Timeline Eleventh Century 1000-1099

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1000        Jan 1, Stephen became the first king of Hungary.
    (SFEC, 8/8/99, p.T5)

1000        Oct 9, Leif Ericson discovered "Vinland." [see 1001]
    (MC, 10/9/01)

c1000        A 174-page manuscript was copied onto goatskin parchment in Constantinople from papyrus versions of Archimedes’ original calculations and mathematical diagrams. Over the years it was written over. The Archimedes Palimpsest was later discovered and examined using x-ray technology at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center.
    (SFC, 5/23/05, p.A4)

c1000        An early Andean culture known as the Huari cultivated crops with complex irrigation systems back to this time.
    (NH, 10/02, p.62)

1000        In Brazil megaliths were arranged into an astronomical observatory in the Rego Grande area of the Amazon. The stones were uncovered in the 1990s during deforesting operations in the area. In 2016 scholars in the field of archaeoastronomy determined that an indigenous culture had arranged the megaliths about this time.
    (SFC, 12/15/16, p.A4)

1000        Gunpowder was invented in China about this time.

1000        Scientists suspect that the sun was particularly bright for a period of time that is called the Medieval Optimum with global temperatures about 1 to 2 degrees higher than today.
    (NOHY, 3/90, p.127)

c1000        The Sinagua Indians, in what is now Arizona, made granaries in the cliffs along the Verde River some 100 miles north of Phoenix.
    (SFEC, 9/28/97, p.T6)

c1000        The Numic-speaking Shoshone Indians took part in a widespread migration out of the Cosos Mountains on the northwestern edge of the Mojave Desert about this time and populated a large portion of the western US.
    (PacDis, Summer ’97, p.10)

c1000        The Cahokia settlement in Southern Illinois numbered about 30,000.
    (SFC, 3/20/99, p.B4)

c1000        The Mississippian transformation was marked by the rise of agriculture and the appearance of belligerent chiefdoms. The Calusa Indians of southern Florida avoided the Mississippian transformation and maintained their ancient lifeways based on fishing and collecting.
    (AM, 7/97, p.75)

1000        By this time the whole of East and Central Africa was occupied by the Bantu people. Older inhabitants such as the Hottentots and Bushmen were either absorbed or pushed into less desirable places such as the Kalahari.
    (Enc. of Africa, 1976, p.169)

1000         By about this time the initial Arctic culture had given way to a second eastward flow of a people now known as the Thule. (Evidence from Ellesmere Island in Canadian Arctic).
    (NG, 6/1988, 762)

1000        A divided England, ruled by Ethelred the Unready, was in a state of intermittent warfare with the Vikings, who controlled much of the realm.
    (SFC, 4/23/01, p.E1)
c1000        In England the Vikings established a thriving economy in the town they called Jorvik. It had been founded by the Romans as a fortress and later came to be called York.
    (SFEC,10/26/97, p.T4)

1000        The Loire Valley vineyard Chateau de Goulaine was founded. In 2004 it was considered to be Europe’s oldest and continuous family business
    (Econ, 12/18/04, p.104)

c1000        Cloisters take up brewing at about the turn of the first millennium. The monks were particularly interested in the scientific aspects of brewing, and so it was that at the Brabant Cloister zum Würzen that hops were tried for the very first time. That probably led to the legend that Brabant King Gambrinus was the inventor of beer. He is still remembered today as a great patron of the brewers and a beer lover in his own right.

1000        The Gypsy people (Romany) migrated from Rajasthan, India, about this time.
    (Wired, 9/96, p.46)(Econ, 6/21/08, p.35)

1000        In Agnone, Italy, the Fonderia Pontificia Marinelli, a bell foundry, was founded about this time.
    (SFC, 4/14/06, p.D1)

c1000       Graves of rich Curonian warriors from near Kretinga in western Lithuania revealed cremated bones in a tree-trunk coffin, nine fibulae, a leather belt with bronze and amber beads, 3 spears and an iron battle-axe, an iron instrument for striking fire, a sickle, an iron key and bronze scales, a saddle and iron bridle bits along with miniature tools and weapons.
    (DrEE, 11/23/96, p.3)

1000        Large portions of the island fauna of Madagascar, that once included a lemur the size of bear and the ostrich-like Elephant Bird, was eliminated by the Malagash people of Madagascar.
    (NOHY, 3/90, p.188)
1000        The flightless elephant bird Aepyornis maximus, which had stalked the savannah and rainforests of Madagascar, was hunted to extinction about this time. The elephant bird died out after a new wave of human settlers arrived. Researchers in 2018 said the creature would have stood at least three meters (10 feet) tall, and had an average weight of 650 kg, making it the largest bird genus yet uncovered.
    (AFP, 9/26/18)

1000        In Cracow, Poland, the Wawel Castle was built overlooking the Vistula River.
    (WSJ, 7/13/00, p.A24)

c1000        In Siberia the Yakut nation, a Turkish-speaking people, wandered north about this time to avoid the Mongols.
    (SFC, 1/21/98, Z1 p.4)

1000        About this time in the Hadramawt region of Yemen a dam burst near the village of Senna, and the people of the valley fled. In 1997 researchers using DNA studies found that the Lemba, a Bantu speaking people of southern Africa carry markers distinctive of the Cohanim, Jewish priests believed to be descended from Aaron. Lemba oral tradition held that they came to Africa from Senna. Dr. Tudor Parfitt authored "Journey to the Vanished City," a description of his work on the Lemba.
    (SFEC, 5/9/99, p.A24)(www.answers.com/topic/lemba)

1000        The Zapotecs founded and ruled the archeological site of Monte Alban in the Mexican state of Oaxaca for more than a millennium until about this time when the Mixtecs took over.
    (SFC, 5/5/96, p.T-8)

1000        In 1999 Robert Lacey and Danny Danziger published "The Year 1000: What Life Was Like at the Turn of the First Millennium." It focused on life in England and used the Julius Work Calendar as a major source. Other millennium books included "AD 1000: A World on the Brink of Apocalypse," and "The Last Apocalypse: Europe at the Year 1000 AD."
    (WSJ, 1/29/99, p.W7)(WSJ, 4/6/99, p.B1)(SFEC, 7/25/99, BR p.2)

1000        The population at this time was about 200 million people in the world.
    (WSJ, 12/23/99, p.A18)

1000-1020    The Bamberg Apocalypse, a richly illuminated manuscript containing the Book of Revelation and a Gospel Lectionary, was created in the scriptorium at Reichenau during this period.
    (SSFC, 6/9/13, p.E7)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bamberg_Apocalypse)

1000-1100    Eilmer of Malmesbury (also known as Oliver due to a scribe's miscopying, or Elmer, was an 11th-century English Benedictine monk best known for his early attempt at a gliding flight using wings. He reportedly strapped wings to his hands and feet and jumped off a tower at England's Malmesbury Abbey gliding some 200 meters before crashing and breaking both legs.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eilmer_of_Malmesbury)(Econ., 10/10/20, p.75)

1000-1100    There was a Confucian revival in China. The scholar Ch’eng I held that the I Ching was a means of inquiry into any possible matter.
    (NH, 9/97, p.12)
1000-1100    Chinese kilns mass produced ceramics for the imperial court.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R25)

1000-1100    In 2002 the remains of a longhouse from this time were uncovered in northern Iceland. It was believed to be associated with Snorri Thorfinnson, son of Viking explorers and the 1st European born in the New World.
    (SFC, 9/16/02, p.A2)
1000-1100    The writer Mahmud of Kashgar recorded a variant of an Uighur story that Alexander the Great during his conquests ordered his doctors to invent a remedy for sick people that was good to eat. In the original story they then came up with pilaf, but Mahmud substituted tutmach (noodles) in a setting of starvation.
    (SFC, 8/14/96, zz-1 p.2)

c1000-1100    Tenkaminen reigned as Caliph of Ghana. He exported gold, ivory and salt and kept his wealth in gold. He put glass windows into his palace in Kumbi and kept a menagerie of elephants and giraffes.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R6)

1000-1100    From India the sandstone sculpture "Uma Maheshvara" is a variant of the archetypal couple Shiva and Parvati.
    (SFC, 6/28/97, p.E1)

1000-1100    In southern India an 11th century temple was constructed in Thanjavur.
    (WSJ, 6/9/97, p.A1)

c1000-1100    A Buddhist shrine was constructed in Uji, Japan. In 1968 the Byodo-In Temple at the foot of the Koolaus Mountains on Oahu, Hawaii, was built as a replica of the 900-year-old shrine.
    (SFEM, 10/12/97, p.20)

1000-1100    In Laos Wat Phu was last renovated by King Suryavarnam I.
    (AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.F)

1000-1100    Marrakech was founded in the 11th century. It was the terminus of a trade route running southward to the Niger River and of another running eastward to Cairo.
    (NH, 5/96, p.40)

1000-1100    In Mali the desert village of Araouane, 161 miles north of Timbuktu, was first mentioned about this time. It was a wealthy settlement that flourished off the caravans and drew water from 150-foot wells.
    (AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.84)

c1000-1200    The 11th or 12th century document "De Mirabilibus Brittanniae" (the Wonders of Britain) was written by Radulfi de Diceto Lundoniensis.
    (AM, 9/01, p.42)

1000-1250    Early post classic period of the Maya.
    (AM, May/Jun 97 suppl. p.B)

1000-1260    The Popoloca Indians of Mexico's Puebla state built the Ndachjian-Tehuacan temple complex during this period. In 2018 archeological excavations found the first temple of the Flayed Lord, Xipe Totec, depicted as a skinned human corpse, at the complex. The Popolocas were later conquered by the Aztecs.
    (SFC, 1/4/19, p.A2)

1000-1300    Bantu people called the Shona build the Great Zimbabwe, which means "Houses of Stone." This grand city became Zimbabwe’s capital and trade center.
    (ATC, p.135)

c1000-1400    Angkor Thom, capital of the Khmer empire, reached its apogee during this period. It included the religious monument of Angkor Wat. In 2007 new technology indicated that the city covered an area over 115 square miles at its peak and used sophisticated technology for managing and harvesting water.
    (AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.A)(SFEC, 7/26/98, p.T6)(SFC, 8/14/07, p.A18)
c1k-14kCE    The Mapungubwe kingdom thrived in South Africa. It was rediscovered by archeologists in the 1930s.
    (Arch, 1/05, p.10)

1001        Otto III was ousted. He had moved his thrown from Germany to Rome and fancied himself Holy Roman Emperor.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R54)

c1001        Norse sagas claim that Leif Ericson and a band of 35 men sailed for western lands based on an account by the Viking Bjarni Herjulfsson, who had sighted land after being blown off course. They found a land they called Vinland and built houses but returned to Greenland before the winter.
    (HT, 5/97, p.31)

1002        Jun 6, German king Henry II, the Saint, was crowned.
    (MC, 6/6/02)

1002        Jun 21, Pope Leo IX was born. He brought the conflict between Rome and the eastern Church to a head in 1054, ending with the Patriarch of Constantinople being excommunicated and the creation of the Schism.
    (Camelot, 6/21/99)

1002        Aug 2, Abu Amir Mohammed ibn Abd Allah ibn Mohammed ibn Abi Amir (64) died.
    (MC, 8/2/02)

1002        Nov 13, English king Ethelred II launched a massacre of Danish settlers.

1002        Thorer Eastman (d.1002), a Norwegian sea captain, was blown off course on a trading voyage from Iceland to Greenland. He and his wife, Gudrid, along with a crew of 13 became stranded on a rock near the coast of Newfoundland for weeks until they were rescued by Leif Eriksson, who was on his way home to Greenland from North America with a cargo of timber. That fall an epidemic swept Greenland and Eastman died.
    (ON, 12/07, p.4)

1002-1019    In Japan Lady Murasaki Shikibu wrote her classic court novel "The Tale of Genji." The novel "Genji Monogatari" (Genji the Shining One) was later considered the world's 1st novel. The long work explored the imperial court of the Heian period through the life and many loves of Genji, son of the emperor's favorite concubine. Arthur Waley made an English translation in 6 installments between 1925 and 1933. Edward Seidensticker made a translation in 1976. Royall Tyler made a new translation in 2001.  In 2000 Liza Dalby authored her novel "The Tale of Murasaki."
    (Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 214)(WSJ, 2/5/98, p.A20)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)(WSJ, 7/5/00, p.A20)(WSJ, 11/16/01, p.W14)(SFEC, 7/16/00, BR p.3)

c1002-1066    Edward the Confessor, English king (1042-1066), saint and founder of Westminster Abbey.
    (WUD, 1994, p.454)

1003        May 12, Gerbert, French scholar, died in Rome.
    (SC, Internet, 5/12/97)

1003        Gregory of Narek (b.951) died in Armenia. He was later is considered one of the most important figures of medieval Armenian religious thought and literature. His Book of Prayers, also called the Book of Lamentations, is his best-known work. In 2015 Pope Francis named St. Gregory named a doctor of the church.
    (AP, 2/23/15)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gregory_of_Narek)

1003        The church of Maria di Criptu was built in the village of Fossa in the Grand Sassi mountains of central Italy.
    (SFC, 7/26/00, Z1 p.1)

1004        The San Nilo abbey was founded atop a Roman villa in the Alban Hills.
    (SSFC, 11/10/02, p.C6)

c1004        In 2004 archaeologists in western Norway found the remains of a harbor complex built by the Vikings about this time, at the ancient harbor complex at Faanestangen, near the west coast city of Trondheim, some 250 miles north of Oslo.
    (AP, 3/6/04)

1005        Leaf Ericson’s brother, Thorvald, had arrived in Vinland but was killed by native Indians and his Viking companions returned to Greenland. A 3-year settlement was begun a few years later when Thorfin Karlsefni established a base with around 100 men and women at the L’Anse aux Meadows in Newfoundland.
    (HT, 5/97, p.33)(ON, 12/07, p.5)
1005        Gudrid Thorbjarnardottir and Thorstein Erikson set sail to the New World to recover the body of Thorvald Erikson and to start a new colony. They failed to catch easterly winds and spent the winter in northwest Greenland. That winter Thorstein died.
    (ON, 12/07, p.5)

1006         Thorfinn Karlsefni arrived in Greenland from Iceland and married Gudrid Thorbjarnardottir. She soon talked him into leading an expedition to the New World.
    (ON, 12/07, p.5)

1007         Thorfinn Karlsefni and Gudrid Thorbjarnardottir embarked with a 3-ship expedition to the new World. Snorri Thorfinnson, son of Gudrid Thorbjarnardottir and Thorfinn Karlsefni, was born in Vinland (probably Newfoundland), the 1st European born in the New World. The family later returned east and settled in Iceland.
    (SFC, 9/16/02, p.A2)(ON, 12/07, p.5)

1005        Kazan, the capital of the Russian province of Tatarstan, was founded on the Volga River. In 2005 the city celebrated a millennial anniversary.
    (AP, 8/26/05)

1006        May 1, A supernova was observed by Chinese and Egyptians in constellation Lupus.
    (MC, 5/1/02)

1008        The Univ. of Bologna (Italy) was founded. It was later recognized as the oldest university in Europe.
    (Econ, 4/25/09, p.57)
1008        The earliest known water-powered wool-processing plant was operated at Ludi near Milan.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R25)

1009        Feb 14, Lithuania was 1st mentioned in relation to an announcement of the death of St. Bruno. [see Mar 9]
    (LHC, 2/14/03)

1009        Mar 9, Lithuania’s name (Lituae) was first mentioned in Quedlinburg’s annals: "St. Bruno, an archbishop and monk, who was called Boniface, was struck in the head by Pagans during the 11th year of his conversion at the Russian and Lithuanian border (in confinio Rusciae et Lituae), and along with 18 of his followers, entered heaven on March 9th" (Feb 14 is also cited in other sources).
(DrEE, 10/12/96, p.2)(Book of the Millennium. Kaunas: Krastotvarka, 1999. Vol. 1: The State, p. 10, series "Acquaintance with Lithuania") http://www.krastotvarka.lt
    (DrEE, 10/12/96, p.2)

1009        Oct 18, Al-Hakim ordered the destruction of the Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem and its associated buildings, apparently outraged by what he regarded as the fraud practiced by the monks in the "miraculous" Descent of the Holy Fire, celebrated annually at the church during the Easter Vigil.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Al-Hakim_bi-Amr_Allah)(WSJ, 5/7/01, p.A20)(WSJ, 1/27/07, p.W13)

1010        May 3, Ansfried (~69), 9th bishop of Utrecht (995-1010), saint, died.
    (MC, 5/3/02)

1010        Thorfinn Karlsefni and Gudrid Thorbjarnardottir returned from the New World to Greenland and then moved to Iceland the following year, where they raised a large family.
    (ON, 12/07, p.5)

1010        Abolqasem Firdawsi (Ferdowsi), a Persian poet, completed the “Shahnameh," or “Book of Kings." It is an epic of more than 50,000 rhyming couplets weaving the history of ancient shahs with myth and legend. One might call it the Iliad of Persia. Over the centuries shahs have had the poem copied and illustrated by the best artists of the day. In 2006 Dick Harris made an abridged translation to English in prose.
    (WSJ, p. A-18, 10/13/94)(WSJ, 3/7/06, p.D8)

1010        King Ly Thai To decided to move Vietnam's capital 62 miles (100 km) north to Hanoi, then called Thang Long.
    (AP, 10/10/10)

1012        The Arabian trade with Europe abruptly ceased and no more Cufic coins streamed into Europe.
    (VilNews, 12/17/10)

1013        The last Viking attempt to settle Vinland was made.
    (SFEM, 11/15/98, p.25)

1014        Feb 3, Sweyn Forkbeard (b.960), Danish-born Viking king of England (1013-14), died.

1014        Feb 14, Pope Benedict VIII crowned Henry II, German King (1002), as Roman German emperor (1014-1024).
    (HN, 5/6/98)(MC, 5/6/02)(MC, 2/14/02)

1014        Apr 23, The Battle of Contarf ended Danish rule in Ireland but a Dane killed Irish King Brian Boru (87).
    (PCh, 1992, p.80)(MC, 4/23/02)

1014        Oct 6, The Byzantine Emperor Basil II (958-1025) earned the title "Slayer of Bulgars" after he ordered the blinding of 15,000 Bulgarian troops. Basil II was godfather to Russia’s Prince Vladimir.
    (HN, 10/6/98)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Basil_II)(Econ, 2/16/08, p.60)

1014        Rajendra Chola I (d.1044) (aka Rajendra I), ascended to the throne of South India (which included present day Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, Karnataka and Telangana, Orissa, West Bengal), succeeding his father Rajaraja Chola I. During his reign, he extended the influence of the Chola empire to the banks of the river Ganga in North India and across the Indian ocean to the West and South East Asia, making the Chola Empire one of the most powerful maritime empires of India.

1015        Sep 12, Lambert I with the Beard, count of Leuven, died in battle at about 65.
    (MC, 9/12/01)

1015        After converting to Christianity in France, Olaf Haraldsson returned to Norway and promptly conquered land held by Denmark, Sweden and Norwegian lords.
    (HNQ, 11/30/00)

1015        Vladimir I (b.958), a prince of Novgorod and grand prince of Kiev, died. He had married the sister of Byzantine Emp. Basil II and was baptized in Crimea. Originally a Slavic pagan, Vladimir had converted to Christianity in 988 and Christianized the Kievan Rus. His domain split into warring fiefs that eventually gave rise to Belarus, Russia and Ukraine.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vladimir_I_of_Kiev)(Econ, 11/5/16, p.44)

1016        Apr 23, Ethelred II "the Unready", king of England (979-1016), died.
    (MC, 4/23/02)

1016        Oct 18, Danes defeated the Saxons at Battle of Assandun (Ashingdon).
    (MC, 10/18/01)

1016        Nov 30, Edmund II (27), Ironsides, King of Saxons, died.
    (MC, 11/30/01)

1016-1029    In Norway Olaf Haraldsson served as king. He later became Saint Olaf, the patron saint of Norway.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1002)

1016         Canute, Prince of Denmark became King of England as Canute I.
    (AHD, 1971, p.198)

1017        Oct 28, Henry III, Roman Catholic German emperor (1046-56), was born.
    (MC, 10/28/01)

1017        In China a hermit introduced the prime minister to "variolation," an inoculation using germs from smallpox survivors.
    (NW, 10/14/02, p.47)

1017        The south Indian Cola Empire transferred the capital of Sri Lanka to Polonnaruva which then served as the capital of Sri Lanka until 1300. It was a fortified citadel surrounded by Hindu and Buddhist religious complexes.
    (AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.D)(Arch, 7/02, p.34)

1017-1144    A Romanesque nave was added to the abbey Mont St. Michel off the coast of Normandy, France.
    (WSJ, 10/7/06, p.P18)

1018        By this year Basil II had annexed Bulgaria.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R6)

1019         Canute, King of England, became also King of Denmark as Canute II or Canute the Great.
    (AHD, 1971, p.198)

1019        Machmud of Ghazni, a kingdom in central Asia, invaded India and took so many captives that the prices of slaves plummeted for several years. He invade India annually for 25 years.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R4)

1019-20    BabaTaher, Persian poet, died.
    (WSJ, 1/25/00, p.A18)

1021        Feb 13, Al-Ḥākim bi-Amr Allāh, the sixth Fatimid caliph and 16th Ismaili imam (996–1021), died. He is known as the “mad caliph of Cairo." The Fatimid Caliphate was an Ismaili Shia Islamic caliphate that spanned a large area of North Africa, from the Red Sea in the east to the Atlantic Ocean in the west.

1023        In China a government agency was formed to print paper money.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)

1024        Apr 7, Pope Benedict VIII died.
    (PTA, 1980, p.288)

1024        Jul 13, Henry II, the Monk, German King (1002-24), died.
    (MC, 7/13/02)

1024        Sep 4, Conrad II (the Sailor) was chosen as German king.
    (MC, 9/4/01)

1024        In China the first state-backed paper money was introduced.
    (Econ, 2/25/12, SRp.4)
1024         Olaf Haraldsson introduced a religious code in his efforts to convert the Norwegians to Christianity.
    (HNQ, 11/30/00)

1025        Dec 15, Basil II was succeeded as emperor [by] Constantine VIII, his brother and co-ruler.
    (HN, 12/15/98)

1026        Mar 23, Koenraad II (Conrad II) crowned himself king of Italy.
    (SS, 3/23/02)

1027        Mar 26, John XIX crowned Conrad II the Salier Roman German emperor.
    (SS, 3/26/02)

1028        Canute the Great (d.1035) became also King of Norway.
    (AHD, 1971, p.198)

1028        Olaf Haraldsson was forced to flee Norway by Canute, king of England and Denmark, Olaf returned to reconquer Norway, but was defeated and killed at the Battle of Stiklestad in 1030.
    (HNQ, 11/30/00)

1029-1094    Al-Mustansir, ruler of most of North Africa. He was the wealthiest of the Fatimid caliphs and was based in Cairo.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R6)

1030        Jul 29, The patron saint of Norway, King Olaf the Second, was killed in the Battle of Stiklestad. Olaf Haraldsson was born a pagan and lived as a warrior for most of his years going on to become the patron saint of Norway. The son of Harald I, Oaf’s early career was spent outside Norway fighting the Danes and English among others.
    (HNQ, 11/30/00)(AP, 7/29/01)

1030        Mahmud Ghazni died. Conflicts between various Ghaznavid rulers arose and as a result the Afghan empire started to crumple.

1030        In China a landslide on the Yangtze River cut off navigation for 21 years.
    (NH, 7/96, p.32)
1030        Fan Kuan (b.960), Chinese artist, died. His work included “Travelers and Streams and Mountains."
    (WSJ, 10/29/08, p.D9)

1030        The city of Tartu in Estonia was founded.
    (Hem, 4/96, p.24)

1030-1093    In China Shen Kua was an engineer and high official Chinese astronomer. In his1086 work "Dream Pool Essays," Shen Kua made the first reference to the magnetic compass. The work also gave the first account of relief maps and an explanation of the origin of fossils, along with other scientific observations. Shen Kua wrote his essays after being banished from office after an army under his command lost 60,000 killed in a battle with Khitan tribes.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)(HNQ, 4/22/99)

1031        Sep 2, In Hungary Emeric (b.1007), the son of King Stephen, was killed by a boar while hunting. On Nov 5, 1083, King Ladislaus I unearthed Emeric's bones in a large ceremony. Emeric was canonized for his pious life and purity along with his father and Bishop Gerhard by Pope Gregory VII.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saint_Emeric_of_Hungary)(Econ, 9/19/15, p.48)

1031        Oct 19, Abbot Humbertus van Echternach opened the grave of Saint Willibrord.
    (MC, 10/19/01)

1031        Olaf II, aka Olaf Haraldsson (d.1030) of Norway, was named a saint.
    (HNQ, 11/30/00)

1032        Feb 2, Conrad II claimed the thrown of France.
    (HN, 2/2/99)

1032        Theophylactus, the nephew of Pope John XIX, became Pope Benedict IX. His papacy was bought for him by his father.
    (PTA, 1980, p.292)(Econ, 2/9/13, p.61)

1033        An enormous pilgrimage to Jerusalem marked the 1000th anniversary of the crucifixion of Jesus Christ.
    (SFC, 1/6/97, p.A3)

1034        Apr 11, Romanus III Argyrus, Byzantine emperor (1028-34), was assassinated by his wife.
    (MC, 4/11/02)

1035        Nov 12, King Canute (b.994) died. He was king of Denmark, England and Norway.
    (HN, 11/12/98)

1032        Theophylactus, the nephew of Pope John XIX, became Pope Benedict IX. His papacy was bought for him by his father.
    (PTA, 1980, p.292)(Econ, 2/16/13, p.61)

1035        Nov 12, Cnut the Great (b.c995), King of Denmark, England and Norway, died in England. The area of his rule is often referred to as the North Sea Empire. As a Danish prince, Cnut (Canute) won the throne of England in 1016 in the wake of centuries of Viking activity in northwestern Europe. Scotland submitted to him in 1017. His later accession to the Danish throne in 1018 brought the crowns of England and Denmark together.

1035        In Spain 66 Jews were killed in Castrojeriz near Burgos. Others were expelled and settled on a nearby hill that was named Castrillo Motajudios (Jew’s Hill). Records from 1627 show the name was changed to Castrillo Matajudios, meaning "Kill Jews." In 2014 the 56 town residents planned a May 25 vote on changing the name back to Castrillo Mota de Judios. The name change was celebrated on Oct 23, 2015.
    (AP, 4/22/14)(http://tinyurl.com/pzmhvqh)(SFC, 10/24/15, p.A2)

1036        The Romans drove Pope Benedict IX out of Rome.
    (PTA, 1980, p.292)

1036-1056    Henry III ruled the Holy Roman Empire, which extended from Hamburg and Bremen in the north to the instep of Italy to the south, Burgundy in the west, and Hungary and Poland to the east.

1037        May 28, Holy Roman Emperor Conrad II issued The Constitutio de feudis ("Constitution on Fiefs"), a law regulating feudal contracts. It included a phrase similar to “law of the land." The law was based, in its own words, on the "legal code of our predecessors" (constitucio antecessorum nostrorum).
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constitutio_de_feudis)(Econ, 12/20/14, p.34)

1037        Jun 21, Avicenna (b.980), a Persian polymath, died in Iran. Of the 450 works he is known to have written, around 240 have survived, including 150 on philosophy and 40 on medicine. He attributed illness to an imbalance in bodily fluids.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avicenna)(Econ, 4/18/20, p.36)

1038        King Stephen of Hungary died.
    (SFC, 8/7/99, p.A8T5)

1040        Mar 7, Harold I, King of England (1035-40), died.
    (MC, 3/7/02)

1040        Aug 15, In Scotland Donnchad led an army into Moray, where he was killed by Mac Bethad at Pitgaveny near Elgin.

1040-1057    Macbeth ruled over Scotland. He succeeded King Duncan.
    (WSJ, 5/23/96, p.B-1)

1040-1100    Eruptions at Sunset Crater, Az., are believed to have lasted over this period.
    (NH, 6/97, p.56)(AM, 3/04, p.50)

1040-1275    In Arizona as many as 12 families occupied the White House of Canyon de Chelly.
    (SSFC, 1/7/01, p.T10)

1041        In China Bi Sheng devised the first movable-type printing system with clay characters.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)

1042-1066    Edward the Confessor (b.1002) served as King of England. Monks penned the manuscript "The Life of King Edward the Confessor" and in 1998 it was put on a WWW page: www.lib.cam.ac.uk/MSS/Ee3.59
    (WUD, 1994, p.454)

1043        Apr 3, Edward the Confessor was crowned king of England.
    (MC, 4/3/02)

1044        The Romans drove Pope Benedict IX out of Rome for a 2nd time. John, bishop of Sabina, was set up as Pope Sylvester III, but Benedict’s family base from Tusculum fought their way back into Rome and restored Benedict.
    (PTA, 1980, p.292)

1044-1287    Bagan served as the capital of the Pagan empire, ruling what later became known as Myanmar during this period. The rulers of Bagan built more than 10,000 magnificent religious monuments.
    (AP, 8/25/16)

1045        Pope Benedict IX abdicated and, for a large sum of money, turned the papacy over to his godfather, archpriest John Gratian, who became Pope Gregory VI.
    (PTA, 1980, p.292)

1045        Richard of Aversa, a nephew of Rainulf of Aversa, came from Normandy to southern Italy in 1045 with 40 knights.
    (HNQ, 7/17/00)

1045-1066    In Norway King Harold Hardready reigned.
    (DrEE, 11/23/96, p.3)

1046        Sep 24, In Hungary Gerard Sagredo (b.980), an Italian bishop from Venice (also known as Gellert or Gerhard), was placed on a 2-wheel cart, hauled to a hilltop and rolled down the later named Gellert Hill, and still being alive at the bottom was beaten to death. He operated in the Kingdom of Hungary (specifically in Budapest), and educated Saint Emeric of Hungary, the son of Saint Stephen of Hungary). Gellert played a major role in converting Hungary to Christianity. He was canonized in 1083 along with St. Stephen and St. Emeric and became one of the patron saints of Hungary.

1046        Dec, Pope Gregory VI abdicated. As Benedict IX, Sylvester III, and Gregory VI claimed the papal throne, all were deposed by Henry III in the Synod of Sutri. Henry selected Clement II. Clement then crowned Henry and his wife as emperor and empress.
    (PTA, 1980, p.294)(V.D.-H.K.p.111)

1046        Dec 25, Suidger, bishop of Bamberg, was enthroned as Pope Clement II.
    (PTA, 1980, p.296)

1046 AD    Synod of Sutri where three men claimed the papal throne, but were all deposed by Henry III, who selected Clement II. Clement then crowned Henry and his wife as emperor and empress.

1047        Oct 9, Pope Clement II died.
    (PTA, 1980, p.296)

1047        Oct 25, Magnus I Godhi, king of Norway and Denmark (1035-47), died.
    (MC, 10/25/01)

1047        Pope Gregory VI died.
    (PTA, 1980, p.294)

1047        In France construction began on the Abbaye-aux-Dames near the town of Saintes.
    (SFEC, 6/15/97, p.T8)

1048        Jul 17, Damasus II, born as Poppo, became Pope. He was the second of the German pontiffs nominated by Emperor Henry III.

1048        Aug 9, Pope Damasus II, born as Poppo, died. He was the second of the German pontiffs nominated by Emperor Henry III.

1048        Dec 13, Al-Biruni (74), Arabic royal astrologer, died.
    (MC, 12/13/01)

1049        King Svein ruled in Denmark.
    (DrEE, 11/23/96, p.3)

1049-1051       Snorre Sturleson wrote the "Heimskringla."
         (DrEE, 11/23/96, p.3)(TB-Com, 10/11/00)

1050        Nov 11, Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor, was born.
    (HN, 11/11/98)

1050        An Anasazi trade center in New Mexico offered pottery, turquoise and buffalo meat.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)

1050        Arabs brought their decimal system to Spain.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)

c1050        In 2004 some 280 silver coins, that probably originated from a trade journey by Gotlanders to the area around the river Elbe in Germany around 1050, were found on the Swedish island of Gotland.
    (AP, 3/1/04)

1051        King Magnus ruled in Denmark.
    (DrEE, 11/23/96, p.3)

1053        Jun 18, In Italy Richard of Aversa helped win the Battle of Civitate, inflicting a decisive defeat over the papal army, which had joined Byzantium in an alliance against the Normans.

1054        Mar 12, Pope Leo IX escaped captivity and returned to Rome.
    (MC, 3/12/02)

1054        Jul 4, Chinese and Arabian observers first documented the massive supernova of the Crab Nebula created thousands of years ago and consisting of a huge expanding cloud of gas and dust 6,000 light-years from Earth. The great nova, as Oriental astronomers described it, was six times brighter than Venus and was only outshone by the sun and moon. For 23 days the nova could be observed in broad daylight. An entry in the Records of the Royal Observatory of Peking reads: "In the first year of the period Chihha, the fifth moon, the day Chi-chou, a great star appeared approximately several inches southeast of T’ien-Kuan (i.e. Zeta Tauri). After more than a year it gradually became invisible." In 1999 the Chandra X-Ray Telescope observed a ring around the heart of the Crab Nebula which continued to generate energy of more than 100,000 suns.
    (LSA., p.29)(TNG, p.96)(SCTS, p.183)(IB, Internet, 12/7/98)(SFC, 9/30/99, p.A7)

1054AD    Jul, The Council of Florence in 1445 established this date for the Great Schism between the Eastern and Western (Orthodox and Catholic). An official date was needed so that talks could begin on reunion.
    (WSJ, 7/16/97, p.A23)

1054AD    The Roman and Orthodox Churches split decisively. [see 330AD] The Orthodox Church did not accept the papal authority from Rome. Christians in southern Albania were left under the ecumenical patriarch of Constantinople and those in the north under the pope in Rome. The Orthodox Church maintained the tradition of married priests.
    (WSJ, 11/14/95, p. A-12)(WP, 6/29/96, p.B7)(www, Albania, 1998)(SFC, 3/16/02, p.A3)

1055        The Seljuks under Tughril Beg ousted the Buyids (Buwayhids) in Baghdad. The nomadic Turks from Central Asia, descended from a warrior named Seljuk, took control of the government and continued governing the empire in the tradition of Islamic law.

1056        Apr 22, Supernova Crab nebula was last seen by the naked eye.
    (MC, 4/22/02)

1057        Jul 10, Lady Godiva rode naked on horseback throughout Coventry on a dare from her husband, the Earl of Mercia, who abolished taxation in this year.
    (MC, 7/10/02)

1057        Aug 15, Macbeth, the King of Scotland, was mortally wounded at the Battle of Lumphanan, by Malcolm Canmore, the eldest son of King Duncan I, who was killed by Macbeth 17 years earlier.
    (AP, 8/15/07)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Macbeth_of_Scotland)

1057        Aug 31, Leofric, count of Mercia and husband of Lady Godiva, died. His wife, the Countess Godgifu (Godiva), had founded a Benedictine priory on a hill overlooking the River Sowe, and the town of Coventry grew up around it. The priory probably ran a market that would have formed the nucleus of the growing town. Such a market would bring fees and taxes to the priory and the Earl while flooding the district with goods and money. Godiva may well have ruled the settlement between Leofric’s death and her own in 1066.
    (HNC, 12/2/00)(MC, 8/31/01)

1057        King Anawratha, founder of the first Burmese empire, conquered the Mon kingdom to the south and introduced Theravada Buddhism to the Burmese people. He and his heirs oversaw building projects and Bagan (Pagan) became a center of Buddhist learning.
    (WSJ, 1/23/09, p.W12)

1057        In Italy Richard of Aversa seized Capua.
    (HNQ, 7/17/00)

1058        Nov 28, Kazimierz I Restaurator (b.1015), grand duke of Poland (1034-58), died. He succeeded in reuniting the central Polish lands under the hegemony of the Holy Roman Empire, but he was never crowned king.
    (MC, 11/28/01)(www.infoplease.com)

1058        Despite protests from the cardinals Count Gregory of Tusculum led the selection of John, bishop of Velletri, as Pope Benedict X.
    (PTA, 1980, p.306)

1058        Al-Ma’arri (b.973), a blind Syrian philosopher, poet and writer, died. He attacked the dogmas of religion and rejected the claim that Islam or any other religion possessed the truths they claimed.
    (Econ, 7/13/13, SR p.13)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Al-Ma%CA%BFarri)

1058-1111    Al-Ghazali (Algazal), Islamic scholar.
    (WSJ, 7/7/99, p.A23)

1059        May 23, Henri I crowned his son King Philip I of France.
    (MC, 5/23/02)

1059        A council gathered at Lateran and declared that the election of Benedict X was invalid. The council enthroned Gerard of Burgundy as Pope Nicholas II. A synod at Rome followed and set decrees for papal elections that rested election powers with the cardinal-bishops.
    (PTA, 1980, p.306)

1059        Richard of Aversa and his brother-in-law, Robert Guiscard, met with Pope Nicholas II. The Norman chiefs swore allegiance to the Pope in return for papal recognition for their conquests, whereupon Richard was invested as prince of Capua.
    (HNQ, 7/17/00)

1060        Aug 4, Henry I (52), King of France (1027-60), died.
    (MC, 8/4/02)

1060        England minted a coin shaped like a four-leaf clover. Users broke off each leaf as needed as a separate piece of currency.
    (SFC, 6/30/96, Z 1 p.5)(SFEC, 8/1/99, Z1 p.8)

1060        Rashi, the great Talmudist, studied in Worms.
    (NH, 9/96, p.24)

1061        Apr 24, Halley's Comet inspired an English monk to predict that England would be destroyed.
    (MC, 4/24/02)

1061        Jul, Pope Nicholas II died in Florence.
    (PTA, 1980, p.306)

1062        Marrakech [Marakesh], the Arab name for Morocco, was built as a fortified city by the first Berber dynasty, the Almoravids. It was the terminus of a trade route running southward to the Niger River and of another running eastward to Cairo.
    (NH, 5/96, p.40)(SFEC, 7/25/99, p.T10)

1065        Apr 12, Pilgrims under bishop Gunther of Bamberg reached Jerusalem.
    (MC, 4/12/02)

1064        Jun 9, Coimbra, Portugal, fell to Ferdinand, the King of Castile.
    (HN 6/9/98)

1065        Apr 16, The Norman Robert Guiscard took Bari, ending five centuries of Byzantine rule in southern Italy.
    (HN, 4/16/98)

1065        Dec 28, Westminster Abbey opened in London.
    (MC, 12/28/01)

1066        Jan 5, Edward  the Confessor (b.1003), king of England (1043-66), died heirless.

1066        Jan 6, (Harald) Harold Godwinson, Earl of Wessex, was crowned King of England.
    (TLC, BTCW, 6/25/95)(HN, 1/6/99)

1066        Feb 28, Westminster Abbey opened.
    (HN, 2/28/98)

1066        Mar 23, The 18th recorded perihelion passage of Halley's Comet. Haley’s Comet was seen and soon after depicted on the Bayeux Tapestry. The 230-foot tapestry was created by craftsmen working for a Norman Bishop to depict the 1066 Norman invasion. In 2005 Andrew Bridgeford authored “1066: The Hidden History in the Bayeux Tapestry."
    (SS, 3/23/02)(NH, 7/98, p.78)(WSJ, 4/22/05, p.W6)

1066        Sep 21, At the Battle at Fulford Norway king Harald III Hardrada beat the British militia.
    (MC, 9/21/01)

1066        Sep 25, King Harold Godwinson II marched north and attacked the Vikings at the Battle of Stampford Bridge in Yorkshire. Harald III Hardrada (51), King of Norway    (1046-1066), died in battle. Godwinson’s forces destroyed the Vikings who returned to Norway in 24 of their 300 ships. Marching north to face a Norwegian invasion force commanded by King Harald Sigurdsson, aka Hardraade, and by his usurper brother, Tostig, Godwinson defended his crown at Stamford Bridge, resulting in a Saxon victory and the deaths of both Harald and Tostig. Soon afterward, however, Harold had to march south to face another invading contender for his throne, Duke William the Bastard of Normandy, who defeated and killed Harold at Hastings on October 14, and took the English crown as William the Conqueror.

1066        Sep 28, William the Conqueror invaded England to claim the English throne.
    (AP, 9/28/97)(HN, 9/28/98)

1066        Sep, Duke William of Normandy sailed with 12,000 men to capture the English crown. His fleet encountered a severe storm that disrupted his landing.
1066        Sep, Harold Hardrata, King of Norway, sailed south with 10,000 men in 300 ships to attack England.
    (TLC, Battles That Changed the World, 6/25/95)

1066        Oct 2, The Normans landed in southern England and King Harold was forced to march his men south to face the Normans.
    (TLC, Battles That Changed the World, 6/25/95)

1066        Oct 14, King Harold and his army locked into a massive shield wall and faced Duke William, William the Conqueror, and his mounted knights near the town of Hastings, Battle of Hastings. Duke William planned a three point attack plan that included a) heavy archery b) attack by foot soldiers c) attack by mounted knights at any weak point of defense. The bloody battle gave the name Sen Lac Hill to the battle site. The Normans won out after Harold was killed by a fluke arrow. This placed William on the throne of England.
    (TLC, Battles That Changed the World, 6/25/95)(AP, 10/14/97)(HN, 10/14/98)   

1066        Dec 25, William the Conqueror (d.1087), Duke William of Normandy, was crowned king of England. Under the reign of William I the construction of Windsor Castle began. Over the next 50 years every English cathedral church and most big abbeys were raised to the ground, and rebuilt in a new continental style.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_the_Conqueror)(SFC, 5/25/96, p.A12)(AP, 12/25/97)(Econ, 12/24/16, p.34)

1066        Edith Svanneshals was the beautiful mistress of the ill-starred Harold Godwinsson, king of the Anglo-Saxons and loser at Hastings. No picture of her exists. Her last name means "swan's throat."
    (EHC, 5/12/98)
1066        The Channel Islands, 35 miles off the coast of France, became possessions of the English Crown when the Normans conquered England.
    (SFC, 8/10/96, p.A10)   
1066        In England prior to 1066, hunting was virtually unrestricted. The Forest Laws, strictly enforced by English kings starting in the 11th century, placed restrictions on hunting, making it the sole privilege of the nobility. Unauthorized slayers of the king’s deer were often put to death. The Game Act of 1831, enacted under William IV, extended hunting rights to anyone who obtained a license.
    (HNQ, 3/3/00)
1066        The Countess Godgifu (Godiva) died. She had founded a Benedictine priory on a hill overlooking the River Sowe, and the town of Coventry grew up around it.
    (HNC, 12/2/00)

1067        Minsk (Belarus) was founded.
    (SFC, 7/5/97, p.C2)

1067        Chepstow Castle was built in Wales to protect a strategic crossing of the River Wye and for the defense of the Wye Valley near the English border by the troops of William the Conqueror.
    (SFEC, 5/25/97, p.T5)(SFEC, 5/10/98, p.T4)   

1068AD    Historian al-Bakri wrote his "Book of the Roads and Kingdoms." He described Ghana in the Western Sudan from information given him by merchants and others.
    (ATC, p.113)(Enc. of Africa, 1976, p.171)

1070        Jun 4, Roquefort cheese was accidentally discovered in a cave near Roquefort, France, when a shepherd found a lunch he had forgotten several days before.
    (HN, 6/4/01)

1070        In Egypt a famine forced Al-Mustansir to send the women of Cairo to Baghdad to escape starvation.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R6)

1070        The 8 gates of Marrakech, Morocco, were built.
    (SSFC, 12/18/05, p.F5)

1070        Bergen was founded on the southwest coast of Norway.
    (SSFC, 6/5/05, p.F7)

1071        Aug 26, Seljuk Turks under King Alp Arslan defeated the Byzantine army under Emperor Romanus IV at Manzikert (later Malazkirt), Eastern Turkey. Romanus was taken prisoner.
    (PCh, 1992, p.85)(Ot, 1993, p.4)(Econ, 9/9/17, p.51)

1072        Jan 10, Robert Guiscard and his brother Roger took Palermo in Sicily.
    (HN, 1/10/99)

1072        Oct 6, Sancho II, king of Castilia (1065-72), was murdered.
    (MC, 10/6/01)

1073        Sep 30, Pope Alexander II, born as Anselmo da Baggio, began serving as Pope.

1073        Apr 21, Pope Alexander II, born as Anselmo da Baggio, died. He had begun serving as Pope in 1061.

1073        Apr 22, Gregory VII, St. Hildebrand, became Pope. He was later driven from Rome and died in exile in 1085.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Gregory_VII)(WSJ, 3/10/99, p.A22)

1073        Dec 20, Domingo, Spanish monastery founder, abbot, saint, died.
    (MC, 12/20/01)

1073        Pope Gregory VII canonized Paschasius Radbertus (785-865), a monk of Corbje in Picardy, later northern France.

1074        Pope Gregory VII summoned a council in the Lateran palace, which condemned simony and confirmed celibacy for the Church's clergy.

1075        Feb 16, Ordericus Vitalis, French monk, historian, poet, was born.
    (MC, 2/16/02)

1075        The Jiaozhi (Vietnam) launched a war against China, with a force of some 100,000 surrounding Yongzhou (the southern region of Nanning). It was captured after a siege of 42 days.

1075        The 3rd Cathedral at Santiago de Compostela in Spain was built on the site of the tomb of St. James. There had been a Cathedral on the site since the 9th century.
    (SFC, 9/22/96, p.T5)

1076        Feb 14, Pope Gregory VII excommunicated Henry IV.
    (MC, 2/14/02)

1076        Feb 22, Godfried III, with the Hump, duke of Lower Lorraine, was murdered. [see Feb 26]
    (MC, 2/22/02)

1076        Feb 26, Godfried III with the Hump, duke of Netherlands-Lutheran, was murdered. [see Feb 24]
    (SC, 2/26/02)

1076AD    The Al Moravids, a group of Muslim warriors who lived in the Sahara, set out to conquer Ghana. They captured Koumbi in this year but gave it back up to the Soninke in 1087. The Muslim religious reform Almoravid movement under Abu Bakr recaptured Audoghast and then all of Ghana.
    (ATC, p.117)(Enc. of Africa, 1976, p.172)

1076AD    The Danish King Svein Estrithson died.
    (DrEE, 1/4/97, p.3)

1077        Jan 28, Pope Gregory VII pardoned German emperor Henry IV at Canossa in northern Italy. Henry had insisted that he reserved the right to "invest" bishops and other clergymen, despite the papal decree, but became penitent when faced with permanent excommunication.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Walk_to_Canossa)(Econ, 5/9/09, p.88)

1077        Apr 24, Geza I, King of Hungary (1074-7), died.
    (MC, 4/24/02)

1077        Windsor Castle was erected by William the Conqueror to monitor travel on the Thames River.
    (USAT, 11/19/97, p.2D)

1077-1090    The "heavenly clockwork," a mechanical water clock of Su Sung, was housed in a pagoda 5 stories high.
    (AM, 3/04, p.44)

1078        William the Conqueror began work on the Tower of London. Henry III ordered it whitewashed in 1240.
    (NG, V184, No. 4, Oct. 1993, p.41)(Hem, 9/04, p.28)

1079        May 9, Stanislaus, Polish bishop of Cracow, was murdered.
    (MC, 5/9/02)

1079         Peter Abelard (d.1142) was born in Brittany. He later became a great medieval scholar in Paris. Around 1117 he secretly married Heloise, niece of the Canon Fulbert of the Cathedral of Notre Dame. The Canon Fulbert hired gangsters who waylaid and castrated Abelard. His most famous theological work, "Sic et Non" (Yes and No), consisted of a collection of apparent contradictions drawn from various sources, together with commentaries showing how to resolve the contradictions and providing rules for resolving others. He also wrote "Scito te Ipsum" (Know Thyself), which advanced the notion that sin consists not in deeds, which in themselves are neither good nor bad, but only in intentions. In 2005 James Barge authored “Heloise and Abelard: A New Biography."
    (V.D.-H.K.p.116)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R22)(WSJ, 2/11/05, p.W6)

1080        The Knights of St. John (the Hospitallers) were founded in Jerusalem about this time to care for the sick.

1081         Albania and Albanians were mentioned for the first time in a historical record by a Byzantine emperor.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1081-1151    Abbot Suger of St. Denis, France. He was the 1st great patron of the arts in the current millennium.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R53)

1083        Jun 3, Henry IV of Germany stormed Rome capturing St. Peter's Basilica.
    (MC, 6/3/02)

1084        Mar 31, Anti-pope Clemens crowned German emperor Hendrik IV.
    (MC, 3/31/02)

1085        May 25, Alfonso VI, Spanish Christian ruler, took Toledo, Spain, from the Moslems.
    (ATC, p.100)(HN, 5/25/99)
1085        May 25, Gregory VII [Ildebrando], Pope (1073-85), died.
    (SC, 5/25/02)

1085        Oct 8, San Marcos monastery in Venice started.
    (MC, 10/8/01)

1085        William the Conqueror ordered the Domesday survey of English manor's production capacity in order to collect taxes. The survey was completed in 1086.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Domesday_Book)

1086        Jul 10, Knut IV, the Saint, king of Denmark (1080-86), was murdered.
    (MC, 7/10/02)

1086        Aug 1, English barons submitted to William the Conqueror.
    (MC, 8/1/02)

1086        In China Shen Kua (1030-1093) gave an account of a magnetic compass for navigation in his work "Dream Pool Essays." The work also gave the first account of relief maps and an explanation of the origin of fossils, along with other scientific observations. Shen Kua wrote his essays after being banished from office after an army under his command lost 60,000 killed in a battle with Khitan tribes.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)(HNQ, 4/22/99)

1086        In France St. Bruno founded the austere Carthusian order of monks in Grenoble. The silent order’s mother house in La Grand Chartreuse, France, later maintained support by the sale of its Chartreuse liqueur.
    (WUD, 1994, p.227)(SFC, 2/24/98, p.A22)

1087        Sep 9, William the Conqueror, Duke of Normandy and King of England, died in Rouen while conducting a war which began when the French king made fun of him for being fat.
    (HN, 9/9/00)

1087        The Soninke of Ghana recaptured their capital, Koumbi, from the Al Moravids. They tried to re-establish their empire but a number of their states had adopted Islam and others broke away to form separate kingdoms.
    (ATC, p.117)

1087        At Myra (Demre), Turkey, merchants from the Italian port of Bari reportedly stole the bones of St. Nicholas.
    (WSJ, 8/31/98, p.B1)

1088        Cristodoulos persuaded the Byzantine emperor to let him develop the Greek island of Patmos as an independent monastic state.
    (WSJ, 6/28/02, p.AW8)

1089        May 28, Lanfrance, Archbishop of Canterbury, died.
    (MC, 5/28/02)

1089-1125    David the Builder, a king who increased Georgia's wealth and prestige after, at age 16, taking the reins of a country beset by attackers.
    (AP, 1/25/04)(Internet)

1090        Bernard of Clairvaux. He was known as "doctor mellifluus" for the honeyed sweetness of his style. It was Bernard who got the pope to silence Abelard. He said of Abelard: "This man presumes to be able to comprehend by human reason the entirety of God." Bernard had a simple favorite prayer: "Whence arises the love of God? From God. And what is the nature of this love? To love without measure." He wrote a letter to kings and popes on the monsters decorating churches: "What is the meaning of these unclean monkeys, these savage lions, and monstrous creatures?... Almighty God! If we do not blush for such absurdities we should at least regret what we have spent on them."
    (V.D.-H.K.p.117)(Hem, 4/96, p.51)

1090        Guo Xi (b.~1001), Chinese artist of the song Dynasty, died about this time.
    (SFC, 6/28/08, p.E1)

1091        The Norman conquest of Saracen-held Sicily provided access to Arabic manuscripts that showed a place-notated decimal system that forms the basis of modern mathematics.
    (I&I, Penzias, p.47)

1091        A trading deal was made between Mahdiyah, near Tunis, and Genoa.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R50)

1093        Aug 12, In England the foundation stone for Durham Cathedral was laid down. The main chapel was completed in 1175. It served as the seat of the Bishop and the church of the Benedictine monastery of Durham.
    (SSFC, 12/14/08, p.E4)(www.sacred-destinations.com/england/durham-cathedral.htm)

1093        Trade guilds were noted in England.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R25)

1094        Jun 15, Rodrigo Diaz de Vivar [El Cid] occupied Valencia on the Moren.
    (MC, 6/15/02)

1094        Oct 8, St. Mark’s Basilica in Venice was dedicated. Remains believed to have belonged to St Mark, the Evangelist, were buried there.

1094        The Islamic terrorist organization Nizari Ismailiyun, a Shiite politico-religious sect, was founded by Hasan-e Sabah. He and his followers captured the hill fortress of Almaut in northern Iran, which became their base of operations.

1095        Nov 26, Pope Urban urged the faithful to wrest the Holy Land from the Muslims, heralding start of Crusades.
    (AP, 11/26/02)

1095        Nov 27, In Clermont, France, Pope Urbana II made an appeal for warriors to relieve Jerusalem, defeat the Turks and recapture the Holy Sepulchre from the Muslims. He was responding to false rumors of atrocities in the Holy Land. The first Crusade sparked a renewal of trade between Europe and Asia. Urban declared to the assembled that Europe was "too narrow for your large population" and urged them to take up swords against the Saracens who defiled "that land that floweth with milk and honey," thus inspiring the Crusaders. Peter, a disheveled former soldier, seized the moment, preaching the "People’s Crusade" and quickly gathering a following of more than 20,000 Crusaders, including Walter, a French Knight.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.109)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)(HN, 11/27/99)(HN, 6/26/98)

1095-1099    The 1st Crusade.
    (WSJ, 1/4/02, p.A11)

1096        May 18, Crusaders massacred the Jews of Worms. Before embarking on the First Crusade to wrest the Holy Land from Muslim Turks, Count Emich von Leiningen and his army swept through their own German homeland, murdering thousands of Jews, whom they had declared "murderers of Christ." When Emich arrived in the town of Worms in May, the town's Roman Catholic Bishop tried to protect the Jewish population, but the Crusaders overran his palace and slaughtered some 500 people who had taken shelter there. Another 300 were killed over the next two days. The graves of the massacre victims can still be seen at the Jewish Cemetery at Worms.
    (HNPD, 5/12/99)(SC, 5/18/02)

1096        Jun 25, The 1st Crusaders slaughtered the Jews of Werelinghofen, Germany.
    (MC, 6/25/02)

1096        Jun 26, Peter the Hermit’s crusaders forced their way across Sava, Hungary. Peter the Hermit and Walter the Penniless (also known as Peter of Amiens and Walter Sansavoir) were two of the leaders of the "Crusade of the Poor People" in 1096-1097, an ill-fated prelude to the several campaigns waged in the Holy Lands between 1096 and 1270 that are commonly referred to as the Crusades.
    (HN, 6/26/98)

1096        Jul 12, Crusaders under Peter the Hermit reach Sofia in Hungary.
    (HN, 7/12/99)

1096        Aug 1, The crusaders under Peter the Hermit reached Constantinople. Anna Comnena, a 13 year-old Christian in Constantinople, watched as the crusaders marched into the city.
    (ATC, p.18)(HN, 8/1/98)

1096        Oct 21, Seljuk Turks under Sultan Kilidj Arslan of Nicea slaughtered thousands of German crusaders at Chivitot.
    (HN, 10/21/99)(MC, 10/21/01)

c1096        The Church of the Holy Sepulcher was built in Jerusalem on the traditional site of the burial and resurrection of Jesus Christ. In 1997 renovation was completed with a new 115-foot dome, designed by Fresno architect Ara Normart.
    (SFC, 1/3/97, p.A18)

1096        In France Saint-Eutrope’s church was consecrated in the town of Saintes, the ancient capital of the Saintonge.
    (SFEC, 6/15/97, p.T8)

1096-1291    European Christians fought Arab Muslims for control of Jerusalem and the Holy Land. In 2000 Evan S. Connell authored "Deus Lo Volt," a history of the Crusades that included the 12th century accounts by pilgrims Geoffrey de Villehardouin and Jean de Joinville that had been earlier published as "Chronicles of the Crusades."
    (ATC, p.160)(WSJ, 6/9/00, p.W8)

1097        Jun 30, The Crusaders defeated the Turks at Dorylaeum.
    (HN, 6/30/98)

1097        Jul 1, The 1st Crusaders defeated Sultan Kilidj Arslan of Nicea.
    (MC, 7/1/02)

1097        Oct 20, The 1st Crusaders arrived in Antioch.
    (MC, 10/20/01)

c1097        The pilgrimage routes of France (chemins de pelerinage) were begun. Their 900th anniversary was celebrated in 1997.
    (SFEC, 6/15/97, p.T8)

1081        Jan 8, Henry V, Roman German king, emperor (1098/1111-25), was born.
    (MC, 1/8/02)

1098        Jun 3, Christian Crusaders of the First Crusade seized Antioch, Turkey.
    (HN, 6/3/99)

1098        Feb 10, Crusaders defeated Prince Redwan of Aleppo at Antioch.
    (MC, 2/10/02)

1098        Dec 12, The 1st Crusaders captured and plundered Mara, Syria.
    (MC, 12/12/01)

1099        Jan 13, Crusaders set fire to Mara, Syria.
    (MC, 1/13/02)

1099        Apr 14, Conrad, bishop of Utrecht, was stabbed to death.
    (MC, 4/14/02)

1099        Jun 5, Knights and their families on the First Crusade witnessed an eclipse of the moon and interpreted it as a sign from God that they would recapture Jerusalem.
    (HN, 6/5/99)

1099        Jul 8, In Jerusalem 15,000 starving Christian soldiers marched around barefoot while the Muslim defenders mocked them from the battlements.
    (HN, 5/23/99)

1099        Jun 12, Crusade leaders visited the Mount of Olives where they met a hermit who urged them to assault Jerusalem.
    (HN, 6/12/99)

1099        Jul 13, The Crusaders launched their final assault on Muslims in Jerusalem.
    (HN, 7/13/99)

1099        Jul 15, Jerusalem fell to the crusaders following a 7 week siege. A massacre of the city's Muslim and Jewish population followed with the dead numbered at about 3,000.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.109)(HN, 7/15/98)(SSFC, 4/13/03, p.E3)

1099        Jul 16, Crusaders herded the Jews of Jerusalem into a synagogue and set it afire.
    (MC, 7/16/02)

1099        Aug 12, At the Battle of Ascalon 1,000 Crusaders, led by Godfrey of Bouillon, routed an Egyptian relief column heading for Jerusalem. The Norman Godfrey, elected King of Jerusalem, had assumed the title Defender of the Holy Sepulcher. Disease starvation by this time reduced the Crusaders to 60,000, down from an initial 300,000, and most of the survivors left for home.
    (HN, 8/12/99)(PC, 1992, p.88)

1099        The Aleppo Codex, owned by Jewish community in Jerusalem, was seized by Crusaders who sacked the city. It was then ransomed and made its way to Cairo, Egypt.
    (AP, 9/27/08)

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