Timeline The Sixteenth Century: 1500-1524

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1500        Jan 26, Spanish explorer Vicente Yanez Pinzon reached the northeastern coast of Brazil during a voyage under his command. Pinzon had commanded the Nina during Christopher Columbus's first expedition to the New World.
    (MC, 1/26/02)

1500        Feb 24, Charles V, king of Spain (1516-1556), was born in Ghent, Belgium. He was the last Holy Roman Emperor to be crowned by the Pope.
    (HN, 2/24/99)(SFEC, 11/21/99, p.T10)(MC, 2/24/02)

1500        Mar 9, Pedro Cabral (~1460-1520), Portuguese navigator, departed to India. He left Lisbon with 13 ships headed for India and was blown off course.
    (www.newadvent.org/cathen/03128a.htm)(WUD, 1994 p.206)(SFC, 4/20/00, p.A14)

1500        Apr 8, Battle at Novara: King Louis XII beat duke Ludovico Sforza (Il Sforza del Destino).
    (MC, 4/8/02)

1500        Apr 10, France captured duke Ludovico Sforza ("Il Sforza del Destino") of Milan.
    (MC, 4/10/02)
1500        Apr 10, Michael T. Marullus, Greeks poet, drowned.

1500        Apr 22, Pedro Alvares Cabral (c1460-c1526), Portuguese explorer, discovered Brazil and claimed it for Portugal. He anchored for 10 days in a bay he called "Porto Seguro" and continued on to India.  [see Apr 23]
    (WUD,1994, p.206)(AHD, p.185)(TL-MB, 1988, p.8)(HN, 4/22/98)(SFC, 4/20/00, p.A14)

1500        Apr 23, Pedro Cabal landed at Terra da Vera Cruz and claimed Brazil for Portugal. The native population was later estimated to have been from 1 to 11 million people. [see Apr 22]
    (AP, 4/23/98)(SFC, 7/6/98, p.A10)(www.newadvent.org/cathen/03128a.htm)

1500        May 29, Bartholomeu Diaz de Narvaez (Novaez), Portuguese sea explorer, drowned.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1500        Aug 10, Diego Diaz discovered Madagascar.
    (MC, 8/10/02)

1500        Oct, Governor De Bobadilla of Santo Domingo captured Christopher Columbus and returned him in shackles to Spain. Columbus, during his third sojourn to the new world, engaged in a dispute with the ambassador plenipotentiary to Santo Domingo, Hispaniola (later shared by Haiti and the Dominican Republic). Columbus was later released and forgiven by the Queen.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.143)(SFEC, 3/15/98, Z1 p.8)(http://www1.minn.net/~keithp/v2.htm)

1500        Nov 1, Benvunuto Cellini (d.1571), Italian goldsmith and sculptor, was born. His 1545 autobiography greatly influenced the Renaissance.
    (HN, 11/1/00)(WSJ, 2/14/00, p.A20)

1500        Pietro Torrigiani created his sculpture "Virgin and Child."
    (WSJ, 1/29/02, p.A18)

1500        Albrecht Durer (1471-1528) of Nuremburg painted a self-portrait later described as the most gorgeous portrait ever painted.
    (WSJ, 3/15/08, p.W16)

1500        Giovanni Bellini painted "The Pieta" and "Portrait of a Young Man."
    (SFEC, 12/26/99, p.C17)

1500        Herri met de Bles, Flemish oil painter, created "Landscape With Burning City."
    (WSJ, 9/8/00, p.W8)

1500        Sandro Botticelli, Italian painter, painted his "Mystic Nativity," but he was out of key with public taste. His reputation was only restored in the 19th century. He also did the circular painting "Adoration of the Christ Child."
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.8)(WSJ, 12/30/97, p.A8)

1500        Desiderius Erasmus, Dutch humanist scholar, published his "Adagia."
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.8)

1500        During the first half century of printing 1450-1500, the majority of printed books were renderings of Greek and Latin works, previously available only in manuscripts... From this point on, published works in the national languages... were in the majority.

1500        Antwerp Cathedral was completed after 148 years of construction.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.8)

1500        Pope Alexander VI proclaimed a Year of Jubilee with a call for a crusade against the Turks.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.8)

1500        Aldus Manutius, Italian printer, founded the Venice Academy for the study of Greek classics and he invented Italic type.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.8)

1500        Valencia University was founded.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.8)

1500        The Diet of Augsburg established a Council of Regency to administer the Holy Roman Empire.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.8)

1500        King Louis XII of France captured Milan in the Italian Wars.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.8)

1500        Haast's eagle, which lived in the mountains of New Zealand, became extinct about this time, most likely due to habitat destruction and the extinction of its prey species at the hands of early Polynesian settlers. Researchers in 2009 determined that the 40 pound bird was a predator and not a mere scavenger as many had thought.
    (AP, 9/11/09)

1500        The Vatican established a permanent nunciature (diplomatic service) in Venice.
    (Econ, 7/21/07, p.59)

1500        Nueva Cadiz was established on Isla de Cubagua off the coast of Venezuela after Columbus discovered rich pearl oyster beds nearby.
    (SSFC, 2/19/06, p.F8)

1500        Geologists in 2009 said an earthquake of magnitude 6.5-7, dated to about this time, tore a deep gash into a 35-mile fault segment along the Wasatch front of Utah state.
    (SFC, 9/25/09, p.A8)

1500    The population of the world at about 400 million was distributed as follows:   
    China, Japan, and Korea        130 million
    Europe and Russia            100 million
    India subcontinent            70 million   
    Southeast Asia and Indonesia    40 million
    Central and western Asia        25 million
    Africa                    20 million
    The Americas                 15 million

c1500        In northern Argentina 3 Inca children were sacrificed. In 1999 a team of archeologists discovered their frozen mummies on Mount Llullaillaco.
    (SFC, 4/7/99, p.A11)

c1500     At the end of the 15th century Azerbaijan became the power base of a native dynasty, the Safavids. They established an empire that dominated Iran in the 16th and 17th centuries..
    (CO, Grolier’s Amer. Acad. Enc./ Azerbaijan)

c1500        Lake Cauhilla in southern California, the predecessor to the Salton Sea, measured 50 by 100 miles and began evaporating.
    (SFC, 11/30/98, p.A22)

1500        Monasteries in England by this time owned a quarter of all English land. Glastonbury Abbey was the most powerful and wealthy.
    (SSFC, 10/29/17, p.F3)

1500s        The Aztecs played ollamalitzli. The game placed a rubber ball through a stone ring and the loser was often beheaded.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)

1500s        The Navajo began settling on Hopi land. They have farmed in the southwest since this time.
    (SFC, 7/15/96, p.A1)(SFC, 1/3/97, p.A26)

1500s        Europe began to restrict the practice of medicine to qualified doctors.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R25)

1500s        Holland and Saxony began to protect the rights of inventors to their creations.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)

1500s        Juan de Bermudez of Spain first reported on the island of Bermuda.
    (SFC, 5/2/98, p.E4)

1500s        The popularity of surströmming, a Swedish fermented herring with a noxious stench, surged in the early 1500s and again in the early 1700s.
    (WSJ, 8/13/02, p.A1)

1500s        Monomutapa (Zimbabwe) was split in two with the northern half remaining Monomutapa, and a southern half under the rival dynasty of Changamire.
    (ATC, p.148)

1500s        Portugal settled the island of Sao Tome, 250 miles off the coast of Kongo. Most of the settlers were criminals deported from Portugal. Sugar began to be grown on Sao Tome and slaves were purchased from King Affonso. The Portuguese and Africans did not see slavery the same way. To the Portuguese the slaves were beasts of burden and worked so hard that many died. They then bought more.
    (ATC, p.152)

1500-1600    "Hsi Yu Chi" was a 16th century Chinese novel based on the account of a 7th century monk, Tripitaka, who traveled to India for 16 years for Buddhist scriptures.
    (SFC, 12/7/96, p.D1)

1500-1600    "The Boke of Hawkynge and Huntynge and Fysshynge" was produced. A copy sold for $88,000 in 2000.
    (SFC, 6/2/00, p.A21)

c1500-1600    George Pencz, 16th century German artist. His work included "Holy Trinity, Seat of Mercy."
    (SFC, 9/29/01, p.B1)
1500-1600    Weimar became the capital of the duchy of Saxe-Weimar.
    (SSFC, 8/1/04, p.D10)

1500-1600    Yi Am, 16th cent. Korean artist. The artist’s work included: "Puppies, Birds and Blossoms."
    (WSJ, 8/10/98, p.A12)

c1500-1600    The 16th century French text "The Rules of Civility" was published.
    (SFC, 7/4/02, p.D1)

1500-1600    The first Russian book printed was the 15th century "Apostle."
    (SFC, 12/27/96, p.C16)

1500-1600    The Kalmyk people, descendants from the Golden Horde of Genghis Khan, settled in the lowlands between the Volga and Don rivers with their livestock.
    (SFC, 9/24/97, p.A12)

c1500-1600    In Honduras the Lenca Indian chieftain Lempira withdrew to the high mountains to lead resistance against the Spaniards. According to legend he plunged to his death from a rocky outcrop near the summit of the highest peak. The Indians developed the Quezungal method of farming, where crops were planted under trees that kept hillsides from eroding.
    (SFC, 11/18/98, p.A14)

c1500-1600    Giulio Cesare Aranzi, Italian anatomist, name the hippocampus formation of the brain because of its resemblance to Hippocampus, the seahorse.
    (NH, 9/97, p.56)

c1500-1600    The Predjama Castle was built at the mouth of a huge cave at Postojna, Slovenia. It was later used by the highway robber Erasmus Luegger.
    (SSFC, 8/18/02, p.C7)

c1500-1600    A Muslim pilgrim stole coffee beans from Yemen and raised them in India. Yemen was the first great coffee exporter and in order to protect its trade had decreed that no living plant could leave the country.
    (WSJ, 6/4/99, p.W9)

1500-1650    Period of late Renaissance.

1500-1750    The Spanish economy shrank during this period as Jews, Muslims and heretics were driven out of the country. The Inquisition also helped impoverish the country.
    (Econ., 9/12/20, p.71)   

c1500-1800    In Nepal the Malla dynasty created an architectural frenzy in Patan between the 16th and 18th centuries.
    (WSJ, 1/22/98, p.A17)

1500-1800    Ottoman Turk rule extended over Libya.
    (SSFC, 6/27/04, p.D12)

c1500s-1800s        Millions of Africans were torn from their homelands, herded into ships and sold in the New World for more than 300 years. Perhaps the cruelest part of the Atlantic slave trade was the weeks-long sea crossing, or the so-called Middle Passage--that leg of the Triangular Trade that brought the human cargo from West Africa to New World ports. Rather than provide healthful conditions on the sea crossing, slave traders sought to maximize profits with "tight packing"--cramming so many slaves onto the lower decks that those that survived would compensate for the certain losses. The British slave ship Brookes' deck plan shows the ship carrying 454 slaves with 6'x 1'4" of space allowed for each adult male, 5'10" x 11" for each woman and 5' x 1'2" for each boy. This clinical representation of human suffering during the Middle Passage was widely circulated by abolitionist groups.
    (HNPD, 12/14/98)

1500-1820    The proto-capitalist epoch. The world GDP grew by .07% per year.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R54)

1501          Mar 1, Lithuania and Livonia established a 10-year union for protection against Russia.
    (LHC, 3/1/03)

1501        Mar 20, Jean Carondelet (72), lawyer, chancellor of Burgundy (1480-96), died.
    (MC, 3/20/02)

1501        May 20, Portuguese explorer Joao da Nova Castelia (1460-1509) discovered the Ascension Islands on Ascension Day.

1501        Jul 27, Copernicus was formally installed as canon of Frauenberg Cathedral.
    (MC, 7/27/02)

1501        Sep 24, Gerolamo Cardano, mathematician, was born. He authored "Games of Chance," the first systematic computation of probabilities.
    (HN, 9/24/00)

1501        Oct 15, English crown prince Arthur married Catharina of Aragon. [see Nov 14]
    (MC, 10/15/01)

1501        Nov 14, Arthur Tudor married Katherine of Aragon. [see Oct 15]
    (HN, 11/14/98)

1501        Michelangelo was commissioned by Florence, his native home, to carve the colossal statue "David." The work had been by Agostino di Duccio around 1465. Michelangelo finished it in 1504. It was placed at the front of the Palazzo Signoria. In 1873 it was cleaned and moved indoors.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.8)(WSJ, 4/29/03, D5)

1501        Books printed before 1501 are called incunabula or incunables, after the Latin word for cradle. The 15th century was the cradle of printing.
    (WSJ, 9/14/00, p.A24)

1501        France and Spain occupied Naples, and French troops entered Rome. Louis XII was declared King of Naples by the Pope.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.8)

1501        Cesare Borgia captured Romagna (north-central Italy) and appointed Remirro de Orco, his cruelest lieutenant, to pacify the region. After the job was done Borgia had Orco cut in two to gain the gratitude of the people.
    (WSJ, 6/22/98, p.A20)

1501        Maximilian I, German emperor, recognized the French conquests of northern Italy in the Peace of Trent.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.8)

1501        A worn Roman torso was unearthed in Rome. It later acquired the nickname "Pasquino" and served as a station for posting complaints and opinions that came to be known as Pasquinades.
    (WSJ, 12/31/01, p.A6)

1501        The Turks took Durazzo from Venice.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.8)

1501        Ivan III, Czar of Russia, invaded Lithuania.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.8)

1501        Gaspar de Corte-Real, Portuguese navigator, made the first authenticated European landing on the northern continent of the Western Hemisphere since c1000AD.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.8)

1501        Amerigo Vespucci, Florentine navigator, explored the coast of Brazil on his second voyage to the New World.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.8)

1501        The Anglo-Portuguese Syndicate completed the first of five voyages to Newfoundland.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.8)

1502        Jan 1, Portuguese navigator Pedro Cabral and Amerigo Vespucci sailed the into the harbor of Rio de Janeiro. Portuguese explorers sailed into Guanabra Bay and mistook it for the mouth of a river which they named Rio de Janeiro.
    (Hem., Dec. '95, p.129)(MC, 1/1/02)

1502        Feb 12, Vasco da Gama, Portuguese explorer, departed on a second trip to India with 20 well-armed ships.
1502        Feb 12, Isabella issued a royal order giving all remaining Moors in the realms of Castile the choice between baptism and expulsion.

1502        Apr 2, Arthur, English crown prince, husband of Catharina of Aragon, died.
    (MC, 4/2/02)

1502        May 9, Christopher Columbus left Cadiz, Spain, on his fourth and final trip to the Western Hemisphere. He explored Central America, and discovered St. Lucia, the Isthmus of Panama, Honduras, and Costa Rica. Columbus left 52 Jewish families in Costa Rica. [see May 11]
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.8)(AP, 5/9/97)(WSJ, 6/15/00, p.A1)

1502        May 11, Columbus embarked on his 4th voyage with 150 men in 4 caravels. Among those in the fleet were Columbus's brother Bartholomew, and Columbus' younger son Fernando, then just 13 years old. They reached the coast of Honduras after 8 months and passed south to Panama (1503). The ships included the Capitana, which served as the flagship, and the Vizcaina. In 2006 Klaus Brinkbaumer authored “The Voyage of the Vizcaina."
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)(http://www1.minn.net/~keithp/v4.htm)(WSJ, 5/26/06, p.W5)

1502        Jun 6, Jofo III, King of Portugal (1521-57), was born.
    (MC, 6/6/02)

1502        Jun 7, Pope Gregory XIII was born. He introduced the Gregorian calendar in 1582. [see 1552]
    (HN, 6/7/98)(SFEC, 2/20/00, Par p.7)

1502        Jun 29, Christopher Columbus arrived at Santo Domingo, Hispaniola, on his 4th voyage to the new world. He requested harbor and advised Gov. Nicolas de Ovando of an approaching hurricane. Ovando denied the request and dispatched a treasure fleet to Spain. 20 ships sank in the storm, 9 returned to port and one made it to Spain.

1502        Jul, Columbus reached the northern coast of Honduras during his 4th voyage and passed south to Panama.
    (http://www1.minn.net/~keithp/v4.htm)(Econ, 12/10/11, p.65)

1502        Sep 18, Christopher Columbus landed at Costa Rica during his 4th and last voyage.  Columbus left 52 Jewish families in Costa Rica.
    (MC, 9/18/01)(WSJ, 6/15/00, p.A1)

1502        Dec 31, Cesare Borgia (son of Pope Alexander VI) occupied Urbino.
    (MC, 12/31/01)

1502        Donato Bramante began the Tempietto of S. Pietro in Montorio, Rome.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.8)

1502        Vittore Carpaccio began the fresco cycle "Scenes from the Lives of SS George and Jerome." Full of light and detail, it is typical of the Venetian manner.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.8)

1502        Lucas Cranch, German painter, began his career in Vienna. In 1521 he painted the famous portrait of Martin Luther.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.8)

1502        Leonardo da Vinci drew plans for a 720-foot stone span across the Golden Horn at the mouth of the Bosporus. In 2001 Vebjorn Sand, Norwegian artist, completed a 330-foot, laminated timber bridge linking Norway and Sweden at Aas, 16 miles south of Oslo based on the da Vinci plans.
    (SSFC, 12/9/01, p.C2)

1502        Vasco da Gama founded the Portuguese colony at Cochin, China.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.8)

1502        Ahuizotl, ruler of the Aztecs, died and was cremated on a funeral pyre about this time at the foot of the Templo Mayor pyramid. In 2007 Mexican archeologists found underground chambers in Mexico City they believed to contain his remains.
    (AP, 8/4/07)(AP, 6/17/10)
1502        Moctezuma Xocoyotl (Montezuma II), an Aztec prince, inherited the Aztec throne becoming the 9th ruler of the Aztecs.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.8)(ON, 10/00, p.1)(Econ, 9/26/09, p.99)

1502        In Germany Peter Henlein of Nuremberg used iron parts and coiled springs to build a portable timepiece.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)
1502        In Germany Wittenberg University was founded.
    (Voruta #27-28, Jul 1996, p.10)(TL-MB, 1988, p.8)

1502        Shah Ismail founded the Safavid Dynasty in Persia.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.8)

1502        Amerigo Vespucci declared that South America is a separate continent after his second voyage.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.8)

1502        A hurricane nearly destroyed La Nueva Isabela and it was abandoned. The city was rebuilt on the other side of the river as Santo Domingo by the new governor, Nicholas de Ovando.
    (AM, 7/97, p.59)

1502        Vasco da Gama returned to Calicut, India. He bombarded the town, burned a ship full of Arab men, women, and children because its captain had offended him, and demanded that the Muslims turn over the trade to the Portuguese. Within a generation his demands were met.
1502        Portuguese traders took peanuts from Brazil and Peru to Africa.
    (SFEC, 1/10/99, Z1 p.8)
1502        Jaoa de Nova, Portuguese explorer, discovered St. Helena Island. It became a way station for ships for centuries and was a key port for Britain's East India Company.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.8)(AP, 10/14/17)

1502        Spain legalized slave shipments to the Americas.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)

1502-1533    Atahualpa, emperor of the Incas. He had a fortune in gold and silver and tried to purchase his freedom from Pizarro for a chamber filled with gold. Pizarro took 124 tons of gold in ransom and then re-arrested Atahualpa for treason to the Spanish crown and had him decapitated.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R8)

1503        Jan 9, Christopher Columbus returned to the mouth of Rio Belen (western Panama), where he built a garrison.

1503        Feb 11, Elizabeth of York (b.1466), consort of King Henry VII, died on 38th birthday.

1503        Mar 10, Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor (1558-1564), was born. He was King of Bohemia and Hungary from 1526-1564.
    (HN, 3/10/01)(WUD, 1994 p.523)

1503        Mar 28, The 2nd Lithuanian war with Russia (1500-1503) ended with a treaty. Lithuania lost a fourth of its territory.
    (LHC, 3/28/03)

1503        Apr 6, Christopher Columbus fended off an Indian attack at his garrison at Rio Belen (Panama).

1503        Apr 16, Christopher Columbus abandoned the garrison at Rio Belen (Panama) and sailed for home (Hispaniola) with 3 ships. On the way he was shipwrecked in Jamaica.

1503        May 10, Columbus stumbled across the Cayman Islands and dubbed them Las Tortugas after the numerous sea turtles.
    (SFEC, 2/16/97, p.T8)(HN, 5/10/98)

1503        May, The ship Esmeralda sank during a violent storm near al-Hallaniyah Island in the Indian Ocean, killing commander Vicente Sodre and all those aboard. The ship was one of two lost in the storm from Vasco da Gama's second voyage to India. Archaeologists in 2016 reported finding the ship off the coast of Oman in 2013.
    (AP, 3/15/16)

1503        Jun 25, Christopher Columbus beached his sinking ships in St. Anne’s Bay, Jamaica, and spent a year shipwrecked and marooned there before returning to Spain.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.8)(http://www1.minn.net/~keithp/v4.htm)

1503        Aug 18, Pope Alexander VI (1492-1503), born in Spain as Rodrigo di Borgia (1431),  died. He had recently authorized the building of a prison in the cellars of Castel Sant’Angelo in Rome.
    (PTA, p.424)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Alexander_VI)(SSFC, 7/22/07, p.G2)

1503        Nov 28, Giuliano della Rovere (1443-1513) was crowned as Pope Julius II.

1503        Oct 30, Queen Isabella of Spain banned violence against Indians.
    (MC, 10/30/01)

1503        Nov 17, Il Bronzino, Florentine painter (Eleanor de Toledo & her Son), was born.
    (MC, 11/17/01)

1503        Dec 14, Nostradamus [Michel de Nostredame], prophet, was born in St. Remy, Provence, France. He predicted correctly French king Henri II's manner of death. Nostradamus was the author of a book of prophecies that many still believe foretold the future. He was also physician, an astrologer and a clairvoyant.  He wrote in rhyming quatrains, accurately predicting the Great London Fire in 1666, Spain’s Civil War, and a Hitler that would lead Germany into war. He even correctly predicted his own death on July 2, 1566.
    (HN, 12/14/99)(MC, 12/14/01)

1503        Lucas Cranach (1472-1553) the Elder, German artist ( Saxony), completed his painting “The Crucifixion."

1503        Parmigianino (d.1540), Italian painter and master draftsman, was born. His paintings included "Madonna of the Long Neck."
    (WSJ, 2/12/00, p.A25)

1503        Leonardo Da Vinci began painting the "Mona Lisa." The husband of Lisa del Giocondo commissioned Leonardo da Vinci to paint the "Mona Lisa," The model was Lisa Gheradini whose relatives had emigrated to Ireland in the 12th century and translated their surname to Fitzgerald, an ancestral name of later US president John F. Kennedy. Lisa Gherardini (b.1479) was originally identified as the subject of the world's most famous painting by Leonardo's first biographer, the 16th-century Italian writer Giorgio Vasari. In 2001 Donald Sassoon authored "Becoming Mona Lisa: The Making of a Global Icon."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lisa_del_Giocondo)(SFC, 4/26/97, p.E4)(SFC, 3/21/98, p.E3)(WSJ, 12/7/01, p.W16)(AP, 9/13/04)
1503        Leonardo da Vinci was commissioned to decorate a hall in the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence. For some 18 months he worked on a mural for the 1440 Battle of Anghiari but abandoned the work in 1506. The mural was later lost when Georgio Vasari was hired to remodel the hall.
    (WSJ, 11/9/07, p.W4)

1503        Thomas a Kempis published his "Imitation of Christ" in an English translation and it had great religious influence.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.8)

1503        Canterbury Cathedral was finished after 433 years of construction.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.8)

1503        Henry VII’s chapel, the final stage of English gothic art, was begun in Westminster Abbey.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.8)

1503        The pocket handkerchief came into general use in polite European society.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.8)

1503        The missionary Bartolome de Las Casa described the brutal destruction of a Taino Indian city, La Aleta (later in the Dominican Republic). Captain-Gen’l. Juan de Esquival led a Spanish force that massacred 600-700 Higuey Tainos for rebelling after one of their chiefs was disemboweled by a Spanish attack dog. In 1997 archeologists found evidence of a city at the site called La Aleta.
    (SFC, 3/29/97, p.A10)(AM, 7/97, p.60)

1503        The French in Italy were defeated by the Spaniards in the battles of Cerignola and Garigliano, and Spanish forces entered Naples.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.8)

1503        A War of Succession broke out between Albert IV of Bavaria and Rupert of the Palatinate (a state of the Holy Roman Empire).
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.8)

1503        Jean Poyet, French Renaissance artist, died. His work included "Vespers: Massacre of the Innocents and Flight Into Egypt."
    (WSJ, 2/22/00, p.A20)

1503        Seville, Spain, was awarded rights to all trade with the recently discovered New World.
    (SSFC, 8/15/10, p.M4)

1503        Zanzibar became a Portuguese colony.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.8)

1504        Jan 17, Pius V, Pope from 1566-1572, was born.
    (HN, 1/17/99)

1504        Feb 29, An eclipse occurred and helped Christopher Columbus subdue his rebellious Indian carriers.
    (SCTS, p.29)

1504        Apr 1, English guilds went under state control.
    (MC, 4/1/02)

1504        Apr 18, Fra Filippo Lippi (~52), painter, died.
    (MC, 4/18/02)

1504        Apr 23, King Maximilian I routed troops to Bavaria.
    (MC, 4/23/02)

1504        May 5, Anton of Burgundy (~82), the Great Bastard, knight, died.
    (MC, 5/5/02)

1504        Jun 29, Diego Mendez, one of Columbus's captains, returned to Jamaica with a small caravel and rescued the Columbus expedition. Mendez had managed to take a canoe from Jamaica to Hispaniola where he chartered the rescue ship.

1504        Jul 12, Steven the Great (b.1433), Stefan Chel Mare, Prince of the Principality of Moldavia (1457-1504), died. He had waged battles against the Turks in the 14th century and became a national hero. Stephen III was buried in the village of Kobynya. In 2000 a 600-year-old oak tree that marked his grave was killed by a cold snap and high winds.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stephen_III_of_Moldavia)(SFC, 12/9/00, p.D8)

1504        Aug 6, Matthew "Nosey" Parker, archbishop of Canterbury, was born.
    (MC, 8/6/02)

1504        Nov 7, Columbus returned to Spain following his 4th voyage after suffering a shipwreck at Jamaica. Columbus brought back cocoa beans and chocolate drinks soon became a favorite in the Spanish court. In 2005 Martin Dugard authored “The Last Voyage of Columbus."
    (EWH, 1968, p.390)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)(SSFC, 6/26/05, p.C1)

1504        Nov 26, Isabella I (53), Catholic Queen of Castille and Aragon (1474-1504), patron of Columbus died.
    (MC, 11/26/01)

1504        Raphael painted "The Marriage of the Virgin." It exemplified the major principles of High Renaissance art.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.8)

1504        Albrecht Durer (1471-1528) drew his "Adam and Eve."
    (SFEC, 2/9/97, DB p.6)

1504        The Signoria of Florence commissioned Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo to paint the walls of the Grand Council Chamber in the Palazzo Vecchio.

1504        In Florence Leonardo da Vinci and Machiavelli became involved in a scheme to divert the Arno River and thereby cut the water supply to Pisa and force its surrender. Colombino, the project foreman, failed to follow da Vinci’s design, and the project was a spectacular failure. This is covered in the 1998 book "Fortune Is a River" by Roger D. Masters.
    (WSJ, 6/22/98, p.A20)

1504        Louis XII of France ceded Naples to Ferdinand II of Aragon in the Treaty of Lyon. Naples remained under Spanish control for the next 200 years.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.8)

1504        Babur, founder of the Mughal dynasty in India, captured Kabul in Afghanistan and maintained control to 1519. Babur’s mother descended from Genghis Khan and his father from Timur (Tamerlane).
    (https://www.afghan-web.com/history/chronology/)(TL-MB, 1988, p.8)(WSJ, 10/24/00, p.A12)

1504        Venetian ambassadors proposed to Turkey the construction of a Suez Canal.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.8)

1504        Henry Tudor, king of England, had coins minted with an accurate self likeness.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.8)

1505        Feb 4, Joan of Valois (40), Queen of France, saint, died.
    (MC, 2/4/02)

1505          Feb 26, In Brest Polish Chancellor J. Laski invited the Lithuanian government to reconfirm and expand the 1501 Union of Melnik, but the offer was rejected.
    (LHC, 2/26/03)

1505        Apr 20, Jews were expelled from Orange, Burgundy, by Philibert of Luxembourg.
    (MC, 4/20/02)

1505        Jul 24, On their way to India, a group of Portuguese explorers sacked the city-state of Kilwa, East Africa, and killed the king for failing to pay tribute.
    (HN, 7/24/98)

1505        Oct 27, The Grand Duke of Moscow, Ivan III (also known as "Ivan the Great"), died; he was succeeded by his son, Vasily III (Basil III). Vasily's son, Ivan IV, later became the first czar of Russia, "Ivan the Terrible."
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.9)(AP, 10/27/05)

1505        Dec 18, John IX van Horne, prince-bishop of Lieges, Belgium, was executed.
    (MC, 12/18/01)

1505        Giovanni Bellini painted "The Virgin and Child with Saints," the most perfect realization of the "holy conversation" theme in all of Western painting.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.9)

1505        Hieronymus Bosch began his triptych "The Garden of Earthly Delights" and marked the last fling of the Gothic Middle Ages. He also painted "The Temptation of St. Anthony."
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.9)(SFC, 8/27/98, p.E3)

1505        Giorgione painted "The Concert."
    (WSJ, 7/16/02, p.D6)

1505        Pope Julius summoned Michelangelo to Rome to design the pope’s tomb. The contract was revised 5 times and only 3 of 40 large figures were executed.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.9)(OG)

1505        Leonardo da Vinci painted “The Battle of Anghiari" on a wall in Florence’s Palazzo Vecchio. It commemorated a victory of Florentine forces over the ruling Medici. In 1563 the Medici, having regained power, hired Giorgio Vasari to cover up Leonardo’s work with a painting celebrating one of their own martial successes. It was later thought that Vasari hid the original behind his new work.
    (WSJ, 4/10/08, p.D7)
1505        Leonardo da Vinci’s “Codex on the Flight of Birds" dated to about this time.

1505        Raphael painted his “Madonna of the Goldfinch" about this time for the wedding of a friend, Lorenzo Nasi. The painting was shredded in 1548 when Nasi’s palace collapsed. The work was pieced together and modern restoration, which began in 1999, was completed in 2008.
    (SFC, 10/31/08, p.E7)

1505        Wimpfeling published the first history of Germany, "Epitome Rerum Germanicarum."
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.9)

1505        Maximilian I began a reformation of the Holy Roman Empire.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.9)

1505        Christ’s College, Cambridge, England, was founded.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.9)

1505        Magellan began to serve Portugal when he enlisted in the fleet of Francisco de Almeida. He continued in Portuguese service on many expeditions, being wounded in a campaign against the Moroccan stronghold of Azamor in 1513.  The wound caused him to limp for the rest of his life. Magellan petitioned King Manuel of Portugal for an increase in his pension as a titular rise in rank, but the king refused and sent him back to Morocco. Upon his second petition in 1516, Magellan was told he might offer his services elsewhere.
    (HNQ, 10/9/00)

1505        A well armed Portuguese fleet attacks Kilwa and then Mombasa. The Portuguese then attempt to monopolize the trade in the east African ports but were unable to maintain control. By the late 1500s, Swahili groups regained control of several ports from the Portuguese..
    (ATC, p.144)

1505        Portuguese explorers discovered Ceylon (Sri Lanka), and established factories on the east coast of Africa.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.9)

1505        Christopher Columbus died in poverty in Spain. Columbus was the author of "Books of Prophecies," later translated by Delno C. West.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.9)(WSJ, 10/8/99, p.W15)

1505-1585    Thomas Tallis, English organist and vocal composer, especially of church music.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1450)

1506        Jan 22, The Swiss Guard mercenaries, summoned by Pope Julius II to protect the pope and the Vatican, arrived in Rome.
    (USAT, 5/6/98, p.6A)(AP, 1/22/06)

1506        Apr 7, Francis Xavier, saint, Jesuit missionary to India, Malaya, and Japan, was born.
    (MC, 4/7/02)

1506        May 19, Columbus selected his son Diego as sole heir.
    (MC, 5/19/02)

1506        May 20, Christopher Columbus (55) died in poverty in Spain, still believing he discovered the coast of Asia. Columbus died in the Spanish city of Valladolid, and was initially interred in a monastery there. Three years later, his remains were moved to a monastery on La Cartuja. In 1537, Maria de Rojas y Toledo, widow of Columbus' son Diego, was allowed to send the bones of her husband and his father to the cathedral in Santo Domingo for burial. There they lay until 1795, when Spain ceded the island of Hispaniola to France and decided Columbus' remains should not fall into foreigners' hands. A set of remains that the Spaniards thought were Columbus' were then dug up from behind the main altar in the newly built cathedral and shipped to a cathedral in Havana, where they remained until the Spanish-American War broke out in 1898 and Spain brought them to Seville. But in 1877, workers digging inside the Santo Domingo cathedral unearthed a leaden box containing 13 large bone fragments and 28 small ones. It was inscribed "Illustrious and distinguished male, don Cristobal Colon." The Dominicans said these were the real remains of Columbus and that the Spaniards must have taken the wrong remains in 1795.
    (AP, 5/20/97)(HN, 5/20/99)(AP, 10/13/02)(SFC, 1/18/05, p.A8)

1506        Leonardo da Vinci began work on “Salvador Mundi," a painting commissioned by King Louis XII of France. The painting was completed by 1513. In 2013 it was sold for $127.5 million to Russian billionaire Dmitry Rybolovlev.
    (SFC, 10/12/17, p.D3)
1506        Albrecht Durer painted his "Portrait of a Young Woman."
    (SFEC, 12/26/99, p.C17)
1506        Giorgione painted “The Three Philosophers" about this time.
    (WSJ, 8/3/06, p.D5)
1506        The Laocoon sculpture was unearthed in Rome. It served as a peg for Goethe’s aesthetic theories. It later inspired Gotthold Ephraim Lessing, 18th century German dramatist and critic, to write one of the greatest essays ever written on a work of ancient art.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.9)(WSJ, 9/7/99, p.A23)

1506        Pope Julius II placed the 1st stone for the new St. Peter’s Basilica. Bramante began to rebuild St. Peter’s Cathedral in Rome, which had been neglected since the 14th century when the popes resided at Avignon. Pope Urban VIII consecrated it in 1626.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.9)(SSFC, 2/18/07, p.A2)

1506        The University of Frankfurt-on-the-Oder was founded.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.9)

1506        Jacob Fugger, Augsburg merchant, imported spices to Europe from the East Indies.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.9)
1506        The Spaniards in the West Indies began raising sugar cane.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.9)

1506        Machiavelli, Italian diplomat, established the Florentine militia, the first Italian national troops.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.9)
1506        Andrea Mantegna (b.1431), Italian painter and engraver, died. His paintings included a dead Christ, “Christo Morto," whose bare feet seem to stick out of the picture. He also painted "Virgin and Child in Glory."
    (WSJ, 6/6/96, p.A12)(SFEC, 7/13/97, p.T11)(WSJ, 11/10/07, p.W14)

1506        King Chungjong (r.1506-1544) began his rule in Korea. He restored Confucian rule with the support of officials who had deposed King Yongsan-gun.

1506        Copernicus, Polish-born astronomer, was appointed canon of church properties in the Prussian diocese of Ermland.
    (ON, 2/11, p.5)

1506        Riots in Lisbon, Portugal, led to the slaughter of 2,000-4,000 converted Jews. This became the setting for a 1998 novel by Richard Zimler, "The Last Kabbalist of Lisbon."
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.9) (WSJ, 6/8/98, p.A21)

1506        Philip I of Castile died and was succeeded by a Council of Regency because of the insanity of his widow.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.9)

1506        Mozambique, Africa, was colonized by the Portuguese.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.9)

1506-1510    Leonardo da Vinci divided his time between Florence and Milan, where he serve Charles d’Amboise, the region’s French governor. It was in this period that he compiled his illustrated observations that came to be known as the 72-page Codex Leicester. It consists of 18 loose, double-sided sheets, written in mirror script and illustrated with about 360 sketches. The work was first planned as a treatise on the motion of water.
    (SFC, 10/29/96, p.F3)(WSJ, 10/31/96, p.A21)(NH, 11/96, p.14,96)

1507        Jan 15, Johann Oporinus [Herbster], Swiss book publisher (Koran), was born.
    (MC, 1/15/02)

1507        Feb 23, Gentile Bellini, Venetian artist, died.

1507        Mar 12, Cesare Borgia (31), cardinal, soldier, politician, died while fighting alongside his brother, the king of Navarre, in Spain.
    (HN, 3/12/99)(MC, 3/12/02)
1507        Apr 25, Martin Waldseemuller, a German geographer working at a small college in Eastern France, labeled the New World "America," for the first time in his book "Cosmographiae Introductio," and gave Amerigo Vespucci (d.1512) credit for discovering it. His map was the first to show North and South America as separate continents. Letters of 1504-1505 had circulated in Florence claimed that Vespucci had discovered the new World. Vespucci was in fact only a passenger or low officer on one of the ships captained by others. Vespucci was later believed to have been the brother of Simonetta Vespucci, the model for Venus in the Botticelli painting. In 2000 the US Library of Congress planned to acquire the original map for $14 million from the Prince Johannes Waldburg-wolfegg. A $10 million purchase was completed in 2003. In 2009 Toby Lester authored “The Fourth Part of the World: The Race to the Ends of the World, and the Epic Story of the Map That Gave America Its Name."
    (SFEC, 8/23/98, p.T10)(SFC, 10/27/00, p.C14)(WSJ, 7/25/03, p.W19)(AP, 4/25/07)(SSFC, 12/27/09, Books p.E5)(SFC, 11/8/17, p.A4)

1507        Oct 1, Italian architect Giacomo Barozzi da Vignola was born.
    (AP, 10/1/07)

1507        Giorgione painted his “Sunset Landscape" about this time.
    (WSJ, 8/3/06, p.D5)

1507        Margaret of Austria was appointed Regent by the States-General (parliament) of the Netherlands until the Archduke Charles came of age.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.9)

1507        The Diet of Constance recognized the unity of the Holy Roman Empire and founded the Imperial Chamber, the empire’s supreme judicial court.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.9)

1507        Genoa was annexed by the French.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.9)
1507        Martin Luther was ordained.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.9)

1507        Pope Julius II announced an indulgence for the re-building of St. Peter’s.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.9)

1507        Johannes Ruysch produced the first printed map of America, as declared by the selling map dealer, R.B. Arkway, Inc. It is dotted with Asian place names. In 1995 it was for sale for $135,000.
    (WSJ, 11/24/95, p.B-8)

1507-1650    The shores of Oman were dominated by Portuguese adventurers who were responsible for the forts of Mirani and Jalali. The native Bedouins spoke the Harsusi language.
    (NG, 5/95, p.121-123)

1508        Feb 4, Proclamation of Trent.
    (HN, 2/4/99)

1508        Feb 6, King Maximilian I (1459-1519) assumed the title of Emperor (1493-1519) without being crowned.
    (TL-MB, p.9)(WUD, 1994, p.886)(MC, 2/6/02)

1508        Aug 12, Ponce de Leon arrived and conquered the island of Boriquen (Puerto Rico). Spain had appointed him to colonize Puerto Rico. He explored Puerto Rico and Spanish ships under his command began to capture Bahamanian Tainos to work as slaves on Hispaniola. His settlement at Caparra, 2 miles south of San Juan Bay, was plagued by Taino Indians and cannibalistic Carib Indians.
    (NH, 10/96, p.23)(SC, 8/12/02)(http://welcome.topuertorico.org/glossary/index.shtml#936)

1508        Nov 30, Andrea Palladio (d.1580), [Andrea di Piero della Gondola], Italian Renaissance architect, was born in Padua.
    (AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.14)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andrea_Palladio)

1508        Giorgione painted "The Tempesta," a landscape of a stormy setting with a town in the background, a soldier lower left and a woman nursing to the right. It is at the Academia Gallery in Venice. His work “the Three Philosophers" also dated to about this time.
    (T&L, 10/80, p. 58)(WSJ, 12/4/97, p.A20)(SFC, 10/29/11, p.E2)
1508        Pope Julius II transferred Michelangelo to paint the Sistine Chapel ceiling in Rome.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.9)(OG)
1508        Raphael at age 26 entered the service of Pope Julius II and was entrusted with the decoration of the new papal apartments.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.9)
1508        The League of Cambrai was formed against Venice by Ferdinand of Aragon, Emp. Maximilian, Louis XII of France, and Pope Julius II as part of an ongoing dispute over sovereignty in Italy.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.9)

1508        Tamerlane's descendant, Babur, the founder of the Mughal Empire, annexed Kandahar (Afghanistan).

1508        Alfonso d’Albuquerque, Portuguese navigator, conquered Muscat in Oman.
    (AM, May/Jun 97 p.53)

1508        Sebastian de Ocampo, Spanish navigator, explored Cuba.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.9)

1508        In England Althorp was bought by John Spencer, the ancestor of the 9th Earl Spencer, Princess Diana’s brother. The estate in Great Brington was selected as the grave site for Princess Diana in 1997.
    (SFC, 4/3/98, p.B2)

1509        Jan 25, Giovanni Morone, Italian theologist, diplomat, cardinal, "heretic," was born.
    (MC, 1/25/02)

1509        Apr 21, Henry VII (b.1457), 1st Tudor king of England (1485-1509), died. In 2011 Allen Lane authored “Winter King: The Dawn of Tudor England."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_VII_of_England)(Econ, 9/24/11, p.107)

1509        Apr 22, Henry Tudor became King  Henry VIII of England following the death of his father, Henry VII. He soon married Catherine of Aragon, his brother’s widow and the aunt of Charles V (the Holy Roman Emperor), and fathered Mary, future Queen of England.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.161)(AP, 4/22/08)

1509        Apr 27, Pope Julius II excommunicated the republic of Venice. The pope lifted the ban in February 1510.
    (AP, 4/27/07)

1509        May 14, In the Battle of Agnadello, the French defeat the Venetians in Northern Italy.
    (HN, 5/14/98)

1509        May 20, Catharina Sforza (45), "La Sforza del Destino", Italian duchess of Forli, died.
    (MC, 5/20/02)

1509        Jun 11, England's King Henry VIII married Catherine of Aragon.
    (AP, 6/11/97)(HN, 6/11/98)
1509        Jun 11, In Italy troops of Florence took Pisa.
    (AP, 6/11/03)

1509        Jun 24, Henry VIII was crowned king of England.
    (AP, 6/24/97)(HN, 6/24/98)

1509        Jul 10, John Calvin, founder of Calvinism, the basis for modern Protestantism, was born.
    (HN, 7/10/98)

1509        Andrea Calmo (d.1571, Venetian playwright, was born about this time. He became a pioneer in comedia dell’arte.

1509        Fra Bartolomeo, Italian artist, painted "The Holy Family with the Infant St. John." It was purchased by the Los Angeles County Museum of Art (LACMA) for close to $4 million. His work "The Holy Family with the Infant St. John," was purchased by the John Paul Getty Museum in Malibu for $22.5 mil.
    (WUD, 1994, p.123)(SFC, 5/13/96, p.D-5)(WSJ, 10/29/96, p.A21)(SFEC, 1/11/98, p.D7)
1509        Sebastian Brant’s "Ship of Fools," a satire first published in 1494, appeared in an English version by Alexander Barclay.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.9)

1509        Erasmus (1466-1536), a Dutch philosopher and Christian scholar, lectured at Cambridge and dedicated his "In Praise of Folly," a witty satire on church corruption and scholastic philosophy, to Thomas More. The essay was first printed in June, 1511.

1509        Johann Pfefferkorn, a converted Jew, led a persecution of the Jews in Germany under Maximilian I.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.9)

1509        Brasenose College, Oxford, and St. John’s College, Cambridge, were founded.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.9)

1509        The Egyptian and Gujarat fleets were routed by the Portuguese at the Battle of Diu, which left the latter in control of the Indian seas and the spice trade.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.9)

1509        In Portugal the Madre de Deus convent was established by Queen Leonor. The tile-bedecked church, Igreja de Madre de Deus, was built almost 50 years later.
    (Econ, 6/12/10, p.96)

1509        Ponce de Leon (1474-1521) began serving as governor of Puerto Rico. He served three terms as the 1st, 3rd and 7th governor of the island. 

1509        Spanish armies invaded North Africa in a crusade against the Muslim rulers of Tripoli, Oran, and Bougie.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.9)
1509        Spanish conquistadores founded a colony at Darien on the Isthmus of Panama.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.9)

1509        The Venetian defeat at Agnadello led to the annexation of Faenza, Rimini, and Ravenna by Pope Julius II, and Otranto and Brindisi by Ferdinand of Aragon.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.9)

1509        Peter Henlein, Nuremberg inventor, invented the watch, nicknamed the Nuremberg egg.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.9)

1509-1520    The Spanish colonized the area of Nueva Granada (modern Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, Venezuela).
    (http://homepage20.seed.net.tw/[email protected]/flags/wfh/pg-am-4.htm)

1509-1523    The 177-foot Saint-Jacques bell tower was constructed in central Paris as part of the Church of Saint-Jacques-de-la-Boucherie ("Saint James of the butchery"). The was leveled in 1793 shortly after the French Revolution and only the bell tower survived.
    (SFC, 8/23/13, p.A2)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saint-Jacques_Tower)

1509-1564    John Calvin, French theologian. He started the Protestant Reformation in France in 1532.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.14)(SFC, 7/21/97, p.A11)

1510        Jan 22, Jews were expelled from Colmar, Germany.
    (MC, 1/22/02)

1510        May 25, Georges d'Amboise (49), French cardinal, viceroy in North Italy, died.
    (SC, 5/25/02)

1510        Jun 9, Nicolaas van Nieuwland, corrupt 1st bishop of Harlem, was born.
    (MC, 6/9/02)

1510        Jul 19,  In Berlin 38 Jews were burned at the stake.
    (MC, 7/19/02)

1510        Oct 28, Francisco Borgia was born. He was the grandson of debauched Pope Alexander VI, and became a theologian and saint.
    (MC, 10/28/01)

1510        Bernard Pallissy (d.1590), French ceramicist, painter and writer, was born.

1510        Giovanni Bellini painted “Virgin With the Blessing Child."
    (WSJ, 8/3/06, p.D5)
1510        Raphael painted "The Triumph of Galatea," a fresco on the wall of the Farnesina, the villa of Agnostino Chigi.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.10)
c1510        Alexander Barcley wrote his long poetic essay on the "Miseries of Courtiers." It described the psychology of feasting.
    (MT, 6/96, p.9)
1510        In Spain Garci Ordonez de Montalvo authored "Serges de Esplandian" (The Adventures of Esplandian), a novel that described an island filled with gold named California and ruled by Queen Califia.
    (SFEC, 4/18/99, BR p.1)(SFC, 2/25/00, p.C14)
1510          Juan de la Cosa, cartographer, made an early map of the New World.
    (SFEC, 2/14/99, p.T11)
1510        "Everyman," the first English morality play, was performed.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.10)
1510        John Colet, English churchman and humanist, founded St. Paul’s School in London.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.10)

1510        Erasmus became Prof. of Greek at Cambridge Univ.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.10)

1510        Martin Luther became professor of theology at the Univ. of Wittenberg.

1510        Sunflowers from America were introduced by the Spaniards into Europe.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.10)

1510        The Florentine banker Bartolomeo di Marchionni lent the King of Spain money for the crown’s first shipment of Africans to Santo Domingo.
    (SFEC,11/16/97, BR p.4)

1510        Slave trade began with a consignment of African slaves to work on Portuguese sugar plantations in Brazil.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.10)

1510        In China Liu Jin, a eunuch of the Ming dynasty, was executed for abusing his authority. He had grown wealthy from graft.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R4)

1510        War broke out between Denmark and the Hanseatic League.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.10)

1510        Goa, India, was captured by the Portuguese.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.10)

1510        The wheel-lock firearm was introduced in Nurnberg, Germany.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.10)

1510        Leonardo da Vinci designed the horizontal water wheel that was the forerunner of the modern water turbine.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.10)

1510        Giorgione (b.~1478), Italian painter, died of the plague. He was a top student of Bellini and excelled in the paragone: a competition between painting an poetry, where painters sought to rival poets in conveying beauty. Titian finished Giorgione’s “Sleeping Venus."
    (T&L, 10/80, p. 58)(WSJ, 12/4/97, p.A20)(Econ, 7/29/06, p.77)

1510        The Catholic Church’s ban on usury was rewritten under Pope Leo X.
    (Econ, 8/1/15, p.71)

1510-1515    Don Pedro Fajardo y Chacon, commissioned a set of wood friezes for his Velez Blanco castle in Almeria. The friezes were based on engravings by Jacopo da Strasbourg and Zoan Andrea Vavasorri that depicted the triumphs of Caesar and events in the mythical life of Hercules, the "Labors of Hercules."
    (WSJ, 1/6/00, p.A20)(WSJ, 5/18/00, p.A24)

1510-1550    Spain took in gold shipments from the New World at 3,000 pounds a year.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)

1510-1572    Frances Clouet, French painter. His work included the dandified "Charles IX of France."
    (SFEC, 12/1/96, BR p.4)

1511        Jul 30, Giorgio Vasari (d.1574), Italy, painter, architect and art historian (Vasari's Lives), was born. He wrote "Lives of the Artists."
    (WUD, 1994, p.1582)(MC, 7/30/02)

1511        Sep 1, Council of Pisa opened. Louis XII of France called the council to oppose the Holy League of Pope Julius II.
    (PTA, 1980, p.432)(MC, 9/1/02)

1511        Nov 22, Erasmus Reinhold, German mathematician (calculated planetary table), was born.
    (MC, 11/22/01)

1511        Fra Bartolomeo painted "The Mystic Marriage of St. Catherine." He emphasizing his mastery in the display of draperies.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.10)

1511        Raphael completed the frescoes in the Stanza della Segnatura in the Vatican for Pope Julius II.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.10)

1511        Diego de Velazquez, Spanish commander, occupied Cuba. In the village of Caonao soldiers under Velazquez slaughtered close to 2,000 Taino Indians. Among the Spaniards was Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo (13), who in 1542 led a 3-ship expedition up the California coast.
    (TL-MB, p.10)(SFC, 10/18/14, p.C1)

1511        There were Jews in Thessaloniki, Greece involved in the printing.
    (WSJ, 4/29/97, p.A20)

1511        Sebastian Virdung, German musician, published the earliest manual for playing musical instruments.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.10)

1511        Pope Julius joined the Holy League with Aragon and Venice against the French. Papal forces captured Modena and Mirandola from the French.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.10)

1511        In Mecca, Arabia, there was an attempt to ban coffee.
    (Econ, 12/20/03, p.90)

1511        Portuguese sailors first reached the unsettled Mascarene Islands (Mauritius, Reunion and Rodrigues). They discovered the dodo bird and killed many for sport.
    (NH, 11/96, p.24)(SSFC, 12/9/01, p.C9)

1511        Vasily III became the new patriarch of Moscow.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.10)

1511        Malacca (Melaka), the center of East Indian spice trade, was captured by the Portuguese. When the Dutch gained influence in Indonesia and Jakarta they took over Melaka and built the fortress A Famosa. St. Paul’s Church, originally called Our Lady of the Hill, was built by the Portuguese following their takeover of Malacca.
    (TL-MB, p.10)(SFEC, 8/3/97, p.T8)(Econ, 11/15/14, SR p.5)

1511        Portuguese traders reached the Banda Islands, including Run, and broke the Venetian monopoly over nutmeg. Over the next century the Dutch muscled in an almost cornered the nutmeg market. The history of the nutmeg trade was documented in 1999 by Giles Milton in his: "Nathaniel's Nutmeg."
    (WSJ, 5/21/99, p.W7)

1511        King Ferdinand of Spain said: "Get gold, humanely if possible, but at all hazards – get gold."
    (WSJ, 11/9/00, p.A24)

1512         Feb 22, Amerigo Vespucci (b.1454), Italian explorer, financier, navigator, and cartographer, died in Seville. He was born in the Republic of Florence and sailing for Portugal around 1501–1502, demonstrated that Brazil and the West Indies were not Asia's eastern outskirts (as initially conjectured from Columbus' voyages) but a separate, unexplored land mass colloquially known as the New World. In 1507, the new continent was named America after the Latin version of Vespucci's first name.
1512        Mar 5, Gerardus Mercator (d.1594), Flemish philosopher and cartographer, was born in Rupelmonde, Flanders (later Belgium).

1512        Apr 10, James V, king of Scotland (1513-42), was born.
    (PCh, 1992, p.167)(MC, 4/10/02)

1512        Apr 11, The forces of the Holy League were heavily defeated by the French at the Battle of Ravenna. France under Gaston de Foix beat the Spanish Army. Gaston de Foix, French pretender to Navarre throne, died in battle.
    (HN, 4/11/99)(MC, 4/11/02)

1512        Aug 31, Giuliano de Medici became the new governor of Florence.
    (ON, 11/04, p.3)
1512        Nov 1, Michelangelo completed his paintings on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel and the work was first exhibited to the public. In 2020 the Vatican released "The Sistine Chapel," a 3-volume set documenting every inch of Michelangelo's 4 years of work. 1,999 copies were printed at $22,000 per set.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.10)(AP, 11/1/97)(HN, 11/1/98)(Econ., 11/7/20, p.74)

1512        Nov 7, Giuliano de Medici fired Niccolo Machiavelli from civil service in Florence.
    (ON, 11/04, p.4)

1512        Nov 16, Jemme Herjuwsma, Fries rebel, was beheaded.
    (MC, 11/16/01)

1512        Nov 17, Kempo Roeper, Frisian rebel, was quartered.
    (MC, 11/17/01)

1512        Dec 27, The laws of Burgos gave New World natives legal protection against abuse and authorized Negro slavery.
    (HN, 12/27/98)

1512        Raphael completed the Sistine Madonna, a visual expression of Renaissance humanism.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.10)

1512        "Masque" was used for the first time to describe a poetic drama.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.10)

1512        The English began using double-deck warships. They displaced 1,000 tons and were armed with 70 guns.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.10)

1512        Newfoundland cod banks were exploited by fisherman from England, France, Portugal and Holland, who sent the dried catch back to Europe.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.10)

1512        Copernicus, Polish-born astronomer, wrote his manuscript “The Little Commentary," in which he suggested that the earth’s apparent immobility was due to a “false appearance" and a sun-centered cosmos would resolve many astronomical inconsistencies.
    (ON, 2/11, p.5)

1512        French armies defeated the forces of the Holy League at the Battle of Ravenna.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.10)

1512        Henry VIII claimed the throne of France and sent troops unsuccessfully into Spain.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.10)

1512        Shi’ism became the state religion of Persia.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.10)

1512        Portuguese explorers discovered the Celebes and found nutmeg trees in the Moluccas. This began an 84-year monopoly of the nutmeg and mace trades.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.10)
1512        The Portuguese took over control of East Timor.
    (SFC, 3/3/98, p.A6)

1512        Spain imported black slaves to Hispaniola to replace moribund Indian laborers.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.10)
1512        The Spaniards conquered Navarre and annexed it to Castile.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.10)(Econ, 6/26/04, Survey p.13)

1512        Selim I deposed his father Bayazid II and became Sultan of Turkey.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.10)

1512        Ponce de Leon stepped ashore on the Turks and Caicos Islands.
    (SFEC, 2/14/99, p.T4)

1512        Julius II convened the Lateran Council to try for the first time to reform abuses within the Church of Rome.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.10)

1512-1520    Selim I followed Beyazid II in the Ottoman House of Osman.
    (Ot, 1993, xvii)

1513        Feb 20, Pope Julius II died. He was laid in rest in a huge tomb sculptured by Michelangelo.
    (HN, 2/20/99)

1513        Mar 6, Niccolo Machiavelli was released from jail in Florence. He complained in verse that it was difficult to write poetry there because people kept beating him up.
    (ON, 11/04, p.4)

1513        Mar 11, Giovanni de' Medici became Pope Leo X. The Medici Pope Leo X led the Catholic Church until 1521.
    (OG)(MC, 3/12/02)

1513        Mar 27, Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de Leon sighted Florida.
    (AP, 3/27/97)(HN, 3/27/98)

1513        Apr 2, Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de Leon landed in Florida. Juan Ponce de Leon, Spanish explorer, discovered Florida and planted orange and lemon trees there. [see March 27, 1512 entry] He also discovered the Dry Tortugas, 10 small keys southwest of Key West. The Spanish governor of Puerto Rico, Juan Ponce de Leon, discovered Florida and named it Pascua Florida, "feast of the flowers." His discovery was made during his search for the legendary Fountain of Youth.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.10)(NH, 4/97, p.317)(AP, 4/2/97)(SFEC, 1/2/00, Z1 p.2)(HNQ, 3/9/00)

1513        Apr 8,    Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de Leon and his expedition began exploring the Florida coastline.
    (AP, 4/8/07)

1513        Jun 6, Battle at Novara: Habsburgers vs. Valois.
    (MC, 6/6/02)

1513        Aug 16, Henry VIII of England and Emperor Maximilian defeated the French at Guinegatte, France, in the Battle of the Spurs.
    (HN, 8/16/98)

1513        Sep 9, James IV (40), King of Scotland (1488-1513), was defeated and killed by English at the Battle of Flodden Field. The Scottish navy was sold to France.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.10)(HN, 9/9/98)(MC, 9/9/01)

1513        Sept 25, Vasco Nunez de Balboa, Spanish explorer, crossed the Isthmus of Panama and claimed the Pacific Ocean for Spain. He was named governor of Panama and the Pacific by King Ferdinand. In 2004 Hugh Thomas authored “Rivers of Gold: The Rise of the Spanish Empire from Columbus to Magellan."
    (HFA, '96, p.38)(TL-MB, 1988, p.10)(SFEC, 9/21/97, p.C7)(WSJ, 6/2/04, p.D12)

1513        Sep 29, Spanish explorer Vasco Nunez de Balboa discovered the Pacific Ocean.
    (HN, 9/29/98)

1513        Michelangelo began to work on his Moses, the awesome central figure of the statues surrounding the tomb of Julius II.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.10)

1513        Niccolo Machiavelli wrote "The Prince" in which he gave reasons for the rise and fall of states. He dedicated it to Lorenzo de Medici, the successor to Giuliano. It was not published until 1532. In it he justified the ruthless subjection of religion and morality to politics. A 1998 translation by Prof. Angelo M. Codevilla included 428 footnotes and attempted to maintain the peculiar language of Machiavelli.
    (WSJ, 2/18/98, p.A20)(WSJ, 2/27/98, p.A15)(ON, 11/04, p.5)

1513        Chartres Cathedral, near Paris, was completed after almost 400 years of work.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.10)

1513        The Palazzo Farnese, a large and magnificent palace in Rome, was designed by Antonio de Sangallo the younger and Michelangelo.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.10)

1513        Calusa Indians in catamaran canoes attacked Spanish ships under Ponce de Leon in the southwest Florida and both sides suffered casualties.
    (AM, 11/04, p.49)

1513        Henry VIII and Maximilian defeated the French forces in Italy and Louis XII gave up Milan.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.10)

1513        Christian II became King of Denmark and Norway. He later asserted his right to the Swedish throne by force of arms.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.10)

1513        Jorge Alvarez, Portuguese commander, reached Canton, China.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.10)
1513        Portugal captured Goa, India.
    (SSFC, 3/19/06, p.F7)
1513        Magellan, who served for the Portuguese on many expeditions, was wounded in a campaign against the Moroccan stronghold of Azamor. The wound caused him to limp for the rest of his life.
    (HNQ, 10/9/00)

1513        The Swiss completed the acquisition of the southern province of Ticino.
    (SFEC, 6/14/98, p.T4)

1513        A manuscript map was drawn by Piri Reis (1470-1554) a Turkish captain who later became the Chief Admiral of the Ottoman Navy. It was presented to Ottoman Sultan Selim I in Egypt in 1517.

1513-1514    Dosso Dossi painted his portrait of "Saint George."
    (WSJ, 1/20/98, p.A20)

1514        Apr 26, Copernicus made his first observations of Saturn. Nicholas Copernicus later proposed that the sun is stationary and that the earth and the planets move in circular orbits around it.
    (HN, 4/26/98)(BHT, Hawking, p.4)

1514        Aug 23, Selim I (the Grim), Ottoman Sultan, routed a Persian army in the Battle of Chaldiran.
    (TL-MB, p.10)(PCh, 1992, p.168)

1514        Sep 15, Selim I entered Tabriz, Persia, and massacred much of the population.
    (PCh, 1992, p.168)

1514        Sep, Thomas Wolsey (1473-1530) was appointed archbishop of York.
    (TL-MB, p.10)

1514        Dec 4, Richard Hunne, English "heretic", allegedly committed suicide.
    (MC, 12/4/01)

1514        Dec 31, Andreas Vesalius (d.1564), anatomist, author of "De Humani Corporis Fabrica," was born in Brussels, Belgium
    (NH, 10/96, p.34)(TL-MB, 1988, p.15)(MC, 12/31/01)

1514        Giovanni Bellini painted “Feast of the Gods." The painting depicts Ovid’s tale of how Vesta, goddess of virginity is approached while sleeping by Priapus, god of fertility, who begins to twitch up her tunic. At that moment a donkey sneezes and awakens Vesta, who quickly awakes and runs away. It is now on exhibit at the National Gallery of Art in Wa., DC.
    (T&L, 10/1980, p.66)(WSJ, 8/3/06, p.D5)

1514        Diego Columbus, son of Christopher, built the first seat of government in the Americas in Santo Domingo.
    (SFEC, 2/14/99, p.T10)

1514        Hampton Court Palace was begun for Wolsey.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.10)

1514        Pope Leo X issued a papal bull against slavery.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.10)

1514        England and France declared a truce in their warfare. Mary Tudor, sister of Henry VIII, married Louis XII.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.10)

1514        At the Battle of Orsha, Lithuanian forces defeated those of Moscow.
    (SFC, 9/9/96, p.A12)

1514        Vasily III, ruler of Moscow, captured Smolensk from Poland.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.10)

1514        George Dozsa, soldier of fortune, instigated a peasant’s revolt in Hungary. He was later captured and grilled alive.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.10)

1514        Spanish soldiers conquered the natives of Cuba and founded the city of Trinidad.
    (TL-MB, p.10)(SSFC, 5/31/15, p.L1)

1514        1,500 Spanish settlers went to Panama.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.10)

1515        Jan 1, King Louis XII (b.1462) of France, died. He was succeeded by Francis I (1494-1547).
    (Econ, 12/12/09, p.93)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francis_I_of_France)

1515        Feb 4, Michael Radvila the Black was born in Nesvizh. He later became palatine of Vilnius, chancellor of Lithuania, and supporter of Reformation.
    (LHC, 2/4/03)

1515        Mar 28, Theresa of Avila (d.1582), Teresa de Jesus (St. Theresa), Spanish Carmelite nun, mystic writer, saint, was born. She initiated reforms in the Order. She co-founded with John of the Cross (1542-1591) the Order of Discalced (barefoot) Carmelites. "Untilled ground, however rich, will bring forth thistles and thorns; so also the mind of man." "To wish to act like angels while we are still in this world is nothing but folly."
    (CU, 6/87)(WUD, 1994, p.769)(AP, 12/8/97)(AP, 7/5/98)(MC, 3/28/02)

1515        Jul 21, St. Philippus Nerius, [Philippo Neri], Italian merchant, priest, was born.
    (MC, 7/21/02)

1515        Jul 22, Emperor Maximillian and Vladislav of Bohemia forged an alliance between the Habsburg [Austria] and Jagiello [Polish-Lithuanian] dynasties in Vienna.
    (HN, 7/22/98)

1515        Jul 26, Santiago, Cuba, was founded.
    (SFC, 7/22/00, p.A17)

1515        Sep 13, King Francis of France defeated the Swiss army under Cardinal Matthias Schiner at Marignano, northern Italy. Switzerland was last involved in a war. French armies defeated the Swiss and Venetians at the Battle of Marignano and Milan fell to the French. Francis I conquered Lombardy in northern Italy.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.11)(SFC, 6/7/96, p.A12)(HN, 9/13/98)

1515        Sep 22, Anne of Cleeves, fourth wife of Henry the VIII, was born in Cleeves, Germany.
    (HN, 9/22/00)

1515        Oct 4, Lucas Cranach  (d.1586), the Younger, German painter, was born.
    (WUD, 1994, p.339)(MC, 10/4/01)

1515        Nov 15, Thomas Wolsey (1473-1530), archbishop of York, was made a cardinal.

1515        Dec 2, Gonzalo de Cordoba, Spanish general, strategist, viceroy of Naples, died.
    (MC, 12/2/01)

1515        Dec 24, Thomas Cardinal Wolsey was appointed English Lord Chancellor.
    (MC, 12/24/01)

1515        Giovanni Bellini (b.~1430-1516), Italian artist, painted his masterpiece “Lady With a Mirror.
    (Econ, 7/29/06, p.77)

1515        Hans Holbein the Younger arrived in Basel, the European center of book publishing. The city in 1997 owned 340 prints by Holbein.
    (WSJ, 6/24/97, p.A20)

1515        Alexander Barclay began composing his "Eclogues," the earliest pastoral poems in English.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.11)

1515        John Skelton’s "Magnyficense" became one of the best known morality plays.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.11)

1515        Raphael succeeded Bramante as chief architect of St. Peter’s in Rome.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.11)

1515        Matthias Grunewald completed the enormous altarpiece for the Antonites of Isenheim.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.11)

1515        In England the Gothic style chapel at King’s College in Cambridge was completed.
    (Econ 6/3/17, p.71)

1515        By this year the Taino Indians of what is now the Dominican Republic were practically annihilated in clashes with the Spanish.
    (SFC, 3/29/97, p.A10)

1515        Petrus Apianus, German mathematician and instrument maker, attempted to explain the universe by crafting an artistic dial that tracked the movement of the stars.
    (SFC, 7/19/02, p.E3)

1515        Juan Diaz de Solis, Spanish navigator, reached the Rio de la Plata in South America and discovered Argentina.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.11)
1515        Bartolome de Las Casas, Dominican priest, returned to Spain from Hispaniola to plead on behalf of the ill-treated native Indians.
    (NH, 10/96, p.29)
1515        Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de Leon first described the Gulf Stream. In 1770 Benjamin Franklin drew a map of the Gulf Stream and in 1786 described it in detail in Transactions of the American Philosophical Society. In 2008 Stan Ulanski authored “The Gulf Stream: Tiny Plankton, Giant Bluefin, and the Amazing Story of the Powerful River in the Atlantic."
    (WSJ, 10/4/08, p.W9)

1515        Afonso d’Albuquerque, Viceroy of the Portuguese Indies, captured Hormuz (Ormuz) and forced all other traders to round the Cape of Good Hope. This established Portugal’s supremacy in trade with the Far East. Hormuz is the strait between Iran and Trucial Oman.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.11)(WUD, 1994, p.684)

1515        The first nationalized French factories were set up in the manufacture of tapestries and arms.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.11)

1515        Spanish conquistadores founded Havana, Cuba.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.11)
1515        Bartolome de Las Casas (1474-1566), Dominican priest and the first Spanish priest to be ordained in the New World, returned to Spain from Hispaniola to plead on behalf of the ill-treated native Indians. He became known as the “Apostle to the Indians." Helen Rand Parish (1912-2005) later authored a number of seminal works on Las Casas.
    (NH, 10/96, p.29)(TL-MB, p.11)(SSFC, 5/15/05, p.A19)(http://tinyurl.com/brzzu)

1515        Diego (b.~1450), the younger brother of Christopher Columbus, died. He had accompanied Columbus on his second voyage (1493). Diego was released from chains in Spain in 1500, became a priest and returned to the West Indies in 1509.
    (AH, 2/03, p.7)(www.newadvent.org/cathen/04140a.htm)

1515-1516    Dosso Dossi, court painter in Ferrara, painted "Melissa" (aka Circe).
    (WSJ, 1/20/98, p.A20)

1515-1519    Coffee from Arabia appeared in Europe.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)

1515-1520    In Portugal the Belem Tower was built in Lisbon and served as a beacon to sailors. It originally stood well in the water but now the Tagus laps only its base.
    (SFEC, 2/1/98, p.T7)

1516        Feb 18, Mary Tudor, later Queen Mary I of England (1553-1558) and popularly known as "Bloody Mary," was born in Greenwich Palace.
    (HN, 2/18/98)(AP, 2/18/98)

1516        Feb 23, The Hapsburg Charles I succeeded Ferdinand in Spain.
    (HN, 2/23/99)

1516        Mar 17, Giuliano de' Medici (37), monarch of Florence, died.
    (MC, 3/17/02)

1516        Mar 26, Konrad von Gesner, naturalist (Bibliotheca Universalis), was born in Zurich, Switzerland.
    (SS, 3/26/02)

1516        Mar 29, The Jewish Ghetto of Venice, the first ghetto in Europe, was established by the government of Venetian Serenissima Republic. The incoming Jews were forced to pay 30% more to their new landlords as compared to the outgoing Christian tenants.
    (www.elitehotel.it/en/the_ancient_jewish_ghetto_in_venice_13en1341en.htm)(Econ, 6/18/16, p.83)

1516        Apr 23, Bavarian Dukes Wilhelm IV and his brother Ludwig X enacted the Reinheitsgebot law (purity law). It required that beer be made from malt, hops, water and nothing else. Yeast was added to the list later.
    (WSJ, 5/27/98, p.A1)(SFC, 7/15/04, p.A2)(Econ, 10/9/10, p.76)(SFC, 4/23/16, p.A2)(Econ, 4/23/15, p.44)

1516        Aug 24, At the Battle of Marj Dabik, north of Aleppo, the Turks beat Syria. Suliman I (Selim the Grim), the Ottoman Sultan, routed the Mamelukes (Egypt) with the support of artillery capturing Aleppo and Damascus. This opened the way to 400 years of Ottoman Turkish rule over most of the Arab world.
    (PC, 1992, p.169)(Econ, 11/14/09, p.101)

1516        Mateo Realdo Colombo (d.1559), Italian anatomist and discoverer of the pulmonary circulation, was born at Cremona. He studied medicine at Padua with Vesalius, became his assistant, and in 1544 succeeded him as lecturer in surgery and anatomy. The best authority for Colombo's work in anatomy is his "De Re Anatomicâ" (Venice, 1559; Paris, 1562). The most complete life is that by Tollin in Pflügers Archiv: XXI-XXII. In English there is a good sketch by Fisher, Annals of Anatomy and Surgery (Brooklyn, 1880). In 1997 Federico Andahazi authored "The Anatomist," a novel that was based on Colombo’s research on the clitoris.
    (CE, online)(SFEC, 10/29/00, BR p.5)

1516        Hans Holbein in Basel painted a wooden shingle as a sort of advertisement for the schoolmaster Oswald Geishüsler. It marked the beginning of "profane" painting in the West.
    (WSJ, 6/24/97, p.A20)
1516        Titian began "The Assumption of the Virgin," a monumental altarpiece in the Church of the Frari, Venice.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.11)
1516        Giovanni Bellini (b.~1430), Italian artist, died in Venice. Giorgione and Titian had graduated from his workshop.
    (Econ, 7/29/06, p.77)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Giovanni_Bellini)

1516        The first published account of the discovery of North America appeared in "De Rebus Oceanicus et Novo Orbe" by the Italian historian Peter Martyr.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.11)

1516        The "Education of a Christian Prince" by Desiderius Erasmus was dedicated to Prince Charles, who later became Habsburg Emperor Charles V. Erasmus argued that the king is a servant of the people and must rule according to the principles of honor and sincerity.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Education_of_a_Christian_Prince)(Econ., 12/19/20, p.63)
1516         "Novum Instrumentum omne," the first published New Testament in Greek, was prepared by Desiderius Erasmus (1466–1536) and printed by Johann Froben (1460–1527) of Basel.  Erasmus began by copying manuscripts found in monasteries and given to him by his friend Thomas More. His Latin translation and commentary and an improved Greek text differed in many places from the Vulgate of St. Jerome, and was immediately recognized as the most accurate translation so far. The first printed Greek New Testament was the Complutensian Polyglot (1514), it was the second to be published (1516). The title was changed to Novum Testamentum omne with the second edition (1519).
    {Netherlands, Bible}
    (V.D.-H.K.p.159)(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Novum_Instrumentum_omne)(Econ., 12/19/20, p.63)

1516        Thomas More published his "Utopia," the "golden little book" that invented a literary-world immune from the evils of Europe, where all citizens were equal and believed in a good and just God. "Your sheep, which are usually so tame and cheaply fed, begin now... to be so greedy and so wild that they devour human beings themselves and devastate and depopulate fields, houses, and towns." From More’s Utopia. The key thought in the work is that poverty, injustice and inequality will never be eliminated from the world until private property is abolished.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.160)(NG, 5.1988, pp. 574)(WSJ, 10/22/98, p.A20)

1516        The German Quedlinburg Manuscript of this date and other church treasures were stolen from a cave where they were being stored in 1945 by Lt. Joe Tom Meador of Whitewright, Texas. The items were then sold by his brother and sister. In 1996 a criminal trial focused on the issue.
    (WSJ, 12/11/96, p.A20)

1516        Music printed from engraved plates was used for the first time in Italy.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.11)

1516        Archduke Charles, later Emp. Charles V, succeeded his grandfather, King Ferdinand II of Spain, and founded the Hapsburg dynasty.   
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.11)

1516        The Treaty of Noyon brought peace between France and Spain.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.11)

1516        Corpus Christi College, Oxford, and Seville Univ., Spain, were founded.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.11)

1516        Juan Diaz de Solis, Spanish explorer, was killed on the coast of Argentina. He was eaten by natives.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.11)(SFEM, 11/15/98, p.26)

1516        The Ottomans made Aleppo their second city following its seizure.
    (Econ, 10/1/16, p.46)

1517        Jan 20, Ottoman sultan Selim I captured Cairo. The center of power transferred then to Istanbul. The Ottoman Empire retained the Mamluks as an Egyptian ruling class.

1517        Mar 26, The famous Flemish composer Heinrich Issac, whose music fused Flemish, Italian and Germanic styles, died.
    (HN, 3/26/99)

1517        Apr 13, Tuman Bey, the last Mameluke sultan of Egypt, was hanged as Osman’s army occupied Cairo.
    (MC, 4/13/02)

1517        Jun 11, Sir Thomas Pert reached Hudson Bay.
    (SC, 6/11/02)

1517        Jul 1, The 1st burning of Protestants at stake in Netherlands.
    (MC, 7/1/02)

1517        Oct 6, Fra Bartolommeo (b.1472), Florentine Renaissance painter, died. He was a Dominican monk nicknamed Baccio della Porta. His work included a portrait of Savonarola.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fra_Bartolommeo)(SFC, 5/13/96, p.D-5)

1517        Oct 31, Martin Luther nailed his Ninety-five Thesis to the door of the Wittenberg Palace All Saints’ Church. He grew to believe in faith alone as man’s link to the justice of God, and therefore denied the need for the vast infrastructure of the Church. This event signaled the beginning of the Protestant Reformation in Germany and Protestantism in general, shattering the external structure of the medieval church and at the same time reviving the religious consciousness of Europe. Martin Luther (1483-1546) was born in Eisleben, Germany. He was a monk in the Catholic Church until 1517, when he founded the Lutheran Church.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.163)(CU, 6/87)(SFC, 7/21/97, p.A11)(AP, 10/31/97)(AP, 10/31/97) (HN, 10/31/98)

1517        Oct, Ferdinand Magellan arrived in Spain and began the first voyage to successfully circumnavigate the world a little less than two years later. He  eventually died in the Philippines in 1521. The expedition was completed by others in 1522. 
    (HNQ, 10/9/00)

1517        Seville Cathedral was completed after 115 years of work.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.11)

1517        Archduke Charles left the Netherlands for Spain and entered Valladolid in triumph.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.11)

1517        Archduke Charles granted a monopoly in the African slave trade to Florentine merchants.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.11)

1517        Francisco Hernandez de Cordoba, Spanish explorer, sailed from Cuba and discovered the Mayan civilization in the Yucatan, southeast  Mexico.
    (TL-MB, p.11)(SSFC, 5/6/01, p.T6)

1517        Bartolomeo de las Casas, the first Spanish priest to be ordained in the New World, pleaded the case of oppressed and enslaved American Indians.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.11)

1517        An Aztec chronicler described a comet as a "flaming ear of corn."
    (NG, 12/97, p.97)

1517        The Mamelukes in Egypt lost power.
    (WUD, 1994, p.869)

1517        In Germany the Salzbergwerk Berchtesgaden salt mine began operations.
    (SSFC, 8/6/06, p.G5)

1517        Cardinal Alessandro Farnese (1468-1549) began work on his Palazzo Farnese. He was Pope Paul III of the Roman Catholic Church from 1534 to his death.
1517        Luca Pacioli (b.1445), Italian Franciscan friar and mathematician, died. His work included the first principles of double-entry book-keeping.
    (Econ, 1/18/14, SR p.5)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Luca_Pacioli)

1517        Portuguese sailors named Ilha Formosa (beautiful island), later known as Taiwan.
    (SFC, 12/11/99, p.B6)

1517-1648    This period was covered by Mark Greengrass in his 2014 book “Christendom Destroyed: Europe 1517-1648."
    (Econ, 8/2/14, p.64)

1518        Mar, Martin Luther wrote his “Sermon on Indulgences and Grace" and published the work in his native German avoiding regional vocabulary.
    (Econ, 12/17/11, p.94)

1518        Apr 18, Bona Sforza (1494-1558) was crowned Queen of Poland and Grand Duchess of Lithuania in Wawel Cathedral, Krakow. The Italian niece of Bianca Maria Sforza, who in 1493 married Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I, became the 3rd consort of Lithuania’s Grand Duke Sigismund the Old (1467-1548).

1518        Sep 29, Jacopo Tintoretto (d.1588), Italian artist, was born.
    (Econ, 2/10/07, p.90)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tintoretto)

1518        Oct 12, A pontifical ambassador interrogated Rev. Dr. Martin Luther. Luther was summoned to the Diet of Augsburg where he refused to recant.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.11)(MC, 10/12/01)

1518        Raphael painted a portrait of Leo X which showed spectacles with concave lenses for short-sightedness.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.11)
1518        Raphael began painting the nude model “La Fornarina" (the Little Baker Girl). It was completed about 1519.    

1518        Titian painted "Offering to Venus."
    (NH, 6/01, p.47)

1518        Gil Vicente, founder of Portuguese drama, wrote "The Ship of Purgatory."
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.11)

1518        Ulrich Zwingli, a Swiss clergyman, supported Martin Luther’s Reformation.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.11)

1518        Forks were used at a banquet in Venice (for the first time?).
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.11)

1518        Portugal and the Kingdom of Kotte, Ceylon, signed a peace treaty.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.11)

1518        Cardinal Wolsey arranged the Peace of London between England, France, the Pope, Maximilian I and Spain.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.11)

1518        Algiers and Tunis, Barbary states in North Africa, were founded.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.11)

1518        Henry VIII authorized a college of physicians and it was founded by Oxford physician Thomas Linacre.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.11)

1518        Porcelain from Asia was imported to Europe (for the first time?) from Asia.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.11)

1518        Anthony Blatner, German goldsmith, built the first fire-engine in Augsburg, Germany.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.11)

1518        Vasco Nunez de Balboa, Spanish explorer, was wrongly charged with treason and beheaded.
    (SFEC, 9/21/97, p.C7)

1518        Juan de Grijalva, Spanish explorer, named the area comprising of Mexico, Central America north of Panama, the Spanish West Indies, and south-west North America New Spain. He was also the first European to smoke tobacco, introduced to him by a native chief.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.11)

1518        Lorens de Gominot obtained a license to import 4,000 African slaves into the New World colonies.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.11)

1519        Jan 12, Maximilian I of Hapsburg (59), Holy Roman Emperor and German Kaiser, died.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.11)(AP, 1/12/98)(PC, 1992, p.170)

1519        Feb 15, Pedro Menendez de Aviles, explorer (found St. Augustine, Florida), was born.
    (MC, 2/15/02)

1519        Feb 16, Gaspard de Coligny, Huguenot leader, French admiral, was born.
    (MC, 2/16/02)

1519        Apr 13, Catherine de Medicis (d.1589), the daughter of Lorenzo de Medici, was born in Florence. She married at age 14 and became queen in 1547 as Henry II of France acceded to the throne. She was the mother of Francis II, Charles IX, and Henry III.

1519        Mar 13, The Spaniards under Cortez landed in Mexico with 10 stallions, 5 mares and a foal. Smallpox was carried to America in the party of Hernando Cortes.
    (SFC, 9/2/96, p.A3)(HN, 3/13/98)(SFC, 10/19/01, p.A17)(SSFC, 5/6/01, p.T6)

1519        Mar 27, A truce was arranged with Cortes when Mayan caciques brought food and gold as well as 20 female slaves. Among these was a young woman from Jalisco named Marina, who had been stolen from a noble family when small and sold into slavery, where she learned the language of Yucatán. As a bilingual translator from Aztec to Mayan, Marina played a major role in the eventual conquest of Tenochtitlán.

1519        Apr 21, Hernan Cortes landed at Veracruz, Mexico, on Holy Thursday. 

1519        Apr 24, Envoys of Montezuma II attended the first Easter mass in Central America.
    (HN, 4/24/98)

1519        Apr, Montezuma received a message that white strangers had reappeared and attacked a Mayan coastal village south of the Aztec border. Hundreds of Mayans were killed and the strangers sailed north.
    (ON, 10/00, p.2)

1519        May 2, Artist Leonardo da Vinci (67) died at the Chateau du Clos-Luce, France, where he had lived since 1516. In 1994 A. Richard Turner wrote "Inventing Leonardo," a history of Leonardo legends. In 2004 Bulent Atalay authored “Math and the Mona Lisa: The Art and Science of Leonardo da Vinci." In 2004 Charles Nicholl authored “Leonard da Vinci: The Flights of the Mind."
    (AP, 5/2/97)(NH, 5/97, p.58)(Econ, 5/15/04, p.80)(Econ, 12/11/04, p.81)(SSFC, 10/9/11, p.C6)

1519        Jun 24, Lucretia Borgia (39), daughter of Pope Alexander VI, died. In 2004 Sarah Bradford authored “Lucrezia Borgia: Life, Love and Death in Renaissance Italy."
    (HN, 4/18/98)(WUD, 1994, p.171)(SSFC, 12/19/04, p.E2)

1519        Jul 6, Charles of Spain was elected Holy Roman emperor in Barcelona. The Catholic heir to the Hapsburg dynasty, Charles V, was elected Holy Roman Emperor, combining the crowns of Spain, Burgundy (with the Netherlands), Austria and Germany. He was the grandson of Ferdnand and Isabella of Spain.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.162)(NH, 9/96, p.18)(HN, 7/6/98)

1519        Jul 16, There was a public debate between Martin Luther and theologian John Eck.
    (MC, 7/16/02)

1519        Aug 11, Johann Tetzel (~79), Dominican monk, died.
    (MC, 8/11/02)

1519        Aug 15, Panama City was founded.
    (MC, 8/15/02)

1519        Aug, Montezuma learned that Cortez was marching toward Tenochtitlan with an army of 300 soldiers and 2000 non-Aztec Indians. Cortez was accompanied by Malinche, his Indian mistress and interpreter.
    (ON, 10/00, p.2)

1519        Sep 5, In the 2nd Battle of Tehuacingo, Mexico, Hernan Cortes faced the Tlascala Aztecs.
    (MC, 9/5/01)

1519        Sep 20, Portuguese navigator Ferdinand Magellan set out from Spain with 270 men and 5 ships on a voyage to find a western passage to the Spice Islands in Indonesia. Magellan was killed en route, but one of his ships eventually circumnavigated the world. He was first European explorer to reach the Pacific Ocean from the Atlantic by sailing through the dangerous straits below South America that now bear his name. [see Sep 20, 1520]
    (V.D.-H.K.p.182)(DD-EVTT, p.41)(AP, 9/20/97)(HN, 9/20/98)

1519        Sep 21, Hans Backofen (Backoffen), German sculptor, died at about 49.
    (MC, 9/21/01)

1519        Nov 7, University of Leuven condemned the teachings of Rev. Martin Luther.
    (MC, 11/7/01)

1519         Nov 8, The Aztec and their leader, Moctezuma, welcomed Hernando Cortez and his 650 explorers to their capital at Tenochtitlan. Spanish adventurer Hernando Cortez and his force of about 300 Spanish soldiers, 18 horses and thousands of Mexico's native inhabitants who had grown resentful of Aztec rule marched unmolested into Tenochtitlán, the capital city of the Aztec empire. The Aztec ruler Montezuma, believing that Cortez could be the white-skinned deity Quetzalcoatl, whose return had been foretold for centuries, greeted the arrival of these strange visitors with courtesy--at least until it became clear that the Spaniards were all too human and bent on conquest. Cortez and his men, dazzled by the Aztec riches and horrified by the human sacrifice central to their religion, began to systematically plunder Tenochtitlán and tear down the bloody temples. Montezuma's warriors attacked the Spaniards but with the aid of Indian allies, Spanish reinforcements, superior weapons and disease, Cortez defeated an empire of approximately 25 million people by August 13, 1521.
    (ATC, p.16)(SFC, 9/2/96, p.A3) (HNPD, 11/8/98)

1519        Dec, Magellan reached the Bay of the Rio de Janeiro.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.182)(DD-EVTT, p.41)

1519        Corregio began painting the ceiling frescoes in the dining room of the abbess of St. Paul’s Convent in Parma.
    (SFEC, 9/15/96, p.T6)

1519        Gil Vicente, Portuguese dramatist, wrote a second farce, "The Ship of Heaven."
    (TL-MB, 1988, 1988, p.11)

1519        St. George’s Chapel, Windsor, England, was completed after 46 years of work.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.11)

1519        The Chateau of Chombard was begun in France, and would take 30 years to finish.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.11)

1519        The Italian influenced medieval church at the Moscow Monastery of Peter the Metropolitan was constructed.
    (AM, Jul/Aug ‘97 p.38)

1519        Nanak (1469-1539) founded Sikhism, a combination of Hinduism and Buddhism. Sikhs revere 10 gurus. "Be in the world, but not worldly."
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.11)(WSJ, 10/12/01, p.W17)

1519        Ulrich Zwingli initiated the Swiss Reformation with his preaching in Zurich.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.11)

1519        Martin Luther disputed with Johann Eck in the Leipzig Disputation and questioned the infallibility of the Pope.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.11)

1519        Bohemians minted silver Joachimsthalers, "thalers" for short. This was the basis for the word "dollar."
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)

1519        A mass-production technique for casting brass objects was used in Italy.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.11)

1519        Cortes found the court of Moctezuma to have a ravenous appetite for turkeys. The gobblers, later served for Thanksgiving, returned to North America only after their Mexican ancestors had crossed the Atlantic twice, first to Spain and then back from England.
    (Econ, 12/20/14, p.78)

1519        Prussia experienced a monetary crises.
    (ON, 2/11, p.6)

1519        Domenico de Pineda, Spanish navigator, explored the Gulf of Mexico.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.11)
1519        Francisco de Montejo, a captain under Cortez, set about subjugating the Maya in Mexico.
    (SSFC, 5/6/01, p.T6)
1519        In Mexico Cortes discovered a plot by some Cholulans to assassinate him and ordered some 6,000 Cholulan men executed.
    (SFEC, 11/8/98, p.T10)
1519        Spanish soldiers in Mexico learned that the shipwrecked sailor Gonzalo Guerrero had drifted there in 1511. Guerrero married a Maya woman and raised the first mestizo children.
    (Econ, 11/10/07, p.102)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gonzalo_Guerrero)

1519-1579    Sir Thomas Gresham, merchant prince. He was a British banker and money-changer and served as the financial agent for Elizabeth I. He ran a news service in the Netherlands to keep informed of finances there and built the Royal Exchange of London modeled on the Antwerp commodities exchange.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R8)

1519-1682    In 2015 Robert Goodwin authored “Spain: The Center of the World 1519-1682."
    (Econ, 7/25/15, p.67)

1520        Apr 6, Raphael (b.1483), [Sanzio], Italian painter (Sistine Madonna), died on his 37th birthday. His work included "The Veiled Lady" and a set of cartoons that were woven into 10 tapestries titled "The Acts of the Apostles" (1544-1557).
    (WSJ, 4/11/02, p.D7)(www.abcgallery.com/R/raphael/raphaelbio.html)

1520        May 20, Hernando Cortes defeated Spanish troops sent to punish him in Mexico.
    (HN, 5/20/98)

1520        Jun 15, Pope Leo the Tenth threatened to excommunicate Martin Luther if he did not recant his religious beliefs. Pope Leo X excommunicated Martin Luther by the bull Exsurge.
    (AP, 6/15/00)(HT, 6/15/00)

1520        Jun 24, Montezuma, under orders by Cortez to calm his people, was showered with "stones, darts, arrows and sticks" from a jeering crowd.
    (ON, 10/00, p.5)

1520        Jun 29, Montezuma II was murdered as Spanish conquistadors fled the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan during the night. Montezuma died from wounds inflicted by his people. Conquistadors under Cortez plundered gold from Aztecs.

1520        Jul 10, The explorer Cortes was driven from Tenochtitlan, Mexico, by Aztec leader Cuauhtemoc, and retreated to Tlaxcala.
    (HN, 7/10/98)

1520        Jul 14, Hernando Cortes fought the Aztecs at the Battle of Otumba, Mexico.
    (MC, 7/14/02)

1520        Sep 20, Magellan set sail from Spain with five ships and 265 men, on a voyage to find a western passage to the Spice Islands of Indonesia.
    (MC, 11/28/01)

1520        Sep 21, Suleiman I (the Magnificent), son of Selim, became the Ottoman sultan in Constantinople. He ruled to 1566. [see Sep 30]
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.12)(HN, 9/21/98)(Ot, 1993, xvii)

1520        Sep 22, Selim I, Sultan of Turkey (1512-20), died at 53.
    (MC, 9/22/01)

1520        Sep 30, Suleiman I succeeded his father Selim I as sultan of Turkey. [see Sep 21]
    (MC, 9/30/01)

1520        Oct 7, The 1st public burning of books took place in Louvain, Netherlands.
    (MC, 10/7/01)

1520        Oct 15, King Henry VIII of England ordered bowling lanes at Whitehall.
    (MC, 10/15/01)

1520        Oct 21, Ferdinand Magellan arrived at Tierra Del Fuego (Argentina-Chile).
    (MC, 10/21/01)

1520        Oct 23, King Carlos I (1500-1558) was crowned as German emperor Charles V (1520-1558), a Holy Roman Emperor.

1520        Nov 4, Danish-Norwegian king Christian II was crowned king of Sweden.
    (MC, 11/4/01)

1520        Nov 9, Swedish King Christian II executed 600 nobles.
    (MC, 11/9/01)

1520        Nov 28, Portuguese navigator Ferdinand Magellan reached the Pacific Ocean after passing through the South American strait, the straits of Magellan, and entered the “Sea of the South."
    (V.D.-H.K.p.177)(AP, 11/28/97)

1520        Dec 10, Martin Luther publicly burned the papal edict demanding that he recant, or face excommunication.
    (AP, 12/10/97)

1520        Dec 18, Magellan struck out into the open sea to the northwest

1520        A 9-piece tapestry set was created for the Holy Roman Empire coronation of Belgium-born Charles V, King of Spain, titled "Los Honores." The set was restored by Belgium in 2000 for the 500th anniversary of Charles’ birth.
    (WSJ, 4/11/02, p.AD7)

1520        The funereal monuments of the Medici Chapel were commissioned by Pope Clement VII. They were done primarily by Michelangelo (1475-1564) from 1520 to 1534, being completed by his students after his departure. The four figures—dawn, day, dusk and night—are considered among the sculptor‘s most accomplished work. He left Florence in 1534, hoping to return, but spent his last years in Rome.
    (HNQ, 11/15/00)

1520        Joachim Patenier painted one of the earliest industrial pictures showing a blast-furnace.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1520        Jacopo Pontormo made his red chalk body sketches.
    (SFC, 2/15/97, p.D6)

1520        The book "Prester John of the Indies" was written. It was translated in 1810. Later Robert Silverberg wrote: "The Realm of Prester John" and John Buchanon wrote "Prester John." In 1952 the French work "Le Pretre Jean" was written.
    (SFEC, 12/15/96, p.C5)

1520        In Germany Jacob Fugger “The Rich" established a Roman Catholic housing settlement for the poor in Augsburg in the name of Augsburg’s local St. Ulrich. In return for cheap rent residents agreed to pray for the Fuggers’ souls.
    (WSJ, 12/26/08, p.A10)
1520        The Jews of Rothenburg, Bavaria, were banished entirely and forevermore.
    (NH, 9/96, p.24)

1520        The Anabaptists, Protestants who baptized believers only and not infants, grew as a movement in Switzerland, Germany and the Netherlands. Some emigrated to America and established themselves as the Amish of Lancaster, Pa.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.12)(SFC, 7/2/98, p.A7)

1520        King Francis founded the Royal Library of France at Fontainebleu.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1520        Chocolate was brought from Mexico to Spain for the first time. [see 1502]
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1520        "Many small stars congregated... like to two clouds." (Now known as the Large Magellanic Cloud) Thus one of Ferdinand Magellan’s crew, on the first voyage around the earth, described the southern Pacific sky on a clear night in this year.
    (NG, 5/88, p.619)

1520        King Christian II of Denmark and Norway defeated a Swedish army at Lake Asunden and was crowned King of Sweden. He then renounced his offer of amnesty and massacred most of the Swedish leaders.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1520        Emperor Charles V and Henry VIII met at Dover and agreed to an Anglo-French commercial treaty.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1520        Magellan sailed around the tip of South America and renamed the South Sea as the Pacific Ocean.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1520        Scipione del Ferro, Italian mathematician, solved cubic equations for the first time.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1520        A smallpox epidemic raged in Vera Cruz, Mexico. The 16th century smallpox epidemic in Mexico and Central America killed about half of the Aztecs.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.12)(SFEC, 1/30/00, Z1 p.2)

1520        Portuguese set up sugar plantations and began slave trade in Cameroon.

1520-1530    The “Shahnameh" (Persian Book of Kings), completed in 1010AD by Persian poet Firdawsi (Ferdowsi) was commissioned to be illustrated for Shah Tahmasp by more than a dozen artists. 258 miniatures were made with 750 folios of Farsi text. In 1568 it was given to the Ottoman Sultan. In 1981 Stuart Cary Welch and martin Dickinson published “The Houghton Shahnameh," a 2-volume study.
    (www.mazdapublisher.com/BookDetails.aspx?BookID=186)(WSJ, 10/13/94, p. A18,)(Econ, 4/9/11, p.95)

1520-1579     Bayazid Roshan, an Afghan intellectual, lived. He revolted against the power of the Moghul government.

1520/24-1579/80    Giovanni Battista Moroni was a Renaissance portraitist. He worked in Trent and Bergamo and then returned to his hometown of Albino.
    (WSJ, 2/22/00, p.A38)

1520-1598    William Cecil. He later became the Lord Treasurer and chief adviser for Queen Elizabeth I, for which he was made Lord Burghley. He built the Burghley House.
    (WSJ, 8/24/99, p.A16)

1521        Jan 3, Pope Leo X excommunicated Martin Luther from the Roman Catholic Church.
    (NH, 9/96, p.18)(AP, 1/3/98)

1521        March 6, Magellan made landfall at the island of Guam in the Marianas.
    (HN, 3/6/98) (V.D.-H.K.p.177-178)

1521        March 9, Magellan sailed west, southwest towards the Philippines.   

1521        Mar 16, Ferdinand Magellan discovered the Philippine Islands, where he was killed by natives the following month [see Apr 27].
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ferdinand_Magellan)(AP, 3/16/97)

1521        Apr 7, Inquisitor-general Adrian Boeyens banned Lutheran books.
    (MC, 4/7/02)
1521        Apr 7, Ferdinand Magellan landed on Cebu Island, Philippines. Italian chronicler Antonio Pigafetta reported a thriving port with large supplies of rice and gold. In 2003 the island was a booming commercial center with a population of 4 million.
    (WSJ, 10/15/03, p.B2A)

1521        Apr 16, Martin Luther arrived at Diet of Worms.
    (MC, 4/16/02)

1521        Apr 17, Under the protection of Frederick the Wise, elector of Saxony, Martin Luther first appeared before Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and the Imperial Diet to face charges stemming from his religious writings. The Roman Catholic Church had already excommunicated him on Jan 3, 1521. He was later declared an outlaw by Charles V.
    (NH, 9/96, p.18)(HN, 4/17/98)(AP, 4/17/07)

1521        Apr 18, Martin Luther confronted the emperor Charles V in the Diet of Worms and refused to retract his views which led to his excommunication. Cardinal Alexander questioned the Rev Martin Luther.
    (HN, 4/18/99)(MC, 4/18/02)

1521        Apr 21, Martin Luther was called before an Imperial Diet in Worms. He was already accused of heresy and excommunicated by the Pope. Here he was absolved of all charges.

1521        Apr 22, French king Francois I declared war on Spain.
    (MC, 4/22/02)
1521        Apr 22, Juan de Padilla, Spanish nobleman, communero-rebel, was beheaded.
    (MC, 4/22/02)

1521        Apr 23, The Comuneros were crushed by royalist troops in Spain.
    (HN, 4/23/99)

1521        April 27, Ferdinand Magellan (41) was killed in a fight with natives on Mactan Island. Juan Sebastian Elcano, Magellan’s second in command, returned to Spain with 18 men and one ship, the Vittorio, laden with spices. His coat of arms was augmented in reward with the inscription Primus circumdisti me: “You were the first to encircle me." Some 50,000 Chamorro people populated the islands.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ferdinand_Magellan)(AP, 4/27/99)

1521        May 8, Peter Canisius, [Pieter de Hondt/Kanijs], Jesuit, saint, was born.
    (MC, 5/8/02)
1521        May 8, Emperor Charles V and the Diet issued the Edict of Worms. It banned Luther’s work and enjoined his detention, but was not able to be enforced.
    (NH, 9/96, p.20)

1521        May 20, Ignatius Loyola was seriously wounded by a cannon ball.
    (MC, 5/20/02)

1521        May 26, Martin Luther was banned by the Edict of Worms of because of his religious beliefs and writings.
    (AP, 5/26/97)

1521        May 28, Willem van Croij (~62), duke of Soria, died.
    (MC, 5/28/02)

1521        Aug 13, Spanish conqueror Hernando Cortez conquered the Mexican city of Tenochtitlan (Mexico City) after an 85-day battle. Emp. Cuauhtemotzin was taken prisoner. Cortez had an Indian mistress named La Malinche.
    (AP, 8/13/97)(WSJ, 8/13/97, p.A12)(WSJ, 4/24/98, p.A15)(SFC, 5/20/21, p.A4)

1521        Aug 27, Josquin Des Prez, composer, died.
    (MC, 8/27/02)

1521        Aug 31, Spanish conqueror Cortez (1485-1547), having captured the city of Tenochtitlan, Mexico, set it on fire. Nearly 100,000 people died in the siege and some 100,000 more died afterwards of smallpox. In 2008 Buddy levy authored “Conquistador: Hernan Cortes, King Montezuma, and the Last Stand of the Aztecs."
    (HN, 8/31/98)(WSJ, 7/10/08, p.A13)

1521        Sep 28, Turkish sultan Suleiman I's troops occupied Belgrade.
    (MC, 9/28/01)

1521        Oct 11, Pope Leo X titled King Henry VIII of England "Defender of the Faith" in recognition of his writings in support of the Catholic Church. Henry had penned a defense of the seven Catholic Sacraments in response to Martin Luther‘s Protestant reform movement. By 1534, Henry had broken completely with the Catholic Church, and the Pope‘s authority in England was abolished.
    (TL-MB, p.12)(HNQ, 8/12/00)(MC, 10/11/01)

1521        Oct 24, Robert Fayrfax, composer, died at 57.
    (MC, 10/24/01)

1521        Oct 25, Emperor Charles V banned wooden buildings in Amsterdam.
    (MC, 10/25/01)

1521        Nov 19, Battle at Milan: Emperor Charles V's Spanish, German, and papal troops beat France and occupied Milan. An eight year war between France and the Holy Roman Emp., Charles V, began after the French supported rebels in Spain.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.12)(MC, 11/19/01)

1521        Nov 20, Arabs attributed a shortage of water in Jerusalem to Jews making wine.
    (MC, 11/20/01)   

1521        Lorenzo Lotto, Italian artist, painted the "Christ Bidding Farewell to His Mother."
    (WSJ, 1/15/98, p.A17)

1521        Suleiman I, the Ottoman Sultan, conquered Belgrade and invaded Hungary.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.12)
1521        Piri Reis, Ottoman cartographer, authored the Kitab-i Bahriye, or "Book of the Sea", one of the most famous cartographical works of the period. The book gives seafarers information on the Mediterranean coast, islands, crossings, straits, and gulfs; where to take refuge in the event of a storm, how to approach the ports, and precise routes to the ports.

1521        The Chateau de Chenonceaux in the Loire Valley of France was built for the royal tax collector, Thomas Bohier. It took eight years to construct.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1521        The manufacture of silk cloth was introduced to France. It had been made in Sicily since the 1100s.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1521        Andres de Tapia, a Spanish soldier who accompanied Cortes in the conquest of Mexico, counted tens of thousands of skulls at what became known as the Huey Tzompantli in Tenochtitlan, later Mexico City. Archeologist later identified crania of women and children among the hundreds embedded in the forbidding structure.
    (Reuters, 7/2/17)
1521        In Puerto Rico the Caparra colony founded by Spanish conquistadores relocated to a barrier island at the entrance of San Juan Bay.
    (HT, 4/97, p.28)(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1521        The first running of the bulls was held at Pamplona, Spain. [see 1591]
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)

1521        Francisco de Gordillo, Spanish explorer, sailed up the American Atlantic coast to South Carolina.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1521        Ponce de Leon returned to Key Marco in southwest Florida, where he was again repulsed by the Calusa Indians and died from an arrow wound.
    (AM, 11/04, p.49)

1521        Clipperton Island was originally discovered by Ferdinand Magellan in 1521, but was later named after John Clipperton, an English pirate who led a mutiny against William Dampier in 1704. Mexico occupied the island in 1897 and established a military outpost there. In 1930, the Vatican gave the rights to the King of Italy, Viktor Emanuel II, who declared one year later that Clipperton was a part of France. In 1944 US President Franklin D. Roosevelt ordered the navy to occupy the island in one of the most secret US operations of WW II. After the war it was abandoned, and has since only been visited by the French Navy and an occasional scientific or amateur radio expedition. In 1989 Jimmy M. Skaggs authored "Clipperton: A History of the Island the World Forgot."
    (NH, 12/96, p.70)(www.qsl.net/clipperton2000/history.html)

1522        Feb 7, Treaty of Brussels: Habsburgers split into Spanish and Austrian Branches.
    (MC, 2/7/02)

1522        Mar 9-1522 Mar 16, Marten Luther preached his Invocavit.
    (MC, 3/9/02)

1522        Apr 12, Florentine artist Piero di Cosimo (b.1462), aka Piero di Lorenzo, died of plague. His work included “Cart of Death."
    (Econ, 1/31/15, p.76)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piero_di_Cosimo)

1522        Apr 29, Emperor Charles V named Frans van Holly inquisitor-gen of Netherlands.
    (MC, 4/29/02)

1522        May 25, Emperor Karel I returned to Spain.
    (SC, 5/25/02)

1522        Jun 30, Johann Reuchlin (b.1455), German-born humanist, died in Stuttgart. He was the first Christian Hebraist in northern Europe.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Johann_Reuchlin)(Econ, 9/10/16, p.72)

1522        Jul 5, Antonio de Nebrija (b.1441), Spanish scholar, died. His work included a Spanish grammar  written in Latin. It was the first systematic treatment of a vernacular European language.
    (Econ, 6/1/13, p.80)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antonio_de_Nebrija)

1522        Aug 27, Giovanni A. Amadei (75), Amadeo, Italian sculptor, architect, died.
    (MC, 8/27/02)

1522        Sep 6, Juan Sebastian Elcano (Del Cano), Magellan’s second in command, returned to Spain with 18 men and one ship, the Vittorio, laden with spices. His coat of arms was augmented in reward with the inscription: Primus circumdisti me: "You were the first to encircle me." 18 survivors of the original Magellan expedition completed the circumnavigation of the globe under Sebastian del Cano. Plumes of the bird of paradise from New Guinea were first brought back to Europe. One of the five ships that set out in Ferdinand Magellan's trip around the world made it back to Spain. Only 15 of the original 265 men that set out survived. Magellan was killed by natives in the Philippines.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.177-178)(SFEC, 11/10/96, Z1 p.2)(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)(NH, 9/96, p.8)(HN, 9/6/98) 9/6/98)
1522        Sep 8, Spanish navigator Juan de Elcano returned to Spain. He completed the 1st circumnavigation of globe, expedition begun under Ferdinand Magellan. [see Sep 6]
    (MC, 9/8/01)

1522        Oct 15, Emperor Charles named Hernan Cortes governor of Mexico.
    (MC, 10/15/01)

1522        Dosso Dossi painted "Allegory of Music."
    (WSJ, 1/20/98, p.A20)

1522        Martin Luther completed his translation of the New Testament into German and returned to Wittenberg. His supporter, Ulrich Zwingli, condemned Lenten fasting and celibacy. Luther also published his Christmas Postils as preaching models for other pastors.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.12)(WSJ, 12/21/01, p.W15)

1522        A Bible was printed in Alcala, Spain, in Hebrew, Greek, Latin and Aramaic.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.12)
1522        Adrian VI was elected Pope. He was the last non-Italian pope until John Paul II.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1522        In 2007 The book "Beyond Capricorn" said a 16th century maritime map in a Los Angeles library vault, which accurately marks geographical sites along Australia's east coast in Portuguese, proves that Portuguese seafarer Christopher de Mendonca lead a fleet of four ships into Botany Bay in this year.
    (Reuters, 3/21/07)
1522        England declared war on France and Scotland. Holy Roman Emp. Charles V visited Henry VIII and signed the Treaty of Windsor. Both monarchs agreed to invade France.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.12)
1522        Suleiman I captured Rhodes from the Knights Hospitallers of St. John. The knights surrendered after a 6-month siege. In 1530 the knights were resettled on Malta by Charles V.
    (WSJ, 7/21/08, p.A11)

1522        Albrecht Durer, German artist and engraver, designed a flying machine for use in war.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1522        Guatemala was conquered by Spanish armies.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.12)
1522        A massive slave rebellion, the first of dozens, was crushed in Hispaniola.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1522        Martin Cortes (d.1569), son of Hernando Cortes, was born in Mexico to an Amerindian woman named Malinche. Cortes also named a 3rd son Martin, who was born in Spain. Both brothers were arrested in 1566 for purportedly fomenting a rebellion against the Spanish crown.
    (SSFC, 7/11/04, p.M3)

1522        The Portuguese crown began administering Sao Tome.
    (AP, 7/18/03)

1522        Pascual de Andagoya, Spanish explorer, became the first European to set foot in Peru.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.12)   

1522        Gustavus Vasa became administrator of Sweden and pledged to free his country from Danish control.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1522-1524    Titian painted "Bacchanal of the Andrians" during this period.
    (WSJ, 8/3/06, p.D5)

1523        Jun 6, [Gustav] Gustavus Vasa was elected Gustavus I of Sweden.
    (HFA, '96, p.32)(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)(HN, 6/6/98)

1523        Jul 1, Hendrik Voes, Flemish priest, church reformer, was burned at stake along with John of Esschen (Jan van Essen), Flemish priest, church reformer. The 2 monks were executed in Brussels, Belgium, for refusing to recant their Lutheran beliefs.
    (http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jan_van_Essen)(Econ, 12/17/11, p.94)

1523        Oct 27, English troops occupied Montalidier, France.
    (MC, 10/27/01)

1523        Nov 30, Amsterdam banned the assembly of heretics.
    (MC, 11/30/01)

1523        Titian painted "Bacchus and Ariadne," a heroic mythological composition for Alfonso d’Este, Duke of Ferrara. It is now at the London National Gallery.
    (TL-MB, p.12)(SFEC, 2/1/98, p.T8)

1523        Hans Holbein completed the first of several portraits of Erasmus in Basel. He also began the design of 51 plates on the "Dance of Death," which reflected ideas of the Reformation.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.12)(WSJ, 6/24/97, p.A20)

1523        Hans Judenkonig published in Vienna the first manual of lute playing.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1523        Anthony Fitzherbert published the "Book of Husbandry," the first English manual of agriculture.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1523        Pope Adrian VI died and was succeeded by Pope Clement VII, nephew of Lorenzo de’ Medici. Adrian VI was the last non-Italian Pope until 1978 when Cardinal Wojtyla, Archbishop of Cracow, became Pope Paul II. Clement was pope until 1534.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1691)(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)(WUD, 1994, p.276)

1523        Sugar was grown in Cuba for the first time.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1523        The first turkeys were introduced to Spain and Europe from America by the conquistadors.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.12)(SFEC, 11/24/96, p.A3)

1523        Christian II was deposed in Denmark after a civil war and was exiled. His uncle became King Frederick I of Denmark and Norway.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1523        The first marine insurance policies were issued in Florence.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1523        The Ottoman Emperor Suleiman the Magnificent successfully overcame the Knights Hospitaller, Order of St. John, from their position on the island of Rhodes in the Aegean Sea. The Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V, offered the Knights the Isle of Malta. In exchange for a perpetual lease the Knights undertook to send the emperor a falcon (made famous in the mystery novel, The Maltese Falcon, and the movie of the same name) once every year as a token of their fealty. They remained there until the time of Napoleon, and became known as the Knights of Malta.
    (WSJ, 12/30/94, A-6, Review of The Knights of Malta by H.J.A. Sire)       

1523        Portuguese settlers were expelled from China.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.12)   

1523        Sweden became independent and dropped out of the Kalmar Union, formed in 1397 with Denmark and Norway.

1523-1524    Dosso Dossi painted "Jupiter, Mercury and Virtue."
    (WSJ, 1/20/98, p.A20)

1524        Mar 19, Giovanni de Verrazano of France sighted land around area of Carolinas.
    (MC, 3/19/02)

1524        Apr 17, Giovanni da Verrazano, Florentine navigator, reached present-day New York Harbor. He explored from Cape Fear to Newfoundland and discovered New York Bay and the Hudson River. He was later eaten by natives.
    (TL-MB, p.12)(HN, 4/17/98)(SFEM, 11/15/98, p.26)(AP, 4/17/08)

1524        Apr 19, Pope Clemens VII fired the Netherlands inquisitor-general French Van de Holly.
    (MC, 4/19/02)

1524        cApr, The Peasant’s War, in which Protestants fought against Catholics and demanded an end to feudal services and oppression by the landed gentry, broke out in Germany.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1524        Jul 26, James I became king of Scotland at age 12.
    (MC, 7/26/02)

1524        Aug 19, Emperor Charles V's troops besieged Marseille.
    (MC, 8/19/02)

1524        Nov 14, Pizarro began his 1st great expedition, near Colombia.
    (MC, 11/14/01)

1524        Dec 11, Henry Van Zutphen, Dutch Protestant martyr, was burned at stake.
    (MC, 12/11/01)

1524        Dec 24, Portuguese navigator Vasco da Gama (~55), who had discovered a sea route around Africa to India, died in Cochin, India. He had served as Viceroy in India. Gama served under the patronage of Dom Manoel and at one time burned alive 380 men, women and children.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.12)(AP, 12/24/97)(MC, 12/24/01)(SSFC, 3/10/02, p.M3)

1524        Albrecht Durer drafted a dozen drawings of the same face on a grid. Each grid was transformed as if it were printed on a rubber graph which was then bent and twisted to distort the normal proportions. Computerized morphing only came c1990.
    (MT, 10/94, p.9)

1524        Peter Bennewitz, German prof. of mathematics, produced the first textbook on theoretical geography: "Cosmographia."
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1524        Jan Wynken de Worde printed Robert Wakefield’s "Oration" using Italic type for the first time in English typography.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1524        Martin Luther and Johann Walther produced jointly a German hymnal: "Geistliche Lieder."
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1524        Aden became a tributary of Portugal.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1524        Hans Holbein the Elder (b. c1460), German-born artist, died in Eisenheim.

1524        Pedro de Alvarado, a lieutenant of Cortez, marched into the Guatemalan highlands. He played the local Indian tribes against one another and won a major battle fought at a river in western Guatemala against warriors of the Quiche tribe led by Tecun Uman.
    (NG, 6/1988, p.790)

1524        Chevalier Bayard, commander of French forces in Lombardy, was killed and the French were driven out.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1524        Hernandez de Cordoba founded Granada, Nicaragua. The city, also known as La Gran Sultana (The Grand Sultan), is the oldest city in Central America.
    (SSFC, 4/10/05, p.F4)

1524        Denmark confirmed Swedish independence under Gustavus Vasa in the Treaty of Malmo.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1524        Shah Ismail, ruler of Persia, died.

1524        Ulrich Zwingli abolished the Catholic mass in Zurich.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1524-1585    Pierre de Ronsard, established the use of the vernacular in French verse.

1524-1608    Giambologna, a sculptor from Florence.
    (WSJ, 2/1/96, p.A-16)

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