Timeline 1575-1599

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1575        Jan 22, English queen Elizabeth I granted Thomas Tallis and William Byrd a music press monopoly.
    (MC, 1/22/02)

1575        Sep 21, A major hurricane hit Puerto Rico on the feast day of St. Matthew and became known as the San Mateo hurricane.
    (SSFC, 8/6/06, Par p.24)

1575        Jul 25, Christoph Scheiner, astronomer, was born in Germany.
    (SC, 7/25/02)

1575        Nov 8, French Catholics and Huguenots signed a treaty.
    (MC, 11/8/01)

c1575        Titian painted "The Flaying of Marsyas."
    (SFC, 8/27/98, p.E3)

1575        Torquatto Tasso, Italian poet, wrote "Jerusalem Liberated," an epic of the First Crusade.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.23)

1575        The Dresden Court Orchestra undertook its first concert tour.
    (WSJ, 4/30/96, p.A-12)

1575        Thomas Tallis and Wm. Byrd, English organists and composers, published their Cantiones, a collection of 34 motets, after being granted a royal license to print and sell music.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.23)

1575        Stephen Bathory was elected King of Poland, after the defection of Henry, who became King of France.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.23)

1575        William of Orange, facing defeat, offered the sovereignty of the Netherlands to Queen Elizabeth, who declined the offer.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.23)

1575        Hungarian mines abolished child labor.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R25)

1575        In India the Mughal Emp. Akbar conquered Bengal.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.23)

1575        In Japan a battle was fought that arrayed 3,000 guns against men on horseback using stirrups. The gun force won and changed the course of Japanese fighting.
    (WSJ, 6/9/99, p.A27)

1575        The first European porcelain was produced in Florence, but it was much inferior to the Chinese original. Janet Gleason later published "Arcanum: The Extraordinary Story of the Invention of European Porcelain."
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.23)(WSJ, 8/28/98, p.W10)
1575        Plague swept through Italy and Sicily.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.23)

1575        Leyden Univ. was founded to commemorate the great siege.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.23)
1575        The Bols family arrived in Amsterdam to open ‘het Lootsje’ where they would distill liqueurs. This was the starting point of what would become the world’s oldest distillery. Bols began producing Genever, a Dutch style of gin, in 1664. In 2007 it opened a House of Bols museum in the museum quarter in the Dutch capital. It was dedicated to the history of Jenever (also known as genever or jeniever), the juniper-flavored alcoholic liquor from which gin evolved. The museum is housed on two floors of the Bols headquarters at 14 Paulus Potterstraat. Originally sold as a remedy for lumbago muscular pain, the traditional Dutch and Flemish drink was allegedly invented at the end of the 16th century by Sylvius de Bouve, a chemist, alchemist, renowned scholar and professor at the university of Leyden.
    (http://amsterdam.wantedineurope.com/news/news.php?id_n=2999)(www.lucasbols.com/index.asp)(WSJ, 5/31/08, p.A12)

1575        Spain faced bankruptcy and could not pay its troops in the Netherlands.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.23)

1575-1603    A megadrought hit the southwest US, following two others in the 800s, 1200s. In 2020 a 4th megadrought hit the 19-year average.
    (Econ, 4/18/20, p.61)
1575-1649    In Mexico the construction of La Immaculada Concepcion cathedral in Puebla.
    (SFEC, 11/8/98, p.T8)

1576        Jan 19, Hans Sachs (81), cobbler, poet, composer, inspiration for Wagner's "Die Meistersinger", died.
    (MC, 1/19/02)

1576        Feb 3, Henry of Navarre (future Henry IV) escaped from Paris.
    (MC, 2/3/02)

1576        Feb 5, Henry of Navarre renounced Catholicism at Tours.
    (MC, 2/5/02)

1576        May 6, The peace treaty of Chastenoy ended the fifth war of religion.
    (HN, 5/6/98)

1576        Mar 8, Diego Garcia de Palacios, a representative of Spain's King Felipe II, wrote to the crown with news of the ruins at Copan in western Honduras.
    (AP, 3/7/05)

1576        May 29, Spanish army under Mondragón conquered the Zierik sea.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1576        Jul 28, Martin Frobisher, English navigator, discovered Frobisher Bay in Canada. He explored the Arctic region of Canada and twice brought tons of gold back to England that was found to be iron pyrite. Michael Lok, textile exporter, led the financing for the 1st expedition which was made to find a route to China. Lok was later sued for losses from 3 expeditions.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.22)(SFEM, 11/15/98, p.26)(ON, 12/03, p.7)

1576        Jul, The Spanish ship San Felipe departed Manila for the port of Acapulco. It wrecked on the coast of Baha, California. Artifacts from the wreckage were later used to identify the ship.
    (SFC, 8/23/11, p.C1)

1576        Aug 27, The Venetian painter Titian (Tiziano Vecelli), born about 1488, died of the plague. His handling of color and mastery of new oil techniques made him one of the greatest painters of the Renaissance.
    (Reuters, 8/28/01)(www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/tita/hd_tita.htm)

1576        Oct 12, Rudolf II, the king of Hungary and Bohemia, succeeded his father, Maximillian II, as Holy Roman Emperor.
    (HN, 10/12/98)

1576        Nov 8, All 17 provinces of the Netherlands united in the Pacification of Ghent in the face of Spanish occupation. The 17 provinces of the Netherlands formed a federation to maintain peace.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.22)(HN, 11/6/98)

1576        Jean Bodin, French political theorist, published his Six Books of the Commonwealth, wherein he argues that the basis of any society is the family.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.22)

1576        Carolus Clusius, French botanist, published his treatise on the flowers of Spain and Portugal. It was the first modern work on botany.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.22)

1576        The basilica of San Petronio was erected by Egnatio Danti, a mathematician and Dominican friar who worked for Cosimo I dei Medici, the Grand Duke of Tuscany. The structure included a solar observatory. Danti also advised Pope Gregory on calendar reform.
    (SFC, 10/25/99, p.A4)

1576        The Theater in Shoreditch, London, was built by James Burbage (d.1597). It was the 1st permanent playhouse in England.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.22)(ON, 11/03, p.1)

1576        The Fifth War of Religion in France ended with the Peace of Monsieur. The Huguenots were granted freedom of worship in all places except Paris.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.22)
1576        Francois Viete, French mathematician, introduced the use of letters for quantities in algebra.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.22)

1576        An epidemic of plague Venice. In 2006 a well-preserved skeleton was found on the Lazzaretto Nuovo island, north of the lagoon city, amid other corpses buried in a mass grave.  Experts said the remains of a woman with a brick stuck between her jaws indicated that she was believed to be a vampire.
    (AP, 3/14/09)

1576        Rudolf II was crowned King of the Holy Roman Empire and moved the Imperial Court from Vienna to Prague.
    (WSJ, 7/10/97, p.A13)

1576        In Mexico the town of Mineral de Pozos was founded as a mining town. In 1982 the Mexican government declared it a national historic treasure.
    (SSFC, 11/30/08, p.E5)

1576        Mutinous Spanish forces sacked Antwerp in "the Spanish Fury."
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.22)

1576        Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emp., died and was succeeded by his eldest surviving son, Rudolf II.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.22)

1577        Feb 12, The Eternal Edict was concluded by Don Juan of Austria, the new Spanish governor of the Netherlands, and the States General in Marche-en-Famenne

1577        Feb 8, Robert Burton (d.1640), writer, Anglican clergyman (Anatomy of Melancholy), was born. "A mere madness, to live like a wretch and die rich."
    (AP, 8/19/98)(MC, 2/8/02)

1577        Feb 26, Erik XIV Wasa (43), King of Sweden (1560-69), died.
    (SC, 2/26/02)

1577        Jun 28, Pietro Paul Rubens (d.1640), Flemish painter, was born in Germany, the child of protestants exiled from Antwerp. His work included "Helene Fourment" and "The Abduction of the Daughters of Leucippus."
    (AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.1250)(HN, 6/28/01) (Econ, 5/15/04, p.81)

1577        Sep 23, William of Orange made his triumphant entry into Brussels, Belgium.
    (HN, 9/23/98)

1577        Oct 17, Cristofano Allori, Italian painter (Judith), was born.
    (MC, 10/17/01)

1577        Nov 15, Sir Francis Drake aboard Pelican began his travel from Chile to Washington. [see Dec 13]
    (MC, 11/15/01)

1577        Dec 13, Sir Francis Drake of England set out with five ships on a nearly three-year journey that would take him around the world. His mission was to find Terra Australis and raid their Spanish colonies on the west coast of South America. He raided Spanish ships in the Pacific and returned with a 4,500% profit on his investment. [see Nov 15]
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.22)(AP, 12/13/97)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)(SFC, 10/29/99, p.A6)

1577        The fort of San Marcos was established on Parris Island, South Carolina. It was one of five forts built during the 21-year history of the early settlements of Santa Elena, the first capital of Spanish colonial Florida.
    (SFC, 7/27/16, p.A6)

1577        Painter El Greco (36), born in Crete as Domenikos Theotokopoulos, went to Spain and settled there permanently in Toledo.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.22)(WSJ, 6/18/01, p.A16)

1577        Raphael Holinshed published his "Chronicles of England, Scotland and Ireland."
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.22)

1577        London’s 2nd playhouse, The Curtain, opened in Finsbury. The Curtain opened close to London's first playhouse "The Theatre" and was one of a number of early theatres built outside the city's walls. The venue took its name from nearby street Curtain Close. It was the main arena for Shakespeare's plays between 1597 and 1599 until the Globe was completed in Southwark. Archaeologists stumbled upon the Curtain Theatre's remains on Hewett Street after work began on a regeneration project led by local developers in October 2011.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.22)(Reuters, 6/6/12)

1577        Javanese fled the spread of Islam and reached Bali where they kept alive early traditions of Indonesian music.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.22)

1577        The Sixth War of Religion erupts in France. After five months it ends with the Peace of Bergerac. The Huguenots gain more concessions.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.22)

1577        Francisco Hernandez, Spanish explorer traveling through Mexico’s highlands, noted the many uses of the maguey (agave) plant. He cited it as a useful fuel, a material for cloth and ropes, with sap used to make vinegar and wine.
    (Arch, 9/02, p.32)

1577        Don John of Austria, Governor of the Netherlands, issued his Perpetual Edict by which all Spanish troops were to be withdrawn from the Netherlands and ancient liberties restored.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.22)

1577        Danzig surrendered to Stephen Bathory, King of Poland.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.22)

1577        Tsar Ivan the Terrible sent an army to the Volga region with orders to kill as many Cossacks as possible. Robbing bands of Cossacks, including a group under Yermak, had seriously disrupted Russian commerce in the area.
    (ON, 2/04, p.1)

1577        Cossacks under Yermak migrated northeast and negotiated a deal with the Stroganoff brothers to serve as "frontier guards" in the Ural Mountains.
    (ON, 2/04, p.1)

1577        Fray Luis de Leon, Spanish scholar and poet at Salamanca, was released from prison after serving 5 years for heresy. He greeted his students with the words: "As I was saying, yesterday..."
    (SSFC, 6/8/03, p.C8)

1578        Jan 28, Cornelis Haga, Dutch lawyer, ambassador to Constantinople (1611-39), was born.
    (MC, 1/28/02)

1578        Feb 9, Giambattista Andreini, Italian playwright, actor (L'adamo), was born.
    (MC, 2/9/02)

1578        Mar 31, Juan de Escobedo, secretary of Spanish land guardian Don Juan, was murdered.
    (MC, 3/31/02)

1578        Apr 1, William Harvey England (d.1657), discoverer of blood circulation, was born.
    (HN, 4/1/99)(WUD, 1994, p.648)

1578        Apr 14, Philip III, king of Spain and Portugal (1598-1621), was born.
    (HN, 4/14/97)

1578        Jul 2, In Puerto San Julian, Patagonia, Argentina, English privateer Capt. Francis Drake beheaded his friend John Doughty (b.1545) under accusations of treason and witchcraft.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Doughty_%28explorer%29)(SFC, 8/10/13, p.C3)

1578        Jul 11, England granted Sir Humphrey Gilbert a patent to explore and colonize US.
    (MC, 7/11/02)

1578        Dec 5, Sir Francis Drake sailed into the port of Valparaiso. He had renamed his flagship, the Pelican, to the Golden Hind, and ravaged the coasts of Chile and Peru on his way around the world.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.22)(ON, 7/03, p.7)

1578        Li Shih-Chen summed up Chinese pharmacology in his "Great Pharmacopoeia."
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.22)

1578        John Lely (Lyly), English dramatist and novelist, began "Eupheus [Euphues], the Anatomy of Wit," an early novel of manners.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.22)(Ot, 1993, p.25)

1578        Sebastian, King of Portugal, invaded Morocco and was killed along with the King of Fez and the Moorish Pretender in the Battle of Alcazar. He is succeeded by Cardinal Henry.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.22)

1578        The catacombs of Rome were discovered by accident.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.22)

1578        Faience, a tin-glazed earthenware, was manufactured at Nevers, France, by the Conrade brothers.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.22)

1578        Don John of Austria died of fever. He was succeeded as Governor of the Netherlands by Alessandro Farnese, Duke of Parma.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.22)

1578-1657    William Harvey, English physician, discovers the way the heart pumps blood through the arteries and veins of the body.

1579        Jan 6, The Union of Atrecht (French: Arras) was an accord signed in Atrecht (Arras), under which the southern states of the Spanish Netherlands, today in Wallonia and the Nord-Pas-de-Calais (and Picardy) regions in France, expressed their loyalty to the Spanish king Philip II and recognized the landlord, Don Juan de Austria. It is to be distinguished from the Union of Utrecht, signed later in the same month. The Peace of Arras ensured that the southern provinces of The Netherlands were reconciled to Philip II. It joined the Low Country Walloons (Catholics) with those of Hainaut and Artois.
    (http://en.allexperts.com/e/u/un/union_of_atrecht.htm)(PCh, 1992, p.200)

1579        Jan 25, The Union of Utrecht brought together seven northern, Protestant provinces of the Netherlands against the Catholics. Known as the United Provinces, they become the foundation of the Dutch Republic. The Treaty of Utrecht was signed, marking the beginning of the Dutch Republic.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.22)(AP, 1/25/98)

1579        Mar 1, Sir Francis Drake waylaid a Spanish treasure galleon, the Nuestra Senora de la Concepcion, off the coast of Panama.
    (ON, 7/03, p.7)

1579        Mar 23, Friesland joined the Union of Utrecht.
    (SS, 3/23/02)

1579        Jun 17, Sir Francis Drake sailed into a bay in Northern California and proclaimed English sovereignty over New Albion (California). Some claim that Sir Francis Drake sailed into the SF Bay. Sir Francis Drake claimed the area for England. The location may have been Drake’s Bay or Bolinas Lagoon. In 1999 there were 17 proposed locations for his landing with the latest set in Oregon and described by Bob Ward in the book "Lost Harbor Found." A brass plate, allegedly left by Drake, was found in 1993, but determined to be a fake in 1977. In 2012 Drake’s Cove in Point Reyes was designated as the site where Drake landed and named a national historic site.
    (SFEC, 2/9/97, p.W4)(HN, 6/17/98)(SFEC, 8/22/98, p.T6) (SFC, 10/29/99, p.A3)(SFC, 2/15/03, p.A1)(SFC, 10/20/12, p.A1)
1579        Jun 17, There was an anti-English uprising in Ireland.
    (MC, 6/17/02)

1579        Jun 23,  Francis Fletcher, the chaplain of the Golden Hind, gave the first-ever Protestant service in North America somewhere around Point Reyes, Ca. The Golden Hind, under the command of English privateer Francis Drake, had stopped here for repairs and supplies after failing to find the fabled Strait of Anian. 
    (SFC, 8/10/13, p.C3)

1579        Jul 26, Francis Drake left SF to cross Pacific Ocean.
    (MC, 7/26/02)

1579        Jul 29, Spain's King Philip II arrested plotters Antonio Perez and Princess of Eboli.
    (MC, 7/29/02)

1579        Nov 21, Thomas Gresham (b.1519), English merchant and financier, died. He worked for King Edward VI of England and for Edward's half-sister Queen Elizabeth I of England. Gresham’s Law: "Bad money drives out good." Gresham's law is commonly stated as: "When there is a legal tender currency, bad money drives good money out of circulation." Or, more accurately, "Money overvalued by the State will drive money undervalued by the State out of circulation."

1579        Dec 20, John Fletcher, Elizabethan dramatist (Phylaster) was baptized.
    (MC, 12/20/01)

1579        Giambologna began the "Rape of the Sabine," a remarkable example of Mannerist sculpture.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.22)

1579        "Plutarch’s Lives," biographies of noble Greeks and Romans of the first and second centuries AD, were translated into English from the French.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.22)
1579        Edmund Spenser, English poet, wrote "The Shepheardes Calender," an eclogue (pastoral or idyllic poem) for each month of the year.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.22)
1579        Christopher Saxton published a map of England. His maps were the first to show England in any detail.
    (Econ, 4/4/09, p.85)

1579        Portuguese merchants set up trading stations in Bengal.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.22)
1579        Portuguese explorer Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo discovered San Diego Bay. His mate, Bartolome Ferrelo, continued exploring north. [see 1542]
    (SFEC, 3/1/98, p.W34)

1579        Roshan of Afghanistan was killed in a battle with the Moghuls, but his struggle for independence continued.

1579        In Istanbul the astronomical observatory of Takiyuddin Efendi, constructed from 1575-1577, was deemed blasphemous and ordered destroyed by the Sultan. Takiyuddin Rasid (d. 1585), mathematician, physicist and mechanical scientist had united the schools of Maragha, Samarkand and Cairo-Damascus in himself and established the Istanbul Observatory.

1580        Jan 18, Antonio Scandello (63), Italian composer (Passion of John), died.
    (MC, 1/18/02)

1580        Mar 15, Spanish king Philip II put 25,000 gold coins on head of Prince William of Orange.
    (MC, 3/15/02)

1580        Apr 18, Thomas Middleton, English playwright (Game of Chess), was born.
    (MC, 4/18/02)

1580        Jun 10, Luis Camoes (b.1524), Portuguese poet, died. He fought in colonial battles in Morocco and India and lost one eye. He was arrested in a street brawl in Lisbon and left for India. He traveled to Macao and Mozambique after which he published "Os Lusiadas" (The Lusiads, 1572), a poem that glorified Vasco da Gama and the history of Portugal.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lu%C3%ADs_de_Cam%C3%B5es)(SFC, 6/4/99, p.D6)(SSFC, 3/10/02, p.M3)

1580        Jun 18, States of Utrecht outlawed Catholic worship.
    (MC, 6/18/02)

1580        Jun 27, Duke of Alba's army occupied Portugal.
    (MC, 6/27/02)

1580        Jul, Some 540 Cossacks under Yermak invaded the territory of the Vogels, subjects to Kutchum, the Khan of Siberia. They were accompanied by 300 Lithuanian and German slave laborers, whom the Stroganoffs had purchased from the Tsar.
    (ON, 2/04, p.2)

1580        Aug 19, Andrea Palladio (b.1508), Renaissance architect, writer (Il Redentore, Venice), died. He designed the Teatro Olimpico in Vincenza just before his death. It was completed by Vincenzo Scamozzi. Palladio authored "The Four Books on Architecture." In 2002 Witold Rybczynski authored "The Perfect House," on the villas of Palladio.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andrea_Palladio)(WSJ, 12/10/98, p.A20)(WSJ, 11/8/02, p.W12)

1580        Aug 25, Spain defeated Portugal in the Battle of Alcantara.
    (chblue.com, 8/25/01)

1580        Sep 26, Francis Drake returned to Plymouth, England, at the end of his voyage to circumvent the globe. Drake was knighted and awarded a prize of 10 thousand pounds. His crew of 63 split a purse of 8 thousand pounds.
    (TL-MB, p.23)(HN, 9/26/99)(ON, 7/03, p.8)

1580        Nov 9, Spanish troops landed in Ireland.
    (MC, 11/9/01)

1580        Nov 26, French Huguenots and Catholics signed a peace treaty. France’s 7th War of Religion broke out and ended with the Peace of Fleix.
    (TL-MB, p.23)(PCh, 1992, p.200)(MC, 11/26/01)

1580        Wu Bin (d.1643), Ming Dynasty painter, was born. His work included "Pine Lodge Amid Tall Mountains."
    (SFC, 3/13/03, p.E1)
c1580        Lavinia Fontana of Bologna painted her "Portrait of a Noblewoman." Her father was Prospero Fontana who collaborated with Giorgio Vasari on decorations for the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence.
    (SFC, 3/30/98, p.D1)
1580        Paolo Veronese (1528-1588), Italian painter, completed about this time his oil on canvas “Judith With the Head of Holofernes."
    (SFC, 10/29/11, p.E1)

1580        Michel de Montaigne, French scholar and nobleman, wrote his personal essays entitled "Les Essais." His 107 essays included “On the Cannibals."
    (Econ, 12/17/11, p.54)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Essays_%28Montaigne%29)

1580        Longleat Estate, Wiltshire, England, originally an Augustinian priory, was completed as an Italianate mansion. Longleat was built by Robert Smythson.
    (NG, Nov. 1985, M. Girouard, p.685)(TL-MB, 1988, p.23)
1580        Edmund Campion and Robert Parsons began a Jesuit mission in England.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.23)
1580        John Dee, mathematician and warden of Manchester College in England, invented the crystal ball.
    (SFEC, 1/3/99, z1 p.8)

1580        A 2nd Buenos Aires was founded near the mouth of the Rio de la Plata.
    (SSFC, 10/14/01, p.T5)

1580        Austrian Archduke Karl created a royal stud farm for horses in Lipizza.
    (SFC, 7/6/02, p.D2)

1580        Carlo Borromeo, Archbishop of Milan, established the first Sunday schools.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.23)

c1580        Tupac Amuru, an Inca leader, held out against the Spanish conquest after most of the empire had been subdued.
    (SFC, 12/20/96, p.B4)

1580        In Slovenia 6 stallions were brought from Spain to the stable at Lipica (Lipizza) by a Hapsburg duke. The breed mixed with the Karst horse, native to the region since Roman times, and with others horses to forge the Lipizzaners.
    (WSJ, 12/22/98, p.A16)

1580        Sir Francis Drake rounded the promontory of what later became Cape Town, South Africa.
    (SFEC, 10/15/00, p.T8)

c1580        The Songhai controlled West Africa’s wealthiest empire.
    (ATC, p.122 )

1580        The Duke of Alba invaded Portugal and put it under Spain’s rule. Spain’s Philip II was proclaimed King Philip I of Portugal and united the colonial empires of Spain and Portugal.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.23)(PCh, 1992, p.200)

1581        Guillaume Postel, French intellectual, mathematician and Kabbalist, died. In 1957 William James Bouwsma (d.2004) authored "The Career and Thought of Guillaume Postel (1510-1581)."

1580-1640    The Azores was occupied by Spain and bullfighting was introduced.
    (SFEC, 5/24/98, p.A10)

1580-1850    A Little Ice Age gripped the Northern Hemisphere during this period.
    (SFC, 2/10/06, p.A6)       

1581        Jan 4, James Ussher (d.1656), Irish prelate and scholar, Archbishop of Armagh, was born. According to Ussher and Dr. John Lightfoot of Cambridge, the world was created on Oct 23, 4004BC, a Sunday, at 9 a.m.   
    (WUD, 1994, p.1574)(NG, Nov. 1985, edit. p.559)(HN, 10/23/98)(MC, 1/4/02)

1581        Jan 14, The city of Riga joined the Polish-Lithuanian union.
    (LHC, 1/14/03)

1581        Jan 16, English parliament passed laws against Catholicism.
    (MC, 1/16/02)

1581          Mar 1, The Warsaw government accepted the statutes of the Lithuanian high tribunal.
    (LHC, 3/1/03)

1581        Apr 4, Frances Drake completed the circumnavigation of the world and was made a knight.
    (HN, 4/4/98)(MC, 4/4/02)

1581        May 6, Frans Francken, the Younger, painter, was born.
    (MC, 5/6/02)

1581        Jun 18, Sir Thomas Overbury, English poet and courtier who became involved in numerous scandals in London, was born.
    (HN, 6/18/98)

1581        Jul 14, English Jesuit Edmund Campion was arrested.
    (MC, 7/14/02)

1581        Oct 15, Commissioned by Catherine De Medici, the 1st ballet "Ballet Comique de la Reine," was staged in Paris.
    (MC, 10/15/01)

1581        Oct 19, Dimitri Ivanovitch, Russian son of Ivan IV "the Terrible," was born.
    (MC, 10/19/01)

1581        Dec 1, Edmund Campion (41), English Jesuit was hanged drawn and quartered at Tyburn, England, for sedition, after being tortured. Other Jesuits were also executed.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.23)(HN, 12/1/99)(PCh, 1992, p.200)

c1581        Franz Hals (d.1666), painter, was born.
    (WUD, 1994 p.640)(SFEC, 9/3/00, p.T7)

1581        Adriaen de Vries (1556-1620), Dutch sculptor, turned up in Florence and began working under the sculptor Giovanni Bologna. Here he mastered the art of bronze casting.
    (WSJ, 1/6/98, p.A20)(WSJ, 12/7/99, p.A24)

1581        The first dramatic ballet, "Ballet Comique de la Reyne," was performed at Versailles.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.23)

1581        The flageolet (a small flutelike instrument having a cylindrical mouthpiece, four finger holes, and two thumb holes) was invented by Sieur Juvigny.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.23)

1581        Converts to Roman Catholicism in England were subject by law to penalties of high treason.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.23)

1581        Pope Gregory XIII attempted in vain to reconcile the Roman and Orthodox churches.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.23)

1581        The seven northern provinces of the Netherlands renounced their allegiance to Philip II of Spain.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.23)

1581        The Portuguese Cortes (national assembly) submitted to Philip II of Spain.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.23)

1581        Akbar, Mughal Emperor of India, conquered Afghanistan.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.23)

1581        Stephen Bathory, King of Poland, invaded Russia.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.23)

1581        Russia’s Tsar Ivan IV killed his son in a dispute over his son’s bride.
    (HC, 9/5/04)

1581        Russia began the conquest of Siberia. Cossacks under Yermak subdued Vogul towns and captured a tax collector of Khan Kutchum.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.23)(ON, 2/04, p.2)

1581        Bernal Diaz del Castillo (b.1492/93), Spanish conquistador and governor of Santiago de los Caballeros (Antigua, Guatemala), died. He wrote “Verdadera Historia de la Conquista de Nueva España" (True History of the Conquest of New Spain) in response to claims made in the earlier work by Cortes’ chaplain. It was not published until his manuscript was found in Madrid in 1632.
    (SSFC, 5/21/06, p.M3)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bernal_Diaz_del_Castillo)

1581        Sweden and Poland overran Livonia (a territory that included southern Latvia and northern Estonia).
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.23)

1581        Galileo Galilei, Italian scientist, discovered the isochronous (equal time) swing of the pendulum by observing a swinging lamp in Pisa Cathedral.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.23)

1582        Jan 15, Russia ceded Livonia and Estonia to Poland, and lost access to Baltic.
    (MC, 1/15/02)

1582        Feb 24, Pope Gregory XIII issued a papal bull, or edict, outlining his calendar reforms. The old Julian Calendar had an error rate of one day in every 128 years. This was corrected in the Gregorian Calendar of Pope Gregory XIII, but Protestant countries did not accept the change till 1700 and later. [see 1552 and Oct 4, 1582]
    (HFA, '96, p.22)(TL-MB, 1988, p.23)(HN, 6/7/98)(SFEC, 2/20/00, Par p.7)(AP, 2/24/02)

1582        Apr 8, Phineas Fletcher, poet, was born.
    (MC, 4/8/02)

1582        May, Cossacks under Yermak advanced on the capital of Sibir. A coalition of 6 Tatar princes attacked them but lacked guns and were routed after several days of battle.
    (ON, 2/04, p.2)

1582        Jun 29, Tatar forces attacked invading Cossacks on the Tobol River but Cossack gunfire again repelled them.
    (ON, 2/04, p.2)

1582        Aug 10, Russia ended its 25-year war with Poland. Russia and Poland concluded the Peace of Jam-Zapolski under which Russia lost access to the Baltic and surrendered Livonia and Estonia to Poland.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.23)(HN, 8/10/98)

1582        Sep 8, A small Belarussian-Lithuanian force overcame a larger Muscovite force.
    (SFC, 9/2/96, p.A12)

1582        Sep, Tatar forces that included Voguls and Ostiaks gathered at Mount Chyuvash to defend against invading Cossacks.
    (ON, 2/04, p.2)

1582        Oct 1, Cossacks attempted to storm the Tatar fort at Mount Chyuvash, but were held off.
    (ON, 2/04, p.4)

1582         Oct 4, The Church Council at Trent, Italy, discussed the error of 10 days in the calendar as referenced to the spring equinox which was used to establish the date for Easter. Pope Gregory announced a correction, "The Gregorian Adjustment," and had Oct. 4 followed by Oct. 15. The calendar is accurate to a day in 3,323 years. [see 1552]
    (K.I.-365D, p.97)(NG, March 1990, J. Boslough)(SFEC, 2/20/00, Par p.7)
1582        Oct 4, Theresa of Avila (b.1515), Spanish mystic writer and saint, died. She co-founded with John of the Cross (1542-1591) the Order of Discalced (barefoot) Carmelites. "Untilled ground, however rich, will bring forth thistles and thorns; so also the mind of man."
    (CU, 6/87)(WUD, 1994, p.769)(AP, 12/8/97)(MC, 10/4/01)

1582        Oct 5, The Gregorian calendar was introduced in Italy, other Catholic countries. Nothing happened. This day was skipped and became Oct 15 to bring the calendar into sync by order of the Council of Trent. In 1998 David Ewing Duncan published "Calendar: Humanity’s Epic Struggle to Determine a True and Accurate Year." In Bohemia the anti-Gregorian astronomer Michael Mestlin proclaimed that the pope was stealing 10 days from everyone’s life. [see Sep 3, 1752]
    (K.I.-365D, p.97)(NG, March 1990)(SFEC, 9/27/98, BR p.5)(MC, 10/5/01)

1582        Oct 5-14, The days when nothing happened.
    (SFEC, 9/27/98, BR p.5)

1582        Oct 15, The Gregorian (or New World) calendar was adopted in Italy, France, Luxembourg, Spain, and Portugal; and the preceding ten days were lost to history. This day followed Oct 4 to bring the calendar into sync. by order of the Council of Trent. Oct 5-14 were dropped.
    (K.I.-365D, p.97)(NG, March 1990, J. Boslough)(HN, 10/15/98)(SFEC, 10/3/99, Par p.27)

1582        Oct 23, Cossacks attempted to storm the Tatar fort at Mount Chyuvash for a 4th time when the Tatars counterattacked. Over a 100 Cossacks were killed but their gunfire forced a Tatar retreat allowed the capture of 2 Tatar cannons.
    (ON, 2/04, p.4)

1582        Nov 1, Maurice of Nassau, the son of William of Orange, became the governor of Holland, Zeeland and Utrecht.
    (HN, 11/1/98)

1582        Nov 27, William Shakespeare married Anne Hathaway.
    (MC, 11/27/01)

1582        Nov, Tsar Ivan IV sent an official letter to the Stroganoff brothers accusing them of provoking the Voguls and Ostiaks by sending Yermak and his Cossacks into Siberia.
    (ON, 2/04, p.5)

c1582        Ludovico Carracci, Italian artist, painted "The Lamentation."
    (WSJ, 9/8/00, p.W8)

1582        Richard Hakluyt, English clergyman and geographer, wrote "Divers Voyages Touching the Discovery of America."
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.23)

1582        Sir Philip Sidney (1554-1586) completed his collection of sonnets on one theme, "Astrophil and Stella." He also wrote his "Defense of Poetry" about this time.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.23)   

1582        Joseph Scaliger devised the Julian Period as a way to measure time. He named day 1 after his father, Julius Scaliger, and it begins on Jan. 1, 4713 BC, the most recent time that the three major cycles (28 year solar cycle, 10 year lunar cycle, and the 15 year indication cycle of the Romans) begin on the same day. It will take 7,980 Julian years for the cycle to complete, the product of 28, 19 and 15.
    (CFA, '96,Vol 179, p.98)

1582        William of Orange escaped an assassination attempt.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.23)

1582        The Univ. of Edinburgh was founded.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.23)

1582        A Jesuit mission was founded in China.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.23)

1582        Mapmakers labeled New England in the New World as Norumbega.
    (SFC,12/5/97, p.C3)

1582        Nobunaga, ruler of Japan, was assassinated by Akechi Mitsuhide. He was succeeded by Hideyoshi, who killed Mitsuhide and carried on the work of breaking feudal power.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.23)

1582        In Spain Fernando Alvarez de Toledo (b.1507), military and political advisor to Philip II, died. In 2004 Henry Kamen authored "The Duke of Alba."
    (WSJ, 7/1/04, p.D8)

1583        Feb 20, Joseph Sanalbo, Jewish convert in Rome, was burned at stake on 27 Shebat.

1583        Apr 10, Hugo Grotius (d.1645) of Holland, father of international law, was born. Huig de Groot (Latinized as Hugo Grotius), Dutch jurist and statesman, is generally regarded as the founder of international law because of his influential work "On the Law of War and Peace" published in 1625. He became a member of a diplomatic mission to France at age 15 and began practicing law at 16. A liberal Protestant, de Groot became involved in religious disputes in the Netherlands and was arrested in 1618 and sentenced to life imprisonment. He escaped in 1621 and fled to Paris. He served the Swedish government as ambassador to France from 1634-1644.
    (HN, 4/10/98)(HNQ, 3/15/00)

1583        Aug 5, Humphrey Gilbert, English explorer, annexed Newfoundland in the name of Queen Elizabeth and founded the first English settlement in the New World. His colony disappeared. He drowned this same year at sea in a storm off the Azores.
    (HFA, '96, p.36)(TL-MB, 1988, p.23)(SFEM, 11/15/98, p.26)

1583        Sep 9, Girolamo Frescobaldi (d.1643, Italian composer, was born.
    (MC, 9/9/01)(WUD, 1994 p.568)

1583        Sep 24, Albrecht Eusebius Wenzel von Wallenstein, German general, was born.
    (MC, 9/24/01)

1583        Oct 30, Pirro Ligorio (83), Italian architect, painter and archaeologist, died.
    (MC, 10/30/01)

1583        Nov, Francis Throckmorton (b.1554) was arrested. He made a full confession of the Throckmorton Plot for the overthrow of Queen Elizabeth I and the restoration of papal authority in England after being tortured on the rack. [see Jul 20, 1584]
    (HNQ, 10/8/98)

1583        Albrecht Wenzel von Wallenstein (d.1634), soldier of fortune, was born. He prospered by providing armed regiments to Ferdnand, the Habsburg emperor. He acquired a fortune through marriage to an elderly widow with huge estates in Moravia. He was appointed governor of Bohemia and later was ordered killed by the emperor.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R8)

1583         Giovanni da Bologna completed the sculpture "The Rape of the Sabine Women" for the court of the Medicis in Florence.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.23)
1583        Andrea Cesalpino, Italian botanist, published "De Plantis," the first modern classification of plants.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.23)
1583        The painting “Newborn Baby in a Crib" by Lavinia Fontana (1552-1614), Italian artist, was completed about this time.
    (WSJ, 12/23/08, p.D7)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lavinia_Fontana)

1583        Sir Edmund Tilney, Master of the Revels, formed the Queen’s Company of Players in London.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.23)

1583        Toyotomi Hideyoshi (1536-1598), Japan’s unifier and folk hero, laid the foundation for Osaka Castle. It was completed in 1587. Civil war and fire destroyed the castle several times. The castle was rebuilt in 1931 and refurbished in 1997.
    (Hem, 9/04, p.41)

1583        The first known life insurance policy was issued in England on the life of Londoner William Gibbons. His life was insured for L383 6s 8d at a premium of eight per cent per annum.   
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.23)

1583        Veronica Franco, a courtesan, was later described in a 1992 dissertation titled "The Honest Courtesan: Veronica Franco, Citizen & Writer in 16th Century Venice" by Margaret F. Rosenthal. In 1997 it was made into the film "Dangerous Beauty" with Catherine McCormick. The film was set in Venice of this year during the annual courtesan festival.
    (SFEC, 1/4/98, DB. p.38)(SFC, 2/20/98, p.C8)(WSJ, 11/18/97, p.B1)

1583        Rudolf II moved the Imperial Court of the Holy Roman Empire from Vienna to Prague.
    (WSJ, 7/10/97, p.A13)

1583        The Duke of Anjou sacked Antwerp in the "French Fury," but failed to capture it and retired from the Netherlands to France.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.23)

1583        Galileo discovered the parabolic nature of trajectories.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.23)

1583        De Espejo explored along the Colorado River.
    (NG, 5.1988, Mem For)

1583        Matteo Ricci, an Italian Jesuit, entered China. He was later accused of "going native," and ignoring his mandate to spread the faith.
    (WSJ, 9/4/98, p.W12)

1583        Envoys of Yermak reached Tsar Ivan IV and presented him with valuable bundles of furs from Siberia. Ivan wrote a full pardon for Yermak and his men and promised to send reinforcements and supplies to Siberia.
    (ON, 2/04, p.5)

1583        The Scottish Presbyterian Church began discouraging Christmas celebrations as having no basis in the Bible.

1584        Jan 7, This was the last day of the Julian calendar in Bohemia & Holy Roman empire. The 1582 Gregorian (or New World) calendar was adopted by this time in Belgium, most of the German Roman Catholic states and the Netherlands.
    (SFEC, 10/3/99, Par p.27)(MC, 1/7/02)

1584        Mar 18, Ivan IV (53), the terrible, Russian tsar (1547-84), died. He was succeeded by his weak-minded son, Fyodor I. Boris Godunov, Fyodor’s brother-in-law, assumed general control. During his rule Ivan replaced the sale of beer and mead with vodka at state-run taverns.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.23)(MC, 3/18/02)(SFC, 9/5/03, p.A8)

1584        Mar 25, Sir Walter Raleigh, English explorer, courtier, and writer, renewed Humphrey Gilbert's patent to explore North America. He went on to settle the Virginia colony on Roanoke Island (North Carolina), naming it after the virgin queen.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.23)(MC, 3/25/02)

1584        Apr 29, Melchior Teschner, composer, was born.
    (MC, 4/29/02)

1584        Jul 10, William of Orange (1533-1584), Prince of Orange (1544-1584), Count of Nassau (1559-1584), and first stadholder of the United Provinces of the Netherlands, was assassinated by Burgundian Balthasar Gerard (25) with a handgun. Philip II of Spain had called for a volunteer assassin due to William’s reluctance take a public stand on religious issues. William was succeeded by his 17-year-old son, Maurice of Nassau. In 2006 Lisa Jardine authored “The Awful End of Prince William the Silent."
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.23)(WSJ, 4/5/06, p.D8)

1584        Jul 20, Francis Throckmorton was executed. He was the central figure in the conspiracy involving France and Spain, which called for a French invasion of England and the release from prison of Mary, Queen of Scots. [see Nov, 1583]
    (HNQ, 10/8/98)

1584        Nov 23, The English parliament expelled the Jesuits.
    (MC, 11/23/01)

1584        Dec 4, John Cotton, English-born Puritan clergyman who wrote "The Way of the Church of Christ in New England," was born.
    (HN, 12/4/98)

1584        Sir Philip Sidney began the radical revision of his pastoral romance "Arcadia."
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.23)
c1584    Miles Standish, head of the Mayflower colonists, was born in England. His precise place of birth was still under dispute in 2004.
    (WSJ, 11/24/04, p.A1)
1584        England’s Cambridge University Press began operations.
    (Econ, 10/26/13, p.73)

1584        Lavinia Fontana of Bologna painted her "Portrait of the Gozzadini Family."
    (SFC, 3/30/98, p.D1)

1584        The oldest surviving lighthouse (wave-swept) was begun at Cordonau, by the mouth of the Gironde River in France.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.23)

1584        Yulgok (b.1536), a Korean Confucian scholar, died. South Korea later celebrated his memory on a 5,000-won note. His mother appeared on  a 50,000-won note.
    (Econ, 10/26/13, SR p.9)

1584        A Dutch trading post was established at the Russian port of Archangel.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.23)

1584        Portugal dominated the world’s sugar trade and sold Brazilian sugar to Europe.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.23)

1584        A European public banking system was begun with the establishment of the Banco di Rialto in Venice.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.23)

1584        The San Lorenzo del Escorial Palace in Madrid, begun in 1563, was completed. It was consecrated in 1586

1584-1652    John Cotton, US clergyman, colonist and author.
    (WUD, 1994, p.331)

1585        Mar 10, Rembert Dodoens (b.1517), Flemish physician and botanist, died. He is also known under his Latinized name Rembertus Dodonaeus. His books included “Stirpium historiae pemptades sex" (1583).

1585        Apr 5, Clemens Crabbeels became bishop of Hertogenbosch.
    (MC, 4/5/02)

1585        Jun 7, English sea captain John Davis set sail from Dartmouth to search for a Northwest passage linking the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.
    (ON, 11/05, p.8)

1585        Jul 7, King Henri III & Duke De Guise signed the Treaty of Nemours: French Huguenots lost all freedoms.
    (MC, 7/7/02)

1585        Jul 13, A group of 108 English colonists, led by Sir Richard Grenville, reached Roanoke Island, North Carolina. Roanoke Island near North Carolina became England's first foothold in the New World. Sir Walter Raleigh sent a detachment of 108 men to build a fort on the island. The detachment included two scientists, Thomas Hariot, a surveyor, mathematician, astronomer and oceanographer, and Joachim Gans, a metallurgist. John White, English artist and surveyor, was part of the expedition.
    (NG, Geographica, Jan, 94)(HN, 7/13/98)(ON, 10/01, p.1)

1585        Jul 17, English secret service discovered Anthony Babington's murder plot against queen Elizabeth I.
    (MC, 7/17/02)

1585        Aug 7, Tatar forces of Khan Kutchum attacked a sleeping Cossack expedition under Yermak near the mouth of the Vagay River in Siberia. The Cossacks were decimated and Yermak drowned wearing a suit of armor given him by Tsar Ivan.
    (ON, 2/04, p.5)

1585        Sep 9, Duc Armand Jean du Plessis de Richelieu (d.1642), French cardinal and statesman who helped build France into a world power under the leadership of King Louis XIII, was born. He was premier of France from 1624 to 1642.
    (HN, 9/9/98)(MC, 9/9/01)
1585        Sep 9, Pope Sixtus V deprived Henry of Navarre of his rights to the French crown.
    (HN, 9/9/98)

1585        Oct 8, Heinrich Schutz, German composer, was born. [see Oct 14]
    (MC, 10/8/01)

1585        Oct 14, Heinrich Schutz, German royal chaplain master and composer (Daphne), was born. [see Oct 8]
    (MC, 10/14/01)

1585        Nov 23, Thomas Tallis, composer, died.
    (MC, 11/23/01)

1585        Dec 13, William Drummond (d.1649), Scottish poet and laird of Hawthornden, was born. His chief collection, "Poems," appeared in 1616. "He, who will not reason, is a bigot; he, who cannot, is a fool; and he, who dares not, is a slave."
    (HN, 12/13/99)(AP, 6/22/00)

1585        Archduke Karl II, ruler of Styria in eastern Austria, granted the Faculties of Arts and Catholic Theology in Graz an official Univ. charter. He entrusted the Jesuits with the administration.
    (StuAus, April '95, p.53)

1585        The Jesuits founded a university in Graz, Austria.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.24)

1585        Archbishop of Mexico, Pedro Moya de Contreras, dispatched Spanish captain Francisco Gali to proceed to Manila from Acapulco, and "to reconnoiter down the coast" on his return trip.
    (SFC,10/17/97, p.A25)

1585        An obelisk that had been brought from Egypt to Rome by the emperor Caligula was erected at the Vatican.
    (RFH-MDHP, p.213, illustration)

1585        The War of the Three Henries [Henry III, Henry of Guise, and Henry of Navarre] began when Henry of Navarre, a Huguenot, became heir to the French throne.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.24)

1585        Elizabeth extended her protection to The Netherlands against Spain to avenge the murder of William of Orange.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.24)

1585        Antwerp was sacked by the Duke of Parma, resulting in long-lasting loss of trade for that port.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.24)

1585        Francis Drake attacked the Spanish ports of Vigo and Santo Domingo. English shipping in Spanish ports was then confiscated as a virtual declaration of war by Spain.   
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.24)

1585        Sir Francis Drake sailed through the Virgin Islands to plunder Spanish ships.
    (NG, Jan, 1968, C. Mitchell, p. 69)

1585        Simon Stevin, Dutch mathematician and military and civil engineer, introduces decimals into the mathematical calculations of his physics in Die Thiende.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.24)

1585        The Dutch used the first time-bombs in floating mines actuated by clockwork at the siege of Antwerp.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.24)

1585        Bartholomew Newsam built the earliest surviving English spring-driven clocks.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.24)

1585        John Davis, English explorer, discovered the strait named after him between Greenland and Canada.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.24)

1585        Hideyoshi in Japan established a dictatorship.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.24)(Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 215)

1585        The ruler of Morocco captured the Songhai’s salt mines in Taghaza and puts his eye on the Songhai source of gold.
    (ATC, p.122)

1585        Luca Cambiaso (b.1527), Genovese Renaissance painter, died in San Lorenzo de El Escorial, Spain, where he was working under commission for King Phillip II.

1586        Jan 1, Francis Drake, who left England on a new voyage to America last September, made a surprise attack on the heavily fortified city of Santo Domingo in Hispaniola, forcing the governor to pay a large ransom.
    (HN, 1/1/99)

1586        Jun 19, English colonists sailed from Roanoke Island, N.C., after failing to establish England's first permanent settlement in America.
    (AP, 6/19/97)

1586        Jan 20, Johann Hermann Schein, German composer (Fontana d'Israel), was born.
    (MC, 1/20/02)

1586        Jan 25, Lucas Cranach "the Younger" (70), German painter, died.
    (MC, 1/25/02)

1586        Feb 8, Jacob Praetorius, composer, was born.
    (MC, 2/8/02)

1586        Apr 11, Pietro Della Valle, composer, was born.
    (MC, 4/11/02)

1586        Apr 17, John Ford (d.1640), English dramatist ('Tis Pity She's a Whore), was born.
    (WUD, 1994 p.554)(MC, 4/17/02)

1586        May 7, English sea captain John Davis set sail from Dartmouth with 3 ships in a 2nd attempt to find a Northwest passage linking the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. When Davis returned in October he learned that one ship, the North Star, had been lost with all hands in a gale near the coast of Ireland.
    (ON, 11/05, p.9)

1586        Jun 18, English colonists sailed from Roanoke Island, N.C., after failing to establish England's first permanent settlement in America. The Roanoke colonists returned to England with 2 friendly Indians. They left behind 15 well-provisioned men to maintain the English claim.
    (AP, 6/18/07)(ON, 10/01, p.1)

1586        Jun 23, Sir Francis Drake encountered the Roanoke Island Hurricane off the Atlantic coast. Harsh weather caused Drake to evacuate the settlers back to England.
    (SFC, 6/23/09, p.D8)

1586        Jul 27, Sir Walter Raleigh returned to England from Virginia with the 1st samples of tobacco.
    (HN, 7/27/01)(MC, 7/27/02)

1586        Jul 28, Sir Thomas Harriot introduced potatoes to Europe.
    (SC, 7/28/02)

1586        Sep 10, Hans Hannibal Hutter von Hutterhofen, Austrian nobleman, was born. Johannes Kepler later drew up his horoscope.
    (SFC, 3/3/99, p.A7)

1586        Sep 20, Anthony Babington, page and conspirator to Mary Stuart, was executed at 24.
    (MC 9/20/01)

1586        Oct 14, Mary, Queen of Scots, went on trial in England, accused of committing treason against Queen Elizabeth the First. Mary was beheaded in February 1587.
    (AP, 10/14/06)

1586        Oct 17, Philip Sidney (b.1554), English poet and diplomat, died in battle at 32. His work included "Astrophel and Stella" and "Defense of Poesy." In 2002 Alan Stewart authored "Philip Sidney: A Double Life."
    (MC, 10/17/01)(SSFC, 1/20/02, p.M4)

1586        Adriaen de Vries left Florence for Milan where he began working on the high altar for the Escorial near Madrid.
    (WSJ, 1/8/99, p.C13)

1586        El Greco began to paint "The Burial of Count Orgaz." This depicted the miracle of the saintly count’s funeral, where St. Augustine and St. Stephen personally descend from heaven to bury the corpse with their own hands.
    (TL-MB, p.24)(WSJ, 11/6/03, p.D10)

1586        In Japan Kabuki theater began. [see 1603]
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)

1586        The Lateran Church of St. John, Rome, was rebuilt on the orders of Pope Sixtus V, who succeeded the late Gregory XIII.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.24)

1586        In America relations with the local Indians soured after the English soldiers attacked a village, and soon the English returned home.
    (NG, Geographica, Jan, 94)
1586        Sir Francis Walsingham, principal secretary to Queen Elizabeth I, uncovered a conspiracy by Mary, Queen of Scots, that called for a rebellion of Catholics, the landing of a foreign army and the assassination of the queen.
    (WSJ, 8/17/05, p.D14)
1586        Queen Elizabeth I lost faith in William Cecil, Lord Burghley, when he plotted to accuse Mary Queen of Scots of treason.
    (Econ, 4/30/15, p.77)
1586        Ralph Fitch, the first Englishman to record his impressions of Burma, took note of the qualities of the Schwedagon. Archeologists later said the 320-foot high golden pagoda was built in the 10th century by the Mon people.
    (WSJ, 2/23/08, p.W14)

1586        Akbar, the greatest Mughal Emperor of India, attempted to establish "Din Illahl" as a universal religion acceptable to his many Hindu subjects. The movement eventually collapsed under the 18th-century Muslim revival.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.24)

1586        In Mexico the Mina El Eden (Eden Mine) opened in Zacateca. It yielded a bounty of silver, gold, iron and zinc for over 3 centuries.
    (SFEC, 11/10/96, p.T3)

1586        Spanish Captain Francisco Gali died in Manila and Pedro de Unamuno took command of his 2 ships to return to Acapulco. He stopped in Macao where his ships were confiscated by the Portuguese. He obtained a loan from Father Martin Ignacio de Loyola, the nephew of the founder of the Jesuit order, and purchased a small ship to return to Acapulco with 2 priests, a few soldiers, and a crew of Luzon Indians.
    (SFC,10/17/97, p.A25)

1586        Stephen Bathory, King of Poland, died and was succeeded by Sigismund III.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.24)

1586        The Turks attacked the Hungarian fortress at Eger again. The mercenary occupants capitulated.
    (Hem., 6/98, p.126)   

1586-1618    In Chile the San Francisco Church was built in Santiago.
    (SFEC, 10/27/96, p.T8)

1587        Jan 8, Johannes Fabricius, astronomer who discovered sunspots, was born in Denmark.
    (HN, 1/8/99)(MC, 1/8/02)

1587        Feb 1, Elizabeth I, Queen of England, signed the Warrant of Execution for Mary Queen of Scots.
    (HN, 2/1/99)

1587        Feb 8, Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots (1560-67), was beheaded at age 44 in Fotheringhay Castle for her alleged part in the conspiracy to usurp Elizabeth I. In 2004 Jane Dunn authored "Elizabeth and Mary: Cousins, Rivals, Queens." In 2006 studies identified an oil painting of Mary as the only one made of Mary as queen.
    (HN, 2/8/99)(PCh, 1992, p.203)(USAT, 2/5/04, p.5D)(SFC, 8/18/06, p.E2)

1587        Mar 1, Peter Wentworth, English parliament leader, was confined in London Tower. [see Mar 12]
    (SC, 3/1/02)

1587        Mar 12, Peter Wentworth, English parliament leader, was confined in London Tower. [see Mar 1]
    (MC, 3/12/02)

1587        Apr 19, Sir Frances Drake sailed into Cadiz, Spain, and sank the Spanish fleet.
    (MC, 4/19/02)

1587        May 18, Felix van Cantalice, Italian saint, died.
    (SC, 5/18/02)

1587        May 19, English sea captain John Davis set sail from Dartmouth with 3 ships in a 3rd unsuccessful attempt to find a Northwest passage linking the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. 2 ships spent the journey fishing and managed to cover expenses.
    (ON, 11/05, p.9)

1587        Jul 22, A second English colony of 114-150 people under John White, financed by Sir Walter Raleigh, was established on Roanoke Island off North Carolina. The colony included 17 women and 9 children. Croatoan Indians informed them that Roanoke Indians had killed the men from the previous expedition. A three-year draught, the worst in 800 years, peaked during this time.
    (AP, 7/22/97)(SFC, 4/24/98, p.A3)(SFEM, 11/15/98, p.23)(ON, 10/01, p.1)

1587        Jul 25, Japanese shogun Toyotomi Hideyoshi banned Christianity in Japan and ordered all Christians to leave. Although the order was not immediately enforced. A decade later, the crackdown began, and 26 Christians were crucified.
    (HN, 7/25/98)(AP, 11/21/08)

1587        Aug 13, Gov. White rewarded Manteo, a Croatoan Indian who had accompanied him to England and back, for his many services and declared him Lord of the Roanoke and Dasamonquepeio.
    (ON, 10/01, p.2)

1587        Aug 14, Gugliemo Gonzaga (b.1538), Italian composer, died.
    (MC, 8/14/02)

1587        Aug 18, In the Roanoke Island colony, Ellinor and Ananias Dare became parents of a baby girl whom they name Virginia Dare, the first English child born on what is now Roanoke Island, N.C., then considered Walter Raleigh’s second settlement in Roanoke, Virginia. Virginia Dare, born to the daughter of John White, became the first child of English parents to be born on American soil. However, the colony she was born into ended up mysteriously disappearing.
    (HN, 8/18/98)(PC, 1992, p.203)(AP, 8/18/07)

1587        Aug 19, Sigismund III was chosen to be the king of Poland.
    (HN, 8/19/98)

1587        Oct 17, Francesco de' Medici (46) died 11 days after he fell ill and a few hours before his wife. In 2007 forensic experts reported evidence that they had died of arsenic poisoning. Francesco had ruled from 1574. By all accounts his wife had been his mistress while he was married to his first wife, who is also believed to have died of poisoning.
    (AP, 1/3/07)

1587        Oct 18, Spanish Captain Pedro de Unamuno discovered California. He landed at a place he called Port San Lucas, later identified as Morro Bay City, while sailing from Macao to Acapulco with a crew of Luzon Indians.
    (SFC,10/17/97, p.A25)

1587        Oct 20, In France, Huguenot Henri de Navarre routed Duke de Joyeuse's larger Catholic force at Coutras.
    (HN, 10/20/98)

1587        Nov 3, Samuel Scheidt, composer, was born.
    (MC, 11/3/01)

1587        Nov 4, Samuel Scheidt, German organist and composer, was baptized.
    (MC, 11/4/01)

1587        Nicholas Hilliard painted the miniature "Young Man Among Roses."
    (SFEC, 12/1/96, BR p.4)

1587        Giles Everard, a Dutch doctor, authored “Panacea," extolling the virtues of tobacco. The Latin version was made available in English in 1659.
    (WSJ, 11/22/08, p.W11)

1587        A collection of stories about the ancient magi appeared. These stories had been retold during the Middle Ages about such reputed wizards as Merlin, Albertus Magnus, and Roger Bacon. In the first Faustbuch all of these deeds were attributed to Faust... According to the story, Faust had sold his soul to the devil, and he would have to pay for his triumphs by suffering eternal damnation.

1587        Johann Spies completed the "Historia von D. Johann Fausten," the first published version of the Faust legend.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.24)

1587        Christopher Marlowe’s "Tamburlaine the Great" was first produced on stage and published three years later. Marlowe established blank verse as a dramatic form.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.24)
1587        In London the open-air Rose Theater was built. It was demolished after 1606 when the Globe Theater surpassed it in popularity. An office building, later constructed over the site, was suspended by girders to preserve the site. Its exact location was lost until 1989.
    (SFC, 4/15/99, p.E5)(Econ, 5/21/05, p.89)

1587        Claudio Monteverdi, Italian composer, published his first book of madrigals.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.24)

1587        An early collection of Jewish songs was published in Zeminoth, Israel.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.24)

1587        Inigo Jones, English architect and theatrical designer, began building Cobham Hall in Kent. It was finished by the Adam brothers.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.24)

1587        In London the open-air Rose Theater was built. It was demolished after 1606 when the Globe Theater surpassed it in popularity. An office building, later constructed over the site, was suspended by girders to preserve the site.
    (SFC, 4/15/99, p.E5)

1587        Virginia was initially called Windgancon, meaning "what gay clothes you wear." The names Cape Fear, Cape Hatteras, the Chowan and Neuse rivers, Chesapeake and Virginia, were all names that date to the first colony there.
    (SFEM, 11/15/98, p.23)

1587        Osaka Castle, Japan, whose foundation had been laid by Hideyoshi in 1583 was completed with the help of 30,000 workers.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.24)

1587        The Rialto Bridge in Venice was begun by the Italian architect, Antonio da Ponte.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.24)

1587        Pope Sixtus V proclaimed a Catholic crusade for the invasion of England. Philip II prepared an invasion fleet but was interrupted by Francis Drake, who "singed the king’s beard" by burning 10,000 tons of shipping in Cadiz harbor.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.24)

1587        Portuguese missionaries were banned from Japan by Hideyoshi.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.24)

1587        Sir Edward Stafford, English ambassador in Paris, contacted the Spanish ambassador and offered to provide news of Queen Elizabeth’s plans and to offer the English disinformation concerning Spanish plans. Stafford’s brother-in-law was Lord Howard Effingham, commander in chief of the English fleet.
    (WSJ, 11/24/98, p.A20)

1587        Hai Rui (b.1514), Chinese statesman during the mid Ming dynasty, died. He is still revered as an impartial judge, reputed to be an honest and fearless official, who dared to give controversial advice to the emperor. He later became subject of a 1960s play, "Hai Rui Dismissed from Office," that provided Mao Zedong with the pretext to launch the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution.

1587        Abbas I (16) became Shah of Persia following the forced abdication of his father, Shah Muhammad Khodabandeh. A revolt by Qizilbash leaders finally removed Khodabandeh from power and installed his son Abbas as shah.
1587        Mohammad Khodabandeh, Shah of Persia, died.
    (PC, 1992 ed, p.203)   

1587-1590    The Lost Colony of Roanoke Island disappeared during this period. It consisted of 116 colonists and included Virginia Dare, the first English child born in the New World. When the Roanoke Island colony was running out of supplies, John White was sent back to England for help. His return was delayed by the Spanish Armada‘s attacks against England. When he arrived on Roanoke Island in 1591, the only trace of the colonists were the cryptic messages “CRO" and "CROATOAN" carved on a tree and a palisade post, respectively.
    (NG, Geographica, Jan, 94)(HNQ, 7/3/00)

1587-1945    A 3-volume history of Americans of this period was completed by J.C. Furnas (d.2001 at 95) in 1991.
    (SFC, 6/14/01, p.A27)

1588        Jan 28, King Sigismund Vaza upheld the 3rd Lithuanian Statute that until 1795 stood as the fundamental code of law. In practice it was active until 1840.
    (LHC, 1/28/03)
1588        Feb 12, John Winthrop, English attorney, puritan, 1st gov of Massachusetts Bay Colony, was born.
    (HN, 1/12/99)(MC, 2/12/02)

1588        Feb, King Philip II (61) appointed Don Alonzo Perez de Guzman el Bueno (37), the Duke of Medina Sedonia, as Captain General of the High Seas and ordered him to take charge of the Spanish Armada. Philip intended to restore England to Catholicism
    (ON, 3/02, p.1)

1588        Apr 5, Thomas Hobbes (d.1679), English philosopher (Leviathan), was born. "The reputation of power IS power."
    (HN, 5/5/97)(AP, 5/31/99)

1588        Apr 9, Paolo Veronese (b.1528), Italian painter, died in Venice. His paintings included “The Choice Between Virtue and Vice." He was the son of sculptor Gabriele Caliari.
    (WSJ, 6/15/06, p.D7)(http://cgfa.sunsite.dk/veronese/veronese_bio.htm)

1588        May 9, Duke Henri de Guise's troops occupied Paris.
    (MC, 5/9/02)

1588        May 11, The Spanish Armada of 130 ships with 30,000 men left Lisbon for England. [see May 19]
    (ON, 3/02, p.2)

1588        May 12, King Henry II fled Paris after Catholic League under duke Henry of Guise entered the city. The people of Paris rose against Henry III, who fled to Chartres. Seven months later he had Henry of Guise and his brother, Cardinal de Guise, assassinated.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.24)(HN, 5/12/98)(MC, 5/12/02)

1588        May 19, The Spanish Armada set sail to Lisbon bound for England; it was soundly defeated by the English fleet the following August. [see May 11]
    (AP, 5/19/97)(DTnet, 5/19/97)

1588        May 30, Spanish Armada under Medina-Sidonia departed Lisbon to invade England.
    (MC, 5/30/02)

1588        Jul 20-22, The Spanish Armada, after month in Corunna, set sail for England. The Duke of Medina Sedonia sailed in the flagship San Martin with Admiral Juan Martinez de Recalde.
    (HN, 7/20/01)(ON, 3/02, p.2)

1588        Jul 23, English army assembled at Tilbury to repel invasion of England by Spanish Armada.
    (AP, 7/23/97)

1588        Jul 26, Captain John Hawkins was knighted by Queen Elizabeth.
    (MC, 7/26/02)

1588        Jul 27, The Spanish anchored off Calais in a crescent-shaped, tightly-packed defensive formation, not far from Parma's army of 16,000, which was waiting at Dunkirk.

1588        Jul 29, At midnight of July 28th the English set eight fireships (filled with pitch, gunpowder, and tar) alight and sent them downwind among the closely-anchored Spanish vessels. The English attacked the Spanish Armada in the Battle of Gravelines, resulting in an English victory.
    (ON, 3/02, p.3)(http://wapedia.mobi/en/Spanish_Armada#1.1.)(AP, 7/29/08)

1588        Jul 30, The English exchanged fire with the Spanish Armada.
    (ON, 3/02, p.3)

1588        Aug 1, Sir Francis Drake captured the Nuestra Senora del Rosario, one of the largest Spanish Armada galleons.
    (ON, 3/02, p.4)

1588        Aug 2, The English and Spanish fleets exchanged fire all day. The English used up all their ammunition and sailed into nearby ports.
    (ON, 3/02, p.4)

1588        Aug 4, The English and Spanish fleets exchanged fire all day off the Isle of Wight.
    (ON, 3/02, p.4)

1588        Aug 8, The English Navy destroyed the Spanish Armada. 600 Spaniards were killed in the day’s fighting and 800 badly injured. The Duke of Medina Sidonia led the "invincible" Spanish Armada from Lisbon against England. It was shattered around the coasts of the English Isles by an English fleet under the command of Lord Howard of Effingham with the help of Sir Francis Drake, Sir John Hawkins, and a violent storm (see Aug 18). The victory opened the world for English trade and colonization. In 1959 Garrett Mattingly authored “The Armada." In 1998 Geoffrey Parker published "The Grand Strategy of Phillip II." In 2005 Neil Janson authored “The Confident Hope of a Miracle: The True Story of the Spanish Armada," and James McDermott authored “England & the Spanish Armada: The necessary Quarrel."
    (ON, 3/02, p.5)(SSFC, 2/20/05, p.B2)(Econ, 5/28/05, p.85)

1588        Aug 10, The remnants of the Spanish Armada sailed north to avoid the English fleet.
    (ON, 3/02, p.6)

1588        Aug 18, A storm struck the remaining 60 ships of the Spanish Armada under the Duke of Medina Sidonia after which only 11 were left. Many of the ships went to Ireland where most of the Spaniards were killed by the English. 600 Spaniards wrecked in Scotland were later returned to Spain. In 1978 Niall Fallon authored "The Armada in Ireland."
    (ON, 3/02, p.6)

1588        Sep 10, Nicholas Lanier, composer, was born.
    (MC, 9/10/01)
1588        Sep 10, Thomas Cavendish returned to England, becoming the third man to circumnavigate the globe.
    (HN, 9/10/98)

1588        Sep 21, Medina Sidonia's Spanish Armada flagship, the San Martin, arrived at Santander, Spain. Almost half of the 130 ships were lost. 20k of 30k men died. 1,500 died in battle, the rest from shipwreck, massacre, starvation or disease. In 1981 David Howarth authored "The Voyage of the Armada." In 1988 Peter Kemp authored "The Campaign of the Spanish Armada."
    (ON, 3/02, p.6)

1588        Sep 25, A heavy storm drove 3 Spanish ships onto the coast of Ireland. Francisco de Cuellar, an officer on the galleon Lavia, spent the next 6 months evading English forces and getting to Scotland and then the Netherlands. His letter from Antwerp to King Philip on Oct 4, 1589, was later valued for its descriptions of Ireland.
    (ON, 5/02, p.12)

1588        Oct 23, Medina Sidonia's Spanish Armada returned to Santander. [see Sep 21]
    (MC, 10/23/01)

1588        Dec 23, Henri de Guise (37), French leader of Catholic League, was murdered.
    (MC, 12/23/01)

1588        Dec, Sir William Fitzwilliam, the English Lord Deputy of Ireland, planned an attack against the McClancy clan led by chieftain Dartry. Francisco de Cuellar and a group of stranded Spanish Armada soldiers successfully held the clan’s Rossclogher Castle under a 17-day siege.
    (ON, 5/02, p.11)

1588        An eye-witness account of the New World was provided by "A Briefe and True Account of the New Found Land of Virginia," written by Thomas Harriot. It recounted English attempts from 1584-1588 to colonize what later became known as eastern North Carolina and encouraged further settlement and investment there. In 1590 Flemish engraver Theodor de Bry published an illustrated edition featuring paintings by English colonist John White.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.24)(Arch, 5/05, p.26)

1588        The first shorthand manual, "An Arte of Shorte, Swifte, and Secrete Writing by Character," was published by English clergyman Timothy Bright.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.24)

1588        The Bible was translated into Welsh by Bishop William Morgan.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.24)

1588        A volume of funeral orations for Duke August of Saxony and his wife was published.
    (Econ, 1/20/07, p.93)

1588        Domenico Fontana, Italian architect and engineer, completed the Vatican library in Rome. He also completed the cupola and lantern of St. Peter’s in Rome.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.24)

1588        The British started trading with the Gambians.

1588        Tycho Brahe, Danish astronomer, had his financial support cut by a new Danish king and moved to Prague where his student, Johannes Kepler, aided him and to whom he left all his astronomical data.
1588        Frederick II of Denmark died and was succeeded by his 10 year-old son, Christian IV.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.24)

1588        Jacques Le Moyne de Morgues (b.~1533), French artist, died in England. He had painted watercolors of the flora and fauna of Florida, which were lost during a Spanish attack in 1565. Back in France he created new paintings, which were also lost, but engravings made by a Flemish publisher survived. In 2008 Miles Harvey authored “Painter in a Savage Land."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jacques_Le_Moyne_de_Morgues)(WSJ, 7/18/08, p.W8)

1588          The third Statute of Lithuania was signed. It completely abolished slavery, but still promoted serfdom. Only the emancipation reform of 1861 abolished serfdom in Lithuania, with the exceptions of Palanga (n 1819) and Suvalkija (in 1807) where serfdom was already abolished earlier.

1588-1593        Shakespeare authored his play Titus Andronicus during this period. It tells the fictional story of Titus, a general in the Roman army, who is engaged in a cycle of revenge with Tamora, Queen of the Goths.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Titus_Andronicus)(Econ, 2/16/13, p.64)

1588-1629    Hendrick ter Brugghen was an artist of the Utrecht School. His paintings included: "St. Sebastian Tended by Irene."
    (SFEM, 8/31/97, p.7)

1588-1652    Giuseppe de Ribera, painter. He painted "St. Jerome."
    (AAP, 1964)

1588-1653    Sir Robert Filmer, author of "Patriarcha," a vindication of the absolute right of kingship. The book was used in the 1670s to shore up proponents for the so-called divine right of kings.

1589        Jan 5, Catherine de Medici (b.1519), Queen Mother of France, died at age 69. In 2005 Leonie Frieda authored “Catherine de Medici: Renaissance Queen of France."
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.24)(AP, 1/5/98)(WSJ, 8/10/05, p.D12)

1589        Mar 19, William Bradford, governor of Plymouth colony for 30 years, was born (baptized).
    (HN, 3/19/98)(MC, 3/19/02)

1589        Apr 4, Benedict of Palermo (b.1524), born in Sicily to Ethiopian slaves, died. He was freed at birth and became known for his charity. Invited as a young man to join a Franciscan hermit group, he became the leader. He was beatified by Pope Benedict XIV in 1743 and canonized in 1807 by Pope Pius VII.
    (Econ, 2/23/13, p.82)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benedict_the_Moor)

1589        Aug 1, Monk Jacques Clement attempted to murder French King Hendrik III. [see Aug 2]
    (MC, 8/1/02)

1589        Aug 2, Henry III, King of France, was assassinated by a Jacobin monk, Jacques Clement. Last of the House of Valois, he named Henry (1553-1610), King of Navarre, to succeed him. During France's religious war, a fanatical monk stabbed King Henry II to death.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.24)(WUD, 1994, p.662)(HN, 8/2/98)

1589        Aug 10, Pietro Antonio Tamburini, Italian composer, was born.
    (MC, 8/10/02)

1589        Sep 21, The Duke of Mayenne of France, head of the Catholic League, was defeated by Henry IV of England at the Battle of Arques.
    (HN, 9/21/98)(MC, 9/21/01)

1589        Oct 4, Francisco de Cuellar, a Spanish Armada officer from the wrecked galleon Lavia, wrote a letter from Antwerp to King Philip that was later valued for its descriptions of Ireland. He had spent 6 months evading English forces to get to Scotland where after 6 more months he reached the Netherlands.
    (ON, 5/02, p.12)

1589        Michelangelo Merisi de Caravaggio, Italian artist and leader of the Naturist movement, made skilful use of light in his Bacchus to bring into focus many details of suggestive power. He painted the "Beheading of St. John" that was kept in Malta and sent to Florence for restoration.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.24)(SFC, 6/11/96, p.E2)

1589        Thomas Nashe, English satirical pamphleteer and dramatist, wrote "Anatomie of Absurdities," a criticism of contemporary literature.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.24)

1589        Richard Hakluyt wrote the "Principle Navigations, Voyages and Discoveries of the English Nation."
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.24)
1589        Thoinot Arbeau published "Orchesographie," an early treatise on dancing, with tunes.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.24)

1589        Francis Drake with 150 ships and 18,000 men failed in his attempt to capture Lisbon.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.24)

1589        Bernard Palissey, a Huguenot, expressed the opinion that fossils were the remains of living creatures. He was locked up in the dungeons of the Bastille for his opinions and died there.
    (SFC, 9/20/97, p.E3)

1589        William Lee, English clergyman, invented the stocking frame, the first knitting machine.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.24)

1589        Sir John Harrington, Elizabethan poet, designed the first water closet and installed it at his country house near Bath. In 1596 he installed one at the palace of his godmother Queen Elizabeth I.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.24)(SFC, 7/14/99, p.3)

1589        Boris Godunov asserted Moscow’s Independence from Constantinople.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.24)

1589        The first Russian patriarch, lov, was consecrated by Ecumenical Patriarch Jeremias of Constantinople under pressure from Boris Godunov, the brother-in-law of Feodor, the Russian Tsar.
    (WSJ, 7/16/97, p.A23)

1589-1610    Henry (1553-1610), King of Navarre, as Henry IV became the first Bourbon King of France, Henry the Great. He switched from Protestantism to Catholicism. "Paris is well worth a Mass."
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.24)(WUD, 1994, p.662)(Hem., 1/97, p.101)

1590        Mar 4, Mauritius of Nassau's ship reached Breda, Netherlands.
    (SC, 3/4/02)

1590        Apr 6, Francis Walsingham (b.~1532), English secretary of state, died. He had ensnared Mary, Queen of the Scots and forced her execution. He is remembered as the "spymaster" of Queen Elizabeth I of England. In 2007 Robert Hutchinson authored “Elizabeth’s Spymaster: Francis Walsingham and the Secret War That Saved England."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francis_Walsingham)(WSJ, 7/26/08, p.W8)

1590        Apr 18, Ahmed I, 14th sultan of Turkey (1603-17), was born.
    (MC, 4/18/02)

1590        Apr 25, The Sultan of Morocco launched his successful attack to capture Timbuktu. Morocco sent 4,000 soldiers under the Muslim Spaniard Judar Pasha to conquer Songhai. After a five month journey across the Shara, Pasha arrived with only 1,000 men, but his soldiers carried guns. The 25,000 men of the Songhai were no match for the guns and Gao, Timbuktu and most of Songhai fall.
    (ATC, p.122)(HN, 4/25/98)

1590        Jul 6, English admiral Francis Drake took the Portuguese Forts at Taag, Angola.
    (MC, 7/6/02)

1590        Aug 15, A fleet commanded by John Wattes arrived at the Outer Banks of the Carolinas. Roanoke Gov. John White was a passenger in the fleet.
    (ON, 10/01, p.3)

1590        Aug 16, Captain Spicer and 6 men drowned when their landing boat capsized in heavy surf off Roanoke Island.
    (ON, 10/01, p.3)

1590        Aug 17, John White, the leader of 117 colonists sent in 1587 to Roanoke Island (North Carolina) to establish a colony, returned from a trip to England to find the settlement deserted. No trace of the settlers was ever found. White returned to England and died there around 1606.
    (ON, 10/01, p.4)(HN, 8/18/02)

1590        Oct 16, Carlo Gesualdo (~1566-1613), prince of Venosa, murdered his bride and her lover after catching them in flagrante delicto. In 1995 Werner Herzog covered this in his purported documentary “Death for Five Voices." In 2010 Glenn Watkins authored “The Gesualdo Hex: Music, Myth, and Memory."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carlo_Gesualdo)(Econ, 1/23/10, p.79)

1590        Nov 8, Francesco Gonzaga, composer, was born.
    (MC, 11/8/01)

1590        Dec 20, Ambroise Pare (80), French surgeon, died.
    (MC, 12/20/01)

1590        In Prague Adriaen de Vries began his sculpture "Psyche Born Aloft by Putti." It was completed in 1592.
    (WSJ, 12/7/99, p.A24)

1590        Sir Philip Sidney, brother to the second Countess of Pembroke, composed his prose romance “Arcadia." In 2008 the idea of Arcadia was examined by Adam Nicolson in his book “Earls of Paradise: England and the Dream of Perfection."

1590        Fray Jose de Acosta, Spanish Jesuit priest, authored “Historia Natural y Moral de las Indies." In it he suggested that the Americas were populated by people from Asia.
    (Arch, 9/00, p.72)

1590        The microscope was invented.
    (SFC, 8/16/97, p.E3)

1590        Bernard Pallissy (b.1510), French ceramicist, painter and writer, died. Pallisy produced his designs by attaching casts of dead lizards, snakes, and shellfish to traditional ceramic forms such as basins, ewers, and plates. He then painted these wares in blue, green, purple, and brown, and glazed them with runny lead-based glaze to increase their watery realism. The style became known as Pallisy ware.

1590        Prince Naresuan (35) became King upon the death of his father (the puppet monarch). Naresuan continued to drive the Burmese from the Kingdom of Ayutthaya (Siam-Thailand).

1590s        A six paneled screen painting by Kano Eitoku depicted mythological Chinese lions.
    (WSJ, 9/25/96, p.A20)

c1590-1600    In late 16th century Prague Rabbi Judah Bezalel Loew, the Maharal, used clay and the mysticism of the Kabbalah to fashion the Golem, a human-like creature to help avenge Jewish persecution.
    (WSJ, 4/17/02, p.D7)

1591        Mar 1, Pope Gregory XIV threatened to excommunicate French king Henri IV.
    (SC, 3/1/02)

1591        May 15, Dimitri Ivanovitch (9), Russian son of czar Ivan IV, was murdered.
    (MC, 5/15/02)

1591        Jun 21, Aloysius [Luigi] Gonzaga, Prince, Italian Jesuit saint, died.
    (MC, 6/21/02)

1591        Jul 20, Anne Hutchinson, religious liberal who was banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony for her views, was born.
    (HN, 7/20/98)

1591        Aug 24, Robert Herrick, English poet (Gather ye rosebuds) was baptized.
    (MC, 8/24/02)

1591        Sep 12, Richard Grenville (b.1542), English vice-admiral and cousin of Sir. Walter Ralegh, died in battle against Spanish ships at age 49. He made 2 voyages to Roanoke Island in 1585 and 1586.
    (MC, 9/12/01)(www.nps.gov/fora/grenville.htm)

1591        Sep 21, French bishops recognized Henri IV as king of France.
    (MC, 9/21/01)

1591        Dec 14, San Juan de la Cruz (b.1542), Spanish poet, died. He is remembered for his treatise “Dark Night of the Soul."
    (SSFC, 9/3/06, p.M3)(www.newadvent.org/cathen/08480a.htm)

1591        Giuseppe Arcimboldo painted a portrait of Emperor Rudolf II as Vertumnus, the Roman god of seasons.
    (WSJ, 9/9/06, p.P9)

1591        Flemish engraver Theodor de Bry published “A Brief Narration of Those Things Which Befell the French in the Province of Florida" in Latin and Germany editions. It focused on the 1564-1565 French settlement of Fort Caroline. The book included 42 engravings said to be based on water color paintings by Jacques de Moyne de Morgues (d.1588), who had accompanied the French expedition. Moyne also provided a narrative and a map. In 1946 Stefan Lorant translated Moyne’s text into English and reproduced his engravings and map in “The New World."
    (Arch, 5/05, p.28)

1591        British sailor Anthony Knivet found himself stranded on Ilhabella island near Santos, Brazil. He was shipwrecked there after sailing as a crew member of a 5-ship flotilla under Sir Thomas Cavendish. The story of his adventures was published in 1625 by Richard Hakluyt, a director of the Virginia Company,
    (Econ, 12/17/11, p.54)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anthony_Knivet)

1591        Korean Admiral Yi Sun Sin (1545-1598) developed his ironclad "turtle ships." They were characterized by multiple canons and a fully covered deck designed to deflect cannon fire and keep enemy combatants from boarding.
    (LSA, Spring, 2009, p.17)

1591        Philip II of Spain bought the Hieronymus Bosch painting "the Garden of Earthly Delights." It hung in the Escorial from this time to 1939 when it was moved to the Prado.
    (WSJ, 8/25/98, p.A12)

1591        Moroccan invaders sacked Timbuktu (Mali).
    (AM, 7/04, p.36)

1591        The encierro (running of the bulls) at Pamplona, Spain, began as a means of moving the bulls to the bull fighting arena. It became known as Los San Fermines. [see 1521]
    (SSFC, 6/16/02, p.C6)(SSFC, 7/7/02, p.A2)

1592        Jan 5, Shah Jahan, Mughal emperor of India (1628-58), was born. He later built the Taj Mahal.
    (MC, 1/5/02)

1592        Mar 10, Michiel Coxcie, Flemish court painter, carpet designer, died.
    (MC, 3/10/02)

1592        Apr 14, Abraham Elsevier, book publisher, was born.
    (MC, 4/14/02)

1592        Apr 28, George Villiers, 1st duke of Buckingham, English admiral, was born.
    (MC, 4/28/02)

1592          May 23, Toyotomi Hideyoshi sent an army to invade Korea after Korea refused to help him invade China. The initial Imjin invasion was followed by a brief truce in 1596, and a second invasion in 1597. The conflict ended in 1598 with the withdrawal of the Japanese forces from the Korean Peninsula after a military stalemate in Korea's southern coastal provinces.
          (Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 215)(http://tinyurl.com/gw7u8wm)

1592        Aug 3, The Earl of Cumberland, et al, took the Madre de Dios, A Spanish carrack carrying the largest treasure ever captured for Queen Elizabeth. The earl’s sailors got out of hand and looted items intended for the queen, including a large diamond which eventually found its way to Goldsmith’s Row, London.
    (AOL, [email protected])

1592        Sep 13, Michel Eyquem de Montaigne (b.1533), French philosopher (L'Amiti), died of quinsy, a recognized complication of tonsillitis, at the Château de Montaigne.

1592        Nov 29, An admiral’s report said an English warship was lost off the coast of Alderney. A block of mineral was later found on the wreck. In 2013 scientists reported that the rock was likely a sunstone (Iceland spar), used to reveal the sun’s direction and thus assist in navigation.
    (Econ, 3/9/13, p.80)

1592        Christopher Marlowe (1564-1593), English dramatist and poet. He wrote "The Tragical History of Dr. Faustus."
    (WUD, 1994, p.878)

1592        "De Plantis Aegypti" by Prosper Alpini published the first picture of a coffee plant.
    (WSJ, 7/7/98, p.A14)

1592        Juan de Fuca, a Greek sailing for Spain, sailed into a strait that later became the border between Canada’s Vancouver Island, BC, and the Olympic Peninsula of Washington state. The waterway was later named the Strait of Juan de Fuca.
    (NG, 7/04, p.66)

1592        Trinity College in Dublin, Ireland, was founded after small group of Dublin citizens obtained a charter from Queen Elizabeth incorporating Trinity College juxta Dublin.

1592        Korea defenders led by Gen. Jeong Mun-bu scored a victory over an invading Japanese army at Bukgwan. A monument with a description of the fight was raised a century later. During the Russo-Japanese war of 1904-1905 a Japanese general shipped the monument to Japan where it was set in the Yasukuni shrine. It was recognized by a South Korean in 1978 and in 2005 Shinto priests agreed to return it to Seoul.
    (Econ, 10/15/05, p.46)

1592-1598    Korean Adm. Yi Sun Sin (1545-1598) employed his ironclad "turtle ships" to fight off an invasion by Japan. Hundreds of Japanese vessels were sunk during the prolonged Japanese invasion.

1592-1605    Pope St. Clement VIII led the Church.
    (ITV, 1/96, p.61)

1592-1656    Gerard van Honthorst was an artist of the Utrecht School. His paintings included "The Denial of St. Peter."
    (SFEM, 8/31/97, p.8)

1592-1670    The Moravian prelate Jan Komensky wrote in Latin and German and was offered the presidency of Harvard.
    (WSJ, 11/18/96, p.A10)

1593        Jan 8, War elephants of Ayutthaya King Naresuan engaged Burmese forces led by Mingyi Swa. One Siamese account held that there was a formal elephant duel between Naresuan and Swa.  [O.S. 29 December 1592].

1593        Jan 27, Vatican opened a 7 year trial against scholar Giordano Bruno.
    (MC, 1/27/02)

1593        Mar 19, Georges de la Tour (d.1652), French painter, was born. His night painting "The Penitent Magdelene" features a seated woman contemplating a flame with one hand resting on a skull.
    (NH, 10/96, p.39)(MC, 3/19/02)

1593        Mar 23, English Congressionalist Henry Barrow was accused of slander.
    (SS, 3/23/02)

1593        Apr 3, George Herbert (d.1633), English metaphysical poet (5 Mystical Songs), was born. "The best mirror is an old friend."
    (AP, 4/16/98)(MC, 4/3/02)

1593        Apr 6, Henry Barrow, English puritan, was hanged.
    (MC, 4/6/02)
1593        Apr 6, John Greenwood, English Congressionalist, was hanged.
    (MC, 4/6/02)

1593        May 29, John Penry English congressionalist, was executed.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1593        May 30, Christopher Marlowe (b.Feb 26, 1564), British dramatist (Tamburlaine the Great), poet, was murdered. Marlowe reportedly died in a barfight. It was later speculated that his death was faked and that he fled to Italy and continued writing plays that were produced by Shakespeare. In 2004 Rodney Bolt authored “History Play: The Lives and Afterlife of Christopher Marlowe."
    (SFC, 1/2/03, p.E11)(www.canterbury.co.uk)(Econ, 9/4/04, p.78)

1593        Jul 11, Giuseppe Arcimboldo (b.1527), Italian painter, died. Arcimboldo painted representations of objects, such as fruits and vegetables, on the canvas arranged in such a way that the whole collection of objects formed a recognizable likeness of the portrait subject. He painted a portrait of Holy Roman Emperor Rudolf II composed entirely of vegetables.
    (WUD, 1994, p.78)(WSJ, 7/10/97, p.A13)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Giuseppe_Arcimboldo)

1593        Jul 25, France's King Henry IV converted from Protestantism to Roman Catholicism.
    (AP, 7/25/97)

1593        Aug 9, Izaak Walton (d.1683), biographer, fisherman, writer (Compleat Angler), was born in England. "That which is everybody's business is nobody's business."
    (AP, 8/29/98)(MC, 8/9/02)

1593        Aug 23, Fulvio Testi, Italian poet (Pianto d'Italia), was born.
    (MC, 8/23/02)

1593        Sep 20, Gottfried Scheidt, composer, was born.
    (MC 9/20/01)

1593        The Minhogimbukh, a Jewish version of the old Farmers’ Alamanac, was written in Yiddish and published in Venice.
    (SFC, 12/6/04, p.B1)

1593        Michel Mercatus, physician to Pope Clement VIII, died. He left manuscripts on his study of Ceraunia, or ancient stone tools which had been thought to be rocks hurled down from the sky by lightning bolts, or rocks struck by lightning.
    (RFH-MDHP, p.70)

1593        In Puebla, Mexico, the Convent de La Concepcion was built. It was later turned into the Hotel Camino Real Puebla.
    (SSFC, 1/27/08, p.E5)
1593        In Mexico Capt. Don Francisco de Urdiqola started the first vineyard in the valley of Tlaxcaltecas at his El Rosario Hacienda.
    (SFEC, 11/7/99, p.T8)

1593-1652/3     Artemisia Gentileschi, whose first known work is "Susanna and the Elders" (1610), was a follower of Caravaggio and his style of dramatic realism. Artemisia, the daughter of Orazio Gentileschi (also influenced by Caravaggio), was taught to paint by her father and landscape artist Agostino Tassi. In 1616, she joined the Academy of Design in Florence. She traveled to various cities, from Rome to London--the latter to visit her father. While there she also gained acclaim as a portrait artist. She eventually settled in Naples.
    (HNQ, 3/8/01)

1593-1817    The period of the Spanish Inquisition in Mexico.
    (SFC, 9/18/96, p.A1)

1594        Feb 2, Giovanni Perluigi da Palestrina (68), Italian composer, died.
    (MC, 2/2/02)

1594        Apr 15, Flemish painter Pieter Stevens was appointed royal painter of Rudolf II in Prague.
    (MC, 4/15/02)

1594        May 31, Jacopo Tintoretto (b.1518), Italian artist, died.

1594        Jun 3, Michel Renichon, priest, was executed.
    (MC, 6/3/02)

1594        Jun 7, Roderigo Lopez was executed at Tyburn, England, on charges of spying for the king of Spain.
    (WSJ, 9/24/04, p.W7)

1594        Jun 14, Orlando di Lasso (b.~1532), Franco-Flemish composer, died in Munich.  He was the most famous and influential musician in Europe at the end of the 16th century. Along with Palestrina (of the Roman School), he is considered to be the chief representative of the mature polyphonic style of the Franco-Flemish School.

1594        Oct 16, William Allen (62), English cardinal and founder of the seminary of Douai, died.
    (MC, 10/16/01)

1594        Nov 22, Martin Frobisher, English vice-admiral and explorer, died.
    (MC, 11/22/01)

1594        Dec 2, Gerardus Mercator (82), Flemish philosopher and cartographer, died. Mercator's dream was to publish a volume of maps, which would also give a history of the world since creation. Called the 'Atlas', the first section came out in 1569. It contained a chronology from creation to 1568.

1594        Dec 9, Gustavus II Adolphus (d.1632), king who made Sweden a major power (1611-32), was born.
    (MC, 12/9/01)

1594        Nicolas Poussin (d.1665), known as the founder of French Classicism, was born.
    (WSJ, 2/26/96, p.A-10)(AAP, 1964)(SFC,11/22/97, p.D5)

c1594        Caravaggio painted "The Ecstacy of St. Francis."
    (WSJ, 4/28/98, p.A16)

1594        In England James Burbage won the patronage of Lord Chamberlain and established the 25 member Lord Chamberlain's Men. The group included William Shakespeare.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)
c1594        Sir Walter Raleigh married Elizabeth Throckmorton (1565-1647), a maid of honor to Queen Elizabeth. Her secret marriage and pregnancy led to her being banished from the court.
    (WSJ, 1/6/04, p.D10)

1594        The first act of Henry of Navarre, when he entered Paris as Henry IV, was to touch 600 scrofulous [tuberculytic] persons.
    (WP, 1951, p.7)
1594        In France Henry IV proposed his "Grande Dessein" to join the Louvre with the nearby Tuileries palace, which had been built under Catherine de Medici.
    (WSJ, 10/7/98, p.A20)

1594        Willem Barents, Dutch explorer, sailed to the Arctic pursuing the dream of a warm northern ocean first posited by the Greeks.
    (Econ., 1/9/21, p.73)

1594        The baths at Novi Pazar were built in Serbia’s Sandzak region.
    (Econ, 6/7/08, p.65)

c1594-1595    Caravaggio painted "The Cardsharps."
    (WSJ, 4/28/98, p.A16)

1595        Feb 21, Robert Southwell, English-Jesuit poet, was hanged for "treason" being a Catholic.
    (HN, 2/21/99)(MC, 2/21/02)

1595          Feb 24, Mathias Casimir Sarbievius, poet and prof. at Vilnius Univ., was born in Sarbev, Poland. He died in Warsaw Apr 2, 1640.
    (LHC, 2/23/03)

1595        Apr 2, Cornelis de Houtman's ships departed to Asia around Cape of Good Hope.
    (MC, 4/2/02)

1595        May 26, Philippus Nerius (79), [Filippo Neri], Italian merchant, Jesuit, saint, died.
    (MC, 5/26/02)

1595        May 28, It was a shaken and demoralized English column that returned to its northern Irish base at Newry.
    (HN, 8/1/98)

1595        Jun 5, Henry IV’s army defeated the Spanish at the Battle of Fontaine-Francaise.
    (HN, 6/5/98)

1595        Jul 9, Johannes Kepler inscribed a geometric solid construction of universe.
    (MC, 7/9/02)

1595        Jul 23, Spanish soldiers landed at Cornwall, England, and burned Mousehold and Penzance before returning to their ships.
    (AP, 7/23/97)

1595        Jul, The Spanish galleon San Agustin departed the Philippines with 130 tons of cargo and 70 men. See Nov, 1595.
    (SFC, 9/26/97, p.A21)(SFC, 8/23/11, p.C3)

1595        Aug 24, Thomas Digges, English astronomer (Universe Infinite), died.
    (MC, 8/24/02)

1595        Oct 28, Battle at Giurgevo: Sigmund Bathory of Transylvania beat the Turks.
    (MC, 10/28/01)

1595        Nov 12, Admiral Sir John Hawkins (also spelled as Hawkyns), English slave trader, died. Hawkins (b.1532) was also a naval commander and administrator, merchant, navigator, shipbuilder and privateer. He was very cognizant of the profits that could be made from the slave trade and he personally made three voyages. Hawkins was from Plymouth, Devon, England and was cousins with Sir Francis Drake. It is alleged that Hawkins was the first individual to make a profit from each leg of the triangular trade. This triangular trade consisted of English goods such as copper, cloth, fur and beads being traded on the African for slaves who were then trafficked on what has become to be known as the infamous Middle Passage. This brought them across the Atlantic Ocean to then be traded for goods that had been produced in the New World, and these goods were then transported back to England.

1595        Nov, The San Agustin, a Spanish galleon from Manila, sank off the coast of northern California near Point Reyes with a load of silks and porcelains from the Orient. Skipper Sebastian Rodriguez Cermeno sailed with survivors in an open boat 2,500 miles to Acapulco.
    (SFC, 9/26/97, p.A21)(SFC, 8/23/11, p.C3)

1595        Bogdan Khmelnitsky (d.1657), leader of the Ukrainian Cossacks, was born.
    (SSFC, 2/9/03, p.C14)

1595        Queen Elizabeth sent Sir Francis Drake to capture treasure from a wrecked Spanish galleon stored at La Forteleza. Drake failed and returned to Panama.
    (HT, 4/97, p.30)

1595        Sir Walter Raleigh explored the South American coast from the Orinoco River to the mouth of the Amazon, an area that he called "Guiana."
    (WSJ, 1/6/04, p.D10)

1595        John Smith on a whaling expedition mapped the eastern seaboard and named the area new England. The area had earlier been called Norumbega. On his return he gave the map to heir apparent Charles Stuart (16) and instructed him to rename the "barbarous" place names. Thus Cape Elizabeth, Cape Anne, the Charles River and Plymouth.
    (SFEM, 11/15/98, p.23)

1595-1603    Mehmed III succeeded Murad III in the Ottoman House of Osman.
    (Ot, 1993, xvii)

c1595-1624    Dirck van Baburen was an artist of the Dutch Utrecht School.
    (SFEM, 8/31/97, p.8)

1596        Jan 28, English navigator Sir Francis Drake died off the coast of Panama of a fever; he was buried at sea.
    (HT, 4/97, p.30)(AP, 1/28/98)

1596        Mar 31, Rene Descartes (d.1650), French philosopher, was born in La Haye, France. He proposed a numerical index that represented fundamental notions. He made consciousness the defining feature of the self. Descartes died in Sweden. In 1997 Paul Strathern published: "Descartes in 90 Minutes," and Keith Devlin published "Goodbye Descartes: The End of Logic and the Search for a New Cosmology of the Mind." In 1998 the French biography by Genevieve Rodis-Lewis was translated to English: "Descartes: His Life and Thought."
    (V.D.-H.K.p.203)(Wired, 8/96, p.86)(WSJ, 3/18/97, p.A20)(AP, 3/30/97) (WSJ, 7/23/98, p.A14)(WSJ, 8/21/98, p.W13)

1596        May 18, Willem Barents left Amsterdam for Novaya Zemlya (Nova Zembla).
    (SC, 5/18/02)(Econ., 1/9/21, p.73)

1596        Jun 21, Mikhail Feodorovich Romanov (d.1645), 1st Romanov Tsar of Russia (1613-45), was born.
    (WUD, 1994 p.1242)(MC, 6/21/02)

1596        Jul 1, An English fleet under the Earl of Essex, Lord Howard of Effingham and Francis Vere captured and sacked Cadiz, Spain.
    (HN, 7/1/98)

1596        Aug 3, David Fabricius discovered light variation of Mira (1st variable star).
    (SC, 8/3/02)

1596        Aug 19, Elisabeth Stuart, English daughter of James I, was born.
    (MC, 8/19/02)

1596        Sep 3, Nicolo Amati (d.1684), Italian violin maker, was born. He was the grandson of violin maker Andrea Amati and taught Antonio Stradivari and Andrea Guarneri.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R53)(MC, 9/3/01)

1596        Sep, Willem Barents, Dutch explorer, and his crew resigned themselves to overwintering in the Arctic after their ship froze fast. 13 of 17 men survived an 8-month ordeal. In 2021 Andrea authored "Icebound: Shipwrecked at the Edge of the World," an account of Barents' three missions to the Arctic.
    (Econ., 1/9/21, p.73)

1596        Oct 25, The Spanish fleet sailed from Lisbon to Ireland.
    (MC, 10/25/01)

1596        Dec 8, Luis de Carabajal, 1st Jewish author in America, was executed in Mexico. The nephew of Luis Carvajal, a Jewish convert to Catholicism and governor of the province of Nuevo Leon, was accused of relapsing into Judaism. He was tried by Spanish Inquisitors and under torture gave out 116 names of other Judaizers that included his mother and 23 sisters. They were eventually strangled with iron collars and burned to death. A 1997 opera by Myron Fink was composed based on his story. Monterey, Mexico was founded by conquistador Don Luis de Carvajal. He fell in love the wrong man’s daughter and was later denounced to the Mexican Inquisition because of his Jewish heritage.
    (SFC, 8/16/96, p.A19)(SFC, 9/18/96, p.A11)(WSJ, 2/25/97, p.A20)(MC, 12/8/01)

1596          Italian artist Jacopo Ligozzi (1547-1627) painted “The Abduction of the Sabine Women."
    (http://tinyurl.com/gt9sxvs)(Econ, 1/30/15, p.53)

1596        In Mexico City the Casa de los Azulejos or House of Tiles (a.k.a. Sanborn's) was constructed. It was an ornate mansion with hand-painted blue and white tiles.
    (Hem., 1/96, p.50)

1596        Ruthenian members of an Orthodox religious group entered into communion with the Roman Catholic Church and became the Uniate Church of the Little Russians.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1256)

1596        The first documented official contact between the Cambogee and the West took place. The king of Angkor, Barom Reachea, in fear of attack, sent to the Spanish governor general at Manila a request for the assistance of his musket-armed soldiers. The Spanish governor complied and sent a small expedition to the king of Angkor.
    (SFEC, 10/20/96, T5)

1596        Abraham Ortelius, Flemish mapmaker, recorded his belief that the continents had not always been fixed in their positions.
    (NH, 10/02, p.79)

1596        The Marquesas Islands were visited by a Spanish ship.
    (SFEC, 8/25/96, p.T5)

1596-1597    Italian artist Caravaggio painted "A Boy Bitten by a Lizard."
    (SFC, 9/12/97, p.C8)

c1596-1597    Shakespeare wrote his tragedy "King John."
    (WUD, 1994, p.788)

1597        Jan 19, Maharana Pratap or Pratap Singh (b.1540), Hindu Rajput ruler of Mewar, died. This region in north-western India is in the present day state of Rajasthan (2013). He belonged to the Sisodiya clan of Rajputs. In popular Indian culture, Pratap is considered to exemplify qualities like bravery and chivalry to which Rajputs aspire, especially in context of his opposition to the Mughal emperor Akbar.

1597        Jun 9, Jose de Anchieta, Spanish Jesuit, missionary, died.
    (MC, 6/9/02)

1597        Jun 20, Willem Barents, Dutch explorer who discovered Spitsbergen & Bereneil, died at sea. In 1995 Rayner Unwin authored “A Winter Away from Home," an account of Barents’ Arctic voyages.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Willem_Barentsz)(SSFC, 12/10/00, p.C17)

1597        Aug 11, Germany threw out English salesmen in "a noble experiment."
    (MC, 8/11/02)

1597        Sep 28, In Japan the Mimizuka, or Ear Mound, was dedicated in Kyoto. In it was buried the collected ears and noses of victims from the Japanese invasion of Korea that began in 1592.
    (SFEC, 9/14/97, p.A25)

1597        Oct 26, Korea’s Admiral Yi Sun-shin (Yi Sun sin), with a fleet of 13 ships, beat back the Japanese Navy, with a fleet of hundreds of ships, at the Battle of Myeongnyang. In 2014 the South Korean film “Roaring Currents," a depiction of the battle, was released and became the country’s most popular film of all time.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Myeongnyang)(Econ, 10/4/14, p.47)

1597        El Greco (1541-1614), Spanish artist, completed his visionary “View of Toledo" about this time.
    (WSJ, 6/28/08, p.W12)

c1597    The "Materia Medica Pharmacopeia" was written and detailed some 1,900 herbs, minerals and animals used by the Chinese to treat ailments through the ages.
    (WSJ, 12/3/97, p.A1)

1597        Giovanni Gabrieli composed "Sonata pian’ e forte," a piece for two antiphonal brass quartets.
    (SFC, 1/9/98, p.D7)

1597        Britain’s Tudor establishment, deeply concerned by the possibility of social upheaval brought on by an agricultural crisis and increasing urban migration, introduced the Charitable Uses Act, first in 1597, then a revised act in 1601 to promote philanthropy amongst the country's aristocracy and burgeoning merchant classes.

1597        Cardinal Odoardo Farnese, the nephew of Pope Paul III, commissioned Annibale Carracci and his workshop to decorate the barrel-vaulted gallery on the piano nobile of the family palace. Work was started in 1597 and was not entirely finished until 1608, one year before Annibale's death.

1597        In Nagasaki 26 Japanese and Western Christians were crucified. These martyrs were beatified in 1627 and became saints in 1862, among the 42 people from Japan who have been canonized, or reached sainthood.
    (SSFC, 8/10/03, p.C11)(AP, 11/21/08)

1597        In Amsterdam the Spinhuis (spinning house) was opened as a workhouse for fallen women.
    (SSFC, 1/7/01, p.T9)

1597        King Philip II issued a land grant to Don Lorenzo Garcia to start the first official winery for the new world at the San Lorenzo Hacienda in Mexico.
    (SFEC, 11/7/99, p.T8)

1597-1602    Adriaen de Vries, Dutch sculptor, supplied Augsburg, Germany, the cast for the "Hercules Fountain."
    (WSJ, 1/8/99, p.C13)

1597/8-1671    Jan van Bijlert, Dutch painter. He traveled to Rome and was influenced by the work of Caravaggio.
    (SFEM, 8/31/97, p.13)

1598        Jan 7, Theodorus I (40), [Feodor Ivanovitch], czar of Russia (1584-98), died. Boris Godunov seized the Russian throne on death of Feodor I.
    (MC, 1/7/02)

1598        Jan 8, Genoa, Italy, expelled its Jews.
    (MC, 1/8/02)

1598        Feb 17, Boris Godunov, the boyar of Tatar origin, was elected czar in succession to his brother-in-law Fydor.
    (HN, 2/17/99)

1598        Apr 13, King Henry IV of France endorsed the Edict of Nantes, which granted political rights to French Huguenots. (The edict was abrogated in 1685 by King Louis XIV, who declared France entirely Catholic again.)

    (AP, 4/13/98)(HN, 4/13/98)

1598        May 2, Henry IV signed the Treaty of Vervins, ending Spain's interference in France.
    (HN, 5/2/98)

1598        Jun, A 5-ship Dutch expedition to Japan departed Rotterdam with Will Adams, English ship pilot, as chief navigator.
    (ON, 11/02, p.8)

1598        Aug 15, Hugh O'Neill, the Earl of Tyrone, led an Irish force to victory over the British at Battle of Yellow Ford.
    (HN, 8/15/98)

1598        Sep 1, Spanish king Philip II ("Scourge of Heretics") received his last rites sacrament. [see Sep 13]
    (MC, 9/1/02)

1598        Sep 13, Philip II (71), King of Spain (1556-98), died. He had ordered the 1588 Spanish Armada attack on England. After its failure he dispatched 3 smaller armadas, but they all failed.
    (MC, 9/13/01)(ON, 3/02, p.6)

1598        Sep 18, Toyotomi Hideyoshi (b.1536), Japan’s unifier and folk hero, died. His death left two main rivals for power, Ishida Mitsunari and Tokugawa Ieyasu.

1598        Sep 25, In Sweden, King Sigismund was defeated at Stangebro by his Uncle Charles.
    (HN, 9/25/98)

1598        Oct 15, Spanish general strategist Bernardino de Mendoza occupied Fort Rhine.
    (MC, 10/15/01)

1598        Dec 7, Giovanni "Gian" Lorenzo Bernini (d.Nov 28, 1680), Italian sculptor, painter, architect, was born. He was the greatest sculptor of the 17th century and worked under the patronage of Pope Urban VII. His work included the "Ecstasy of St. Teresa," "David" and "Daphne and Apollo."
    (WSJ, 12/4/97, p.A20)(WSJ, 9/15/98, p.A20)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R53)

1598        Dec 28, Richard and Cuthbert Burbage led a crew to begin the demolition of the Theater in London. They and partners that included William Shakespeare used the timbers to build a new theater. The Globe opened in 1599.
    (ON, 11/03, p.2)

c1598        A party of Iberian conquistadors overthrew the Cambodian king and set themselves up as governors in the Mekong delta.
    (Econ, 1/3/04, p.29)

1598        In China Tang Xianzu, dramatist, wrote his 55-act Kunju opera "The Peony Pavilion." Kunju is the oldest of China’s 360 opera forms.
    (WSJ, 6/22/98, p.A20)

1598        Don Juan de Onate y Salazar (1550-1626), Spanish Conquistador, explorer, and colonial governor, led the first effort to colonize the New Mexico region, establishing Santa Fe de Nuevo México as a province of New Spain. Under Juan de Oñate and his son, the capital of the province was the settlement of San Juan de los Caballeros north of Santa Fe near modern Ohkay Owingeh Pueblo.
1598        Don Juan de Onate visited El Morro for the 1st time as he led some 1,000 settlers from Mexico to New Mexico.
    (SSFC, 4/10/05, p.F9)

1598        The first opera was performed in Florence, Italy, in the 16th century. On Jul 3-5, 1998 Vienna celebrated the 400th anniversary of opera. Opera emerged as musicians sought to revive Greek theater.
    (SFEC, 5/10/98, p.T3)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)

1598        Iranian emperor Shah Abbas (1571-1629) moved his capital to Isfahan. English brothers Anthony and Robert Shirley (~1581-1628) soon arrived in Iran with 26 followers and joined the Persian service under Abbas and remaining for a number of years.
    (Econ, 2/21/09, p.86)(http://tinyurl.com/cbrsb9)

1598        Sir George Clifford, the third Earl of Cumberland, led an attack on Puerto Rico. He landed east of San Juan at Boqueron Inlet and attacked. The English prevailed and plundered San Juan but their food spoiled and 400 died of dysentery. The survivors burned San Juan and sailed away.
    (HT, 4/97, p.30)

1598        The Spanish governor of Manila sent a 2nd small expedition to the king of Angkor in what is now Cambodia.
    (SFEC, 10/20/96, T5)

1598-1599    Caravaggio painted "Narcissus."
    (WSJ, 4/28/98, p.A16)

1598-1663?    Francisco de Zurbaran, Spanish painter. His work included St. Agatha, which depicted the mutilated martyr with her severed breasts on a tray.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1663)(SFEC, 2/16/97, BR p.10)

1598-1666    Nicolas Francois Mansart, French architect. The mansard roof is named after him.
    (WUD, 1994, p.873)(SFC, 8/25/99, Z1 p.7)

1599        Jan 22, The 3-day Acoma Massacre began in New Mexico. A punitive expedition by Spanish conquistadors at Acoma Pueblo resulted in the deaths of around 500 Acoma men killed, along with 300 women and children.

1599        Feb 13, Alexander VII, Roman Catholic Pope, was born.
    (HN, 2/13/98)

1599        Feb 22, Anthony Van Dyck, painter, was born in Antwerp, Belgium. [See Mar 22]
    (MC, 2/22/02)

1599        Mar 13, Johannes Berchmans, Jesuit, saint, was born in Belgium.
    (MC, 3/13/02)(de Winkler Prins encyclopedia)

1599        Mar 22, Sir Anthony Van Dyck, Flemish artist, was born. He gave his name to the Vandyke beard. [See Feb 22]
    (AP, 3/22/99)

1599        Mar 23, Thomas Selle, composer, was born.
    (SS, 3/23/02)

1599        Mar 27, Robert Devereux became Lt-general of Ireland.
    (MC, 3/27/02)

1599        Apr 25, Oliver Cromwell (d.1658) was born. He was an English military, political and religious leader, and dictator as Lord Protector of the Commonwealth from 1653-1658.
    (CFA, '96, p.44)(AHD, p.315)(HN, 4/25/98)

1599        Jun 6, Velazquez (d.1660), Diego Rodriguez de Silva, Spanish painter of Portuguese ancestry, was born. He painted "Count Duke of Olivares" and "Rokeby Venus" (1647-51) The Venus is at the London National Gallery.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diego_Vel%C3%A1zquez)(SFEC, 2/1/98, p.T8)(WSJ, 1/5/07, p.W12)

1599        Jul 23, Caravaggio received his 1st public commission for paintings.
    (MC, 7/23/02)

1599        Sep 7, Earl of Essex and Irish rebel Tyrone signed a treaty.
    (MC, 9/7/01)

1599        Sep 21, The Globe Theater had its first recorded performance. The 20-sided timber building for Shakespeare’s plays was constructed on the South Bank of the Thames, England. The troupe Lord Chamberlain's Men built the Globe Theater. Timbers came from a dismantled old theater and the new structure held some 3,000 spectators in 3 galleries. In 2005 James Shapiro authored “A Year in the Life of William Shakespeare: 1599."
    (Hem, Mar. 95, p.138)(WSJ, 6/17/97, p.A16)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)(Econ, 11/5/05, p.92)

1599        In Ecuador Andres Sanchez Gallque painted the New World’s first signed and dated portrait: “Don Francisco de la Robe and His sons Pedro and Domingo" (The Mulatto Gentlemen of Esmeraldas).
    (WSJ, 9/21/06, p.D6)(http://tinyurl.com/zn644)

1599        Adriaen de Vries, Dutch sculptor, supplied Augsburg, Germany, the cast the "Mercury Fountain."
    (WSJ, 1/8/99, p.C13)

1599        Canon Mikalojus Dauksa published his "Postille Catholicka" in Vilnius. He was the first author of Lithuanian Proper.
    (DrEE, 9/21/96, p.4)

1599        Jesuits published a guidebook for Jesuit education titled “Ratio Studiorum." It was revised in 1832.
    (GenIV, Winter 04/05)

1599        Jacob Cornelius Van Neck returned to Holland from the Mascarene Islands. A narrative of the Dutch voyage first mentioned the dodo bird.
    (NH, 11/96, p.24)

1599        The Dutch East India Company dates to this time. [see 1602-1798]
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)

1599        The Takeda family, which controlled Hokkaido, changed its name to Matsumae, built a castle by that name and allied itself with Ieyasu Tokugawa, who was on the verge of establishing his Shogunate in Japan.
    (Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 218)

1599        Spain sent 400 soldiers, 46 cannon and a new governor, Alonso de Mercado, to rebuild San Juan, Puerto Rico.
    (HT, 4/97, p.31)

1599        Francesco Borromini (d.1667), Italian Baroque architect and sculptor, was born.
    (SFEC, 7/12/98, p.B9)(WSJ, 6/27/00, p.A28)

1599-1600    “As You Like It," a pastoral comedy by William Shakespeare, is believed to have been written about this time and first published in the folio of 1623. It included a monologue that begins with the phrase "All the world's a stage" and catalogues the seven stages of a man's life, sometimes referred to as the seven ages of man: infant, schoolboy, lover, soldier, justice, pantaloon, and second childhood, "sans teeth, sans eyes, sans taste, sans everything."

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