The Fifteenth Century 1400-1449

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1400        Feb 14, Richard II (33), deposed king of England (1377-99), was murdered in Pontefract Castle in Yorkshire.
    (HN, 2/14/99)(MC, 2/14/02)

1400        Oct 25, Geoffrey Chaucer, author (Canterbury Tales), died in London.
    (AP, 10/25/97)(WSJ, 9/18/00, p.A36)

c1400        “The Edifying Book of Erotic Chess," in effect a manual of seduction, was published.
    (Econ, 7/10/04, p.76)

c1400        The first gold balls were made of stitched leather which was soaked and filled with feathers.
    (SFEC, 6/14/98, p.A12)

c1400        The Ahwahneechee, a Southern Sierra Miwok band, first began to inhabit Yosemite in California.
    (SFEC, 5/18/97, Z1 p.4)

c1400        In Washington state the 6 yard deep Electron Mudflow came down from Mount Rainier where the town of Orting was later established.
    (SFEC, 7/12/98, p.A22)

1400        From about this time Dubai became a major crossing point on int’l. trading routes in silk, pearls, spices and gold.
    (WSJ, 6/20/06, p.C12)

1400        Plague broke out again in Europe.
    (HN, 1/20/01)

c1400        Johann Gutenberg (Johannes Gensfleisch zur Laden zum Gutenberg d.1468), was born in Mainz. He was the inventor of movable, metal type, a stamping mold for casting type, the alloy of lead, tin, and antimony for the cast letters, the printing press itself, and a printing ink with an oil base. The first books were printed around 1450 on rag paper.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.153-154)(SFC, 2/15/97, p.D1)(WSJ, 9/14/00, p.A24)

1400        By the 14th century the population Ghent (Belgium) was about 65,000. North of the Alps only Paris was larger.
    (SSFC, 12/11/16, p.G8)

1400        The Malaysian city of Malacca was founded and it was soon used by Zheng He, a Chinese Muslim from the Ming court, as a base for his treasure ships.
    (Econ, 11/15/14, SR p.5)

1400        Mali (Africa) was under attack from all four sides and gradually weakened in power.
    (ATC, p.120)

1400        In Cracow, Poland, the Jagiellonian University was re-founded with funds and a permanent income by the royal couple. [see 1364]
    (WSJ, 7/13/00, p.A24)(PG-Comm)

c1400        The Toraja people came to Sulawesi (later part of Indonesia) by boat from a island to the southwest and settled on the banks of the Sa’dan River.
    (SFEC, 6/11/00, p.T8)

c1400        In Wales Owain Glyndwr (Owen Glendower c1359-c1460) led the warriors of Gwynned in a bloody revolt against Henry IV. The event was marked by a comet.
    (SFEC, 6/22/97, p.D2)

c1400        Stone buildings were erected at Zimbabwe in central Africa and continued to be enlarged until about 1830.
    (Enc. of Africa, 1976, p.169)

1400s        Kongo’s king, the Mani-Kongo, ruled six provinces and about two million people. The capital of the Kongo was Mbanza, built on a fertile plateau 100 miles east of the coast and 50 miles south of the Congo River in southwest Africa.
    (ATC, p.150)

c1400-1425    Yong Le, the 3rd Ming emperor, created a permanent imperial residence in Beijing. Work was done by some 200,000 laborers and in time became the 8,886-room complex called the "Forbidden City."
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R36)


1400-1464    Roger Van Der Weyden, Flemish painter.
    (AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.1624)

c1400-1471    Sir Thomas Malory, English author. His work included "Le Morte Darthur."
    (WUD, 1994, p.868)

c1400-1474    Guillaume Dufay [Du Fay], Flemish composer. His work included the "Ecclesie militantis," which has four texts going simultaneously.
    (WUD, 1994, p.440)(WSJ, 7/29/97, p.A12)

1400-1500    The 15th cent Urbino Bible was produced.
    (WSJ, 7/12/96, p.A9)

1400-1500    In China a Shang Xi 15th cent. painting portrayed "The Xuande Emperor on an Outing."
    (WSJ, 2/19/98, p.A20)

1400-1500    Europeans began producing ethereal sounds from wine glasses containing liquids.
    (SFEC,12/28/97, DB p.17)

1400-1500    In 2005 Tim Parks authored “Medici Money: Banking, Metaphysics, and Art in Fifteenth Century Florence."
    (Econ, 4/23/05, p.81)

c1400-1500    The 15th century German "Housebook" was produced. It taught the rules and etiquette of jousting, and contained remedies, cooking recipes, information on love and horoscopes.
    (SFEC, 1/10/99, p.T3)
c1400-1500    In Germany Cardinal Nikolaus Cusanus, philosopher, founded a religious and charitable institution complete with vineyard at Kues, across from Bernkastel on the Mosel River.
    (SFEC, 4/30/00, p.T8)

1400-1500    The Vietnamese from the north pushed the Chams south and opened the port of Hoi An to foreign traders.
    (SFEC, 4/26/98, p.T4)
1400-1500    Porcelain from this period was recovered from a sunken ship in the South China Sea in 1999. 10% of the 150,000 pieces were kept by the Vietnamese government and the rest was scheduled for auction on eBay.
    (WSJ, 6/22/00, p.W10)

1400-1500    The city of Bagerhat was founded in southern Bangladesh by Ulugh Khan-i-Jahan as a Muslim colony.
    (AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.B)

1400-1500    In the Philippines Vigan historic town on Luzon was established by Chinese traders by this time.
    (AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.F)

1400-1500    Giovanni Spinetti of Venice built the first small piano called the spinet.
    (SFEC, 4/20/97, Z1 p.5)

1400-1600    Researchers in 1997 announced that sometime in this period the Sauvignon Franc grape crossed with Sauvignon Blanc grape to produce the Cabernet Sauvignon grape.
    (SFC, 6/4/97, Z1 p.4)
1400-1600    Hoi An, Vietnam, flourished at the end of the 2nd Cham (Vijaya) Empire of this time. It attracted Japanese, then Portuguese, Dutch and Chinese merchants.
    (AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.H)

1400-1850    This was a frigid period in Europe and came to be called the Little Ice Age.
    (NG, 7/04, p.28)

1401        Jan 9, In Marienburg some 80 Lithuanian barons were baptized to Catholicism.
    (LHC, 1/9/03)

1401        Jan 18, In Lithuania Vytautas and the country’s dukes submitted documents to Poland that Vytautas would rule Lithuania as a vassal to Poland and return the country to Poland upon his death.
    (LHC, 1/18/03)

1401        Feb 19, William Sawtree, 1st English religious martyr, was burned in London.

1401          Mar 13, The 1st Samogitian uprising supported by Vytautas took place against the German knights.
    (LHC, 3/13/03)

1401        Jun, Amir Timur, aka Tamerlane, invaded Baghdad. After the capture of the city, 20,000 of its citizens were massacred.

1401        In England King Henry IV passed the medieval statute De Heretico Comburendo.
    (MWH, 1994)

1401        In Florence Filippo Brunelleschi and Lorenzo Ghiberti entered a competition to create a set of new bronze doors for the baptistery of the cathedral.
    (Econ, 3/30/13, p.83)

1401        A Giro Bank was established in Barcelona, making it Europe’s first bank. At this time Barcelona was the capital of the Aragon Kingdom.
    (Econ, 1/10/09, p.74)

1401-1428    Tomasso di Giovanni, Italian artist, also known as Masaccio. His only know documented work is the Pisa altarpiece of 1426.
    (WSJ, 9/27/01, p.A16)

1402      Mar 2, In Marienburg Svitrigaila crossed over to the Knights of the Cross and promised to uphold the Salyn treaty that was broken by Vytautas.
    (LHC, 3/1/03)

1402        Jul 20, In the Battle of Angora the Mongols, led by Tamerlane "the Terrible," defeated the Ottoman Turks and captured Sultan Bayezid I. The Turks eventually regained control of the city and it remained a part of the Ottoman Empire for the next five centuries. Around 2,000 BCE the site of the present day city was a Hittite village known as Ancyra. It was conquered in 333 BC by Macedonians led by Alexander the Great. Because of its central Anatolian Plateau location on the Ankara River, it became an important commercial center. Angora’s name was changed to Ankara in 1930.
    (HN, 7/20/98)(Ot, 1993, p.6)(HNQ, 4/15/02)

1402        Sep 3, Gian Galeazzo Visconti, duke and tyrant of Milan (1395-1402), died at 51.
    (MC, 9/3/01)

1402        The English Bedlam institution, a former monastery whose named derived from Bethlehem, began to house the poor and incurably mad. From 1728-1853 it was presided over by a family of doctors all descended from James Monro. On 2003 Jonathan Andrews and Andrew Scull published their 2-volume study: "Undertaker of the Mind" and "Customers and patrons of the mad-Trade," based on Monro’s Case Book.
    (WSJ, 1/29/03, p.D10)

1402        In Scotland the Duke of Rothesay, son of King Robert III and heir apparent, died under mysterious circumstances while in the custody of Robert Stewart, the 1st Duke of Albany. Stewart had built Duane Castle at the end of the 14th century.
    (SSFC, 11/23/03, p.C6)

1403        Feb 22, Charles VII, King of France (1422-1461), was born.
    (HN, 2/22/98)(MC, 2/22/02)

1403        Jul 21, Henry IV defeated the Percys in the Battle of Shrewsbury in England. Henry IV fought down an insurrection from Henry Percy, the Earl of Northumberland and Ralph Neville, the Earl of Westmorland, the same men who had helped him overthrow Richard II. Henry Percy (39), [Harry Hotspur] was killed in the battle.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1671)(MWH, 1994)(HN, 7/21/98)

1403         Gjergj Kastrioti (d.1468) was born. He became the Albanian leader known as Skanderbeg.
    (www, Albania, 1998)(HNQ, 10/5/98)

1403-1413    The Ottoman Empire fell into 11 years of civil war between the 4 sons of Beyazid.

1403?-1482    Giovanni di Paolo, painter. He painted "Expulsion from Paradise."
    (AAP, 1964)

1404        Feb 9, Constantine XI Dragases, last Byzantine Emperor, was born.
    (MC, 2/9/02)

1404        Feb 18, Leon Battista Alberti (d.1472), Italian humanist, architect (Della Pittura), was born in Genoa, the illegitimate son of a Florentine merchant.
    (WSJ, 11/30/00, p.A20)(MC, 2/18/02)

1404        Sep 27, William of Wykeham, chancellor and Bishop of Winchester, died.
    (MC, 9/27/01)

1404        In Wales Owain Glyndwr convened a parliament in Macchynlleth.
    (SFEC, 6/22/97, p.D2)

1404-1423    China controlled the price of tea and was able to increase its stock of horses from 20,000 to 1,600,000.
    (WSJ, 8/15/00, p.A24)

1405        Feb 14, Timur, aka Tamerlane (b.1336), crippled Mongol monarch, died in Kazakhstan. In 2004 Justin Marozzi authored “Tamerlane: Sword of Islam, Conqueror of the World."
    (V.D.-H.K.p.172)(, 8/28/04, p.76)

1405        Andrei Rublev, Russian icon painter, painted the iconostasis of the Cathedral of the Gospel with Theophan the Greek; this was the 1st work executed in the classical Russian style, distinguished from the Byzantine by its great height and width and organization of multiple, varied icons along axes.
    (DVD, Criterion, 1998)

1405        Admiral Zheng He, a Muslim eunuch, led a Ming dynasty fleet with 28,000 men through Southeast Asia to India and on to Africa and the Middle East.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R51)(WSJ, 11/18/06, p.P11)

1406        Apr 4, Robert III, King of Scotland (1390-1406), died.
    (MC, 4/4/02)

1406        Nov 30, Pope Gregory XII, born Angelo Correr or Corraro, succeeded Pope Innocent VII.
    (AP, 2/11/13)(

1406        In Beijing the Palace of Heavenly Purity, later renamed the People’s Cultural Palace, was built.
    (SFC,12/22/97, p.E7)

1406        The Signoria of Florence decreed that the city’s 12 guilds had 10 years to fulfill their obligations to decorate an exterior niche of the Orsanmichele guild center.
    (WSJ, 12/22/05, p.D8)

1407        Oct 26, Mobs attacked the Jewish community of Cracow.
    (MC, 10/26/01)

1408        Feb 14, Vytautas gave self-rule status to Kaunas, which was 1st mentioned in the summer of 1361.
    (LHC, 2/14/03)

1408        Feb 19, Henry IV led a victory in the Battle of Brabham Moor that marked the end of domestic threats. The revolt of Henry Percy, Earl of Northumberland, against King Henry IV, ended with his defeat and death at Bramham Moor.
    (MWH, 1994)(HN, 2/19/98)

1408        Sep 22, Johannes VII Palaeologus, Byzantine Emperor (1376-77, 90/1404-8), died.
    (MC, 9/22/01)

1408        A law was enacted making it illegal to translate any part of the scriptures into English. It was declared a capital offense to possess an English Bible.
    (WSJ, 12/22/94, A-20)(WSJ, 4/4/01, p.A18)

1408        A marriage at the Hvalsey Church in the East Settlement was the last record of the Norse in Greenland.
    (SFEM, 11/15/98, p.25)(AM, 7/00, p.66)

1409        Jan 9, Rene' d'Anjou (d.1480) was born the son and 3rd child of Duke Louis II of Anjou and Yolande of Aragon at Angers in the Maine-and-Loire region of western France. King René, poet and wine lover, demonstrated how all our leaders ought to be.
    (, 2/13/04, p.A12)

1410        May 18, Ruprecht, Roman Catholics German king, died.
    (SC, 5/18/02)

1410        Jul 15, Lithuanian-Polish forces defeated the Teutonic Knights at the Battle of Tannenberg, Prussia, thereby halting the Knights’ eastward expansion along the Baltic and hastening their decline. Vytautas and Jogaila with hired mercenaries from Belarus along with Tartars and Czechs defeated the Teutonic Knights between Grunvald (Zalgiriai) and Tannenberg southeast of Malburg. Grand Master Ulrich von Jungingen and many of his nobles were killed. The war officially ended with the Treaty of Thorn in which the Knights gave up Zemaitija to Vytautas.
    (COE)(H of L, 1931, p.52)(DrEE, 11/9/96, p.6)

1410        Andrei Rublev, Russian icon painter, painted the icon “The Old Testament Trinity," which showed Abraham’s 3 angels. This is the only work known to be entirely his own.
    (DVD, Criterion, 1998)

c1410        The French "Book of the Chase" depicted hunting dogs and snares.
    (SFEM, 4/6/97, p.16)

1411        Feb 1, Lithuania, Poland and the Knights of the Cross signed the Torun Peace Treaty. Samogitia was returned to Lithuania. The Teutonic Knights had regrouped and gone to battle against Vytautas and Jogaila. Peace was signed at Torun and western Lithuania was returned, but not Klaipeda (Memel).
    (Ist. L.H., 1948, p. 71)(LHC, 1/31/03)

1411-1437    Sigismund became the Holy Roman Emperor. [see 1433]
    (WUD, 1994, p.1325)

1412        Jan 6, According to tradition, French heroine Joan of Arc was born Jeanette d'Arc, in the French village of Domrémy. When she was 12 years old, she began hearing what she believed were voices of saints, sending her messages from God. When she was 17, the voices told her to leave her village and save Orléans. Joan convinced the dauphin that she could lead French troops in resistance against their English invaders, and she was given a force of several hundred men to command, whom she led to victory at Orléans in 1429. Wearing her white enameled armor suit, she continued to fight against the English. Joan was captured by Burgundians and then burned at the stake by the English on May 30, 1431, for the offenses of witchcraft, heresy and wearing male clothing. The Roman Catholic Church recognized Joan of Arc as a saint in 1920.
    (CFA, '96,Vol 179, p.38)(AP, 1/6/98)(HNPD, 1/6/99)

1413        Mar 20, Henry IV (b.1367), King of England (1399-1413), died in the house of the Abbot of Westminster. He was succeeded by Henry V (b.1387).
    (AP, 3/20/97)(

1413        Iceland used dried fish for money.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)

1414        Feb 19, Thomas Arundel, archbishop of Canterbury, chancellor of England, died.
    (MC, 2/19/02)

1414        Nov 16, A council of bishops opened in Constance Germany under Emp. Sigismund. When the council of Constance opened, Christians owed obedience to three different popes: Gregory XII of the Roman party, Benedict XIII of the Avignon party, and John XXIII, who had been elected after the death of Alexander V. John XXIII and Benedict XIII were deposed by the council, and Gregory XII voluntarily resigned. Then Martin V was elected pope on 11 November 1417 and he was regarded as the legitimate pontiff by the church as a whole.
    (, 1994 p.313)

1415        Jun 13, Henry the Navigator, the prince of Portugal, embarked on an expedition to Africa. This marked the beginning of Portuguese dominance of West Africa.
    (HN, 6/13/98)

1415        Jul 4, Pope Gregory XII (1326-1417), born Angelo Correr or Corraro, stepped down in a deal to end the Great Western Schism among competing papal claimants.
    (AP, 2/11/13)(

1415        Jul 6, Jan Huss, Bohemian (Czech) religious reformer, was burned as a heretic at the stake at Constance, Germany. He had spoken out against Church corruption.
    (NH, 9/96, p.23)(HN, 7/6/98)

1415        Aug 13, King Henry V of England took his army across the English Channel and laid siege on Port Harfleur.
    (ON, 6/08, p.9)

1415        Sep 21, Frederick III, German Emperor (1440-1493), was born in Innsbruck Austria.
    (MC, 9/21/01)

1415        Oct 25, An English army under Henry V defeated the French at Agincourt, France. The French had out numbered Henry’s troops, but Welsh longbows turned the tide of the battle. The French force was under the command of the constable Charles I d’Albret. Charles I d’Albret, son of Arnaud-Amanieu d’Albret, came from a line of nobles who were often celebrated warriors. His ancestors had fought in the First Crusade (1096-99) and his father had fought in the Hundred Years War himself--first for the English before joining the side of France. Charles’ own exploits in the ongoing conflict came to an end at the Battle of Agincourt. The decisive victory for the outnumbered English saw the death of not only Charles, but a dozen other high-ranking nobles as well. But Charles’ fate did not end the Albrets as his descendants went on to become kings of Navarre, and later, France. In 2005 Juliet Barker authored “Agincourt: The King, the Campaign, and the Battle."
    (MH, 12/96)(HN, 10/25/98)(Econ, 10/22/05, p.88)(ON, 6/08, p.10)
1415        Oct 25, Edward (b.1373), duke of York, died at the Battle of Agincourt.

1416        Feb 6, A Samogitian complaint against the Knights of the Cross was read at the Catholic Church Council at Constance.
    (LHC, 2/6/03)

1416        Apr 2, Ferdinand I (52) the Justified, king of Aragon and Sicily, died.
    (MC, 4/2/02)

1416        May 7, Monk Nicolaas Serrurier was arrested for heresy at Tournay.
    (MC, 5/7/02)

1416        May 30, Jerome of Prague was burned as a heretic by the Church.
    (HN, 5/30/98)

1416        Jun 15, St. Francesco de Paolo, was born.
    (HT, 6/15/00)
1416        Jun 15, Joannes Argyropoulos, Greek scholar, was born.
    (HT, 6/15/00)

1416        Nanni di Banco, guild member of the Masters of Stone and Wood, installed his “Four Crowned Martyr Saints" at the Orsanmichele guild center in Florence.
    (WSJ, 12/22/05, p.D8)   

1416        The Drepung Loseling Monastery was founded in Lhasa, Tibet, as a center for Buddhist teaching. It was the home for early Dalai Lamas and a place where multiphonic singing was nurtured.
    (SFC, 10/10/96, p.E1)

1416-1469    Piero de Medici, son of Cosimo de Medici.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R8)

1417        Feb 23, Pietro Barbo, later Pope Paul II (1464-1471), was born in Venice.
    (PTA, 1980, p.418)

1417        Nov 11, Martin V was elected pope and was regarded as the legitimate pontiff by the church as a whole.

1417        Donatello used central point perspective in his scene of St. George fighting the dragon.
    (Econ, 3/30/13, p.83)

1417        Bibliophile Poggio Bracciolini stumbled on a work by Roman poet Lucretius in a monastery in southern Germany. Lucretius (~99BC-~55BC) had authored “On the Nature of Things" (De Rerum Natura), which laid out in 7,400 lines of Latin verse the radical philosophy of the Greek philosopher Epicurus (341BC-270BC). The work had disappeared in the Middle Ages and lay largely forgotten until Bracciolini found it. In 2011 Stephen Greenblatt authored “The Swerve: How the World Became Modern."
    (SSFC, 12/18/11, p.F7)(

1418      Feb 25, At the Constance church synod the Orthodox Metropolitan of Kiev and Lithuania, Gregory Camblak, proposed a union between the Orthodox and Catholic church.
    (LHC, 2/25/03)

1418        In China a book was published about this time titled “The Marvelous Visions of the Star Raft." It documented some of the exploits of Admiral Zheng He, who roamed the oceans from 1405-1435.
    (Econ, 1/14/06, p.80)
1418        In 2006 Liu Gang, a Beijing lawyer and amateur map collector, unveiled a map that proclaimed to be a 1763 copy of an older Chinese map dating to 1418. The map showed the world in 2 hemispheres, but its authenticity was questioned.
    (SSFC, 1/22/06, p.A9)(Econ, 1/14/06, p.80)

1418        In Florence Brunelleschi and Ghiberti submitted plans for the dome of the Cathedral of St. Mary of the Flower. The cathedral had been under construction for 125 years and was designed to be capped by the largest dome since the golden age of ancient Rome.
    (ON, 9/00, p.6)

1418        The Gawhar Shad Mosque in Meshed, Iran was completed by the wife of Shah Rukh.
    (NG, Sept 1939, Baroness Ravensdale, p.353)

1418        The Church Council at Constance, Germany, begun in 1414, ended.
    (WUD, 1994 p.313)

1418        In Spain an agreement with the city council of Madrid set a fee of 50 maravedis - medieval copper coins - per 1,000 sheep brought through the central Sol square and Gran Via street. In 1994 sheep farmers began parading their livestock through the city, along a route that once cut through undeveloped countryside on their way to winter grazing pastures in southern Spain.
    (Reuters, 10/21/18)

1419        Jul 30, Anti-Catholic Hussites, followers of executed reformer Jan Hus, stormed the town hall in Prague and threw  3 Catholic consuls and 7 citizens out the window. This episode has been called "The Defenestration in Prague." The out-the-window gentlemen all landed safely in a manure pile.
    (NH, 9/96, p.23)(MC, 7/30/02)

1419        Aug 16, Wenceslas (b.1361), son of Charles IV and King of Germany, died. He served as King Wenceslas IV of Bohemia (1363) and King of the Romans (1376).
1419        Aug 16, Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor, became king of Bohemia following the death of Wenceslaus IV, but was ejected by the Hussites due to the execution of Jan Huss.

1419        Sep 10, John the Fearless (48), Burgundy and French warrior, was murdered at Montereau, France, by supporters of the dauphine.
    (HN, 9/10/98)(MC, 9/10/01)

1419        Dec 11, Heretic Nicolaas Serrurier was exiled from Florence.
    (MC, 12/11/01)

1419        The marble Fonte Gaia in Siena was sculpted by Jacopo della Quercia.
    (WSJ, 4/29/03, D5)

1419        An English army under Henry V captured the duchy of Normandy.
    (ON, 6/08, p.11)

1419        Prince Henry (d.1460), as governor of Portugal’s southernmost province, attracted shipbuilders, cartographers and other nautical experts. His patronage was instrumental in stimulating European exploration in the first half of the 15th century.
    (HN, 6/21/01)

1420        Mar 1, Pope Martinus I called for a crusade against the Hussieten (Bohemia).
    (SC, 3/1/02)

1420        May 21, King Charles VI of France signed the Treaty of Troyes. It recognized all the territorial gains of King Henry V, gave Henry the daughter of Charles, Catherine of Valois, in marriage, and acknowledged Henry as the legitimate heir to the French throne.
    (ON, 6/08, p.11)

1420        Jul 14, Jan Zizka (1360?-1424) led the Taborites in Battle at Vitkov Zizka's hill (Prague). The Taborites beat forces under Sigismund, the pro-Catholic King of Hungary and Bohemia. This was part of the Hussite Wars (1419-1436).

1420        Jul, The Hussites agreed on the Four Articles of Prague, which were promulgated in the Latin, Czech, and German languages. In summery they stated: 1) Freedom to preach the Word of God. 2) Celebration of the Lord's Supper in both kinds (bread and wine to priests and laity alike). 3) No profane power for the clergy. And 4) The same law for laity and priests.

1420        Dec 1, Henry V, King of England and de facto ruler of France, entered Paris.

1420        Siennese artist Giovanni di Paolo painted a tiny gold-ground triptych.
    (SFEC, 1/11/98, p.D7)

1420        The main character of Janacek’s opera "The Excursions of Mr. Broucek" was cast into a setting of religious wars from this time and forced to fight with the Hussite fanatics in Prague.
    (WSJ, 6/13/96, p.A12)

c1420        Francesco di Antonio, Florentine artist, painted "St. John the Baptist" and "St. Anthony Abbot." The panels later made their way to St. Philip’s in the Hills parish in Tucson, Ariz.
    (WSJ, 8/9/96, p.A8)

1420        Brewers in Bavaria about this time discovered a way to brew beer in the winter beginning the lager revolution.
    (Econ, 8/27/11, p.71)

1420        In Greece the Bayezid Mosque was completed in the town of Didymoticho close to the Greek-Turkish border. In 2017 a fire ripped through the Ottoman mosque causing extensive damage.
    (Reuters, 3/22/17)

1420        Prince Henry the Navigator (b.1394) gathered cartographers, navigators and shipbuilders in a fortress in Sagres, Portugal, to invent navigation technology to reach India, China and the Americas.  He later sailed south of the Canary Islands to the great eastward curve of West Africa at Sierra Leone. The search for Prester John as an ally against the Muslims helped inspire his explorations. Henry began dispatching expeditions from the nearby port of Lagos. Although dubbed "Henry the Navigator" by English writers, he never embarked on the voyages of exploration he himself sponsored. Nevertheless, the prince helped advance European cartography and the accuracy of navigation tools as well as spurring maritime commerce.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)(HN, 3/4/98)(WSJ, 1/28/00, p.A18)(HNQ, 6/21/01)

1420         Portuguese sailors and soldiers begin fighting the natives of the Canary Islands, 800 miles southwest of the southern tip of Portugal.

1420        Scotland's Duke of Albany died. The governorship of Scotland and Doune Castle passed to his son, Murdoch.
    (SSFC, 11/23/03, p.C6)

1420-1433    Time of the Hussite wars in Bohemia.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1671)

1420-1480    The Portuguese explored the west coast of Africa along the Gold Coast, so named because here could be found plenty of gold to buy pepper.

1420-1492    Piero della Francesca, painter, born in Borgo Sansepolcro, but trained in Florence. In Urbino under the patronage of Federico da Montefeltro, he produced some of his best works including the "Flagellation," the "Resurrection" and "St. Apollonia." His paintings incorporated the new aspect of perspective and earthly matters dominate over religious feeling.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.130)(AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.563)

1420-1500    The Paston Letters comprise 1,000 documents involving an English family over this period. The collection is held by the Univ. of Michigan and is being made electronically available under the Humanities Text Initiative (HTI) program that was begun in 1989.
    (MT, 6/96, p.8,9)

1421        Mar, Admiral Zheng He of the Ming dynasty embarked on a voyage that took him to the east coast of Africa. In 2002 an amateur historian proposed that he continued his voyage around the world. [see 1431]
    (SSFC, 3/17/02, p.A3)

1421        May 11, Jews were expelled from Styria, Austria.
    (MC, 5/11/02)

1421        May 23, Jews of Austria were imprisoned and expelled.
    (MC, 5/23/02)

1421        May 26, Mohammed I, Ottoman sultan (1413-21), died.
    (MC, 5/26/02)

1421        Nov 18-1421 Nov 19, In the St. Elizabeth flood the Southern sea flooded 72 villages killing  some 10,000 in Netherlands.

1421        Dec 6, Henry VI, the youngest king of England, was born. He acceded the thrown at 269 days of age.
    (HN, 12/6/02)(

1421        In Florence the first recorded patent was granted for a barge with hoisting gear used to transport marble.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)

1421        In Vienna a medieval synagogue burned with its Jewish occupants. Its remains were found in 1996 in the Judenplaz during preparation work for the installation of a new statue for the Holocaust Memorial project.
    (WSJ, 11/7/96, p.A18)

1422        Mar 30, Ketsugan, a Zen teacher, performed exorcisms to free the Aizoji temple.
    (MC, 3/30/02)

1422        Aug 13, William Caxton (d.1491), 1st English printer, was born.
    (, 5/12/05, p.D8)

1422        Aug 31, Henry V (b.1387), King of England (1413-22) and France (1416-19), died.

1422        Sep 6, Sultan Murat II ended a vain siege of Constantinople.
    (HN, 9/6/98)

1422        Oct 21, Charles VI, King of France (1380-1422), died at 54.
    (MC, 10/21/01)

1422-1482    Federico da Montefeltro, a distinguished warrior and scholar, commissioned 2 intarsia studiolas (1478-1483). A history of Federico and his studiola is in the 6/6/96 issue of "The Bulletin," the NY Met museum’s newsletter for members
    (WSJ, 6/6/96, p.A12)

1423        Mar 30, Lithuania and Poland reached an agreement at Kezmark with Emperor Sigismund, who agreed to recall Sigismund Kaributa from Poland.
    (LHC, 3/30/03)

1423        May 23, Benedict XIII, [Pedro the Luna], Spanish Pope (1394-1423), died. He had been elected by the Avignon cardinals during the Great Western Schism.
    (MC, 5/23/02)(PTA, 1980, p.402)

1423        Ghiberti’s sculpture of St. Matthew was installed at the Orsanmichele guild center in Florence.
    (WSJ, 12/22/05, p.D8)

1423        Dick Whittington (b.1354), four times Lord Mayor of London, a Member of Parliament and a sheriff of London, died and gave all his money to charity.
    (Reuters, 11/26/11)(

1424        Oct 11, Jan Zizka (b.c1370), Czech army leader (Hussite), died of plague.

1424        Dec 6, Don Alfonso V of Aragon granted Barcelona the right to exclude Jews.
    (MC, 12/6/01)

1424        Masolino sculpted his Pieta.
    (WSJ, 1/20/02, p.D8)

1424        A Portuguese navigation chart showed a land called Antilia in the vicinity of the West Indies.
    (SFEC, 5/28/00, Z1 p.2)

1424        James I (1394-1437) returned from exile and was crowned King of Scotland.

1425           Feb 27, Moscow's Grand Duke Vasilii died and his brother-in-law, Vytautas, became guardian of his son, Vasilii, and daughter, Sophia.
    (LHC, 2/27/03)

1425        Jul 21, Manuel Palaeologus, Byzantine Emperor (1391-1425), writer, died. He ended his days after signing a humiliating peace with the Ottoman Turks.
    (, 9/23/06, p.59)

1425        Aug 25, Countess Jacoba of Bavaria escaped from jail.
    (, 8/25/01)

1425        Donatello created his hollow bronze statue of St. Louis of Toulouse.
    (Econ, 3/30/13, p.83)

1425        Robert Campin painted the altarpiece "The Merode Triptych."
    (WSJ, 1/14/00, p.W12)

1425          Korean King Sejong: "I am neither virtuous, nor skillful at governing. There will definitely be times when I do not act upon the heavens' wishes. So look hard for my flaws and make me answer to their reprimands."
    (Econ., 8/22/20, p.34)

1426        Sep 18, Hubert [Huybrecht] van Eyck, painter, died.
    (MC, 9/18/01)

1426        Hubert van Eyck (1385-1426) began work on “The Adoration of the Mystic Lamb," later known as the Ghent Altarpiece. The 12-panel work was completed in 1432 by his younger brother Jan van Eyck. It was the first major oil painting in history.
    (SSFC, 2/16/14, p.E6)(

1426        Vietnam provided a defeated Chinese army with boats and horses to carry home its soldiers.
    (NG, May, 04, p.94)

1427        May 10, Jews were expelled from Berne, Switzerland.
    (MC, 5/10/02)

1427        Gentile De Fabriano (b.~1378), Italian painter, died about this time. His work included “The Adoration of the Kings" (1423).
    (WSJ, 12/19/08, p.W9A)(

1428        Feb 5, King Alfonso V ordered Sicily's Jews to convert to Catholicism.
    (MC, 2/5/02)

1428        Dec 22, Richard Neville Warwick, 2nd earl of Salisbury, was born.
    (MC, 12/22/01)

1428        Fra Angelico (c.1387-1455), Italian painter and Dominican friar, created his “Madonna of Humility."
    (Econ, 12/17/11, p.148)
1428        John Wycliffe (1328-1384), English theologian and biblical translator, was posthumously declared a heretic and his body was exhumed for burning.
    (WSJ, 4/4/01, p.A18)

1428-1430    Andrei Rublev, Russian icon painter, took part in painting the frescoes of the Andronikov Monastery’s Church of the Savior.
    (DVD, Criterion, 1998)

1429        Jan 9, The conference at Luck began (Jan 9-29). Vytautas hosted a grand Congress at Luck ostensibly to unite the region against threats from the Turks to the south. Emperor Sigismund of Hungary agreed to the formation of the Kingdom of Lithuania and dispatched a crown from Hungary.
    (DrEE, 11/9/96, p.6)(LHC, 1/9/03)

1429        Jan 10, Order of Golden Fleece was established in Austria-Hungary & Spain.
    (MC, 1/10/02)

1429        Jan 23, At the Congress of Luck Emp. Sigismund of Luxembourg offered to crown Vytautas as King of Lithuania.
    (LHC, 1/23/03)

1429        Apr 29, Joan of Arc led French troops to victory over the English at Orleans during the Hundred Years’ War. Legend has it that King Charles VII of France had a suit of armor made for Joan at a cost of 100 war horses. In 1996 a suit of armor was found and proposed to be Joan’s armor.
    (ATC, p.107)(SFC, 6/19/96, p.A10)(AP, 4/29/98)(HN, 4/29/98)

1429        May 7, English siege of Orleans was broken by Joan of Arc.
    (HN, 5/7/98)

1429        May 8, French troops under Joan of Arc rescued Orleans.
    (MC, 5/8/02)

1429        May 9, Joan of Arc defeated the besieging English at Orleans.
    (HN, 5/9/98)

1429        Jul 16, Joan of Arc led French army in the Battle of Orleans. [see May 9]
    (MC, 7/16/02)

1429        Jul 17, The dauphin, son of Charles VI, was crowned as king of France.
    (PCh, 1992, p.144)(MC, 7/17/02)

1429        Aug 26, Joan of Arc makes a triumphant entry into Paris.
    (HN, 8/26/99)

1429        Nov 6, Coronation of Henry VI, King of England.
    (HN, 11/6/98)

1429        Dec 21, Jacquemart de Blaharies, Tournay "heretic", was burned to death.
    (MC, 12/21/01)

1429        The beginning of coal mining in the Saarland (Germany) dates to this time.
    (Econ, 3/1/08, p.71)

1429        Two monks reportedly went fishing in Russia’s northern Solovetsky Islands and soon established a year-round settlement usually referred to as Solovki.
    (Econ, 12/18/04, p.83)

1429        The kingdom of Ryukyu was unified under the court at Shuri (later part of Naha, Okinawa).
    (NH, 9/01, p.56)

1430        Jan 29, Andrei Rublev, Russian icon painter, died and was buried in the Andronikov Monastery. In 1966 the Russian film “Andrei Rublev" was made by Andrei Tarkovsky.
    (DVD, Criterion, 1998)

1430        May 5, Jews were expelled from Speyer, Germany.
    (MC, 5/5/02)

1430        May 23, Joan of Arc was captured by the Burgundians, who sold her to the English.
    (AP, 5/23/97)(HN, 5/23/98)

1430        Jul 14, Joan of Arc, taken prisoner by the Burgundians in May, was handed over to Pierre Cauchon, the bishop of Beauvais.
    (HN, 7/14/98)

1430        Oct 3, Jews were expelled from Eger, Bohemia.
    (MC, 10/3/01)

1430        Oct 27,  Vytautas the Great (b.1350), the ruler of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania  (1392–1430) which chiefly encompassed the Lithuanians and Ruthenians, died. He had been preparing for coronation but Polish forces interrupted the arrival of his crown to Trakus. He began to ride to Vilnius but fell from his horse and was returned to Trakus where he died at the age of 80. He was also the Prince of Hrodna (1370–1382) and the Prince of Lutsk (1387–1389), postulated king of Hussites.
    ( of L, 1931, p.58)

1430        In the Canary Islands the earliest recorded volcanic eruption in La Palma took place.
    (Reuters, 9/19/21)

1430-1432     In Lithuania Svitrigaila served as Grand Duke. 
    (TB-Com, 10/11/00)

1430s    Jan van Eyck painted 2 works titled "St. Francis Receiving the Stigmata." For a time he was considered the inventor of oil painting, but later lost that distinction. He is still regarded as the inventor of a type of landscape painting with figures in realistic scale that influenced the entire Northern school of painting. Only 9 signed and dated works survive. In 2001 painter David Hockney and physicist Charles Falco alleged that Eyck and other artists of this period began using optical devices to project pictures and produce detailed tracings.
    (WSJ, 5/7/98, p.A21)(SFC, 1/5/01, p.C9)

1430        Hans Memling (d.1494), painter of the Flemish school, was born in Seligenstadt, Germany.
    (AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.894)

1430?-1498?    Cosimo Tura, Italian painter. He painted "Renaissance Nobleman."
    (AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.1525)

1430-1516    Giovanni Bellini, Venetian painter son of Jacopo. He painted "Portrait of the Doge Loredano."
    (AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.136)

1431        Jan 1, Rodrigo Borgia Lanzol (d.1503), member of the Borgia family, was born in Xativa, Spain. His mother was the sister of Pope Calixtus III. He was elected Pope Alexander VI in 1492 and amassed a fortune by pocketing church funds. His reign helped inspire the Protestant reformation. He fathered numerous children including Lucrezia Borgia. Machiavelli based "The Prince" on him.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R8)(PTA, 1980, 424)

1431        Feb 21, The interrogation of Joan of Arc (1412-1431) began France.
    (Sm, 2/06, p.38)

1431        Mar 3, Bishop Gabriele Condulmer (1383-1447) was elected as Pope Eugene IV (1431-1447).
    (WUD, 1994 p.491)(PTA, 1980, p.410)(SC, 3/3/02)

1431          May 30, Joan of Arc (19), condemned as a heretic [as a witch], was burned at the stake in Rouen, France. A silent movie of her life was made in 1927 by Carl Theodor Dreyer.
    (CFA, '96, p.46)(WSJ, 1/23/96, p.A-12)(AP, 5/30/97)(HN, 5/30/98)

1431        Dec 16, Henry VI of England was crowned King of France.
    (HN, 12/16/98)

1431        Andrea Mantegna (d.1506), Italian painter and engraver, was born.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1534)(WSJ, 6/6/96, p.A12)(SFEC, 7/13/97, p.T11)

1431        Admiral Cheng Ho of the Ming dynasty led a fleet of 52 ships with nearly 30,000 men to the east coast of Africa. Shortly thereafter the Mings halted all voyages and begin to foster an attitude of antiforeign conservatism.

1431        Thai armies invaded and plundered the Khmer civilization at Angkor Thom in Cambodia. The court moved south of the great lake Tonle Sap and later to Phnom Penh.
    (SFEC, 7/26/98, p.T6)

1431        Cosimo de Medici was arrested for seeking to elevate himself higher than others. With bribes he reduced his sentence from execution to banishment. His absence led to a financial crises in Florence and he was quickly invited back.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R8)

1431-1463?    Francois Villon, French poet. The 1938 film "If I Were King" starred Ronald Colman and Basil Rathbone and was directed by Preston Sturges. It was about the French poet and revolutionary Francois Villon.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1593)(SFEC, 8/2/98, DB p.49)

1431-1476    In Romania Vlad Tepes, aka Vlad the Impaler, the son of Vlad Dracul (Vlad the Dragon), was a 15th century gruesome Wallachian nobleman. Dracula means son of the dragon. He punished disobedient subjects and “unchaste" women by impaling them on sharpened logs, often dining amid the victims as they died. The family name changed to Kretzulesco and grew in stature with members upgraded to princes and princesses.
    (WSJ, 10/30/97, p.A20)(

1432        Jan 15, Afonso V "the African", king of Portugal (1438-1481), was born.
    (MC, 1/15/02)

1432        The Flemish "Adoration of the Mystic Lamb" was completed brothers Jan and Hubert van Eyck. The work is an altarpiece of 12 detailed panels that is widely considered one of the most important pieces of early Renaissance art. In 2021 it emerged from a decade of restoration in a new exhibition space in Belgium's Ghent cathedral, with updated technology to plunge visitors into an intricate work with a troubled past.
    (Reuters, 3/26/21)

1432        Zeeland became part of the Low Countries possession of Phillip the Good (1396-1467) of Burgundy.

1432-1440    In Lithuania Zygimantas Kestutaitis served as Grand Duke. 
    (TB-Com, 10/11/00)

1433        Apr 14, Liduina van Schiedam (53), Dutch mystic (Christ's Bride), saint, died.
    (MC, 4/14/02) 

1433        May 31, Sigismund was crowned emperor of Rome.
    (HN, 5/31/98)

1434        Mar 1, Jacoba of Bavaria married Frank van Borselen.
    (SC, 3/1/02)

1434        May 30, The Battle of Lipany virtually ended the Hussite Wars. Prokopius leader of Taborites, died in battle.

1434        Nov 24, The Thames River froze.
    (MC, 11/24/01)

1434        Jan van Eyck painted "the Arnolfini Marriage." It is now at the London National Gallery.
    (Cont, 12/97, p.60)(SFEC, 2/1/98, p.T8)

1434        The imperial kiln at Jungdezhen in south-central China produced 250,000 porcelain pieces.
    (SFEC, 10/6/96, DB p.37)

1434        Nomadic Tuaregs seized Timbuktu, Mali, from invaders.
    (AP, 4/1/12)

1434          Gil Eannes, Portuguese explorer, made the first successful rounding of Cape Bojador, off Western Sahara, in a lug-rigged boat.

1435        Sep 21, Treaty of Atrecht. Philippe le Bon of Burgundy and French king Charles II signed a treaty at Arras. Phillipe broke with the English and recognized Charles as France’s only king.
    (MC, 9/21/01)(PCh, 1992, p.145)

1435        Oct 20, Andrea Della Robbia, sculptor, nephew of Luca, was born in Florence.
    (MC, 10/20/01)

1435        In Sweden the main building of the Uppsala Cathedral was completed. Spires were added in the 19th century.
    (SSFC, 7/26/15, p.M16)

1436        Jun 6, Regiomontanus (Johannes Muller), prepared astronomical tables, was born.
    (MC, 6/6/02)

1436        The 350-foot high dome of Santa Maria del Fiore, the cathedral of Florence, by Filippo Brunelleschi was completed. The cathedral was consecrated by the Pope following 140 years of construction. In 2000 Ross King authored "Brunelleschi’s Dome: How a Renaissance Genius Reinvented Architecture."
    (Hem., 10/97, p.130)(SSFC, 12/24/00, BR p.12)

1436        Emperor Sigismund (1368-1437) was accepted as king of Bohemia.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1672)(WUD, 1994, p.1325)

1436        Johannes Gutenburg of Germany invented the printing press with movable type.
    (SFC, 7/26/04, p.F4)

1437        Sep 18, Farmers revolted in Transylvania.
    (MC, 9/18/01)

1437        Dec 9, Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor, died. Major Czech factions had accepted Sigismund as king of Bohemia prior to his death.

1438        Oct 20, Jacopo di Piero della Quercia (64), Italian sculptor, died.
    (MC, 10/20/01)

1438        Jan van Eyck (1385-1440) painted his "Portrait of Cardinal Niccols Albergati."
    (SFC, 1/5/01, p.C9)

1438        Filippo Lippi created the painting "Woman with a Man at a Window."
    (WSJ, 12/14/01, p.W20)

1438        The Incas established an imperial state in the Andes (Peru) and Cusco was rebuilt. They went on to build over 25,000 miles of roads.
    (SFC, 3/19/02, p.A2)(NG, Feb, 04, p.72)

1438        The shipbuilding firm of Camuffo was founded in Portogruaro, Italy.
    (SFC, 4/14/06, p.D1)

1439        Jul 16, Kissing was banned in England in order to stop germs from spreading.
    (MC, 7/16/02)

1439        Oct 21, Traversari Ambrosius (53), Italian humanist and leader, died.
    (MC, 10/21/01)

1439        Oct 27, Albrecht II von Habsburg (42), king of Bohemia, Hungary and Germany, died.
    (MC, 10/27/01)

1439-1440    Donatello (1386-1466), Florentine artist, completed his bronze statue of David about this time. It was commissioned by Cosimo de Medici.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R53)(

1439        Byzantium formally submitted to Rome. [see 330AD]
    (WSJ, 11/14/95, p. A-12)

1439-1448    Felix V served as the last antipope. He was born as Amadeus VIII, duke of Savoye in 1383.
    (MC, 9/4/01)

1440        Jan 22, Ivan III (the Great), grand prince of Russia, czar from 1462-1505, was born. He conquered Lithuania.
    (HN, 1/22/99)(MC, 1/22/02)

1440        Feb 22, Ladislaus V Posthumus, King of Hungary and Bohemia, was born.
    (MC, 2/22/02)

1440        Jun 29, Florentine troops fought the Milanese in the Battle of Anghiari. After the battle of Anghieri, Andrea del Castagno (1421-1457), a Medici protege, painted effigies of the hanged rebels.

1440        Oct 26, Gilles de Rais, French marshal, depraved killer of 140 children, was hanged over slow fire. A brilliant young French knight, he was believed to have cracked over the torture and death of his true love, Jeanne d'Arc, the Maid of Orleans (d.1431).
    (MC, 10/26/01)

1440        Dec 22, Bluebeard, pirate, was executed.
    (MC, 12/22/01)

c1440    The Book of Hours of Catherine of Cleves was made.
    (SFC, 2/15/97, p.D1)

c1440    Lief Eriksson drew a map of America about this time. The "Vinland Map" was introduced in 1965 by Yale University as being the 1st known map of America, drawn about 1440 by Norse explorer Lief Eriksson.
    (MC, 10/10/01)

1440        Eton, the top British public school, was established by Henry VI.
    (Hem, 4/96, p.68)

1440-1492    In Lithuania Casimir served as Grand Duke. 
    (TB-Com, 10/11/00)

1440-1870    This period is covered in the 1997 book by Hugh Thomas: "The Slave Trade, The Story of the Atlantic Slave Trade: 1440-1870."
    (SFEC,11/16/97, BR p.4)(WSJ, 2/26/02, p.A22)

1441        Jun, Jan/Johannes van Eyck (b.1395), Flemish painter (Lamb Gods), died in Brugge.

1441        Portuguese kidnapped several noble-born Africans, who in turn offered African slaves to the captors as ransom. In 1998 John Reader published "Africa: A Biography of a Continent."
    (SFEC, 6/28/98, BR p.12)

1442        Apr 28, Edward, the son of Richard Plantagenet, Duke of York, was born in Rouen, France. He was crowned as Edward IV in 1461 and became the first king of the House of York (1471-1483). In a 2004 television documentary, records were found in the Rouen Cathedral archives which revealed that, from 14 July to 21 August 1441, the crucial five-week period in which Edward must have been conceived, Edward's supposed father was away on campaign at Pontoise, several days' march from Rouen (where Cecily of York was based), and that prayers were being offered for his safety. This was taken to suggest that the Duke of York could not have been available to father Edward.

1442        Jun 12, Alfonso V of Aragon was crowned King of Naples.
    (HN, 6/12/98)

1442        The Pazzi Chapel in Florence was begun. Its design was suspected to be by Michelozzo di Bortalommeo, a follower of Brunelleschi.
    (SFC, 1/2/97, p.C3)
1442        Al-Maqrizi (b.1364), Egyptian historian, died. His work included a history of Cairo. Maqrizi had begun a large work called the Muqaffa, an encyclopedia of Egyptian biography in alphabetic order. Another Egyptian historian, al-Sakhawi, believed this would require eighty volumes to complete, but only sixteen were written.
    (SSFC, 7/24/11, p.F7)(

1443        May 9, Niccolo d'Albergati, Italian cardinal, died.
    (MC, 5/9/02)

1443        Jun 5, Ferdinand, Portuguese saint, slave to Fez, died.
    (MC, 6/5/02)

1443        Dec 5, Giuliano della Rovere, later Pope Julius II (1443-1513), was born in Liguria.

1443        After losing a battle near Nis, Skenderbeg with a group of Albanian warriors defected from the Ottoman army and return to Kruja. Albanian resistance to Turkish rule was organized under the leadership of Skander Beg in Kruja. He was able to keep Albania independent for more than 20 years. A baronial museum in his honor was later was designed by the daughter of Enver Hoxha.
    (CO, Grolier’s Amer. Acad. Enc./ Albania)(WSJ, 4/14/98, p.A21)(www, Albania, 1998)

1444        May 20, Bernardinus van Siena (63), Italian saint, died.
    (MC, 5/20/02)

1444        Aug 26, In the Battle of St. Jakob an der Birs, fought near Basel in Switzerland, a Swiss force of some 1,600 soldiers stopped some 30,000 French mercenaries on their way to relieve a siege of Zurich.

1444            Nov 10, During the Hungarian-Turkish War (1444-1456), Sultan Murad II beat the Crusaders in the Battle at Varna on the Black Sea.
    (DoW, 1999, p.217)

1444        Murad II, Ottoman ruler, abdicated and Mehmet II (13) briefly succeeded him until 1446.
    (Ot, 1993, p.7)
1444        The Albanian people organized a league of Albanian princes in this year under George Kastrioti, also known as Skanderbeg. As leader of this Christian league he effectively repulsed 13 Turkish invasions from 1444 to 1466, making him a hero in the Western world.
    (HNQ, 10/5/98)(www, Albania, 1998)
1444        Cossacks were first mentioned in Russian history.
    (SFC,10/28/97, p.A8)
1444        Slaves from Africa were first carried to Portugal. Europe’s first modern-era slave market was established in Portugal. Lancarote de Freitas returned to Lagos, Portugal, with his small fleet of six ships and 235 Berbers, kidnapped from a region of West Africa (Mauritania).
    (WSJ, 12/1/97, p.A20)(SSFC, 2/19/17, p.F6)(SFC, 10/31/18, p.E1)

1445        Giovanni di Paolo, Italian painter in Siena, painted "The Creation," and the Expulsion of Adam and Eve from Paradise. In this painting Paolo depicted the universe as a set of nesting concentric spheres.
    (NOHY, Weiner, 3/90, p.244)

1445        The Council of Florence ended. It established the date for the Great Schism between the Eastern and Western (Orthodox and Catholic) churches as July, 1054. An official date was needed so that talks could begin on reunion.
    (WSJ, 7/16/97, p.A23)

1445-1510    Sandro Botticelli, Italian painter, was born in Florence as Alessandro di Mariano Filipepi. His work included "The Birth of Venus" "Madonna of the Eucharist" (c1472-1475) and "Portrait of a Man with a Medal." His work "Venus and Mars" is at the London National Gallery. He belongs to the era of the Quattro cento, when artists were still struggling to break free of the rigid outlines of the Middle Ages. His solution was the use of curved lines. Vasari later claimed that Botticelli was a follower of Savonarola, the religious zealot.
    (AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.173)(WSJ, 2/5/97, p.A16)(SFEC, 2/1/98, p.T8)

1446        Apr 16, Filippo Brunelleschi (69), architect, sculptor and goldsmith, died and was buried in the Cathedral of St. Mary of the Flower in Florence. In the 1490s Antonio di Tuccio Manetti authored "The Life of Brunelleschi." In 1974 Isabelle Hyman authored "Brunelleschi in Perspective."
    (ON, 9/00, p.8)(MC, 4/16/02)

1446        Oct 9, The Korean alphabet known as hangul, created under the aegis of King Sejong, was first published. This day was later made a national holiday.
    (AP, 10/9/07)(Econ, 10/10/15, p.40)

1446        In Scotland Sir William St. Clair, a grand master in the Knights Templar, founded the Rosslyn Chapel. It was built in the shape of a cross in the Pentland Hills outside Edinburgh. It became famous as part of the Dan Brown’s 2003 thriller “The Da Vinci Code."
    (SFC, 5/25/06, p.E2)

1446        Mehmet II, Ottoman ruler, was deposed and Murad II was recalled to the throne.
    (Ot, 1993, p.7)

1446-1447    The first Portuguese arrive at Guinea-Bissau. It was subsequently administered as part of the Portuguese Cape Verde Islands. The Guinea area becomes important in the slave-trade.
    (BBC, 3/12/20)

1446-1521    A Gothic choir with buttresses and pinnacles was added to the abbey Mont St. Michel off the coast of Normandy, France. It replaced one that had collapsed.
    (WSJ, 10/7/06, p.P18)

1446-1523    The Italian painter Perugino, born as Pietro di Cristoforo di Vannucci, was a student of Pierro della Francesca and Andrea Verrochio. He won a papal commission for frescoes on the sidewalls of the Sistine Chapel along with Botticelli and Ghirlandaio. His work included the late weird allegory "The Combat Between Love and Chastity."
    (WSJ, 1/6/98, p.16)

1446-1524    Il Perugino (Pietro Vannucci), painter, worked in Umbria and died of the plague. His work includes: "The Baptism," "Mary in Glory," "Adoration of the Magi," Martyrdom of St. Sebastian," " Madonna and Child," and "The Virgin in Glory."
    (WUD, 1994, p.1076)(SFEM, 10/12/97, p.49)

1447        The winged altarpiece of Stephensdom in Vienna, Austria was completed.
    (Hem., Dec. '95, p.67)

1448            Oct 31, Johannes VIII Palaeologus (b.1390), Emperor of Byzantium, died.

1448        In China hyperinflation hit and paper money lost 97% of its value. China soon abandoned paper money.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)

1448        The Portuguese established the first European trading post in Africa.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)

1449        Jan 1, Lorenzo de Medici (d.1492), later know as Lorenzo the Magnificent, was born in Florence.

1449         Albanians, under Skenderbeg, routed the Ottoman forces under Sultan Murat II.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1449        Ashikaga Yoshimasa (14) inherited the office of Shogun, the chief military and civic leader of feudal Japanese society. His leadership focused on the arts and depleted the national treasury which led to social and political anarchy.
    (ON, 7/01, p.3)

1449        Rodrigo Borgia Lanzol (b.1431), father of Cesare and Lucretia, arrived in Rome from Spain and Italianized his name from Borja to Borgia. His rise in the church was helped a great deal when his uncle became Pope Calixtus III.
    (HN, 8/10/98)(PTA, p.424)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R4)(MC, 8/11/02)

1449        The giant Scottish bombard known as Mons Meg was built. It was retired from active service in 1680, after splitting her barrel while firing a ceremonial shot. She can still be seen in Edinburgh castle.
    (HNQ, 6/20/02)

1449        The Swedish Gotlandsvisan ballad, written about this time, portrayed Danes as unreliable.
    (, 7/4/20, p.46)

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