Timeline 1300BCE - 500BCE

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1.3k BC    Late Helladic III. An archeological period of ancient Greece.
    (LSA., Fall 1995, p.6)
c1.3k BC    China introduced books around this time.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R55)
1.3k BC    The oldest know shipwreck dates to about this time, the era of the fall of Troy and reign of King Tut. It was found off the southern coast of Turkey at Uluburun (Big Nose/Cape) by Dr. George Bass in 1984. [see 4431BC]
    (MT, 3/96, p.2)
1.3k BC    A 50-foot boat was discovered in 1992 at Dover, England.
    (AM, Jul/Aug '97 p.13)
1.3k BC    The Lapita people took once again to the open seas about this time, pushing east past the Solomon Islands to the Bismarck archipelago and beyond to Vanuatu, Fiji and Samoa. Theses Southeast Asian peoples had headed south from Taiwan to Papua New Guinea and as far as the main Solomon islands, where they stopped some 40,000 years ago.
    (AFP, 11/9/10)   
1.3k BC    In 2021 Israeli archaeologists said they have unearthed a massive ancient winemaking complex dating back some 1,500 years in the central town of Yavne.
    (AP, 10/11/21)

1.3k BC - 1.2k     A sprawling Assyrian administrative center was discovered by Dutch archeologists in 1997 in Rakka, 340 miles north of Damascus. The site included a 15-foot high 2-story building with 2 bathrooms, 2 toilets and a tiled floor.
    (SFC,12/9/97, p.B3)   

1.3k BC - 1.1k BC     From the late Shang Dynasty (13th to the 11th century BC), a pair of 33-inch-tall ting tripod vessels, will be part of the traveling exhibit from the National Palace Museum, Taipei. [see 1600BC-1100]
    (WSJ, 12/29/95, p.A-11)
1.3k BC - 1.1k BC    A 9-foot-tall bronze standing figure from this time was found in 1986 at a 'sacrificial pit" at Sanxingdui in Sichuan province.
    (SFC, 6/15/00, p.E1)

1.3k BC - 612BC    The Assyrians, a Semitic people, established an empire that spread out from Assur in northern Mesopotamia.
    (eawc, p.4)

1.3k BC - 300BC    The Omani Iron Age.
    (AM, May/Jun 97 p.49)

1.295k BC - 1.294k BC    Ramesses I ruled during Egypt’s 19th Dynasty.

1.294k BC - 1.279k BC    Sethi I (Seti I), son of Rammeses I and the father of Rammeses II, ruled during Egypt’s 19th Dynasty. He restored the ancient gods of Egypt, such as Amun-Re, Ptah, Seth, and Osiris. At Abydos he built a splendid temple to Osiris. Sethi claims to have inflicted a victory against the Hittite king, Mursillis II, the successor to Suppililiumas, at the towns of Yenoam and Bethshael. Seti overran Palestine, made peace with the Hittites in Syria, opened mines and quarries, and enlarged the Temple of Amun-Re at Karnak. His tomb was discovered in 1817.
    (NG, 9/98, p.17,19)(AM, 7/01, p.56)(www.crystalinks.com/dynasty18e.html)

1.295k BC - 1.272k BC    The Hittite king Muwatalli II signed a treaty with Alaksandu, ruler of the Arzawa land known as Wilusa (northwest Turkey), which became Wilios in Bronze Age Greece and then slurred to Ilios for Homer’s Iliad.
    (Arch, 5/04, p.40)

1.292k BC    Horemheb, the last pharaoh of Egypt’s 18th Dynasty, died about this time and was buried in the Valley of the Kings.
    (Arch, 9/02, p.61)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Horemheb)

1.292k BC    An Egyptian scribe documented that a couple of construction worker twins went off a beer binge. They left their wives at home to chase available women and didn't show up for work. Their brother-in-law was the chief engineer on the job and did not fire them.
    (SFEC, 4/20/97, Z1 p.5)

1.28k BC - 1.2k BC    Moses lived about this time. We cannot be certain when Moses lived except that it was obviously before the Jews settled in Palestine, when they were still wanderers. The general opinion seems to be that it was at some time within the period of Ramesses and his son. The father-in-law of Moses was a Midianite. Moses reportedly died at Mount Nebo.
    (L.C.-W.P.p.123)(MT, Spg. '97, p.11)(WSJ, 5/11/00, p.A24)

1.279k BC - 1.213k BC    Ramesses II (the Great) ruled during Egypt’s 19th Dynasty. Seti I named him co-ruler early in his life. His capital city was Qantir, 75 miles north of Cairo. A detailed map of the city was created in 1998. His colossal statue, removed from Memphis, now greets the visitor when he leaves Cairo's main railway station. There are huge statues of Ramesses in the Luxor temple... and most gigantic of all, the seated colossi at Abu Simbel. He enlarged the Karnak temple on a scale which makes human beings... look and feel like ants. The tomb of Queen Nefertari, wife of Ramses II, Pharaoh of the 19th dynasty, was discovered in 1904. Ramesses II built a fortress temple named Zawiyet Umm el-Rakham (the rest house of the mother of vultures).
    (www.crystalinks.com/dynasty19.html)(L.C.-W.P.p.104,113)(V. Sun, 11/3/95, p.A-20)(Econ, 12/19/09, p.133)
1.279k BC - 1.213k BC      In Egypt the vizier Khay worked under the reign of Ramesses II. In 2013 Belgian scientists reported that a 49-foot pyramid in Luxor belonged to Khay. It was built in the courtyard of an earlier tomb, discovered in 2009, which contained fragments of wall paintings dating back to 1479-1427 BC.
    SFC, 2/22/13, p.A6)

1.275k BC    Pharaoh Ramses II took back the coastal kingdoms of Canaan, Phoenicia and Amarru from their Hittite overlords.
    (ON, 12/11, p.1)
1.275 BC    Ptahmes, the mayor of Memphis, served about this time as army chief, overseer of the treasury and royal scribe under Seti I and his son and successor, Ramses II. Archeologists in 2010 discovered the tomb of Ptahmes at Saqqara. Foreign expeditions in 1885 had made off with pieces of the tomb, whose location was soon after forgotten. In 2018 scientists said a solidified mass found in a broken jar at the site in 2013-2014 was cheese made from a mixture of cow milk and that of a sheep or goat.
    (AP, 5/30/10)(SFC, 8/18/18, p.A2)

1.275 - 1.24k BC    The Trojan War is usually dated to this period.
    (Nat. Hist., 4/96, p.49)

1.274BC    Pharaoh Ramses II, in the fifth year of his reign, moved to meet and destroy the forces of the Hittite king, Muwatalli II, grandson of Suppililiumas.  Ramses left his mark on a cliff face by the Nahr al Kalb (Dog River) when he marched north from Egypt to battle the Hittites. In the Battle of Kadesh some 70,000-100,000 armed men clashed in fury... The battle lasted two days... and was decisive in that the Hittite advanced no further. The Hittites fought off the invading Egyptians. This reflected the power gained from trading metals abundant in Turkey.
    (L.C.-W.P.p.116-119)(NG, Aug., 1974, p.157)(ON, 12/11, p.1)

1.272BC    Hittite King Muwatalli II died. Ramses II launched his 3rd invasion into the Levant, but was unable to reassert permanent control.
    (ON, 12/11, p.2)

1.27k BC    At Abu Simbel, Egypt, Ramses II constructed The Great Temple in his own honor and the Small Temple in honor of his wife Nefertari. Engulfed by sand over the centuries, the temples lay hidden until discovered by a Swiss traveler in 1813. The temples are moved under a 4 year UNESCO project when in 1964 the rising waters behind the Aswan High Dam threaten to drown them.
    (NG, May 1985, p.591)

1.267BC    Hattusili became king of the Hittites after he deposed his nephew Mursili, the son of King Muwatalli. Mursili fled to Egypt and sought asylum from Ramses II.
    (ON, 12/11, p.2)   

1.267k BC - 1.237k BC    King Hattusili III ruled the Hittites during this period. He wrote a letter to the king of Ahhiyawa (thought to be Mycenaean Greeks) and mentioned that Wilusa was once a bone of contention.
    (Arch, 5/04, p.40)

1.261BC    Egyptian and Hittite diplomats concluded the Treaty of Kadesh, the world’s first known int’l. peace accord.
    (ON, 12/11, p.2)

c1.26k BC    A pottery fragment from this time was found in 2004 near Natadola in western Fiji. It was believed to have been made by the Lapita people, who populated Polynesia.
    (Arch, 1/05, p.11)

1.25k BC    By this time the Assyrians committed themselves to conquering the Kassite Empire to the south.
    (eawc, p.4)
1.25k BC    Some scholars believe that the Mycenaeans waged a successful war with the Trojans of western Asia Minor.
    (eawc, p.5)

c1.25k BC - 1.2k BC    Under the direction of Moses the Hebrew people returned to Canaan from Egypt after wandering for several years in the Sinai desert and began the conquest of Canaan. The conquest took some hundred years and after victory they parceled the land of Canaan into tribal territories under a government known as an amphictyony.
    (eawc, p.5)

1.25k BC - 1150BC    This time frame is referred to as the Initial Olmec Period of southern Mexico.
    (Arch, 1/06, p.42)

1.25k BC - 1k BC    Troy VIIa, another discernible era on the site of the Trojan War. Evidence shows that Troy V was destroyed by fire and that Troy VI saw the establishment of an entirely new principality. An earthquake hit the thriving city of 5-6 thousand people, but after the crisis, the same people returned and repaired the city. The renovated Troy VIIa lasted some seventy years and was then destroyed by a conflagration.
    (Nat. Hist., 4/96, p.49-50)

1.248BC    Pharaoh Ramses II, about this time, took one of Hittite King Hattusili’s daughters as one of his many wives.
    (ON, 12/11, p.2)

1.225k BC    The Assyrian ruler, Tukulti-Ninurta, captured Babylon and the region of southern Mesopotamia, but their control did not last long.
    (eawc, p.5)
1.225k BC     Earliest known Illyrian king, Hyllus, died.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1.225k BC - 1.175k BC    Earthquakes during this period toppled some city-states and centers of trade and scholarship in the Middle East. Jericho, Jerusalem, Knossos and Troy were all hit.
    (SFC,12/9/97, p.A8)(SSFC, 12/17/00, p.A19)

1.213k BC    Ramesses II (the Great) Pharaoh during Egypt’s 19th Dynasty, died. In 1976 his mummy was shipped to Paris, where it was treated with radiation and chemicals for protection against bacteriological damage.
    (NG, 9/98, p.16,22,32)(www.ancient-egypt.org/history/18_20/19.html)

1.213k BC - 1.203k BC    Maremptah  (Merenptah), the 13th son of Rammeses, ruled during Egypt’s 19th Dynasty. He is mainly attested to by three great inscriptions, including 80 lines on a wall in the Temple of Amun at Karnak, a large stele with 35 readable lines from Athribis in the Delta and the great Victory Stele from his ruined mortuary temple at Thebes, with 28 lines.

1.203k BC - 1.2k BC    Amenmesse (Ammenemes) about this time led Egypt as the 5th ruler of the 19th Dynasty.

1.2k BC    Afghanistan, near Sheberghan at Tillya Tepe, a temple for the worship of fire was built.
    (NG, March 1990,V.I. Sarainidi p.62)
1.2k BC    The Hittite Empire fell when invading Assyrians sacked and burned their capital, Hattussa (Hattusha).
    (ON, 12/11, p.2)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hattusa)
1.2k BC    The first outbreak of human plague may have been the scourge that struck the Philistines in the 12th century BC. The Old Testament account mentions "mice that mar the land."
    (NG, 5/88, p.678)
1.2k BC    The tradition of the Mokaya people at coastal Chiapas and Guatemala came to a sudden end about this time. This appeared to coincide with the rise of the Olmec people.
    (Arch, 1/06, p.43)
1.2k BC    The Philistines arrived by sea from the area of modern-day Greece about this time. They went on to rule major ports at Ashkelon and Ashdod, now cities in Israel, and at Gaza, now part of the Palestinian territory known as the Gaza Strip. In 2014 Eric Cline, an archaeologist from George Washington University, authored "1177 BC: The Year Civilization Collapsed".
    (AP, 7/8/11)(AP, 7/3/19)
1.2k BC    The end of Mycenaean civilization.
    (AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.73)
1.2k BC    Indian ink became increasingly popular. Other cultures developed inks from berries, plants and minerals.
    (SFC, 7/26/04, p.F4)

1.2k BC - 1.194k BC    The period of the 19th Dynasty under Seti II.

1.2k BC - 1.02k BC    The Israelites were ruled by the Judges in a period of relative stability until a Philistine invasion in 1050.
    (eawc, p.5)

1.2k BC - 1k BC    The archeological evidence later confirmed that a collection of small settlements appeared in the eastern parts of the highlands of Palestine later known as the West Bank.
    (AM, 9/01, p.30)

1.2k BC - 400BC    The Olmecs built impressive cities and established trade routes throughout Mesoamerica, that included settlements at La Venta and Tres Zapotes.
    (SFEC, 5/17/98, p.T12)

c1.2k BC - 300BC    In Peru a pre-Columbian culture flourished over this time in the Andes site of Chavin de Huantar.
    (SFC, 12/21/00, p.A20)
1.2k BC - 300BC    The Olmec people ruled southern Mexico and northern Central America.
    (WSJ, 7/2/96, p.A12)

1.194k BC - 1.188k BC    The period of the 19th Dynasty under Siptah.

1.187k BC - 1.185k BC    Queen Tawosret (Taweseret) ruled during Egypt’s 19th Dynasty.

1.186k BC - 1.184k BC    The period of the 20th Dynasty under Sethnakhte (Setnakht).

1.184k BC - 1.153k BC    The period of the 20th Dynasty under Ramses III. After Ramessu III ascended the throne of Egypt, he fought back two major attacks from the northern countries. Ramses III defended his kingdom from foreign invasion in three separate wars, reorganized Egyptian society into classes based on occupation and built a funerary temple based on the Ramesseum. Ramses, son of Setnakht, twice defended Egypt against invasions from Libyan tribes and in his 8th year from a coalition of migrants referred to in records as the "Sea Peoples." The great Battle against the Sea Peoples was captured in a magnificent picture which Ramesses III caused to be sculpted on the walls of his great temple at Medinet Habu in Thebes.

1.184k  BC    Jun 11, Greeks finally captured Troy. This corresponds to excavation levels VIi or VIIa at the site of Hisarlik, Turkey [see 1150BC].
    (SC, 6/11/02)(Arch, 5/04, p.37)

c1.182k BC    Ramessu III beat back a more formidable attack by northern countries. An inscription describing this war was engraved on the second pylon of the temple of Medinet Habu. The inscription describes how the northerners were disturbed, and proceeded to move eastward and southward, swamping in turn the land of the Hittites, Carchemish, Arvad, Cyprus, Syria, and other places of the same region. The Hittites and North Syrians had been so crippled by them that Ramessu took the opportunity to extend the frontier of Egyptian territory northward... the twofold ravaging of Syria left it weakened and opened the door for the colonization of its coast-lands by the beaten remnant of the invading army.

c1.179k BC    Ramessu III beat back a Libyan invasion in his fifth year, this invasion was accompanied by war galleys from the northern countries.

1.178k BC    Apr 16, In 2008 researchers suggested that this was the date that Odysseus struck with arrows, swords and spears, killing those who sought to replace him, as he returned from the Trojan War.
    (AP, 6/23/08)

c1.176k BC    "Peoples of the sea" arrived to the Lebanese coast (c1200-1182). They came probably from the Aegean. They toppled the Hittites, destroyed Ugarit on the Syrian coast and swept south to Egypt where Ramesses III stopped them.
    (NG, Aug., 1974, p.174)

1.175k BC    Rameses III built his temple palace at Medinet Habu.
    (eawc, p.5)

1.153k BC    Ramesses III of Egypt died, and was succeeded by a series of weak ghost-kings.

1.153k BC - 1147BC    The period of Egypt’s 20th Dynasty under Ramses IV, son of Ramesses III.

1.15k BC    Troy fell about this time. Estimated date for the beginning of the Aeneid. [see 1275-1240BC] After King Agamemnon, leader of the Greeks, returned home to Mycenae he was killed by his wife Clytemnestra and her lover. In 2006 Cathy Gere authored “The Tomb of Agamemnon."
    (V.D.-H.K.p.60)(Econ, 3/11/06, p.78)

1.15k BC - 1k BC    This time frame is referred to as the Early Olmec Period of southern Mexico.
    (Arch, 1/06, p.42)

1.147k BC - 1.143k BC    The period of Egypt’s 20th Dynasty under Ramses V, son of Ramesses IV and Queen Ta-Opet. His mummy indicates that he died of smallpox at about age 35.

1.143k BC - 1.136k BC    The period of Egypt’s 20th Dynasty under Ramses VI.

1.136k BC - 1.129k BC    The period of Egypt’s 20th Dynasty under Ramses VII.

1.129k BC - 1.126k BC    The period of Egypt’s 20th Dynasty under Ramses VIII.

1.126k BC - 1.108k BC    The period of Egypt’s 20th Dynasty under Ramses IX.

c1.116k BC    In China an imperial decree stated that it was a requirement of the heavenly powers that people regularly take a moderate amount of alcoholic drink.
    (SFEC, 8/9/98, Z1 p.8)

1.114k BC - 1.076k BC    Tiglath-Pileser I ruled the Assyrian empire.
    (eawc, p.5)

1111-255BC    Chou dynasty in China.
    (V.D.-H.K. p.7)

1.108k BC - 1.099k BC    The period of Egypt’s 20th Dynasty under Ramses X. During his reign workers went on strike for wages not paid.

1.1k BC    The Phoenician alphabet containing only consonants was in use.
1.1k BC    By this time the Mycenaeans were overtaken by Dorian invaders who used iron weapons. Greek culture then entered unto a "Dark Age" period characterized by the disappearance of writing and a decline in architecture that lasted to about 800BC.
    (eawc, p.5)

~1.1k BC - 1k BC    The first Greek tribes settled on Crete around the 11th century BC.
    (WSJ, 3/20/97, p.A17)
~1.1k BC - 1k BC    In Britain Stonehenge Phase IV the path across the henge ditch was extended into the fields and over the hill to the River Avon.
    (HT, 3/97, p.22)
~1.1k BC    In 2010 Israeli archeologists found a trove of gold jewelry in a jug near Megiddo dating to about this time. The jewelry was said to have belonged to a Canaanite family.
    (AP, 5/25/12)

1.1k BC - 700BC    The Phoenicians traded around the Mediterranean.
    (WH, 1994, p.13)

1.1k BC - 265BC    The Zhou period in China. [see 1027-771]
    (WSJ, 2/19/98, p.A20)

1.094k BC - 1.064k BC    The period of Egypt under Ramses XI. He was the last king of the 20th Dynasty and the New Kingdom. Upon his death Hrihor and Smendes divided Egypt between themselves. Hrihor, the high priest of Amon ultimately usurped the sovereignty and become founder of the Twenty-first Dynasty. In Lower Egypt, the Tanite noble Nesubenebded, in Greek Smendes controlled the Delta. 
    (R.M.-P.H.C.p.29)(Arch, 5/05, p.21)

1.085k BC    After 1085 BC, Egypt split between a northern 21st dynasty claiming national recognition reigning from Tanis and a line of Theban generals and high priests of Amun who actually controlled the south from Thebes. Relations between the two authorities were peaceful. The Tanites were driven from power by Libyan warriors who established their own 22nd Dynasty.

1.08k BC - 945BC    High priests ruled Egypt from the capital of Thebes.

1.075k BC    Wenamun, a priest of Amun, moved from Egypt to Byblos during the rule of Ramesses XI. This was recorded in the Golenischeff papyrus found in 1891CE at El Khibeh in Upper Egypt. It is the personal report of the adventures of an Egyptian messenger to Lebanon. Zakar-Baal was governor of Byblos.

1.069k BC - 945BC    This is the period of Egypt’s 21st Dynasty. The capital moved from Tanis to Libyan, to Nubia, to Thebes, to SAIS, and then back to Nubia and Thebes.

1.069k BC - 664BC    A black-bronze statue of the falcon-faced god Horus, now in the French Louvre, dates to this time.
    (WSJ, 1/29/98, p.A16)

1.064k BC - 1.038k BC    Smendes ruled as the 1st king of Egypt’s 21st Dynasty.
    (Arch, 5/05, p.21)

1.05k BC    The Philistines invaded Israel from the North. Facing annihilation the Israelites instituted governmental reform and asked Samuel, the last of the Judges, to select a king.
    (eawc, p.5)

1.045k BC    The Zhou King Wu subdued the Shang. [see 1027BC]
    (Arch, 9/00, p.37)

1.042k BC    Dan, Duke Wen of Zhou, a member of the royal family of the early Zhou dynasty, attained the regency and administered the kingdom himself until 1035BC. He was renowned for acting as a capable and loyal regent for his young nephew King Cheng, and for successfully suppressing the Rebellion of the Three Guards and establishing firm rule of the Zhou dynasty over eastern China. According to the legend, he initiated the feudalistic system, established the classic rites, created the classic Chinese music, completed the original I Ching and compiled a dream interpretation dictionary "Dreaming of Duke Zhou" (Zhougong Jie Meng).

1.034k BC - 981BC Psusennes I was the 2nd king of Egypt’s 21st Dynasty.
    (Arch, 5/05, p.21)

1.031k BC    The Centennial Stump, a giant sequoia, started its growth, and was cut down in 1874CE.
     (K.I.-365D, p.146)

1.027k BC    In China the last Shang ruler, Chou Hsin, was conquered by Wu-wang, and the Chou Dynasty began. It lasted to 221BC and is typically divided into three periods.
    (eawc, p.5)

1.02k BC    In Israel Samuel selected Saul to be king and unified the tribes into a nation. Saul faced many losses against the Philistines and eventually committed suicide. David in his campaigns against the Philistines proved victorious.
    (eawc, p.6)

1.027k BC - 771BC    In China this was the Western Chou period.
    (eawc, p.5)

1.02k BC - 980 BC    Radiocarbon dating on burnt olive pits found in the ancient city of Khirbet Qeiyafa, 19 miles (30km) southwest of Jerusalem, indicate it existed between during this period, before being violently destroyed. In 2012 archaeologists reported the discovery of shrines from the fortified city, providing the earliest evidence of a Biblical cult.

c1.01k BC – 970BC    King David, the 2nd King of Israel, ruled. He had succeeded Saul.
    (WUD, 1994, p.369)

1.005k BC    King David's conquest of Jerusalem. In 1995 Israel launched a 17 month celebration of the event.
    (WSJ, 9/25/95, P. A-1)

1.004k BC    David became the king of Israel. He ruled from Hebron before moving his capital to Jerusalem. He began to build a centralized government based in Jerusalem and implemented forced labor, a census and a mechanism for collecting taxes. In 2000 Jonathan Kirsch authored "King David: The Real Life of the Man Who ruled Israel." According to the Bible the census under David was followed by a plague that left some 70,000 Israelites dead.
    (SFC, 9/15/00, p.A4)(SFC, 12/31/00, BR p.8)(Econ, 12/22/07, p.97)(SFC, 12/4/08, p.A27)
1.004k BC-1k BC    Absalom, the third son of King David, led a major rebellion which temporarily dethroned his father in the late eleventh century BC. Absalom died when his long hair became entangled in an oak tree and he was slain by David's general, Joab.

c1k BC        Irrigation canals were made in the Tucson basin of the American Southwest.
    (SFEC, 4/18/99, Z1 p.2)
c1k BC        A Bronze Age salt mine of this time in Hallstatt, Austria, had a pine and spruce staircase that survived into the 21st century.
    (Arch, 1/05, p.10)
c1k BC        The British Bronze Age site Flag Fen, estimated to  about this time, was accidentally discovered in 1982 by archaeologist Francis Pryor. Flag Fen is the site of some of the most recent and unusual discoveries of ancient British culture. In 1982 archaeologist Francis Pryor tripped over a piece of wood while walking along a dyke in the Fenlands near Peterborough. Noticing that the wood showed signs of deliberate shaping, he poked around in the peaty, wet soil and soon discovered a series of posts. The wood was set deeper into the ground than the surface of a nearby Roman road, so Pryor knew the wood had to have been placed into the ground well before the Roman engineers arrived on the scene.
    (HNQ, 5/12/01)
c1k BC        An Indo-European group of people moved east to live in what later became Xinjiang province of western China. They left well-preserved Caucasian mummies of this age and 1,300 year old texts written in an unknown Indo European tongue. Some evidence showed that they had come from the steppes north of the Black and Caspian seas as the area filled with Iranian immigrants. They settled in the Tarim Basin on the edges of the Taklimakan Desert. They area has also been named Inner Asia, Chinese Turkistan and East Turkistan. The Uighers of Xinjiang sometimes show physical features that reflects Tocharian blood.
    (SFC, 2/27/98, p.A2)
c1k BC         In China's southwest one of the world's great cities flourished, and then inexplicably vanished, leaving no trace behind in the historical records. In 2001 excavations at Jinsha village began to uncover extensive artifacts.
    (AFP, 7/10/05)
1k BC        The Chinese invented kites about this time that could carry scouts on reconnaissance missions.
    (NPub, 2002, p.2)
c1k BC        The fertile bottom land of the Copan River valley attracted agriculturists to the region more than 3,000 years ago.
    (Nat. Hist., 4/96, p.29)
c1k BC        The Phoenicians and other Semites of Syria and Palestine began using graphic signs representing letters. Aleph meaning ox was the sign that represented a sound such as that heard in the pronunciation of the o in bottle, known as a glottal stop.
    (AHD, 1971, p.1)
1k BC        Ahiram, king of Byblos, had inscribed on his sarcophagus: "His abode in eternity."
    (NG, Aug., 1974, p.154)
1k BC        Chaldians traced their origins to about this time in Babylon.
    (SFC, 9/30/00, p.A12)
c1k BC        A brightly colored papyrus of this time depicting a Theban housewife's life after death was found by Herbert Winlock at Thebes in 1912.
    (WSJ, 12/27/95, p. A-8)
1k BC        Bone lesions in the mummified body of the priest of Ammon from a tomb of the Egyptian 21st dynasty, have been recognized as probably caused by tubercle bacilli.
    (WP, 1951, p.5)
1k BC        About this time Kush became independent from Egypt.
    (Enc. of Africa, 1976, p.167)
1k BC        Israel became a kingdom.
    (WH, 1994, p.13)
1k BC        A clay tablet, described as an Akkadian-language letter, dating to about this time was placed on display in 2011 in Jerusalem. The letter was from the Canaanite King Abdi-Heba to the king of Egypt. It was found in excavations of a site from the First Temple period.
    (SFC, 6/21/11, p.A6)
c1k BC        Three-thousand-year-old archives were found in Jerusalem on Mar 13, 1935, confirming biblical history.
    (HN, 3/13/98)
c1k BC        The Samaritans broke away from the mainstream of Judaism about this time. They believed that God chose Mount Gerizim as the site for the Jews to build their temple.
    (SFC, 2/14/98, p.A21)
c1k BC        The Garamantes, a tribal people descended from Berbers and Saharan pastoralists, inhabited the area of the Fazzan in southern Libya.
    (AM, 3/04, p.24)
c1k BC     The first typical Baltic culture of brushed pottery formed at the turn of the last millennium BC in eastern Lithuania. It was the time when the first hill forts and barrows appeared and the cremation of the dead was introduced.
    (DrEE, 10/12/96, p.2)(TB-Com, 10/11/00)
c1k BC        In India the Rig Veda, the first Vedic literature was written.
    (eawc, p.6)
c1000        The original Hindu calendar in India was based on a lunar cycle and dated back to this time.
    (SFC, 1/1/00, p.A18)
1k BC        The Sushruta Samhita, an early text of Ayurvedic medicine, was compiled by Sushrut, the primary pupil of Dhanvantri, about this time. In 2003 India moved to assess the country’s herbs systematically in a program called the Golden Triangle Partnership.
1k BC        The Illyrians were Indo-European tribesmen who appeared in the western part of the Balkan Peninsula about 1000 BC. Albanians derive their name from an Illyrian tribe called the Arber, or Arbereshë, and later Albanoi, that lived near Durrës.
c1k BC        In Kyrgyzstan the capital city of Bishkek was founded.
    (MT, Spg. '99, p.4)
1k BC        The great Olmec Ceremonial Center, in Tabasco, Mexico, was built about this time. It continued to be used till about 600BC.
    (RFH-MDHP, p.241)
1k BC        The Olmec kings are thought by some to be responsible for the invention of the ancient Mayan ballgame that often left the loser dead.
     (Hem, Dec. 94, p.125)
1k BC        The settlement at Canton Corralito on the southern Mexico-Guatemala border covered at least 60 acres by this time and was believed to be a colony of the Gulf Olmec people.
    (Arch, 1/06, p.44)
c1k BC        In Pakistan some of the monuments at the Uch Monument Complex in the Punjab date to this time.
    (SFEC, 8/28/98, p.T4)
1k BC        In Thailand Ban Prasat pottery from the site at Prasat Hin Phanom Wan dates to this time.
    (AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.H)
c1k BC        A major earthquake struck along the Carmel-Gilboa fault system about this time. The Hebrew city of Har Megiddo, located at the strategic Nahal Iron Pass - the only route where chariots could speed between Egypt and Syria, was destroyed in the quake. This event is likely one described by John of Patmos in the Book of Revelations, where a great quake takes place at Armageddon.
    (SFC,12/9/97, p.A8)
1k BC        Nauru was first inhabited about this time, originally by 12 Polynesian and Micronesian tribes. Its nearest neighbor, Kiribati, is 300km of empty ocean away.
c1k BC        In Peru the tomb of a Huayakuntur Indian of this time was found in Ayabaca province in 1999.
    (SFC, 11/13/99, p.A12)
1k BC        The Phoenicians inhabited Sardinia.
    (SFEC, 1/30/00, p.T4)
1k BC        Bronze age nomads erected mysterious megaliths throughout regions of Mongolia and southern Siberia about this time. Some scholars believed them to be the work of Iron Age peoples who appeared by 700BC.
    (Arch, 1/06, p.17)
c1k BC        Troy at Hissarlik in northwest Turkey was destroyed by fire and abandoned.
    (Nat. Hist., 4/96, p.50)
1k BC        A cemetery containing the remains of 25 Lapita people in Teouma, Vanuatu, dated to about this time.
    (Arch, 1/06, p.11)
1k BC        Camels were domesticated about this time.
    (Econ, 11/19/16, p.71)

1k BC - 975BC    In 2008 Israeli archeologists found a Hebrew inscription in proto-Canaanite script on a pottery fragment at a site believed to the biblical city of Sha’arayim (Two Gates). The city was located on a hill above the Valley of Elah, where the bible says David slew Goliath.
    (SFC, 11/17/08, p.A10)

1k BC - 900BC    The search for the 10 lost tribes of Israel, who were dispersed in the tenth century BC when the Assyrians conquered part of the Holy Land, is depicted on a CD titled The Myth of the 10 Lost Tribes, by Creative Multimedia Corp.   
    (New Media, 2/95, p.84)
1k BC - 900BC    Archeologists in 2005 reported that 2 lines of an alphabet had been found inscribed in a stone in Israel, offering what some scholars say is the most solid evidence yet that the ancient Israelites were literate as early as the 10th century B.C. The stone was found in July, on the final day of a five-week dig at Tel Zayit, about 30 miles south of Tel Aviv.
    (AP, 11/10/05)

c1k BC - 800    The kingdom of Habushkia was likely centered on the headwaters of the Great Zap River in western Turkey.
    (AM, 7/00, p.50)

1k BC - 600BC    This was the late Vedic period in India. The Aryans were integrated into Indian culture and the caste system emerged.
    (eawc, p.6)

1k BC - 500BC    Oct 31, The Celts of Ireland, Great Britain and northern France celebrated Oct. 31 to Nov 2 as their New Year which they called Samhain. The Druid harvest event incorporated masks to ward off evil ones, as dead relatives were believed to visit families on the first evening. The Catholic holiday of All Hallows' Day (aka All Saints' Day) was instituted around 700 CE to supplant the pagan event    and Pope Gregory III made the Nov 1 date official. In the 9th century Nov 2, the last day of Samhain, became All Souls' Day. Halloween was transplanted to the US in  the 1840s.
    (WSJ, 10/28/99, p.A24)(WSJ, 10/29/99, p.W17)

1k BC - 300    Middle preclassic period of the Maya.
    (AM, May/Jun 97 suppl. p.B)

1k BC - 1BC    In Thailand a cemetery at the Noen U-Loke site has revealed jewelry, bronze and iron tools and pottery.
    (AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.G)

c1k BC - 1k BE    A civilization in Amazonia, called Patiti or Enin by archeologists, dug channels for an elaborate crop irrigation system.
    (SFEC, 12/6/98, p.T12)

993BC - 984BC Amenope was the 4th king of Egypt’s 21st Dynasty.

984BC - 978BC Osochor was the 5th king of Egypt’s 21st Dynasty.

978BC - 959BC Siamun was the 6th king of Egypt’s 21st Dynasty.

970BC        King David of Israel died about this time. In 2000 Robert Alter authored "The David Story: A Translation with Commentary of 1 and 2 Samuel." In 2005 Robert Pinsky authored “The Life of David."
    (WUD, 1994, p.369)(SFEC, 4/30/00, BR p.10)(SSFC, 10/23/05, p.M1)

965BC        Solomon became king of Israel. He was intent on completing the plans of David to make Jerusalem stand out and to affirm the religious commitment of the people. He undertook expensive building projects that included the building of the temple in Jerusalem and raised taxes with increased forced labor to his ends.
    (eawc, p.6)

959BC - 945BC Psusennes II was the 7th and last king of Egypt’s 21st Dynasty.

955BC - 587BC    The Ark of the Covenant, the sacred chest built by Moses containing the Ten Commandments, disappeared from Jerusalem during this period. Legend in Ethiopia holds that the Ark was stolen by Menelik I, son of Solomon and the Queen of Sheba, and taken to Aksum where Orthodox Christian monks have watched over it ever since.
    (SFC, 1/31/98, p.A18)

950BC        Hiram I, king of Tyre, joined two islands and built an impregnable city in the sea. He sent to David, king of Israel, and later to Solomon, the materials to build palaces and the first great temple of Jerusalem. The building of Solomon's temple is described in the First Book of Kings in the Bible.
    (NG, Aug., 1974, p.163)(WH, 1994, p.13)
c950BC    The Queen of Sheba lived about this time. Local legends from Ethiopia name her Makeda and claim that she was from there. Archeologists have found inscriptions from the ancient Sabean kingdom but no mention of Makeda or Bilqis, the local name for Sheba in Yemen. The Koran claims she ruled from Yemen.
    (WSJ, 5/2/97, p.A1)
c950BC    The Kebra Negast, a 14th cent. Ethiopian text, claims that the Queen of Sheba came from Ethiopia to see Solomon and that he tricked her into sleeping with him and bearing him a son.
    (WSJ, 5/2/97, p.A6)
950BC        Peanuts have been traced back to this time in Brazil and Peru.
    (SFEC, 1/10/99, Z1 p.8)

948BC - 927BC    The Egyptian Pharaoh Shishak (Sheshonq) founded Egypt’s 22nd Dynasty. He destroyed many Israelite cities, including Rehov, Megiddo and Hazor. Sheshonq I supported Jeroboam against King Solomon's son, Rehoboam.
    (WSJ, 12/31/97, p.A4)(SFC, 4/11/03, p.A9)(Arch, 5/05, p.21)

945-712BC    Period of Egypt’s twenty-second dynasty. It is often referred to as the Libyan Bubastite Dynasty. Manetho lists the kings of this Dynasty as being from Bubastis which is located in the eastern delta

c938BC    Israel’s King Solomon died about this time. The northerners, unwilling to subsidize the financial difficulties of Jerusalem and the national court, separated from the southern people. This created Israel to the north with its capital in Samaria, and Judah to the south with its capital in Jerusalem. Solomon’s son Rehoboam ruled in the south. Only the tribes of Juda and Benjamin remaining faithful to Rehoboam. Jeroboam, the son of Nathan an Ephraimite, ruled 10 tribes in the north.
    (eawc, p.6)(www.newadvent.org/cathen/08340a.htm)

930BC        Sheshonq I, ruler of Egypt, campaigned in Palestine about this time laying tribute upon the king of Judah.

924BC - 909BC    Osorkon I ruled Egypt as the 2nd king of the 22nd Dynasty.

909BC - 894BC    Takelot I ruled Egypt as the 3rd king of the 22nd Dynasty. His reign saw the beginning of another fragmentation into 2 power bases.

c900BC    Trade between East Africans and Arabs probably began about this time.
    (ATC, p.141)
900BC        The Maya site named Blackman Eddy in Belize was occupied from this time to about 1000CE.
    (AM, May/Jun 97 suppl. p.B)
c900BC    In Honduras archeologists in 1997 discovered burial caves that date to this time. A cave from the same period was discovered in 1994 near the Talgua River, known as the Cave of the Glowing Skulls. The new cave was called the Cave of the Spiders.
    (USAT, 2/12/97, p.9D)
c900BC    A group of people in northern Nigeria produced distinct statuettes in baked clay. Their culture is called the Nok culture after a village where the first statuette was found in 1931. The culture may have lasted to about 900CE.
    (Enc. of Africa, 1976, p.168)
c900BC    Anuradhapura (Sri Lanka) was founded about this time. It served as the capital from the 3rd century BC to the 11th century AD.
    (AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.D)(Arch, 7/02, p.32)
c900BC    The Fossum panel was carved on a rock outcropping in Sweden about this time and depicted 2 Bronze Age figures with raised axes.
    (NH, Jul, p.32)

900BC - 840BC    The Assyrians expanded their empire to the west. By 840 they conquered Syria and Turkey, territory that had formerly belonged to the Hittites.
    (eawc, p.6)

c900BC - 800BC    Ahab was king of Israel. Pottery, a 4-entry gate at Megiddo, and other structures at Hazor and Gezer are similar to others in the time of Ahab. This kind of data has prompted "the Finkelstein correction," which pushes archeological evidence attributed to David and Solomon more to the time of Ahab and Jezebel, his wife from Phoenicia.
    (WSJ, 12/31/97, p.A4)
c900BC - 800BC    Joash was King of Judah in the 9th century. Joash and Ashyahu are common variations of the same name. The temple priest Zechariah was a contemporary to Joash and was put to death by Joash after a dispute. In 1997 a 13 word pottery fragment was dated to this time with the words: "Pursuant to the order to you of Ashyahu the King to give by the hand of Zecharyahu silver of Tarshish to the House of Yahweh. Three shekels."
    (SFC,11/4/97, p.A8)
c900BC-800BC    Sebastia, located just outside the modern city of Nablus, served as the capital of the biblical Kingdom of Israel under the name of Samaria in the 8th and 9th centuries B.C.
    (AP, 6/2/13)
900BC - 800BC    Sican and Siculian farmers settled the valleys of central Sicily.
    (WSJ, 6/9/99, p.A24)

900BC - 750BC    Villanovan cultures in Italy. From their hamlets Etruscan cities grew. The name comes from Villanova, a site near Bologna where the culture's artifacts were first unearthed more than a century ago.
    (NG, 6/1988, p.710, 719)

900BC - 700BC     In 2008 archeologists found pottery in Tyre, Lebanon, that was used by Phoenicians during this period.
    (AP, 11/12/08)

900BC - 500BC    This time frame is referred to as the Late Olmec Period of southern Mexico.
    (Arch, 1/06, p.42)

900BC - 400BC    The Etruscan period of Italian prehistory. For about 500 years the Etruscans dominated most of the country from Rome to the Po Valley. Apa means father in Etruscan. It means exactly the same in Hungarian.
    (NG, 6/1988, p.705)(NG, 10/1988, member's forum)

894BC - 883BC    Shoshenq II ruled Egypt during the 22nd Dynasty. He is though to have co-regent during the period between Osorkon I and Takelot I.

883BC - 885BC    Osorkon II ruled Egypt as the 5th king of the 22nd Dynasty.

883-859    Ashurnasirpal II. This Assyrian ruler established the new capital city of Kalhu (Nimrud).
    (AM, 7/00, p.50)

880BC        There was a very high inundation of the Nile in the 3rd year of the reign of Osorkon II.

858-824    Shalmaneser II, Assyrian ruler.
    (AM, 7/00, p.50)

845BC        During the 15th year of the reign of Egypt’s Takelot II there was warfare in the north and south and great convulsion broke out in the land.

841BC     In China a Zhou king died.
    (SFC, 11/10/00, p.D4)

841BC - 815BC    Takelot II ruled Egypt as the 6th king of the 22nd Dynasty.
    (Arch, 5/05, p.21)

835BC - 783BC    Shoshenq III ruled Egypt as the 7th king of the 22nd Dynasty.

830BC        The Philistine city of Gath was razed. It appears to have been the work of the Aramean king Hazael, an incident mentioned in the Book of Kings.
    (AP, 7/8/11)

814BC        Carthage was founded by Phoenician traders.
    (SFEC, 4/12/98, p.T5)

814-813BC    Elissa-Dido, Princess of Tyre, Jezebel's grandniece, fled to North Africa after her brother, King Pygmalion, murdered her husband, Tyre's high priest. She was said to have  then founded Carthage on a hilltop now called Byrsa. Byrsa means Oxhide and it was said that Elissa could have as much ground as could be  covered by the hide of an ox. She cut the hide into narrow strips and so claimed the whole hill.
    (NG, Aug., 1974, p.174)(SSFC, 12/10/00, p.T8)   

812-783BC    Hada-Nirari III, Assyrian king enumerated the Philistines among the Palestinian states conquered by him.

810BC – 805BC    Sammuramat ruled Assyria as Queen.
    (eawc, p.6)

803BC        Hadad-Nirari, Assyrian king, conquered the Palestinian states including the Philistines.

c800BC    Large villages with dome-shaped "pit houses" were constructed in the American Southwest and the inhabitants made plainware pottery bowls.
    (SFEC, 4/18/99, Z1 p.2)
800BC        Nimrud, capital of Assyria, 500 miles east of Byblos, sample of ivory carving from a piece of furniture depicting a woman in a window wearing an Egyptian wig.
    (NG, Aug., 1974, p.171)
c800BC    The Zhou of China were driven east by nomads.
    (Arch, 9/00, p.37)
c800BC    In Greece increased trade and governmental defense fortifications allowed for the emergence of city-states to emerge from tribal communities. These grew up among market places and included Athens, Thebes and Megara on the mainland.
    (eawc, p.6)
800BC        In Guatemala some structures at San Bartolo dated to about this time.
    (AM, 7/05, p.51)(http://sanbartolo.org/research.htm)
c800BC    The Jewish city of Sepphoris was founded about this time.
    (AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.64)
800BC        Kingdom of Kush in northern Sudan near present day Karima; its monarchs ruled all of Egypt as the pharaohs of the XXV Dynasty.
    (NG, May 1985, R. Caputo, p.607)
800BC        The twenty-fifth dynasty, as noted by Manetho, consisted of three Ethiopic kings. The seat of the empire was originally at Gebel Barkal, or Napata. They subsequently conquered the whole of Egypt. The first monarch of this line was called Sabaco by the Greek writers; the second Sebechos, or Suechos, his son; the third was Tarkos or Taracus.
    (RFH-MDHP, A. Layard, 1853, p.62)
c800BC    A great change in climate overcame Europe around this time.
    (SFEC, 5/2/99, p.T4)

800BC - 750BC    The Iliad epic was set down by Homer in about the first half of the 8th century, some five centuries after the war it purportedly reports.
    (Nat. Hist., 4/96, p.44)

c800BC - 700BC    The period of Homer, reputed author of "The Iliad" and "The Odyssey."
    (WUD, 1994, p.679)
800BC - 700BC    The time of Hesiod, the first Greek poet to name himself. His work included "The Theogony" and "Works and Days."
    (WUD, 1994, p.666)(eawc, p.7)
c800BC - 700BC    The Greeks and the Etruscans occupied different regions of the Italian peninsula during the 8th century.
    (eawc, p.2)
800BC - 700BC    Bubastis was the capital of 8th century BC Egypt.
    (AM, 7/04, p.12)
800BC - 700BC    The Languedoc region of France has produced wine since this time. Langue d'oc refers to the language of Occitan spoken in the region. Greeks began planting vineyards in Languedoc around 600BC.
    (WSJ, 2/09/99, p.A20)(SSFC, 6/17/01, p.T10)(WSJ, 5/30/03, p.A3)

800BC - 600BC    In India the Brahmans, a priestly caste, began to emerge.
    (eawc, p.7)

800BC - 500BC    In India the Upanishadic philosophy began with the writing of the Upanishads. Doctrines of rebirth and the transmigration of souls began to appear.
    (eawc, p.7)
800BC - 500BC    The Archaic period of Greece. It was marked by developments in literature, the arts, politics, philosophy and science. The Peloponnesian city of Corinth, Sparta and cities along the coast of the Aegean flourished. Most of the cities were similar in their political evolution except for the elite dictatorship in Sparta. Most of the cities began as monarchies, evolved to oligarchies, were overthrown during the age of tyrants and eventually established democracies.
    (eawc, p.6)
800BC - 500BC    The Celtic Hallstatt Culture spread across Europe. It was an early iron-using culture named after an Austrian burial site found in the mid-19th century.
    (NGM, 5/77)
800BC - 500BC    Zazacatla in central Mexico covered less than one square mile between during this period. Inhabitants of Zazacatla adopted Olmec styles when they changed from a simple, egalitarian society to a more complex, hierarchical one. Much of it was later covered by housing and commercial development extending from Cuernavaca.
    (AP, 1/25/07)
800BC - 500BC    Texts called Southwest Script dating to this period were later discovered in Portugal. Most experts have concluded they were authored by a people called Tartessians, a tribe of Mediterranean traders who mined for metal but disappeared after a few centuries. Some scientists have proposed that the composers were other pre-Roman tribes, such as the Conii or Cynetes, or maybe even Celts who roamed this far south.
    (AP, 2/28/09)

800BC - 300BC    Scythians dominated the vast lands stretching from Siberia to the Black Sea. Those who roamed what later became Kazakstan and southern Siberia were known as the Saka.
    (AM, 5/01, p.32)

800BC - 200BC    The German philosopher Karl Jaspers termed this epoch die Achsenzeit, or the Axial Age, to indicate its pivotal importance in the evolution of human thought. He introduced the concept in his 1949 book Vom Ursprung und Ziel der Geschichte (The Origin and Goal of History).
c800BC - 200CE     The Mayan city of Takalik Abaj, in later day Guatemala, served as one of the most important economic and cultural centers of pre-Columbian times.
    (NG, May, 04, p.70)
c800BC - 200CE    Saba culture (Yemen) was a major economic player in the trade routes from India to the Mediterranean during this period.
    (Arch, 1/05, p.56)

783BC - 773BC    Pami (Pemay) ruled Egypt as the 8th king of the 22nd Dynasty.

782BC        Urartian king Argishti the First founded Erebuni, the military and administrative center of the state of Urartu, situated in the location of present-day Yerevan, Armenia.
    (www.anahit.am/regions/yerevan/)(SSFC, 10/17/04, p.D8)

776BC        In Olympia Greece the Olympic Games were born after Iphitos, king of Elis, asked the Delphic Oracle how to save Greece from civil war and plagues. The answer was to revive the Olympics from their mythological roots. Together with Lycourgos of Sparta and Kleosthenes of Pisa a sacred truce was concluded and the games declared at Olympia. The historian Pausanias (c150CE) wrote: "The Olympic victor must not win with money but the fleetness of foot and the strength of body." In the Pankration, a combination of wrestling and boxing, biting and eye-gouging were forbidden. Adult women were discouraged from attending the games under the penalty of being hurled from the cliffs of Mount Typaion, opposite the stadium
    (SFC, 7/14/96, p.T1)(WSJ, 7/19/96, p.R16)

773BC - 735BC    Shoshenq IV ruled Kush as the 9th king of Egypt’s 22nd Dynasty.

771BC        In China the Chou Dynasty faced difficulty when King Yu alienated the noble class who refused to answer his call for help against invading barbarians. King Yu was killed and the nobles installed a new leader. The capital was moved eastward to Loyang and the "Western Chou" period ended.
    (eawc, p.7)

771BC-471BC        The Spring and Autumn Period. Jingzhou was the capital of the Chu Kingdom.
    (AMNHDT, 5/98)

771BC-221BC        The Eastern Zhou period. The power of the Zhou court waned and frequent state wars took place.
    (AM, 7/01, p.62)

753BC    Apr 21, Rome was founded. The traditional date for founding by Romulus as a refuge for runaway slaves and murderers who captured the neighboring Sabine women for wives. Archeological evidence indicates that the founders of Rome were Italic people who occupied the area south of the Tiber River.
    (HFA, '96, p.28)(V.D.-H.K.p.61)(eawc, p.7)(HN, 4/21/98)

750BC        Greeks invent symbols for vowels.
750BC        The era of the Greek poet Homer.
    (MT, 10/95, p.10-11)
c750BC    Two Phoenician ships from Tyre carrying amphorae filled with wine sank some 30 miles off the coast of Israel. In 1999 a team led by Robert Ballard discovered the ships at a depth of about 1,500 feet.
    (SFC, 6/24/99, p.A14)

750BC - 719BC    Piye (Piankhy) ruled Kush (Nubia). In 722 he extended his rule to Egypt. Kashta, ruler of Kush, had begun a campaign against Egypt. With the help of his son, Piankhy, he was successful and Piankhy became pharaoh of Egypt. The Nubian King Piye conquered the weakened and disunited Egypt and became the first of several Nubian Pharaohs who ruled a unified Egyptian and Nubian state for the next century.
    (eawc, p.7)(MT, 10/95, p.10-11)(www.crystalinks.com/dynasty21.html)

c750BC - 700BC    The long-running Lelantine War between Chalkis and Eretria, the 2 largest cities on the island of Euboia, was named after the name of the plain that both cities claimed. The two cities had jointly founded Cumae in Italy (c750). When they fell out, the war between them split the Greek world in two.
    (Arch, 1/05, p.34)(www.britannica.com/eb/article?tocId=9047711)
c750BC - 700BC    Greeks adopted hoplite gear and the phalanx for warfare over this period.
    (Arch, 1/05, p.33)

750BC - 600BC    Greek colonies exert strong influence over newly urbanized Etruscans.
    (NG, 6/1988, p.710)

750BC - 117    In 2005 Robin Lane Fox covered this period in his book “The Classical World: An Epic History from Homer to Hadrian."
    (Econ, 11/5/05, p.91)

747BC        Feb 26, Origin of Era of Nabonassar.
    (SC, 2/26/02)

745BC - 727BC    Tiglath-Pileser III ruled as the Assyrian king.

742BC        The time of the Hebrew prophet Isaiah.
    (MofB, A&E TV, 9/7/96)

740BC        A population of people that came to called Tibetans moved to the Tibetan plateau about this time. In 2010 researchers claimed that people known as the Han and Tibetans had both come from a single ethnic group which split about this time.
    (Econ, 7/17/10, p.50)

740BC - 725BC    Pedubaste I was the 1st king of Egypt’s 23rd Dynasty. Egypt’s rule in this period is not very clear.

738BC        Mittinti, king of Ashkelon revolted, trusting to the support of Rezon of Syria. But the death of Rezon so terrified the king that he fell sick and died. His son Rukipti, who reigned in his stead, hastened to make submission.

735BC - 712BC    Osorkon IV ruled Egypt as the 10th and final king of the 22nd Dynasty.

c734BC    Rezon of Syria, and Pekah of Samaria were in league, whereas Ahaz of Jerusalem had become a vassal of the king of Assyria. The Philistines had attached them selves to the Syrian league, so that Tiglath-Pileser came up with the special purpose of sacking Gaza.

732BC        Tiglath-pileser III, an Assyrian, took Damascus and killed Rezin. He then captured many cities of northern Israel and took the people to Assyria. The Egyptian troops had at one time joined forces with Damascus, Israel and some other states to resist Shalmaneser III at Qarqar.

729BC        Greek colonists settled in Catania, Sicily.
    (SFC, 6/2/03, p.A11)

725BC - 720BC    Tefnakhte I, a prince of western Egypt, ruled as the 1st king of the 24th Dynasty, known as the Sais Dynasty. He attempted to stop an invasion by organizing other Northern Kings with him against invaders from the south. This southern force was comprised of Piankhi’s Nubian forces that wanted to gain control of all of Egypt. The four northern armies under Tefnakht, Osorkon IV of Tanis, Peftjauabastet of Hernopolis, Nimlot, and Input of Leontopolis all enjoyed a relatively easy time in their conquering of the people down to the south, but Piankhi was actually drawing them down. When Tefnakht's forces finally reached Memphis they were massacred and Tefnakht conceded to Piankhi. Tefnakht and the four other leaders were allowed to remain governors of their territories under the new Pharaoh Piankhi.

722BC        Hoshea, the king of Israel, sent messengers to Osorkon in Egypt. He was requesting help against Assyria’s Shalmaneser V. No help was sent. Samaria was captured and the Israelites were taken away to Assyria. The Assyrians conquered Israel and left nothing behind. The Hebrew kingdom of Judah managed to survive. Descendants of the Israelites not exiled by the Assyrians were later known as the Samaritans.
    (eawc, p.7)(WSJ, 10/13/00, p.W15)(www.crystalinks.com/dynasty21.html)
722BC        Samaritans practiced a religion closely linked to Judaism and venerate a version of the Old Testament, but they are not Jews. In the fourth and fifth centuries, the Samaritan population is thought to have topped 1.5 million, but religious persecution and economic hardship had nearly erased it by the early 20th century. By 2013 there were only 750 Samaritans — split between communities in the Israeli city of Holon, near Tel Aviv, and near the West Bank city of Nablus on Mount Gerizim.
    (AP, 4/10/13)

722BC        Piye (Piankhy) marched north from Nubia and began his conquest of Egypt where he founded the 25th Dynasty. He consolidated his rule over Egypt and Kush and became the 1st king of the 25th Dynasty. It has been suggested that he revived pyramid building for royals in Egypt, a tradition that had gone extinct for over eight centuries.
    (www.crystalinks.com/dynasty21.html)(Arch, 9/02, p.55)

722-481BC     In China the Ch'un Ch'iu period began. It was characterized by a deterioration of the feudal system and a collapse of central authority.
    (eawc, p.5,7)

721BC        About this time as the northern Israelite kingdom failed, Hebron remained the capital of the southern Israelite kingdom of Judah.
    (SFC, 12/4/08, p.A27)

721-705BC    Sargon II ruled as king of Assyria.
    (AM, 7/01, p.33)

c720BC    Some Jewish tribes went missing after being sent into exile by the Assyrians under Tiglath-Pilesar III. In 2002 Hillel Halkin authored "Across the Sabbath River: In Search of a Lost Tribe of Israel," an account of the search for the lost tribes that included the Gadites, Reubenites and tribe of Manasseh (Menashe) and its possible relationship to the Kuki-Chin-Mizo people of Burma.
    (WSJ, 8/8/02, p.D10)(SSFC, 8/11/02, p.M2)

720BC - 715BC     Wahkare Bakenranef ruled in Egypt as the 2nd king of the 24th Dynasty.

720BC-200BC        In Sudan the Nubian civilization during this period built pyramids with narrow bases and steep angles on the sides.
    (AP, 4/24/18)

715-642    Judah absorbed refugees from the Assyrian conquest an achieved the attributes of a state.
    (AM, 9/01, p.32)

713BC    Azuri, king of the Philistine city of Ashdod, refused to pay tribute and endeavored to stir up the neighboring princes to revolt. Sargon [of Assyria] came down and expelled Azuri, and established in his stead Azuri's brother, Ahimiti.

712BC - 698BC     Shebaka of Nubia ruled in Egypt. Some consider him the 1st king of the 25th Dynasty.

710BC        Hanunu of Gaza was in the revolt against the king of Assyria which led to the battle of Raphia, the first struggle between Egypt and Assyria. Hanunu, the king of Gaza, fled to Sebako (Shebaka), king of Egypt; but returned and, having made submission, was received with favor.

710BC-650BC     The Lelantine War, according to Thucydides, was a war between Chalcis and Eretria and lasted over this period.

708BC        Lampis of Sparta won the pentathlon becoming the 1st Olympic winner in the long jump. Javelin-throwing and wrestling were introduced in this year's games.
    (NH, 6/03, p.12)(Econ., 6/27/20, p.10)

705BC - 681BC    Sennacherib, Assyrian king, also had trouble with the Philistines. Mitinti's son, Rukipti, had been succeeded by his son Sarludari, but it seems as though this ruler had been deposed, and a person called Zidka reigned in his stead. Sennacherib found conspiracy in Zidka, and brought the gods of his father's house, himself, and his family into exile to Assyria, restoring Sarludari to his former throne.
705-681BC    At the same time the Ekronites had revolted against the Assyrian. Their king, Padi, had remained a loyal vassal to his overlord, but his turbulent subjects had put him in fetters and sent him to Hezekiah, king of Judah, who cast him into prison. The Ekronites summoned assistance from North Arabia and Egypt, and met Sennacherib at El-Tekeh. Here they were defeated, and Sennacherib marched against Ekron, slaying and impaling the chief officers. Padi was rescued from Jerusalem... Sennacherib then cut of some of the territory of Judah and divided it among his vassals...
705-681BC    Sennacherib ruled the Assyrians and built a new capital in Ninevah where he began to form a library of Sumerian and Babylonian tablets. He managed to subdue the entire region of western Asia.
    (eawc, p.7)

701BC        The Assyrian King Sennacherib laid siege to Jerusalem.
    (AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.16)

700BC        Homer's time. [see 800BC-700]
    (NG, Aug., 1974, p.172)
c700BC    The White Horse of Uffington, England, a 365-foot long and 130-foot high image scratched into a chalk hillside, was dated to this time from pottery at the site. The shape is typical of the La Tene art style that spread across Western Europe between the 5th and 1st centuries BC.
    (AM, 9/01, p.40,43)
700BC        A three foot tall bust of Pharaoh Shabako of Egypt was on loan from Cairo at St. Petersburg, Florida.
    (WSJ, 1/16/96, p. A-16)
700BC        Marijuana was put into the grave of a Caucasian shaman of the Gushi culture in the Yanghai Tombs in the Uighur autonomous region of China.
    (SSFC, 1/18/15, p.E6)
c700BC    In what later became Iraq, the huge bearded head of a large winged-bull dating from this time was made.
    (SFC, 1/31/98, p.A9)
700BC        Tarquinia was the cultural capital of the Etruscans. Around 700BC, only half a century after the Greeks rediscovered writing, literacy burst across Etruria. The Etruscans had no g sound, so they made it a c. That's why we have abc rather than alpha, beta, gamma.
    (NG, 6/1988, p.708,726)
700BC        Arabs made earth bricks later know as adobe as early as this time. The word adobe comes from the Arab word "at-tub."
    (SFC, 8/21/96, p.A8)
700BC        King Hezekiah, about this time, constructed a 1,750-foot tunnel to bring water into Jerusalem. Archeologists in 2003 dated plant fragments in the tunnel's plaster to this time +/- 100 years. In 1880 a tablet known as the Siloam inscription was found in the tunnel. It had been installed to celebrate the moment the two construction teams met underground. The tablet was taken by the Holy Land's Ottoman rulers to Istanbul. It was later placed in the collection of the Istanbul Archaeology Museum. In 2007 Jerusalem's mayor asked the Turkish government to return the tablet.
    (SFC, 9/11/03, p.A6)(AP, 7/13/07)
c700BC    Nomadic Kimmerians attacked Phrygia. Strabo later reported that Midas committed suicide at the time of the Kimmerian invasion.
    (AM, 7/01, p.33)
c700BC    A Phrygian king, possibly Midas, ruled into his 60s and was buried in what came to be called the Tumulus Midas Mound at Gordion (later central Turkey). Midas was linked with the worship of the goddess Matar.
    (AM, 7/01, p.27)
700BC        A ship carrying Phoenician cargo sank about this time near the Maltese island of Gozo. Divers in 2014 discovered its remains, which included 20 grinding stones and 50 amphorae.
    (SFC, 8/26/14, p.A2)

700BC - 600BC      A migration of the Cimmerians and Scythians took place in the seventh century BC. These were nomadic tribes from the Russian steppes, who made their way round the eastern end of the Caucasus, burst through into the Moghan plains and the basin of Lake Urmia, and terrorized Western Asia for several generations, till they were broken by the power of the Medes and absorbed in the native population. It was they who made an end of the Kingdom of Urartu, and the language they brought with them was probably an Indo-European dialect answering to the basic element in modern Armenian.
700BC - 600BC    The Armenians, an Indo-European people, migrate from the west to mingle with the people of URARTU. It was ruled by kings of the Orontid dynasty as a satrapy of the Persian empire until the defeat of Persia by Alexander the Great.
    (CO Enc. / Armenia)
700BC - 600BC    The earliest Chinese records of divination using the I Ching date from this period.
    (NH, 9/97, p.12)
700BC – 600BC    In 2016 Israeli archaeologists made public a fragment of an ancient text which they say is the earliest Hebrew reference to Jerusalem outside the Bible. The piece of papyrus was dated by the Israel Antiquities Authority to the 7th century B.C.
    (Reuters, 10/26/16)
700BC - 600BC    The search for the 10 lost tribes of Israel, who were dispersed in the tenth century BC when the Assyrians conquered part of the Holy Land, is depicted on a CD titled The Myth of the 10 Lost Tribes, by Creative Multimedia Corp.   
    (New Media, 2/95, p.84)

698BC - 690BC     Shebitku, nephew of Shebaka, ruled in Egypt as the 2nd king of the 25th Dynasty.

690BC        The underground burial chamber of a warrior prince in the Etruscan town of Veio dated to about this time. It was decorated with roaring lions and migratory birds.
    (AP, 6/16/06)

690BC - 664BC    The Nubian Pharaoh Taharqa, brother of Shebitku, ruled over the upper Nile Nubian-Egyptian state. He is mentioned in the Bible as a pyramid builder. A sculpture of the Kushite king was discovered in the basement of "God's House Tower," an archeological museum, in England in 2000.
    (MT, 10/95, p.10-11)(SFC, 2/16/00, p.A8)(www.crystalinks.com/dynasty21.html)(Arch, 9/02, p.55)

689BC        Sennacherib of Assyria destroyed Babylon, but his son rebuilt it.
    (eawc, p.7)

687BC        The Lyrid meteor shower was recorded for the first time in Chinese records. It averages about 10-15 shooting stars per hour and occurs on 4/22 in 1994.
    (PacDis, Spring/'94, p. 40)   

681BC - 668BC    Esarhaddon, son of Sennacherib became monarch of Assyria after his father was assassinated. "I had monuments made of bronze, lapis lazuli, alabaster... and white limestone... and inscriptions of baked clay... I deposited them in the foundations and left them for future times."
    (R.M.-P.H.C.p.65)(MofE, 1978, p.1)

c680BC    Inhabitants of Paros island (Greece) colonized the northern Aegean island of Thasos, seizing its abundant timber and gold mines. Soldier-poet Archilochus of Paros took part in the colonization of Thasos as well as in conflicts with Naxos.
    (Arch, 1/05, p.30,34)

671BC        Esarhaddon [of Assyria] recorded a victory over lower Egypt at the cliff face of the Nahr al Kalb (Dog River), between Beirut and Byblos.
    (NG, Aug., 1974, p.157)

668BC        The Gymnopaedia was introduced in Sparta. It was a yearly celebration during which naked youths displayed their athletic and martial skills through the medium of war dancing. The custom was introduced concurrently with the introduction of naked athletics, oiling the body for exercise so as to highlight its beauty.

668-627BC    Ashurbanipal succeeded Sennacherib as ruler over Assyria. He continued to develop the library and by the time he finished, there were more than 22,000 clay tablets collected.
    (R.M.-P.H.C.p.65)(eawc, p.7)

664BC - 610BC    Psammetichus ruled in Egypt as the 1st king of the 26th Dynasty. He did not gain control of Egypt until his 9th year of rule.

664BC-525BC    The Twenty-sixth Dynasty of Egypt (notated Dynasty XXVI, alternatively 26th Dynasty or Dynasty 26) was the last native dynasty to rule Egypt before the Persian conquest in 525 BC (although others followed). This is also called the Saite Period after the city of Sais, where its pharaohs had their capital.

c662BC    The Assyrian Empire collapsed and Egypt enjoyed about a century of independence.
    (eawc, p.7)

660BC        Feb 11, This is the mythical date of the ascension of Japan's first emperor, Jimmu Tenno. He is said to have been descended from Amaterasu, the sun goddess, who came from the eye of the god Izanagi.
    (HN, 2/11/97)(Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 214)(Econ, 9/9/06, p.42)(Econ 5/27/17, p.38)

c660BC    Governor Ment (Mentuemhet) served as governor of Upper Egypt, mayor of Thebes, and 4th prophet of Amun.
    (SFC, 5/4/05, p.E5)

660BC        In 2019 In Greenland, ice cores revealed new traces of an extreme solar storm that hit Earth about this time. Also called “solar proton events," extreme solar storms occasionally bombard Earth with particles from the sun after phenomena such as solar flares. The storm that left the traces discovered by scientists likely temporarily degraded Earth’s ozone layer.
    (CSM, 3/28/19)

657BC        A 2nd influx of Phoenicians surged into Carthage about this time.
    (NG, 8/04, p.46)

657BC - 525BC    Period of Egypt’s Dynasty 26.

655BC        Psammetichus, 26th Dynasty king, gained control of Egypt in his 9th year of rule.

654BC - 657BC     Tantamani (Tanwetamani) ruled in Egypt as last Cushite king and the last of the king of the 25th Dynasty.

650BC        Babylon by this time was again prosperous following its destruction in 689 by Sennacherib of Assyria.
    (eawc, p.7)
650BC        Nabonidas, the last ruler of Ur, made extensive renovations to the ziggurat there. His daughter, princess Bel-Shalti-Nannar, maintained a museum of local antiquities.
    (ON, 8/20/11, p.7,8)
650BC        The Transylvanian Dacians are first known from their contacts with the Greeks about this time.
    (WSJ, 6/18/97, p.A20)
c650BC    The time of Archilochus, Greek poet.
    (WUD, 1994, p.78)
c650BC    Greece began using the drachma for currency.
    (SSFC, 11/11/01, p.F4)
650BC        The Chinese licensed lady lovers. This is considered as the 1st example of legalized prostitution.
    (SFC, 11/4/00, p.B3)

650BC - 500BC    In Greece it was the age of the tyrants.
    (eawc, p.6)
650BC - 550BC    Graves from the Umbrian city of Terni, north of Rome, were dated to this period. The people were known as the Umbri-Nartes and had lived in the region from the Bronze Age up to the Roman conquest.
    (AM, Jul/Aug '97 p.18)

648BC        Ashurbanipal destroyed the newly rebuilt city of Babylon.
    (eawc, p.7)

645BC        Archilochus (b.~680BC), Greek poet (Archilochos, Archilocos), died about this time. He lived on the island of Paros and his innovative poetry, in various meters, was the first to focus upon personal experiences and emotions.
    (Econ, 12/3/11, TQ p.6)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archilochus)

642BC        The first horse race on record was in the Olympic Games of Greece and the first prize was a "woman of well-rounded domestic skills."
    (SFEC, 8/2/98, Z1 p.8)
642BC        Invading Arabs established a military settlement on what later would become Cairo, Egypt.
    (NG, May 1985, p.584)

640BC        In Egypt a burial chamber at the necropolis of Saqqara dating back to this time was uncovered in 2009. The chamber contained 8 sarcophagi.
    (WSJ, 2/12/09, p.A9)
640BC        In Greece the Spartan form of government, adapted from the Dorians, was heavily influenced by militarism. The Messenian wars initiated Sparta's fear of change. They remained isolated by banning trade and discouraging travel outside their territory. Alcaeus, Greek lyric poet, was born in Mytilene on the island of Lesbos. His lyrics expounded on contemporary politics, love, hymns to Apollo and Hermes, and some drinking songs.
    (eawc, p.8)

640BC        The 1st coins were minted in Lydia (later part of Turkey) about this time, and featured face to face heads of a bull and lion.
    (SSFC, 12/3/00, WB p.2)(Econ, 2/25/12, SRp.4)

639BC - 609BC    King Josiah reigned in Israel. The biblical account of Israel's origin was possibly drafted during this time. The leadership reinstituted the exclusive worship of the god of the Israelites centered on the Temple in Jerusalem.
    (AM, 9/01, p.30,31)

632BC        Cylon, an Athenian noble and Olympic champion, staged an attempted coup in Athens with the help of his father-in–law, the tyrant of Megara. In 2016 at least 80 skeletons were found in a mass grave, their wrists clamped by iron shackles in part of the Falyron Delta necropolis. It was thought that they had been supporters of Cylon.
    (AP, 8/1/16)

631BC        The city of Cyrene, in what later became Libya, was first developed by the Greeks. It was later settled by the Romans and destroyed in the earthquake of 365.
    (SFC, 9/11/07, p.A16)

630BC        Battus I of Cyrene (d.600) founded the Greek colony of Cyrenaica and its capital, Cyrene about this time. He was the first king of Cyrenaica, the first Greek king in Africa, and the founder of the Battiad dynasty. His son, Arcesilaus I of Cyrene, served as the second Greek king of Cyrenaica and the second king of the Battiad dynasty. Cyrenaica, the eastern coastal region of Libya, was also known as Pentapolis in antiquity. Herodotus later told of how the oracle at Delphi told the Libyans to organize along tribal lines and to keep the king in charge at his home area.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arcesilaus_I_of_Cyrene)(SSFC, 4/24/11, p.F4)

626BC        The time of the Jewish prophet Jeremiah. He was the last political prophet and went to Egypt at the end of his life.
    (MofB, A&E TV, 9/7/96)

625BC        Thales born in Miletus, (west coast of Anatolia, today Turkey) considered to be the first philosopher and scientist (of Greece). Said to have predicted eclipse of 585BC. Thales proposed a single universal principle of the material universe. Two remarkable ideas: a)he did not resort to animistic explanations for what happens in the world
    b)he assumed that the world was a thing whose workings the human mind could understand. He maintained as a first principle that the external world and the internal mind must have much that is in common, how else could that external world be intelligible to the internal mind. The name of this commonality was reason.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.31, 33, 216)
625BC        The first Greek coins were stamped with the likeness of a wheat head to show that wheat had been used for money before the use of coins.
    (SFC, 7/6/96, p.E4)

620BC        Ostia was founded by the fourth king of Rome, Ancus Marcius, who was thought to have ruled in the late seventh century BC. It was founded about this time at the mouth of the Tiber River. Nearby salt flats provided a valuable source of salt for preserving meat. Around 400BC it was conquered by Rome and turned into a naval base.
    (www.ostia-antica.org/intro.htm)(SSFC, 5/11/08, p.E8)

616BC        Tarquinius Priscus became the first Etruscan to rule Rome. Legend has it that he was followed by Servius Tullius and Tarquinius Superbus.
    (NG, 6/1988, p.710,735)

614BC        The Babylonians (particularly, the Chaldeans) with the help of the Medes, who occupied what is today Iran, began a campaign to destroy the Assyrians.
    (eawc, p.8)

612BC        Ninevah (Mesopotamia), the cradle of Assyrian kings for 2,500 years, fell to the Babylonians and Medes. The Chaldeans, a Semitic people, then ruled the entire region thereby issuing in the New Babylonian period that lasted to 539BC.
    (NG, Aug., 1974, p.174)(SSFC, 2/11/01, p.C1)(SFC, 3/31/03, p.W5)
612BC        Sappho, Greek lyric poet of Lesbos, was born. She is the most famous female poet of the ancient world and is inscribed in the "Palatine Anthology" among the Muses, rather than among the great lyric poets, in the 2nd century BC. Her poetry explored female sexuality and love in a male dominated society.
    (eawc, p.8)

610BC - 595BC     Nekau II (Necho), son of Psammetichus I, ruled in Egypt as king of the 26th Dynasty. Under his rule Palestine became an Egyptian possession.

609BC        The biblical king Josiah of Judah was slain on Har (Mt.) Megiddo (root of Armageddon) about this time when he was betrayed by Pharaoh Necho, whom he had approached to stop from going to war on the side of the Assyrians against the Babylonians.
    (NG, Aug., 1974, p.180)(WSJ, 4/17/97, p.A20)(www.crystalinks.com/dynasty26.html)

606BC        In Cairo the Ben Ezra Synagogue was established.
    (WSJ, 3/15/00, p.A1)

605BC - 562BC     Nebuchadnezzar II ruled in Babylon. He undertook some monumental building projects that included the Hanging Gardens. The New Babylonian Revival used glazed bricks for building thereby creating a colorful city. The king was fond of spinach.
    (SFC, 12/25/98, p.B5)(SFC, 3/24/00, p.B3)

604BC        Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon invaded and put the Philistines' cities to the sword. There is no remnant of them after that.
    (AP, 7/8/11)

c604BC - 531BC Lao-tzu (Laozi), Chinese philosopher, author of the "Tao Te Ching" (Tao-te-jing) and founder of Taoism (Daoism) lived about this time. He encouraged people to live simply and according to nature. Taoism is one of the three major "spiritual ways" of China and has influenced Chinese thought--in religion, politics, the social system and the arts and sciences--for more than 2,000 years. The other two "spiritual ways" of China are Buddhism and Confucianism. "To lead the people, walk behind them." "The greater the number of laws and enactments, the more thieves and robbers there will be." "Quarrel with a friend -- and you are both wrong."
    (SFEC, 2/22/98, Z1 p.8)(AP,  5/4/98)(WSJ, 12/26/00, p.A9)(AM, 7/01, p.62)(HNQ, 11/5/01)

c600BC    Aesop said: "We hang the petty thieves, but appoint the great ones to public office."
    (SFEC, 3/15/98, Z1 p.8)
c600BC    Turquoise was first mined in the American southwest about this time and began to show up in Mesoamerica.
    (Arch, 1/05, p.27)
600BC        Lady Gautseshenu died about this time in southern Egypt. In 2011 a CT scan of her mummy, performed at North Shore University Hospital in Manhasset, NY, indicated that she was about 16 years old at the time of her death.
    (SFC, 4/29/11, p.A7)
c600BC    The Etruscans, believed to be natives of Asia Minor, established cities that stretched from northern to central Italy. They developed the arch and the vault, gladiatorial combat for entertainment, and the study of animals to predict future events.
    (eawc, p.8)
c600BC    The Greeks established city-states along the southern coast of Italy and the island of Sicily. They contributed letters to the Roman alphabet, religious concepts and artistic talent as well as mythology.
    (eawc, p.8)
600BC        The great Olmec Ceremonial Center in Tabasco, Mexico, was abandoned about this time.
    (RFH-MDHP, p.241)
c600BC    The Zapotec city of Monte Alban was founded in the Oaxaca valley.
    (SFEC, 10/3/99, p.A24)
c600BC    From about this time the Maya gradually sculpted the land to channel water to a growing population.
    (AM, May/Jun 97 suppl. p.A)
c600BC    Analysis of pottery from this time indicated that Mayans made cocoa drinks as early as this time.
    (SFC, 7/22/02, p.A4)
600BC        Cyrus I, king of Anshan, was succeeded by his son Cambyses I who reigned until 559 BC.
600BC     The first polo game was recorded in north Persia about this time.
    (Hem., 7/95, p.87)
c600BC     Zoroaster introduced a new religion in Bactria (Balkh), also known as ancient Afghanistan. Zoroastrianism is a Monotheistic religion [see 1500-1200BCE].
600BC        Lazica dates back to at least the 6th century BC when the first South Caucasian state in the west was the Kingdom of Colchis which covered modern western Georgia and modern Turkish provinces of Trabzon and Rize. The Laz are a Kartvelian-speaking ethnic group native to the Black Sea coastal regions of Turkey and Georgia.
600BC        Phoenicians in the pay of Pharaoh Necho II circled Africa, according to Herodotus.
    (NG, Aug., 1974, p.160)   

c600BC - 500BC    Epimenides, Cretan philosopher, is said to have originated the Liar paradox, by proclaiming that “All Cretans are liars."
    (Econ, 10/4/03, p.77)
600BC - 500BC    The first democratic governments were established in a few Greek city-states during the sixth and fifth centuries BC.
600BC - 500BC    Egyptian King Amasis granted Greek traders and sailors special privileges at the Nile harbor city of Naukratis, allowing them to set up sanctuaries and gods there. This was noted by Herodotus writing a century later.
    (Econ, 5/21/16, p.73)
600BC - 500BC    Rome by this time was the dominant power in its surrounding area. The conservative government consisted of a kingship, that resembled the traditional values of the patriarchal family; an assembly, composed of male citizens of military age; and a Senate, comprised of elders who served as the heads of different community sects. The Palatine is one of the seven hills of Rome
    (eawc, p.7)(SFC,12/26/97, p.C22)
600BC - 500BC    The nomadic Scythians bordered the Hallstatt Culture in the East. They introduced to the Celts the custom of wearing trousers.
    (NGM, 5/77)

600BC - 290BC    The Samnites, an Oscan-speaking people, controlled the area of south central Italy during this period.
    (AM, 3/04, p.36)

600BC - 200BC    The Sarmatians were a nomadic tribe that occupied a homeland that stretched from Russia's Don and Volga rivers east to the Ural mountain foothills. The held a sun-worshipping belief system and buried useful objects with their dead for the journey in the unknown afterlife.
    (SFC, 1/28/97, p.A5)

600BC - 600CE     In 1999 Arthur Cotrell published "From Aristotle to Zoroaster," an A to Z companion to the classical world over this period.
    (SFEC, 1/17/99, Par p.6)

595BC - 589BC    Psammetichus II (Psamtik II), son of Nacho II, ruled in Egypt as a 26th Dynasty king. Psamtik II built the temple of Hibis in the al-Khargah oasis, 310 miles south of Cairo. It was built to worship Amun and contained statues of Amun's wife, Mut.
    (SFC, 7/16/99, p.D3)(www.crystalinks.com/dynasty26.html)

595-339BC     In Greece 4 Sacred Wars were fought for the control of Delphi over this period.
    (SSFC, 8/8/04, p.D7)

594BC        In Greece Solon, the great elegiac poet, was appointed chief magistrate of Athens. His reforms included political and economic adjustments which led to dissatisfaction in the upper and lower classes.
    (eawc, p.8)

593BC        The time of the prophet Ezekial. He prophesied the return to the promised land after the destruction of the temple and exile to Babylon.
    (MofB, A&E TV, 9/7/96)

593BC        The Nubians were defeated by a resurgent Egyptian dynasty after which they moved their capital from Napata to Meroe.
    (Arch, 9/02, p.56)

589BC - 570BC    Apries, son of Psamtik II, ruled in Egypt as a 26th Dynasty king.

587BC        King Nebuchadnezzar sacked Jerusalem.
    (SFC, 1/31/98, p.A18)
c587BC    Ezra the scribe and Nehemiah, the Persian-appointed governor of Jerusalem, arrived from Babylon.
    (SFC, 9/6/04, p.A4)

586BC        Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon, ruler of Mesopotamia, destroyed Jerusalem and recorded his deeds at the Nahr al Kalb (Dog River) cliff face between Beirut and Byblos. He destroyed the first Temple, built by Solomon and took the Jewish people into captivity.
    (NG, Aug., 1974, p.157)(SFC, 12/31/96, p.A11)(Econ, 12/20/03, p.26)
586BC        Ezekial, in exile at Babylon, described Tyre as it was before Nebuchadnezzar's attack in the Bible: (Ezekial 27:1-25). This time is known as the "Babylonian Captivity."
    (NG, Aug., 1974, p.162)(eawc, p.8)
c586BC    The Menashe tribe was lost following the Jewish exile in this year. Jews dispersed across Europe and North Africa. In the 1990s members of Shinglung community from the province of Mizuru in India claimed to be the children of Menashe and began returning to Israel.
    (SFC, 1/12/00, p.A10)(SFC, 5/10/00, p.A13)
586BC        The Jewish Ghriba synagogue in Djerba, Tunisia, was later said to date to about this time. The first Jews who arrived were said to have brought a stone from the ancient temple of Jerusalem that was destroyed by the Babylonians.
    (AP, 4/27/13)

585BC        May 25, The first known prediction of a solar eclipse was made [by Thales]. A historically registered eclipse occurred during the savage war between the Lydians and the Medians. The event caused both sides to stop military action and sign for peace. The date of the eclipse coincides with the date in Oppolzer's tables published in 1887.
    (SCTS, p.27)(HN, 5/25/98)
585BC        May 28, A solar eclipse, predicted by Thales of Miletus, interrupted a battle [a Persian-Lydian battle] outside of Sardis in western Turkey between the Medes and Lydians. The battle ended in a draw. [see May 25]
    (HN, 5/28/98)(HN, 5/28/99)
585BC        In Miletus, Greece, the founding city of philosophy, Thales predicted a total eclipse of the sun. He was the founder of the Milesian school, and taught that all things are composed of moisture. He was the first to propose a rational explanation of the cosmos. By the end of the 6th century, philosophers began to inquire into the nature of being, the metaphysical nature of the cosmos, the meaning of truth, and the relationship between the divine and the physical world.
    (eawc, p.8)
c585BC    The Greeks settled in the area of Varna, later part of Bulgaria, on the Black Sea and were followed by the Romans, Byzantines and Turks.
    (SFEC, 2/1/98, p.T3)

585-572Bc    Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon began his 13 year siege of Tyre.
    (NG, Aug., 1974, p.157)

580BC - 500BC    Pythagoras was born on Samos. He journeyed to S. Italy, and was driven out of Croton to the Bay of Taranto where he starved himself to death. He believed in the transmigration of souls, and is said to have discovered the mathematical ratios in musical harmonics.

574BC - 570BC    Apries, 26th Dynasty king Egyptian ruler, conducted campaigns against Cyprus and Phoenicia.

573BC        Nemea, 70 miles from Athens, became the site for the Olympic games.
    (SFC, 9/25/00, p.A6)

570BC        Feb, General Amasis (Ahmose II), proclaimed Pharaoh of Egypt by his soldiers, defeated Apries and his Aegean mercenaries and forced his retreat.
570BC        Oct, General Amasis (Ahmose II) defeated King Apries a 2nd time and took control of a united Egypt. Apries sought refuge abroad and later turned up at the court of Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon.

570BC - 526BC    Amasis (Ahmose II), proclaimed Pharaoh by his soldiers, ruled Egypt as the 5th king of the 26th Dynasty. Amasis consolidated Greek merchants to the area of Naukratis. This made for easier control, and created a lucrative income for the crown in the form of taxes.

567BC        Apries, former ruler of Egypt, marched on Egypt at the head of a Babylonian army, but once again, Amasis defeated him, this time capturing the former king.

c566BC - c468BC    Simonides, a Greek poet, was also called Simonides of Ceos. He created one of the first information spaces with his "memory palaces."
    (WUD, 1994, p.1328)(Wired, 2/98, p.101)

565BC - 545BC    The island of Cyprus was under Egyptian control.
    (AM, May/Jun 97 p.20)

563BC    Buddha (d.483BC), Siddhartha Gautama, was born in Northern India (later Nepal). Raja Suddhodana, king of the Sakyas in the 6th century BC, is best known as the father of Buddha. The kingdom of the Sakyas was on what is now the border of Nepal and India. The birthplace of the Indian prince Siddartha, who became the monk Buddha, was believed to have been discovered by archeologists in 1996. Lumbini, Nepal, the birthplace of Buddha, was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1997. His birthday was later celebrated in Nepal on the day of the first full moon in May. Wesak Day (Waisak, Vesak), also known as Buddha's birthday, is also observed as the anniversary of his enlightenment.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vesak)(SFC, 9/1/96, DB p.30)(SFC,12/5/97, p.B2)(AP, 5/17/11)

560BC - 546BC    The rule of Croesus in Lydia. The first coins were produced in Lydia under Croesus. It was a kingdom in western Turkey. Croesus made a treaty with the Spartans and attacked Persia and was defeated.
    (SFEC, 1/19/96, Parade p.5)(WUD, 1994, p.345)(WSJ, 11/11/99, p.A24)

559BC        Cyrus the Great (d.530BC), the son of Cambyses I, began his rule Persia. Cyrus II established his capital at Pasargadae.
    (Arch, 5/05, p.12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyrus_the_Great)

551BC        Confucius (d.479BC), K'ung Fu-tzu [K'ung Fu-tse], Chinese philosopher, was born in Chufu, China. His followers transcribed his conversations in 20 books called the "Analects" following his death. He was an accountant and later taught the importance of centralized authority and filial piety. Like Aristotle, he believed the state to be a natural institution. He was the 11th child of a 70-year-old soldier. "All eminence should be based entirely on merit." "The way of a superior man is three-fold; virtuous, he is free from anxieties; wise, he is free from perplexities; bold, he is free from fear." "To see the right and not do it is cowardice." "Shall I teach you what knowledge is? When you know a thing, to hold that you know it; and when you don't know a thing, to allow that you don't know it. This is knowledge."
    (SFC, 8/10/96, p.E4)(http://eawc.evansville.edu, p.9)(SFC, 3/28/98, p.D3)(AP,  6/17/98)(SFEC, 2/27/00, Z1 p.2)(SFEC, 7/9/00, Z1 p.2)(SFC, 1/2/04, p.D8)

c550        Emperor Justinian built the St. Catherine monastery in the Sinai Desert to honor St. Catherine, an Alexandrian martyr who was tortured to death for converting to Christianity. The site was thought to be the place where Moses saw the Miracle of the Burning Bush.
    (SFEC, 8/28/98, p.T6)
550BC        Cities were founded in the Po Valley and expansion followed into Campania (by the Etruscans).
    (NG, 6/1988, p.710)

548BC        The Greek Temple of Apollo was destroyed. Amasis, ruler of Egypt, is said to have financed its rebuilding.

546BC        In Greece the first of the Athenian tyrants, Peisistratus, replaced Solon as the ruler.
    (eawc, p.9)
546BC        The Persians destroyed Egypt’s alliance with the Chaldeans, Lydia and Sparta by first capturing Lydia then the Chaldaeans.

544BC-496BC        Chinese traditional accounts place Sun Tzu as a military general serving under King Helu of Wu. Historians have questioned whether or not Sun Tzu, aka Sun Wu, was an authentic historical figure. Modern scholars accepting his historicity place the completion of The Art of War in the Warring States Period (476–221 BC), based on the descriptions of warfare in the text, and on the similarity of text's prose to other works completed in the early Warring States period.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sun_Tzu)(Econ, 12/17/11, p.71)

543BC        Colonists from northern India subdued the indigenous Vaddahs (Veddah) of Sri Lanka, known in the ancient world as Taprobane and later called Serendip. Descendants of those colonists, the Buddhist Sinhalese, form most of the population.
    (SFC, 6/20/96, p.A8)(SFC, 9/22/97, p.A10)

543BC - 1815CE    The Mahavamsa (600BC-400CE), Great Chronicle, describes the history of the Sinhalese people (Sri Lanka) over this period. The 1st part, from King Mahasena, which dates back to the legendary 5th century BC King Vijaya, was written by King Dhatusena's brother, the venerable thera Mahanama in the 6th century CE.
    (Arch, 7/02, p.31)(www.saigon.com/~anson/ebud/mahavamsa/)

540BC        The population of Xanthos in Lycia (later Turkey) committed mass suicide rather than face slavery under invading armies.
    (SFEC, 1/17/99, p.T5)

540BC - 486BC    In India Mahavira, the founder of Jainism, lived. [see 480BC]
    (eawc, p.9)

c540BC - 470BC    The Greek philosopher Heraclitus, "the obscure," of Ephesus (486BC) lived about this time. For him reality is flux which originated out of fire (as opposed to the "stable reality" of Parmenides). Plato credits him with saying "One cannot step into the same river twice."
    (WUD, 1994, p.662)(eawc, p.10)

539BC        Babylon, under Chaldean rule since 612BC, fell to the Persians. Cyrus the Persian captured Babylon after the New Babylonian leader, Belshazaar, failed to read "the handwriting on the wall." The Persian Empire under Cyrus lasted to 331BC, when it was conquered by Alexander the Great. Cyrus returned some of the exiled Jews to Palestine, while other Jews preferred to stay and establish a 2nd Jewish center, the first being in Jerusalem. The Cyrus Cylinder was created following the Persian conquest of Babylon, when Cyrus overthrew the Babylonian king Nabonidus and replaced him as ruler, ending the Neo-Babylonian Empire. It was discovered in 1879 and became considered as the world's first declaration of human rights.
    (NG, Aug., 1974, p.174)(eawc, p.8,9)(http://tinyurl.com/lma678)(AFP, 2/7/10)
c539BC    Cyrus the Great founded Persia’s Achaemenian Empire which he expanded into India, Libya and Egypt. Pasargadae was his first capital.
    (SFEC, 7/5/98, p.T4)

537BC        Cyrus the Persian campaigned west of the Indus River.
    (eawc, p.9)

535BC        Control of Corsica heralded the greatest extent of Etruscan influence.
    (NG, 6/1988, p.710)

533BC - 330BC    The Achaemenid dynasty ruled over Persia. It stretched from the time of Cyrus the Great to the death of Darius III.
    (AHD, 1971, p.10)

532BC        Polycrates became tyrant of the isle Samos, an Ionian city-state near Miletus.

530BC        Dec, Cyrus the Great, ruler of Persia, died in battle, fighting the Scythians along the Syr Darya. He was succeeded by his son, Cambyses II, who managed to add to the empire by conquering Egypt, Nubia, and Cyrenaica during his short rule.

530BC        In Greece Pythagoras, mathematician and philosopher, and his followers founded the city of Croton and combined philosophy and literature with political activity as the foundation of their community. He is credited with the Pythagorean theorem and the Pythagorean table of opposites, the "dualism" that underlies Greek thought. In 2008 Kitty Ferguson authored “The Music of Pythagoras," which surveyed the ideas that have been thought of as Pythagorean.
    (eawc, p.9)(WSJ, 5/17/08, p.W8)

528BC        May 25, Buddha overcame Mara, and attained the Awakening.
528BC        May, Buddha (563-483) sat cross-legged under the great Bo tree. The Great Truth consists of the Four Noble Truths:
    1)man's existence is full of conflict, sorrow, and suffering.
    2)All difficulty and pain is caused by man's selfish desire.
    3)There can be found emancipation and freedom-NIRVANA.
    4)The Noble Eightfold Path is the way to liberation: The middle way, known as the Eightfold Path: right view, right thought, right speech, right action, right mode of living, right endeavor, right mindfulness, and right of concentration...

526BC - 525BC    Psammetichus III ruled for a short time as the last king of Egypt’s 26th Dynasty.

525BC    Cambyses, king of Persia, met and defeated the Egyptians in front of their city at Pelusium just a few weeks after the death of Pharaoh Amasis. This marked the beginning of Egypt’s 27th Dynasty. Psammetichus III tried to revolt against Cambyses and was killed.
525BC        On the island of Samos, Greece, castles were built. Samos was the site of the Temple of Hera, one of the 7 ancient Wonders of the World.
    (SFEC, 7/20/97, p.T10)
c525BC    Acroliths, or partial statues, of Olympian deities were later found in Morgantina in central Sicily that were made by Greeks and dated to this time.
    (SFC, 4/4/98, p.A13)
525BC        Greek drama grew out of the Dionysian festivals.
    (eawc, p.9)

525BC - 522BC    Cambyses II, son of Cyrus and ruler of Persia, served as the 1st ruler of Egypt’s 27th Dynasty. Cambyses added to his Persian empire by conquering Egypt. During his rule an army sent to Siwa Oasis was overcome by sandstorm and buried. Herodotus said the army numbered 50,000 men. A Jewish document from 407 BC known as 'The Demotic Chronicle' speaks of the Cambyses destroying all the temples of the Egyptian gods. Herodotus informs us that Cambyses II was a monster of cruelty and impiety.
    (eawc.edu, p.9)(Arch, 9/00, p.18)(www.crystalinks.com/dynasty27.html)

524BC - 456BC     Aeschylus, Greek poet and dramatist, lived about this time: "Everyone's quick to blame the alien."
    (AP, 10/12/98)
525BC - 465BC    Aeschylus is credited with being the inventor of drama and for introducing a second actor into the plays held every year in Athens in honor of Dionysus. His plays are considered to be the beginning of tragic drama. His stories were drawn from conflicts between the individual and the cosmos. Late in his career he wrote his plays in groups of three. These included the "Oresteia," "Prometheus Bound" and the "Danaides." In the Danaides only the first play, "The Suppliant Women," has survived. It was about 50 sisters who fled 50 cousins they were supposed to marry.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.51)(WSJ, 7/10/97, p.A13)(eawc, p.9)(WSJ, 12/5/01, p.A18)

522        Mar, Bardiya (Smerdis), another son of Cyrus and pretender to the throne, seized power in Persia as Cambyses was returning home.

522BC        Aug, Cambyses II, son of Cyrus of Persia and the 1st ruler of Egypt’s 27th Dynasty, died from a dagger wound in Syrian Ecbatana.

c522BC    Sep 4, Pindar (d.~443), Greek poet, was born.
    (WUD, 1994 p.1094)(MC, 9/4/01)

522BC        Sep, Darius hastened to Media, Persia, and with the help of six Persian nobles, killed Bardiya (Smerdis), another son of Cyrus, who had usurped the throne. Darius defended this deed and his own assumption of kingship on the grounds that the usurper was actually Gaumata, a Magian, who had impersonated Bardiya after Bardiya had been murdered secretly by Cambyses.

522BC        A revolt broke out in Egypt following the death of Cambyses, but it was put down by a Persian general named Darius, who succeeded Cambyses.
522BC        Darius the Great (558-486), son of Hystaspes, succeeded Cambyses as emperor of Persia. He engaged in many large building programs including a system of roads and instituted the first postal system.
    (WUD, 1994, p.367)(eawc.edu, p.9)(ON, 4/04, p.9)

522BC        The Greek Temple of Apollo was begun on the island of Naxos on the orders of the tyrant Lygdamis. It was never completed.
    (SFEC,12/21/97, p.T6)

c522BC    Zoroaster died during a nomadic invasion near Balkh [ancient Afghanistan].

522BC - 486BC     Darius the Great expanded the Achaemenid (Persian) empire to its peak, when it took most of Afghanistan, including Aria (Herat), Bactriana (Balk, and present-day Mazar-i-Shariff), Margiana (Merv), Gandhara (Kabul, Jalalabad and Peshawar), Sattagydia (Ghazni to the Indus river), Arachosia (Kandahar, and Quetta), and Drangiana (Sistan). The Persian empire was plagued by constant bitter and bloody tribal revolts from Afghans living in Arachosia (Kandahar, and Quetta).

521BC     Darius of Persia made Susa his administrative capital. He restored the fortifications and built an audience hall (apadana) and a residential palace.

521 BC     The name Armenian was mentioned for the first time in the Behistan (Behistun) inscription of the Mede (Persian) Emperor Darius from this year: "I defeated the Armenians."
    (http://www.atmg.org/ArmenianFAQ.html#q6)(ON, 4/04, p.7)

521BC - 486BC    The Persians under Darius fought the Scythians in a series of battles.
    (AM, 5/01, p.33)

520BC - 519BC     Darius of Persia authorized the Jews to rebuild the Temple at Jerusalem, in accordance with an earlier decree of Cyrus. The Hebrew’s began to rebuild Solomon’s Temple destroyed in the sack of 586BC. The Second Temple in Jerusalem was begun. It was remodeled many times and destroyed in 70CE.
    (SFC, 5/23/95, p.A-10)(eawc, p.10)(www.crystalinks.com/dynasty27.html)

520BC - 486BC    Darius, ruler of Persia, occupied Egypt and is considered the 2nd ruler of the 27th Dynasty. During his rule a canal from the Nile River to the Red Sea, probably begun by Necho I in the 7th century BC, was repaired and completed.

519BC        Darius put down a third rising in Susiana, Persia, and established his authority in the east.
519BC     Darius of Persia attacked the Scythians east of the Caspian Sea and a few years later conquered the Indus Valley.

518BC        Pindar (d.438BC), considered by some as the greatest Greek lyric poet, was born in Cynoscephalae, Boeotia. His odes celebrated the games held at religious festivals. Athletic victory served as the ground for his poetic fancy and religious, moral and aesthetic insights.
    (eawc, p.10)

518BC        Darius visited Egypt and put to death its satrap, Aryandes.
518BC        Persian leader Darius the Great founded Persepolis as his ceremonial capital.
    (SSFC, 11/27/05, p.A26)

517BC - 509BC    Darius the Persian conquered the Indus Valley region.
    (eawc, p.10)

516BC        Trilingual texts were chiseled on the cliffs at Behistun by Darius.

515BC    Mar 10, The building of the great Jewish temple in Jerusalem was completed.
    (HN, 3/10/98)
515BC        Parmenides of Elea was born. He founded the Eleatic school in the Phocaean colony in southern Italy. He was the first to focus attention on the central problem of Greek metaphysics: the nature of being. For Parmenides the laws governing the universe are stable and change is merely an illusion.
    (eawc, p.10)

513BC        Darius, after subduing eastern Thrace and the Getae, crossed the Danube River into European Scythia, but the Scythian nomads devastated the country as they retreated from him, and he was forced, for lack of supplies, to abandon the campaign.

510BC        In Greece Hippias, the son of Peisistratus, succeeded his father and was overthrown by a group of nobles with the help of Sparta.
    (eawc, p.10)

510BC - 490BC    In Egypt the temple of Hibis was rebuilt during the reign of Darius.
    (SFC, 7/16/99, p.D3)

509BC        The Romans overthrew King Lucius Tarquinius and established a republic with rule by the senate and the people of Rome (SPQR - Senatus Populusque Romanus).
    (V.D.-H.K.p.61)(http://eawc.evansville.edu, p.10)(Econ, 11/6/04, p.85)
509BC        The Fall of the Tarquin dynasty in Rome marked the beginning of Etruscan Decline.
    (NG, 6/1988, p.711)

508BC        In Greece Cleisthenes, the father of Athenian democracy, ruled Athens. His reforms granted full rights to all free men of Athens.
    (eawc, p.10)

c504BC    The Philistine city of Ekron burned to the ground. Archeologists in 1996 discovered a stone block inscribed with the city's name and its kings. The city is referred to in the biblical book of I Samuel, which tells of the Philistine capture of the Ark of the Covenant and transport to Ekron. A plague later afflicted the city and the ark was sent back to Judea.
    (SFC, 7/11/96, p.A10)

c500BC    The El Pilar Maya site in Belize was founded about this time.
    (AM, May/Jun 97 suppl. p.D)
500BC        Confucius composed the Analects about this time. 5 things constitute perfect virtue: gravity, magnanimity, earnestness, sincerity, kindness.
    (PC Comp. 12/94, p.278)
500BC        The game of Go was devised in China about this time.
    (Econ, 12/18/04, p.128)
500BC        The Chinese learned to ferment soybean around this time. The fermentation removed toxins and made soy easier to digest. It had already been used for thousands of years as fertilizer.
    (SSCM, 8/13/06, p.6)
c500BC    In 2004 Egyptian archeologists uncovered the limestone sarcophagus of Badi-Herkhib, the elder brother of a governor of Bahariya, who lived around 500 B.C.
    (AP, 12/12/04)
c500BC    The use of characters for writing spread to Greece where vowels were added and the basis for all Western alphabets was established. The Greeks invented a reed pen.
    (I&I, Penzias, p.45)(SFC, 7/26/04, p.F4)
c500BC    The height of Greek sculpture began with the work of Phideas. His masterpieces include the statue of Athena in the Parthenon, the Parthenon reliefs, and the statue of Zeus in the Temple of Olympian Zeus. The 2nd most important sculptor, Myron, is renowned for his statue of the discus thrower.
    (eawc, p.10)
c500BC    In India the city of Varanasi was also known as Kashi and Benares and has been a center of civilization for 2,500 years. It is the home of the Hindu god Shiva.
    (SFEC,11/23/97, p.T4)
c500BC    Lars Porsena ruled as the Etruscan king in central Italy. His capital, Clusium, was later believed to lie under the rubble of the Tuscan city of Chiusi.
    (Econ, 11/6/04, p.85)
c500BC    The Garamantes of southern Libya began constructing underground tunnels to link shafts to sandstone aquifers.
    (AM, 3/04, p.27)
c500BC    Phoenicians founded Tripoli about this time.
    (SSFC, 6/27/04, p.D12)
c500BC    The Persians developed a mail system that was later described by Herodotus for its efficiency.
    (ATC, p.34)
c500BC    Monumental ceremonial centers on the Peruvian coast were abandoned about this time. The period was later found to correspond with an increase in el Nino frequency,
    (AM, 9/01, p.18)
c500BC    Copper concentrations in the Greenland ice core indicate that twice the normal level was produced at this time.
    (PacDis, Fall/'96, p.48)
c500BC    North African people settled in present-day Nigeria and began making iron tools.
    (ATC, p.2)
c500BC    The Charsadda site (aka Bala Hisar) in northern Pakistan was initially occupied during the Achaemenid period.
    (AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.C)
c500BC    The city of Hund in northern Pakistan was founded about this time on the banks of the Indus River.
    (AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.C)
500BC        The Carthaginians inhabited Sardinia.
    (SFEC, 1/30/00, p.T4)
500BC        In Thailand black Phimai pottery and bracelets indicate that the site of Prasat Hin Phanom Wan was occupied at this time.
    (AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.G)
c500BC    Camels from Asia began showing up in North Africa.
    (SFEC, 5/17/98, Z1 p.8)
c500BC    A major earthquake occurred in the Middle East.
    (SFC,12/9/97, p.A9)

c500BC - 400BC    Before the rise of Rome, the Etruscans had the most powerful nation in ancient Italy. The Etruscans (who called themselves the Rasenna) inhabited central Italy and greatly influenced the Romans in terms of language, architecture and even fashion (evidence points to the toga as an Etruscan invention). Unfortunately, no Etruscan literary works survive, so most documentation comes from Greek and Roman literary sources as well as archaeological evidence. Their military and political power was eroded over the course of the 5th century BC with Rome rising as the dominant power on the peninsula in the 4th century BC.
    (HNQ, 2/8/01)
500BC - 400BC    A Byzantine shopping mall was uncovered in 1998 in Jerusalem at the site of a new mall. One inscription read "For the victory of the Blues" in Greek. It was a reference to the competing factions of Blues and Greens at horse races.
    (SFC, 7/7/98, p.A8)
500BC-400BC        Mordechai, a Jew, became the prime minister of Persia during this period.
    (SFC, 10/21/00, p.C1)
500BC - 400BC    Haman is described as the son of Hammedatha the Agagite. In the Biblical story, Haman and his wife Zeresh instigate a plot to kill all of the Jews of ancient Persia. Haman attempts to convince Ahasuerus to order the killing of Mordecai and all the Jews of the lands he ruled. The plot is foiled by Queen Esther, the king's recent wife, who is herself a Jew. Haman is hanged from the gallows that had originally been built to hang Mordecai. Court councilor Haman warned Persia’s King Ahasuerus (Xerxes I) against strangers whose laws are diverse from all people.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Book_of_Esther)(SFC, 5/29/15, p.D4)

500BC - 300BC    Small groups of Nok people began to search for new land to settle to the south and east of present day Nigeria.
    (ATC, p.136)
500BC - 300BC    Cival, about 25 miles east of the much better known city of Tikal, was discovered in 1984. It was abandoned about 100 CE. Artifacts at the site dated to this time.
    (LAT, 5/5/04)

c500BC - 200BC    In India the Mahabharata, of which the Bhagavad-Gita is a part, was put into its final form.
    (PC Comp. 12/94, p.278)(eawc, p.10)

500BC - 50BC        The Celtic La Tene culture was named after a Swiss site on Lake Neuchatel where a cache of richly ornamented artifacts were discovered.
    (NGM, 5/77)

c500BC - 100CE     Qataban flourished in the 5th-1st centuries BC in what is now southern Yemen. Qataban had a democratic form of government and gained rule over a large area, but its influence and dominions shrank with the emergence of the Himyarites late in the 2nd century BC. Qataban was conquered by Saba' in the early centuries CE.
    (HNQ, 7/20/00)

500BC - 200CE    The Nok people lived in the area of present day Nigeria and used iron tools. Evidence indicates that the Nok were making iron as early as 450BC. Their language became the root of the 300 distinct languages spoken in central and southern Africa. The legendary "Dinya Head" is a life sized terra cotta of a woman with plaited hair.
    (ATC, p.110,136)(WSJ, 6/14/96, p.A12)

c500BC - 500CE    A Tequesta burial site, discovered in Florida in 1998 and known as the Miami Circle, dated to this time.
    (AM, 9/01, p.18)
500BC - 500CE The Nazca Lines of Peru were scratched into the earth during this period. They were created by removing the darker area of topsoil to reveal white sand beneath and covered an area of about 173 square miles.
    (SFC, 11/22/19, p.A6)

500BC - 800CE    The bulk of the material at the Plain of Jars in northern Laos dated to this period. Jars up to 9 feet tall were later found to contain tools and human remains.
    (AM, 7/05, p.31)

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