFC, 4/19/97, p.A3)(http://eefy.editme.com/L18b)

1613        Apr 7, Gerard Dou, Dutch painter (Night School), was born.
    (MC, 4/7/02)

1613        Jun 29, Shakespeare's Globe Theater burned down in London.
    (USAT, 8/16/96, p.8D)(MC, 6/29/02)

1613        Jun, Susanna Hall, Shakespeare’s daughter, married Stratford doctor and herbalist John Hall.
    (WSJ, 12/5/00, p.A24)

1613        Sep 8, Carlo Gesualdo (b.~1566), prince of Venosa, died. He was an Italian music composer, lutenist and nobleman of the late Renaissance and became famous for his intensely expressive madrigals. In 1590 he murdered his bride and her lover after catching them in flagrante delicto. In 2010 Glenn Watkins authored “The Gesualdo Hex: Music, Myth, and Memory."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carlo_Gesualdo)(Econ, 1/23/10, p.79)

1613        Sep 15, Francois, duc de la Rochefoucauld (d.1680), writer (Memoires), was born in Paris, France. "When we cannot find contentment in ourselves it is useless to seek it elsewhere."
    (AP, 12/2/98)(www.bookrags.com)
1613        Sep 15, Thomas Overbury (b.1581), Elizabethan poet, died in London. He was murdered by his wife, Florence Maybrick, who used an enema of arsenic. The murder was arranged by Frances Howard, Lady Essex, who felt attacked by Overbury’s poem “A Wife."
    (WSJ, 6/24/05, p.W9)(http://search.eb.com/shakespeare/micro/445/8.html)

1613        Jan Breughel (1568-1625), the Elder, a son of Pieter Breughel, painted the "A Village Street with Carts, Villagers and Gentlefolk."
    (WSJ, 2/18/00, p.W12)

1613        The colonists at Jamestown kidnapped Pocahontas and held her for ransom to force her father to free some English hostages and to return some stolen tools.
    (ON, 2/07, p.9)(AH, 6/07, p.27)

1613        The American Indian Tisquantum, aka Squanto, returned to the New World from England as the interpreter for John Smith. He was freed by Smith but then kidnapped with 19 fellow Indians by an Englishman and carried off to Milaga, Spain. He managed to escape to England.
    (SFEM, 11/15/98, p.28)

1613        A fleet of 3 English ships arrived in Japan in response to letters from Will Adams to the English East India Company.
    (ON, 11/02, p.10)

1613        Giovanni Gabrielli (b.1558), Italian composer, died. Some sources place his birth in 1554 and his death in 1612.
    (http://tinyurl.com/gbznj)(WSJ, 9/21/06, p.D6)

1613-1675    Gerrit Dou, Dutch artist. He was a student of Rembrandt.
    (SFC, 5/25/00, p.A24)

1613         Khushhal Khan Khattak (d.1690), Afghan warrior-poet, was born. He initiated a national uprising against the foreign Moghul government.

1613-1700    Andre Le Notre, French architect and landscape designer. He shaped the gardens at Vaux-le-Vicomte, Versailles, Marly, Chantilly, Saint Germain-en-Laye, Les Tuileries, saint cloud, Sceaux and Courances.
    (WUD, 1994, p.820)(SFEM, 5/18/97, p.26)

1614        Apr 5, American Indian princess Pocahontas (d.1617) married English Jamestown colonist John Rolfe in Virginia. Their marriage brought a temporary peace between the English settlers and the Algonquians.
    (AP, 4/5/97)(HN, 5/5/97)(SFEC, 10/15/00, p.T12)
1614        Apr 5, 2nd parliament of King James I began session (no enactments).
    (MC, 4/5/02)

1614        Apr 7, El Greco (b.1541), born in Crete as Domenikos Theotocopoulos, died in Toledo, Spain. His paintings included "The Resurrection" (1597) and “View and Plan of Toledo" (1610-1614).
    (WSJ, 6/18/01, p.A16)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/El_Greco)

1614        May 15, An aristocratic uprising in France ended with the treaty of St. Menehould.
    (HN, 5/15/98)

1614        Jun 7, The 2nd parliament of King James I dissolved passing no legislation.
    (SC, 6/7/02)

1614        Jul 14, Camillus de Lellis (64), Italian soldier, monastery founder, saint, died.
    (MC, 7/14/02)

1614        Aug 22, Trades people under Vincent Fettmilch chased and plunder Jews out of ghetto in Frankfurt.
    (MC, 8/22/02)

1614        Sep 1, Vincent Fettmich expelled Jews from Frankfurt-on-Main, Germany.
    (SC, 9/1/02)

1614        John Webster, English playwright, wrote his play "The Duchess of Malfi." It is a "Jacobean melodrama set in an Italy that was viewed as a hotbed of sexual and political depravity."
    (WSJ, 12/14/95, p.A-12)

1614        Crispijn de Passe the Younger published "Hortus Floridus" in Holland.
    (WSJ, 7/7/98, p.A14)

1614        Portuguese writer Diego do Couto wrote of a king in Cambodia who discovered an abandoned city during an elephant hunt in the middle of the 16th century. The report did not get published until 1958.
    (SFEC, 7/26/98, p.T6)

1614        English Jamestown colonist John Rolfe successfully cultivated tobacco for export to England. This guaranteed the colony’s economic survival.
    (AH, 6/07, p.27)
1614        Inigo Jones (1573-1652), British architect, traveled to Italy and bought a trunk full of Palladio’s architectural drawings. In 1894 they ended up at the Royal Institute of British Architects.
    (Econ, 9/27/08, p.100)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inigo_Jones)

1614        King Louis XIII (13) gave Christophe Marie and his partners the go-ahead to build the Pont Marie linking Paris’ Right Bank to the Ile Saint Louis.
    (SFCM, 10/14/01, p.33)

1614        Japan sent samurai Hasekura Tsunenaga to Europe via Acapulco to to request the right to trade directly with New Spain (Mexico).
    (Econ, 11/15/14, SR p.8)
1614        Shogun Ieyasu ordered all Christian missionaries to leave Japan. All Christian churches were closed and Japanese people were forbidden to practice Christianity on pain of death.
    (ON, 11/02, p.10)

1614        Father Tommaso Caccini denounced the opinions of Galileo on the motion of the Earth from the pulpit of Santa Maria Novella, judging them to be erroneous. Galileo went to Rome and defended himself against charges that had been made against him. In 1616, he was admonished by Cardinal Bellarmino and told that he could not defend Copernican astronomy because it went against the doctrine of the Church. Later, in 1632 he was summoned by the Holy Office to Rome. The tribunal passed a sentence condemning him and compelled Galileo to solemnly abjure his theory. He was sent to exile in Siena.
    (MC, 1/8/02)

1614        Sulayman Pasha, a Turkish general, named the Tehran (later Tirana) as the capital of Albania after the capital of Iran.
    (SSFC, 12/17/06, p.G5)

1614        The Don Cossacks made a pact with the Russian Czar and gained self-government in exchange for military service.
    (SFC,10/28/97, p.A8)

1615        Feb 23, The Estates-General in Paris was dissolved, having been in session since October 1614.
    (HN, 2/23/99)

1615        Mar 13, Innocent XII, Roman Catholic Pope, was born.
    (HN, 3/13/98)

1615        Jun 4, The Tokugawa Shogun captured Osaka Castle and eliminated Hide-yoshi's heirs. The fortress of Osaka, Japan, fell to shogun Leyasu after a six month siege.
    (Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 215)(HN, 6/4/98)

1615        Jul 28, French explorer Samuel de Champlain discovered Lake Huron on his seventh voyage to the New World.
    (HN, 7/28/98)

c1615        Artemisia Gentileschi created her painting "Female Martyr." In 1989 Mary D. Garrard authored a book on her life and art. In 2002 Susan Vreeland authored "The Passion of Artemisia," a novel based on the artist’s life.
    (SSFC, 1/13/02, p.M3)

1615        Dutch artist Joachim Wtewael painted the "Judgement of Paris."
    (SFC, 9/12/97, p.C8)

1615        In India prince Shah Jahan, son of Jehangir, returned home after a successful military campaign.
    (WSJ, 12/16/97, p.A16)

1615        In Japan Shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu granted land to Hon’ami Koetsu, a calligraphy artist. The property was named Takagamine and became a colony for artists united by their adherence to Buddhism.
    (SFC, 8/21/00, p.D3)

1615        The Persians sacked the monastic complex of David Gareja in Georgia.
    (Econ, 8/28/10, p.50)

1615-1680    Nicolas Fouquet, treasurer to Louis XIV of France. He used embezzled funds to build his chateau Vaux le Vicomte. [see 1661]
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R8)

1616        Jan 20, The French explorer Samuel de Champlain arrived to winter in a Huron Indian village after being wounded in a battle with Iroquois in New France.
    (HN, 1/20/99)

1616        Feb 24, Qualifiers of the Holy Office concluded that a sun-centered theory was “foolish and absurd in philosophy, and formally heretical, inasmuch as it expressly contradicts the teachings of many passages of Holy scriptures."
    (SSFC, 10/31/04, p.B6)

1616        Feb 26, Spanish Inquisition delivered an injunction to Galileo.
    (SC, 2/26/02)

1616        Mar 5, The Catholic Church’s Congregation of the Index banned Catholics from reading “On the Revolution of the Heavenly Spheres" (1543) by Nicholas Copernicus. “De Revolutionibus" was not formally banned but merely withdrawn from circulation, pending "corrections." The prohibition was officially lifted in 1835.

1616        Mar 6, Francis Beaumont (b.1584), Elizabethan playwright, died.
    (WUD, 1994 p.131)(MC, 3/6/02)

1616        Mar 20, Walter Raleigh was released from Tower of London to seek gold in Guiana. He took along his son Wat (22), who was killed during an attack on a Spanish outpost.
    (MC, 3/20/02)(WSJ, 1/6/04, p.D10)

1616        Apr 23, Miguel de Cervantes (b.1547), Spanish poet and novelist, died in Madrid.
    (AP, 4/23/97)
1616        Apr 23, William Shakespeare (b.1564), poet and playwright, died in Stratford-on-Avon, England. In 2004 Stephen Greenblatt authored “Will In the World." In 2006 Colin McGinn authored “Discovering the Meaning Behind the Plays."
    (AP, 4/23/97)(WSJ, 9/24/04, p.W7)(SSFC, 12/24/06, p.M1)

1616        Jul 25, Andreas Libavius, German alchemist, died.
    (SC, 7/25/02)

1616        Jul 29, Chinese playwright Tang Xianzu (b.1550) died. His major plays are collectively called the Four Dreams.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tang_Xianzu)(Econ, 1/7/17, p.33)

1616        Nov 20, Bishop Richelieu became French minister of Foreign affairs and War.
    (MC, 11/20/01)

1616        Dec 25, Nathaniel Courthope, a British merchant-adventurer under direct orders from James I, landed his ship Swan at the Banda Island of Run. He persuaded the islanders to enter an alliance with the British for nutmeg. He fortified the 1 by 2 mile island and with 30 men proceeded to hold off a Dutch siege for 1,540 days.
    (WSJ, 5/21/99, p.W7)

1616        John Smith authored “A Description of New England." It described his exploration of new England following his departure from Virginia in 1614.
    (WSJ, 11/22/08, p.W11)

1616        The collection, "Poems," by William Drummond (b.1585), Scottish laird of Hawthornden, appeared.
    (HN, 12/13/99)

1616        London’s Phoenix Theater in Drury Lane was converted from a cockpit.
    (Econ, 5/21/05, p.88)

1616        The Scornful Lady, a play by Beaumont and Fletcher that features a serving maid named Abigail.
    (AHD, 1971, p.3)

1616        Capt. Samuel Argall, deputy governor of Jamestown and known as the kidnapper of Pocahontas, was appointed to run the colony. Within 2 years the public estate was gone, though his own plantation thrived. The Earl of Warwick sent a ship and Argall loaded his plunder and absconded to England. Argall was knighted 2 years after his return to England and later served as an adviser on the governance of Jamestown.
    (SSFC, 7/14/02, p.G2)
1616        In a letter to Queen Anne, Capt. John Smith recalled that Pocahontas had saved the colony at Jamestown from "death, famine, and utter confusion."
    (WSJ, 6/13/95, p.A-18)
1616        American Indian princess Pocahontas and her husband, Jamestown colonist John Rolfe, sailed to England with their infant son.
    (ON, 2/07, p.9)

1616        A set of silver playing cards was created in Germany about this time engraved by a man named Michael Frömmer. It used a suit seen in Italy, with swords, coins, batons and cups in values from ace to 10. Each of these suits has three face cards — king, knight and knave.
    (LiveScience, 11/30/12)

1616        The Fuerte de San Diego was built to protect the port of Acapulco, Mexico, from Dutch and English pirates.
    (SSFC, 11/2/03, p.C6)

1616        Shabdrung  (Zhabdrung) Ngawang Namgyal escaped Tibet to establish a new base in western Bhutan, founding Cheri Monastery at the head of Thimphu valley.

1616        Galileo was forbidden from continuing his scientific work by the Roman Catholic Church.
    (NG, March 1990, p. 117)

1616        Shogun Ieyasu (b.1642), Japanese general and statesman, died.
    (WUD, 1994 p.759)(ON, 11/02, p.10)

1616        The Dutch became the first to establish colonies in Guyana with Essequibo. Berbice followed in 1627, and then Demerara  in 1752.

1616-1619    An epidemic, possibly viral hepatitis from contact with Europeans, ravaged the Wampanoag confederacy in Massachusetts. The Great Dying helped to make possible the Pilgrim settlement in 1620.
    (Econ, 8/11/07, p.49)(AP, 7/8/21)

1617        Jan 6, Pocahontas, American Indian princess, attended a court masque with King James I and Queen Anne.
    (ON, 2/07, p.9)

1617        Feb 4, Louis Elsevier (~76), Dutch publisher, died.
    (MC, 2/4/02)

1617        Feb 9, Hans Christoph Haiden (44), composer, died.
    (MC, 2/9/02)

1617        Mar 9, The Treaty of Stolbovo ended the occupation of Northern Russia by Swedish troops.
    (HN, 3/9/99)

1617        Mar 21, Pocahontas (Rebecca Rolfe) was buried at the parish church of St. George in Gravesend, England. As Pocahontas and John Rolfe prepared to sail back to Virginia, she died reportedly of either small pox or pneumonia. In 2003 Paula Gunn Allen authored "Pocahontas "Medicine Woman, Spy, entrepreneur, Diplomat."
    (AP, 4/5/97)(HN, 5/5/97)(SFEC, 10/15/00, p.T12)(HN, 3/21/01)(SSFC, 10/19/03, p.M5)

1617        Apr 4, John Napier, Scottish mathematician, inventor (logarithms), died.
    (MC, 4/4/02)

1617        May 7, David Fabricius (53), German astronomer, died.
    (MC, 5/7/02)

1617        Aug 23, The 1st one-way streets opened in London.
    (MC, 8/23/02)

1617        Aug 30, Rosa de Lima of Peru became the first American saint to be canonized.
    (HN, 8/30/98)

1617        Simon Vouet painted "The Fortune Teller."
    (WSJ, 4/28/98, p.A16)

1617        Fort San Diego was built to protect Acapulco, a major port for Spanish galleons, against buccaneers.
    (Hem, Dec. 94, p.25)

1617        Bhutan repelled its first invasion by Tibet.
    (http://tinyurl.com/h5u7bzv)(Econ, 10/22/16, p.33)

1617        The Pilgrims decided to leave the Netherlands. They formed a partnership in a joint-stock company with a group of London merchants in a company called John Pierce & Assoc. They received a grant for a plantation in the Virginia colony but ended up landing in Massachusetts. Each adult was to receive a share in the company but earnings would not be divided for 7 years.
    (WSJ, 11/26/97, p.A14)

1617        James VI of Scotland, aka James I of England, made a homecoming to Edinburgh Castle.
    (SFEC, 11/8/98, p.T3)

1617-1618    Mustafa I succeeded Ahmed I in the Ottoman House of Osman.
    (Ot, 1993, xvii)

1618        Jan 7, Francis Bacon became English lord chancellor.
    (MC, 1/7/02)

1618        Mar 8, Johannes Kepler came up with his Third Law of Planetary Motion.
    (SFC, 6/16/96, PM p.5)(HN, 3/8/98)

1618        Apr 2, Francesco M. Grimaldi, mathematician, physicist (light diffraction), was born.
    (MC, 4/2/02)

1618        May 15, Johannes Kepler discovered his harmonics law.
    (HN, 5/15/98)

1618        May 23, The Thirty Years War (1618-1648) ravaged Germany. It began when three opponents of the Reformation were thrown through a window. The "official" Defenestration of Prague was the "official" trigger for the Thirty Year’s War. Local Protestants became enraged when Catholic King Ferdinand reneged on promises of religious freedom and stormed Hradcany Castle and threw 3 Catholic councilors out of the window and into the moat. The conflict spread across Europe with most of the fighting taking place in Germany. The Peace of Westphalia in 1648 brought the war to an end and ended the emperor‘s authority over Germany outside the Hapsburg domain. The 1939 play "Mother Courage and Her Children" by Bertolt Brecht was set in this period (1624).
    (V.D.-H.K.p.90)(NH, 9/96, p.18,22)(HN, 5/23/98)(HNQ, 2/28/00)(WSJ, 10/23/01, p.A24)

1618        Aug, Hugo Grotius, attorney general of Holland, was arrested on the orders of Prince Maurice of Nassau, ruler of the United Provinces of the Netherlands, for conspiring to undermine the authority of the government.
    (ON, 10/04, p.1)

1618        Oct 29, Sir Walter Raleigh, English scholar, poet and historian, was executed for treason. After the death of Queen Elizabeth, Raleigh's enemies had spread rumors that he opposed the accession of King James. In 2003 Raleigh Trevelyan authored "Sir Walter Raleigh," and Anna Beer authored "My Just Desire," a biography of Raleigh's wife, Elizabeth Throckmorton.
    (HN, 10/29/98)(MC, 10/29/01)(WSJ, 1/6/04, p.D10)
1618        Diego Velazquez painted "Old Woman Cooking," a still life on frying eggs.
    (WSJ, 7/27/95, p.A-10)

1618        Pietro da Cortona, artist, made an atlas of human anatomy: "Tabulae Anatomicae."
    (NH, 10/96, p.37)

1618        In London the play "Swetnam the Woman-Hater" introduced the term "misogynist" into the English language.
    (SFEC, 7/25/99, p.A2)

1618        In France one of the first manuals of conversation was published: “Maximes de la Bienséance en la Conversation."
    (Econ, 12/23/06, p.80)

1618        In Merida, Mexico, the Iglesia de Jesus was built by Jesuits.
    (SSFC, 5/6/01, p.T6)

1618        Michael Sweerts (d.1664), artist, was born in Brussels. He did much of his important work in Rome, moved to the Netherlands, traveled in Asia with a band of missionaries and died in Goa.
    (SSFC, 12/24/00, DB p.39)(WSJ, 7/2/02, p.D7)

1618        Hendrick Goltzius (b.1558), Dutch Master painter, died. His work included "Danaë."
    (WSJ, 8/14/03, p.D8)

1618        Kana Takanobu (b.1571), Japanese artist, died.
    (NYT, 10/8/04, p.B35)

1618-1622    Osman II took rule in the Ottoman House of Osman.
    (Ot, 1993, xvii)

1618-1680    Sir Peter Lely, English court painter.
    (Ind, 12/26/98, p.5A)

1618-1689    The Chinese painter Gong Xian. His work included "Summer Mountains After Rain."
    (WSJ, 2/19/98, p.A20)

1618-1707    Aurangzeb, Moghul ruler of India. His wealth was said to be 10 times that of Louis XIV. The empire reached its greatest size during his rule but his persecution of Hindu subjects weakened Muslim Moghul control.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R8)
1618-1945    The Dutch ruled Indonesia. They were drawn to Jakarta, a fishing village which they called Batavia, for the spice trade.
    (SFEC, 4/27/97, p.T7)

1619        Feb 24, Charles Le Brun, painter, designer, was born in Paris.
    (MC, 2/24/02)

1619        Mar 1, Thomas Campion (53), English physician, composer, poet (Poemata), died.
    (SC, 3/1/02)

1619        Mar 6, Cyrano de Bergerac (d.1655), French poet, playwright (Voyage to the Moon), swordsman, was born. His radical writings prefigured Voltaire and Diderot. His noted nose was an invention of the poet Theophile Gautier introduced in an 1844 book. Edmond Rostand’s play on Cyrano was unveiled in 1897.
    (SFEC, 4/27/97, DB p.3)(MC, 3/6/02)

1619        Apr 16, Denijs Calvaert (Caluwaert), [Dionisio Fiamingo], Flemish painter, died.
    (MC, 4/16/02)

1619        May 13, Johan van Oldenbarnevelt (b.1547), Dutch lands advocate, was beheaded.
    (MC, 5/13/02)

1619        May 18, Hugo the Great (1582-1645), Hugo de Groot or Grotius, Dutch scholar, the "Father of Int’l. Law" and author of the 1st treatise on the law of the sea, Mare liberum," was sentenced to life in prison.
    (SC, 5/18/02)(Internet)

1619        Jul 2, Jan Pieterszoon Coen, a top officer of the Dutch East India Company, decided to expand a Dutch fort into a larger fortress. On Oct 7 he sent plans for Batavia Castle to the Netherlands. The region which became Batavia was built on the ruins of the former Jayakarta.

1619        Jul 30, The first representative assembly in America the House of Burgesses, became the first legislative assembly in America when it convened at Jamestown, Va.
    (AP, 7/30/97)(HN, 7/30/98)

1619        Aug 20, The 1st African slaves arrived to North America aboard a Dutch privateer. It docked in Jamestown, Virginia, with twenty human captives among its cargo. Two privateer ships had raided a Spanish slave vessel in the Gulf of Mexico. The privateers sailed to Virginia and traded more than 30 Africans for food and supplies. English colonists then took the slaves to properties along the James River, including Jamestown.
    (SFC, 12/18/96, p.A25)(HN, 8/20/98)(PC, 1992, p.224)(SFC, 8/29/18, p.A5)

1619        Dec 4, A group of settlers from Bristol, England, arrived at Berkeley Hundred in present-day Charles City County, Va., where they held a service thanking God for their safe arrival. Some suggest this was the true first Thanksgiving in America, ahead of the Pilgrims' arrival in Massachusetts.
    (AP, 12/4/08)

1619        The first election in America was held to elect the members of the Virginia assembly.
    (BD emp. letter, 9/27/96)
1619        The Virginia Company of London, sponsor of the Jamestown settlement, built a blast furnace for working iron. Ruins of the furnace were found in 2007 along Falling Creek in Chesterfield County, Va.
    (AH, 6/07, p.16)

1619        John Seldon, English lawyer, authored a treatise called “Mare Clausum" (The Closed Sea), in which he argued that countries have jurisdiction over the sea close to their shore.
    (Econ, 1/18/14, p.80)
1619        In England Tisquantum joined a new exploratory mission to the New England coast and returned to find that his tribe had been wiped out by the plague. It was he who later communicated with the first Pilgrims at Plymouth.
    (SFEM, 11/15/98, p.29)
1619        John Seldon, English lawyer, authored a treatise called “Mare Clausum" (The Closed Sea), in which he argued that countries have jurisdiction over the sea close to their shore.
    (Econ, 1/18/14, p.80)
1619        Amsterdam opened a stock exchange.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)
1619        Catholic Hapsburg Ferdinand became Holy Roman Emperor as Ferdinand II. [see 1620]
    (HNQ, 2/28/00)

1620        Jan 31, Virginia colony leaders wrote to the Virginia Company in England, asking for more orphaned apprentices for employment.
    (HN, 1/31/99)

1620        Feb 10, Supporters of Marie de Medici, the queen mother, who had been exiled to Blois, were defeated by the king’s troops at Ponts de Ce, France.
    (AP, 2/10/99)

1620        Feb 15, Francois Charpentier, French scholar, archaeologist, was born.
    (MC, 2/15/02)

1620        Feb 16, Frederick William, founder of Brandenburg-Prussia, was born.
    (HN, 2/16/98)

1620        Mar 9, Aegidius Albertinus (59), German writer (Lucifer's Kingdom), died.
    (MC, 3/9/02)

1620        Apr 24, John Graunt, statistician, founder of science of demography, was born.
    (HN, 4/24/98)

1620        May 17, The 1st merry-go-round was seen at a fair in Philippapolis, Turkey.
    (MC, 5/17/02)

1620        Jul 21, Jean Picard, French astronomer, was born.
    (MC, 7/21/02)

1620        Jul 22, The Pilgrims set out from Holland destined for the New World. The Speedwell sailed to England from the Netherlands with members of the English Separatist congregation that had been living in Leiden, Holland. Joining the larger Mayflower at Southampton, the two ships set sail together in August, but the Speedwell soon proved unseaworthy and was abandoned at Plymouth, England. The entire company then crowded aboard the Mayflower, setting sail for North America on September 16, 1620.
    (HNQ, 3/4/00)(MC, 7/22/02)

1620        Jul 29, New Mexico’s Gov. Don Juan de Eulate passed by the sandstone bluff of El Morro on return from the pueblos of Zuni. He left his mark in the stone.
    (SSFC, 4/10/05, p.F9)

1620        Aug 7, Kepler's mother was arrested for witchcraft.
    (MC, 8/7/02)
1620        Aug 7, French king Louis XIII beat his mother Marie de Medici at the Battle at Ponts-the-Ca, Poitou.
    (MC, 8/7/02)

1620        Sep 16, The Pilgrims sailed from England on the Mayflower, finally settling at Plymouth, Mass. The Pilgrims were actually Separatists because they had left the Church of England. The 4 children of William Brewster, who arrived on the Mayflower, were named: Love, Wrestling, Patience, and Fear. In 2006 Nathaniel Philbrick authored “Mayflower: A Story of Courage, Community and War."
    (HN, 9/16/98)(SFEM, 11/15/98, p.23)(SFC, 3/20/99, p.B4)(SFC, 7/26/06, p.E2)

1620        Oct 31, John Evelyn (d.1706), British diarist (Life of Mrs. Godolphin), was born. He was a meditative and sententious English diarist.
    (WSJ, 6/2/99, p.A24)(MC, 10/31/01)

1620        Nov 8, The King of Bohemia was defeated at the Battle of White Mountain, Prague. With Hapsburg support in Bohemia the Catholics defeated the Protestants at the Battle of the White Mountain. Weeks of plunder and pillage followed in Prague and after a few months the victors tortured and executed 27 nobles and other citizens and hung 12 heads on iron hooks from the Bridge Tower.
    (NH, 9/96, p.24)(HN, 11/6/98)(MC, 11/8/01)

1620        Nov 11, Pilgrims aboard the Mayflower, anchored off Massachusetts, signed a compact calling for a "body politick." 102 Pilgrims stepped ashore. 41 men signed the compact calling themselves Saints and others Strangers. One passenger died enroute and 2 were born during the passage. Their military commander was Miles Standish. In 2006 Nathaniel Philbrick authored “Mayflower: A Story of Courage, Community and War."
    (AP, 11/11/97)(SFEM, 11/15/98, p.8,23)(Econ, 5/6/06, p.82)

1620        Nov 19, The Pilgrims reached Cape Cod.
    (HN, 11/19/98)

1620        Nov 20, Peregrine White was born aboard the Mayflower in Massachusetts Bay -- the first child born of English parents in present-day New England.
    (AP, 11/20/97)

1620        Nov 21, Leaders of the Mayflower expedition framed the "Mayflower Compact," designed to bolster unity among the settlers. The Pilgrims reached Provincetown Harbor, Mass.
    (HN, 11/21/98)(MC, 11/21/01)

1620        Dec 2, An English newspaper headline read: “The new tidings out of Italie are not yet come." In 2006 this was reported to be the world’s oldest headline.
    (Econ, 12/23/06, p.103)

1620        Dec 6, A group of passengers and crew left the Mayflower in a shallop to search for a suitable harbor and place to settle.
    (AM, 11/00, p.18)

1620        Dec 11, 103 Mayflower pilgrims landed at Plymouth Rock.
    (MC, 12/11/01)

1620        Dec 16, The Mayflower dropped anchor in Plymouth Harbor.
    (AM, 11/00, p.18)

1620        Dec 18, The Captain of the Mayflower 1st went on land at Plymouth Harbor with 3 to 4 sailors.
    (AM, 11/00, p.18)

1620        Dec 21, The Mayflower reached Plymouth, Mass. after a 63-day voyage. Pilgrims aboard the Mayflower went ashore for the first time at present-day Plymouth, Mass. The crew of the ship did not have enough beer to get to Virginia and back to England so they dropped the Pilgrims at Plymouth Rock to preserve their beer stock.
    (HFA, '96, p.44)(AP, 12/20/97)(Hem., 8/96, p.115)(MC, 12/21/01)

1620        Dec 23, French Huguenots declared war on King Louis XIII.
    (MC, 12/23/01)

1620        Georges de La Tour began his painting "The Hurdy Gurdy Player With a Dog." It was completed about 1622.
    (WSJ, 11/13/96, p.A20)

1620        "The chronicle of the Pilgrims voyage to and settlement in America was begun by Nathanial Morton, keeper of the records of Plymouth Colony, based on the account of William Bradford, sometime governor thereof..." From the two editorials titled: "The Desolate Wilderness" and "And the Fair Land," published annually in the WSJ since 1961.
    (WSJ, 11/22/95, p.A-10)

1620        Bacon published his "Novum Organon." Francis Bacon was said to have noted the striking fit of the opposing coastlines of South America and western Africa.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.139)(DD-EVTT, p.192)
1620        Thomas Tompkins (1572-1656), English royal composer, wrote his madrigal “When David Heard."
    (SFC, 6/4/10, p.F4)

1620        The Wampanoag Confederacy of some 50 Algonquin bands stretched across southeastern Massachusetts.
    (AH, 6/02, p.44)   

1620        Ferdinand II became emperor of the Holy Roman Empire after the death of Rudolf II and moved the Imperial Court back to Vienna. He sold dozens of paintings collected by Rudolf II that he found "lewd."
    (WSJ, 7/10/97, p.A13)(WUD, 1994, p.524)

c1620        In Canada a settlement was established at Cupers Cove (now Cupids) in Newfoundland.
    (SFEM, 11/15/98, p.23)

1620        In England Dutch-born Cornelius Drebbel tested a submarine which cruised 15 feet under the Thames. Cornelis Drebbel also attempted to air-condition Westminster Abbey.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)(WSJ, 12/10/99, p.W12)

1620        In India Jehangir, successor of Akbar, visited the gardens of Kashmir and adopted the "flower style" as opposed to the previous bestiaries.
    (WSJ, 12/16/97, p.A16)

1620        Will Adams, English-Dutch-Japanese ship pilot, died in Japan.
    (ON, 11/02, p.10)

1620        In Spain the Plaza Mayor, a grand, arcaded square in Madrid, dates to this time.
    (SFEC, 5/31/98, p.T9)

1620-1621    Van Dyck made a portrait of "Thomas Howard, Earl of Arundel."
    (WSJ, 3/9/98, p.A16)

c1620-1630    Marquisa de Rambouillet began inviting acquaintances to her Paris townhouse for weekly conversations giving birth to the Paris salon culture. In 2002 Benedetta Craveri authored “The Age of Conversation." An English translation came out in 2005.
    (WSJ, 5/13/05, p.W6)

1620-1637    Ferdinand II, king of Bohemia and Hungary, ruled as the Holy Roman emperor.
    (WUD, 1994, p.524)

1621         Jan 3, William Tucker was born. He is believed to be first American born African-American. [1624 date also given]
    (HN, 1/3/99)(MC, 1/3/02)

1621        Jan 21,  In Indonesia a new city built on the site of a Dutch fort was officially named as Batavia. Jan Pieterszoon Coen, recognized as the founder of Batavia (now Jakarta).

1621        Jan 28, Pope Paul V (b.1552), born as born Camillo Borghese, died. Shortly after his death Cardinal Scipione Borghese, the Pope’s nephew, commissioned Bernini to create a marble bust of the Pope.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Paul_V)(Econ, 6/27/15, p.73)

1621        Feb 17, Miles Standish was appointed 1st commander of Plymouth colony.
    (MC, 2/17/02)

1621        Mar 16 The first Indian appeared in Plymouth, Mass. Samoset, an English speaking Indian, and his friend Tisquantum of the Wampanoag tribe, became friends with the Pilgrims.
    (HN, 3/16/98)(SFEM, 11/15/98, p.23)

1621        Mar 31, Andrew Marvell, English poet and politician, was born.
    (HN, 3/31/01)

1621        Apr 1, The Plymouth, Massachusetts colonists created the first treaty with Native Americans.

1621        Apr 5, The Mayflower sailed from Plymouth, Mass., on a return trip to England. By this time 44 of the landing party had died and 54 people, mostly children, were left to build the colony.
    (AP, 4/5/97)(SFEM, 11/15/98, p.23)

1621        May 3, Francis Bacon was accused of bribery.
    (MC, 5/3/02)

1621        May 31, Sir Francis Bacon was thrown into Tower of London for overnight.
    (MC, 5/31/02)

1621        Jun 3, The Dutch West India Company received a charter for New Netherlands, now known as New York. The Dutch West India Co. was formed to trade with America and West Africa.
    (AP, 6/3/97)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)

1621        Jul 8, Jean La Fontaine, poet and author of Fables, was born.
    (HN, 7/8/98)

1621        Sep 8, Louis II Conde, [Great Conde], duke of Bourbon (Rocroi), was born.
    (MC, 9/8/01)

1621        Sep 21, King James of England gave Canada to Sir Alexander Sterling.
    (MC, 9/21/01)

1621        Oct 16, Jan Pieterszoon Sweelinck, organist and composer, died at about 59.
    (MC, 10/16/01)

1621        Oct 25, Gov. Bradford of US Plymouth colony disallowed sport on Christmas Day.
    (MC, 10/25/01)

1621        Oct, The first American Thanksgiving was held in Massachusetts' Plymouth colony in 1621 to give thanks for a bountiful harvest. 51 Pilgrims served codfish, sea bass and turkeys while their 90 Wampanoag guests contributed venison to the feast. After the survival of their first colony through a bitter winter and the subsequent gathering of the harvest in the autumn, Plymouth Colony Governor William Bradford issued a thanksgiving proclamation. During the three-day October thanksgiving the Pilgrims feasted on wild turkey and venison with their Native American guests. American Indians introduced cranberries to the white settlers. In 2006 Godfrey Hodgson, British historian, authored “A Great and Godly Adventure: The Pilgrims and the Myth of the First Thanksgiving." American scholars quickly defied Hodgson’s allegation that there were no turkeys in the region.
    (Econ, 12/18/04, p.122)(SSFC, 11/12/06, p.M1)(SFC, 11/22/06, p.A1)

1621        Dec 3, Galileo invented the telescope. [see Aug 25, 1609]
    (MC, 12/3/01)

1621        Dec 5, A letter from the English office of the Virginia Company reported that European honeybees (Apis mellifera) were shipped to America. They arrived in Virginia in March 1622.

1621        Dec 13, Emperor Ferdinand II delegated the 1st anti-Reformation decree.
    (MC, 12/13/01)

1621        Dec 18, English parliament unanimously accepted Protestation.
    (MC, 12/18/01)

1621        Dec 25, The governor William Bradford of New Plymouth prevented newcomers from playing cards. The queens later depicted on playing cards were said to be: spades (Pallas), hearts (Judith), diamonds (Rachel), clubs (Elizabeth).
    (HN, 12/25/98)(SFC, 3/20/99, p.B4)(MC, 12/25/01)

1621        Georges de La Tour painted "The Fortune Teller," which showed a young aristocrat getting fleeced while having his palm read.
    (SFC, 10/16/99, p.D3)
1621        Robert Burton authored "Anatomy of Melancholy." In 2001 Andrew Solomon authored "The Doomday Demon: An Atlas of Depression."
    (NW, 6/11/01, p.56)
1621        In England Bacon was accused of taking bribes in his office of lord chancellor. He was convicted, sentenced to a large fine and imprisoned for a short time in the Tower of London.
1621        In Germany potatoes, native to the Andes, were first planted.
    (SFC, 7/14/99, p.3)
1621        In Mexico Agustina Ruiz of Quertaro was tried for claiming sexual intercourse with saints. She was sent to a convent by the Inquisition for 3 years of fasting and penance.
    (SFC, 9/18/96, p.A11)
1621         Jan Pieterszoon Coen (1587-1629), a top officer of the Dutch East India Company, he led the Dutch conquest of the Banda Islands, using Japanese mercenaries, in order to secure a monopoly on spices grown there. He was later reviled as the “butcher of Banda." In 2020 protests called for the removal of his statue in Hoorn.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jan_Pieterszoon_Coen)(AP, 6/19/20)
1621        Spices bought in the West Indies for $227 sold for $2 million in Europe.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)

1621-1623    Orazio Gentileschi painted "Danaë."
    (WSJ, 3/12/02, p.A24)

1621-1623    Gregory XV served as Pope.
    (WSJ, 2/8/00, p.A20)

1621-1622    Dutch artist Dirck van Baburen painted "The Mocking of Christ."
    (SFC, 9/12/97, p.C8)

1622        Jan 15, Moliere (d.1673) [Jean Baptiste Poquelin], French actor and comic dramatist, was born. He was the author of "Tartuffe" and "The Misanthrope" (1666). He also did the bilingual experiment "L’Impromptu du Versailles." His last play was "The Imaginary Invalid." "It is a stupidity second to none, to busy oneself with the correction of the world."
    (WUD, 1994, p.923)(WSJ, 4/5/96, p.A-6)(LSA, Spg/97, p.14)(WSJ, 4/2/98, p.A20)(AP, 11/10/98)(HN, 1/15/99)

1622        Jan 23, William Baffin (~38), British explorer, died.
    (MC, 1/23/02)

1622        Feb 8, King James I disbanded the English parliament.
    (MC, 2/8/02)

1622        Feb 27, Rembrandt Carel Fabritius (d.1654), Dutch painter, was born.
    (SFC, 4/4/01, p.C1)(MC, 2/27/02)

1622        Mar 12, Ignatius of Loyola (founder of the Jesuits) was declared a saint.
    (MC, 3/12/02)

1622        Mar 22, The Powhattan Confederacy massacred 347-350 colonists in Virginia, a quarter of the population. On Good Friday over 300 colonists in and around Jamestown, Virginia, were massacred by the Powhatan Indians. The massacre was led by the Powhatan chief Opechancanough and began a costly 22-year war against the English. Opechancanough hoped that killing one quarter of Virginia’s colonists would put an end to the European threat. The result of the massacre was just the opposite, however, as English survivors regrouped and pushed the Powhattans far into the interior. Opechancanough launched his final campaign in 1644, when he was nearly 100 years old and almost totally blind. He was then captured and executed.
    (WSJ, 10/19/98, p.A24)(HNPD, 10/23/98)(AP, 3/22/99)
1622        Apr 17, Henry Vaughan (d.1695), English poet and mystic, was born.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1582)(HN, 4/17/98)

1622        Jun 24, The Dutch defeated Macao.
    (HFA, '96, p.32)

1622        Sep 6, A Spanish silver fleet disappeared off Florida Keys; thousands died. The Santa Margarita, discovered off of Key West in 1980 by pioneering shipwreck salvor Mel Fisher, was bound for Spain when it sank in a hurricane in 1622.
    (MC, 9/6/01)(AP, 6/18/07)

1622        Oct 18, French King Louis XIII and the Huguenots signed the treaty of Montpellier.
    (MC, 10/18/01)

1622        Dec 28, Francois de Sales (55), French bishop of Geneva, writer and saint, died.
    (MC, 12/28/01)

1622        Dutch artist Dirck van Baburen painted: "The Procuress."
    (SFEM, 8/31/97, p.8)

1622        William Bradford and Edward Winslow authored “Mourt’s Relation." It was published in London and provided an account of the Plymouth colony’s first year.
    (WSJ, 11/22/08, p.W11)(AM, 11/00, p.18)

1622        Thomas Middleton and William Rowley wrote the Jacobean tragedy "The Changeling."
    (WSJ, 3/6/97, p.A12)

1622        Paris Lodron, the Prince-Archbishop of Salzburg, founded the Univ. of Salzburg.
    (StuAus, April '95, p.87)

1622        Powhattan Indians attacked the outlying settlements of Jamestown and destroyed the Henricus settlement.

1622        The Spaten's company name comes from Munich brewing family Spaeth, which bought a 225 year-old brewery in 1622 and ran the firm for seven generations.

1622        In Aklmaar [Netherlands] the cheese market officially opened. [see 1366]
    (SFEC, 6/7/98, p.T10)

1622        Safavid Persia ruled Kandahar (Afghanistan).

1622         Queen Nzinga of Matamba visited Portuguese officials to plead for peace.
    (ATC, p.153)

1622-1623     Mustafa I took back the rule in the Ottoman House of Osman.
    (Ot, 1993, xvii)

1622-1623    Nicolas Poussin, French painter, made his ink and wash drawing "The Death of Chione."
    (WSJ, 2/26/96, p.A-10)

1623        Mar 5, The 1st American temperance law was enacted in Virginia.
    (MC, 3/5/02)

1623        Apr 27, Johann Adam Reincken, composer, was born.
    (MC, 4/27/02)

1623        Apr 29, 11 Dutch ships departed for the conquest of Peru.
    (MC, 4/29/02)

1623        Jun 19, Blaise Pascal (d.1662), French mathematician, physicist, religious writer, was born. He affirmed that the heart has its reasons, which reason does not comprehend. The French mathematician invented the roulette wheel in an effort to create a perpetual motion machine. He formulated the first laws of atmospheric pressure, equilibrium of liquids and probability." All the troubles of man come from his not knowing how to sit still."
    (V.D.-H.K.p.123)(SFEC, 3/23/97, z1 p.7)(AP, 6/19/98)(AP, 5/28/99)(HN, 6/19/99)

1623        Jul 4, William Byrd (80), English composer (Ave verum corpus), died.
    (MC, 7/4/02)

1623         Jul 16, A conjunction of Jupiter and Saturn was virtually impossible to see on Earth because of its apparent position near the sun.

1623        Aug 6, Anne Hathaway, wife of William Shakespeare, died.
    (MC, 8/6/02)

1623        Sep 10, Lumber and furs were the first cargo to leave New Plymouth in North America for England.
    (HN, 9/10/98)

1623        Nov 9, William Camden (72), English historian: Brittania Annales, died.
    (MC, 11/9/01)

1623        In Prague Adriaen de Vries created his sculpture, "Laocoon and His Sons." It was the first reinterpretation of the Greek masterpiece unearthed in Rome in 1506.
    (WSJ, 12/7/99, p.A24)

1623        Dutch artist Dirck van Baburen painted "Prometheus Chained."
    (SFC, 9/12/97, p.C1)

1623        Velazquez painted the portrait: "Gaspar de Guzman, Count-Duke of Olivares."
    (WSJ, 12/29/99, p.A12)

1623        Ben Jonson, playwright, wrote his poem Shakespeare "Sweet Swan of Avon."
    (SFC, 4/26/97, p.E3)

1623        The 1st folio edition of Shakespeare’s plays was published.
    (SSFC, 6/3/01, DB p.71)

1623        A volume entitled “Necessary and Useful Rules for Hunting and the Care of Grazing Animals" was published.
    (Econ, 1/20/07, p.93)

1623        Miles Standish and his men killed Wituwamat and other members of the Neponset Band of the Massachusett Tribe because Standish suspected Wituwamat of plotting against the fledgling English colony. Wituwamat was beheaded and his head displayed atop Plymouth Colony’s meetinghouse as a warning. In 2021 the Native American Massachusett Tribe at Ponkapoag called on Boston University to change the name of a dorm that honors Myles Standish, the military leader of the Pilgrims.
    (AP, 9/21/21)
1623        In Massachusetts Gov. William Bradford instituted private property so that the pilgrims could cultivate food at a profit. He assigned every family a parcel of land.
    (WSJ, 11/26/97, p.A12)

1623        Avedis Zildjian, alchemist, noted that a particular combination of tin and copper rang very nicely and began making musical cymbals in Constantinople. In 1929 the firm moved to Massachusetts.
    (WSJ, 5/31/96, p.B1)

1623        The young male caretaker of cattle was first called a "cowboy."
    (SFC, 6/16/96, Zone 1 p.2)

1623        In London the Coopers Arm pub, now known as The Lamb and Flag at 33 Rose St., went into business.
    (SFC, 8/11/96, p.T7)

1623        The 1st case of smallpox in Russia was reported.
    (SFC, 10/19/01, p.A17)

1623-1640    Murad IV succeeded Mustafa I in the Ottoman House of Osman.
    (Ot, 1993, xvii)

1624        Jan 15, The people of Mexico rioted upon hearing that their churches were to be closed.
    (HN, 1/15/99)

1624        Mar 5, Class-based legislation was passed in the colony of Virginia, exempting the upper class from punishment by whipping.
    (HN, 3/5/99)

1624        Apr 29, Louis XIII appointed Cardinal Richelieu chief minister of the Royal Council.
    (HN, 4/29/98)

1624        May 24, James I revoked Virginia's charter after years of unprofitable operation and it became a royal colony.
    (HN, 5/24/99)(AH, 6/07, p.27)

1624        Aug 13, French King Louis XIII named Cardinal Richelieu his first minister.
    (AP, 8/13/97)

1624        Sep 12, The 1st submarine was tested in London.
    (MC, 9/12/01)

1624        May 3, Spanish silver fleet sailed to Panama.
    (MC, 5/3/02)

1624        George Fox (d.1691), founder of the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers), was born in England.
    (SSFC, 8/5/01, p.C10)

1624        In Italy Giovanni Lanfranco painted the "Council of the Gods" on the ceiling of the Galleria Borghese.
    (WSJ, 9/15/98, p.A20)

1624        Nicolas Poussin, French painter, left France and went to Rome.
    (WSJ, 2/26/96, p.A-10)

1624        Velasquez painted a portrait of King Philip IV.
    (WSJ, 12/16/04, p.D8)

1624        Poet John Donne wrote: "Any man’s death diminishes me, because I am involved in Mankind; and therefore never send to know for whom the bell tolls; it tolls for thee…"
    (SFC, 7/15/00, p.B3)

1624        Capt. John Smith published his General Historie of Virginia. His exciting adventures are pictured in the book’s engravings.
    (NG, Sept. 1939, J. Maloney p.359)

1624        Artisans of Louis XIII completed the 1st generation of the Louvre.
    (SFC, 7/15/00, p.B3)

1624        Cafe Chris opened in Amsterdam and served the construction workers of the nearby Westerkerk.
    (SFEC, 3/2/97, p.T5)

1624        The Dutch conquered Salvador, Brazil.
    (SFEC, 8/8/99, p.T8)

1624        Dutchman Cornelius Drebbel encased a wooden frame in a greased leather sheath and pushed it underwater to create what’s claimed to be the world’s 1st submarine.
    (SFC, 7/15/00, p.B3)

1625        Mar 5, James I (VI), Stuart king of Scotland (1567), England (1603-25), died.
    (MC, 3/5/02)(PCh, 1992, p.228)

1625        Mar 27, Charles I (d.1649) became the English king. He was King of England, Ireland and Scotland until he was beheaded.
    (AP, 3/27/97)(WSJ, 6/13/96, p.A12)(MC, 3/27/02)

1625        Apr 7, Albrecht von Wallenstein was appointed German supreme commander.
    (MC, 4/7/02)

1625        May 15, In Upper Austria 16 rebellious farmers were hanged in Varcklamarkt.
    (MC, 5/15/02)

1625        May 18, Francisco Gómez de Sandoval y Rojas, Spanish marquis of Denia, died.
    (SC, 5/18/02)

1625        Jun 5, Orlando Gibbons (41), English organist, composer (Silver Swan), died.
    (MC, 6/5/02)

1625        Jun 8, Giovanni Domenico Cassini, discoverer of four satellites of Saturn, was born in Perinaldo, Italy. Gian Domenico Cassini was an astrologer and then became an astronomer and was known in France as Jean-Dominique Cassini. At the Paris observatory he discovered the wide gap in the rings of Saturn now called the Cassini division, as well as four of the planet’s moons.
    (SFEC, 10/5/97, Z1 p.4)(HN, 6/8/98)(SFCM, 3/17/02, p.29)

1625        Jul 2, The Spanish army took Breda, Spain, after nearly a year of siege.
    (HN, 7/2/98)

1625        Aug 20, Thomas Corneille, French playwright, was born.
    (MC, 8/20/02)

1625        Sep 13, 16 Rabbis (including Isiah Horowitz) were imprisoned in Jerusalem.
    (MC, 9/13/01)

1625        Sep 24, Dutch Gen’l. Bowdoin Hendrik and his fleet of 17 ships sailed into San Juan, Puerto Rico, and attacked El Morro. He held the garrison under siege for 3 weeks and then set the town to flames. This infuriated the Spanish who attacked and sent the Dutch fleeing.
    (HT, 4/97, p.31-33)(MC, 9/24/01)

1625        Nov 14, Giulio C. Procaccini, Italian sculptor and painter, died.
    (MC, 11/14/01)

1625        Dutch artist Hendrick ter Brugghen painted "Saint Sebastian Attended by Saint Irene."
    (SFC, 9/12/97, p.C8)

1625        Rutilio Manetti painted "Lot and His Daughters."
    (WSJ, 4/28/98, p.A16)

1625        Rembrandt depicted himself as a bit player in his painting "The Stoning of St. Stephen."
    (WSJ, 8/11/99, p.A16)

1625        John Donne, English poet, wrote his "Westmoreland Manuscript"
    (WSJ, 12/15/95, p.A-16)

1625        Hugo Grotius (1583-1645) of Holland published his influential work "On the Law of War and Peace." Huig de Groot (Latinized as Hugo Grotius), Dutch jurist and statesman, is generally regarded as the founder of international law. "It is lawful to kill who is preparing to kill."
    (HN, 4/10/98)(HNQ, 3/15/00)(Econ, 11/22/03, p.25)

1625        The first apple orchard in the US was planted on Boston’s Beacon Hill.
    (T&L, 10/1980, p.40)

1625        An English colonizing group founded the Mount Wollaston settlement, 25 miles north of Plymouth. It later became Quincy, Mass. Thomas Morton, a London lawyer, was part of the group.
    (ON, 3/00, p.11)
1625        An English ship claimed Barbados for King James I. In 2021 the English colony became an independent republic.
    (Reuters, 11/24/21)

1625        St. Croix island in the West Indies was settled by the Dutch and English.
    (NG, Jan, 1968, C. Mitchell, p. 83)

Go to 1626AD

privacy policy