Timeline Cars

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1831        Mar 12, Clement Studebaker, auto maker, was born.
    (HN, 3/12/98)

1863        Mar 26, Henry Royce, founder (Rolls-Royce Limited in 1884), was born. [see Mar 27]
    (SS, 3/26/02)
1863        Mar 27, Sir Henry Royce, Rolls Royce founder, was born. [see Mar 26]
    (HN, 3/27/98)

1867        Aug, The first recorded race of two self powered road vehicles over a prescribed route was between Ashton-under-Lyne and Old Trafford, a distance of eight miles. It was won by Isaac Watt Boulton against Daniel Adamson, each in steam cars of their own manufacture.
    (http://tinyurl.com/ycbvsah)(http://tinyurl.com/y98cs3h)

1875        Apr 2, Walter Chrysler, founder of Chrysler automobile company, was born. He grew up in Ellis, Kansas.
    (HN, 4/2/98)(WSJ, 8/10/00, p.A16)

1875        May 23, Alfred Pritchard Sloan, Jr., president and chairman of the board for General Motors, was born. His foundation started the cancer research center Sloan-Kettering Institute. Sloan defined the modern automobile industry and helped rescue General Motors in 1920.
    (HN, 5/23/99)(WSJ, 1//03, p.D8)

1876        Aug 29, Charles F. Kettering, inventor (automobile self-starter), was born in Ohio.
    (MC, 8/29/01)

1876        Nikolaus Otto (1832-1891), German inventor, first demonstrated the four-stroke engine.
    (www.keveney.com/otto.html)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nikolaus_Otto)

1877        Aug 27, Charles Stewart Rolls, British auto manufacturer (Rolls-Royce Ltd), was born.
    (MC, 8/27/02)

1882        Apr 28, Alberto Pirelli, Italian industrialist, was born.
    (MC, 4/28/02)
1882        James Atkinson, British engineer, invented the Atkinson cycle engine, an ultra-lean internal combustion engine.
    (Econ, 8/16/08, p.77)(www.jyrojak.com/steamtime.htm)

1885        Nov 10, Paul Daimler, son of Gottlieb Daimler, became the first motorcyclist when he rode his father's new invention on a round trip of six miles.
    (HN, 11/10/99)

1886        Jan 26, Karl Benz patented the 1st automobile. [see Jan 29]
    (MC, 1/26/02)

1886        Jan 29, 1st successful gasoline-driven car was patented by Karl Benz in Karlsruhe. [see Jan 26]
    (MC, 1/29/02)

1886        Jul 3, In Germany Karl Benz drove the 1st automobile. [see Jan 29]
    (MC, 7/3/02)

1888        Jul 27, Philip Pratt unveiled the 1st electric automobile.
    (MC, 7/27/02)

1888        Aug 12, Bertha, wife of inventor Karl Benz, made the 1st motor tour.
    (SC, 8/12/02)

1890        Jul 18, Charles Wilson, Pres. of General Motors (1940-53), Sec. of Defense (1953-57), was born.
    (MC, 7/18/02)

1891        The first US reported car accident was in Ohio.
    (http://tinyurl.com/83xl65b)

1892        Apr 19, The prototype of the first commercially successful American automobile was completed in Springfield, Mass., by Charles E. Duryea and his brother Frank.
    (AP, 4/19/97)

1893        Rudolph Diesel, German engineer, developed his diesel engine.
    (WSJ, 1/14/05, p.W10)

1894        Jun 26, Karl Benz of Germany received a US patent for a gasoline-driven auto.
    (MC, 6/26/02)

1894        Jul 4, Elwood Haynes successfully tested one of 1st US autos at 6 MPH.
    (Maggio, 98)

1894        Jul 22, The first major automobile race with prizes and a promoter was organized as a reliability trial by Le Petit Journal of Paris. It took place on the 78-mile route between Paris and Rouen, France [see Aug 30, 1867].
    (http://wapedia.mobi/en/Auto_racing)(Econ, 4/22/06, p.65)(http://tinyurl.com/ycbvsah)

1895        Sep 8, Adam Opel (58), German manufacturer of sewing machines and bicycles, died. In 1899 the firm acquired a car factory.
    (MC, 9/8/01)(www.histomobile.com)

1895        Nov 5, George B. Selden of Rochester, N.Y., received the first U.S. patent for an "improved Road Engine."
    (AP, 11/5/07)

1896        Mar 6, Charles B. King rode his "Horseless Carriage," the 1st auto in Detroit.
    (MC, 3/6/02)

1896        May 9, The 1st horseless carriage show in London featured 10 models.
    (MC, 5/9/02)

1896        May 30, The 1st car accident in NYC occurred when Henry Wells hit cyclist Ebeling Thomas on the "Western Boulevard" (Broadway).
    (http://tinyurl.com/83xl65b)

1896        Jun 8, The 1st car was stolen.
    (MC, 6/8/02)

1896        Jun 16, Jean Peugeot, French auto manufacturer, was born.
    (MC, 6/16/02)

1896        The Michelin brothers introduced pneumatic tires in the Paris-to-Bordeaux automobile race. They had come up with the removable tire, but the pneumatic tire was invented in the US by John Dunlap.
    (WSJ, 2/20/04, p.W5)

1897        Ransom E. Olds started the Olds Motor Vehicle Co. In 2004 the last Oldsmobile Alero rolled of a GM assembly line in Lansing, Mich.
    (SFC, 4/28/04, p.C1)

1898        Feb 18, Enzo Ferrari (d.1988), Italian sports car manufacturer, was born.
    (www.britannica.com/eb/article-9034085/Enzo-Ferrari)

1898        Mar 24, The 1st automobile was sold.
    (MC, 3/24/02)

1898        In France the Michelin Tire company began using its tire-man logo. The first ad offered a toast with broken nails and glass and told consumers that the Michelin tire "drinks up obstacles."
    (SFC, 3/19/98, p.A3)(SFEC, 3/22/98, p.T3)

1899        May 24, The 1st US auto repair shop opened in Boston.
    (MC, 5/24/02)

1899        Aug 15, Henry Ford (36) quit his job with the Edison Illuminating Company. He soon found backers and started the Detroit Automobile Company, with himself as chief engineer.
    (ON, 3/03, p.1)

1899        Sep 13, The first reported fatal car accident in the US was in Ohio when Henry H. Bliss, a "real estate dealer" was hit by an electric taxi as he exited a trolley on West 74th Street and Central Park West.
    (http://tinyurl.com/83xl65b)(SFC, 10/10/97, p.A21)

1900        Mar 6, Gottlieb Daimler (65), designer of the 1st motorcycle, died.
    (MC, 3/6/02)

1900        Nov, Henry Fordu0092s Detroit Automobile Company failed. It was revived in 1901 as the Henry Ford Co.
    (http://home.planet.nl/~nagte017/Cadillactext001.html)

1900        America had some 500 carmakers at this time. By 1908 the number fell to 200.
    (Econ, 5/19/12, p.83)
1900        The Lohner-Porsche was introduced at the Worldu0092s Fair in Paris. The hybrid car relied on batteries and a generator to produce electricity for its motors. Ferdinand Porsche working for Jacob Lohner in Vienna put electric motors into the hubs of the wheels of the Lohner-Porsche.
    (Econ, 4/24/10, p.78)

1901        Apr 15, The 1st British motorized burial took place.
    (MC, 4/15/02)

1901        Apr 25, New York became the first state to require automobile license plates; the fee was one dollar. The first automobile license plates were issued in Paris, France in 1893. The first American city to require drivers to be licensed and register their vehicle was Boston, but the trend quickly spread.
    (AP, 4/25/98)(HNQ, 7/18/00)

1901        Henry Ford founded the Henry Ford Co. but soon left. In 1902 the remaining owners dissolved operations and formed the Cadillac Co.
    (http://home.planet.nl/~nagte017/Cadillactext001.html)

1901        In Lanark, Illinois, Charles Cotta built the Cottamobile, a steam-powered car with individual chains driving each of 4 wheels.
    (WSJ, 9/16/05, p.W12)

1901        Cixi, Chinau0092s empress dowager, received a new wood-bodied Duryea automobile to mark her 66th birthday. She is said to have fortified her driver, Sun Fuling, with a generous bowl of rice wine. Fuling promptly lost control of the car and ran over and killed a palace eunuch.
    (Econ, 8/22/09, p.40)

1902        Mar, Henry Ford (38) left the Detroit Automobile Company and soon found backers for the new Ford Motor Co., which incorporated in 1903.
    (ON, 3/03, p.1)

1902        Aug 13, Felix Wankel, inventory of the rotary engine which bears his name, was born in Germany.
    (HN, 8/13/00)(MC, 8/13/02)

1902        Aug 22, The Cadillac Company formed from the Henry Ford Co. when Henry Ford left. Ford formed the Ford Motor Co. in 1903.
    (http://home.planet.nl/~nagte017/Cadillactext001.html)

1903        May 19, Dr. Horatio Nelson Jackson bet $50 that he could cross the US from San Francisco in his $2,500 Winton Touring car. He and his mechanic reached NYC July 26.
    (SFC, 6/16/03, p.A1)

1903        May 23, Dr. Horatio Nelson Jackson set off to cross the US from San Francisco in his $2,500 Winton touring car with his mechanic Sewell Croker. They reached NYC July 26.
    (SFC, 6/16/03, p.A1)(SFC, 6/18/03, p.A23)(ON, 9/04, p.10)

1903        Jun 15, Barney Oldfield (1878-1946), race car driver, drove a Ford 999 at a record mile per minute.
    (Ind, 10/6/01, 5A)

1903        Jun 16, Ford Motor Co. was incorporated.
    (AP, 6/16/98)

1903        Jun 18, 1st transcontinental auto trip began in SF and arrived in NY 3-months later. [see Jul 26]
    (MC, 6/18/02)

1903        Jul 23, The Ford Motor Company sold its first automobile, the Model A.
    (HN, 7/23/98)

1903        Jul 26, Dr. Horatio Nelson Jackson of Vermont and his mechanic Sewell Croker arrived in NYC completing the first cross-country automobile trip in 63 days after leaving SF. On July 26, 2003 Peter Kesling and Charlie Wake completed a rerun of the original trip.
    (WSJ, 7/19/02, p.W9)(WSJ, 5/7/03, p.B1)(SSFC, 7/27/03, p.A2)(ON, 9/04, p.12)

1903        Burton Westcott (1868-1926) brought his family business, the Westcott Motor Car. Co., from Richmond Ind., to Springfield, Ohio, where its cars were assembled by hand.
    (WSJ, 8/16/07, p.D7)

1904        Jan 27, Willie Vanderbilt (1878-1944) reached 92.3 mph in his new German motorcar at the Daytona Beach Road Course at Ormond Beach, Florida, establishing a new land speed record. He was the 2nd child and first son of William Kissam Vanderbilt and Alva Erskine Smith.
    (Econ, 12/22/07, p.122)(www.racechase.com/ftopic254.html)

1904        The British Rover Motor Car Company was founded.
    (SSFC, 11/22/09, p.H1)

1905        Studebaker of South Bend, Indiana, produced an electric car, the Victoria Phaeton, that could be charged at home.
    (Econ, 10/9/10, p.22)
1905        Mary Anderson of Alabama received a patent for a streetcar windshield wiper. Her effort was the result of a trip to NYC in 1903 where she watched drivers coping with the weather.
    (WSJ, 5/9/05, p.R10)
1905        Some automakers introduced motor trucks and ignition locks; and auto plants were opened in Canada.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)
1905        Vaclav Laurin and Vaclav Klement, Czech bicycle makers, began making cars. They later merged with Skoda Pilsen.
    (www.skoda-auto.com/global/history/company)

1906        Henry Ford used stock purchases to acquire 51% of the Ford Motor Co. and concentrated on producing inexpensive cars. His highest priced vehicle in 1906 cost $750.
    (ON, 3/03, p.2)

1907        May 31, Taxis  began running in NYC.
    (MC, 5/31/02)

1907        Jun 10, In China 11 men in five cars set out from the French embassy in Beijing on a race to Paris. Prince Scipione Borghese of Italy was the first to arrive in the French capital two months later. The 62-day race was won by an Italian built Itala.
    (AP, 6/10/07)(AH, 6/03, p.21)

1907        Nov 20, The McLaughlin Motor Car Company was in Ontario, Canada, founded under Samuel McLaughlin (1871-1972). In 1910 he became a director of General Motors and sold his company in 1918 becoming president of General Motors of Canada.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_C._Durant)

1907        The Detroit auto show began when a group of dealers held a show in a city park. The show was largely a regional event showcasing Detroit automakers until 1989, when the name was changed to the North American International Auto Show and Toyota and Nissan used it to introduce their new luxury brands.
    (AP, 1/12/14)

1908        Feb 12, The first round-the-world automobile race began in New York City. It ended in Paris the following July with the drivers of the American car, a Thomas Speedway Flyer, was declared the winner over teams from Germany and Italy. The Flyer was made by the E.R. Thomas Motor Co. of Buffalo, NY, was initially driven by Montague Roberts and George Schuster. Roberts dropped out in Wyoming. Schuster took over as captain and chief driver from San Francisco, which was reached on March 24.
    (AP, 2/12/08)(ON, 4/08, p.8,9)

1908        Jul 30, An around the world automobile race ended in Paris. The American Thomas Speedway Flyer, was declared the winner over teams from Germany and Italy. In 1966 driver George Schuster authored u0093The Longest Auto Race.u0094 The restored Flyer was later displayed at the National Automobile Museum in Reno, Nevada.
    (ON, 4/08, p.10)(AP, 7/30/08)

1908        Aug 12, Henry Ford's first Model T rolled off the assembly line.
    (HN, 8/12/98)

1908        Sep 16, General Motors Holding Company was formed in Flint, Mich., by William Durant.
    (AP, 9/16/08)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_C._Durant)

1908        Oct 1, The Ford Model T, the first car for millions of Americans, hit the market. Each car cost $825. Over 15 million Model Ts were eventually sold, all of them black. The Model T automobile cost $850 when it was first introduced to the public. Ford lowered the price of automobilesu0097previously regarded as a toy of the richu0097by maintaining control of raw materials and using new mass production techniques. The price of this two-seater, affectionately known as the u0093tin Lizzy,u0094 fluctuated over the years, dipping below $300 in 1924. Electric lights and an optional electric starter were among the few improvements over the years. The model was discontinued in 1927 after more 15,000,000 had been produced.
    (CFA, u009196, p.56)(AP, 10/1/97)(HN, 10/1/98)(HNQ, 7/11/00)

1909        Jun 1, Pres. William Howard Taft touched a key in Washington, DC, sending a signal to Seattle, opening the Alaska-Yukon Pacific Expo at the Seattle Worldu0092s Fair, as well as a signal to NYC initialing the New York to Seattle Automobile Race.
    (AH, 6/03, p.18)

1909        Jun 23, A Ford Model T crossed the finish line in the NYC to Seattle Automobile Race after 22 days and 55 minutes to claim the Guggenheim Cup and a $2,000 first prize. A Shamut came in 17 hours later to win the 2nd-place prize of $1500. An Acme car came in on June 29 to claim a $1000 3rd prize. The Ford was later disqualified for having switched engines enroute.
    (AH, 6/03, p.23)

1909        Aug 7, Alice Huyler Ramsey (22) arrived in San Francisco on a ferry boat after driving a 1909 Maxwell Model DA across the country. She had left New York on June 9 on the first ever cross-country trip by a woman.
    (SFC, 7/10/09, p.D3)

1909        Aug 19, The Indianapolis Motor Speedway opened with a 2.5 mile race track. It was founded in 1906 and the 1st 500 race was held in 1911.
    (MC, 8/19/02)(Internet)

1909        The California State Automobile Association produced its first road map. In 2008 it planned to stop production of paper maps and shift to digital technology.
    (SFC, 5/27/08, p.D1)
1909        John H. Eagal, manager of the automobile department of the Studebaker, San Francisco branch, said u0093The future of the electric automobile is assuredu0085 The past few months have seen an increase in demand for the electric cars that has been surprising to manufacturers all over the country.u0094 Studebaker sold battery-powered cars from 1902 to 1912.
    (SSFC, 1/10/10, DB p.42)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Studebaker_Electric)
1909        The first roundabout, a one-way gyratory for car management not to circumvent a monument, was intoduced in Englandu0092s Letchworth Garden City. By 2013 there were some 60,000 around the world.
    (Econ, 10/5/13, p.16)
1909        Englishman Henry Frederick Stanley Morgan (1981-1959) made his first 3-wheel car. In 1912 his company became the Morgan Motor Company Ltd.
    (SSFC, 12/25/11, p.D3)(www.morgandc.com/History/HistoryPage.htm)

1910        Mar 23, 1st race at Los Angeles Motordrome (1st US auto speedway).
    (SS, 3/23/02)

1910        William Durant (1861-1947), the founder of General Motors, was turfed out by the companyu0092s bankers. In 1911 he joined forces with Louis Chevrolet, a Swiss-born racing driver, to set up a new carmaker that was later folded into GM.
    (Econ, 10/29/11, p.76)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_C._Durant)
1910        Henry Ford opened a new plant in Highland Park, Mich., the largest plant in the world. The retail price of the Model T dropped to $780.
    (ON, 3/03, p.3)

1911        Mar 11, The Cadillac Division of General Motors demonstrated the first electric self starter, enabling women to drive alone. Charles Kettering created the first successful electric self-starter for Cadillac. It was introduced in the 1912 model. The perfection of the self-starter by inventor Charles Kettering enormously expanded the market for the automobile. Kettering, born in Londonville, Ohio, in 1876, had invented an electric cash register motor while at the National Cash Register Company in 1906. In 1909 he organized the Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company, later known as Delco, and soon made notable improvements in automobile ignition and lighting systems. His self-starter was introduced in the 1912 Cadillac. He founded the Charles F. Kettering Foundation dedicated to natural science research and was co-founder of the Sloan-Kettering Institute for Cancer Research.  Kettering died in 1958.
    (SMTS, 10/1/86, p.4)(F, 10/7/96, p.67)(HNQ, 3/3/99)

1911        May 29, The first running of the Indianapolis 500. Ray Harroun won at 74.59 mph (120 kph). [see May 30]
    (HN, 5/29/98)(SC, 5/29/02)

1911        May 30, The first long-distance auto race in Indianapolis was won by Ray Harroun. One driver was killed and the average speed was 74.4 mph. [see May 29]
    (SMTS, 10/1/86, p.4)(AP, 5/30/97)

1911        Henry Ford reduced the retail price of the Model T to $690.
    (ON, 3/03, p.3)
1911        The first Michelin guide to the British Isles was published to help travelers and included information on how to change a tire.
    (AFP, 1/18/11)

1912        Jan 22, Second Monte-Carlo auto race began.
    (HN, 1/22/99)

1912        Apr 6, Cadillac adopted an electric self-starter. Charles Franklin Kettering (1876-1958), as president of Delco, introduced the electric-starter on the 1912 Cadillac.
    (www.todayinsci.com/4/4_06.htm)(http://local.aaca.org/bntc/mileposts/1912.htm)

1912        May 18, Georg von Opel, German auto manufacturer, was born.
    (SC, 5/18/02)

1912        Henry Ford doubled production and reduced the price of the Model T to $600.
    (ON, 3/03, p.3)

1913        Jul 1, The Lincoln Highway Association decided to call its coast-to-coast highway the Lincoln Highway, and it was officially incorporated as the Lincoln Highway Association.
    (http://lincolnhighway.jameslin.name/history/part2.html)

1913        Aug, Henry Ford began his 1st large-scale automobile assembly tests. It initially took 12 hours and 30 minutes to assemble a Model T.
    (ON, 3/03, p.4)(Econ, 4/20/13, SR p.3)

1913        Sep 14, The Lincoln Highway Association announced the route of the Lincoln Highway. Its leaders, particularly Henry Joy, President of the Packard Motor Car Company, decided on as straight a route as possible and that decision dictated the course. That initial line was 3,389 miles long. Less than half of it, 1,598 miles, was improved. (Eventually, as segments of the route were improved, the length shrunk to about 3,140 miles).
    (www.fhwa.dot.gov/infrastructure/lincoln.cfm)

1913        Oct 7, In attempting to find ways to lower the cost of the automobile and make it more affordable to ordinary Americans, Henry Ford took note of the work of efficiency experts like Frederick Taylor, the "father of scientific management." The result was the assembly line that reduced the time it took to manufacture a car, from 12 hours to 93 minutes. Ford reversed the slaughter house production process of removing parts from a moving line to adding parts. Production more than doubled and the price of the Model T was reduced from $600 to $550.
    (HN, 10/7/00)(SFC, 6/13/03, p.B4)(ON, 3/03, p.4)

1914        Apr 14, Stacy G. Carkhuff patented a non-skid tire pattern.
    (MC, 4/14/02)

1914        Aug 5, One of the first, if not the first, electric traffic light systems were installed in Cleveland, Ohio.
    (AP, 8/5/07)

1914        Henry Ford (1863-1947) introduced his $5 a day pay that made it possible for the average worker to buy a car. 231,000 "Tin Lizzies" were built this year. Assembly time for the Model T over the last year was reduced to one hour and 33 minutes.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)(Econ, 4/20/13, SR p.3)

1914        Dodge cars were introduced.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)

1914        Lionel Martin and Robert Bamford founded Aston Martin. They produced their 1st car in 1915. Ford bought a controlling interest in 1987 and acquired full ownership in 1994. In 2007 Ford sold a controlling stake to a consortium of investors that included racing mogul David Richards, car collector John Sinders, and the Kuwaiti companies Investment Dar and Adeem Investment Co.
    (SFC, 3/13/07, p.E2)

1915        Oct 12, Ford Motor Company manufactured its 1 millionth Model T automobile. [see Dec 10]
    (MC, 10/12/01)

1915        Thomas Edison, Henry Ford and Harvey Firestone rode in a private Pullman car to visit Luther Burbank in Santa Rosa, Ca.
    (SFEC, 12/1/96, p.T8)

1915        There were some 450 automotive and auto parts makers in the US by the end of this year.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)

1915        Louis Chevrolet sold his interest in the Chevrolet Motor Company and focused his interest on auto racing.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)(SFEC, 1/9/00, Z1 p.2)

1916        Joe Saunders of Nebraska launched the first car hire business when he began lending his ford Model T to traveling salesmen.
    (Econ, 10/9/10, p.91)
1916        The Four Wheel Drive Auto Co. of Clintonville, Wis., got a boost from WW I demand for its trucks.
    (WSJ, 9/16/05, p.W12)
1916        Hand operated windshield wipers, stop lights and rearview mirrors became standard on some cars.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)

1917        The Fleetwood Body Corp. began building exteriors for the carmakers.
    (SFC, 12/14/96, p.D1)
1917        The Electric Welding Co. renamed to the Steel Products Company introduced the first one-piece forged engine valve.
    (F, 10/7/96, p.67)

1920        Britain introduced a tax on motor vehicles and the first tax discs appeared a year later. In 2013 the discs were replaced by an electronic system for paying road tax.
    (AP, 12/5/13)

1921        Walter P. Chrysler, president of the General Motoru0092s Buick Motor Co., became chairman of Maxmell Motor Corp.
    (NYT, 10/8/04, p.D9)

1921        Fordu0092s car production comprised nearly 56% of the total output.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)

1923        Apr 5, Firestone Co. put their inflatable tires into production.
    (MC, 4/5/02)

1923        Alfred P. Sloan Jr. (1875-1966), a ball-bearing magnate, became president of a troubled GM and brought in corporate management and tight financial controls. He introduced the ideas of model changes and offering a car "for every purse and purpose."
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)(Econ, 6/6/09, p.61)

1923        Benz & Cie introduced a diesel truck with a 50-horsepower engine.
    (WSJ, 1/14/05, p.W10)

1924        Aug 5, The comic strip "Little Orphan Annie" by Harold Gray (d.1968) made its debut in the NY Daily News. Daddy Warbucks was her millionaire guardian. Leonard Starr took over the strip in 1979. Her image was updated in 2000 by cartoonist Andrew Pepoy. [see Oct 5]
    (AP, 8/5/97)(SFEC, 10/17/99, p.C12)(SFC, 6/12/00, p.A2)

1925         Mar 2, State and federal highway officials developed a nationwide route numbering system and adopted the familiar U.S. shield-shaped, numbered marker. For instance, in the east, there is U.S. 1 that runs from New England to Florida and in the west, the corresponding highway, U.S. 101, from Tacoma, WA to San Diego, CA.
    (HC, Internet, 2/3/98)

1925        Dec 12, Arthur Heinman opened the first motel, the "Motel Inn," in San Luis Obispo, Calif.
    (AP, 12/12/97)

1925        The Michelin Guide introduced its star system for hotels and restaurants.
    (WSJ, 2/20/04, p.W5)
1925        Burton Westcott (1868-1926) was forced to close his Westcott Motor Car. Co. in Springfield, Ohio.
    (WSJ, 8/16/07, p.D7)

1926        Frederic J. Fisher (1878-1941) and his brother Charles (1880-1963), founders of the Fisher Body Co., sold their operations to GM.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)
1926        Charles Stewart Mott (1875-1973) established a family foundation that focused on social enterprises around Flint, Mich. He had earlier sold the familyu0092s wheel and axle business to General Motors and become its largest shareholder.
    (SFC, 6/16/08, p.B3)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Stewart_Mott)
1926        GM opened a plant in Osaka, Japan.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)
1926        Firestone Tire and Rubber Co. created the world's largest plantation at Harbel, Liberia, and rubber became the backbone of the economy.
    (AP, 7/1/03)(NG, Feb, 04)

1927        May 25, Henry Ford stopped production of the Model T car and began the Model A.
    (SC, 5/25/02)

1927        May 26, Ford Motor Company manufactured its 15 millionth Model T automobile.
    (MC, 5/26/02)

1927        Henry Ford obtained a Connecticut-sized land in the Brazilian jungle and began creating his Fordlandia factory town for the creation of a rubber plantation and processing facility to supply his factories with tires and gaskets. A strike in 1930 wrecked Fordlandia. It was rebuilt and struggled on for a decade until succumbing to leaf blight and insects. In 2009 Greg Grandin authored u0093Fordlandia: The rise and Fall of Henry Fordu0092s Forgotten Jungle city.u0094
    (SSFC, 7/5/09, p.F7)

1928        May 29, Fritz von Opel reached 200 kph in an experimental rocket car. [see Sep 30, 1929]
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1928        Nearly 2,000 people died on California highways.
    (SFC, 8/13/04, p.F4)

1929        May 17, Edsel Ford cut the first sod of Ford's new British manufacturing plant in the Dagenham marshes. The first cars at Dagenham were produced in October, 1931. This was Fordu0092s first expansion outside the US.
    (AP, 12/25/10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ford_Dagenham)

1929        Dec 18, Helene Delangle (1900-1984), French racing pioneer, became the fastest woman driver in the world, averaging 120.5 mph at Montlhery, France. In 2004 Miranda Seymour authored u0093The Bugatti Queen: In search of a Motor-Racing Legend.u0094
    (Econ, 2/28/04, p.81)

1929        The Henry Ford Museum and Greenfield Village opened in Dearborn.
    (WSJ, 8/7/03, p.D10)
1929        General Motors purchased Opel, a German car manufacturer, for $33.3 million.
    (SSFC, 1/7/07, p.E6)
1929        In Russia the Gorky Automobile Plant (GAZ) in Nizhny Novgorod was founded. Henry Ford was asked to help set up the Soviet car plant.
    (Econ, 7/14/12, p.55)

1930        Mar 26, Congress appropriated $50,000 for Inter-American highway.
    (SS, 3/26/02)

1930        In Italy Battista u0093Pininu0094 Farina founded Pininfarina SpA, a car design firm.
    (SFC, 8/8/08, p.B5)

1932        Mar 31, Ford Motor Co. publicly unveiled its V-8 engine.
    (AP, 3/31/97)

1932        Jun 6, A US Federal gas tax was enacted.
    (MC, 6/6/02)

1932        Dec 21, Carl McGee, Oklahoma inventor, applied for a patent for his parking meter. He had came up with the 1st coin-operated, single-space, mechanical meter to be used to free up parking spaces in downtown Oklahoma City.
    (WSJ, 6/30/05, p.B1)(www.ok-history.mus.ok.us/enc/parking.htm)

1933        Automatic shifting was introduced by the Reo Car Co. (1904-1936).
    (SSFC, 4/27/08, DB p.58)(www.canadiandriver.com/articles/bv/reo.htm)

1934        Mar 26, Driving tests were introduced in Britain.
    (SS, 3/26/02)

1934        May 2, In Germany a Chancellery meeting took place between Adolph Hitler and executives of General Motors Corp. and its German division (Opel). Opel quickly became an essential element in German rearmament. Over the next 4 years GMu0092s workforce in Germany grew from 17,000 to 27,000.
    (SSFC, 1/7/07, p.E6)

1934        Jun 22, "Dr. Ing. h.c. F. Porsche GmbH, Konstruktionen und Beratung für Motoren- und Fahrzeugbau" received the go-ahead from the "Reichsverband der Automobilindustrie (RDA)" (the Association of the German Reich of the Automotive Industry) to construct and build the Volkswagen. Hitler had asked Ferdinand Porsche Sr., owner of a consulting and design firm, to build a "peopleu0092s car," from which resulted the Volkswagen. Porsche took the design from the Tatra T97 of Czechoslovakiau0092s Hans and Erich Ledwinka.
    (http://tinyurl.com/22n6kb6)(SFC, 3/28/98, p.B12)(Econ, 6/28/08, p.20)

1935        Mar 13, Driving tests were introduced in Great Britain.
    (MC, 3/13/02)

1935        May 7, US Commissioner Ernest E. Williams listened as witnesses charged Walter Lord, head of Drive-Away Travel Service of Detroit, with violating the National Recovery Administration automobile code. At least 10 young men were left stranded in San Francisco after driving in cars from Detroit with no pay. Drivers figured they had worked 138 hours, which at the NRA rate of 37.5 cents and hour, would have meant $51.75 in wages for each driver.
    (SSFC, 5/2/10, DB p.46)

1935        Jul 16, The first parking meters were installed, in Oklahoma City. Carlton Magee's automatic meter, the "Park-O-Meter" was installed by the Dual Parking Meter Company in Oklahoma City. The parking meters were divided by 20-foot spaces painted on the pavement and accepted nickels.
    (AP, 7/16/97)(HNQ, 8/4/02)

1935        Sep 3, Sir Malcolm Campbell became the first person to drive an automobile over 300 MPH. Campbell drove the Bluebird Special on the Bonneville Salt Flats in Utah at a speed of 304.331 MPH.
    (MC, 9/3/01)

1936        Apr 30, The San Francisco Chronicle reported that the Park-O-Meter has been recommended by Chief Administrative Officer Alfred Cleary. A trial plan called for 50 meters on Market St. charging 10 cents for 20 minutes.
    {SF, Cars, USA}
    (SSFC, 4/24/11, DB p.46)

1936        Jul 4, The Reich Government decided to build a separate plant for the new Volkswagen, the Volkswagenwerk. The "Company for Preparation of Deutsche Volkswagen Ltd" was established on 28 May 1937.
    (http://tinyurl.com/22n6kb6)

1937        Feb 11, In Flint, Mich., a sit-down strike against General Motors ended after 44 days, with the company agreeing to recognize the United Automobile Workers Union. The UAW was victorious in a strike against GM. GM recognized the union and agreed to a contract.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)(AP, 2/11/97)

1937        Mar 1, The 1st US permanent automobile license plates was issued in Connecticut.
    (SC, 3/1/02)

1937        Jul 2, Richard Petty, auto race driver (Daytona 500-1979,81), was born.
    (SC, 7/2/02)

1937        Mercedes- Benz developed an all-wheel-drive car, largely for military purposes.
    (WSJ, 9/16/05, p.W12)

1938        Aug 27, George Eyston set an automobile land-speed record.
    (MC, 8/27/02)

1938        Ford introduced the Mercury line of cars.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)

1939        Apr 30, The New York Worldu0092s Fair, billed as a look at "the world of tomorrow," officially opened. NY Mayor Fiorello LaGuardia mandated that the city's nude dancers cover up during the fair. The cover-up evolved into the G-string and later the thong. The General Motors exhibit was titled Futurama. Philo T. Farnsworth premiered his television at the fair. AT&T presented its first Picture Phone at the World's Fair. Salvador Dali created a pavilion that was called u0093Dream of Venusu0094 and described as the u0093funny house of tomorrow.u0094 In 2000 Miles Beller authored "Dream of Venus (Or Living Pictures): A Novel of the 1939 New York worldu0092s Fair." National Presto Industries introduced the home pressure cooker at the fair.
    (AP, 4/30/97)(WSJ, 6/7/99, p.A8)(SFEC, 4/16/00, BR p.7)(NYTBR, 2/2/03, p.20) (www.imdb.com/title/tt0149460/trivia)(WSJ, 12/27/08, p.A7)

1939        Ford debuted the Lincoln Continental created under the design team led by Bob Gregorie (d.2002 at 94).
    (SFC, 12/3/02, p.A21)

1939        GMu0092s Buick introduced electrical, directional indicator signals.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)

1939        Oldsmobile was the first car to offer an automatic transmission. [see 1937]
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)

1939        Packard introduced the first auto air-conditioning system.
    (F, 10/7/96, p.69)

1940        Dec 30, In California the Arroyo Seco Parkway, connecting Los Angeles and Pasadena, officially opened as the first freeway in the Western US.
    (AP, 12/30/97)(SFC, 3/7/98, p.A18)

1940        Nov 11, Willys unveiled its General Purpose vehicle, the "Jeep." The Willys Quad, featuring 4-wheel drive, was one entry in a US government competition for a small military utility vehicle.
    (MC, 11/11/01)(WSJ, 9/16/05, p.W12)

1941        Apr 3, Andre Michelin (88), French tire manufacturer, died. In 2004 Herbert Lottman authored "The Michelin Men: Driving an Empire," the story of Andre and Edouard Michelin.
    (MC, 4/3/02)(WSJ, 2/20/04, p.W5)

1941        Aug 2, The summary of an FBI probe of GM senior executives with links to Adolph Hitler found collusion Germany by James D. Mooney, president of GM Overseas Corp., but no evidence of any disloyalty to America.
    (SSFC, 1/7/07, p.E6)

1942        Oct, Pres. Roosevelt signed special legislation that allowed General Motors to take a complete tax write-off for the loss of Opel, its Nazi subsidiary. The tax reduction amounted to some $22.7 million, an amount equal to about $285 billion in 2007.
    (SSFC, 1/7/07, p.E6)

1943        May 26, Edsel Ford, president (49) of the Ford Motor Company, died.
    (MC, 5/26/02)

1943        General Motors invited Peter Drucker (1909-2005), a young author, to study the company from the inside. His seminal study of General Motors: u0093The Concept of the Corporationu0094 (1946) introduced the idea of decentralization as a principle of organization, in contrast to the practice of command and control in business.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Concept_of_the_Corporation)(Econ, 11/19/05, p.72)

1945        Volkswagen, under British army engineer Ivan Hirst (d.2000), turned out 1,785 cars as part of a 20,000 car, war reparations contract with the British army.
    (SFC, 3/24/00, p.D6)

1946        Mar 8, Frederick William Lanchester (b.1868) died in England. He was a major contributor to the theory and practice of automobile engineering and aeronautical engineering. He also published works in radio, acoustics, relativity, music and poetry.
    (http://www.lanchester.com/Lanc1.html)

1946        Sep 11, The 1st mobile long-distance car-to-car telephone conversation.
    (MC, 9/11/01)

1946        Peter Drucker (1909-2005) published his seminal study of General Motors: u0093The Concept of the Corporation.u0094 In it he introduced the idea of decentralization as a principle of organization, in contrast to the practice of command and control in business.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Concept_of_the_Corporation)(Econ, 11/19/05, p.72)

1946        Michelin patented its radial tire.
    (Econ, 9/11/04, p.60)

1947         Apr 7, Auto pioneer Henry Ford (b.1863) died in Dearborn, Mich. Most of his personal estate, valued at $205 million, was left to the Ford Foundation. In 2001 Neil Baldwin authored "Henry Ford and the Jews - The Mass Production of Hate." In 2003 Douglas Brinkley authored "Wheels for the World - Henry Ford, His Company, and a Century of Progress." In 2005 Steven Watts authored u0093The Peopleu0092s Tycoon: Henry Ford and the American Century.u0094
    (AP, 4/7/97)(HN, 2/20/98)(SFC, 6/13/03, p.B4)(SSFC, 8/28/05, p.C2)

1947        Aug 21, San Franciscou0092s first parking meter was installed at Bush and Polk streets.
    (SFC, 1/4/13, p.D1)

1948        Feb 21, Bill France, Daytona Beach stock car mechanic and driver, founded the National Association for Stock Car Racing (NASCAR).
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NASCAR)

1948        Oct 2, In New York the 1st Grand Prix at Watkins Glen was held. Cameron Argetsinger (1921-2008) was the main driving force behind the race which was won by Frank Griswold. Formula racing continued there until bankruptcy in 1981. Two year later Corning Glass Works revived the Watkins Glen race course in partnership with Intu0092l. Speedway Corp.
    (WSJ, 4/26/08, p.A6)(www.nascar.com/races/tracks/wgi/index.html)

1948        General Motors agreed to annual cost-of-living pay increases.
    (Econ, 6/6/09, p.61)
1948        General Motors began regaining control over Opel operations in Germany. GM collected some $33 million in war reparations for Allied bombing of its German facilities.
    (SSFC, 1/7/07, p.E6)
1948        British carmaker Rover developed the Jeep-like Land Rover.
    (WSJ, 9/16/05, p.W12)
1948        Trevor Wilkinson incorporated TVR Engineering, a small British carmaker. He left the company in 1962 and in 1965 it was sold to Martin Lilly.
    (SFC, 6/16/08, p.B3)
1948        The British Jaguar XK120 was introduced as the worldu0092s fastest standard production car. It was the brainchild of Jaguar founder Sir William Lyons.
    (SSFC, 8/21/11, p.H1)
1948        Ferdinand Porsche (1875-1951), German car inventor, rolled out the first Porsche sports car.
    (Econ, 6/14/08, p.82)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ferdinand_Porsche)

1949        Mar 2, 1st automatic street light was in New Milford, CT.
    (SC, 3/2/02)

1949        Dec 12, Saab, a Swedish aircraft maker, began full-scale production of the Saab 92 automobile based on the prototype Saab 92001.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saab_92)

1949        The German Volkswagen Beetle was introduced in the US.
    (SSFC, 7/20/03, p.A14)

1950        General Motors agreed to free health-care coverage for life along with generous pensions. Chrysler and Ford were forced to offer similar benefits.
    (Econ, 6/6/09, p.61)
1950        Volkswagen debuted its iconic microbus. It became a favorite of hippies for its unique styling and copious space for travelers. The Bulli was the brainchild of a Dutch Volkswagen importer, Ben Pon, who in 1947 sketched out a simple public bus built on the wheels of the Volkswagen Beetle. The original Bulli was made from 1950 to 1967. A new version was unveiled in 2011.
    (AP, 3/1/11)
1950        Giaur was formed in Italy by the great Berardo Taraschi (previously of Urania) and the Giannini brothers, the name coming from Giannini and Urania. The engines were mainly Giannini units, although Fiat and Crosley items were also used.
    (http://ferrariexperts.com/giaur.htm)(SSFC, 7/20/08, p.J3)

1951        Jan 30, Ferdinand Porsche (b.1875), German car inventor (Porsche), died.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ferdinand_Porsche)

1951        Feb 17, Packard introduced its "250" Chassis Convertible.
    (HN, 2/17/02)

1951        Chrysler introduced Hydraguide power steering. Thompson Products helped to pioneer the innovation. Chrysler also debuted hemispherical combustion heads above the cylinders of its V-8 engines.
    (F, 10/7/96, p.69)(WSJ, 6/1/00, p.A20)(WSJ, 4/30/04, p.B1)

1952        May 31, In San Francisco the first Golden Gate Park Road Race was held with some 60 cars vying for first place. The races continued again in 1953 and ended in 1954.
    (SFC, 5/28/12, p.C1)

1952        Englandu0092s Morgan Motor Company stopped making its 3-wheeled cars. In 2010 the company unveiled a new 3-wheel model, the M3W, and planned expanded sales in China.
    (SSFC, 12/25/11, p.D3)(www.morgandc.com/History/HistoryPage.htm)
1952        British engineer Charles Spencer King (1925-2010) set a land speed record of 152 mph for gas turbine cars in Jet1, which he helped design.
    (SSFC, 7/4/10, p.C9)

1952-1953    The Alba Regia was a Hungarian microcar project produced by both the Ministry of Metallurgy and Machine Industry in conjunction with the Vehicle Developing Institute.
    (Econ, 12/18/10, p.102)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alba_Regia_%28car%29)

1953        Jan 17, GM introduced the first American sports car, the two-seater Corvette at the annual NYC Motorama Show at the Waldorf-Astoria. It was not made available for sale to the public until June 30th.
    (http://tinyurl.com/fdjur)(http://auto.howstuffworks.com/1953-corvette.htm)

1953        Jan, Pres. Eisenhower selected Charlie Wilson, the president of General Motors, as Secretary of Defense. During his confirmation hearing Wilson made his famous statement: u0093u0085what was good for our country was good for General Motors, and vice versa.u0094
    (SSFC, 1/7/07, p.E6)

1953        Jun 30, The first Corvette rolled off the Chevrolet assembly line in Flint, MI. The brainchild of designer Harvey J. Earl sold for $3,250. GM made 300 Corvettes in 1953 and moved production to St. Louis for 1954.
    (http://auto.howstuffworks.com/1953-corvette.htm)(WSJ, 7/12/02, p.W12)

1953        Nov 22, The Ford Motor Co. planned to spend an estimated $40 million to build an assembly plant in Milpitas, Ca.
    (SFC, 11/21/03, p.E4)

1953        Nov, In Italy the Iso Isetta microcar was introduced in Turin. The car originated with the Italian firm of Iso SpA. In the early 1950s the company was building refrigerators, motor scooters and small three-wheeled trucks. Iso's owner, Renzo Rivolta, decided he would like to build a small car for mass distribution. By 1952 the engineers Ermenegildo Preti and Pierluigi Raggi had designed a small car that used the scooter engine and named it Isettau0097an Italian diminutive meaning little ISO.
    (Econ, 12/18/10, p.102)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isetta)

1953        Naugahyde, an imitation leather made from plastic, was sold by Uniroyal Technology to the auto industry for upholstery. It soon came to be used for office seating units and for some residential furniture.
    (SFC, 3/5/08, p.G4)
1953        Air conditioning units became widely available on American cars.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl.)
1953        Robert F. Borkenstein (d.2002) invented a Breathalyzer to test drivers for alcohol content. It stemmed from his work with Dr. R.N. Harger of the Indiana School of Medicine to make the Drunkometer.
    (SFC, 8/19/02, p.B6)
1953        Volkswagen began manufacturing cars in Brazil.
    (Econ, 11/15/08, SR p.6)

1954        Jan 21, In Czechoslovakia Frantisek Stransky died when a test prototype of the Oskar 54 microcar crashed. In 1956, the vehicle's name was changed to "Velorex - Oskar" and then just to "Velorex". In 1959 the company produced 120 vehicles per month. Beginning in 1936, the brothers Frantisek (1914 - 1954) and Mojmír (1924) Stransky, owners of a bicycle repair shop in village Parnik near Česká Třebová, started with the design of a small, cheap three-wheeled car, inspired by three-wheelers from Morgan Motor Company.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Velorex)

1954        GM transferred production of the Corvette to St. Louis and 3,000 were produced in this year.
    (WSJ, 7/12/02, p.W12)

1954        Nash-Kelvinator and Hudson Motor combined to form the American Motors Co.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl.)

1954        The Nash Metropolitan went on sale for $1,445. The small car got up to 40 miles per gallon. American Motors discontinued production of the British-built car in 1961. Total sales reached nearly 95,000.
    (SFC, 12/19/06, p.B1)

1954        The Studebaker Co. merged with Packard Motor Car Co.
    (WSJ, 6/13/96, p.A12)

1955        Apr, Alberto Ascari, champion race car driver, lost control of his Ferrari in Milan and was killed. In 2004 Brock Yates authored u0093Against Death and Time.u0094
    (WSJ, 7/7/04, p.D10)

1955        May, Bill Vukovich, 2-time winner of the Indianapolis 500, was killed while going for his 3rd win.
    (WSJ, 7/7/04, p.D10)

1955        Jun 11, In Le Mans, France, a Mercedes-Benz racer crashed killing its driver and some 81 spectators. Pierre Leveghu0092s car hit the bank by the grandstand and immediately exploded. Parts of the wreckage were blown into the enclosure, killing scores of mostly-French spectators. Levegh was speeding down the straightaway in front of the pits when he clipped an Austin-Healey driven by British driver Lance Macklin.
    (WSJ, 7/7/04, p.D10)(http://tinyurl.com/69g9e)

1955        Jun 27, 1st automobile seat belt legislation was enacted in Illinois.
    (SC, 6/27/02)

1955        Aug 3, Automobile Association of America ended support of auto racing.
    (SC, 8/3/02)

1955        Aug 16, Fiat Motors ordered the 1st private atomic reactor.
    (MC, 8/16/02)

1955        Aug 31, 1st sun-powered automobile demonstrated, Chicago, Ill.
    (YN, 8/31/99)

1955        In West Germany the Messerschmitt KR200, or Kabinenroller (Cabin Scooter), was a three-wheeled bubble car designed by the aircraft engineer Fritz Fend. Production began in the factory of the German aircraft manufacturer Messerschmitt and continued to 1964.
    (Econ, 12/18/10, p.103)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Messerschmitt_KR200)

1956        Jun 29, Pres. Eisenhower signed the US Federal Highway Act. It authorized a 42,500 mile network linking major urban centers. 90% of the cost was to be born by the federal government. Initial estimates put completion by 1968 for $25 billion. The system was completed in 1993 at a cost of $425 billion (in 2006 dollars). The Federal Highway Act included the Highway Revenue Act as Title II and created the Highway Trust Fund (HTF) to finance the construction.
    (SFC, 6/17/06, p.A1)(Econ, 2/16/08, p.32)(Econ, 11/19/11, p.34)

1956        Industry experts in 1996 picked the 1956 Hudson as the number 1 worst American-made car. An average car this year sold for about $2,500.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)(SFC, 9/11/06, p.C2)

1956        Canadian Les Dawes (d.2002) produced his first La Dawri car, a fiberglass body on a Ford chassis. He moved to Southern California where his La Dawri Coachcraft produced some 800 car kits before it folded in the late 1960s.
    (SSFC, 9/30/07, p.B1)

1956        In Hungary the Festival microcar, designed by Kalman Szabadi (d.2010), was introduced in Vac. The car was three meters long, had a conventional door for the passengers and a gull-wing for the driver, and weighed 380 kilos. It was powered by the same 298cc engine that BMW built for its Isetta. Only one car was completed.
    (Econ, 12/18/10, p.103)(http://tinyurl.com/23p2gt2)

1957        Apr 6, NYC ended trolley car service.
    (MC, 4/6/02)

1957        Jul 4, In Italy the new 13 horsepower Fiat 500 (Cinquecento) was launched in Turin. In 1965 Fiat introduced the 500 F model. The car could get 58 mpg from its 4.25-gallon tank.
    (Econ, 7/14/07, p.69)(SSFC, 5/1/11, p.J1)(SFC, 4/13/12, p.F1)

1957        Aug 26, Ford Motor Company revealed the Edsel, its latest luxury car.
    (HN, 8/26/99)

1957        Sep 4, Ford Motor Co. introduced the 1958 Edsel. It was designed by Roy Brown and sold only 173,000 units through 1960.
    (SFEC, 8/31/97, p.D12)(AP, 9/4/97)

1957        In Zwickau, East Germany, the first Trabant car was manufactured. Production ceased in 1991.
    (SSFC, 6/17/07, p.A2)

1957         The Italian Mille Miglia automobile race, begun in 1927, was cancelled following the crash of a Ferrari driven by the Marquis de Portago. He and his co-driver were killed along with 10 bystanders when the car ran off the road at 90 mph.
    (SFC, 4/28/98, p.A13)

1958        Mercedes-Benz brought the 1st diesel to the US market, the rounded, pokey 190D.
    (WSJ, 1/14/05, p.W10)

1959        Mar 7, Hinsdale Smith (88), developer of roll-down auto windows, died.
    (MC, 3/7/02)

1959        May 20, Ford won a battle with Chrysler to call its new car "Falcon."
    (MC, 5/20/02)

1959        The 3-point seat belt, invented by Nils Bohlin (d.2002 at 82), was introduced by Volvo.
    (SFC, 9/27/02, p.A25)

1960        Jul 21, Germany passed the Volkswagen law legislation privatizing Volkswagen. It capped a shareholder's voting rights at 20%, regardless of the number of shares held, and required a majority of 80% for "important decisions." It also gave Lower Saxony, the state in which Volkswagen is based, a controlling minority stake in the automaker. In 2007 the European Court ruled that the VW law had to go.
    (http://uk.reuters.com/article/businessNews/idUKL2232313720071023)(Econ, 6/14/08, p.82)

1960        Stanford Ovshinsky founded Energy Conversion Devices (ECD) in Rochester Hills, Michigan. In the 1980s the company introduced a nickel-metal hydride battery (NiMH) for consumer use and made it available for automobiles in the early 1990s. The technology made hybrid vehicles possible.
    (WSJ, 10/13/04, p.C1)

1960s-1970s    The Toyota Motor Company, formed as a division of Toyoda Automatic Loom Works in the 30s, acquired several competing companies including Hino, Nippondenso and Daihitsu during the 60s and 70s in a huge expansion that included marketing more cars overseas. The u0093Toyota Way,u0094 its corporate culture, embodied 5 elements: Kaizen (continuous improvement), Genchi genbutsu (go to the source for facts), Challenge, Teamwork, and Respect for other people.
    (HNQ, 9/28/00)(Econ, 1/21/06, Survey p.11)

1961        Mar 6, 1st London minicabs were introduced.
    (MC, 3/6/02)

1961        Raymond Loewy, industrial designer for Studebaker Corp., assembled a 4-man team in Palm Springs to design a new sports coupe called the Avanti. Thomas Kellogg (d.2003 at 71) was a member of the team. The Avanti was introduced in April 1962 to compete with GMu0092s Corvette. It was cancelled after two years with sales under 6000 units. In 1991 Studebaker produced 6 Avanti convertibles during an attempt at reorganization.
    (SFC, 8/19/03, p.A19)(SSFC, 9/25/11, p.K1)
1961        Engineer Harry Fergusonu0092s all-wheel-drive racer appeared in Formula One competition.
    (WSJ, 9/16/05, p.W12)
1961        Britainu0092s Jaguar Cars Ltd. Launched the Jaguar E-Type, designed by Malcolm Sayers.
    (Econ, 5/18/13, IL p.4)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jaguar_E-Type)
1961        Germany sold its state-owned Volkwagen car company. 60% of the cash from the sale was put into a national charitable foundation to support science.
    (Econ, 9/21/13, p.64)

1962        The Studebaker car company went into bankruptcy. A little money left over went into the design and production of a few hundred Avanti sports cars.
    (WSJ, 6/13/96, p.A12)

1962        The 1st Jeep Wagoneer, a precursor to the SUV, ran in a 2-or-4 wheel drive mode.
    (WSJ, 9/16/05, p.W12)

1963        Mar 31, LA ended streetcar service after 90 years.
    (MC, 3/31/02)

1963        Alfred Pritchard Sloan Jr., former head of General Motors Corp., authored "My Life With General Motors."
    (F, 10/7/96, p.132)(Econ, 12/22/07, p.123)
1963        Chrysler became the majority holder of Simca. By 1970 it changed the name to Chrysler France.
    (www.allpar.com/model/simca.html)
1963        GM introduced the Malibu, named after the California city, as a top line option on various 1964 Chevelles.
    (WSJ, 4/1/09, p.A20)
1963        GM opened a 380-acre assembly plant in Fremont, Ca., GM closed the plant in 1982.
    (SSFC, 2/28/10, p.D1)
1963        Studebaker halted production of cars in the US. 4,000 employees lost their company pensions. This led to the passage of the Employment Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA) in 1974.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)(SFC, 2/14/02, p.B1)

1964        Mar 9, The first Ford Mustang rolled off the Ford assembly line.
    (HN, 3/9/98)

1964        Apr 17, Ford Motor Company unveiled its new Mustang model at the New York Worldu0092s Fair. The base price was $2,368. Donald Frey (d.2010 at 86), spearheaded the design and development of the car. Industry experts in 1996 picked the 1964 Mustang as the number 1 favorite car.
    (AP, 4/17/97)(WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)(SFC, 3/30/10, p.C3)

1964        Jul 2, Glenn "Fireball" Roberts, biggest NASCAR money winner, died in crash.
    (SC, 7/2/02)

1964        Richard Petty won 27 NASCAR races driving a 426-horsepower Hemi-powered Charger.
    (WSJ, 6/17/05, p.A10)

1964        Mexico began producing its own version of the Volkswagen Beetle, known as the el vocho.
    (SSFC, 9/14/08, p.A10)

1965        Consumer advocate Ralph Nader published "Unsafe At Any Speed," a book criticizing the auto industry for knowingly producing unsafe cars and not installing proper safety devices. It specifically attacked the Chevrolet Corvair.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)(SFEC, 10/13/96, Z1 p.3)

1965        Kevlar was invented by Stephanie Kwolek, a chemist for DuPont, while experimenting with polymers for new ways to reinforce car tires. In 1970 Herbert Blades of DuPont developed a process for mass production. Marketing began in 1971. Soon after that Lester Shubin (1925-2001), a US Justice Dept. researcher, began developing Kevlar, into body armor for police and soldiers.
    (SFC, 4/7/03, p.E2)(SFC, 11/28/09, p.C4)

1966        Feb 17, Alfred P. Sloan Jr. (b.1875) former president GM (1923-1956), died. As president of GM he brought in corporate management, introduced the ideas of model changes and offering a car "for every purse and purpose." In 2002 David Farber authored "Sloan Rules."
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)

1967        Feb 21, Ford recalled 217,000 cars to check brakes and steering.
    (HN, 2/21/98)

1967        May 30, Robert "Evel" Knievel on his motorcycle jumped 16 automobiles.
    (MC, 5/30/02)

1967        James M. Roche (d.2004) became chairman and CEO of General Motors. He stepped down as chairman in 1971.
    (SFC, 6/8/04, B7)

1967        Robert Kearns (1928-2005) patented automobile intermittent windshield wipers.
    (SFC, 3/2/05, p.B7)

1968        British Leyland was put together by Harold Wilsonu0092s industrial planners. It was nationalized in 1975, and sold to British Aerospace in 1988. BMW picked up Rover in 1994.
    (Econ, 4/16/05, p.15)

1969        Apr 10, Harley Jefferson Earl (b.1893), car designer, died. He was a Hollywood builder of custom cars and became GMu0092s VP of styling from 1940-1959. He was the first to introduce tail fins in 1948. His design philosophy was "You can design a car so that every time you get in it, itu0092s a relief--you have a little vacation for a while."
    (www.americanheritage.com/articles/magazine/it/1998/2/1998_2_10.shtml)(WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)

1969        In Japan Nissan introduced its Skyline GT-R muscle car. The car was initially introduced by the Prince Motor Co. in June, 1957. It was discontinued in 2002. A new version was introduced in 2007.
    (WSJ, 10/24/07, p.B1)(www.driftclub.com/SkylineHistory.htm)

1970        Feb 20, Students at San Jose Univ., Ca., buried a brand new Ford Maverick as part of their Survival Faire. The Maverick was exhumed one year later.
    (SFC, 4/20/10, p.E1)(http://tinyurl.com/yyplgjc)

1970        Apr 1, American Motors Corp. (AMC) introduced the compact Gremlin for $1879. It was designed by Richard Teague on the back of a Northwest Airlines sickness bag. The last Gremlin was made in 1978.
    (www.allpar.com/amc/gremlin.html)(SFC, 3/14/05, p.A10)

1970        May, Leonard Woodcock (1911-2001) was named head of the UAW following the death of Walter Reuther. He was elected to a full term at the union's 23rd Constitutional Convention in April, 1972, and re-elected in 1974. He retired in May 1977 and then served as US ambassador to China from 1979-1981.
    (SFC, 1/18/01, p.C2)

1970        Sep, Ford introduced the compact 1971 Pinto. The car became infamous for its lethally exploding gas tank. The car lasted to 1980.
    (www.allpar.com/amc/gremlin.html)(SFC, 3/14/05, p.A10)
1970        Sep, GM introduced the compact 1971 Chevrolet Vega. The car was released in 1971 and lasted to 1977. The aluminum and cast-iron engine kept breaking.
    (www.allpar.com/amc/gremlin.html)(SFC, 3/14/05, p.A10)(WSJ, 12/22/08, p.B2)

1970        Dec 10, Ford elected Lee Iacocca (b.1924) as president.
    (www.stfrancis.edu/ba/ghkickul/stuwebs/bbios/biograph/leeic.htm)

1971        Aug 14, Georg von Opel (59), German auto manufacturer, died.
    (MC, 8/14/02)

1971        The US government set strict federal safety standards for the auto industry that included passive restraints, i.e. air bags. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) delayed a passive-restraint mandate until 1976 after Henry Ford II and Ford President Lee Iacocca lobbied President Nixon.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)(www.motorvista.com/airhist.htm)

1971        Rev. Leon Sullivan (1922-2001), a noted Philadelphia minister, became GMu0092s 1st black board member. In 1998 Sullivan authored u0093Moving Mountains.u0094
    (SFC, 6/8/04, B7)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leon_Sullivan)

1971        Swedenu0092s Saab become the first car to have heated seating.
    (AP, 12/19/11)

1972        Ford became the first company to equip vehicles with air bags.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)

1972        John DeLorean left GM to start a car company in Northern Ireland.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)

1972        Industry experts in 1996 picked the 1972 Corvette Stingray as the number 9 favorite car.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)

1972        The Soviet Union began producing more private cars than trucks.
    (Econ, 7/12/08, p.94)

1973        Jun 1, Harvey Jr. Firestone (b.1898), American chairman of Firestone Tire & Rubber Co., died in Akron, Ohio.
.    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harvey_S._Firestone,_Jr.)

1973        Jul 2, Swede Savage died from injuries at Indianapolis 500.
    (SC, 7/2/02)

1973        Italian tire maker Pirelli introduced steel-belted radial tires.
    (Econ, 2/27/10, TQ p.5)

1974        Jan 2, President Nixon signed legislation requiring states to limit highway speeds to 55 mph. Federal speed limits were abolished in 1995. The legislation was conceived by Claude Brinegar (1926-2009), Nixonu0092s secretary of transportation.
    (AP, 1/2/98)(http://tinyurl.com/45ywak)(SFC, 3/18/09, p.B6)

1974        The 1st Volkswagen Golf, a small sporty hatchback, hit the market.
    (Econ, 2/28/04, p.63)

1975        Jan 12, The Pittsburgh Steelers beat the Minnesota Vikings (16-6) in the Superbowl in New Orleans. Bob McCurry of Chrysler Corp. introduced the auto rebate in a 1975 Superbowl commercial.
    (www.jt-sw.com/football/pro/results.nsf/Teams/1974-pit)

1975        Feb 28, AMC introduced the Pacer, the first wide, small car.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/AMC_Pacer)

1975        Japanu0092s Subaru, a division of Fuji Heavy Industries, rolled out its 1st 4-wheel-drive car in the US market.
    (WSJ, 9/16/05, p.W12)

1976        Italian carmaker Fiat began manufacturing cars in Brazil.
    (Econ, 11/15/08, SR p.6)

1977        May 29, Janet Guthrie (b.1938) became the 1st woman to drive in the Indianapolis 500. Her autobiography, "Janet Guthrie: A Life at Full Throttle," was published in 2005.
    (www.janetguthrie.com/biofr.htm)(www.nascar.com/2002/kyn/women/02/02/Guthrie/)

1977        Sep 13, General Motors introduced 1st US diesel auto (Oldsmobile 88).
    (MC, 9/13/01)

1977        Oct 12, The US Supreme Court ruled that communities have a right to prevent commuters from parking in residential neighborhoods.
    (SFC, 10/11/02, p.E7)

1977        The Ford F-Series pickup truck became the best-selling vehicle in the US.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)
1977        Industry experts in 1996 picked the 1977 Lincoln Versailles as the number 8 worst American-made car.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)
1977        Jeep, a division of American Motors, launched a 4-door Cherokee, a forerunner of the SUV boom.
    (WSJ, 12/22/08, p.B2)
1977        The US stopped importation of the German Volkswagen Beetle because it did not meet safety and emissions standards.
    (AP, 8/27/03)

1978        May 13, Joie Chitwood (1912-1988), Texas-born race car driver, set a world record when he drove a Chevette 5.6 miles on just 2 wheels.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joie_Chitwood)

1978        Jul 13, Lee Iacocca was fired as president of Ford Motor Co. by chairman Henry Ford II. Iacocca later joined Chrysler as its president.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl.)(AP, 7/13/97)

1978        Oct 2, The first Yugo 45 was handmade. The Zastava Koral, also known simply as the Yugo, was a subcompact vehicle built in Yugoslavia by Zastava corporation. The Yugo entered the United States by means of Malcolm Bricklin, who wanted to introduce a simple, low cost car to that market. In total 141,511 cars were sold in the US from 1985 to 1991, with the most American units sold in a year peaking at 48,500 in 1987.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zastava_Koral)

1978        GM rolled out large diesel cars in its Cadillac and Oldsmobile divisions. Production of its diesel cars ended in 1985 amid consumer complaints.
    (WSJ, 1/14/05, p.W10)

1979        May 19, The Regents of the Univ. of California asked General Motors to stop doing business with the police and military forces in South Africa.
    (SFC, 5/14/04, p.F5)

1979        Sep 7, The Chrysler Corporation petitioned the United States government for $1.5 billion in loan guarantees to avoid bankruptcy.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chrysler)

1979        Sep, John Riccardo stepped down as Chrysleru0092s chairman and was succeeded by Lee Iacocca.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)(WSJ, 5/15/07, p.A14)

1979        Oct 1, Henry Ford II stepped down as Fordu0092s chairman and CEO and was succeeded by Philip Caldwell (b.1920).
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philip_Caldwell)

1979        A second oil shortage forced US car buyers to search for smaller vehicles.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)

1979        Ford bought a stake in Mazda.
    (HNQ, 11/26/00)

1979-1983    Ford Motors during this period closed 13 factories and dropped its work force from 191,000 to 101,000 people.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)

1980        Jan 7, Pres. Carter signed the Chrysler Corporation Loan Guarantee Act. Financier James Wolfensohn persuaded 400 private lenders to restructure their debt so that a $1 billion loan from the US government could prevent Chrysler from sliding into bankruptcy.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)(SSFC, 9/26/04, p.M4)

1980        Jan 11, Honda announced that it would build Japan's first US passenger-car assembly plant in Ohio.
    (HN, 1/11/99)

1980        Oct 8, British Leyland started selling the Mini Metro.
    (www.austin-rover.co.uk/index.htm?lc8storyf.htm)

1980        Audi introduced its all-wheel-drive Quattro Coupe.
    (WSJ, 9/16/05, p.W12)
1980        American Motors introduced its four-wheel-drive Eagle.
    (WSJ, 9/16/05, p.W12)

1981        Jan 1, Roger Smith (b.1925) took office as chairman and CEO of GM.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)(http://tinyurl.com/2pvqps)

1981        Mar, Diesel cars in the US peaked at 6% of the market as gas prices in the hit $1.42 per gallon, the equivalent of $3.08 in 2005.
    (WSJ, 1/14/05, p.W10)

1982        Oct 19, Carmaker John DeLorean was arrested in Los Angeles and charged in a 24-million-dollar cocaine scheme aimed at salvaging his bankrupt sports car company. He was found not guilty due to entrapment on August 16, 1984.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_De_Lorean)

1982        The US Congress created a Mass Transit Fund within the Highway Trust Fund.
    (Econ, 11/19/11, p.34)
1982        Honda, the first Japanese auto maker to start production in the US, began making the Honda Accord at Marysville, Ohio.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl F, 10/7/96, p.71)(WSJ, 4/1/09, p.A20)

1983        Jun, Japanu0092s Nissan began to produce trucks in the US. Nissan became the first foreign carmaker in America when it opened an assembly plant in Smyrna, Tenn.
    (http://tennesseeencyclopedia.net/imagegallery.php?EntryID=N040)(WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)

1983        Jul 13, Chrysler under Lee Iacocca paid off the last of its guaranteed loans totaling $1.2 billion, 7 years ahead of schedule.
    (http://tinyurl.com/aabvq)

1983        Chrysler Corp. announced plans to make minivans.
    (WSJ, 5/15/07, p.A14)
1983        GM increased the focus on trucks and discontinued the Malibu, introduced in 1963, after 6.5 million units were sold. The Malibu was reintroduced in 1997.
    (WSJ, 4/1/09, p.A20)
1983        Maruti Suzuki India Ltd., a subsidiary company of Japanese automaker Suzuki Motor Corporation, began producing cars in Delhi.
    (Econ, 10/22/11, SR p.12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maruti_Suzuki)
1983        In Malaysia PM Mahathir Mohamed initiated Proton, the Perusahaan Otomobil Nasional (National Car Project). Production of the 1st model, Saga, began in 1985 in association with Mitsubishi of Japan.
    (Econ, 5/8/04, p.61)(WSJ, 7/14/04, p.B2B)(Econ, 12/2/06, p.68)

1984        Aug 16, A federal jury in Los Angeles acquitted auto maker John Z. DeLorean of trafficking in cocaine due to entrapment.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_De_Lorean)

1984        Aug 22, The VW plant at Westmoreland, Pa., produced its last Volkswagen Rabbit.
    (http://tinyurl.com/34j6lf)

1984        GM and Toyota established a joint venture, the New United Motor Manufacturing Inc. (NUMMI), to build cars in Fremont, California.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)(WSJ, 12/22/08, p.B2)
1984        Chrysler introduced the Dodge Caravan, its first Minivan.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)(WSJ, 12/22/08, p.B2)
1984        GM helped originate a jobs bank in which employees continued to be paid even though the company did not need them. Volunteer activity or clocked-in presence in a u0093rubber roomu0094 was required.
    (WSJ, 3/1/06, p.A1)

1984        Shanghai Automotive Industry Corp. (SAIC) with government support partnered with Volkswagen  and produced the Santana model sedan. VW was the first foreign carmaker to establish operation in China.
    (WSJ, 6/30/99, p.A19)(Econ, 11/15/08, SR p.4)

1985        Ford Motor Co. premiered the Taurus. Production of the car was terminated in 2006.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)(SFC, 10/20/06, p.D3)

1986        Mar 31, The state-owned car company BL P.L.C., formerly British Leyland, said that it was pursuing two offers for its Land Rover division after negotiations with the General Motors Corporation collapsed. Range Rover of North America, Inc. soon established its headquarters in Lanham, Maryland with Charles R. Hughes as President and CEO. Just before Christmas 1985 Range Rover of North America (later changed to Land Rover North America), was established to pave the way for a US launch in 1987.
    (http://tinyurl.com/j2do5)(http://tinyurl.com/f8xgo)

1986        Dec 17, A federal jury in Detroit cleared automaker John DeLorean of all 15 charges in his fraud and racketeering trial.
    (http://openweb.tvnews.vanderbilt.edu/1986-12/1986-12-17-ABC-11.html)

1986        Hyundai, a South Korean auto maker, entered the US market with low cost cars.
    (Econ, 6/23/07, p.72)

1987        Mar 9, Chrysler Corp. announced it had agreed to buy the financially ailing American Motors Corp.
    (AP, 3/9/07)

1987        Sep 29, Henry Ford II, longtime chairman of Ford Motor Company, died in Detroit at age 70.
    (AP, 9/29/97)

1987        Greg Wallace opened up Cadillac Historical Services as a service for the vintage Cadillac owner and began serving as a historian for the Cadillac company.
    (SFC, 12/14/96, p.D1)(http://tinyurl.com/4f9s9cr)

1987        Dodge introduced a Cummins engine in its Ram truck.
    (WSJ, 1/14/05, p.W10)

1987        Ford purchased a 75% share of Aston Martin
    (HNQ, 11/26/00)

1987        Mazda opened a new plant in Flat Rock, Mich.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)

1987        Britainu0092s Range Rover was introduced in the US. It was designed in the late 1960s by Charles Spencer King (1925-2010).
    (SSFC, 7/4/10, p.C9)

1987        Toyota introduced All Trac models, featuring 4-wheel-drive, of Camry and other cars.
    (WSJ, 9/16/05, p.W12)

1987        The Soviet Oka car was launched.
    (Econ, 7/12/08, p.94)

1988        Mar 1, Pontiac announced the end of the Fiero automobile.
    (SC, 3/1/02)

1988        Jun 2, The publishers of Consumer Reports magazine called for a ban on the Suzuki Samurai, a popular sport utility vehicle that the magazine said tended to roll over in sudden turns; American Suzuki Motor Corporation defended the vehicle as safe.
    (AP, 6/2/98)

1988        Aug 4, Hertz car rental agreed to pay out $23 million in a consumer fraud case.
    (MC, 8/4/02)

1988        Aug 14, Enzo Ferrari (b.1898), Italian sportscar manufacturer (Ferrari), died.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enzo_Ferrari)

1988        BMW began selling the 325iX all-wheel-drive sports sedan in the US. It stopped 3 years later.
    (WSJ, 9/16/05, p.W12)

1989        May 28, Emerson Fittipaldi of Brazil won the Indianapolis 500 auto race.
    (AP, 5/28/99)

1989        Dec 15, GM and SAAB agreed to form a 50-50 joint auto-making company, called Saab Automobile A.B. GM acquired the rest of SAAB a decade later.
    (http://tinyurl.com/oktgl)(Econ, 1/31/09, p.72)

1989        Milton Friedman authored u0093Agnelli, Fiat and the Network of Italian Power.u0094
    (Econ, 1/28/12, p.80)
1989        Benedict J. Dasher helped open the National Automobile Museum in Reno.
    (SFC, 1/10/04, p.B4)
1989        Ford acquired Jaguar.
    (Econ, 9/25/04, p.77)
1989        Mercedes-Benz began building all-wheel E-Class cars.
    (WSJ, 9/16/05, p.W12)

1990        Mar, GM and SAAB completed setting up a joint auto-making venture in Europe. They had agreed on Dec. 15, 1989, to form a 50-50 joint auto-making company, called Saab Automobile A.B.
    (http://tinyurl.com/oktgl)

1990        Jul 30, GMu0092s first Saturn car rolled off the line at Spring Hill, Tennessee. In the fall, GM introduced its all-new Saturn cars to compete against the imports in the small car market. Roger Smith, GMu0092s CEO, announced the secret Saturn project in 1985 in order to "leap-frog" the Japanese car makers.
    (www.gm.com/company/corp_info/history/gmhis1990.html)

1990        Aug 1, Robert Stempel took charge at GM.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)(http://tinyurl.com/q8mqs)

1990        Dec, Investor Kirk Kerkorian said he had bought a 9.8% stake in Chrysler Corp.
    (WSJ, 5/15/07, p.A14)

1990        Harold "RED" Poling became Fordu0092s chairman and CEO.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)
1990        Ford launched the Explorer, which soon became the best-selling SUV in America. Sales peaked in 2000 at 445,000 units.
    (WSJ, 12/22/08, p.B2)

1991        May 14, General Motors ended production of the Buick Reatta, a two-seater sports car that had been introduced in 1988.
    (WSJ, 6/23/08, p.R2)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buick_Reatta)

1991        Oct 22, General Motors announced a 9 month loss of $2.2 billion.
    (www.scopesys.com/cgi-bin/today2.cgi?askmonth=10&askday=22)

1991        Daniel     T. Jones, Daniel Roos and James P. Womack of MIT authored u0093The Machine That Change the World: The Story of Lean Production,u0094 an account of the Toyota Production System (TPS).
    (Econ, 1/29/05, p.65)
1991        The first annual California Mille, a 4-day, 1,300 mile tour of northern California was organized by Martin Swig (1934-2012), a SF Bay Area car dealer. It was opened to drivers of cars built between 1927-1957, the years that the Mille Miglia race was run in Italy.
    (SFC, 7/7/12, p.A7)(SFC, 4/28/98, p.A13)

1992        May 24, Al Unser Jr. became the first second-generation winner of the Indianapolis 500; his father, four-time winner Al Unser, finished third.
    (AP, 5/24/97)

1992        McLaren produced its first sports car, the F1. A total of 106 cars were produced between 1992 and 1998. The British McLaren F1 was designed and manufactured by Gordon Murray and McLaren Automotive. On March 31, 1998, it set the record for the fastest production car in the world, 240 mph (391 km/h).
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/McLaren_F1)

1993        Feb 4, A jury in Atlanta found General Motors negligent in the fuel-tank design of a pickup truck and awarded $105.2 million to the parents of a teen-ager killed in a fiery 1989 crash. The negligence verdict was later overturned, and the parents of Shannon Moseley reached an out-of-court settlement with GM.
    (AP, 2/4/03)

1993        Feb 8, General Motors sued NBC, alleging that the "Dateline NBC" program had rigged two car-truck crashes to show that 1973-1987 GM pickups were prone to fires in side impact crashes. NBC settled the lawsuit the following day.
    (AP, 2/8/03)

1993        Feb 9, NBC News announced it had settled a defamation lawsuit brought by General Motors over the network's "inappropriate demonstration" of a fiery pickup truck crash on its "Dateline NBC" program.
    (AP, 2/9/03)

1993        May 11, The Senate approved the so-called "motor voter" bill, designed to make voter registration easier.
    (AP, 5/11/98)

1993          May 30, Emerson Fittipaldi won the 77th Indianapolis 500, driving at an average speed of 157.2 mph.
    (AP, 5/30/98)

1993        Jul 13, Race car driver Davey Allison died in Birmingham, Ala., of injuries suffered in a helicopter crash.
    (AP, 7/13/98)

1993        Sep 6, Automakers Renault of France and Volvo of Sweden announced they would merge; however, Volvo canceled the deal the following December.
    (AP, 9/6/98)

1993        Elmer W. Johnson (1932-2008), former GM executive, authored u0093Avoiding the Collision of Cities and Cars.u0094
    (WSJ, 3/15/08, p.A6)

1993        Alabama Governor James E. Folsom Jr. (b.1948) led an offer to Mercedes-Benz of $253 million in incentives to build its 1st auto plant in Vance.
    (WSJ, 4/3/02, p.A1)(http://politicalgraveyard.com/bio/folsom.html)

1993        Fordu0092s European division launched the Mondeo, a car that reflected Fordu0092s new approach to improved dynamics.
    (Econ, 3/8/08, p.73)

1993        Ferdinand Piech left Audi and took over operations at Volkswagen, where he turned losses into profits. He was the grandson of founder Ferdinand Porsche and the son of the companies wartime chief, Anton Piech. In 2002 he was succeeded by Bernd Pischetsrieder. Piech (65) became chairman of Volkswagenu0092s supervisory board.
    (WSJ, 11/7/96, p.A17)(Econ, 12/2/06, p.70)

1993        Daimler-Benz acquired the Dutch plane-maker NV Fokker.
    (WSJ, 1/26/96, A-6)

1993        Fiat Auto SpA bought Maserati.
    (WSJ, 9/24/04, p.B1)

1994        Jan, Bernd Pischetsrieder, CEO of BMW, bought the Rover car group from British Aerospace. The move proved a disaster.
    (Econ, 2/28/04, p.63)

1994        Dec 2, The US government agreed not to seek a recall of allegedly fire-prone General Motors pickup trucks. GM agreed to spend more than $51 million on safety and research.
    (AP, 12/2/99)

1994        Paul Ingrassia and Joseph B. White authored "Comeback: The Fall and Rise of the American Automobile Industry."
    (Econ, 10/11/03, p.82)

1995        Apr 12, In a move that stunned the business world, billionaire Kirk Kerkorian and former Chrysler Chairman Lee Iacocca made an unsolicited $22.8 billion-dollar bid to buy the nation's third largest automaker; Chrysler responded that it wasn't for sale.
    (AP, 4/12/00)

1995        Volkswagen built a large car factory near Lisbon, Portugal.
    (Econ, 1/15/11, p.78)
1995        Ratan Tata decided to enter Indiau0092s passenger car market. The 1st Tata Motors car was produced in 1998.
    (Econ, 4/2/05, p.53)

1995-1996    Fiat SpA of Italy invested $1 bil over this period  for new engines, updated models, and new projects in Brazil
    (WSJ, 5/30/96, p.A11)

1996        Apr 25, Ford Motor Co. announced a recall of about 8 million cars, minivans and pickups because of an ignition switch fire hazard.
    (AP, 4/25/97)

1996        May 14, In France Renault outlined a plan to become majority owned by private investors after more than 5 decades of state control.
    (WSJ, 1/2/97, p.R2)

1996        May 16, GM was expected to pick Thailand over the Philippines for a $1 billion vehicle assembly plant.
    (WSJ, 5/16/96, p.A-1)

1996        May 17, Scott Brayton, race car driver, was killed during a practice run for the US Indy 500 race. He was the 40th driver to die during practice, qualifications or the race. 66 people in all have died in accidents related to the race.
    (SFC, 5/18/96, p.B-1)

1996        May 26, Buddy Lazier won the Indianapolis 500.
    (AP, 5/26/97)

1996        Jun 27, The GM North Tarrytown Assembly Plant in NY produced its last minivan prior to closure for the remaining 2,100 workers.
    (WSJ, 6/26/96, p.A1)

1996        Chrysler engineers began developing a new Hemi engine. It was introduced in 2002.
    (WSJ, 6/17/05, p.A10)

1996        GM introduced its OnStar system as a quick way to summon roadside assistance. In 2009 its slowdown feature was activated for the first time to stop a stolen GM Chevrolet Tahoe.
    (Econ, 11/21/09, p.81)

1997        May 27, Arie Luyendyk won the Indianapolis 500 for the second time.
    (AP, 5/27/98)

1997        Oct 13, A British jet car, Thrust SSC, driven by Andy Green of the Royal Air Force set a land speed record of 764.168 mph in Nevada's Black Rock Desert. The record was not recorded as official because turn around time went over an hour due to braking problems. Green officially broke the record two days later.
    (SFC, 10/14/97, p.A1,7)(AP, 10/13/98)

1997        GM reintroduced the Malibu in an effort to regain sales in the midsize sedan market. It had been discontinued in 1983.
    (WSJ, 4/1/09, p.A20)

1997-1998    Fiat SpA of Italy said it would invest $1 bil over this period in Brazil for new engines, updated models, and new projects.
    (WSJ, 5/30/96, p.A11)

1998        Mar 27, Ferdinand Porsche Jr., creator of the Porsche sports car, died at age 88 in Zell am See, Austria. He was born in Wiener-Neustadt and moved to Germany with his family after WW I where his father became chief engineer of Daimler-Benz, the manufacturer of the Mercedes Benz cars. He wrote an autobiography titled "Cars Are My Life."
    (SFC, 3/28/98, p.B12)(AP, 3/27/99)

1998        Mar 30, In Britain the Rolls-Royce company of Vickers PLC was sold to BMW of Germany for $570 million. However, BMW was later successfully outbid by Volkswagen AG
    (SFC, 3/31/98, p.B4)(AP, 3/30/08)

1998        May 6, Jurgen Schrempp of Daimler Benz and Robert Eaton of Chrysler announced in London that the German auto company will purchase Chrysler in a $38 billion merger. The takeover was later documented by Bill Vlasic and Bradley A. Stertz in their book "Taken for a Ride: How Daimler-Benz Drove Off with Chrysler."
    (WSJ, 5/8/98, p.W1)(WSJ, 6/12/00, p.A28)

1998        May 7, The $34.7 billion merger of Daimler-Benz and Chrysler Corp. was confirmed in London. The parent company of Mercedes-Benz agreed to buy Chrysler Corp. for more than $37 billion.
    (USAT, 5/7/98, p.1A)(AP, 5/7/99)

1998        May 15, In Washington DC Latia Robinson (7) took control of a Honda Accord after her father passed out and drove him safely to a hospital at the beginning of rush hour.
    (SFC, 6/20/98, p.A6)

1998        Oct 5, Rick Wagoner became the president of General Motors.
    (WSJ, 3/30/09, p.A5)

1998        Michelin first produced a PAX tire, which allowed a vehicle to travel with a puncture.
    (Econ, 9/11/04, p.60)

1998        In South Korea Chung Mong-koo, eldest son of founder Chung Ju-yung, took over as head of Hyundai Motor Co.
    (Econ, 5/21/05, p.68)

1999        Jan 28, Ford Motor Co, confirmed the acquisition of the passenger car division of Volvo AB for $6.47 billion.
    (SFC, 1/28/99, p.B1)(WSJ, 1/3/00, p.R12)

1999        Jan, Tata Motors, known at this time as Tata Engineering and Locomotive Company (Telco), launched the Tata Indica, a modern hatchback car with a diesel engine. It was styled by IDEA in Italy.
    (Econ, 11/15/08, SR p.9)

1999        May 30, Kenny Brack won the crash-marred Indianapolis 500, driving a car owned by racing legend A.J. Foyt.
    (AP, 5/30/00)

1999        Jul 9, In LA a jury ordered GM to pay $4.9 billion to 6 people burned when their 1979 Chevrolet Malibu fuel tank exploded Dec 24, 1993 following a rear end collision. In Aug a judge reduced the award to $1.2 billion. A judge later reduced the punitive damages to $1.09 billion, while letting stand $107 million in compensatory damages; GM continued to appeal.
    (SFC, 7/10/99, p.A1)(SFC, 8/27/99, p.A3)(AP, 7/9/00)

1999        The Ford Motor Co. began operating a small assembly plant near St Petersburg, Russia, while GM set up a joint venture with Avtovaz (at the time a byword for corruption and gangsterism).
    (Econ, 11/15/08, SR p.7)

1999        General Motors spun off its parts supplier Delphi Automotive.
    (Econ, 3/12/05, p.61)

1989        In China Beijing and Shanghai began holding a biannual auto show.
    (http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2008-04/19/content_8011178.htm)

1999        Renault threw a line to floundering Nissan with Carlos Ghosn in charge. In 2003 David Magee authored "Turnaround," a look Ghosnu0092s leadership of Nissan.
    (WSJ, 1/31/03, p.W8)

1999        Renault of France spent $50 million to acquire a controlling stake in Dacia, a sickly Romanian car maker formerly owned by the state. The first Renault-Dacia Logan was produced in 2004. The millionth Logan was produced in mid 2008.
    (Econ, 11/15/08, SR p.14)

2000        Mar 27, DaimlerChrysler AG announced it would buy 34 percent of Japanu0092s Mitsubishi Motors Corporation.
    (AP, 3/27/01)

2000        May 12, Adam Petty, 19, the fourth-generation driver of NASCAR's most famous family, died in a crash during practice for the Busch 200 at New Hampshire International Speedway.
    (AP, 5/12/01)

2000        May 28, Juan Montoya won the 84th Indianapolis 500, becoming the first rookie champion since Graham Hill in 1966.
    (AP, 5/28/01)

2000        Jun 1, Rick Wagoner, the president of General Motors, was named CEO of GM.
    (WSJ, 3/30/09, p.A5)

2000        Aug 9, Bridgestone / Firestone Inc. announced the recall of 6.5 million tires used mainly on Ford SUVs and light trucks due to 46 [88] deaths and over [250] 300 accidents related to the tires.
    (SFC, 8/10/00, p.A2)(SFC, 9/6/00, p.A1)

2000        Aug 22, In Japan Mitsubishi Motors admitted that it had concealed tens of thousands customer complaints about automobile defects since 1977.
    (SFC, 8/23/00, p.A10)

2000        Nov, Dieter Zetsche, head of DaimlerChrysleru0092s commercial vehicle division, was tapped to be CEO of Chrysler.
    (WSJ, 5/15/07, p.A14)(http://tinyurl.com/2s2dhu)

2000        Dec 12, General Motors, under new CEO Rick Wagoner, announced a restructure and planned phase out of the Oldsmobile vehicle division following a long slide in  sales.
    (WSJ, 12/12/00, p.A3)(SFC, 12/13/00, p.a3)(WSJ, 12/22/08, p.B2)

2000        Ford Motors spun off its parts supplier Visteon.
    (Econ, 3/12/05, p.61)
2000        GM took full control of Saab.
    (www.detnews.com/2005/autosinsider/0501/19/C01-63842.htm)
2000        Toyota released its Prius in the US, the first mass-produced hybrid vehicle.
    (WSJ, 12/22/08, p.B2)

2001        Jan 8, Donna Bailey (43), paralyzed from a Ford Explorer rollover crash, settled her suit with Ford and Firestone for a total in the range of $20-35 million along with the disclosure of internal memos and reports on tire safety and rollover issues.
    (SFC, 1/9/01, p.A3)

2001        Feb 18, In Florida Dale Earnhardt (b.1951), race car driver, was killed on his final turn at the NASCAR Daytona 500. Later this year Joe Menzer authored "The Wildest Ride," a history of NASCAR racing.
    (SFC, 2/19/01, p.A1)(WSJ, 7/9/01, p.A26)(NW, 12/31/01, p.109)

2001        May 21, Ford Motor and Bridgestone/Firestone announced the termination of their century old business relationship.
    (WSJ, 5/23/01, p.A1)

2001        May 22, Ford Motor Co. said it planned to spend more than $2 billion to replace up to 13 million Firestone tires on its vehicles because of safety concerns.
    (AP, 5/22/02)

2001        Aug 24, Bridgestone/Firestone agreed to pay $7.5 million to the family of Marisa Rodriguez, who was paralyzed in a Ford Explorer crash in 2000. Ford settled before the trial for $6 million.
    (SFC, 8/25/01, p.A3)

2002        Jan 19, Benneta Buell-Wilson (42) was left a paraplegic after her Ford Explorer rolled over in San Diego County after she swerved to avoid an obstacle on the road. An initial ruling awarded her $122 million in compensation and $246 million in punitive damages. The trial judge reduced the total to $150 million. In 2006 an appeals court reduced the total award to $82 million. In 2009 the US Supreme Court upheld her $55 million in punitive damages.
    (SFC, 7/20/06, p.B2)(SFC, 12/1/09, p.C3)

2002        Jan, Ford Motor Co. took a $1 billion write-off on its stock pile of precious metals, mostly palladium.
    (WSJ, 2/6/02, p.A1)

2002        May 26, Helio Castroneves won his second straight Indianapolis 500 despite a protest filed by Paul Tracy.
    (AP, 5/26/03)

2002        Aug 7, Ford Motor Co. and Canadian fuel cell developer Ballard Power Systems Inc. jointly unveiled a hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engine-driven generator they said could help pave the way toward the commercialization of fuel cell technology.
    (Reuters, 8/7/02)

2002        Aug, Porsche rolled out its new Cayenne SUV, the 1st non-sports car in the companyu0092s 54-year history.
    (WSJ, 8/21/02, p.A1)

2002        In India the Mahindra & Mahindra auto maker introduced its Scorpio SUV. By 2005 it was a huge hit.
    (Econ, 11/2/13, p.67)
2002        The Lamborghini Murcielago supercar used all-wheel-drive to help control its 580 horsepower.
    (WSJ, 9/16/05, p.W12)
2002        Nissan launched a joint effort in China with car manufacturer Dongfeng.
    (Econ, 6/12/10, p.71)

2003        Jan 24, Giovanni Agnelli (81), the patriarch of the Fiat auto company, died in Turin after a months-long illness.
    (AP, 1/24/03)

2003        Feb 16, Michael Waltrip raced past leader Jimmie Johnson to win the rain-shortened Daytona 500 for the second time in three years.
    (AP, 2/16/04)

2003        May, A Nissan factory in Canton, Miss., rolled out its 1st car. Mississippi had lured in Nissan with a $290 million package.
    (Econ, 11/29/03, p.29)

2003        May, Bernd Pischetsrieder, former CEO of BMW, took over the top job at Volkswagen.
    (Econ, 2/28/04, p.63)

2003        Jun 16, The 100th anniversary of the founding of Ford Motor Co. Douglas Brinkley authored "Wheels for the World," a history of the company.
    (WSJ, 4/25/03, W6)

2003        Jul 30, The last Volkswagen Beetle was produced in Puebla, Mexico. The first Beetles had arrived in 1956. Mexico had begun producing its own version of the Beetle in 1964.
    (WSJ, 7/31/03, p.A1)(SSFC, 9/14/08, p.A10)

2003        Aug, Toyota sold more cars in America than did Chrysler.
    (Econ, 10/11/03, p.82)

2003        Sep 22, California signed into law a privacy bill, effective Jul 1, 2004, that prevents use of vehicle recorded data without the consent of the owner. GM began installing data boxes in the 1970s.
    (SFC, 9/23/03, p.A1)

2003        Sep 30, Ford planned to cut some 12,000 jobs world-wide. Chrysler planned to eliminate several thousand positions.
    (WSJ, 1/2/04, p.R12)

2003        Nov 20, Motor Trend named the Toyota's hybrid Prius as "Car of the Year."
    (AP, 11/20/03)

2003        Micheline Maynard authored "The End of Detroit: How the Big Three Lost Their Grip on the American Car market."
    (Econ, 10/11/03, p.82)

2003        The introduction of flex-fuel cars, vehicles that could run on ethanol as well as regular petrol, took off in Brazil due to a policy that dated to the 1970s of promoting fuel derived from home-grown sugar cane.
    (Econ, 9/24/05, p.79)

2003        Thailand produced some 470,000 pick-up trucks and ranked behind the US as the worldu0092s 2nd largest producer. Production in 2004 was expected to approach 600,000.
    (Econ, 9/11/04, p.60)

2004        Jan, General Motors announced the purchase of a 51% share of Delta Motors, South Africau0092s 4th largest car firm.
    (Econ, 2/14/04, p.62)

2004        Mar 13, Near Barstow, California, robotic vehicles began a 200-mile road race sponsored by DARPA. The Pentagon sponsored race ended without a winner, as none of the autonomous vehicles built by the 15 qualifying teams was able to travel farther than 7 miles from the starting line.
    (SFC, 3/13/04, p.A1)(AP, 3/14/04)

2004        Mar, KIA Motors, a unit of South Koreau0092s Hyundai group, decided to build a new $850 million plant in Slovakia, where corporate and personal taxes were recently cut to a flat 19%.
    (Econ, 3/6/04, p.60)

2004        Apr 25, The 14th annual "California Mile" vintage 4-day car rally began in SF.
    (SFC, 4/26/04, p.B1)

2004        Apr 29, GM ended production of its Oldsmobile line (b.1897), named after Ransom E. Olds. The last Olds Alero rolled of a GM assembly line in Lansing, Mich.
    (SFC, 4/28/04, p.C1)

2004        Apr, Elon Musk, co-founder of PayPal agreed to invest about $30 million in Tesla Motors, an electric car venture based in San Carlos, Ca. The firm was founded by Martin Eberhard and marc Tarpenning, co-founders of the Rocket e-book firm. In 2006 the Tesla Roadster was assembled by Lotus Cars in England with an electric motor made in Taiwan.
    (SFC, 8/9/06, p.A2)(Econ, 7/29/06, p.73)

2004        May 27, Umberto Agnelli (69), Fiat Chairman, died in Turin.
    (SFC, 5/29/04, p.B6)

2004        Jun 2, Romaniau0092s Pres. Ion Iliescu unveiled the new Logan sedan, a joint venture between Renault and Romaniau0092s Dacia. Starting prices were around $6,100. In 2007 nearly 80,000 Logans were sold in western Europe.
    (SFC, 6/3/04, C5)(Econ, 5/31/08, SR p.7)

2004        Sep, French auto maker Renault rolled out the no-frills Logan. The midsize sedan was launched at a cost of $7,254 (u00805,700) in emerging markets like Poland. Western buyers soon clamored for the car. In June, 2005, Renault began delivering the roomy, unpretentious five-seater to France, Germany, and Spain.
    (AP, 6/25/05)(WSJ, 10/4/06, p.B18)

2004        Oct 14, General Motors Europe said it plans to shed 12,000 jobs, almost 20 percent of its work force, in order to halt chronic losses.
    (AP, 10/14/04)

2004        BMW unveiled the world's fastest hydrogen-powered car at the 2004 Paris auto show. Dubbed the H2R, it can exceed 300 kilometers (185 miles) per hour and reaches 100 km per hour from a standing start in around six seconds.
    (Reuters, 9/12/06)

2004        Chinese car sales reached 2.3 million making it the worldu0092s 4th largest car market. It was expected to overtake Germany in 2005 and Japan by 2010.
    (Econ, 4/23/05, p.61)
2004        A report by the World Health Organization (WHO) said some 600 people were killed daily in traffic accidents in China.
    (SFC, 12/7/07, p.A25)

2005        Jan 20, It was reported that the global car industry had an annual excess capacity of some 24 million vehicles.
    (WSJ, 1/20/05, p.A1)

2005        Jan, Carlos Ghosnu0092s u0093Shift: Inside Nissanu0092s Historic Revivalu0094 was published in English.
    (Econ, 2/26/05, p.66)

2005        Feb 16, CEO Sergio Marchionne announced Fiat SpA will buy the Maserati sportscar brand from Ferrari, a company in which it already had a majority stake, just three days after winning independence from General Motors Corp.
    (AP, 2/16/05)(Econ, 4/26/08, p.88)

2005        Mar 19, John Z. DeLorean (80), developer of the gull-winged sports car, died in Michigan. He quit GM in 1973 to launch the DeLorean Motor Car Co. in Northern Ireland. Eight years later, the DeLorean DMC-12 hit the streets.
    (AP, 3/21/05)

2005        Apr 15, Administrators for Britainu0092s MG Rover Group said they intend to break up the company, laying off 5,000 workers, in a bid to find buyers for different units after the Shanghai Automotive Industry Corp. made clear it was not interested in a joint venture.
    (AP, 4/15/05)

2005        Apr 19, General Motors reported a loss of $1.1 billion for the 3 months ending in March, its worst quarterly performance since 1992.
    (Econ, 4/23/05, p.71)

2005        May 17, Toyota said it will build a gasoline-electric hybrid version of the Camry at its plant in Georgetown, Ky.
    (WSJ, 5/18/05, p.D4)

2005        May, Carlos Ghosn, head of Nissan, was set to also become head of Renault.
    (Econ, 2/26/05, p.66)

2005        Jun 4, It was reported that the death rate on Chinau0092s roads, according to the WHO, was 680 per day plus 45,000 injuries. American traffic deaths in contrast were at 115 per day.
    (Econ, 6/4/05, p.25)

2005        Jun 7, General Motors announced plans to close plants and eliminate some 25,000 manufacturing jobs in the US by 2008.
    (SFC, 6/805, p.C1)

2005        Jun 14, Japanese automaker Toyota Motor Corp. broke ground on a new assembly plant in St. Petersburg, in a vote of confidence in the booming Russian consumer market despite investors' jitters over the Yukos case.
    (AP, 6/14/05)(Econ, 7/16/05, p.58)

2005        Jul, In Russia the 1st Logan cars, made by Renault, went on sale. They were made at the former Moskvitch plant in Moscow.
    (Econ, 7/16/05, p.58)

2005        Nov 22, Motor Trend magazine named the Honda Civic as 2006 Car of the Year.
    (AP, 11/22/05)

2005        In Belgium deaths from traffic accidents reached 11.2 per 100,000 inhabitants. Blame was put on the lack of stop signs at most intersections.
    (WSJ, 9/25/06, p.A1)

2006        Mar 2, General Motors Corp. said it has made major steps in developing a commercially viable hydrogen-powered vehicle and expects it can get the emission-free cars into dealerships in the next four to nine years.
    (AFP, 3/2/06)

2006        Jul 23, The 654-foot Singapore-flagged Cougar Ace, a cargo ship carrying 4,813 cars from Japan to Canada, began tilting to its port side late at night hundreds of miles off Alaska's Aleutian Islands. 23 crew members were rescued the next day. The ship was owned by Tokyo-based Mitsui O.S.K. Lines and listed on its side for several weeks before being righted. 4,703 of the cars were new Mazdas valued at about $100 million. After a year of planning Mazda scheduled all the cars for complete reduction to scrap in Portland, Ore.
    (AP, 7/25/06)(SFC, 7/25/06, p.A2)(WSJ, 4/29/08, p.A9)

2006        Sep 5, Bill Ford stepped down as CEO of Ford Motor Co. and was replaced by Alan Mulally, a top Boeing executive.
    (SFC, 9/6/06, p.C3)

2006        Sep 15, US automaker Ford Motor Co. unveiled sweeping job cuts and plant closures to stem losses and said it has no intention of selling its luxury brand Jaguar. Ford said it would cut 10,000 more white-collar positions, up from a previous goal of 4,000, and offer buyout and early retirement to all 75,000 hourly employees. Ford stock closed at $8.02.
    (AFP, 9/15/06)(SFC, 9/16/06, p.C1)(WSJ, 9/16/06, p.A1)

2006        Nov 14, Honda unveiled the hydrogen powered Honda FCX in Monterey, Ca. Hondo planned to produce fuel cell cars within 2 years.
    (SFC, 11/15/06, p.A1)

2006        Nov 29, Still losing money after job and factory cuts, Ford Motor Co. said 38,000 workers, almost half of its hourly production force, had accepted buyouts or early retirement offers.
    (AP, 11/29/07)

2006        Nov, Venezuela inaugurated its Venirauto car factory, a joint venture with Iran. The first 300 units were released on July 9, 2007.
    (Econ, 11/28/09, p.42)(www.venezuelanalysis.com/news/2491)

2007        Jan 26, In Germany Peter Hartz, Volkswagen human resources executive, was fined $750,000 and given a 2-year suspended sentence after he pleaded guilty to funding an account that provided special travel perks for employees.
    (www.wsws.org/articles/2007/jan2007/volk-j27.shtml)

2007        Jan, Chinau0092s Changfeng Group Co., made its first appearance at the international auto show in Detroit, Mich. China numbered over 100 automakers and industry consolidation was expected.
    (WSJ, 1/3/06, p.B1)

2007        Feb 14, German-US auto giant DaimlerChrysler said it planned to axe 13,000 jobs at its loss-making Chrysler subsidiary as part of a broad restructuring plan aimed at returning the US unit to profitability by 2009. The bulk of the job losses will affect union workers, with 9,000 hourly jobs eliminated in the United States and 2,000 in Canada.
    (AP, 2/14/07)

2007        Mar 6, Volkswagen's new chief executive Martin Winterkorn has been nominated as chairman of Swedish truck maker Scania in a new phase in the plans for a three-way tie-up with German group MAN. VW is Scania's biggest shareholder with a voting stake of 34 percent and traditionally holds the chair of the Swedish truck maker's supervisory board.
    (AFP, 3/6/07)

2007        Apr 24, Japan's Toyota Motor Corp. reported that it outsold General Motors Corp. by around 90,000 vehicles in the first quarter, moving a step closer to unseating its US rival as the world's biggest automaker. Aside from a few strike-related blips GM had been the top US car seller since 1931.
    (Reuters, 4/24/07)(Econ, 4/28/07, p.76)

2007        May 14, German-based DaimlerChrysler said it will sell almost all of money-losing Chrysler to Cerberus, a private equity firm, for $7.4 billion, backing out of a troubled 1998 takeover aimed at creating a global automotive powerhouse. John Snow, former US treasury secretary, served as chairman of Cerberus.
    (AP, 5/14/07)(Econ, 5/19/07, p.67)

2007        May 27, Dario Franchitti won a rain-abbreviated Indy 500.
    (AP, 5/27/08)

2007        Jul 4, In Italy some 100,000 people in Turin celebrated the launch of the new Fiat 500 (Cinquecento), 50 years following the launch of the 1st Fiat 500.
    (Econ, 7/14/07, p.69)

2007        Aug 6, Cerberus Capital Management LP named Robert Nardelli, former CEO of Home Depot, to lead its newly acquired Chrysler unit.
    (WSJ, 8/6/07, p.A1)

2007        Sep 9, Volkswagen announced the Up! At the Frankfurt Motor Show. The 6,000 euro ($8,300) is a small car intended for emerging markets.
    (Econ, 9/15/07, p.78)

2007        Sep 24, More than 73,000 General Motors Corp workers walked off the job after marathon contract talks between the United Auto Workers union and GM stalled and the union called the first national strike since 1970 against the top U.S. automaker.
    (Reuters, 9/25/07)

2007        Sep 26, The United Auto Workers union and General Motors Corp reached a tentative contract, ending a national strike by 73,000 workers with a groundbreaking deal that includes a health-care trust fund.
    (AP, 9/26/07)

2007        Oct 10, Thousands of Chrysler LLC autoworkers walked off the job after the automaker and the United Auto Workers union failed to reach a tentative contract agreement before a union-imposed deadline. Hours later negotiators reached a tentative agreement.
    (AP, 10/10/07)(WSJ, 10/11/07, p.A3)

2007        Oct 27, Despite significant dissent among some of its workers, United Auto Workers members narrowly passed a four-year contract agreement with Chrysler LLC.
    (AP, 10/27/08)

2007        Nov 3, United Auto Workers agreed to a tentative contract with Ford Motor Co.
    (AP, 11/3/08)

2007        Nov 11, Proton, Malaysiau0092s national car maker, said it planned to team up with companies in Iran and Turkey to produce "Islamic cars" for the global market.
    (http://money.cnn.com/2007/11/12/news/international/bc.mi.malaysia.islamicc.ap/)

2007        Nov 29, Roger B. Smith (82), former chairman and CEO of General Motors, died in Detroit. He was the target of Michael Mooreu0092s 1989 film u0093Roger & Me.u0094 During his term GMu0092s market share dropped from 45% to 36%. It currently stood at 24%.
    (SFC, 12/1/07, p.B5)

2007        Rhode Island lawmakers ended a 51-year prohibition on Sunday auto sales.
    (WSJ, 11/6/08, p.A14)
2007        In China the Great Wall Motor company in Hebei province produced 108,000 vehicles this year. The company had ambitious plans for growth. It already built cars with a licensee in Iran and in 2006 had opened a factory in the Ukraine.
    (Econ, 5/10/08, p.74)
2007        Road accidents in India averaged nearly 100,000 per year.
    (SFC, 12/7/07, p.A25)

2008        Jan 3, Ford Motor Co. named Tata Motors Ltd. the top bidder for its Jaguar and Land Rover brands and entered into "focused negotiations at a more detailed level."
    (AP, 1/3/08)

2008        Jan 4, The annual 5,760 Dakar Rally was canceled on the eve of the race across the Sahara Desert because of terror threats and the recent killings of a French family in Mauritania blamed on al-Qaida-linked militants. The race, organized by the France-based Amaury Sport Organization (ASO), had been due to start in Lisbon, Portugal, and finish in Dakar, Senegal, on Jan. 20.
    (AP, 1/4/08)(WSJ, 1/5/08, p.A1)

2008        Jan 10, India's Tata Motors unveiled the world's cheapest car, bringing new mobility within the reach of tens of millions of people and nightmares to environmentalists, traffic engineers and safety advocates. The Tata Nano was expected to sell for about $2,500.
    (AP, 1/10/08)(SFC, 1/11/08, p.C1)

2008        Jan 18, Renault-Nissan signed an accord with the Moroccan government for what it says will be one of its largest automobile-making operations in the world, set to be constructed near Tangiers.
    (AFP, 1/18/08)

2008        Jan 30, Auto giant Ford announced a multi-million dollar investment in South Africa, brushing aside fears about an electricity crisis which has alarmed other international investors.
    (AP, 1/30/08)

2008        Feb 2, South Korean car giant Hyundai Motor Co opened a second plant in India, making the country its biggest foreign manufacturing site.
    (AP, 2/2/08)

2008        Feb 12, General Motors Corp. reported a $38.7 billion loss for 2007, the largest annual loss ever for an automotive company, and said it is making a new round of buyout offers to US hourly workers in hopes of replacing some of them with lower-paid help.
    (AP, 2/12/08)

2008        Feb 13, The WTO condemned China for the first time for taxing imports of auto parts at the same rate as foreign-made finished cars.
    (SFC, 2/14/08, p.C3)

2008        Feb 16, In Maryland a car plowed into a crowd that had gathered to watch a drag race on a suburban road, killing 8 people and injuring at least four.
    (AP, 2/16/08)(SSFC, 2/17/08, p.A2)

2008        Feb 27, The German luxury carmaker BMW said that a restructuring plan aimed at boosting profitability would see the overall elimination of 8,100 jobs worldwide.
    (AP, 2/27/08)
2008        Feb 27, Italian tax police busted a ring of auto-body shops involved in creating fake Ferraris using Pontiac Fieros.
    (WSJ, 2/28/08, p.D5)

2008        Feb, Renault SA invested $1 billion for a 25% stake in Russian car maker OAO Avtovaz.
    (WSJ, 3/21/08, p.A1)(Econ, 6/7/08, p.74)

2008        Mar 21, It was reported that the French built Smart ForTwo by Daimler would be introduced in the US, the 37th country to sell the small car, for a starting price of $12,235. This followed 10 years after its European launch.
    (WSJ, 3/21/08, p.W10)

2008        Mar 23, South Korea's Hyundai Motor said it would begin mass producing hybrid cars next year amid growing demand for fuel-efficient and environmentally friendly vehicles.
    (AP, 3/23/08)

2008        Mar 26, India's Tata Motors said it had bought British luxury icons Jaguar and Land Rover from ailing US carmaker Ford Motor Co for 1.15 billion pounds (2.3 billion dollars).
    (AP, 3/26/08)

2008        Apr 10, Iran reported that the SenIran Auto plant in Thies, Senegal's second largest city, has built its first Iran-Khodro Samand sedan. Iran Khodro is the largest carmaker in the Middle East, Central Asia and North Africa regions with annual production of more than one million various vehicles including cars, trucks and buses.
    (Econ, 2/6/10, p.49)

2008        May 19, Nissan Motor Co. and NEC corp. announced plans to begin mass-producing lithium-ion batteries for electric cars. Nissan and Renault planned to have an all-electric car in the US and Japan by 2010.
    (WSJ, 5/20/08, p.B1)

2008        Jun 4, In Canada angry autoworkers blockaded the entrance to General Motors of Canada headquarters in Oshawa, Ontario, one day after GM said it would shut its Oshawa truck plant as well as 2 plants in the US and one in Mexico.
    (Reuters, 6/4/08)

2008        Jun 10, Japanu0092s Toyota said it will start making the Camry hybrid in Australia and Thailand as part of the its efforts to step up production of "green" cars around the world.
    (AP, 6/10/08)

2008        Jun 16, The FCX Clarity, Honda's new zero-emission, hydrogen fuel cell car, rolled off a Japanese production line and headed to Southern California, where Hollywood is already abuzz over the latest splash in green motoring.
    (AP, 6/16/08)

2008        Jul 15, Volkswagen announced that it would build a $1 billion car plant in Chattanooga, Tenn., and expected to open it as soon as 2011.
    (WSJ, 7/30/08, p.C10)(www.youtube.com/watch?v=IiFdSOp19gU)

2008        Jul 24, Ford Motor Co. posted the worst quarterly performance in its history, losing $8.67 billion in the second quarter.
    (AP, 7/24/08)
2008        Jul 24, French giant automaker Renault said it will cut about 5,000 jobs in Europe among measures to reduce costs by 10 percent as it prepares for a sharp and possibly rocky downturn.
    (AFP, 7/24/08)

2008        Aug 7, It was reported that the Dubai-based Al Yousuf Group has invested $10 million in Zap, a Santa Rosa, Ca., firm that makes electric cars.
    (SFC, 8/7/08, p.C1)

2008        Aug 24, In India about 40,000 protesters surrounded the Tata Motors factory slated to produce the Nano, the world's cheapest car, alleging land for the site was forcibly taken from local farmers. A day earlier Ratan Tata, whose Tata Motors is India's top vehicle-maker, warned he would move the plant out of the state if the demonstrations kept up, although his company has already invested 350 million dollars in the project.
    (AFP, 8/24/08)

2008        Sep 23, Chrysler LLC disclosed that it had lost $400 million so far this year just hours after it unveiled prototypes of 3 new electric cars.
    (WSJ, 9/24/08, p.B1)

2008        Oct 2, Nissan unveiled the Nuvu, a prototype for an electric city car.
    (WSJ, 4/9/09, p.B2)(http://odeo.com/episodes/23832952-Nissan-NuVu-Concept-EV)

2008        Oct 3, India's Tata Group announced it was abandoning a plant in eastern India which was slated to turn out the world's cheapest car after weeks of violent demonstrations triggered by a land dispute.
    (AFP, 10/3/08)

2008        Oct 7, In India Tata Chairman Ratan Tata said the company had acquired 1,100 acres in Gujarat state and will relocate equipment from the failed Nano minicar project in West Bengal.
    (WSJ, 10/8/08, p.A14)

2008        Nov 6, The leaders of GM, Ford and Chrysler came to Capital Hill along with the president of the UAW to discuss billions of dollars in financial help for the struggling car industry.
    (SFC, 11/7/08, p.C3)

2008        Nov 7, General Motors Corp. reported $2.5 billion losses in the third quarter, burning through $6.9 billion in cash and warned that it could run out of cash in 2009. GM also said it has suspended talks to acquire Chrysler. Meanwhile, Ford Motor Co. said it lost $129 million in the third quarter as the struggling automaker burned through $7.7 billion in cash and set plans for more job cuts.
    (http://cbs5.com/business/ford.posts.loss.2.858582.html)
2008        Nov 7, General Motors Corp. dedicated its first Russian assembly plant, a $300 million, 70,000-car-a-year factory just outside of St. Petersburg.
    (AP, 11/7/08)

2008        Nov 17, US Automakers begged governments to save them amid a spreading global recession. Cash-strapped General Motors Corp. said it will sell its entire stake in Suzuki Motor Corp. for 22.37 billion yen ($230 million), the automaker's latest move to stay afloat while awaiting a decision on government aid for the industry.
    (AP, 11/17/08)

2008        Nov 18, The chief executives of Detroitu0092s Big Three automakers appeared before the US Senate Banking Committee along with the head of the UAW union to plea for financial aid under the current economic crises.
    (WSJ, 11/19/08, p.A1)

2008        Nov 20, US Congressional efforts to rescue Detroitu0092s auto makers collapsed with lawmakers saying the industry lacks credibility to return to profitability. Democrats asked for a convincing turnaround plan by Dec 2.
    (WSJ, 11/21/08, p.A1)

2008        Dec 2, Detroitu0092s Big Three auto makers presented turnaround plans to Congress and sought $34 billion in aid.
    (WSJ, 12/3/08, p.A1)
2008        Dec 2, Hawaii unveiled plans to be first in the nation to roll out electric car stations statewide, a move Gov. Linda Lingle  hailed as a major step toward weaning the islands off oil.
    (AP, 12/3/08)

2008        Dec 10, Congressional officials said majority Democrats and the White House have finalized a deal to spend $15 billion on emergency loans for struggling US automakers.
    (AP, 12/10/08)

2008        Dec 11, The $14 billion package to aid General Motors Corp., Ford Motor Co. and Chrysler LLC collapsed amid disputes over union wage cuts. A band of mostly Republican Southern senators, including states that subsidized foreign auto makers, formed the heart of the opposition.
    (AP, 12/12/08)(WSJ, 12/12/08, p.A3)

2008        Dec 12, The White House and the Treasury said they were considering diverting money from the Wall Street rescue fund to stave off bankruptcy filings among the carmakers. General Motors Corp. said it will temporarily close 20 factories across North America and make sweeping cuts to its vehicle production as it tries to adjust to dramatically weaker automobile demand.
    (AP, 12/12/08)

2008        Dec 15, In China the BYD Co. introduced the F3DB, countryu0092s first homegrown electric vehicle for the mass market. The sedan was expected to be priced at about $22,000 and introduced to the US in the second half of 2010.
    (WSJ, 12/13/08, p.B2)

2008        Dec 16, In Italy Fiat Group SpA for the first time shut down most of its Italian plants for a month, laying off nearly 50,000 workers for an extended holiday as it copes with the precipitous drop in demand for new cars.
    (AP, 12/16/08)

2008        Dec 20, The Canadian and Ontario governments announced they would follow the US in providing C$4 billion ($3.3 billion) in emergency loans to the Canadian arms of Detroit's ailing automakers to keep them operating while they restructure their businesses.
    (Reuters, 12/20/08)
2008        Dec 20, Some 500 motorists rallied in Russia's far east to protest the government's decision to raise car import tariffs. Thousands of others were expected to stage similar demonstrations across Russia on Dec 21.
    (AP, 12/20/08)

2008        Dec 21, In far east Russia riot police in Vladivostok clubbed, kicked and detained dozens of people as hundreds across the country protested an increase in car import tariffs.
    (AP, 12/21/08)(WSJ, 12/22/08, p.A1)

2008        Dec 22, Toyota Motor Corp. projected its first-ever operating loss since 1939, acknowledging  that its nine-year stretch of global vehicle-sales growth had stalled. Pres. Katsuaki Watanabe projected an operating loss of $1.7 billion.
    (AP, 12/22/08)(WSJ, 12/23/08, p.A7)

2008        Dec 29, The US federal government approved $6 billion in aid to GMAC LLC, the financing company vital to the future of General Motors.
    (WSJ, 12/30/08, p.A1)

2008        Dec, Bolivia banned imports of 2nd-hand cars over 5-years old. In 2011 the government provided a 25-day amnesty for owners to register illegal imports and pay a fine.
    (www.startribune.com/templates/Print_This_Story?sid=36387719)(Econ, 6/25/11, p.48)
2008        Dec, In Norway Think Global AS, a front runner in the plug-in car market, filed for Bankruptcy after its failure to get capital financing under the current credit crunch.
    (WSJ, 1/24/08, p.B2)

2008        Steven M. Gelber authored u0093Horse Trading in the Age of Cars: Men in the Marketplace.u0094
    (WSJ, 12/3/08, p.A15)
2008        Lewis H. Siegelbaum authored u0093Cars for Comrades: The Life of the Soviet Automobile.u0094
    (Econ, 7/12/08, p.94)
2008        The assets of Zastava, a Serbian maker of Yugo cars and Kalashnikov rifles, were transferred to a new company, Fiat Automobili Srbija (FAS).
    (Econ, 11/2/13, p.70)

2009        Jan 11, South Koreau0092s Hyundai Genesis was named North American Car of the Year and the Ford F-150 as the 2009 North American Truck of the Year. The awards were first given in 1994. This was the first time a Korean automaker has won.
    (Econ, 3/7/09, p.71)(www.northamericancaroftheyear.org/)

2009        Jan 20, Chrysler and Italyu0092s Fiat confirmed they had reached an agreement on an alliance that would give Fiat a 35% stake in Chrysler, but only if Chrysler gets $3 billion more in financial help from Washington.
    (WSJ, 1/21/09, p.B1)
2009        Jan 20, In Japan Toyota tapped Akio Toyoda, grandson of the automaker's founder, as president, paying homage to its roots at a time when the company faces its first operating loss in 70 years.
    (AP, 1/20/09)

2009        Jan 21, GM reported an 11% drop in 2008 vehicle sales, relinquishing its crown as the worldu0092s biggest auto maker to Toyota after 77 years.
    (WSJ, 1/22/09, p.B3)

2009        Jan 27, Lord Mandelson, business secretary to Britainu0092s PM Gordon Brown, announced loan guarantees of up to 2.3 billion pounds (2.5 billion euros, 3.2 billion dollars) in credit funding for its ailing auto industry.
    (AP, 1/27/09)(Econ, 1/31/09, p.63)

2009        Jan 31, Porsche's new museum in Stuttgart, a sprawling monument to 60 years of German engineering, opened to the public.
    (AP, 1/30/09)

2009        Feb 9, Nissan said it is slashing 20,000 jobs, or 8.5 percent of its global work force, to cope with what Japan's third-largest automaker expects will be its first annual loss in nine years.
    (AP, 2/9/09)
2009        Feb 9, The French government said it would give $8.4 million in low interest loans to Renault SA and PSA Peugeot-Citroen in exchange for pledges that the car makers wonu0092t close any factories of lay off workers in France for the duration of the funding.
    (WSJ, 2/10/09, p.B2)

2009        Feb 10, General Motors Corp. said it will cut 10,000 salaried jobs, citing the need to restructure itself with a government deadline looming and amid some of the worst sales in the auto industry's history.
    (AP, 2/10/09)

2009        Feb 17, Chrysler and GM told the US government they may need up to $21.6 billion in combined bailout loans. GMu0092s survival plan called for cutting a total of 47,000 jobs globally and closing 5 more US factories.
    (SFC, 2/18/09, p.C1)(WSJ, 2/18/09, p.A1)

2009        Feb 20, General Motors Corp.'s Swedish-based subsidiary Saab went into bankruptcy protection so the unit can be spun off or sold by its struggling US parent.
    (AP, 2/20/09)
2009        Feb 20, The Canadian units of General Motors Corp and Chrysler sought as much as C$10 billion ($8 billion) in aid from the Canadian and Ontario governments as they fought to survive an industry wide crisis.
    (AP, 2/21/09)

2009        Feb 23, Ford Motor Co. said it has reached a tentative deal with the United Auto Workers union on changes to retiree health care, becoming the first Detroit automaker to secure union concessions on the key issue.
    (Reuters, 2/23/09)
2009        Feb 23, Honda Motor Co. named Takanobu Ito (55), head of core automaking operations, as its new chief executive, in an effort to provide fresh leadership to battle a global crisis in the auto industry. He replaced Takeo Fukui (64) as CEO and president.
    (AP, 2/23/09)

2009        Feb 26, General Motors reported a $9.6 billion 4th quarter loss bringing its loss for the year 2008 to $30.9 billion. This was its 2nd worst financial performance in its 100 year history.
    (WSJ, 2/27/09, p.B1)

2009        Mar 9, California-based Genencor, a division of Danisco A/S, announced the first transfer of BioIsopreneu0099 product to The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co. By December the worldu0092s first concept demonstration tires made with BioIsopreneu0099 technology, a breakthrough alternative to replace a petrochemically produced ingredient in the manufacture of synthetic rubber with renewable biomass, made their debut in Copenhagen, Denmark.
    (http://tinyurl.com/27vewpy)(Econ, 4/24/10, p.79)

2009        Mar 23, Indiau0092s Tata Motors launched its ultra-cheap Nano car in Mumbai. The vehicle was hoped to herald a revolution by making it possible for the world's poor to purchase their first car.
    (AP, 3/22/09)

2009        Mar 26, In Los Angeles US automaker Tesla Motors unveiled its state-of-the-art five-seat sedan, billed as the world's first mass-produced, highway-capable electric car. The San Carlos company said it would likely be built in Southern California rather than San Jose.
    (AFP, 3/26/09)(SFC, 3/27/09, p.C1)

2009        Mar 30, President Barack Obama said that neither General Motors nor Chrysler has proposed sweeping enough changes to justify further large federal bailouts, and demanded "painful concessions" from creditors, unions and others as their price for survival. Driving home the point, the White House ousted the GM Chairman Rick Wagoner as it rejected GM and Chrysler's restructuring plans. Fritz Henderson, GM's president and chief operating officer, became the new CEO. Board member Kent Kresa, the former chairman and CEO of defense contractor Northrop Grumman Corp., was named interim chairman of the GM board.
    (AP, 3/30/09)
2009        Mar 30, Malaysia's national car maker Proton and Detroit Electric, a Dutch-based company, signed a $555 million deal to make zero emission electric cars that they said would be more powerful that any existing model.
    (AP, 3/30/09)
2009        Mar 30, In Russia PM Putin pledged over $1 billion in state support to its ailing car industry in a bid to avoid heavy job losses and potential social unrest.
    (WSJ, 3/31/09, p.B2)(http://tinyurl.com/csyby9)

2009        Mar 31, Fritz Henderson, GM's new chief executive said that more of the automaker's plants could close and bankruptcy is "more probable" as it works to meet new, tougher requirements for government aid. In his first news conference as CEO, Henderson said he expects the company would "need to take further measures" beyond the 5 plants the company said it would shutter when it submitted a restructuring plan to the government last month.
    (AP, 4/1/09)
2009        Mar 31, Volkswagen opened a new plant in western India, pledging to make further inroads into the country's growing auto market.
    (AFP, 3/31/09)

2009        Apr 7, GM and Segway announced that they are working together to develop a two-wheeled, two-seat electric vehicle designed to be a fast, safe, inexpensive and clean alternative to traditional cars and trucks for cities across the world. The project was called P.U.M.A. (Personal Urban Mobility and Accessibility).
    (AP, 4/7/09)(WSJ, 4/8/09, p.B4)

2009        Apr 16, The British government promised a multimillion pound investment to try to jumpstart the market for environmentally friendly electric cars.
    (SFC, 4/17/09, p.A2)

2009        Apr 19, The Shanghai Motor Show opened. Porsche kicked off the show by unveiling the Panamera, the German luxury carmaker's first foray into the sedan segment.
    (http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/8007484.stm)

2009        Apr 20, At the Shanghai Motor Show Rolls Royce CEO Tom Purves announced that the company's new model would be called Ghost.
    (http://tinyurl.com/dfqycq)(Econ, 5/9/09, p.66)

2009        Apr 22, Britainu0092s Chancellor Alistair Darling said the government will pay drivers to swap old cars for new in a scheme to boost its stricken auto sector, mirroring moves in Germany and other European nations. He also said he saw the economy starting to grow again by the end of this year following the worst recession since World War II.
    (AP, 4/22/09)(AFP, 4/21/09)

2009        Apr 24, The Canadian Auto Workers union and Chrysler Canada reached a tentative concession deal that would cut about C$19 ($15.70) an hour from labor costs in a bid to keep the struggling automaker from bankruptcy.
    (Reuters, 4/24/09)

2009        Apr 26, A deal between Chrysler and the UAW was revealed that would give the union a 55% stake in the company in return for concessions. Under the plan Fiat SpA would eventually own 35% and the US government together with secured lenders would own up to 10%.
    (WSJ, 4/28/09, p.A8B)

2009        Apr 27, General Motors Corp. said it will cut 21,000 US factory jobs by next year, phase out its storied Pontiac brand and ask the government to take more than half its stock in exchange for half of GM's government debt as part of a major restructuring that would leave current shareholders holding just 1 percent of the company.
    (AP, 4/27/09)

2009        Apr 30, Chrysler filed for bankruptcy protection after overnight talks broke down with a small group of the company's creditors. Canada's government said it will take an ownership stake in Chrysler in exchange for more than $2 billion in loans, under a sweeping North American rescue plan. Ottawa and Washington demanded the Detroit company partner with Fiat as a condition for funding.
    (AP, 4/30/09)(Reuters, 5/1/09)

2009        May 4, In Germany Sergio Marchionne, the boss of Italy's Fiat, drummed up support in Berlin for audacious plans to snap up General Motors' European arm and merge it with the bankrupt Chrysler to create a new global auto giant. Germany's economy minister said Fiat Group SpA wants to take over GM's Opel unit without running up debt and would preserve the three main German assembly plants if successful.
    (AFP, 5/4/09)(AP, 5/4/09)

2009        May 5, Pres. Obama and Democratic lawmakers reached agreement on a legislative proposal designed to stimulate US auto sales, which have fallen to near 30-year lows.
    (AP, 5/6/09)

2009        May 7, General Motors Corp. lost $6 billion in the first quarter and its revenue was cut nearly in half as car buyers feared the wounded auto giant would enter bankruptcy and no longer honor its warranties.
    (AP, 5/7/09)

2009        May 14, Chrysler LLC said in a bankruptcy court filing that it wants to eliminate roughly a quarter of its 3,200 US dealerships by early next month, because the network is antiquated and has too many stores competing with each other.
    (AP, 5/14/09)

2009        May 15, General Motors said it plans to eliminate some 1,000 of 6,000 showrooms over the next year in an effort to boost profits by lessening competition among dealers.
    (SFC, 5/16/09, p.C1)

2009        May 19, President Barack Obama announced a new fuel and emission standard that he says will, at last, put the United States on the road to a cleaner environment and better fuel efficiency.
    (AP, 5/19/09)(SFC, 5/19/09, p.A1)
2009        May 19, Tesla, an electric car maker in San Carlos, Ca., sold a 10% stake to German auto giant Daimler.
    (SFC, 5/20/09, p.C1)

2009        May 30, German Chancellor Angela Merkel said General Motors Corp. will sell its Opel unit and other European assets to Canada's Magna International Inc. in a deal that would protect the assets from GM's likely bankruptcy.
    (AP, 5/30/09)

2009        Jun 1, General Motors filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection as part of the Obama administration's plan to shrink the automaker to a sustainable size and give a majority ownership stake to the federal government. GM assets were valued at $82.2 billion with liabilities at $172 billion. The US government planned to receive 60.8% of GM stock, Canadau0092s government 11.7%, the UAWu0092s trust 17.5% and bondholders 10%. GM said it will permanently close nine more plants and idle three others to trim production and labor costs under bankruptcy protection. GM was expected to lose 14 factories, 29,000 workers and 2,400 dealers.
    (AP, 6/1/09)(Econ, 6/6/09, p.9,60, 62)

2009        Jun 2, GM struck a tentative deal to sell its Hummer brand to Chinau0092s Sichuan Tengzhong Heavy Industrial Machinery Co.
    (SFC, 6/3/09, p.C2)

2009        Jun 5, General Motors Corp. announced a tentative deal to sell its Saturn brand to former race car driver and dealership group owner Roger Penske.
    (AP, 6/5/09)

2009        Jun 8, In Britain van maker LDV was placed in administration after the collapse of a rescue deal by Malaysian firm Weststar collapsed. Up to 850 jobs and thousands more in the supply chain were threatened. The company, owned by Russian giant GAZ, applied to Birmingham County Court for administrators to be appointed.
    (AFP, 6/8/09)

2009        Jun 10, Italy's Fiat became the new owner of the bulk of Chrysler's assets, closing a deal that saves the troubled US automaker from liquidation and places a new company in the hands of Fiat's CEO.
    (AP, 6/10/09)

2009        Jun 16, GM and Sweden's Koenigsegg said they have struck a deal for Koenigsegg, a niche manufacturer of some of the world's fastest and most expensive sports cars, to buy loss-making Saab Automobile from General Motors.
    (Reuters, 6/16/09)
2009        Jun 16, A new hydrogen car designed for use in cities and backed by Sebastian Piech, a relative of the founder of German luxury sportscar maker Porsche, was unveiled in London. The two-seater Riversimple Urban Car can travel 240 miles without refueling, weighs just 350 kilograms (770 pounds) and has a top speed of 50 miles per hour.
    (AFP, 6/16/09)

2009        Jul 1, A US federal u0093cash for clunkersu0094 scheme went into effect providing incentives for car buyers.
    (Econ, 7/11/09, p.66)
2009        Jul 1, US car giants General Motors and Ford suspended operations on their production lines in Russia as the deepening economic crisis squeezes Russian consumers' demand for new cars.
    (AP, 7/1/09)

2009        Jul 10, General Motors emerged from bankruptcy protection. CEO Fritz Henderson said the new GM will be far faster and more responsive to customers than the old one, and it will make money and repay government loans faster than required.
    (AP, 7/10/09)

2009        Jul 13, German automobile group Daimler said it sold 40 percent of its stake in US electric car maker Tesla Motors to United Arab Emirate's Aabar Investments group to boost development of low-emission vehicles.
    (AP, 7/13/09)

2009        Jul 15, Luxury carmaker Jaguar, owned by India's Tata Motors, announced it would end Liverpool production of its X-Type car by the end of the year with the loss of up to 300 jobs.
    (AFP, 7/15/09)

2009        Aug 7, Pres. Obama signed into law a measure tripling the budget of the $1 billion incentive u0093cash for clunkersu0094 program.
    (SFC, 8/8/09, p.A5)

2009        Aug 11, General Motors Corp. said its Chevrolet Volt rechargeable electric car should get 230 miles per gallon of gasoline in city driving, more than four times the mileage of the current champion, the Toyota Prius.
    (AP, 8/11/09)

2009        Aug 14, In Germany shares in Volkswagen, Europe's biggest carmaker, plunged after it approved a takeover of luxury auto manufacturer Porsche to create a sector giant.
    (AFP, 8/14/09)

2009        Aug 19, Germany launched a campaign to put 1 million electric cars on the road by 2020, making battery research a priority as it tries to position the country as a market leader.
    (AP, 8/19/09)

2009        Aug 24, The US government cash for clunkers program ended.
    (SFC, 8/24/09, p.A4)

2009        Aug 27, Toyota confirmed that it would stop making cars at the NUMMI plant in Fremont, Ca., idling some 4,700 workers.
    (SFC, 8/28/09, p.A1)

2009        Sep 10, GM announced that it agreed to the sale of 55% of Ruesselsheim-based Adam Opel and Vauxhall unit to Canadian auto parts maker Magna International Inc. and Russian lender Sberbank. Detroit-based GM will keep a 35% stake and continue to work with Opel on developing vehicles, sharing technology and engineering resources.
    (AP, 9/11/09)
2009        Sep 11, Europe's biggest automaker Volkswagen said it planned to invest 4.0 billion euros (5.8 billion dollars) to boost its presence in China over the next three years.
    (AP, 9/11/09)

2009        Sep 14, In Germany Siegfried Wolf, the co-chief executive of Magna International Inc., said as many as 10,500 Opel jobs in Europe could be cut, including nearly half of them in Germany. Opel employs some 49,000 workers in Europe and has plants in Germany, Spain, Britain, Poland and Germany.
    (AP, 9/14/09)

2009        Sep 15, The Frankfurt auto show opened. The French company Renault unveiled a lineup that includes a purely electric sedan, without a backup internal combustion engine. Renault says the vehicle will be in showrooms by 2011.
    (www.nytimes.com/2009/09/14/automobiles/14electric.html)(Econ, 10/17/09, p.74)

2009        Sep 23, It was reported that solar power company SolarCity and Dutch Bank RaboBank have teamed together to build 5 recharging stations along Highway 101, between the SF Bay Area and Los Angeles, to support the new Tesla electric cars. The $109,000 roadster was limited to range of about 250 miles. Recharging would take 30-45 minutes. Fully charging the cars took over 3 hours at a cost of about $4.
    (SFC, 9/23/09, p.A1)
2009        Sep 23, In Canada the Globe and Mail said Ford Motor Co's Canadian subsidiary faces a $1.8 billion shortfall in its pension plan, citing a company letter to employees and retirees.
    (Reuters, 9/23/09)

2009        Sep 29, Toyota Motor Corp. issued its largest-ever US recall, involving 3.8 million vehicles. Toyota and the government warned owners to remove the mats from their vehicles that could cause accelerators to get stuck and lead to a crash.
    (AP, 9/30/09)

2009        Sep 30, The Penske Automotive Group Inc. announced it is walking away from a deal to acquire the Saturn brand from GM, after being unable to find a manufacturer to make Saturn cars when GM stops producing models sometime after the end of 2011. The brand was set up in 1990 to fight growing Japanese imports.
    (AP, 10/1/09)

2009        Oct 7, The first British-built Honda Jazz auto rolled off the assembly line after production was switched from Japan in a move the manufacturer hopes will end a troubled year for the factory.
    (AFP, 10/7/09)

2009        Nov 4, Germany's politicians fumed with anger and Opel workers canceled cost concessions and readied walkouts after General Motors Co. abandoned the sale of its European subsidiary to parts maker Magna International and Russian lender Sberbank.
    (AP, 11/4/09)

2009        Nov 5, In Germany thousands of Opel workers, fearing widespread layoffs, walked off the job to protest General Motors Co.'s decision to abandon the unit's sale to new owners.
    (AP, 11/5/09)

2009        Nov 9, General Motors said that it would invest C$90 million ($85.1 million) to expand a joint venture plant in Canada where it builds the Chevrolet Equinox and GMC Terrain crossovers.
    (Reuters, 11/9/09)

2009        Nov 13, The Dutch government announced to bring the polluter-pays principle into the home garage. As of 2012 rather than an annual road tax for their cars, drivers will pay a few cents for every kilometer on the road, in a plan aimed at breaking chronic traffic jams and cutting carbon emissions.
    (AP, 11/14/09)

2009        Nov 16, General Motors Co. says it lost $1.2 billion from the time it left bankruptcy protection through Sept. 30, far better than it has reported in previous quarters and a sign that the auto giant is starting to turn around its business.
    (AP, 11/16/09)
2009        Nov 16, French tire maker Michelin announced plans to invest nearly 900 million dollars to build a tire plant to supply India's fast-growing vehicle market.
    (AFP, 11/16/09)

2009        Nov 18, South Korean auto giant Hyundai said it would roll out another new small car in India as it jostles with rivals for a larger slice of the fast-growing Indian market.
    (AFP, 11/18/09)

2009        Nov 25, Toyota said it would fix accelerator pedals on 4.26 million vehicles to prevent them from becoming stuck and leading to unintentional acceleration.
    (AFP, 11/25/09)(Econ, 12/12/09, p.76)

2009        Dec 9, Germanyu0092s Volkswagen announced that it has agreed to pay $2.5 billion for a 19.9% stake in Suzuki, a family-owned Japanese maker of small cars and motorcycles.
    (Econ, 12/12/09, p.72)

2009        Dec 18, General Motors Co. said it will shut down Saab after talks to sell the brand to a Dutch carmaker collapsed, marking the third time this year that a deal by GM to sell an unwanted brand has fallen through.
    (AP, 12/18/09)

2009        Dec 20, Dutch sports carmaker Spyker said it has made a new bid for Sweden's Saab Automobile, two days after General Motors said it would close the loss-making unit.
    (AFP, 12/20/09)

2009        Dec 23, US auto giant Ford said it had agreed the main terms for selling its Swedish brand Volvo Cars to Chinese carmaker Geely, in a deal set to underline China's growing economic clout.
    (AFP, 12/23/09)
2009        Dec 23, Italian carmaker Fiat became a majority owner of Serbian car manufacturer Zastava with a 67% stake.
    (Econ, 1/2/10, p.39)(http://tinyurl.com/yd2lccd)

2009        Dec 30, The US government gave GMAC Financial Services an additional $3.8 billion in cash and took a majority stake in the auto lender.
    (SFC, 12/31/09, p.D1)

2009        Americau0092s Dept. of Energy agreed to gave Fisker, a California-based maker of hybrid electric cars, a big u0093green energyu0094 loan to start production of its Karma sports car. Production ceased in 2012 and the company filed for bankruptcy in 2013. Hybrid Tech Holdings of Hong Kong soon bought the DOEu0092s loan at a big discount and competed with Wanxiang, a Chinese maker of car parts, for control of Fisker.
    (Econ, 1/11/14, p.54)
2009        In Russia Oleg Deripaska, owner of the Gorky Automobile Plant (GAZ), brought in Bo Andersson, formerly of General Motors, to turn GAZ around.
    (Econ, 7/14/12, p.55)

2010        Jan 5, In India global car manufacturers eyeing the explosive growth of the Indian market unveiled new compact models at the Delhi auto show as they sought to break the dominance of entrenched local producers.
    (AFP, 1/5/10)

2010        Jan 8, The China Passenger Car Association reported that China overtook the US as the biggest auto market in 2009 and automakers should see more strong growth this year.
    (AP, 1/8/10)

2010        Jan 11, In Ecuador Quito Mayor Augusto Barrera said his government will impose new driving restrictions to keep 80,000 private cars off the capitalu0092s congested streets during rush hour.
    (AP, 1/11/10)

2010        Jan 21, General Motor Co.'s Opel unit will cut 8,300 jobs across Europe, including 4,000 in Germany, and close a plant in Antwerp, Belgium, cutting over 2,300 jobs.
    (AP, 1/21/10)

2010        Jan 21, Toyota said it is recalling 2.3 million vehicles in the US to fix accelerator pedals with mechanical problems that could cause them to become stuck. The announcement comes just months after it recalled 4.2 million vehicles due to gas pedals that could become trapped under floor mats, causing sudden acceleration.
    (AP, 1/22/10)

2010        Jan 25, Electric vehicle network firm Better Place announced it has signed an agreement with an HSBC-led investor consortium for new equity financing of $350m (Ł217m), valuing the firm at $1.25bn. Better Place, led by former software entrepreneur Shai Agassi, hoped to be the leading infrastructure provider for the worldu0092s growing fleet of electric cars.
    (Econ, 2/6/10, p.71)(http://tinyurl.com/ycsyrdj)

2010        Jan 26, Toyota Motor Corp. announced it would halt sales of some of its top-selling models to fix gas pedals that could stick and cause unintended acceleration. Last week, Toyota issued a recall for the same eight models affecting 2.3 million vehicles. Toyota said it is also suspending production at six North American car-assembly plants beginning the week of Feb. 1. It gave no date on when production could restart.
    (AP, 1/27/10)
2010        Jan 26, General Motors agreed to sell Saab, its Swedish subsidiary, to Spyker Cars, a Dutch maker of sports cars, for $74 million in cash and preference shares worth $326 million.
    (Econ, 1/30/10, p.76)

2010        Jan 28, Ford Motor Co. said it has halted production of some full-sized commercial vehicles in China because they contain gas pedals built by the same company behind the accelerators in Toyota Motor Corp.'s recent recall. Ford spokesman Said Deep said the diesel version of its Transit Classic built by a Chinese joint venture contains accelerators built by CTS Corp., based in Elkhart, Ind. The vehicles began production in December and only about 1,600 have been produced.
    (AP, 1/28/10)
2010        Jan 28, Toyota Motor Corp extended its safety recall of millions of its most popular cars to Europe and China in a further blow to the reputation of the world's largest auto maker.
    (Reuters, 1/28/10)

2010        Jan 29, Honda Motor Co. said it would recall a total 646,000 units of the Fit/Jazz and City models globally, including 140,000 in the United States. The recall was to fix a defective master switch, which could cause water to enter the power window switch and in some cases cause a fire.
    (Reuters, 1/29/10)

2010        Feb 7, Newspapers said Toyota will recall 300,000 Prius hybrid vehicles because of brake flaws. Toyota said that it will soon announce plans to deal with braking problems in its prized Prius hybrid amid reports it has decided to issue a recall for the latest model in Japan, a possible new embarrassment for the world's biggest automaker.
    (AFP, 2/7/10)(AP, 2/7/10)

2010        Feb 9, In Germany GM's Opel unit asked European governments for billions of euros (dollars) in aid even as it formally presented a restructuring plan that will result in some 8,300 job cuts in Europe.
    (AP, 2/9/10)
2010        Feb 9, Toyota officials went to Japan's Transport Ministry to formally notify officials the company is recalling the 2010 Prius gas-electric hybrid. The automaker is also recalling two other hybrid models in Japan, the Lexus HS250h sedan, sold in the US and Japan, and the Sai, which is sold only in Japan. The total recall amounted to 437,000 Prius and other hybrid vehicles worldwide to fix brake problems.
    (AP, 2/9/10)
2010        Feb 9, Honda Motor Co. added 378,000 US vehicles and 41,000 in Canada to its 15-month-old global recall for faulty air bags in the latest quality problem to hit a Japanese automaker. The next day 17,000 cars in Japan were added to the list.
    (AP, 2/10/10)

2010        Feb 11, Italy's Fiat SpA and Russian automobile company Sollers announced a euro2.4 billion ($3.3 billion) joint venture to produce up to 500,000 vehicles per year in Russia in a bid to become the country's second-largest car maker.
    (AP, 2/11/10)
2010        Feb 11, Volkswagen announced it was recalling nearly 200,000 vehicles in Brazil because of a problem with the rear wheels that could cause them to seize or fall off.
    (AP, 2/11/10)

2010        Feb 18, US researchers unveiled a vehicle that earns money for its driver instead of guzzling it up in gasoline and maintenance costs. The presentation of the box-like, unassuming looking Scion was the researchers' way of introducing the "vehicle-to-grid" (V2G) concept as it begins to gain momentum in the United States and around the world.
    (AFP, 2/19/10)

2010        Feb 19, In San Mateo, Ca., Mahran Baranriz (47) and his wife Bita Imani (35) pleaded no contest to 10 counts of insurance fraud. They ran the Group Specialists car repair shop in Redwood City and had bilked customers by putting rats in their cars and claiming the vehicles needed costly work to fix rodent damage. Baranriz was sentenced to 4 years in prison, and his wife to 6 months in jail. A day earlier they ware ordered to pay $875,000 in restitution to 25 insurance companies.
    (SFC, 2/20/10, p.C2)

2010        Feb 23, India's biggest carmaker Maruti Suzuki India announced it has recalled 100,000 of its best-selling A-Star hatchback cars due to a fuel leakage problem.
    (AFP, 2/23/10)

2010        Feb 24, Akio Toyoda, scion of the beleaguered Toyota empire, apologized before a US House committee investigating deadly flaws that sparked the recall of 8.5 million cars.
    (AP, 2/24/10)

2010        Mar 1, General Motors Co. said it is recalling 1.3 million Chevrolet and Pontiac compact cars sold in the US, Canada and Mexico to fix power steering motors that can fail.
    (AP, 3/2/10)
2010        Mar 1, In China Toyota President Akio Toyoda apologized in Beijing to Chinese customers for the company's quality problems and emphasized the importance of the fast-growing market to his company.
    (AP, 3/1/10)

2010        Mar 15, Honda Motor Co. said it will recall 410,000 Odyssey minivans and Element small trucks, from the 2007-2008 model years, due to braking system problems. 
    (SFC, 3/17/10, p.A9)

2010        Mar 28, Zhejiang Geely Holding Group signed a binding deal to buy Ford Motor Co.'s Volvo Cars unit for $1.8 billion, representing a coup for the independent Chinese automaker which is aiming to expand in Europe.
    (AP, 3/28/10)

2010        Apr 1, In Fremont, Ca., the New United Motor Manufacturing Inc. plant (NUMMI) produced its last Toyota Corolla after 25 years of operations building cars the Toyota Way.
    (SFC, 4/2/10, p.A1)

2010        Apr 7, Auto giants Renault, Nissan and Daimler launched a partnership to save billions of euros and accelerate sales of low-pollution electric cars.
    (AP, 4/7/10)

2010        Apr 16, Renault announced that it has pulled out of a joint venture with Indian car manufacturer Mahindra and Mahindra, which produced its first car for the growing South Asian market, the Logan.
    (AFP, 4/16/10)

2010        May 1, In China World Expo 2010 officially opened in Shanghai. Two-wheeled Electric Networked Vehicles (EN-Vs) were unveiled at Expo 2010. They used a balancing system developed by Segway.
    (Econ, 5/8/10, p.42)(Econ, 10/2/10, p.87)

2010        May 9, Iranu0092s President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad opened what is being dubbed as the Middle East's biggest car plant set up by Iranian state-run automobile company Saipa.
    (AFP, 5/9/10)

2010        May 20, Tesla Motors announced that it will use a $50 million investment from Toyota Corp. to help it buy the recently closed Nummi auto plant in Fremont, Ca.
    (SFC, 5/21/10, p.A1)

2010        May 21, In China some 1900 workers at a Honda auto parts factory in Guangdong province went on strike demanding higher pay. Monthly pay at the facility in Foshan city was about $117 per month. Similar companies paid between $292 and $365 a month. Honda announced a settlement on June 4.
    (www.china.org.cn/business/2010-05/28/content_20133668.htm)(SSFC, 5/30/10, p.A4)(AP, 6/4/10)

2010        Jun 7, Chrysler Group LLC said it is recalling nearly 600,000 minivans and Jeep Wranglers because of brake or wiring problems that could become safety issues.
    (AP, 6/7/10)

2010        Jun 8, General Motors Co. said it was recalling about 1.5 million vehicles worldwide to address a problem with a heated windshield wiper fluid system that could lead to a fire, its second recall over the issue in two years.
    (AP, 6/8/10)

2010        Jun 17, Toyota said it will restart the delayed construction of its Mississippi plant, which will provide 2,000 jobs and be up and running by the fall of next year.
    (AP, 6/17/10)

2010        Jun 29, American car maker Tesla Motors began trading shares in an IPO offered at $17. Trading closed at $23.89.
    (SFC, 6/30/10, p.A1)

2010        Jul 4, In Japan Toyota started recalling more than 90,000 luxury Lexus and Crown vehicles over defective engines.
    (AP, 7/4/10)

2010        Jul 9, Italy's Fiat, which controls Chrysler Group LCC, said it will proceed with a euro700 million ($886 million) investment to move production of its new Panda compact from Poland to a plant near Naples despite an unresolved dispute with an Italian union.
    (AP, 7/9/10)

2010        Jul 14, NYC unveiled its first electric car charging station.
    (SFC, 7/15/10, p.A6)

2010        Jul 20, Italian engineers launched a 3-month, 8,000-mile test drive of a robotic vehicle from Parma to China.
    (SFC, 7/21/10, p.A2)

2010        Jul 26, Chinau0092s Geely Holding Group received final government approval to acquire Volvo Cars from Ford Motor Co. in a $1.8 billion deal.
    (AP, 7/29/10)

2010        Jul 28, Japanu0092s Nissan said is new car models will feature air conditioners that pump breathable vitamin C and stress-reducing seats.
    (AFP, 7/28/10)

2010        Aug 5, The US Export-Import Bank unveiled a loan guarantee for Ford Motor Co that will finance $3.1 billion in exports of cars and trucks to customers in Canada and Mexico.
    (Reuters, 8/5/10)

2010        Aug 9, Honda Motor Co said it was recalling more than 428,000 vehicles in the United States and Canada because of a defect that could cause the cars to roll away if they are parked incorrectly.
    (AP, 8/10/10)

2010        Aug 16, Teams from Australia, Germany and Switzerland have set off from Geneva in electric vehicles for what they hope will be the first carbon neutral race around the world. The race set up by Swiss inventor Louis Palmer will pass through 150 cities including Berlin, Moscow, Shanghai, Los Angeles and Cancun before returning to Geneva in January after 18,642 miles (30,000 km) on the road.
    (AP, 8/16/10)

2010        Aug 24, A massive traffic jam in north China stretched for dozens of miles and hit its 10-day mark. It reportedly stemmed from road construction in Beijing that won't be finished until the middle of next month.
    (AP, 8/24/10)

2010        Sep 30, Japanese researchers said they had developed a hybrid vehicle motor that is free of rare earths, the minerals that are now almost exclusively produced by China.
    (AFP, 9/30/10)

2010        Oct 2, The Paris Motor Show opened. Renault unveiled the Twizzy, its smallest 4-wheeled electric vehicle.
    (Econ, 10/2/10, p.87)

2010        Oct 21, Toyota said it is recalling 1.53 million Lexus, Avalon and other models, mostly in the US and Japan, for brake fluid and fuel pump problems, the latest in a string of quality lapses for the world's No. 1 automaker.
    (AP, 10/21/10)

2010        Oct 27, Elon Musk officially unveiled a new Tesla sign for the former Nummi plant in Fremont, Ca., where the new electric Tesla cars will be manufactured.
    (SFC, 10/28/10, p.A11)

2010        Oct 28, In China 4 driverless vehicles arrived at the Shanghai Expo ending an 8,000 mile test drive from Italy.
    (SFC, 10/29/10, p.A2)

2010        Nov 16, In Argentina the SRZero electric sports car, developed by engineers from Imperial College London, arrived in Ushuaia, Tierra del Fuego, ending a 70-day, 16,000 mile journey that began on July 3 at Chena Hot Springs, Alaska. It managed as much as 6 hours and over 250 miles on a single charge.
    (SFC, 11/18/10, p.A19)

2010        Nov 18, General Motors stock rose sharply as the icon of American manufacturing returned to life as a publicly traded company. The share price would needs to rise above $50 for the US government to get all its bailout money back.
    (AP, 11/18/10)

2010        Nov 19, The Los Angeles Auto Show opened. Fiat, now associated with Chrysler, introduced its tiny Fiat 500. Fiat sales in America would begin in January, following a 27-year absense.
    (Econ, 11/27/10, p.69)

2010        Dec 11, Nissan North American delivered its first all-electric Leaf to Olivier Chalouhi (31) of Redwood City at a dealership in Petaluma, Ca. His cost was $33,500, but rebates were expected to drop the price to about $20,000.
    (SSFC, 12/12/10, p.C2)

2010        Dec 13, Mikhail Prokhorov, the Russian billionaire owner of the New Jersey Nets, introduced a new line of hybrid cars u0097 called "Yo" u0097 that he hopes to begin selling in 2012.
    (AP, 12/13/10)

2010        Dec 21, Toronto-Dominion Bank said it will buy Chrysler Financial from private equity firm Cerberus Capital Management for $6.3 billion, joining the throng of Canadian institutions expanding foreign operations.
    (Reuters, 12/21/10)
2010        Dec 21, Toyota Motor Corp. agreed to pay the US government a record $32.4 million in additional fines to settle an investigation into its handling of two recalls at the heart of its safety crisis. The latest settlement, on top of a $16.4 million fine Toyota paid earlier in a related investigation, brought the total penalties levied on the company to $48.8 million.
    (AP, 12/21/10)

2010        Dec 23, China's capital announced that it will sharply limit new vehicle registrations to try to ease massive traffic jams that are rapidly turning Beijing's streets into parking lots.
    (AP, 12/23/10)

2010        Dec 24, In China a new lottery system was introduced aimed to reduce the number of cars in the notoriously gridlocked capital. Beijing counted 4.76 million vehicles, up from 2.6 million in 2005. The first batch of 20,000 plates will be awarded by lottery on Jan. 25. Every month a new batch of plates will become available.
    (AP, 1/1/10)(Econ, 1/1/11, p.34)

2010        Jason Vuic authored u0093The Yugo: The Rise and Fall of the Worst Car in History.u0094
    (Econ, 1/16/10, p.83)
2010        In the US 33,000 Americans were killed on roads. This was 60% above the OECD average.
    (Econ, 4/30/11, p.29)

2011        Jan 5, French automaker Renault suspended three top managers suspected of leaking secrets about electric cars, the auto industry's big hope for the future. Renault and the French secret service suspected Chinese involvement in the affair. In March the firm apologized to the managers after it emerged police found no trace of bank accounts the accused men were alleged to have held and that the source of the spying allegations may have been a fraudster.
    (AFP, 1/7/11)(AFP, 4/11/11)

2011        Jan 10, Italian auto giant Fiat said it has increased its stake in Chrysler to 25% from 20% as part of a deal signed after the iconic US brand emerged from bankruptcy in 2009.
    (AFP, 1/10/11)

2011        Jan 26, Japan-based Toyota Motor Corp. said it was recalling a wide range of models, including the IS and GS Lexus luxury models in North America and the Avensis sedan and station wagon models in Europe for various defects that may cause fuel leakage.
    (AP, 1/26/11)

2011        Feb 12, Italian auto giant Fiat, under pressure to abandon any plan to move its headquarters to the United States, committed to invest 20 billion euros to produce 1.4 million vehicles in Italy.
    (AFP, 2/12/11)

2011        Feb 18, Ford Motor Co. said it plans to team up with a Russian automaker to make and distribute cars in the country. The announcement came shortly after Italian automaker Fiat SpA backed out of a potential partnership with the same Russian company.
    (AP, 2/18/11)

2011        Feb 24, Toyota Motor Corp. recalled 2.17 million vehicles in the United States to address accelerator pedals that could become entrapped in floor mats or jammed in driver's side carpeting, prompting federal regulators to close its investigation into the embattled automaker.
    (AP, 2/24/11)

2011        Mar 1, Swedish carmaker SAAB, now owned by Spyker Cars, showed off its new PhoeniX prototype at the Geneva motor show.
    (Econ, 4/9/11, p.72)(http://tinyurl.com/3bmnxnx)
2011        Mar 1, Volkswagen showed a concept version of its iconic microbus van, known by its German nickname, the Bulli, at the Geneva Auto Show. Among the six-seater's modern twists: It's powered by an electric motor and uses an iPad to control the entertainment system, climate control and other functions.
    (AP, 3/1/11)

2011        Mar 7, Ten Japanese companies said they plan to install electric vehicle chargers at the sites of beverage vending machines across Japan in a cost-cutting tie-up.
    (AFP, 3/7/11)
2011        Mar 7, Spanish drivers slowed down under a new speed limit designed to reduce energy use, angering some motorists but pleasing others who say every euro saved helps a nation slammed by Libya's oil chaos and Europe's financial crisis.
    (AP, 3/7/11)

2011        Mar 9, US auto giant Ford said it will start exporting its top-selling Figo compact car from India to Mexico and over 50 other countries as it strives to make the South Asian nation an export hub.
    (AFP, 3/9/11)

2011        Apr 21, Italian automaker Fiat, closing in on its goal of taking a majority stake and full control of Chrysler LLC by the end of the year, announced a deal to buy another 16 percent share sooner than expected at a price of $1.3 billion.
    (AP, 4/21/11)

2011        May 12, Swedenu0092s struggling car maker Saab Automobile faced renewed uncertainty Thursday as the financing deal with China's Hawtai Motor Group fell apart, raising fresh concerns about the company's future. Spyker Cars NV, which bought Saab from General Motors Corp. in 2010, said it was "forced to terminate" the $223 million (euro150 million) agreement with Hawtai since the Chinese company was not able to obtain all the necessary consents, including approvals from different shareholders.
    (AP, 5/12/11)

2011        May 15, Germanyu0092s Welt am Sonntag newspaper said the government is prepared to pay a billion euros ($ 1.4 billion) in subsidies over the next two years to help its industry develop electric cars.
    (AFP, 5/15/11)

2011        Jun 3, The US Treasury reached an agreement to sell the rest of its holdings in Chrysler to Italyu0092s Fiat.
    (Econ, 6/11/11, p.77)

2011        Jun 4, Italy-based Fiat offered $125 million to buy the Canadian government's stake in Chrysler Group LLC as it moved swiftly to strengthen its control of the US automaker.
    (Reuters, 6/4/11)

2011        Jun 17, GM said it will price its new Chevrolet Sonic subcompact at a starting price of $14,495, $500 above the price of the Ford Fiesta. It will be the only subcompact built in the US.
    (SFC, 6/18/11, p.D2)

2011        Jul 29, President Barack Obama and automobile manufacturers announced a deal  designed to save American drivers money at the pump and dramatically cut heat-trapping gases coming from tailpipes. The agreement requires that car and light trucks achieve an average fuel economy of 54.5 mpg by 2025, up from 35.5 mandated by 2016.
    (AP, 7/29/11)(SFC, 7/30/11, p.A1)

2011        Aug 12, General Motors said it is recalling 16,198 Chevrolet Impala and Buick LaCrosse cars in the United States and Canada to address sensor and power steering problems.
    (Reuters, 8/12/11)

2011        Aug 29, In India car production was halted at the factory in Manesar after the Japanese-controlled firm Maruti Suzuki accused some workers of sabotaging production and "deliberately causing quality problems."
    (AFP, 9/3/11)

2011        Sep 15, Brazilu0092s Finance Minister Guido Mantega announced a 30% tax increase on cars with less than 65% local content.
    (www.economist.com/node/21530144)

2011        Sep 19, Luxury car maker Jaguar Land Rover, part of Indian group Tata Motors, said it will invest 355 million pounds on a new engine plant in central England. The British government will provide up to 10 million pounds for a plant expected to create 750 jobs and thousands of jobs across the wider economy.
    (Reuters, 9/19/11)

2011        Sep 20, General Motors Co. agreed to deepen cooperation with its flagship Chinese partner on development of electric vehicle knowhow amid pressure from Beijing to hand over proprietary technology.
    (AP, 9/20/11)
2011        Sep 20, GM and the UAW unveiled a modest 4-year pay agreement. The deal included a $5,000 lump sum payment to production line workers and $4,000 more over the next 4 years plus a slightly higher share of profits. It also allowed the hiring of new u0093tier-twou0094 employees.
    (Econ, 9/24/11, p.75)

2011        Sep 25, In India a Nano hatchback, billed as the world's cheapest car, caught fire in New Delhi under unexplained circumstances. The next day Tata Motors launched an inquiry.
    (AFP, 9/26/11)

2011        Sep 28, Cuba legalized the sale and purchase of automobiles for all citizens.
    (SFC, 9/29/11, p.A2)

2011        Nov 9, Japanu0092s Toyota Motor Corp. said it is recalling about 550,000 vehicles worldwide, mostly in the United States, for problems that could make it harder to steer. Toyota has received a total of 79 reports about the defect dating back to 2007, but there have been no reports of accidents or injuries related to the problems.
    (AP, 11/9/11)

2011        Nov 28, Chinese automaker Chery Automobile Co. and partner Israel Corp. launched the 50-50 joint venture Qoros Automotive Co., seeking fresh appeal both overseas and in the slowing local market. Israel Corp. is Israel's largest holding company, with interests mainly in chemicals, shipping and energy.
    (AP, 11/28/11)

2011        Dec 1, Auto giants Toyota and BMW said they have agreed to collaborate on research for cleaner, next-generation car batteries.
    (AP, 12/1/11)

2011        Dec 5, Paris, France, launched an electric car sharing program with 250 vehicles. 3000 vehicles were planned for the program over the next two years.
    (SFC, 12/5/11, p.A3)

2011        Dec 26, India's Tata Motors offered to replace the starter motor on all old Nano models, but said the move was not related to safety concerns surrounding the world's cheapest car.
    (AFP, 12/26/11)

2011        Michael Dunne authored u0093American Wheels, Chinese Roads: The Story of General Motors in China.u0094
    (Econ, 5/26/12, p.67)

2012        Jan 4, US car giant Ford said it is opening a new dealership in India every 10 days to feed demand in a market it expects to be the third-biggest worldwide by the end of the decade.
    (AFP, 1/4/12)

2012        Jan 25, Japanu0092s Nissan said it will invest $2 billion in a new auto plant in Aguascalientes, Mexico.
    (SFC, 1/26/12, p.A5)

2012        Jan 27, The California Air Resources Board approved strict vehicle emissions regulations in a package known as the Advanced Clean Car program. It would cut in half current greenhouse gas emission by 2025.
    (SFC, 1/27/12, p.C1)

2012        Feb 21, A senior Tata executive said Indiau0092s Tata Motors has selected a partner to build an assembly plant for its luxury British car brands Jaguar and Land Rover in China.
    (AFP, 2/21/12)

2012        Apr 5, Jaguar Land Rover, owned by India's Tata Motors, announced that it plans to build its new Jaguar F-Type sports car in Britain.
    (AFP, 4/5/12)

2012        Apr 6, The Transition Roadable Aircraft, developed by Terrafugia, Inc., made its auto show debut at the 2012 New York International Auto Show. The Massachusetts firm priced the commercial flying car at $279,000.
    (Econ, 3/3/12, TQp.3)(www.terrafugia.com/news_media.html)

2012        Apr 28, A storm struck Louisville, Ky., and hail damaged some 3,500 Ford Escapes assembled at a plant nearby.
    (SFC, 5/28/12, p.A8)

2012        May 10, Carroll Shelby (b.1923), legendary car designer and champion auto racer, died in Dallas.
    (SFC, 5/12/12, p.A6)

2012        May 17, US carmaker General Motors said it has opted to build the next generation of its Astra compact in Britain, leaving its plant in Bochum, Germany in danger of closure. GM said it would invest $200 million (126 million pounds) in its Ellesmere Port plant.
    (Reuters, 5/17/12)

2012        May 27, In Ireland a race car went out of control on a rural road and crashed into a crowd of about 30 spectators, killing 2 people and seriously injuring 7. Organizers of the Cavan Stages Rally involving about 100 cars in the border county of Cavan canceled the event following the accident.
    (AP, 5/27/12)

2012        Jun 22, Tesla Motors delivered its first all electric sedan, the Model S, from is plant in Fremont, Ca.
    (SFC, 6/23/12, p.D1)

2012        Jul 2, China's state media reported that the booming southern city of Guangzhou has imposed a cap on the number of cars allowed to be sold in an effort to curb worsening traffic and pollution. It became the third Chinese city, after Beijing and Guiyang, to introduce registration plate limits in an effort to combat the escalating number of cars on China's roads.
    (AFP, 7/2/12)

2012        Jul 3, In Italy Sergio Pininfarina (85), former head of Pininfarina SpA, died overnight in Turin. The family company was known for its designs of sleek Ferraris and other cars.
    (AP, 7/3/12)

2012        Jul 24, Japanese automaker Toyota Motor Corp said it will invest more than $100 million to expand Lexus production in Canada.
    (Reuters, 7/24/12)

2012        Aug 15, The Australian Competition and Consumer Commission said that car importer Ateco Automotive ordered dealers to stop selling certain vehicles by Chinau0092s Great Wall Motor Co. and Chery Automobile after asbestos was found inside engine and exhaust gaskets.
    (AP, 8/15/12)

2012        Aug 16, India's top carmaker Maruti Suzuki said that more than 500 workers had been sacked after riots on July 18 at a plant near New Delhi left one manager dead. Production was set to partially re-start on August 21 with 200 anti-riot police on rolling shifts inside the factory.
    (AFP, 8/16/12)

2012        Aug 27, Share of Hertz Global Holdings Inc. and Dollar Thrifty rose after Hertz struck a deal to acquire Thrifty for about $2.6 billion.
    (SFC, 8/28/12, p.D2)

2012        Sep 3, A Hong Kong-owned company, National Electric Vehicle Sweden (NEVS), said it has completed the acquisition of bankrupt car maker Saab and will move ahead with its business plan to make electric cars under the Swedish brand.
    (AP, 9/3/12)

2012        Sep 4, Volkswagen AG unveiled the latest version of its mainstay Golf hatchback at a Berlin museum, ahead of its premiere later this month at the Paris Auto Show. This was the 7th edition of the model introduced in 1974.
    (AP, 9/4/12)

2012        Sep 17, The US government lodged a trade complaint alleging that China unfairly subsidizes car-part exports.
    (Economist, 9/22/12, p.37)

2012        Sep 25, Californiau0092s Gov. Jerry Brown signed SB1298 making robotic vehicles legal in the state. This made California the 3rd state to affirm driverless vehicles. He also signed bills that will keep the state parks open for the next two years.
    (SFC, 9/26/12, p.A1)(NYT, 9/27/12, p.A18)

2012        Sep 27, The top 4 US car rental companies agreed to ban rentals and sales of recalled cars. They also agreed to support legislation by Sen. Barbara Boxer, D-Calif., to codify the ban.
    (SFC, 9/28/12, p.A9)

2012        Oct 10, Toyota recalled 7.43 million cars, trucks and SUVs worldwide to fix faulty power window switches that can cause fires. This was the  largest recall in Toyota's 75-year history.
    (AP, 10/10/12)

2012        Nov 13, Motor Trend magazine named Tesla Model S its 2013 Car of the Year, the first time a non-gasoline powered vehicle received the honor.
    (ABC News, 11/14/12)

2012        Dec 12, Japanu0092s Honda Motor Co said it will recall 871,000 vehicles that could roll away after the ignition key has been removed, including 807,000 in the United States.
    (Reuters, 12/12/12)

2012        Jennifer Clark authored u0093Mondo Agnelli: Fiat, Chrysler, and the Power of a Dynasty.u0094
    (Econ, 1/28/12, p.80)
2012        Andrea Hiott authored u0093Thinking Small: The Long Strange Trip of the Volkswagen Beetle.u0094
    (SSFC, 1/22/12, p.G1)
2012        ZipCar, a pay-by-the-hour car rental firm, led a $14 million investment in Wheelz, a peer-rental firm.
    (Econ, 3/9/13, TQ p.15)

2013        Jan 2, Avis Budget Group agreed to buy Zipcar Inc., a rent by the hour car agency, for $491 million.
    (SFC, 1/3/13, p.C3)

2013        Jan 19, Rick Champagne, an Arizona man with a special fondness for caped crusader Batman and his sidekick Robin, bought the original Batmobile driven in the iconic television series with a bid of $4.2 million at an auction.
    (Reuters, 1/19/13)

2013        Feb 1, Chinese car maker Geely said it has bought Manganese Bronze, the maker of London's black taxis since 1948, for 11 million pounds, safeguarding jobs and production of the vehicles in Britain.
    (AP, 2/1/13)

2013        Jan 13, In Detroit General Motors unveiled its latest model of the Corvette Stingray on the eve of the Detroit motor show. The next day GMu0092s Cadillac ATS sedan took the showu0092s top prize.
    (Econ, 1/19/13, p.63)

2013        Mar 31, Tesla reported that it had scored the first quarterly profit in its history after selling more luxury electric cars than forecast.
    (SFC, 4/2/13, p.D1)

2013        Apr 11, Four Japanese automakers, including Toyota Motor Corp, and Nissan Motor Co., announced a recall of 3.4 million vehicles sold around the world because airbags supplied by Takata Corp are at risk of catching fire or injuring passengers.
    (AP, 4/11/13)

2013        May 1, Electric car maker Coda Holdings Inc. of Los Angeles filed for bankruptcy after selling just 100 cars.
    (SFC, 5/2/13, p.C3)

2013        May 11, It was reported that unsafe cars made in Brazil, coupled with the nation's often dangerous driving conditions, have resulted in a death rate from passenger car accidents that is nearly four times that of the United States.
    (AP, 5/11/13)

2013        May 26, Israel's trailblazing electric car company Better Place announced that it is shutting down, less than six years after unveiling an ambitious plan that promised to revolutionize the auto industry by reducing the world's dependency on oil. On July 10 an Israeli court allowed a consortium of Better Place car owners and entrepreneurs to purchase the companyu0092s assets for under $12 million.
    (AP, 5/26/13)(SFC, 7/11/13, p.A2)

2013        Jun 10, Brazilu0092s government said it plans to build its first auto crash test facility in an effort to improve the poor safety record of vehicles built and sold in the world's fourth-largest automobile market.
    (AP, 6/10/13)

2013        Jun 13, Germany-based Opel said GM signed an agreement today to start building its Corsa model at facilities owned by partner Unison in Belarus.
    (AP, 6/13/13)

2013        Jul 15, Nissan launched a new Datsun in India, three decades after shelving the brand that helped win Western acceptance of Japanese autos. The reimagined Datsun, a five-seat hatchback, will go on sale in India next year for under 400,000 rupees (about $6,670).
    (AP, 7/15/13)

2013        Sep 12, French car makers Bollore and Renault said they would collaborate in the field of electric vehicles.
    (Econ, 9/21/13, p.68)

2013        Nov 28, Chinese media said authorities have broken up six rings that smuggled around $164 million worth of cars into the country over the past three years, including more than 80 top-end models such as BMWs and Rolls-Royces.
    (Reuters, 11/28/13)

2013        Dec 6, Indian-owned luxury carmaker Jaguar Land Rover announced plans to open a Ł240-million manufacturing plant in Brazil.
    (AFP, 12/6/13)

2013        Dec 10, General Motors named Mary Barra to succeed Dan Akerson as CEO making her the first female CEO in the global automotive industry.
    (SFC, 12/11/13, p.C1)
2013        Dec 10, Officials in Istanbul, Turkey, said they plan to introduce floating car parks to try to resolve the chronic traffic problems. They will use out-of-service ferries anchored in the Bosphorus to create multi-storey lots near traffic hotspots.
    (AFP, 12/10/13)

2013        Dec 19, Cuba announced it will allow unrestricted car imports for the first time in half a century, marking the end of an era that made icons of the island's vintage automobiles. Cubans soon found that imported cars were priced far beyond what an average salary could afford. 
    (AFP, 12/19/13)(Econ, 1/11/14, p.30)

2014        Jan 2, Italy-based Fiat secured full ownership of Chrysler in a $4.35 billion agreement.
    (SFC, 1/3/14, p.C4)

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End of file