Richard Avedon, American fashion photographer: I think charm is the ability to be truly interested in other people.
Stephen Jay Gould (d.2002): In the heat of immediate enthusiasm, we often mistake transient fashion for permanent
(NH, 6/97, p.20)
c500-400BC Before the rise of Rome, the Etruscans had the most powerful nation in ancient Italy. The Etruscans (who called themselves the Rasenna) inhabited central Italy and greatly influenced the Romans in terms of language, architecture and even fashion (evidence points to the toga as an Etruscan invention). Unfortunately, no Etruscan literary works survive, so most
documentation comes from Greek and Roman literary sources as well as archaeological evidence. Their military and political power was eroded over the course of the 5th century BC with Rome rising as the dominant power on the peninsula in the 4th century BC.
3627BC-3377BC In Armenia a leather shoe dating to this period was found in 2010 in a pit outside a cave.
1310 May 20,
Shoes began to be made for both right and left feet.
1553 Apr 29, A Flemish woman introduced to England the practice of starching linen.
1687 Feb 19, Johann Adam Birkenstock, composer and sandal designer, was born.
1715 May 4, A French manufacturer debuted the first folding umbrella.
1733 Feb 27, Johann Adam
Birkenstock (46), composer and sandal designer, died.
1746 Britain’s King George II banned the kilt in Scotland following the Jacobite
(Econ, 7/31/10, p.67)
1778 Jun 7, George Byran "Beau" Brummell, English wit, was born. He influenced men's fashion and introduced trouser to replace breeches.
1784 Jun 16, Holland forbade orange clothes.
1790-1792 Sans-culottes (French for without knee-breeches) was a term created during this period by the French to describe the poorer members of the Third Estate, according to the dominant theory because they usually wore pantaloons (full-length trousers) instead of the chic knee-length culotte. The term came to refer to the
ill-clad and ill-equipped volunteers of the Revolutionary army during the early years of the French Revolutionary Wars, but, above all, to the working class radicals of the Revolution.
1806 In England the tailor Norton & Sons was founded.
(Econ, 12/18/10, p.136)
1809 Mar 4, Madison became 1st President inaugurated in American-made
1818 May 27, American reformer Amelia Jenks Bloomer, who popularized the "bloomers" garment that bears her name, was born in Homer, N.Y.
1818 Henry Sands Brooks began H. & D.H. Brooks & Co. in mostly rural Manhattan. It became a key military supplier during the Civil War. A 2nd store opened in 1928 and operations
grew to the well known chain known as Brooks Brothers.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R40)(SFC, 6/29/01, p.A8)(NW, 9/1/03, p.64)
1819 Jul 9, Elias Howe (d.1867), inventor of the sewing machine, was born in Spencer,
Mass. Howe, a machinist, developed his sewing machine in 1843-45 and patented it in 1846. Although Howe's machine sewed only short, straight lines, tailors and seamstresses saw it as a threat to their jobs. Unable to market his machine in America, Howe took it to Britain where he sold the rights to an English manufacturer in 1847. Upon his return to the United States, Howe discovered that his
patent had been infringed upon by other sewing machine manufacturers, such as Isaac Singer. After a lengthy court battle, Howe's patent was upheld and royalties from sewing machine sales made him a wealthy man.
(WUD, 1994, p.689)(HN, 7/9/99)(MC, 7/9/02)
1826 May 29, Ebenezer Butterick, inventor (tissue paper dress pattern), was born.
1837 Thierry Hermes
(1801-1878), French saddle maker, established the Hermes company as a harness workshop. It grew to become a maker of high fashion leather goods. The company went public in 1993.
(Econ, 1/1/11, p.56)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Herm%C3%A8s)
1840 Mar 30, "Beau" Brummell (b.1778), English dandy and former favorite of the prince regent, died of syphilis in a French lunatic asylum for paupers. In 2005 Ian Kelly authored the biography “Beau Brummel: The Ultimate Dandy.”
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beau_Brummell)(WSJ, 5/7/06, p.P9)
1846 Lt. Harry Lumsden in the heat of India’s Punjab dyed his PJs a tawny color. They were made of cotton and called khaki in Hindi.
1848 Britain introduced khaki uniforms for British colonial troops in India.
(WSJ, 5/28/02, p.B1)
1849 Apr 10, Walter Hunt, a mechanic, patented the safety pin in NYC. He sold rights for $100. Hunt’s other inventions included a new stove, paper collar, ice-breaking boat, fountain pen and nail-making machine.
(SFC, 7/14/99, p.3)(SFC, 4/1/00,
1851 Fruit of the Loom was founded in Rhode Island as the B.B and R Knight Corporation and changed its name in 1856. Robert Knight, a textile mill owner, visited his friend, Rufus Skeel. Mr. Skeel owned a small shop in Providence, Rhode Island that
sold cloth from Mr. Knight's mill. Mr. Skeel's daughter painted images of apples and applied them to the bolts of cloth. The ones with the apple emblems proved most popular. Mr. Knight thought the labels would be the perfect symbol for his trade name, Fruit of the Loom.
1853 Levi Strauss, Bavarian-born dry goods merchant, arrived in California. and Co. He got his start peddling tough canvas pants to California gold miners. When his canvas ran out he switched to serge de
Nimes, which evolved into denim. [See 1873, 1874]
(SFC, 1/23/96, p.C4)(SFC, 1/9/99, p.D3)(CHA, 1/2001)
1856 Thomas Burberry founded a clothing firm to sell
(Economist, 9/22/12, p.76)
1857 Apr 21, Alexander Douglas patented the bustle.
1857 Jun 2, James Gibbs, Va., patented a chain-stitch single-thread sewing machine.
1866 Henry Wickham (1846-1928) ventured from Britain to South America hoping to shoot exotic birds and ship home feathers for lady’s hats. This venture failed as the birds exploded from the rifle shots. He returned to the Amazon region and in 1876 gathered seeds of the Hevea brasiliensis tree, which produced latex. Less than 4% of some 70,000 seeds germinated,
but this was enough to ship seedlings to Ceylon, India, Malaya and Singapore and begin a global rubber plantation boom.
(WSJ, 2/27/08, p.D10)
1871 Robert Knight, Rhode Island textile mill owner,
secured patent number 418 for the brand Fruit of the Loom.
(SSFC, 11/29/09, p.N6)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fruit_of_the_Loom)
1873 Levi Strauss and Jacob Davis patented the rivets that adorned
their miners' work pants.
(SFC, 4/29/03, B1)(SFC, 1/23/04, p.A10)
1874 May 20, Levi Strauss began marketing blue jeans with copper rivets at $13.50 per
(HN, 5/20/98)(SFC, 8/28/98, p.B4)(MC, 5/20/02)
1875 Jul 23, Isaac Merritt Singer (63), inventor (sewing machine), died.
1876 Samuel T. Cooper purchased six hand-operated knitting machines and with his sons founds S.T. Cooper & Sons, a hosiery manufacturer located in Ludington, Michigan. At the turn of the century the company moved to Kenosha,
(SSFC, 11/29/09, p.N6)(http://tinyurl.com/y9d8vq4)
1876 Woman’s underwear began to be sold in stores.
(SFEC, 8/27/00, Z1 p.2)
1877-1957 Edna Woodman Chase, American fashion editor: Fashion can be bought. Style one must possess.
1882 Jun 6, An
electric iron was patented by Henry W. Seely in NYC.
1883 Aug 19, Gabrielle "Coco" Chanel (d.1971), French fashion designer, was born: "My friends, there are no
(HN, 8/19/00)(AP, 7/26/99)
1885 May 19, Jan Matzeliger began the 1st mass production of shoes in Lynn, Massachusetts.
1887 Mar 13, Chester Greenwood of Maine patented earmuffs.
1891 In Mexico the El Palacio de Hierro (The Iron Palace) chain of stores was founded to bring Parisian fashion to posh ladies of the new world.
(Econ, 12/8/12, p.67)
1892 Abercrombie & Fitch, clothing retailers, began operations.
(Econ, 3/6/04, Survey p.11)
1895 May 24, Samuel
I. Newhouse, US millionaire publisher (Parade, Vogue, Glamour), was born.
1896 Mar 31, Whitcomb Judson patented a hookless fastening (zipper) in
1896 Sep 10, Elsa Schiaparelli, French fashion designer, was born.
1896 Brooks Brothers introduced button down collars after observing polo players button down their collar points to keep them from flapping during play.
1899 Jan 24, The rubber heel was patented by Humphrey O'Sullivan.
1904 Aug 18, [Francis] Max Factor (d.1996), cosmetics manufacturer (Max Factor), was born. His father, Max Factor (d.1938), was born in Lodz, Russia, in 1877 and came to the US with his family in 1902.
1904-1980 Cecil Beaton, English fashion photographer and costume designer: "The truly fashionable are beyond fashion."
Jan 21, Christian Dior, fashion designer (long-skirted look), was born in Normandy, France.
1905 Jul 2, Jean-Rene Lacoste, tennis champ, alligator shirt designer, was
born in France.
1905-1914 The great ostrich feather craze for the adornment of women’s hats, gowns, capes, gloves and shoes took place over this period. In 2008 Sarah Stein authored “Plumes: Ostrich
Feathers, Jews, and a Lost World of Global Commerce.”
(WSJ, 11/19/08, p.A19)
1907 Oct 28, Edith Head, fashion designer for MGM, was born.
1907 Oct, By general agreement the first mention of the word “brassiere” appeared in Vogue magazine.
1908 Jul 1, Estee Lauder, CEO of Estee Lauder's cosmetics, was born.
1908 Marquis Mills Converse founded the Converse shoe company. In 1917 the All-Stars basketball shoe was introduced. In 1923 it was renamed the Chuck Taylor All-Star. In 2003 the company was sold to Nike.
(WSJ, 7/10/03, p.A6)
1908 Gideon Sundback, Swedish-born engineer working for the Automatic Hook and Eye Co. of Hoboken, New Jersey, designed a new fastener, the “Plako,” for use in the placket of a woman’s skirt.
1909 Gabrielle "Coco" Chanel opened her 1st shop, a millinery, in Paris.
(WSJ, 10/13/03, p.A1)
1910 Coco Chanel (1883-1971), French fashion designer, moved to Rue Cambon, Paris.
(WSJ, 10/13/03, p.B1)
1910 In Italy Ermenegildo Zegna (d.1966 at 74) began his fashion house in Trivero, in the Alpine
(Econ, 11/13/10, p.76)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ermenegildo_Zegna)
1914 May 18, Pierre A Balmain, fashion designer (1940's "New Look"), was born in
1914 Nov 20, Emilio Pucci, fashion designer (Neiman-Marcus Award-1954), was born in Naples.
1917 Jun 16, Irving Penn, fashion photographer, brother of film director Arthur Penn, was born.
1919 May 25, Madame C.J. Walker (51), wealthy cosmetics manufacturer, died. In 2003 Beverly Lowry authored "Her Dream of Dreams: The Rise and Triumph of Madame C.J. Walker."
(SC, 5/25/02)(WSJ, 4/22/03, D7)
1921 Guccio Gucci (1881-1953) and his wife, Aida, opened their 1st store in Florence following a number of years in London. Their son, Aldo, later built the Gucci brand into a global snob-appeal powerhouse. In 2000 Sara Gay Forden authored "The House of
(WSJ, 9/1/00, p.W1)(WSJ, 11/5/03, p.A1)
1922 Jun 22, Bill Blass (d.2002), fashion designer, was born in Fort Wayne, Ind.
1922 Jul 7, Pierre Cardin, fashion designer (Unisex), was born in Paris, France.
(AP, 7/7/02)(MC, 7/7/02)
1922 Aug 8, Rudi Gernreich, designer (1st women's topless swimsuit, miniskirt), was born in Vienna, Austria.
1923 May 25, John Weitz, spy, author, fashion designer (Friends in High Places), was born.
1923 May 28, US Attorney General said it is legal for
women to wear trousers anywhere.
1923 Aug 3, Anne Klein, fashion designer (Anne Klein II), was born.
1923 Coco Chanel launched Chanel No. 5 perfume in Paris.
(WSJ, 10/13/03, p.B1)
1923 Barney Pressman pawned his wife's wedding ring in NYC to lease a Seventh Ave. store selling discounted men's suits. In 1993 Barney's opened a $270 million Madison Ave. showcase store.
(WSJ, 2/11/04, p.B1)
1923 The Converse shoe company, founded in 1908, renamed its All-Stars basketball shoe to Chuck Taylor All-Star. In 2003 the company was sold to Nike.
(WSJ, 7/10/03, p.A6)(SFC, 12/10/04, p.D1)
1924 Feb 20, Gloria Vanderbilt, fashion designer, was born. In 2004 she published her memoir “It Seemed Important At the Time.”
(HN, 2/20/98)(WSJ, 10/1/04, p.W7)
1924 French fashion designer Coco Chanel sold control of her Chanel No. 5 perfume to the Wertheimer family for a fortune.
(SSFC, 8/21/11, p.F5)
1927 Feb 21, Hubert de Givenchy, fashion designer, was born in Beauvais, France.
1927 Aug 30, Geoffrey Beene, dress designer (8 Coty Awards), was born
1928 Jan 17, Vidal Sassoon, hair stylist/CEO (Vidal Sassoon), was born in London.
1928 Dec 13, The clip-on tie was designed.
The John H. Daniel Co. was founded in Knoxville, Tennessee, for producing men’s suits. By 2004 global competition led the company to import tailors from Turkey.
(WSJ, 4/12/05, p.A1)
"Levi's" became a trademark. Walter Haas Sr. succeeded Sigmund Stern, the nephew of Levi Strauss, as president.
(SFC, 4/29/03, B1)
1929 Jan 26, San Francisco police took Frances
Orlando (19) to the Bush Police Station because she was dressed in men's clothing.
(SFC, 1/23/04, p.E3)
1931 Ellery J. Chun (d.2000 at 91) designed the 1st Hawaiian aloha shirt for mass-production and
sale at his family’s store in Honolulu. He put a trademark to the aloha shirt name in 1936.
(SFC, 6/8/00, p.C7)(SFEC, 6/25/00, p.B13)(SSFC, 8/25/02, p.C8)
1931 Willis & Geiger Outfitters were
awarded a US Army & Air Force contract for A-2 flight jackets.
(NH, 9/96, p.17)
1931 A rubber called Lastex came on the market and changed the bra
(SSFC, 10/28/07, p.E3)
1932 Apr 23, Halston, [R Halston Frowick], fashion designer (1972 Hall of Fame), was born.
1932 Sep 11, Valentino, fashion designer for Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis, was born in Milan, Italy.
1933 Rene Lacoste (b.1905), French tennis player, founded the Lacoste apparel company. He applied a crocodile insignia to polo shirts after his nickname, “Le Crocodile.” His son Bernard Lacoste (1931-2006) succeeded as president in 1963.
1934 Feb 11, Mary Quant, fashion designer (Chelsea Look, Mod Look), was born in Kent, England.
1934 May 23, Wallace Carothers manufactured the 1st nylon, polymer 66.
1934 A postcard of a man in
bikini shorts inspired a Wisconsin-based Cooper’s Inc. designer to invent Jockey Shorts, the first pair of briefs.
(SSFC, 11/29/09, p.N6)
1935 Jan 19, The first pair of Jockey briefs showed up in a
Marshall Field’s window in Chicago.
(SSFC, 11/29/09, p.N6)
1937 Feb 16, Wallace H. Carothers, a research chemist for Du Pont who invented nylon, received a patent for the synthetic fiber. It would
replace silk in a number of products and reduce costs. [see 1930] In 2000 Susannah Handley authored "Nylon: The Story of a Fashion Revolution."
(HN, 2/16/98)(AP, 2/16/98)(WSJ, 1/21/00, p.W8)
Strauss & Co. registered its cloth pocket tab as its trademark.
(SFC, 11/1/02, p.E7)
1939 Oct 14, Ralph Lauren, fashion designer (Chaps), was born.
1939 Bra makers first started using cup sizes.
(SFC, 9/1/96, Z1 p.2)
1940 May 15, Nylon stockings went on general sale for the first time in the United States. [see Oct 24, 1939]
1942 Nov 19, Calvin Klein, fashion
designer (Calvin Klein Jeans, CK), was born in Bronx, NYC.
1944 A Germany general sent French fashion designer Coco Chanel to Madrid to initiate talks through the British Embassy in a
plan code-named “Operation Modelhut.” A travel companion denounced her as an enemy agent and the British ignored her.
(SSFC, 8/21/11, p.F5)
1945 Jun 27, Norma Kamali, dress designer (Costumes for the
Wiz), was born in NYC.
1945 Peter Haas Sr. joined Levi. He later became president.
1946 Jul 5, The bikini bathing suit, created by former civil engineer Louis Reard, made its debut during a fashion show at the Molitor Pool in Paris. Model Micheline Bernardini wore the skimpy two-piece outfit. Its name correlated with the July 1 American atom
bomb test on Bikini Atoll. Réard wanted his design to have a similar explosive affect. According to New York Times columnist William Safire, the swimsuit caused more debate, concern and condemnation than the atomic bomb.
(SFC, 7/5/96, p.D17)(TMC, 1994, p.1946)(AP, 7/5/97)(SFEC, 1/17/99, Z1 p.1)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)(WSJ, 1/11/99,
1946 Dec 2, Gianni Versace, fashion designer (Versace), was born.
1947 Christian Dior premiered his 1st post was collection. It was dubbed "The New Look" and "Bar" suit for women.
(WSJ, 1/20/03, p.B1)
1948 Oct 2, Donna Karan,
fashion designer (Coty Award-1977), was born in Forest Hills, NY.
1950 Hazel Bishop (d.1998 at 92) formed Hazel Bishop Inc. to manufacture and market her kiss proof lipstick. It was
introduced in the summer at $1 a tube.
(SFC, 12/12/98, p.A25)
1950 Martha Matilda Harper (b.1857), Canadian-born hair-care businesswoman, died. She was probably the 1st person to perfect the franchise
system of business organization.
(WSJ, 4/23/02, p.D7)(WSJ, 4/22/03, D7)
1951 May 8, Dacron men's suits were introduced.
1951 Armi Ratia, Finnish designer, expanded her husband's printing business into a fashionable "total work of art" business (Gesamtkunstwerk) that became "Marimekko."
1952 Emilie Flöge, Viennese fashion designer, died. She was a long time companion of Gustav Klimt. Dr. Wolfgang Fischer later authored "Gustav Klimt and Emilie Flöge, An Artist and His Muse."
(WSJ, 10/22/99, p.W14)
1953 Jan 17, In SF 40 leading fashion models formed the Professional Fashion Models of SF and demanded a $5 fee for fitting time and rehearsals.
1953 Poppit beads, small plastic ball-and-socket units, were first created in England. They were later sold under the names Poppit, Snapit or Lockit and sold as beads for necklaces.
1954 Cecil Beaton authored “The Glass of Fashion,” a history of style.
(WSJ, 9/15/07, p.W10)
1957 Oct 24, Christian Dior (52), French fashion magnate and inventor of the postwar "New Look," died in Italy. He was succeeded by his favorite assistant, Yves Saint Laurent.
(SFC, 1/9/97, p.E7)(SFC, 6/9/98, p.D3)(MC,
1960 Marc Bohan took over Dior as a fashion designer for jet setters.
(WSJ, 1/20/03, p.B1)
1960 A Vatican rule that required women to wear head coverings in Catholic churches was repealed.
(WSJ, 10/8/97, p.A1)
1962 Mar 1, K-Mart opened.
1962 Havaianas, a brand of rubber and plastic flip-flops, were introduced in brazil. In 1994 Havaianas introduced a new line of one-shade sandals in black, royal blue, pink and
purple and the brand began to gather worldwide popularity.
1963 In Spain Amancio Ortega Gaona began to trade garments. He later founded Inditex, a holding company of retail brands, which
included Zara. By 2005 Inditex had emerged as one of the world’s fastest-expanding makers of affordable fashion clothing.
(Econ, 6/18/05, p.57)
1964 Jun 19, In SF publicist Davey Rosenberg (1937-1986)
persuaded waitress Carol Doda (b.1937) to don a Rudi Gernreich topless bathing suit at the Condor Club. She soon had her size-34 breast injected with silicon, and her bust came to be known as Doda's "twin-44s" and "the new Twin Peaks of SF." Her fame prompted the club to erect a neon sign with blinking nipples that lasted to 1991.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carol_Doda)(SFEC, 8/1/99, DB p.32)(SSFC, 9/11/11, DB p.46)
1964 Rudi Gernreich designed his notorious topless bathing suit, dubbed the "monokini". The bold design catapulted both Gernreich and Peggy Moffitt to stardom, as Moffitt was one
of the few models bold enough at the time to model it, but never in public. Photographer William Claxton, Moffit’s husband, maintained control of the pictures.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peggy_Moffitt)(SFC, 10/14/08, p.B5)
1964 George Barrie, founder of Caryl Richards hair care products, bought Faberge. He soon introduced the Brut men’s cologne.
(SFC, 1/24/07, p.G7)
1965 Apr 1, Helena
Rubinstein (89), US cosmetic manufacturer, died. In 2004 Lindy Woodhead authored “War Paint: Madame Helena Rubinstein & Miss Elizabeth Arden: Their Lives, Their times, Their Rivalry.”
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helena_Rubinstein)(SSFC, 3/8/09, p.G1)
1966 Oct 19, Elizabeth Arden, US cosmetic manufacturer, died. In 2004 Lindy Woodhead authored “War Paint: Madame Helena Rubinstein & Miss Elizabeth Arden: Their Lives, Their times, Their Rivalry.”
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elizabeth_Arden)(SSFC, 3/8/09, p.G1)
1966 In Hawaii Aloha Friday, a tradition of wearing Hawaiian fashion, became official.
1968 Calvin Klein founded Calvin Klein Ltd. in NYC for $10,000.
(SSFC, 11/29/09, p.N6)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calvin_Klein)
1969 Mar 11, Levi-Strauss started to sell bell-bottomed jeans.
1969 Apr 1, Helena Rubinstein (89), US
cosmetic manufacturer, died.
1969 Aug 31, Andrew Phillip Cunanan, serial killer, was born. His victims included fashion designer Gianni
1969 Katherine Hepburn starred in "Coco," a Broadway musical based on Coco Chanel's life.
1969 Donald and Doris Fisher founded the Gap in San Francisco. In 2004 Fisher authored "Falling Into the Gap: The Story of Donald Fisher and the Apparel Icon He Created."
1970 Aug 25, Claudia Schiffer, German fashion model, was born.
1970 Madge Short (d.1998 at 80) and Jane Saunders (50) co-founded The Body Shop in Berkeley. The name was sold to Britain’s Anita Roddick in 1987 for $3.5 million.
(SFC, 1/5/99, p.A20)(SSFC, 5/16/04,
1971 Jan 10, Gabrielle "Coco" Chanel (b.1883), French fashion designer, died in Paris. In 2011 Hal Vaughan authored “Sleeping With the Enemy: Coco Chanel’s Secret War.”
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coco_Chanel)(SSFC, 8/21/11, p.F5)
1971 Mar 3, Levi Strauss & Co., SF-based jeans maker, went public.
1971 Bebe, the SF-based women’s fashion retailer, was founded as a boutique.
1971 The first Ralph Lauren Polo store opened on Beverly Hills’ Rodeo Drive.
(SFC, 4/14/96, EM, p.10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polo_Ralph_Lauren)
1972 Elizabeth Ewing authored “Underwear: A History.”
(SSFC, 12/31/06, p.E3)
1972 A Stetson Hat Factory moved to St. Joseph, Mo. The handmade hats took 43 steps to
(SFC, 7/31/98, p.A14)
1972 Nike Shoes began production.
(SFEC, 9/8/96, Z1 p.6)
1974 Rudi Gernreich, Austrian engineer, introduced the first "thong bikini."
(WSJ, 6/7/99, p.A8)(www.bikiniscience.com/chronology/1970-1975_SS/1970-1975.html)
1974 Nov 1, Yuko Shimizu, Sanrio designer and creator Hello Kitty set Nov 1 as her birthdate and her parents as George and Mary White of London.
(SSFC, 12/26/04, p.M2)
1975 Aug 24, Charles H. Revson (b.1906), US cosmetic magnate, died.
Foot Locker, a division of Woolworth Stores, opened its 1st outlet.
(WSJ, 5/13/03, p.A1)
1975 Rosalia Mera (1944-2013), a seamstress, and her husband, Armancio Ortega, co-founded a clothing store in La Coruna, Spain. It grew into
Zara, one of the world's largest retail chains.
1977 Yves St. Laurent launched the perfume Opium.
(Econ, 3/6/04, Survey
1978 Apr 2, Velcro was 1st put on the market.
Karl Lagerfeld became a designer for Chanel.
(WSJ, 10/13/03, p.A1)
1984 Levi introduced its "501 Blues" ad to jump-start jeans sales under CEO Robert Haas, the great-great-grandnephew of founded Levi
(SFC, 4/29/03, B1)
1984 Nike signed a 5-year contract with Michael Jordan. The Air Jordan basketball shoe was released in 1985 for $65.
(WSJ, 11/11/03, p.B1)
1984 France-based Hermes introduced its Birkin handbag, named after British actress Jane Birkin, at a starting price of around $7,000. In 2008 Michael Tonello authored “Bringing Home the
(WSJ, 4/25/08, p.W5)(www.alphadictionary.com/business-tree/bags/bag%20birkin.html)
1985 Apr 21, Rudi Gernreich (62), US designer (miniskirt),
1985 Bernard Arnault bought Dior and took the company out of bankruptcy court.
1986 Naomi Sims (1948-2009) authored “All About Health and Beauty for the Black Woman.” Her 1968 cover shot on the Ladies’ Home Journal was a breakthrough for black fashion models.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Naomi_Sims)(SFC, 8/7/09, p.D5)
1986 Levi Strauss & Co. introduced Dockers, a line of roomy khakis aimed at baby boomers.
1987 LVMH, a fashion and luxury goods group, was created. Its initials stood for Louis Vuitton (leather luggage), Moet (champagne) and Hennessy (cognac).
(Econ, 3/6/04, Survey
1990 Mar 26, Designer Halston died in San Francisco at age 57.
Jun 2, Frederick Mellinger (76), founder of Fredericks of Hollywood, died.
1990 Jun 22, Florida passed a law
that prohibited wearing a thong bathing suit.
1992 Nov 29, Emilio Pucci (78), Italian fashion designer (Jackie Kennedy), died. In 2000 his firm was acquired by LVMH Moet Hennessy Louis
(MC, 11/29/01)(WSJ, 8/22/03, p.B1)
1993 Maurizio Gucci sold his remaining stake in Gucci to Investcorp, a Bahraini firm.
1994 Victoria’s Secrets introduced the Miracle Bra, a bottom padded push up bra designed by Linda Wachner of Warnaco.
(WSJ, 4/10/00, p.A1)
1994 The Wonderbra was launched in America. The Wonderbra name was first trademarked in the US in 1935 Sara Lee Corporation redesigned the push-up style for the reintroduction of the Wonderbra to the US market.
(Econ, 4/13/13, p.38)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wonderbra)
1994 The Gap opened its Old Navy discount clothing store in Colma, Ca.
(SSFC, 2/29/04, p.I1)
1994 In Malawi a ban on
women wearing pants ended following the end of the long dictatorship of Kamuzu Banda.
1995 Mar 27, In Italy Maurizio Gucci (46), businessman, was shot to death in Milan. He was the last
family member to have held shares in the Gucci fashion company, now part of the Bahrain-based Investcorp. In 1997 police arrested his former wife, a psychic, a doorman, and two hitmen for their roles in the murder. In 1998 Patrizia Reggiani Martinelli (50) was convicted and sentenced to 29 years in prison. The psychic got 25, the doorman got 26, the driver got 29 and the gunman got life.
(SFC, 2/1/97, p.A12)(SFC, 11/4/98, p.A13)
1995 Feb 3, IBM in fashion shed its dress code in favor of casual wear.
1995 Oct 10, Paolo Gucci, entrepreneur and accessories designer, died at 64.
1996 Jun 7, Max Factor, hairstylist, died at age 91. He started the Max Factor makeup company that was bought out by Proctor and Gamble in 1991. In March ‘96, the Max Factor Museum of Beauty in Hollywood shut down.
1996 Aug 28, In Poland Agnieszka Kotlarska, fashion model, was knifed and killed by a thief outside her home.
1996 John Galliano, British designer, became chief designer for Dior. In 1999 he introduced the saddle bag handbag.
(WSJ, 1/20/03, p.B1)
1996 Levi Strauss & Co. went private again after the company bought nearly 1/3 of its stock for $4.3 billion.
(SFC, 4/29/03, B1)
1997 Feb, Tattooing was re-legalized in NYC after a 36-year ban caused by fears of hepatitis.
(Econ, 5/24/08, p.48)(http://nymag.com/guides/everything/tattoos/37978/)
Jul 15, Gianni Versace, Italian fashion designer, was shot to death outside his home in Miami Beach, Fla. Police were searching for Andrew Philip Cunanan, 27, of San Diego as the primary suspect. Suspected serial killer Andrew Phillip Cunanan, was found dead eight days later.
(SFC, 7/17/97, p.A1)(AP,
1997 Jul 22, More than 2,000 people gathered in Milan, Italy, for a memorial Mass for slain fashion designer Gianni Versace; the mourners included Princess Diana and singer-songwriter Elton John.
1997 Jul 23, The search for Andrew Cunanan, the suspected killer of designer Gianni Versace and others, ended as police found his body on a houseboat in Miami Beach, Fla., an apparent suicide.
(SFC, 7/24/97, p.A1)(AP, 7/23/98)
1999 Feb 22, Levi Strauss, falling victim to a fashion generation gap, announced that it would close 11 of 22 US plants and lay off 5,900 factory
(SFC, 2/23/99, p.A1)(AP, 2/22/00)
1999 Jun 8, The WSJ covered the thong as a fashion statement on page 1.
1999 Aug 9, Four large apparel corporations settled out of court in a suit to end sweatshop labor in Saipan. Nordstrom, J. Crew, Cutter & Buck and Gymboree agreed to pay $1.25 million to reimburse workers for recruitment fees and to set up a program to
monitor island contractors.
(SFC, 8/10/99, p.A1)
1999 Karen Kozlowski and Meg Cohen Ragas authored "Read My Lips: A Cultural History of Lipstick."
(SFEC, 4/18/99, BR p.5)
1999 Gucci under CEO Domenico De Sole purchased Yves St. Laurent for $1 billion. Gucci invited Pinault-Printemps-Redoute (PPR), a French retail group, to buy a substantial stake in the company to prevent a hostile
(Econ, 11/8/03, p.62)
2000 Aug 17, India opened its first fashion show in Mumbai, Lakme India Fashion Week.
2001 Oct 1, Conde Nast said it would its Mademoiselle (b.1935) fashion magazine would be published for the last time in November.
(SFC, 10/2/01, p.C1)
2002 Jun 12, Bill Blass (79), fashion designer, died in New Preston, Conn.
(SFC, 6/13/02, p.A23)
2002 In France Paris Mayor Bertand Delanoe inaugurated Paris Plages, filling sections of the left and right banks of the Seine with sand and installing spray misters, hammocks, parasols and other beach-style accoutrements. In 2006 Paris City Hall banned thong bikinis, topless sunbathing and nudity at the summer
2003 Mar 5, Sir Hardy Amies (93), Savile Row designer and self-described snob, died.
2003 Mar 11, Benetton, an Italian retailer, said it planned to attach salt-grain sized microchip transmitters to clothing at its 5,000 stores.
2003 Jul 9, It was reported that processed fish skin was making it in the fashion world. The Scottish fashion company Skini recently launched a line of salmon-skin bikinis.
2003 Sep, Carlo Benetton sold his 11,000 acre Buffalo Ranch to the state of Texas for use by the prison system.
(Econ, 9/27/03, p.30)
2003 Michael J. Silverstein and Neil Fiske authored "Trading Up: The New American Luxury." It described a "new kind of emotional engagement" for consumers and business leaders.
(WSJ, 10/15/03, p.D14)
2003 Gladys Perint Palmer authored "Fashion People."
(SSFC, 5/11/03, p.E7)
2004 Jan 24, Helmut Newton (83), fashion
photographer, died in a car accident in LA.
(SFC, 1/23/04, p.A2)
2004 Feb 22, Giorgio Armani signed a $1 billion hotel venture with Dubai’s Emaar
(Econ, 2/28/04, p.61)
2004 Feb 25, Tom Ford presented his last Gucci collection.
2004 Apr 24, Estee Lauder (b.1906), cosmetics pioneer whose pots of potions and tubs of moisturizers have turned the clock back for millions of faces across the globe, died in NYC.
2004 Jun 11, Egon von Furstenberg (57), a Swiss-born aristocrat known as the "prince of high fashion,” died in Rome.
2004 Jun 18, The Hanky Panky thong model 4811 was described as the top seller in its category. In 2003 thongs accounted for a quarter of the $2.6 billion panty market. Gale Epstein and Lida Orzeck began Hanky Panky in the late 1970s.
2004 Sep 27, it was reported that Levi had signed a letter of intent to sell its Dockers brand to Vestar Capital Partners from $800 million.
2004 Sep 28, Geoffrey Beene (77), the award-winning designer whose simple, classic styles for men and women put him at the forefront of American fashion, died.
2004 Oct 1, Richard Avedon (81), fashion photographer, died.
(SFC, 10/2/04, p.A1)
2004 Oct 29, It was reported that US teen fashions had veered away from grunge and hip-hop looks toward a more preppy attire and that Axe, a deodorant body spray, was becoming popular among young boys.
(WSJ, 10/29/04, p.A1)
2004 Hair stylist began providing crystal extensions dubbed “hair bling.” Bling was a hip-hop term for flashy dressing and accessories.
(WSJ, 7/16/04, p.W1)
2005 North Korea’s government urged its women to refrain from wearing trousers, saying Western clothing dampen the revolutionary spirit and blur national pride.
2007 Jun 17, In Italy Gianfranco Ferre (b.1944), known as the "architect of fashion," died in Milan. He was the top designer for Christian Dior from 1989-1996.
(SFC, 6/18/07, p.A2)(AP, 6/17/08)
2007 Oct 11, Campaign for Safe Cosmetics, a US consumer rights group, said more than half the lipsticks it had tested were found to contain lead and some popular brands including Cover Girl, L'Oreal and Christian Dior had more lead than others.
2008 Apr 11, It was reported that clubbers across Europe were doing a dance called “tecktonik,” a mix of rave and breakdancing.
2008 Jun 1, Yves Saint Laurent (b.1936, one of the most influential and enduring designers of the 20th century, died in Paris.
2008 Aug 13, Jack Weil (107), patriarch of western clothing, died. He created the western style shirt which sold after 1946 through his Denver-based company Rockmount Ranch Wear.
(Econ, 8/30/08, p.82)
2008 Sep 5, Mila Schoen (b.1916), an Italian designer of elegant, impeccably tailored clothes, died at her villa in northern Italy.
2008 Sep 16, Local media reported that a Florida judge has deemed unconstitutional a law banning baggy pants that show off the wearer's underwear.
Oct 11, William Claxton (b.1927), music and fashion photographer, died in Los Angeles. He had photographed his wife in 1964 in the Rudi Gernreich designed topless bathing suit and achieved recognition for his photos of jazz stars.
(SFC, 10/14/08, p.B5)
2008 Oct 19, Richard Blackwell (86), actor turned fashion designer, died in Los Angeles. He claimed to be the first to make designer jeans for women. In 1960 he issued his first tongue-in-cheek criticism of Hollywood fashion disasters.
2008 Dec 29, Ted Lapidus (b.1929), French fashion designer who redefined chic with the 1960s unisex look, died. Lapidus created his label in 1951, and in 1963 became a member of the prestigious Paris fashion club that runs haute-couture, La Chambre
Syndicale de la Haute Couture.
2008 Dec 22, Alfred Shaheen (b.1922), the dean of Hawaiian couture, died. In 1948 he started manufacturing rayon Hawaiian shirts in a Quonset hut left over
from the war. Within a decade annual revenue grew to $4 million.
(WSJ, 1/24/08, p.A12)
2009 Feb 14, Sir Bernard Ashley (82), British businessman, died. He teamed up with his wife to build the Laura
Ashley (d.1985) fashion and home furnishing brand into a global business.
2009 May 8, In London Marks & Spencer admitted it had "boobed" in a row over larger bras, agreeing to slash
the prices of its DD-plus cup sizes to bring them in line with smaller models.
2009 May, In France fashion house of Christian Lacroix filed for bankruptcy. It had been founded inside
LVMH, a luxury goods group in 1987 and lost money every year since then.
(Econ, 7/11/09, p.66)
2009 Jun 22, French President Nicolas Sarkozy declared that the Islamic burqa is not welcome in France,
branding the face-covering, body-length gown as a symbol of subservience that suppresses women's identities.
2009 Jun 23, The French parliament created a commission to study the wearing
of body-covering burqas and niqabs in France, a day after President Nicolas Sarkozy said the Islamic garment turns women into prisoners.
2009 Jul 26, Gaza's top judge said that he has
ordered female lawyers to wear Muslim headscarves when they appear in court, the latest sign that the Islamic militant group is increasingly imposing its strict interpretation of Islamic law on residents of the coastal strip.
2009 Jul 30, Japanese astronaut Koichi Wakata described his test of new underwear, called J-Wear, as the shuttle Endeavour prepared to come home after over 2 weeks aloft. Wakata tested the high-tech underwear for a month at a time during his 4½ months aboard the ISS.
(SFC, 7/31/09, p.A9)
2009 Aug 31, In southern California fashion designer Anand Jon Alexander was sentenced to 59 years to life in prison for sexually assaulting aspiring models he lured to Los
2009 Sep 7, A Sudanese judge convicted Lubna Hussein, a woman journalist, for violating the public indecency law by wearing trousers outdoors and fined her $200, but did not
impose a feared flogging penalty. Hussein said she will not pay a penny while still in court custody, wearing the same trousers that had sparked her arrest.
2009 Sep 8, Sudanese journalist
Lubna Ahmed Hussein, who spent a day in jail for refusing to pay a fine for wearing "indecent trousers," vowed on her release to keep up the battle against the law. The UN’s human rights office said Sudan's conviction Hussein for indecency for wearing trousers violates international law and is emblematic of wider gender discrimination in the Islamic
(AFP, 9/8/09)(Reuters, 9/8/09)
2009 Sep 23, Iranian police warned shop owners against displaying female mannequins wearing underwear or showing off their curves as part of a government
campaign against Western influence. Azar Mansouri, a senior leader from reformist political party, Islamic Iran Participation Front, was arrested during a widespread crackdown on opposition supporters who challenged the re-election of President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad in June 2009. In March 2010 Mansouri was sentenced to three years in jail for plotting to harm national
(AP, 9/23/09)(AFP, 3/13/10)(www.sign4change.info/english/spip.php?article579)
2009 Sep, In Israel Rabbi Yosef Shalom Elyashiv (99) outlawed the use of elevators. Jewish law, or halacha,
forbids the use of electrical items on the Sabbath. He also has proclaimed that Jews could not wear Crocs shoes on Yom Kippur, the Day of Atonement, because they were deemed too comfortable for the somber fasting holiday.
2009 Oct 6, Syria held its first ever fashion design competition, meant to encourage young Syrian talents and local products.
2009 Oct 7, Irving Penn
(b.1917), American fashion photographer, died in NYC. He began contributing to Vogue magazine in 1943. His younger brother Arthur Penn (b.1922) gained renown as a film director and producer.
(SFC, 10/8/09, p.A8)
Oct 9, Egypt's top Islamic cleric said that students and teachers will not be allowed to wear face veils in classrooms and dormitories of Sunni Islam's premier institute of learning, al-Azhar, part of a government effort to curb radical Islamic practices.
2009 Oct 22, A Sudanese court sentenced two women to 20 lashes for dressing "indecently." Judge Hassan Mohammed Ali said: "The two women wore trousers and no headscarf. The court therefore finds them guilty according the public order laws." Last year nearly
43,000 women were detained for indecent clothing offences in Khartoum region, where five million people live.
2009 Oct 28, Kuwait's highest court ruled that women lawmakers are not
obliged by law to wear the headscarf, a blow to Muslim fundamentalists who want to fully impose Islamic Sharia law in this small oil-rich state.
2009 Nov 8, Brazil’s private Bandeirante
University in Sao Bernardo do Campo, outside Sao Paulo, expelled Geisy Arruda (20) for wearing a short, pink dress to class, publicly accusing her of immorality. Arruda made headlines after an Oct. 22 incident, in which she had to be escorted away by police after wearing the mini-dress to class. The dean of the private college in suburban Sao Paulo released the next day announcing a decision to
(AP, 11/9/09)(AP, 11/10/09)
2009 Nov 19, In France South Korean model Daul Kim (20), a fashion week regular in New York, Milan and Paris, was been found hanged in her Paris
2009 Nov 21, In Sudan Silva Kashif (16), a girl from south Sudan, was arrested convicted and lashed 50 times after a Khartoum judge ruled her knee-length skirt was indecent.
Her mother, Jenty Doro, later said she planned to sue the police who made the arrest and the judge who imposed the sentence, as her daughter was underage and a Christian.
(Reuters, 11/27/09)(AFP, 11/28/09)
Dec 4, North Korea made an unlikely foray into designer denim as the "Noko Jeans" label was launched in Sweden. The brand is Swedish but the black jeans are manufactured in North Korea, an experiment its creators described as a way to open doors to the reclusive communist country. The next day Stockholm’s PUB department store removed the new line of designer jeans from its
shelves, saying it wants to avoid courting controversy through ties with the isolated communist nation. Noko Jeans founders said they will continue to sell the jeans on their Web site and that retailer Aplace will continue to sell them on their Web site.
(AP, 12/4/09)(AP, 12/5/09)
2009 Marnia Lazreg, Algerian-born professor of sociology at City Univ. of New York, authored “Questioning the Veil: Open Letter to Muslim Women.”
(Econ, 9/5/09, p.92)
2009 Silly Bandz, rubber band bracelets of various shapes, became a fad among kids in Alabama and then across the nation. Robert Croak of Ohio began manufacturing and marketing the product after seeing a similar product from Japan in 2007. A pack of 24 was priced at around
(SSFC, 7/11/10, Par p.12)(http://tinyurl.com/3ac3cm6)
2010 Jan 13, Edgar Vos (78), "the emperor of Dutch fashion," died of a heart attack while on vacation in Florida. Vos built a chain of 15
stores across the Netherlands, where he sold designer clothes cut to bring out the best from all figures and tailored to most budgets.
2010 Jan 27, It was reported that Italian fashion
house Armani has stopped selling online a T-shirt bearing a logo similar to Indonesia's national symbol, Garuda Pancasila, after some bloggers protested and other people called for the label to be sued.
2010 Jan 28, Denmark's government said that face-covering Muslim veils don't belong in Danish society but no ban is needed because their use can be limited under existing rules.
2010 Jan 28, In
Spain prosecutors say charges have been filed against Mohamed Benbrahim, a Muslim imam, for threatening a woman in Cunit, Catalonia, who refused to wear an Islamic headscarf.
2010 Feb 11,
British fashion designer Alexander McQueen (40) was found dead at his London home. McQueen received recognition from Queen Elizabeth II in 2003, when she made him a Commander of the British Empire for his fashion leadership. A Feb 17 coroner’s report gave the cause of the fashion designer's death as asphyxiation and hanging.
2010 Mar 31, In Belgium a parliamentary committee unanimously voted to ban the wearing of face-covering veils in public, a major step in the legislative process that could make Belgium the first European country to impose such a religious
2010 Apr 29, Belgium's lower house of parliament banned burqa-type Islamic dress in public, but the measure faced a challenge in the Senate which will delay early enactment
of the law. There were two abstentions. No one voted against.
2010 May 27, In Indonesia authorities in a devoutly Islamic district of Aceh province have distributed 20,000 long skirts and
prohibited shops from selling tight dresses as a regulation banning Muslim women from wearing revealing clothing took effect.
2010 May 28, The Spanish city of Lleida, population of
135,000, barred women from wearing face-covering Islamic veils inside its municipal buildings.
2010 Jun 14, In Spain Barcelona City Mayor Jordi Hereu announced a measure to bar the use of
face-covering Islamic veils in municipal buildings. He insisted it was not specifically religious saying it is aimed at all dress that impedes identification, and thus includes motorcycle helmets and ski masks.
2010 Jun 21, An Iranian newspaper said police have issued warnings to 62,000 women who were "badly veiled" in the Shiite holy province of Qom as part of a clampdown on dress and behavior.
2010 Jul 18, Syria announced a ban on the niqab, the face-covering Islamic veil, from the country's universities.
Jul 20, Spain's Parliament rejected a proposal to ban women from wearing in public places Islamic veils that reveal only the eyes.
2010 Aug 22, A Bangladesh lawyer said
high court judges have passed an order directing that wearing religious attire should be the personal choice of the students or the employees. No one can be forced to wear them.
14, In North Carolina Ariana Iacono (14) went back to school with her mother and her nose ring, after her first suspension for a nose piercing ended. She was suspended again for five days because her nose ring violated the Johnston County school system's dress code. If she comes back to school on Sept. 21 with the nose stud, she'll face a 10-day suspension or referral to "alternative schooling."
A similar situation went to the courts in 2002, when a woman was fired from her job at a Costco store over her eyebrow ring. The woman was also a member of the Church of Body Modification, but the courts eventually ruled that her religious beliefs did not require her to always wear her jewelry.
2010 Sep 14, France introduced a law against face-covering. It became commonly known as the burqa ban.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/French_ban_on_face_covering)(Econ, 7/27/13, p.44)
2010 Oct 6, In Cuba a resolution from the Foreign Relations Ministry was published into law making the guayabera Cuba's official formal dress garment and mandating that government officials wear them at state functions.
2010 Oct 6, Local media reported that Ukraine has adopted a dress code for government workers. The code called on men working at the Cabinet of Ministers to wear mostly gray and dark blue suits and not wear the same suit to work two days in a row. Women were asked to stick to business suits and low-heeled
shoes, as well as refrain from excessive makeup and jewelry.
2011 Jan 18, A court in the northeastern Spanish region of Catalonia suspended a ban by the city of Lleida on face-covering
Islamic veils in municipal buildings. The ban was suspended while the court studies an appeal lodged by a Muslim association. Only about 3 percent of Lleida's population is Muslim and only a handful of women actually wear body-covering burqas or face-covering niqab garments.
2011 Mar 1, French fashion house Christian Dior said John Galliano has been immediately laid off, just days after he was suspended as its creative director pending an investigation into an alleged anti-Semitic incident in a Paris cafe last
2011 Mar 7, French fashion colossus LVMH Moet Hennessy Louis Vuitton announced that it has agreed to buy Rome-based jeweler Bulgari SpA in a cash-and-shares deal worth euro4.3
billion ($6 billion).
2011 Apr 11, In France a law went into effect banning women from wearing full-face veils in public places. Several women appeared veiled in front of Paris' Notre Dame
Cathedral and two were detained for taking part in an unauthorized protest. The $214 burqa fine also included mandatory lessons on being French.
(SFC, 4/9/11, p.A2)(AP, 4/11/11)
2011 May 11, India
said it had lodged a complaint with the Australian government over swimwear carrying the image of the Hindu goddess Lakshmi that has sparked protests. Fashion house Lisa Blue promised to halt production immediately and apologized for any offence the design may have caused.
2011 May 22, Auction site eBay said a bidder paid £81,100 ($131,648) for a silk bow hat worn by Princess Beatrice to last month’s royal wedding. The Philip Treacy creation was put on sale to raise money for UNICEF and Children in crises.
(SFC, 5/23/11, p.A2)
2011 May 28, Thousands of people turned out for Australia's first "SlutWalk," protesting for women to be able to wear whatever they like without fear of being sexually assaulted.
SlutWalk began in Canada in April after a Toronto police official said that "women should avoid dressing like sluts in order not to be victimized."
2011 Jun 16, In SF Deshon Marman (20),
a college football player, was arrested and thrown off a US Airways jet in a dispute over his sagging pants. Marmon was in the city attending the funeral of his best friend, David Henderson, who was fatally wounded last month.
(SFC, 6/18/11, p.C4)
2011 Aug 13, Fashion designer Jesus del Pozo (65), one of Spain's most influential style modernizers, died. Del Pozo opened his first outlet in Madrid in 1974, making him a contemporary of Antonio Miro and Adolfo Dominguez. His first collection was unveiled in 1976.
2011 Aug 16, Romania’s controversial Tourism Minister Elena Udrea sparked outrage with a frock she admitted cost as much as many Romanians make in more than a month. She defended the $1290 dress, insisting it cost less than the
thousands of euros that media has reported.
2011 Aug 20, In South Africa some 2,000 women draped sexy lingerie over their street clothes and marched through Cape Town, bringing the
international "SlutWalks" campaign against the notion that a woman's appearance can excuse attacks to a country where rape is seen as a national crisis.
2011 Sep 8, British fashion icon
John Galliano (50) was convicted of anti-Semitism for hurling abuse at bar patrons in Paris' Jewish quarter in a career-breaking outburst he has blamed on drink and drugs. In the French trial in July Galliano apologized for his conduct. He received suspended fines totaling 6,000-euro (£5,200, $8,400).
2011 Sep 16, In Indonesia Jakarta city governor Fauzi Bowo called on women not to wear miniskirts when riding on public transport in the capital after a 27-year-old woman was attacked in a public minivan early this month. The next day Governor Bowo apologized
for his remarks as some 50 women donned miniskirts to protest his remarks.
2011 Sep 24, In San Francisco 40 or so naked men and one woman staged a nude-in at Castro and 17th streets to
support their right to wander in the buff.
(SSFC, 9/25/11, p.D3)
2011 Sep 24, In Utah thousands of people stripped to their underwear and ran through Salt Lake City to protest what they called the "uptight" laws of Utah. Guiness World Records later
said 2,270 people participated breaking a previous record of 550 set last year in Great Britain.
(AP, 9/25/11)(SFC, 10/7/11, p.A6)
2011 Oct 24, In Denmark fashion icon Margit Brandt (66) died. Her
simple cuts and 1960s miniskirts marked one of the first international breakthroughs for Danish designs.
2011 Nov 28, In Tunisia a group of students, who were for the most part not
enrolled at Manouba university, camped out to demand the right for women students to wear the full veil, known as the niqab. They also demanded a place of prayer on campus.
2012 Jan 18,
Five Tunisian students said they went on hunger strike against a ban on niqab veils imposed by Manouba university, upping the ante in a dispute which began in November.
2012 Jan 20, In
Malawi hundreds of outraged girls and women, among them prominent politicians, protested the recent public stripping of women of their miniskirts and pants. Many wore pants or miniskirts and T-shirts emblazoned with such slogans as: "Real men don't harass women." Men also took part.
2012 Jan 24, Tunisian police ended a weeks-long sit-in by conservative Muslims at Manouba university that banned the full-face veil.
2012 Feb 8, An Egyptian production company said "the student members of the Muslim Brotherhood at Ain Shams University had prevented the film crew from the 'Dhat' TV series from shooting the scenes set at the university." The series, adapted from the novel
"Dhat" by Egyptian author Sonallah Ibrahim, takes place in the 1970s, "when women wore short clothing."
2012 Mar 19, Israeli passed a new law that bans the showing overly thin models from
local advertising in an attempt to fight the spread of eating disorders.
2012 Mar 24, Chechnya's first lady, Medni Kadyrova, displayed her Islamic fashion collection to a captivated
audience in Dubai, faithful to the politics of her husband who has sought to impose Islamic dress codes in the Caucasus republic.
2012 May 30, Iranian media reported that female booth
attendants at an international trade fair and shops selling men's ties have become targets in a strict crackdown by Tehran police on clothing deemed un-Islamic.
2012 Jul 18, Austria’s
University of Innsbruck said that archeologists found four linen bras dating from the Middle Ages in an Austrian castle. Fashion experts described the find as surprising because the bra had commonly been thought to be only little more than 100 years old as women abandoned the tight corset.
2012 Sep 2, Egypt's state TV lifted a decades-long ban on veiled female news presenters whom successive secular-leaning regimes have barred from going on air.
2012 Oct 2,Designer brands were reported to be abandoning Argentina. Louis Vuitton Moet Hennessy, owner of the Japanese label Kenzo, issued a statement blaming Argentina's "complex economic context" for the closure of its store on Oct 10. Top labels have
become collateral damage as the government tightens its hold on the economy with measures aiming to encourage domestic production and capture more wealth to aid the poor.
2012 Oct 17,
Scotland Yard confirmed in a statement that the Metropolitan Police will no longer permit tattoos on the face, hands or which appear above the collar line.
2013 Jan 4, A small plane
disappeared off the Venezuelan coast with six people aboard, including Vittorio Missoni (58), a top executive in Italy's Missoni fashion house. Wreckage of the plane was found in June.
(AP, 1/5/13)(AP, 6/27/13)
Feb 13, British fashion retailer Republic became the latest casualty of the economic downturn, seeking protection from creditors and putting around 2,500 jobs at risk.
Apr 23, It was reported that the authrities in Ras al-Khaimah, the northernmost emirate in the UAE, have posted signs on public beaches warning of possible fines for revealing swimwear.
(SFC, 4/23/13, p.A2)
2013 May 9, In northern Italy Ottavio Missoni (b.1921), the patriarch of the iconic fashion brand of zigzag-patterned knitwear, died.
In Myanmar Famoso Clothing, a Japanese owned operation set up in Yangon in 2002, paid its workers about $100 per month to make men’s suits. It was in the process of closing its last Chinese factory where wages had become four times as high.
(Econ, 5/25/13, SR p.8)
2013 Jul 20, In France 6 people were arrested after overnight violence that erupted in Trappes near Versailles. The trouble began two days earlier when police checked the identity of a woman wearing a Muslim veil and engaged in a scuffle with her husband. It is illegal in France for women to wear full face veils
in public but the law is contested in the mainly Muslim suburbs that ring major cities.
(Reuters, 7/20/13)(Econ, 7/27/13, p.44)
Subject = Fashion
End of file