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 The name derives from two Indian words, "massa" meaning great, and "wachusett" meaning mountain place. It is believed this is a reference to the Great Blue Hill.
 (www.bostonhistory.org/faq.html)
  Massachusetts was the first American colony to legalize slavery.
 (SFEC, 4/20/97, Z1 p.5)
  Nantucket is a 3 by 14 miles island 30 miles from the coast of Cape Cod.
 (SFEC, 8/13/00, p.T5)

1588        Feb 12, John Winthrop, English attorney, puritan, 1st gov of Massachusetts Bay Colony, was born.
    (HN, 1/12/99)(MC, 2/12/02)

1589        Mar 19, William Bradford, governor of Plymouth colony for 30 years, was born (baptized).
    (HN, 3/19/98)(MC, 3/19/02)

1591        Jul 20, Anne Hutchinson, religious liberal who was banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony for her views, was born.
    (HN, 7/20/98)

1602        May 15, Bartholomew Gosnold, English navigator, discovered Cape Cod.
    (AP, 5/15/97)(HN, 5/15/98)

1602        May 21, Martha's Vineyard was first sighted by Captain Bartholomew Gosnold.
    (HN, 5/21/98)

1602        Bartholomew Gosnold camped for a few months in a party of 24 gentlemen and 8 sailors on Cuttyhunk Island, Mass.
    (SFEM, 11/15/98, p.23)

1604-1690    Reverend John Eliot was an English missionary in Massachusetts called the "Apostle to the Indians." The Puritan Eliot learned the Algonquian language and preached to the Indians. He translated the Bible into Algonquian and published it in 1663 in Cambridge, Mass.
    (HNQ, 6/7/98)(WSJ, 8/7/98, p.W13)

1607        Nov 26, This day is believed to be the birth date of London-born clergyman John Harvard, the principal benefactor of the original Harvard College in Cambridge, Mass.
    (AP, 11/26/07)

1616-1619    An epidemic, possibly viral hepatitis from contact with Europeans, ravaged the Wampanoag confederacy in Massachusetts. This helped to make possible the Pilgrim settlement in 1620.
    (Econ, 8/11/07, p.49)

1617        The Pilgrims decided to leave the Netherlands. They formed a partnership in a joint-stock company with a group of London merchants in a company called John Pierce & Assoc. They received a grant for a plantation in the Virginia colony but ended up landing in Massachusetts. Each adult was to receive a share in the company but earnings would not be divided for 7 years.
    (WSJ, 11/26/97, p.A14)

1619        In England Tisquantum joined a new exploratory mission to the New England coast and returned to find that his tribe had been wiped out by the plague. It was he who later communicated with the first Pilgrims at Plymouth.
    (SFEM, 11/15/98, p.29)

1620        Sep 16, The Pilgrims sailed from England on the Mayflower, finally settling at Plymouth, Mass. The Pilgrims were actually Separatists because they had left the Church of England. The 4 children of William Brewster, who arrived on the Mayflower, were named: Love, Wrestling, Patience, and Fear. In 2006 Nathaniel Philbrick authored “Mayflower: A Story of Courage, Community and War.”
    (HN, 9/16/98)(SFEM, 11/15/98, p.23)(SFC, 3/20/99, p.B4)(SFC, 7/26/06, p.E2)

1620        Nov 11, (OC) Pilgrims aboard the Mayflower, anchored off Massachusetts, signed a compact calling for a "body politick." 102 Pilgrims stepped ashore. 41 men signed the compact calling themselves Saints and others Strangers. One passenger died enroute and 2 were born during the passage. Their military commander was Miles Standish. In 1945 George Willison authored "Saints and Strangers." In 2006 Nathaniel Philbrick authored “Mayflower: A Story of Courage, Community and War.”
    (AP, 11/11/97)(SFEM, 11/15/98, p.8,23)(AM, 11/00, p.17)(Econ, 5/6/06, p.82)

1620        Nov 19, The Pilgrims reached Cape Cod.
    (HN, 11/19/98)

1620        Nov 20, Peregrine White was born aboard the Mayflower in Massachusetts Bay -- the first child born of English parents in present-day New England.
    (AP, 11/20/97)

1620        Nov 21, (NC) Leaders of the Mayflower expedition framed the "Mayflower Compact," designed to bolster unity among the settlers. The Pilgrims reached Provincetown Harbor, Mass.
    (HN, 11/21/98)

1620        Dec 6, A group of passengers and crew left the Mayflower in a shallop to search for a suitable harbor and place to settle.
    (AM, 11/00, p.18)

1620        Dec 11, 103 Mayflower pilgrims landed at Plymouth Rock.
    (MC, 12/11/01)

1620        Dec 16, The Mayflower dropped anchor in Plymouth Harbor.
    (AM, 11/00, p.18)

1620        Dec 18, The Captain of the Mayflower 1st went on land at Plymouth Harbor with 3 to 4 sailors.
    (AM, 11/00, p.18)

1620        Dec 21, The Mayflower reached Plymouth, Mass. after a 63-day voyage. Pilgrims aboard the Mayflower went ashore for the first time at present-day Plymouth, Mass. The crew of the ship did not have enough beer to get to Virginia and back to England so they dropped the Pilgrims at Plymouth Rock to preserve their beer stock.
    (HFA, '96, p.44)(AP, 12/20/97)(Hem., 8/96, p.115)(MC, 12/21/01)

1620        "The chronicle of the Pilgrims voyage to and settlement in America was begun by Nathanial Morton, keeper of the records of Plymouth Colony, based on the account of William Bradford, sometime governor thereof..." From the two editorials titled: "The Desolate Wilderness" and "And the Fair Land," published annually in the WSJ since 1961.
    (WSJ, 11/22/95, p.A-10)
        Captain Edward Bangs, a member of the Plymouth Colony, founded the town of Brewster.
    (SFC,11/6/97, p.A27)

1620        The Wampanoag Confederacy of some 50 Algonquin bands stretched across southeastern Massachusetts.
    (AH, 6/02, p.44)

1621        Feb 17, Miles Standish was appointed 1st commander of Plymouth colony.
    (MC, 2/17/02)

1621        Mar 16 The first Indian appeared in Plymouth, Mass. Samoset, and his friend Tisquantum (Squanto), an English speaking Indian of the Wampanoag tribe, became friends with the Pilgrims.
    (HN, 3/16/98)(SFEM, 11/15/98, p.23)

1621        Apr 1, The Plymouth, Massachusetts colonists created the first treaty with Native Americans.
    (OTD)

1621        Apr 5, The Mayflower sailed from Plymouth, Mass., on a return trip to England. By this time 44 of the landing party had died and 54 people, mostly children, were left to build the colony.
    (AP, 4/5/97)(SFEM, 11/15/98, p.23)

1621        Oct 25, Gov. Bradford of US Plymouth colony disallowed sport on Christmas Day.
    (MC, 10/25/01)

1621        Oct, The first American Thanksgiving was held in Massachusetts' Plymouth colony in 1621 to give thanks for a bountiful harvest. 51 Pilgrims served codfish, sea bass and turkeys while their 90 Wampanoag guests contributed venison to the feast. After the survival of their first colony through a bitter winter and the subsequent gathering of the harvest in the autumn, Plymouth Colony Governor William Bradford issued a thanksgiving proclamation. During the three-day October thanksgiving the Pilgrims feasted on wild turkey and venison with their Native American guests. American Indians introduced cranberries to the white settlers. In 2006 Godfrey Hodgson, British historian, authored “A Great and Godly Adventure: The Pilgrims and the Myth of the First Thanksgiving.” American scholars quickly defied Hodgson’s allegation that there were no turkeys in the region.
    (Econ, 12/18/04, p.122)(SSFC, 11/12/06, p.M1)(SFC, 11/22/06, p.A1)

1621        Dec 25, The governor William Bradford of New Plymouth prevented newcomers from playing cards. The queens later depicted on playing cards were said to be: spades (Pallas), hearts (Judith), diamonds (Rachel), clubs (Elizabeth).
    (HN, 12/25/98)(SFC, 3/20/99, p.B4)(MC, 12/25/01)

1622        William Bradford and Edward Winslow authored “Mourt’s Relation.” It was published in London and provided an account of the Plymouth colony’s first year.
    (WSJ, 11/22/08, p.W11)(AM, 11/00, p.18)

1623        Sep 10, Lumber and furs were the first cargo to leave New Plymouth in North America for England.
    (HN, 9/10/98)

1623        Gov. William Bradford instituted private property so that the pilgrims could cultivate food at a profit. He assigned every family a parcel of land.
    (WSJ, 11/26/97, p.A12)

1625        An English colonizing group founded the Mount Wollaston settlement, 25 miles north of Plymouth. It later became Quincy, Mass. Thomas Morton, a London lawyer, was part of the group.
    (ON, 3/00, p.11)

1626        Nov 15, The Pilgrim Fathers, who settled in New Plymouth, bought out their London investors.
    (HN, 11/15/98)

1627        James Morton changed the name of the Mount Wollaston settlement to Merrymount and organized a trading company to compete with Plymouth for the Indian trade in beaver pelts.
    (ON, 3/00, p.11)

1628        Mar 19, Massachusetts colony was founded by Englishmen.
    (MC, 3/19/02)

1628        May 1, A May festival in Quincy, Mass., degenerated into an orgy with Indian women.
    (MC, 5/1/02)

1628        Jun 9, Thomas Morton of Mass. became the 1st person deported from what is now US.
    (MC, 6/9/02)

1628        Sep 8, John Endecott (1588-1665) arrived with colonists at Salem, Massachusetts, where he would become the governor.
    (HN, 9/8/98)

1629        Mar 14, A Royal charter was granted to the Massachusetts Bay Company. About 1,000 puritans under the leadership of John Winthrop received a charter from King Charles to trade and colonize between the Charles and Merrimack rivers. The official seal to the document was reported found in 1997. [see 1684]
    (SFC, 7/12/97, p.A21)(HN, 3/14/98)(HNQ, 11/23/00)

1629        Apr 30, John Endecott became governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
    (http://38.1911encyclopedia.org/E/EN/ENDECOTT_JOHN.htm)

1630        Feb 22, Indians introduced pilgrims to popcorn at Thanksgiving.
    (MC, 2/22/02)

1630        Mar 22, The first American legislation prohibiting gambling was enacted in Boston.
    (HN, 3/22/97)

1630        May 29, Gov. John Winthrop began his "History of New England."
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1630        Jun 12, John Winthrop aboard the Isabella, landed at North River near Salem and took over as governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Winthrop eventually decided to locate the colony in Charlestown because of its proximity to the harbor.
    (www.bostonhistory.org/faq.html)

1630        Jun 25, The fork was introduced to American dining by Gov. Winthrop.
    (MC, 6/25/02)

1630        Sep 7, The Massachusetts town of Trimontaine (Shawmut), was renamed Boston, and became the state capital. It was named after a town of the same name in Lincolnshire, England.
    (HN, 9/7/98)(www.bostonhistory.org/faq.html)

1630        Sep 30, John Billington, one of the original pilgrims who sailed to the New World on the Mayflower, became the first criminal in the American colonies to be executed for murder. He was hanged for having shot John Newcomin following a quarrel.
    (HN, 9/30/01)(MC, 9/30/01)

1630        Oct 19, In Boston the 1st general court was held.
    (MC, 10/19/01)

1630        John Winthrop gave a speech to his fellow Puritans aboard the ship Arabella: "For we must consider that we shall be as a City on the Hill."
    (WSJ, 5/7/01, p.A20)

1630        The Boston Common was first used by the Pilgrims as a common grazing ground for their livestock. It remained open to livestock until 1830.
    (AH, 10/07, p.72)

1631        Feb 5, A ship from Bristol, the Lyon, arrived with provisions for the Massachusetts Bay Colony (Massachusetts Bay Company). Puritan Roger Williams, proponent of religious freedom and later founder of Rhode Island, arrived with his wife in Boston from England and joined the Separatist colony at Plymouth.
    (http://tinyurl.com/m6czns)(AP, 2/5/97)(WSJ, 6/21/05, p.D10)(AH, 4/07, p.25)

1631        May 18, English colony of Massachusetts Bay granted Puritans voting rights and John Winthrop was elected 1st governor of Massachusetts.
    (SC, 5/18/02)

1631        The General Court of Massachusetts gave voting rights only to Puritan church members.
    (AH, 4/07, p.30)

1633-1635    Roger Williams (d.1683), minister, moved to Salem and engaged in an ongoing dispute with Boston minister John Cotton.
    (WSJ, 6/21/05, p.D10)

1634        Mar 4, Samuel Cole opened the first tavern in Boston, Massachusetts.
    (HN, 3/4/99)

1634        May 31, Massachusetts Bay colony annexed the Maine colony.
    (MC, 5/31/02)

1634        Sep 18, Anne Hutchinson, the first female religious leader in American colonies, arrived at the Massachusetts Bay Colony with her family. She preached that faith alone was sufficient for salvation. As her following grew, she was brought to trial and found guilty of heresy against Puritan orthodoxy and banished from Massachusetts. She left with 70 followers to Providence, Rhode Island, Roger Williams's colony based on religious freedom.
    (MC, 9/18/01)

1634        Gov. John Winthrop of the Massachusetts Bay Colony estimated the local population rather counting it directly.
    (Econ, 12/22/07, p.97)

1635        Feb 13, In Massachusetts the oldest public school in the United States, the Boston Public Latin School, was founded.
    (SFC,12/11/97, p.A1)(AP, 2/13/98)

1635        Oct 9, Religious dissident Roger Williams was banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony (Mass. Bay Company). Enforcement was delayed until the following January due to illness. He became a founder of Rhode Island.
    (AP, 10/9/01)(AH, 4/07, p.26)

1636        Jul 20, John Oldham, trader in Mass., was murdered by Indians.
    (MC, 7/20/02)

1636        Sep 8, Harvard College, the first college in America, was founded as Cambridge College. It changed its name two years later in honor of the Reverend John Harvard, who gave the institution three hundred books and a large sum of money for the day. [see Oct 28]
    (MC, 9/8/01)

1636        Oct 4, The Massachusetts Plymouth Company drafted its 1st law.
    (MC, 10/4/01)

1636        Oct 28, The General Court of Massachusetts passed a legislative act establishing Harvard College in Cambridge, Mass. It was the first corporation in the US. Harvard Univ. was named after John Harvard who bequeathed books to the Univ. that included “The Christian Warfare Against the Devil World and Flesh” by John Downame. Englishman George Downing was the first graduate. London’s Downing St. was named after him. [see Sep 8]
    (SFEC, 6/28/98, Z1 p.8)(HN, 10/28/98)(SFEC, 12/6/98, Z1p.10)(AP, 10/28/07)

1636        The first militia units in the Massachusetts Bay Colony were formed.
    (SFC, 5/17/06, p.A11)

1637        Jul 23, King Charles of England handed over the American colony of Massachusetts to Sir Fernando Gorges, one of the founders of the Council of New England.
    (HN, 7/23/98)

1637        Nov 7-1637 Nov 8, Anne Hutchinson (b.1591) and her followers were tried as heretics and banished from the Mass Bay colony to Rhode Island.
    (http://law.jrank.org/pages/2329/Anne-Hutchinson-Trials-1637-1638.html)(WSJ, 11/25/08, p.A13)

1637        James Morton published "New English Canaan," a satiric book describing his encounters with the New England Pilgrims.
    (ON, 3/00, p.12)

1637        The Archbishop of Canterbury launched an effort to revoke the charter of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, but the boat carrying the English authorities sank on its way. This period in Pilgrim and Puritan history was covered by Sarah Vowell in “The Wordy Shipmates” (2008).
    (WSJ, 11/25/08, p.A13)
   
1638         Jun 1, The first earthquake was recorded in the U.S. at Plymouth, Mass.
    (DT internet 6/1/97)

1638        John Harvard, a Puritan minister, bequeathed his 260-volume library to Harvard College.
    (SFCM, 12/10/00, p.11)

1639        Mar 13, Cambridge College was re-named Harvard University for clergyman John Harvard.
    (AP, 3/13/98)(MC, 3/13/02)

1639        May 20, Dorchester, Mass., formed the 1st school funded by local taxes.
    (MC, 5/20/02)

1639        Jun 6, Massachusetts granted 500 acres of land to erect a gunpowder mill.
    (MC, 6/6/02)

1639        Nov 5, 1st post office in the colonies opened in Massachusetts.
    (MC, 11/5/01)

1640        Dec 9, Settler Hugh Bewitt was banished from the Massachusetts colony when he declared himself to be free of original sin.
    (MC, 12/9/01)

1640        The Massachusetts Bay Company sent 300,000 codfish to market.
    (SFC, 5/24/97, p.E3)

1641        Dec 1, Massachusetts became the 1st colony to give statutory recognition to slavery. It was followed by Connecticut in 1650 and Virginia in 1661.
    (MC, 12/1/01)(HNQ, 5/20/02)

1641        Puritans wrote a statute that enjoined husband from beating their wives: the Massachusetts Body of Liberties.
    (WSJ, 4/1/02, p.A13)

1642        Sep 23, Harvard College in Cambridge, Mass., held its first commencement.
    (AP, 9/23/97)

1643        May 19, Delegates from four New England colonies, Massachusetts Bay, Plymouth, Connecticut and New Harbor, met in Boston to form a confederation: the United Colonies of New England.
    (AP, 5/19/97)

1643        Jul 5, 1st recorded tornado in US was at Essex County, Massachusetts.
    (MC, 7/5/02)

1643        Ann Radcliffe established the first scholarship at Harvard.
    (SFC, 4/21/99, p.A2)

1644        Jan 18, 1st reported UFO sighting in America was made by perplexed pilgrims in Boston.
    (MC, 1/18/02)

1644        Mar 7, Massachusetts established 1st 2-chamber legislature in colonies.
    (MC, 3/7/02)

1644        A house was constructed for the Reverend John Lothrop, the founder of Barnstable, Mass. It later formed the original part of the Sturgis Library, the oldest Library building in the United States. The building is also one of the oldest houses remaining on Cape Cod."
    http://home.capecod.net/~sturgis/history.html

1646        Feb 28, Roger Scott was tried in Massachusetts for sleeping in church.
    (MC, 2/28/02)

1646        Oct 28, The 1st Protestant church assembly for Indians took place in Massachusetts.
    (MC, 10/28/01)

1647        May 26, A new law banned Catholic priests from the colony of Massachusetts. The penalty was banishment or death for a second offense.
    (HN, 5/26/99)

1647        May 27, In Salem Achsah Young became the first recorded American woman to be executed for being a "witch."
    (AP, 5/27/97)(HN, 5/27/98)

1647        Nov 11, Massachusetts passed the 1st US compulsory school attendance law.
    (MC, 11/11/01)

1647        William Bradford authored "History of Plymouth Plantation."
    (ON, 3/00, p.12)
1647        Samuel Danforth, a Puritan minister, authored “An Almanack for the Year of Lord 1647.” It included a 20-year chronology of notable events in the Massachusetts colony.
    (WSJ, 11/22/08, p.W11)

1648        May 13, Margaret Jones of Plymouth was found guilty of witchcraft and was sentenced to be hanged by the neck.
    (HN, 5/13/99)

1648        Oct 18, Boston shoemakers were authorized to form a guild to protect their interests; it's the first American labor organization on record. The guild was authorized by the Massachusetts Bay Colony (Mass. Bay Company).
    (HN, 10/18/98)(AP, 10/18/07)

1649        Mar 26, John Winthrop, Puritan and 1st Gov. of Massachusetts, died. [see Apr 5]
    (SS, 3/26/02)

1649        Apr 5, John Winthrop (61), 1st governor of the colony at Mass. Bay, died. [see Mar 26]
    (MC, 4/5/02)

1649        Marblehead, Mass., was founded by Cornwall fishermen.
    (SFEC, 7/13/97, p.T7)

1651        Oct 14, Laws were passed in Massachusetts forbidding the poor to adopt excessive styles of dress.
    (HN, 10/14/98)

1651        Dec 25, The General Court of Boston levied a five shilling fine on anyone caught "observing any such day as Christmas."
    (HN, 12/25/98)

1652        Mar 28, Samuel Sewall, British colonial merchant and one of the Salem witch trial judges, was born.
    (HN, 3/28/01)

1652        Jun 29, Massachusetts declared itself an independent commonwealth.
    (HN, 6/29/98)

1652        Massachusetts produced a silver colonial coin that was found with a metal detector in 1989 in a potato field. In 2012 it was auctioned off for $430,000.
    (SFC, 11/24/12, p.A5)

1656        Jul 1, The 1st Quakers, Mary Fisher and Ann Austin, arrived in Boston and were promptly arrested.
    (MC, 7/1/02)

1656        Oct 3, Myles Standish (b.1654), Plymouth Colony leader, died.
    (WUD, 1994 p.1386)(MC, 10/3/01)

1657        May 9, William Bradford, Governor (Plymouth Colony, Mass), died.
    (MC, 5/9/02)

1657        The last wolf in Boston, Mass., was killed.
    (Econ, 12/22/12, p.125)

1659        Quaker leader Mary Dyer was sentenced to death by a Puritan court in Massachusetts Bay Colony amid the Salem witch trials. She refused to leave the colony and was hanged in 1660.
    (SFC, 3/30/97, Z1. p.6)(SFEC, 1/16/00, Z1 p.1)

1659-1681    It was illegal to celebrate Christmas in Massachusetts during this period.
    (WSJ, 11/30/99, p.A24)

1661        Mar 24, William Leddra became the last Quaker to be hanged in Boston. Quakers were last hanged on Boston Common. Charles II ordered the executions stopped.
    (WSJ, 4/4/01, p.A18)(MC, 3/24/02)

1661        Massachusetts merchant William Payne willed a spectacular 35-acre seafront property for the benefit of public school children, decreeing the land should never be sold or wasted. The land gift was intended to help Ipswich comply with a 1647 colonial law that required communities with more than 100 families to set up a grammar school to prepare students for admission to Harvard.
    (AP, 2/24/12)

1662        Major Josiah Winslow seized Wamsutta, the Algonquin grand sachem known as Alexander, and demanded an exclusive land sale arrangement with the Plymouth Colony. Alexander became sick and died and his brother Metacom (24), known as Philip, became grand sachem.
    (AH, 6/02, p.46)

1664        May 28, 1st Baptist Church was organized (Boston).
    (MC, 5/28/02)

1664        Jul 23, Wealthy non-church members in Massachusetts were given the right to vote.
    (HN, 7/23/98)
1664        Jul 23, 4 British ships arrived in Boston to drive the Dutch out of NY.
    (MC, 7/23/02)

1668        May 27, Three colonists were expelled from Massachusetts for being Baptists.
    (HN, 5/27/99)

1672        May 15, 1st copyright law was enacted by Massachusetts.
    (MC, 5/15/02)

1672        Jun 25, 1st recorded monthly Quaker meeting in US was held at Sandwich, Mass.
    (MC, 6/25/02)

1672        Dec 10, Gov. Lovelace announced monthly mail service between NY and Boston.
    (MC, 12/10/01)

1674        Oct 15, Robert Herrick, British poet (Together), was born in Mass.
    (MC, 10/15/01)

1675        Jun 8, Three Wampanoag Indians were hanged in Plymouth, Massachusetts. On the testimony of a Native American witness, Plymouth Colony arrested three Wampanoags, including a counselor to Metacom, a Pokanoket sachem. A jury among whom were some Indian members convicted them of the recent murder of John Sassamon, an advisor to Metacom.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/King_Philip%27s_War)

1675        Jun 20, King Philip’s War began when Indians--retaliating for the execution of three of their people who had been charged with murder by the English--massacred colonists at Swansea, Plymouth colony. Abenaki, Massachusetts, Mohegan & Wampanoag Indians formed an anti English front. Wampanoag warriors attacked livestock and looted farms.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/King_Philip%27s_War)(AH, 6/02, p.46)

1675        Jun 23, An English youth shot a Marauding Wampanoag warrior.
    (AH, 6/02, p.46)

1675        Sep 9, Colonial authorities officially declared war on the Wampanoag Indians. The war soon spread to include the Abenaki, Norwottock, Pocumtuck and Agawam warriors.
    (MC, 9/9/01)(AH, 6/02, p.47)

1675        Dec 19, Some 1,000 colonial troops attacked the Narragansett winter village in Rhode Island. The Great Swamp Fight ended with some 80 English killed and 600 Indians dead, mostly women and children.
    (AH, 6/02, p.48)

1675        In Boston, Mass., a law forbade American Indians from setting foot in the city, as settlers warred with area tribes. In 2005 although the law wasn’t enforced for centuries it was a lingering source of anger for American Indians.
    (AP, 5/20/05)

1676        Feb 10, In King Philip’s War Narragansett and Nipmuck Indians raided Lancaster, Mass. Over 35 villagers were killed and 24 were taken captive including Mary Rowlandson (1637-1711) and her 3 children. Rowlandson was freed after 11 weeks and an account of her captivity was published posthumously in 1682.
    (AH, 6/02, p.48)(Econ, 2/21/09, p.83)(http://tinyurl.com/cvrhcv)

1676        Feb, Mohawk Indians attacked and killed all but 40 of Wampanoag Indians under Philip. NY Gov. Edmund Andros had urged the Mohawks to attack the Wampanoags.
    (AH, 6/02, p.48)

1676        Mar 29, Wampanoag allies destroyed Providence, Rhode Island.
    (AH, 6/02, p.48)

1676        Apr 18, Sudbury, Massachusetts was attacked by Indians.
    (HN, 4/18/98)

1676        Mar 29, Wampanoag allies destroyed Providence, Rhode Island.
    (AH, 6/02, p.48)

1676        Aug 12, Indian chief King Philip, also known as Metacom, was killed by  a Pocasset Indian named Alderman in the swamps of Rhode Island. This ended the King Philip’s War. Benjamin Church, a Plymouth volunteer, ordered that Philip be beheaded and quartered. [see Aug 28]
    (AH, 6/02, p.50)

1676        Aug 28, Indian chief King Philip, also known as Metacom, was killed by English soldiers, ending the war between Indians and colonists. [see Aug 12]
    (HN, 8/28/98)

1676        Nov 16, 1st colonial prison was organized at Nantucket Mass.
    (MC, 11/16/01)

1677        Mar 13, Massachusetts gained title to Maine for $6,000.
    (MC, 3/13/02)

1679        Sep 18, New Hampshire became a county Massachusetts Bay Colony.
    (MC, 9/18/01)

1684        Jun 21, King Charles II revoked the 1629 Massachusetts Bay Colony charter. [see 1691]
    (HNQ, 11/23/00)(MC, 6/21/02)

1689        Apr 19, Residents of Boston ousted their governor, Edmond Andros.
    (HN, 4/19/97)

1690        Feb 3, The first paper money in America was issued by the colony of Massachusetts. The currency was used to pay soldiers fighting a war against Quebec.
    (SFC, 4/30/97, p.B3)(AP, 2/3/97)

1690        A newspaper called “Publick Occurences Both Forreign and Domestick” was published in Boston, Mass.
    (WSJ, 12/29/07, p.A8)

1691        Sep 17, The Massachusetts Bay Colony received a new charter. [see Oct 17]
    (MC, 9/17/01)

1690        Sep 25, One of the earliest American newspapers, “Publick Occurrences,” published its first and last edition in Boston. The colonial governor and council disallowed the pamphlet due to its contents.
    (AP, 9/25/00)(WSJ, 3/8/06, p.D14)

1691        Oct 17, The Massachusetts Bay Company along with Plymouth colony and Maine was incorporated into the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
    (HN, 10/17/98)(HNQ, 11/23/00)

1692        Feb 28, The Salem witch hunts began.
    (MC, 2/28/02)

1692        Feb 29, Sarah Goode and Tituba were accused of witchcraft in Salem, Massachusetts, sparking the hysteria that started the Salem Witch Trials.
    (HN, 2/29/00)

1692         Mar 1, Sarah Goode, Sarah Osborne and Tituba were arrested for the supposed practice of witchcraft in Salem, Mass.
    (HN, 3/1/98)

1692        Jun 10, Bridget Bishop was hanged in Salem, Mass., for witchcraft. This was the first official execution of the Salem witch trials.
    (HN, 6/10/01)(WSJ, 1/18/08, p.W10)

1692        Aug 19, Five women were hanged in Salem, Massachusetts after being convicted of the crime of witchcraft. Fourteen more people were executed that year and 150 others are imprisoned.
    (HN, 8/19/00)

1692        Sep 21, Two men and seven women were executed for witchcraft in Salem, Massachusetts.
    (MC, 9/21/01)

1692        Sep 22, The last person was hanged for witchcraft in Salem, Mass.
    (MC, 9/22/01)

1692        Oct 8, Massachusetts Bay Governor Phipps ordered that spectral evidence no longer be admitted in witchcraft trials. Twenty people had died in the Salem witch trials. In 2005 Richard Francis authored “Judge Sewall’s Apology.” Sewall was one of 3 judges presiding over the Salem trials. In 2006 the governor of Massachusetts signed legislation exonerating 5 women executed in the Salem witch trials of 1692, whose names had not yet been cleared.
    (http://tinyurl.com/rlj1)(WSJ, 8/9/05, p.D8)(WSJ, 9/15/06, p.A10)

1697        In Boston’s Old South Church Judge Sewall told the congregation that he accepted “blame and shame” for the 1692 Salem witch trials. None of the other judges joined him in repenting.
    (Econ, 8/6/05, p.70)

1698        Jan 1, The Abenaki Indians and the Massachusetts colonists signed a treaty ending the conflict in New England.
    (HN, 1/1/99)

1699        Jan 14, Massachusetts held a day of fasting for wrongly persecuting "witches."
    (MC, 1/14/02)

1699        Jul 6, Pirate Capt. William Kidd was captured in Boston.
    (MC, 7/6/02)

1704        Feb 28, Indians attacked Deerfield, Mass. killing 40 and kidnapping 100.
    (HN, 2/28/98)

1704        Apr 24, The Boston News-Letter was established, first successful newspaper in U.S.
    (HN, 4/24/98)

1704        May 1, Boston Newsletter published the 1st US newspaper ad.
    (MC, 5/1/02)

1706        Jan 17, Benjamin Franklin (d.1790), American statesman, was born in Boston, the youngest boy in a family of 17 children. He helped draft the Declaration of Independence and wrote "Poor Richard’s Almanac." Carl Van Doren portrays Franklin as a harmonious rationalist in his classic biography. David Morgan writes of Franklin’s darker side in: "The Devious Dr. Franklin, Colonial Agent." And Robert Middlekauff describes Franklin as a trickster in his: "Benjamin Franklin and his Enemies." Franklin believed in white superiority and said: "why increase the Sons of Africa by planting them in America, when we have so fair an opportunity, by excluding all the Blacks and Tawneys, of increasing the lovely white.?" "If you would not be forgotten, as soon as you are dead and rotten, either write things worth reading, or do things worth the writing."
    (WSJ, 8/8/95, p. A12)(SFC,12/897, p.A27)(AP, 1/17/98)(AP, 4/17/98)(HN, 1/17/99)(HNQ, 11/19/01)

1708        Aug 29, French Canadian and Indian forces attacked the village of Haverhill, Mass., killing 16 settlers.
    (AP, 8/29/08)

1709        Boston minister Thomas Bannister donated the book  "Complete History of England with the Lives of All the Kings and Queens Thereof, Vol. 3" to Harvard Univ. It was written by Bishop White Kennet and printed in 1706 in London.
    (SFC, 5/10/97, p.A8)

1711        In Massachusetts 14 women, who in 1692 had been accused and hanged or killed for being witches, were cleared in a general amnesty.
    (WSJ, 9/15/06, p.A10)

1716        Sep 14, The 1st lighthouse in the US was lit in Boston Harbor. It was blown up by the British in 1776 and was replaced in 1783.
    (www.lighthouse.cc/boston/history.html)(Econ, 3/31/12, p.41)

1716        Nov 26, The 1st lion exhibited in America was in Boston.
    (MC, 11/26/01)

1717        Apr 26, Pirate Black Sam Bellamy died along with 143 others when their ship, the Whydah, sank off of Wellfleet, Cape Cod. 2 men on the Whydah survived as did 7 others aboard the Mary Anne, a smaller ship loaded with Madeira wine. The slave ship Whydah had just been captured by Bellamy in February as it left Ouidau, Benin, with a load of sugar and indigo as well as chests of silver and gold. 6 or the 9 survivors were later hanged for piracy in Boston. In 1984 the wreck of the ship was discovered by Barry Clifford.
    (SFC, 3/4/96, p.A4)(WSJ, 9/12/07, p.D9)

1721        Apr 19, Roger Sherman (d.1793) of Connecticut, signer of the Declaration of Independence, was born in Newton, Massachusetts. He was only man to sign the four most important documents that were most significant in the formation of the United States. Sherman signed the Association (the 1774 compact to boycott British goods), the Declaration of Independence, Articles of Confederation and Constitution. Sherman was among the first to declare that Parliament had no right to legislate for the colonies. He was a delegate to the Continental Congress, served in the first U.S.  House of Representatives and was a U.S.  senator.
    (HN, 4/19/97)(HNQ, 7/10/99)

1721        Jun 26, Dr. Zabdiel Boylston gave the 1st smallpox inoculation in Boston. The epidemic had arrived by ship from Barbados.
    (ON, 3/05, p.4)

1721        Jul 21, Doctors in Boston raised objections to a new practice of using live smallpox to inoculate patients against the disease. A smallpox epidemic had recently broken out in Boston and Cotton Mather (58), following some study, encouraged the inoculation technique to prevent death from the disease.
    (ON, 3/05, p.4)

1721        Oct 6, Deaths from smallpox in Boston reached 203 with 2,757 people infected.
    (ON, 3/05, p.5)

1722        Cotton Mather authored “An Account of the Method and Success of Inoculating the Small-Pox…” This followed work in support of inoculation trials in Boston.
    (WSJ, 11/22/08, p.W11)

1730        Smallpox returned to Boston, but by this time inoculation was recognized as a viable means of preventing death from the disease.
    (ON, 3/05, p.5)

1733        Jan 18, The 1st polar bear exhibited in America was in Boston.
    (MC, 1/18/02)

1733        Jul 30, Society of Freemasons opened their 1st American lodge in Boston.
    (MC, 7/30/02)

1735        Jan 1, Paul Revere (d.1818), U.S. patriot who rode through the streets of Boston during the American Revolution, warning of the British landings, was born to Apollos Rivoire and Deborah Hitchbourne, one of 13 children.
    (HN, 1/1/99)(HNQ, 6/27/02)

1735        Aug 18, The Evening Post began publishing in Boston, Mass.
    (MC, 8/18/02)

1735        Oct 30, John Adams, second president of the United States (1797-1801), was born in Braintree (Quincy), Mass.
    (AP, 10/30/97)(HN, 10/30/98)(MC, 10/30/01)

1737        Rev. Andrew Le Mercier, a Huguenot living in Boston, set the first horses out to graze on Sable Island, 100 miles east of Nova Scotia. A few decades later Thomas Hancock of Boston plundered some 60 horses from Acadian settlers expelled from Nova Scotia by British overlords, and settled them on Sable Island. Hardy descendants of the horses still thrived in 1998.
    (SFC, 7/23/98, p.C3)

1738        Jul 3, John Singleton Copley, finest colonial American artist, was born in Mass.
    (MC, 7/3/02)

1742        Sep 24, The Faneuil Hall in Boston opened to public.
    (MC, 9/24/01)

1745        Mar 9, Bells for 1st American carillon were shipped from England to Boston.
    (MC, 3/9/02)

1746        Oct 7, William Billings, hymn composer (Rose of Sharon), was born in Boston, Mass.
    (HN, 10/7/00)(MC, 10/7/01)

1746        The first lectures on electricity in the American colonies were given by John Winthrop IV at Harvard in 1746. Winthrop, born in 1714, was the professor of mathematics and natural philosophy at Harvard. Benjamin Franklin began his experiments in electricity in 1747.

1746        Elisha Nims (26) died from a musket ball at Fort Massachusetts during the French and Indian War. His grave was discovered in 1852 and his last remains were reburied in 2000.
    (SFC, 11/11/00, p.A13)

1749        Jun 25, Massachusetts residents were asked to fast due to a severe drought.
    (SFC, 6/25/09, p.D8)

1750        A Welshman opened the first modern shoe factory in Lynn, Mass.
    (WSJ, 4/25/00, p.A24)

1753        Smallpox hit North America and a 38% infection rate was recorded in Boston. Benjamin Franklin lobbied for variolation.
    (NW, 10/14/02, p.47)

1754        Jun 19, The Albany Congress opened. New York colonial Gov. George Clinton called for the meeting to discuss better relations with Indian tribes and common defensive measures against the French. The attendees included Indians and representatives from Connecticut, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New York, Pennsylvania and Rhode Island. Benjamin Franklin attended and presented his Plan of Union, which was adopted by the conference. The meeting ended on July 11.
    (AH, 2/06, p.45)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albany_Congress)

1755        Nov 18, The Cape Ann (Boston) earthquake, estimated at 6.0-6.5, hit the east coast from the Chesapeake Bay to Nova Scotia.
    (http://geology.about.com/library/bl/blboston1755eq.htm)

1757        Jan 16, Samuel McIntire, architect of Salem, Massachusetts, was born.
    (HN, 1/16/99)

1760        Mar 20, The great fire of Boston destroyed 349 buildings.
    (HN, 3/20/98)

1762        The Nicholas Brothers Chair Manufactory operated in Westminster, Mass. In 1900 the firm moved to Gardner and around 1907 was renamed to Nicholas & Stone.
    (SFC, 3/29/06, p.G6)

1763        Aug 8, Charles Bulfinch, 1st US professional architect (Mass State House), was born in Boston, Mass.
    (MC, 8/8/02)

1764        May 24, Bostonian lawyer James Otis denounced "taxation without representation" and called for the colonies to unite in demonstrating their opposition to Britain's new tax measures.
    (HN, 5/24/99)

1764        Jan 25, Harvard Hall in Cambridge, Mass., burned to the ground and destroyed most of the 5,000 volumes in its library.
    (SFC, 5/10/97, p.A9)

1765        Aug 14, Massachusetts colonists challenged British rule by an Elm (Liberty Tree).
    (MC, 8/14/02)

1765        Aug 25, In protest over the stamp tax, American colonists sacked and burned the home of Massachusetts governor Thomas Hutchinson. In 1774 he was exiled to Britain. In 1974 Bernard Bailyn authored “The Ordeal of Thomas Hutchinson.”
    (HN, 8/25/98)(WSJ, 8/25/07, p.P9)

1765        Shaw Furniture of Cambridge, Mass., was in business as early as this time and continued operating into the 1920s. During the 18th century Shaw made furniture using convict labor from Charleston State Prison.
    (SFC, 10/29/08, p.G2)

1766        Sep 17, Samuel Wilson, the future Uncle Sam, was born in Menotomy Mass. Menotomy later became Arlington. Samuel moved to Troy, New York, where he and his brother set up meat packing plants which later provided food for the US Army during the War of 1812.
    (WC, Summer ‘97, p.3)

1767        Jul 11, John Quincy Adams, the sixth president of the United States (1825-1829), was born in Braintree, Mass.
    (AP, 7/11/97)(HN, 7/11/98 (PGA, 12/9/98)

1768        Oct 1, English troops under general Gage landed in Boston.
    (MC, 10/1/01)

1768        The Jeremiah Lee Mansion was built in Marblehead. Lee later became a fatality of the Lexington-Concord battle.
    (SFEC, 7/13/97, p.T9)
1768         The Massachusetts colonial assembly voted 92-17 to refuse British demands for repeal of the Massachusetts Circular Letter, which had been penned by Samuel Adams in protest of the Townshend Revenue Act. Silversmith and legendary Patriot Paul Revere later crafted his Liberty Bowl to commemorate the two "Patriotic numbers" 92 and 45. The bowl, which weighed 45 ounces and held 45 gills, was inscribed with "Ninety-Two." The numbers had special significance to American Patriots, representing resistance to British taxation and the No. 45 issue of Wilkes’ North Briton newspaper.
    (www.mfa.org/collections/object/39072)

1770        March 5, British troops taunted by a crowd of colonists fired on an unruly mob in Boston and killed five citizens in what came to be known as the Boston Massacre. The fracas between a few angry Boston men and one British sentry ended with five men dead or dying in the icy street corner of King Street and Shrimton’s Lane. Captain Thomas Preston did not order the eight British soldiers under his command to fire into the hostile crowd. The nervous soldiers claimed to be confused by shouts of "Why do you not fire?" coming from all sides. Versions of the event rapidly circulated through the colonies, bolstering public support for the Patriot cause. The British Captain Preston and seven soldiers were defended by John Adams. The captain and five of the soldiers were acquitted, the other two soldiers were found guilty of manslaughter and were branded on the hand with a hot iron. The first colonist killed in the American Revolution was the former slave, Crispus Attucks, shot by the British at the Boston Massacre. The event was later illustrated by Boston engraver Paul Revere.
    (HFA, '96, p.26)(A&IP, Miers, p.18)(SFC, 12/18/96, p.A25)(AP, 3/5/98)(HN, 3/5/98)(HNPD, 3/5/99)(WSJ, 4/12/08, p.W14)

1770        Dec 12, The British soldiers responsible for the "Boston Massacre" were acquitted on murder charges.
    (HN, 12/12/98)

1772        Nov 2, The first Committees of Correspondence were formed in Massachusetts under Samuel Adams.
    (HN, 11/2/98)

1773        Mar 26, Nathaniel Bowditch (d.1838), mathematician, astronomer, polyglot, author (Marine Sextant), was born in Salem, Mass. In 1802 he published "The New American Practical Navigator."
    (SS, 3/26/02)(AH, 12/02, p.22)

1773        Sep 1, Phillis Wheatley, a slave from Boston, published a collection of poetry, "Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral," in London.
    (HN, 9/1/99)

1773        Dec 16, Some 50-60 "Sons of Liberty" of revolutionary Samuel Adams disguised as Mohawks defied the 3 cents per pound tax on tea boarded  a British East India Tea Company ship and dumped 342 chests of British tea into the Boston Harbor in what became known as the Boston Tea Party. Parliament had passed the 1773 Tea Act not to regulate trade or make the colonies pay their own administrative costs, but to save the nearly bankrupt British East India Tea Company. The Tea Act gave the company a monopoly over the American tea trade and authorized the sale of 17 million pounds of tea in America at prices cheaper than smuggled Dutch tea. In spite of the savings, Americans would not accept what they considered to be taxation without representation. Overreacting to the Boston Tea Party, the British attempted to punish Boston and the whole colony of Massachusetts with the Intolerable Acts of 1774--another in the series of events that ultimately led to American independence. A bill for the tea ($196) was paid Sep 30, 1961.
    (HFA, '96, p.44)(A&IP, Miers, p.18)(SFEC,11/23/97, Par p.14)(AP, 12/16/97) (HNPD, 12/16/98)(MC, 9/30/01)   

1774        Mar 7, A 2nd Boston tea party was held.
    (SFEC,11/23/97, Par p.14)
1774        Mar 7, The British closed the port of Boston to all commerce.
    (HN, 3/7/98)

1774        Mar 25, English Parliament passed the Boston Port Bill.
    (MC, 3/25/02)

1774        Mar 28, Britain passed the Coercive Act against Massachusetts. [see May 20]
    (HN, 3/28/98)

1774        May 20, The British Parliament passed the Coercive Acts to punish the colonists for their increasingly anti-British behavior. The acts closed the port of Boston. [see Mar 28]
    (HN, 5/20/99)

1774        Sep 26, John Chapman (d.1845), later known as Johnny Appleseed, was born in Massachusetts.  A pioneer agriculturalist of early America, Chapman began his trek in 1797, collecting apple seedlings from western Pennsylvania and establishing apple nurseries around the early American frontier. Chapman was a Swedenborgian missionary, a land speculator and an eccentric dresser (he hated shoes and seldom wore them. He planted orchards across western Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Indiana from seed.
    (www.ohiohistorycentral.org/entry.php?rec=94)(T&L, 10/1980, p.42)(ON, 4/09, p.10)

1775        Feb 9, English Parliament declared the Mass. colony is in rebellion.
    (MC, 2/9/02)

1775        Feb 21, As troubles with Great Britain increased, colonists in Massachusetts voted to buy military equipment for 15,000 men.
    (HN, 2/21/99)

1775        Apr 18, Several post riders set out to warn colonists of the British attack that started the American Revolution. One patriotic myth that grew out of that movement began with a poem Henry Wadsworth Longfellow called "Paul Revere's Ride." Paul Revere began his famous ride from Charlestown to Lexington, Mass., warning American colonists that the British were coming. American revolutionaries Paul Revere, William Dawes and Samuel Prescott warned that "the British are coming". Only Prescott galloped all the way to Concord. Revere was corralled by a British cavalry patrol near Lexington, MA; Dawes and Prescott escaped. A company of over 700 British troops marched toward Concord. 23-year-old church sexton Robert Newman hung two lanterns in the Old North Church to warn riders that the British were leaving Boston by boat to march on Concord. Every April, a descendant of the 18th-century patriot still climbs to the steeple of Old North Church and hangs two small tin and glass lanterns.
    (HN, 4/18/98)(ON, 3/01, p.2)(HNQ, 7/5/01)(AP, 4/18/07)

1775        Apr 19, Alerted by Paul Revere the American Revolutionary War began at Lexington Common with the Battle of Lexington-Concord. Capt. John Parker mustered 78 militiamen on the town green of Lexington to send a warning to the 700 British soldiers marching to Concord to seize weapons and gunpowder. Maj. Gen. Thomas Gage sent a force of 700 British troops to Concord, west of Boston, to capture colonial weapons and arrest Patriot leaders Samuel Adams and John Hancock. Arriving at Lexington on their way to Concord, the British were met on the town common by about 70 Minutemen. The "shot heard ‘round the world" ignited the American Revolutionary War. No one knows who fired the first shot, but when the smoke cleared, eight Americans lay dead. The British suffered more than 250 casualties as they opposed more than 1,500 Massachusetts men. The events are documented in the 1997 book "Liberty by Thomas Fleming." Isaac Davis was among the first to die at Lexington and Concord.
    (HFA, '96, p.28)(V.D.-H.K.p.224)(AP, 4/19/97)(SFEC,11/23/97, Par p.14) (HN, 4/19/97)(HNPD, 4/19/99)(HNQ, 10/17/00)

1775        Apr 20, British troops began the siege of Boston.
    (HN, 4/20/98)

1775        Jul 3, Gen. George Washington took command of the Continental Army at Cambridge, Mass.
    (AP, 7/3/97)

1775        Jul 16, John Adams graduated from Harvard.
    (MC, 7/16/02)

1775        Jun 17, The Battle of Bunker Hill was actually fought on Breed’s Hill near Boston. It lasted less than 2 hours and was the deadliest of the Revolutionary War. The British captured the hill on their third attempt but suffered over 1,000 casualties vs. about 400-600 for the Americans. Patriotic hero Dr. Joseph Warren died in the battle. Patriot General William Prescott allegedly told his men, "Don't one of you fire until you see the whites of their eyes!" British casualties were estimated at 226 dead and 828 wounded, while American casualties were estimated at 140 dead and 301 wounded.
    (SFC, 4/2/97, Z1 p.6)(AP, 6/17/98)(HNQ, 4/1/99)(AH, 10/07, p.72)

1775        Oct 13, The U.S. Navy had its origins as the Continental Congress ordered the construction of a naval fleet. The Continental Congress authorized construction of two warships. The 1st ship in the US Navy was the schooner Hannah. It was commissioned by George Washington and outfitted at Beverly, Mass. In 2006 Ian W. Toll authored “Six Frigates: The Epic History of the Founding of the US Navy.
    (AP, 10/13/97)(HN, 10/13/98)(SFC, 2/12/00, p.B3)(Econ, 11/4/06, p.94)

1775        Nov 17, George Washington was in Boston with his ragtag army facing 12,000 Redcoat regulars.
    (SFEC, 10/15/00, p.T12)

1776        Mar 2, Americans began shelling British troops in Boston. Henry Knox had managed to drag 58 canon and mortars from Fort Ticonderoga to the Dorchester Heights above Boston.
    (HN, 3/2/99)(WSJ, 5/20/05, p.W10)

1776        Mar 5, A terrific storm wrecked British hope of a counterattack on Dorchester Heights in Boston, Mass.
    (WSJ, 5/20/05, p.W10)

1776        Mar 17, British forces evacuated Boston to Nova Scotia during the Revolutionary War. Suffolk Ct. Massachusetts declared this day Evacuation Day
    (AP, 3/17/97)(HN, 3/17/98)(SFEC, 4/25/99, Z1 p.8)

1776        Apr 3, George Washington received an honorary doctor of law degree from Harvard College.
    (AP, 4/3/97)

1777        Jul 8, The Continental frigate Hancock was captured by the British ships Rainbow and Flora. The prisoners, including cabin-boy John Blatchford, were taken to Halifax.
    (ON, 1/00, p.4)

1779        John Adams drafted most of the Massachusetts state constitution.
    (WSJ, 12/22/98, p.A16)

1779        The captured journal of British officer Henry De Berniere was published by John Gill, member of the Sons of Liberty. Gill had printed many anti-British pamphlets including the rebel newspaper Boston Gazette.
    (AH, 10/01, p.56)

1780        The first inflation-linked bonds were issued in Massachusetts.
    (Econ, 2/25/12, SRp.4)

1782        Jan 18, Daniel Webster (d.1852, aka Black Dan) American political leader, Senator and orator, lawyer, statesman, administrator and diplomat, was born in Salisbury, N.H. In 1830 he proclaimed "Liberty and Union, now and forever, one and inseparable!" He was Secretary of State before the Civil War.
    (HFA, '96, p.22)(AHD, p.1452)(WSJ, 9/30/97, p.A20)(AP, 1/18/98)(HN, 1/18/99)

1782        Dec 29, 1st nautical almanac in US was published by Samuel Stearns in Boston.
    (MC, 12/29/01)

1783        In Massachusetts a lighthouse was built in Boston Harbor on Little Brewster Island. Its light was automated in 1998. The original light was built here in 1716.
    (Econ, 3/31/12, p.41)(www.lighthouse.cc/boston/)

1786        Aug 29, Shay’s Rebellion began in Springfield, Mass. Daniel Shay led a rebellion in Massachusetts to protest the seizure of property for the non-payment of debt. Shay was a Revolutionary War veteran who led a short-lived insurrection in western Massachusetts to protest a tax increase that had to be paid in cash, a hardship for veteran farmers who relied on barter and didn‘t own enough land to vote. The taxes were to pay off the debts from the Revolutionary War, and those who couldn‘t pay were evicted or sent to prison..  [see Jan 25, 1787]
    (HNQ, 7/6/00)(www.shaysnet.com/dshays.html)

1786        Oct 20, Harvard University organized the 1st astronomical expedition in US.
    (MC, 10/20/01)

1787        Jan 25, Shays' Rebellion suffered a setback when debt-ridden farmers led by Capt. Daniel Shays failed to capture an arsenal at Springfield, Mass. Small farmers in Springfield, Massachusetts led by Daniel Shays continued their revolt against tax laws. Federal troops broke up the protesters of what later became known as Shay’s Rebellion. [see Aug 29, 1786]
    (AP, 1/25/98)(HN, 1/25/99)(www.sjchs-history.org/Shays.html)

1787        Feb 4, Shay’s Rebellion, an uprising of debt-ridden Massachusetts farmers, failed.
    (HN, 2/4/99)

1787        Nov 18, The 1st Unitarian minister in US was ordained in Boston.
    (MC, 11/18/01)

1788        Feb 6, Massachusetts became the sixth state to ratify the U.S. Constitution.
    (AP, 2/6/97)(HN, 2/6/99)

1788        "The Narrative of John Blanchford" was published. Blanchford (15), a Massachusetts cabin-boy, had been captured by the British and sent to prison in Halifax and later to Sumatra from where he escaped after a 6 year ordeal.
    (ON, 1/00, p.5)

1789        Massachusetts commenced work on the Middlesex Canal. It was completed in 1808.
    (Panic, p.12)

1789-1794    Samuel Adams (1722-1803) served as Lt. Gov. of Mass. He was also a propagandist, political figure, revolutionary patriot and statesman who helped to organize the Boston Tea Party.
    (AHD, 1971, p.14)(HN, 9/27/98)(MC, 9/27/01)

1790        Aug 2, The enumeration for the first US census began. It showed that 3,929,326 people were living in the US of which 697,681 were slaves, and that the largest cities were New York City with 33,000 inhabitants; Philadelphia, with 28,000; Boston, with 18,000; Charleston, South Carolina, with 16,000; and Baltimore, with 13,000. Census records for Delaware, Georgia, New Jersey, and Virginia were lost sometime between 1790 and 1830.
    (AP, 8/2/06)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1790_United_States_Census)

1791        Mar 10, John Stone of Concord, Mass, patented a pile driver.
    (MC, 3/10/02)

1791        A document was released in 2004 from Pittsfield, Mass., that contained a 1791 bylaw to protect the windows of a new meeting house from baseball players.
    (SFC, 5/12/04, p.A2)

1792        Feb 23, Humane Society of Massachusetts was incorporated. It erected life-saving stations for distressed mariners.
    (MC, 2/23/02)

1794        Apr 11, Edward Everett, governor of Massachusetts, statesman and orator, was born.
    (HN, 4/11/98)

1794        George Washington established the first national armory at Springfield, Mass.
    (WSJ, 9/12/97, p.A20)

1795        Samuel Adams and Paul Revere laid the cornerstone for the Massachusetts State House in Boston.
    (AH, 10/07, p.73)

1797        Sep 20, The US frigate Constitution (Old Ironsides) was launched in Boston. [see Oct 21]
    (MC, 9/20/01)

1797        Oct 21, The 44-gun 204-foot U.S. Navy frigate USS Constitution, also known as Old Ironsides, was launched in Boston's harbor. It was never defeated in 42 battles. 216 crew members set sail again in 1997 for its 200th birthday. [see Sep 20]
    (AP, 10/21/97)(SFC, 7/22/97, p.A1)(SFC,10/22/97, p.A6)

1797        Mrs. Gannett of Mass. (1760-1827), born as Deborah Sampson, authored her memoir. She had fought in the American Revolution as a man under the alias Robert Shurtleff. In 2004 Alfred F. Young authored "Masquerade: The Life and Times of Deborah Sampson, Continental Soldier.”
    (www.distinguishedwomen.com/biographies/sampson.html)(SSFC, 4/11/04, p.M4)

1798        The Massachusetts State House was built in Boston on land owned by patriot merchant John Hancock, It was designed by Charles Bullfinch (1763-1844), who later designed the US Capitol in Washington.
    (AH, 10/07, p.72)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Bulfinch)

1803        Oct 2, Samuel Adams (b.1722), former Gov. of Mass. (1793-1797), died. He was a propagandist, political figure, revolutionary patriot and statesman who helped to organize the Boston Tea Party. In 2008 Ira Stoll authored “Samuel Adams: A Life.”
    (AHD, 1971, p.14)(WSJ, 11/3/08, p.A17)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samuel_Adams)

1804        Jul 4, Nathaniel Hawthorne (1804-1864) American novelist and short-story writer, was born in Marblehead, [Salem], Massachusetts. Hawthorne was born to a prominent but decaying family. One of his ancestors, a judge in the Salem witchcraft trials, became the model for the accursed founder of The House of the Seven Gables. Hawthorne would often wonder whether the decline of his family’s fortune was a punishment for the sins of his "sable-cloaked steeple-crowned progenitors. "Marblehead is also the location of the house in his book "The House of Seven Gables." He also wrote "The Scarlet Letter."
    (WUD, 1994, p.651)(SFEC, 7/13/97, p.T9)(HN, 7/4/98)(IB, 12/7/98)

1805        Dec 10, William Lloyd Garrison (d.1879), abolitionist publisher, was born in Newburyport, Mass. In 1831 he published "The Liberator." In 1998 Henry Mayer published "All On Fire: William Lloyd Garrison and the Abolition of American Slavery."
    (SFEC, 1/3/99, BR p.1)(MC, 12/10/01)

1805        The Massachusetts state Legislature staged a mock impeachment trial of Pres. Jefferson. His affair with Sally Hemmings was one of the charges.
    (SFEC, 11/1/98, p.A1)

1805        As early as 1805, Bostonian Frederic Tudor considered ways to make money by exporting ice, a valueless commodity in New England, to the tropics. Tudor supported technical innovations, like the horse-drawn sleigh with saw-like runners, which improved the cutting, shipping and storage of large ice blocks. Recognizing that people living in warm climates were not familiar with cool food and drinks, Tudor traveled to prospective markets making ice cream and providing free ice for barkeepers. By 1856, Tudor's role as the "Ice King" was firmly established as 146,000 tons of ice shipped from Boston transformed the eating habits of people from the Philippines to the southern United States.
    (HNPD, 4/13/99)

1806        Dec 6, The African Meeting House was dedicated in Boston. It was later used by Frederick Douglass and other prominent abolitionists to rail against slavery. In 1974 it was named as a National History Landmark. In 2011 a $9 million restoration was completed.
    (SFC, 11/28/11, p.A5)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/African_Meeting_House)

1807        Dec 17, John Greenleaf Whittier, American poet, was born in Haverhill, Mass. He was an abolitionist, reformer and founder of the Liberal Party.
    (HN, 12/17/99)(AP, 12/17/07)

1808        Mar 6, 1st college orchestra in US was founded at Harvard.
    (MC, 3/6/02)

1808        Jul 9, A leather-splitting machine was patented by Samuel  Parker of Billerica, MA.
    (MC, 7/9/02)

1809        Jan 19, Edgar Allan Poe (d.1949), American writer, was born in Boston. His father, David Poe, was an Irish-American actor and abandoned his family shortly after Edgar’s birth. His mother, Elizabeth Arnold Hopkins, died in 1811 and he grew up with a foster family. Poe studied briefly at the University of Virginia, but then he quarreled with his foster father and went to Boston in 1827, where he published his first volume of poetry anonymously. In the early 1840s Poe became known for his lyrical, brooding poems and detective stories, such as "The Gold Bug" and "Murders at the Rue Morgue." In fact, he is recognized as the father of the modern detective story. Poe was unafraid to criticize literary practices of the time, stressing the importance of artistic value more than moral value. After battles with alcoholism and his wife Virginia's illness and death, Poe became depressed but continued to write. He became engaged again in 1849 but soon died at the age of 40. His best known stories include: "Fall of the House of Usher " and "The Tell-Tale Heart." His most famous poems are "The Raven" and Annabel Lee."
    (CFA, '96,Vol 179,  p.38)(SFEC, 1/12/97,  p.T5) (AP, 1/19/98)(HNPD, 1/19/99)

1809        Dec 30, Wearing masks at balls was forbidden in Boston.
    (MC, 12/30/01)

1809        Boston’s Exchange Coffee House, which also contained a hotel and offices, opened and was said to be the largest building in the country. It burned down in 1818.
    (Econ, 11/24/07, p.91)(www.nmrls.org/news/nov07/mhl.shtml)

1810-1813    Boston-based whalers slaughtered an estimated 150,000 fur seals on the Farallon Islands, 28 miles west of San Francisco. Russian hunters followed and occupied the islands for the next 25 years during which they wiped out the remaining fur seals. Fur seals began to return around 1977, but their first pup wasn’t born until 1996.
    (Bay, 4/07, p.33)

1811        Jan 2, US Sen Timothy Pickering (1745-1829) of Massachusetts became the 1st US senator to be censured. He had revealed confidential documents communicated by the president of the US.
    (http://tinyurl.com/8yj6dmb)

1811        Judge Joseph Story (32), speaker of the State House of Rep., had a Federal style house built in Salem and was appointed by Pres. Madison as associate justice to the US Supreme Court.
    (WSJ, 7/28/00, p.W10)

1811        Francis Cabot Lowell, an American industrialist, moved to England and gathered information on mill details. He returned to the US and started the textile industry in New England and the Massachusetts mill town of his name.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R50)

1811        Jan 6, Charles Sumner (d.1874), leading anti-slavery senator and author, was born in Boston. He was active in the movement to outlaw war, opposed the Mexican War and was a founder in 1848 of the Free-Soil party. A senator from Massachusetts, Sumner was an ardent abolitionist and helped organize the Republican party. In c1867 Massachusetts Senator Charles Sumner popularized the name Alaska for the territory that had been known as Russian America in a famous Senate speech supporting the treaty to purchase Russian America: "There is the National flag. He must be cold, indeed, who can look upon its folds rippling in the breeze without pride of country. If in a foreign land, the flag is companionship, and country itself, with all its endearments."
    (HNQ, 9/28/98)(AP, 6/14/97)(HNQ, 11/17/98)

1812        Feb 11, Massachusetts Gov. Elbridge Gerry signed a re-districting law  that favored his party, giving rise to the term "gerrymandering." His district was shaped like a salamander.
    (AP, 2/11/97)(Econ, 10/9/10, p.20)

1812        Maine separated from the state of Massachusetts.
    (WSJ, 8/6/99, p.W12)

1812        The 1st New England cotton mill was erected in Fall River, Mass.
    (Panic, p.8)

1813        Jan 24, Theodore Sedgwick (b.1746), arch-Federalist and former Massachusetts Senator (1796-1799), died. In 2007 John Sedgwick authored “In My Blood: Six Generations of Madness and Desire in an American Family.”
    (http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=S000222)(WSJ, 1/6/07, p.P13)

1814        Oct 19, Mercy Otis Warren (b.1728), Massachusetts playwright, died.
    (WSJ, 2/5/08, p.A16)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mercy_Otis_Warren)

1814        Nov 23, Elbridge Gerry (b.1744), former Massachusetts governor (1810-1811), died in office as vice-president of the US under Madison (1812-1814).
    (WSJ, 10/22/04, p.W5)(www.ushistory.org/declaration/signers/gerry.htm)

1815        John Roulstone of Sterling, Mass., penned the first 3 stanzas of the poem "Mary Had a Little Lamb" after his classmate Mary Sawyer came to school followed by her pet lamb.
    (SFC, 8/24/98, p.B6)

1816        Dec 13, Patent for a dry dock was issued to John Adamson in Boston.
    (MC, 12/13/01)

1816        Henry Hall, a Cape Cod farmer, discovered that sand spread over wild cranberry plants induced good growth.
    (Econ, 12/18/04, p.123)

1817        Jul 12, Henry David Thoreau (d.1862), essayist, naturalist and poet, was born in Concord, Mass. His work included "On Walden Pond." He referred to the three Greek goddesses of fate: Clotho (spinner of the thread of destiny), Lachesis (disposer of lots) and especially Atropos (who holds the scissors that will cut endeavor short). "We have constructed a fate, an Atropos, that never turns aside." He was also the author of the essays "Civil Disobedience and Slavery in Massachusetts."
    (AHD, p.1339)(Civil., Jul-Aug., '95, p.66)(HFA, '96, p.34)(HN, 7/12/98)

1817        Aug 18, Gloucester, Mass, newspapers told of a wild sea serpent seen offshore.
    (MC, 8/18/02)

1818        May 10, Paul Revere (b.1735) American patriot, died in Boston. Revere, best known for his midnight ride, fathered 16 children-eight by his first wife Sarah Orne and eight by his second wife, Rachel Walker. Born to Apollos Rivoire and Deborah Hitchbourne, Paul Revere was one of 13 children.
    (AP, 5/10/97)(HNQ, 7/26/99)

1818        Aug 13, Suffragist Lucy Stone, women's rights activist, founder of Woman's Journal, was born in West Brookfield, Mass.
    (AP, 8/13/97)(HN, 8/13/98)

1819        Jul 9, Elias Howe (d.1867), inventor of the sewing machine, was born in Spencer, Mass. Howe, a machinist, developed his sewing machine in 1843-45 and patented it in 1846. Although Howe's machine sewed only short, straight lines, tailors and seamstresses saw it as a threat to their jobs. Unable to market his machine in America, Howe took it to Britain where he sold the rights to an English manufacturer in 1847. Upon his return to the United States, Howe discovered that his patent had been infringed upon by other sewing machine manufacturers, such as Isaac Singer. After a lengthy court battle, Howe's patent was upheld and royalties from sewing machine sales made him a wealthy man.
    (WUD, 1994, p.689)(HN, 7/9/99)(MC, 7/9/02)

1819        Sep 16, Dr. John Jeffries, who crossed the English Channel (1785) with Frenchman Jean-Pierre Blanchard for the first time in a hydrogen balloon, died in Boston.
    (HN, 5/15/98)(HN, 1/7/99)

1819        Nov, Nantucket whalers lost their ship to a white whale and attempted to make landfall on the coast of South America. 8 crewmen survived after they consumed 7 of their mates. [see Owen Chase in 1821]
    (WSJ, 4/28/00, p.W6)

1819        The Pilgrim Society was established in Plymouth and undertook to build Pilgrim Hall.
    (AM, 11/00, p.16)

1820        Feb 15, American suffragist Susan B. Anthony (d.1906) was born in Adams, Mass. Her biography by Lynn Sherr was titled: "Failure Is Impossible."
    (SFEC, 9/21/97, Par p.4)(AP, 2/15/98)(HN, 2/15/98)

1820        An American whaling ship from Brighton, Massachusetts, was later believed to be the first to enter Japanese waters.
    (Econ, 12/22/07, p.64)

1821        Owen Chase wrote "Narrative of the Most Extraordinary and Distressing Shipwreck of the White-Whale ship Essex." The story inspired Herman Melville’s "Moby Dick." In 2000 Nathaniel Philbrick authored "In the Heart of the Sea," a complete investigation into the Nantucket whaler’s story and "the taboo of gastronomic incest."
    (WSJ, 4/28/00, p.W6)

1821        The Inquirer and Mirror newspaper began publishing on Nantucket.
    (SFEC, 8/13/00, p.T5)

1821        Amherst College was founded in Amherst, Mass.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amherst_College)

1821        The Boston English High School, the first US public high school, held its opening classes.
    (HNQ, 7/5/00)

1822        Feb 23, Boston was granted a charter to incorporate as a city.
    (AP, 2/23/98) (HN, 3/19/98)

1822        Mar 19, Boston was incorporated as a city.
    (HN, 3/19/98)

1823        The city of Boston donated an Egyptian mummy to Massachusetts General Hospital as a medical oddity. In 2013 the 2,500-year-old mummy, named Padihershef, was removed from its coffin for cleaning and restoration.
    (SFC, 6/8/13, p.A4)

1824        Lydia Maria Child of Wayland, Mass., authored "Hobomok," a novel of a Puritan girl who falls in love with an Indian after her fiancÚ is lost at sea. She later founded Juvenile Miscellany, the 1st children’s magazine in the US. She later authored "The Frugal Housewife" and "An Appeal in Favor of That Class of Americans Called Africans" (1833) and the poem: "The New England’s Boy’s Song About Thanksgiving Day" (Over the river, and through the woods…). In 1994 Carolyn Karcher authored her biography: "The First Woman in the Republic."
    (WSJ, 11/21/02, p.A1)

1825-1858    The Suffolk Bank operated a clearing house in Boston that served the New England region, and required all country banks doing business in Boston to maintain clearing deposits.
    (WSJ, 2/5/98, p.A23)

1825-1888    Sandwich glass, also known as pressed glass, was made by the Boston and Sandwich Glass Works in Sandwich, Mass. They made the original dolphin-based glassware.
    (SFC, 7/9/97, Z1 p.3)

1826        Feb 13, The American Temperance Society formed in Boston.
    (MC, 2/13/02)

1826        Jul 4, John Adams died at age 90 in Braintree [Quincy], Mass, just a few hours after Jefferson. Because communications was slow in those days, Adams and Jefferson, at their death, thought the other was still alive. Adams' last words were, "Thomas Jefferson still survives." It was 50 years to the day after the Declaration of Independence was adopted. Adams was the 2nd president of the US. A multi-generational biography of the Adams family was later written by Paul C. Nagel: "Descent from Glory." The Joseph Ellis book The Passionate Edge" helped restore Adams to his rightful place in the American pantheon. The 1972 musical film 1776 focused on Adams’ efforts to get an independence resolution through Congress. In 1998 C. Bradley Thompson published "John Adams and the Spirit of Liberty." In 2001 David McCullough authored "John Adams." In 2005 James Grant authored “John Adams: Party of One.”
    (A&IP, p.29)(AP, 7/4/97)(SFC, 7/4/98, p.E4)(IB, Internet, 12/7/98)(WSJ, 12/22/98, p.A16)(WSJ, 5/30/01, p.A20)(WSJ, 3/24/05, p.D8)

1826        Oct 7, The first railway in the United States opened at Quincy, Massachusetts.
    (HN, 10/7/98)

1827        Luther Roby, a Concord printer, published "A Journal Kept By Mr. John Howe While He Was Employed As A British Spy during the Revolutionary War; Also While He Was Engaged In The Smuggling Business." The book was later thought to based on the journal of British officer Henry De Berniere and published by John Gill, member of the Sons of Liberty, in 1779.
    (AH, 10/01, p.56)

1829        Mar 2, New England Asylum for the Blind, 1st in US, was incorporated in Boston.
    (SC, 3/2/02)

1829        Jul 4, In Boston, Mass., abolitionist William Lloyd Garrison (1805-1879) gave a passionate antislavery sermon at the Park Street Church and was attacked by a white supremacist mob who dragged him from the pulpit and beat him nearly to death. Garrison published the anti-slavery newspaper, the Liberator, from 1831-1865.
    (www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4p1561.html)(AH, 10/07, p.72)

1829        Aug 16, The original Siamese twins, Chang and Eng Bunker, arrived in Boston aboard the ship Sachem to be exhibited to the Western world.
    (AP, 8/16/97)

1829        Sep 28, Walker's Appeal, a racial antislavery pamphlet, was published in Boston.
    (MC, 9/28/01)

1829        Oct 16, Tremont Hotel, 1st US modern hotel, opened in Boston.
    (MC, 10/16/01)

1830        Jan 1, William Lloyd Garrison published the first edition of a journal entitled The Liberator, calling for the complete and immediate emancipation of all slaves in the United States. [see 1831]
    (HN, 1/1/99)

1830        Dec 10, Emily Dickinson (d.1886), American poet, was born in Amherst, Massachusetts. Perhaps the best-known woman poet in the United States today, Dickinson led a rather secluded life. After studying at Amherst Academy and then for one year at the Mount Holyoke Female Seminary, she lived with her family and never married. The few friends that Emily Dickinson did have received regular gifts of poetry and letters from her. Although she wrote poetry constantly, she never seriously pursued publishing her work. Only about 10 poems were published in her lifetime, and those were submitted for publication without her permission. After her death in 1886, more than 1,700 of her poems, which she had bound together in bundles, were discovered and published. "They say that God is everywhere, and yet we always think of Him as somewhat of a recluse."
    (HNPD, 12/8/98)(AP, 1/10/99)

1830        A year after leaving office as the sixth president of the United States, the Plymouth district of Massachusetts unexpectedly elected John Quincy Adams to the House of Representatives, where he served until he suffered a stroke on the House floor in 1848. He died two days later. Adams at the time enjoyed the distinction of having been the only son to follow his father to the presidency.
    (HNQ, 5/31/01)

1830        A Massachusetts spice trading ship was seized by pirates in Sumatra. In 2001 "Drums of Quallah Battoo: Salem Pepper Traders and Sumatran Pirates" by Charles P Corn (d.2001) was to be published.
    (SFC, 3/20/01, p.A19)

1830        Commercial bottling operations for ketchup began in Boston.
    (SFC, 8/27/03, p.E4)

1830        Samuel Morrill, a newspaper printer, cooked up a new ink in his kitchen in Andover, Mass., forming a company that ultimately become Sun Chemical. In 2004 it was the largest maker of ink in the world.
    (SFC, 7/26/04, p.F4)

1831        Jan 1, William Lloyd Garrison, 24-year-old reformer of Massachusetts, began publishing his newspaper The Liberator, dedicated to the abolition of slavery. Garrison's stridency and uncompromising position on both the institution of slavery and slave owners offended many in the North and South, but he vowed to continue the fight until slavery was abolished. In the first issue of his newspaper, he wrote, "I am aware that many object to the severity of my language; but is there not cause for severity? I will be as harsh as truth, and as uncompromising as justice. On this subject I do not wish to think, or speak, or write, with moderation. No! No!" Garrison once burned a copy of the U.S. Constitution, condemning it as "a covenant with death and an agreement with hell" because it did not forbid slavery. The Liberator ceased publication in 1865 after the 13th Amendment was passed, outlawing slavery. [see 1830]
    (HNPD, 12/31/98)

1831        Jul 4, "America (My Country 'Tis of Thee)" was 1st sung in Boston. [see Jul 4, 1832]
    (Maggio, 98)

1831        Aug 10, William Driver of Salem, Massachusetts, was the first to use the term "Old Glory" in connection with the American flag, when he gave that name to a large flag aboard his ship, the Charles Daggett.
    (HN, 8/10/98)

1832        Jul 4, The song "America" was sung publicly for the first time at a Fourth of July celebration by a group of children at Park Street Church in Boston. The words were written on a scrap of paper in half an hour by Dr. Samuel Francis Smith, a Baptist minister, and were set to the music of "God Save the King."
    (IB, Internet, 12/7/98)

1832        Jul 25, The 1st US railroad accident was at Granite Railway, Quincy, Mass., and 1 died.
    (SC, 7/25/02)

1833        Jan 8, Boston Academy of Music, 1st US music school, was established.
    (MC, 1/8/02)

1835        Dec 13, Phillips Brooks, the American Episcopal bishop, was born in Boston. He wrote the words to "O Little Town of Bethlehem."
    (AP, 12/13/99)

1835        The Paine Furniture Co. began operations in Boston, Mass. It later moved to Cape Cod changed its name to Paine’s Patio.
    (SFC, 10/1/08, p.G6)

1836        In Boston a small group of New England intellectuals began gathering at the home of minister George Ripley to discuss issues of religious and philosophical importance. The group, known as the Transcendental Club, disbanded in 1840. In 2007 Philip F. Gura authored “American Transcendentalism: A History.”
    (SSFC, 12/2/07, p.M3)

1837        Oct 1,  Robert Gould Shaw, commander of the 54th Massachusetts Regiment, first unit of black soldiers in Civil War, was born to a prominent abolitionist family. He  was later asked by the governor of Massachusetts to organize the first regiment of black troops in a Northern state. Shaw recruited free blacks from all over New England. On May 13, 1863, the 54th Massachusetts Regiment was mustered into service in the Union Army with Shaw as its commanding officer. After leading the regiment in a handful of smaller actions, Shaw and the 54th joined two brigades of white troops in an assault on Confederates holding Battery Wagner on the South Carolina coast. Although the action was unsuccessful and Shaw himself died leading the charge, the courage of black troops under fire was proven beyond any doubt. This Kurz and Allison print honors Shaw and the 54th Massachusetts at Fort Wagner.
    (HNPD, 10/1/98)(HN, 10/1/98)

1837        Nov 8, Mount Holyoke Seminary, the 1st US college exclusively for women, opened in South Hadley, Massachusetts.
    (AP, 11/8/00)

1838        Aug 23, One of the first colleges for women, Mount Holyoke Female Seminary in South Hadley, Mass., graduated its first students.
    (AP, 8/23/97)

1839        Mar 23, 1st recorded use of "OK" [oll korrect] was in Boston's Morning Post.
    (SS, 3/23/02)

1839        Nov 27, The American Statistical Association was founded in Boston.
    (AP, 11/27/97)

1840        The whaling ship Lydia, was built in Rochester, Mass. In 1978 sewer construction along the southern Embarcadero of SF unearthed the Lydia.
    (SFC, 8/5/05, p.F2)

1840        The ship General Harrison was built in Newbury Port., Mass. It sailed the Horn to SF and burned up in the 1851 SF fire. Remains were uncovered in 2001.
    (SFC, 9/8/01, p.A11)

1841        Mar 8, Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr. (d.1935), Supreme Court Justice, the "Great Dissenter," was born in Boston. "To have doubted one's own first principles, is the mark of a civilized man."
    (AP, 3/8/98)(HN, 3/8/98)(WSJ, 6/22/99, p.A22)(AP, 3/6/00)

1841        William Whitfield, captain of the whaling ship John Howland, from Fairhaven, Mass., picked up 5 castaways from Japan’s Torishima Island, including a boy named Manjiro, who returned with Whitfield to Fairhaven. Manjiro later returned to Japan, and translated Nathaniel Bowditch’s “The New American Navigator,” known to mariners as the “seaman’s bible.” In 1854 Manjiro acted as interpreter with Commodore Perry and in 1860 joined the 1st Japanese embassy to America.
    (Econ, 12/22/07, p.66)

1842        Mar 3, 1st US child labor law regulating working hours was passed  in Massachusetts.
    (SC, 3/3/02)

1842        Nov 17, A grim abolitionist meeting was held in Marlboro Chapel, Boston, after the imprisonment under the Fugitive Slave Bill (1793) of a mulatto named George Latimer, one of the first fugitive slaves to be apprehended in Massachusetts. Four hundred dollars was collected to buy his freedom, and plans to storm the jail were prepared as an alternative to secure his release.
    (HN, 11/17/98)

1843        Dec 4, Manila paper (made from sails, canvas & rope) was patented in Mass.
    (MC, 12/4/01)

1843        The Fruitlands utopia in rural Massachusetts was begun by Bronson Alcott, his wife Abby, Englishman Charles Lane and others. Members called themselves the Consociate Family. It was marked by anti-materialistic credos, anti-hierarchical family structures, home-schooling and a vegan diet. Louisa May Alcott later recalled her experiences there in "Little Women."
    (SFC, 12/7/99, p.C1)(ON, 7/03, p.11)

1844        Jan 30, Richard Theodore Greener became the first African American to graduate from Harvard University.
    (HN, 1/30/99)

1844        Apr 4, Charles Bulfinch (80), 1st US professional architect (Mass State House), died.
    (MC, 4/4/02)

1844        Henry David Thoreau translated the Lotus Sutra from French to English and published it in the Transcendentalist journal Dial..
    (SSFC, 7/8/01, p.B5)

1845        Jul 4, American writer Henry David Thoreau began his 26 month experiment in simple living at Walden Pond, near Concord, Mass. He chose this day to move to a rustic hut in the peace and quiet of Walden Pond. He doubted that there was a spot in Massachusetts where one could not hear a train whistle. The Fitchburg trains passed Walden Pond about a hundred rods south of his cabin. He lived there until September 6, 1947. His writings about his thoughts and experiences there are still read and remembered by millions around the world. "I went to the woods because I wished to see if I could not learn what it [life] had to teach, and not, when I came to die, discover that I had not lived."
    (Civil., Jul-Aug., '95, p.76) (NOHY, Weiner, 3/90, p.53)(AP, 7/4/97)(IB, 12/7/98)

1845        In Boston the Eastern Hotel became the first building heated by steam. Radiators were used.
    (SFEC,12/28/97, Z1 p.2)
1845        Boston outlawed bathing unless it was done under a doctor’s orders.
    (WSJ, 12/11/02, p.B1)

1846        Feb 21, Sarah G. Bagley became the first female telegrapher, taking charge at the newly opened telegraph office in Lowell, Mass.
    (AP, 2/21/00)

1846        Jun 27, New York City and Boston were linked by telegraph wires.
    (AP, 6/27/07)

1846        Aug 14, Henry David Thoreau was jailed for tax resistance.
    (MC, 8/14/02)

1846        Sep 10, Elias Howe of Spencer, Mass., received a patent for his first workable lockstitch sewing machine. Howe, a Massachusetts machinist, developed his sewing machine in 1843-45 and patented it in 1846. Although Howe's machine sewed only short, straight lines, tailors and seamstresses saw it as a threat to their jobs. Unable to market his machine in America, Howe took it to Britain where he sold the rights to an English manufacturer in 1847. Upon his return to the United States, Howe discovered that his patent had been infringed upon by other sewing machine manufacturers, such as Isaac Singer. After a lengthy court battle, Howe's patent was upheld and royalties from sewing machine sales made him a wealthy man.
    (CFA, '96, p.54)(AP, 9/10/97)(HNPD, 7/9/98)

1846        Sep 30, Dentist William Morton (1819-1868) used ether as an anesthetic for the first time on a dental patient in Boston, Massachusetts.
    (AP, 9/30/97)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_T._G._Morton)

1846        Oct 16, Sulphurous ether was first administered in public at the Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston by dentist Dr. William Thomas Green Morton during an operation performed by Dr. John Collins Warren. Morton was the 1st to take public credit for the use of ether in a medical procedure and applied for a patent on its use, which was later nullified. In 2001 Julie M. Fenster authored “Ether Day,” an account of Dr. Morton and ether. [see Sep 30]
    (HN, 10/16/98)(WSJ, 8/21/01, p.A17)

1847        Sep 6, Henry David Thoreau left Walden Pond and moved back into town, to Concord, Massachusetts.
    (HN, 9/6/00)

1847        Oct 1, Maria Mitchell (29), American astronomer living on Nantucket Island, discovered a new comet that was named after herself. In 1848 she was elected to the American Academy of Arts, the first woman to be so honored. Frederick VI, the King of Denmark awarded her a gold medal for her discovery.
    (HN, 10/1/98)(ON, 2/07, p.9)

1848        Jan 26, Henry David Thoreau (1817-1862) of Massachusetts presented an essay at the Concord Lyceum that explained his motives for refusing to pay taxes. In 1849 it was published as “Resistance to Civil Government.”
    (ON, 10/09, p.12)

1848        Feb 15, Sarah Roberts was barred from a white school in Boston.
    (440 Int’l., 2/15/99)

1848        Nov 23, The Female Medical Educational Society was established in Boston, Mass., the same year the all-male American Medical Association formed.
    (AP, 11/23/02)

1848        Samuel Gregory, a pioneer in medical education for women, founded the Boston Female Medical School. The school opened with an enrollment of 12 students. The establishment merged 26 years later with the Boston University School of Medicine, to form one of the first coed medical schools in the world.
    (HNQ, 12/27/02)

1849        Mar 7, Horticulturist Luther Burbank was born in Lancaster, Mass.
    (AP, 3/7/98)

1849        Nov 23, Harvard chemistry Prof. John Webster murdered Dr. George Parkman. In 1991 Simon Schama authored “Dead Certainties,” which chronicled the murder and trial, in which Webster was convicted and sentenced to hanging. Dental identification played a key role in the trial.
    (WSJ, 11/10/07, p.W8)(http://jimfisher.edinboro.edu/forensics/webster1.html)

1849        Henry David Thoreau published “A Week on the Concord and Merrimack Rivers.” It described a camping trip made with his brother in 1839.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A_Week_on_the_Concord_and_Merrimack_Rivers)

1850        Apr 20, Daniel Chester French (d.1931), sculptor, was born. He had his estate in Stockbridge, Mass. His work included the Lincoln Memorial and the Minute Man. His Chesterwood estate became a museum with an annual 6-month summer season. [413-298-3579]
    (HN, 4/20/98)(WSJ, 5/4/99, p.A20)

1850        Aug 23, The 1st national women's rights convention convened in Worcester, Mass.
    (MC, 8/23/02)

1850        Sep 18, Congress passed the second Fugitive Slave Bill into law (the first was enacted in 1793) as part of Compromise of 1850. It allowed slave owners to reclaim slaves who had escaped to other states. The Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 set fines up to $1,000 for facilitating a slave’s flight.
    (AP, 9/18/97)(HN, 9/18/98)(WSJ, 1/30/03, p.D8)(AH, 10/02, p.50)

1850        Marshall Field (16) started working a dry goods clerk in Pittsfield, Mass. In 1855 he moved to Chicago. In 1947 John Tebbel authored "The Marshall Fields: A Study in Wealth." In 2002 Axel Madsen authored "The Marshall Fields: The Evolution of an American Business Dynasty."
    (WSJ, 10/9/02, p.D8)

1850s        John Augustus of Boston persuaded the courts to release young offenders into his custody instead of sending  them to prison. This was the start of the practice of probation.
    (SFEC, 11/21/99, Z1p.2)

1851        Feb 15, Black abolitionists invaded a Boston courtroom to rescue a fugitive slave.
    (440 Int’l., 2/15/99)

1851            Nov 11, Alvan Clark of Cambridge, Massachusetts, patented a telescope. Clark, a portrait painter interested in astronomy, had made several small lenses and mirrors as a hobby. The fact that he could detect the small residual errors in one of the best lenses Europe could offer convinced him that he could make them as well. After he gained a reputation in Europe the American orders started to come in. The Alvin Clark Company became one of the foremost producers of some of the largest lenses for telescopes in the 1800's.
    (www.todayinsci.com/)

1851        Dec 29, The first American Young Men's Christian Assn. was organized, in Boston.
    (AP, 12/29/97)

1851        The MassMutual Financial Group was begun in Massachusetts. The 2005 the company employed 27,000 people and managed assets of $350 billion.
    (WSJ, 8/19/05, p.A1)

1852        May 18, Massachusetts ruled that all school-age children must attend school.
    (SC, 5/18/02)

1852        Aug 3, In the 1st intercollegiate rowing race, Harvard beats Yale by 4 lengths.
    (SC, 8/3/02)

1852        Oct 24, Daniel Webster (70), lawyer, speaker and senator from Massachusetts, died. In 1997 Robert V. Remini wrote his biography: "Daniel Webster."
    (WSJ, 9/30/97, p.A20)(MC, 10/24/01)

1852        Dec 29, Emma Snodgrass was arrested in Boston for wearing pants.
    (MC, 12/29/01)

1852        Anson Burlingame was elected to the Mass. legislature.
    (Ind, 8/11/01, 5A)

1852        Smith & Wesson founded its business in Springfield, Mass. Horace Smith, a toolmaker, and Daniel Wesson, a former apprenticed gunsmith, combined their skills to produce a revolutionary handgun.
    (WSJ, 9/12/97, p.A20)(SSFC, 1/28/07, p.F3)

1853        Mar 5, Arthur W. Foote, organist, composer (Suite for Strings in E), was born in Salem, Mass.
    (MC, 3/5/02)

1853        In Boston Sarah Parker Remond was thrown out of a theater for refusing to be seated in an area reserved for blacks. She fell and filed suit and was awarded monetary compensation. The theater was later desegregated.
    (SFEC, 4/5/98, BR p.5)

1854        Aug 9, Henry David Thoreau published "Walden," in which he described his experiences while living near Walden Pond on Cape Cod in Massachusetts.
    (Hem, Dec. 94, p.44)(AP, 8/9/97)

1854        Nov 13, George Whitfield Chadwick, composer, was born in Lowell Mass.
    (MC, 11/13/01)

1854        The New England Emigrant Aid Society was created to colonize Kansas with Northern abolitionists. The Massachusetts Emigrant Aid Society, founded by Eli Thayer of Worcester, Massachusetts, promoted the settlement of anti-slavery groups in Kansas, with the ultimate objective of making it a free state. Adhering to the cause of "popular sovereignty," the organization-which was reincorporated in February, 1855 as the New England Emigrant Aid Company-founded the town of Lawrence and other Free State communities. Active into 1857, it helped settle some 2,000 people in Kansas.
    (WSJ, 3/27/98, p.W10)(HNQ, 10/5/99)

1855        May 3, Macon B. Allen became the first African American to be admitted to the Bar in Massachusetts.
    (HN, 5/3/99)

1855        Dwight L. Moody, Biblicist and later founder of the Moody Bible Institute in Chicago, embraced Jesus as his personal savior in a Boston shoe store.
    (WSJ, 7/7/99, p.A1)

1855        Oct 9, Joshua Stoddard of Worcester, Mass., patented the 1st calliope.
    (MC, 10/9/01)

1855        Anderson Preserve Co. incorporated. It sold Boston Market Catsup throughout the US.
    (SFC, 8/27/03, p.E4)

1856        May 20, Massachusetts Senator Charles Sumner (d.1874), an outspoken antagonist against slavery, gave the "Crime Against Kansas" speech. [see May 22] Sumner, born on January 6, 1811, helped form the Republican Party.
    (HNQ, 7/7/99)

1856        May 22, Massachusetts Senator Charles Sumner was assaulted on the Senate floor by South Carolina’s Preston Brooks. Representative Brooks, a pro-slavery Democrat from South Carolina, used a cane to attack Senator Charles Sumner, a Republican abolitionist from Mass. Sumner was beaten unconscious and was unable to resume duties for 3 years. Brooks resigned from his seat but was re-elected. Sumner's injuries in the attack compelled his absence from the Senate until December, 1859.
    (SFC, 7/25/98, p.A6)(HNQ, 7/7/99)

1858        Feb 21, Edwin T. Holmes installed the 1st electric burglar alarm in Boston, Mass.
    (MC, 2/21/02)

1858        Oct 15, John L. Sullivan, heavyweight boxing champ (1882-92), was born in Mass.
    (MC, 10/15/01)

1859        Jul 12, William Goodale patented a paper bag manufacturing machine in Mass.
    (MC, 7/12/02)

1859        In Plymouth construction began on an 81-foot tall monument to the Pilgrims and their virtues: "Law, Education Freedom and Morality."
    (AM, 11/00, p.17)

1859        John Augustus, Boston businessman, died. He had instituted a practice called probation and helped spare some 2,000 convicted offenders from prison sentences. In 1891 the Mass. state legislature established the 1st official judicial probation system. In 1925 the US Congress passed the National Probation Act.
    (ON, 5/02, p.5)

1860        Feb 22, Shoe-making workers of Lynn, Mass, struck successfully for higher wages. The strike in Lynn and Natick, Massachusetts, spread throughout New England and involved 20,000 workers. The strike was for higher wages and included women. The workers won their major demands.
    (HNQ, 8/3/98)(MC, 2/22/02)

1860        Jul 25, The 1st US intercollegiate billiard match was between Harvard and Yale.
    (SC, 7/25/02)

1860        Oct 13, The 1st US aerial photo was taken from a balloon over Boston.
    (HFA, ‘96, p.40)(MC, 10/13/01)

1860        Cornelius Felton (1807-1862), professor of Greek literature, succeeded James Walker as president of Harvard.
    (www.nndb.com/people/711/000107390/)

1860        Milton Bradley started a lithograph company in Springfield, Mass. In 1866 Bradley launched the board-game industry in North America with “The Checkered Game of Life,” which innovated on earlier representations of life as a board game. By 1880 he expanded into manufacturing jigsaw puzzles. Hasbro bought Milton Bradley in 1992.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Game_of_Life)(SFC, 6/11/08, p.G3)

1861        Feb 22, Edward Weston left Boston on a bet  to walk to Lincoln's inauguration.
    (MC, 2/22/02)

1861        May 16, Pres. Lincoln commissioned Benjamin F. Butler, a Massachusetts politician, as a major general of volunteers in the US Army.
    (ON, 2/12, p.1)

1861        The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) was founded in response to the increasing industrialization of the United States.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Massachusetts_Institute_of_Technology)
1861        Pres. Lincoln appointed Anson Burlingame, congressman from Mass., as ambassador to China.
    (Ind, 8/11/01, 5A)

1862        Feb 26, Cornelius Felton (b.1807), president of Harvard Univ., died in Chester, Pen., after 2 years in office.
    (WSJ, 2/21/06, p.A3)(www.nndb.com/people/711/000107390/)

1862        Apr 21, Ellen Price Wood's "East Lynne,"  premiered in Boston.
    (MC, 4/21/02)

1862        May, Henry David Thoreau (44), American writer, died of tuberculosis. In 1999 his unfinished manuscript "Wild Fruits," a catalog of his observations on local plants and fruits, was published.
    (WP, 1952, p.42)(SFC, 9/7/99, p.A3)

1863        May 28, The 54th Massachusetts, the first black regiment from the North, left Boston headed for Hilton Head, South Carolina, to fight in the Civil War.
    (AP, 5/28/97)(HN, 5/28/99)

1863        Ebeneezer Butterick, a Massachusetts tailor, created the first graded sewing pattern.
    (SSFC, 11/7/10, p.N1)

1864        Mar 1, Rebecca Lee (1831-1895) became the first black woman to receive an American medical degree, from the New England Female Medical College in Boston.
    (AP, 3/1/00)(www.nlm.nih.gov/changingthefaceofmedicine/physicians/biography_73.html)

1865        Feb 20, MIT was formed as the 1st US collegiate architectural school.
    (MC, 2/20/02)

1865        Jul 8, C.E. Barnes of Lowell, MA, patented the machine gun.
    (MC, 7/8/02)

1865        Dec 26, James H. Nason (Mason) of Franklin, Mass., received a patent for a coffee percolator.
    (AP, 12/26/97)(MC, 12/26/01)

1865        The Dante Club formed in Boston to help Henry Wadsworth Longfellow complete the 1st top-notch English translation of Dante’s "Inferno."
    (SSFC, 2/2/03, p.M6)

1866        Apr 14, Anne Sullivan (d.1936), teacher to Helen Keller, was born in Feeding Hills, Mass.
    (ON, 2/10, p.10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anne_Sullivan_Macy)

1866        Jul 10, The Indelible pencil was patented by Edson P. Clark of Northampton, Mass.
    (MC, 7/10/02)

1866        The Boston Yacht Club was founded.
    (SFEC, 7/13/97, p.T7)

1868        Feb 23, William Edward Burghardt Du Bois was born in Great Barrington, Massachusetts. W.E.B. Du Bois was the first African American to earn a doctorate from Harvard University. As a sociologist, he focused on the problem of race for blacks in the United States. He became an influential leader of black Americans, presenting an alternative to Booker T. Washington, whose policies Du Bois considered too conservative and too accommodating to whites. Du Bois, believing that blacks could achieve progress only through protest, encouraged black nationalism and supported Pan-Africanism. He founded the National Negro Committee which eventually became the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. Du Bois also founded the Niagara Movement, served as the NAACP's director of research and editor of its magazine Crisis, and taught and published his philosophy at Atlanta University from 1896-1910. In 1961 he renounced his American citizenship and spent his last remaining years in the West African country of Ghana. W.E.B. Du Bois died in Accra, Ghana August 27, 1963 at the age of 95.
    (HNPD, 2/23/99)(HNQ, 5/11/99)

1868        Louisa May Alcott (d.1888) authored "Little Women," while living in Concord, Mass. In 1998 "Little Women" premiered in Houston as an opera by Mark Adomo.
    (WSJ, 8/29/01, p.A12)(SSFC, 9/18/05, p.E2)

1869        Aug 17, Oxford beat Harvard on the Thames River in the 1st international boat race.
    (SC, 8/17/02)

1869        Oct 16, A hotel in Boston became the 1st to have indoor plumbing.
    (MC, 10/16/01)

1870        Feb 23, Anton Burlingame, former Mass., legislator, former US ambassador to China and current Chinese diplomat, died in Russia. He was returned to Boston for burial.
    (Ind, 8/11/01, 5A)

1870        George Grant (d.1910) became the 1st black graduate from Harvard Dental School. He got the 1st patent for a golf tee in 1899.
    (ST, 2/20/04, p.C1)

1871        Aug 26, The Boston Revere Railroad Depot collision left 32 people dead on a single track railroad with no telegraph communications.
    (THC, 12/2/97)

1872        Nov 9, Fire destroyed nearly 800 buildings in Boston.
    (AP, 11/9/08)

1872        In Cambridge, Mass., the Metaphysical Club was founded as a discussion group and included Oliver Wendall Holmes, Charles Sanders Pierce, William James and Chauncy Wright. In 2001 Louis Menand authored "The Metaphysical Club: A Story of ideas in America," which traced the American development of pragmatism.
    (SSFC, 6/10/01, DB p.70)(SFC, 6/15/01, p.C15)

1873        May 8, Melvil Dewey (d.1931) presented the 1st draft of his decimal classification system to the Amherst College Library Committee. [see 1876]
    (ON, 3/04, p.12)

1873        May 12, The penny postal card, issued by the Post Office Department, was first put on sale in Springfield, Mass., and in other cities a day later.
    (www.dailymail.com/static/specialsections/lookingback/lb0201.htm)

1873        Boston, Mass., established a mounted police unit, the first such unit in the country. The unit was disbanded in 2009 due to budget cuts.
    (SFC, 6/29/09, p.A4)

1873        Lydia Pynkham developed and began to produce and sell the Lydia Pynkham Vegetable Compound for problems that ailed women in Marblehead, Mass.
    (SFEC, 7/13/97, p.A10)

1875        Oct 25, Tchaikovsky’s 1st Piano Concerto premiered in Boston.
    (MC, 10/25/01)

1876        Feb 15, A historic Elm at Boston was blown down.
    (440 Int’l., 2/15/99)

1876        Mar 10, Alexander Graham Bell made what was, in effect, the first  telephone call. He found a way of converting words into electrical current and back again and sent his first message using his new variable-liquid resistance transmitter. Bell's telephone caused the current to vary smoothly in proportion to the pressure created on a microphone by human speech and got a patent. His assistant, in an adjoining room in Boston, heard Bell say over the experimental device: "Mr. Watson, come here, I want to see you."
    (I&I, Penzias, p.97)(CFA, '96, p.42)(SFEM, 1/11/98, p.12) (AP, 3/10/98) (HN, 3/10/98)

1876        Apr 1,  The first official NL baseball game took place.  Boston beat Philadelphia 6-5.
    (OTD)

1876        Jul 31, US Coast Guard officers' training school was established at New Bedford, MA.
    (MC, 7/31/02)

1876        Dec 5, Daniel Stillson (Mass) patented the 1st practical pipe wrench.
    (MC, 12/5/01)

1876        The Moxie Nerve Food Co. introduced a medicine to be taken with a spoon. The medicine was later changed to a carbonated drink, produced in Salem, Mass. Moxie produced a lot of items for advertising that became valuable as collectibles.
    (SFC, 7/15/98, Z1 p.3)

1876        Melvil Louis Dewey (b.1851), Amherst College librarian, published the 1st edition of the “Dewey Decimal System.” He had created "A Classification and Subject Index for Cataloguing and arranging the Books and Pamphlets of a Library" using his Dewey Decimal System. [see May 8, 1873]
    (HN, 12/10/98)(SSFC, 4/14/02, p.C18)(ON, 3/04, p.12)

1877        Feb 12, The 1st news dispatch by telephone was made between Boston and Salem, Mass.
    (MC, 2/12/02)

1877        In Boston, Mass., the Trinity Church, designed by H.H. Richardson, was completed.
    (SFC, 5/10/13, p.E3)

1877        Albert Pope founded his Pope Manufacturing Co. in Boston, Mass. He started making tricycles in 1883.
    (SFC, 2/14/07, p.G3)

1878        May 24, The first American bicycle race was held in Boston.
    (HN, 5/24/98)

1878        Sep 1, Emma M. Nutt became the first female telephone operator in the United States, for the Telephone Despatch Co. of Boston.
    (AP, 9/1/03)

1878        Thomas Gold Appleton, poet, artist and scion of one of Boston’s first families, published his essay “The Kingdom of the Common-Place,” in which he argued that New Englanders must reconcile themselves to “the fatal poison” of modernity.
    (WSJ, 11/9/05, p.D16)

1878        Danvers State Hospital opened in Danvers, Mass. It closed in 1992. In 2005 AvalonBay purchased the property and planned to turn it into apartments.
    (WSJ, 7/27/05, p.B4)

1879        Radcliffe College was established as the "Harvard Annex" for women who were denied access to Harvard. Its name was changed to Radcliffe in 1894 in honor of Ann Radcliffe.
    (SFC, 4/21/99, p.A2)

1879        Mary Baker Eddy (1821-1910), founded the Church of Christ, Science.
    (WSJ, 9/26/03, p.W17)

1880        Francis W. Parker (d.1902 at 64), a pioneer in progressive elementary education, became supervisor of the Boston school system and later established the Chicago Institute. He experimented with methods while teaching in various places during the American Civil War in an attempt to change the prevailing rigidity of U.S. schools. He later went to Germany in 1872 where he studied educational methods in use there. Upon returning, he became school superintendent for Quincy, Massachusetts, where he introduced science, arts and crafts into the curriculum. Parker stressed children‘s individuality and promoted self-expression, socialized activity and a more informal atmosphere. An endowment enabled him to establish the Chicago Institute in 1899.
    (HNQ, 9/6/00)

1881        Aug 12, Cecil B. DeMille (d.1959), pioneering motion picture director, was born in Mass. Before becoming a household name in the early days of movie-making, he attended the New York Academy of Dramatic Arts and in 1900 began working on plays with his older brother William. The director, producer and screenwriter was most famous for his movie "The Ten Commandments."
    (HNPD, 8/12/98)(HN, 8/12/98)(SC, 8/12/02)

1881          Oct 22, Boston Symphony Orchestra gave its 1st concert.
    (www.bach-cantatas.com/Bio/BSO.htm)

1881        A Massachusetts lighthouse was erected in Wellfleet. It was later moved by the Coast Guard from Wellfleet to Yerba Buena, Calif., and to Point Montara, Ca., in 1928.
    (AP, 6/5/08)(SFC, 6/14/08, p.B2)

1882        Dec 11, Boston's Bijou Theatre, the first American playhouse to be lighted exclusively by electricity, gave its first performance: Gilbert and Sullivan's "Iolanthe, Or The Peer and the Peri."
    (AP, 12/11/08)

1883        Jan 4, Benjamin Butler (1818-1893) began serving as the 33rd governor of Massachusetts and continued until January 3, 1884.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benjamin_Franklin_Butler_%28politician%29)

1883        Feb 28, 1st US vaudeville theater opened in Boston.
    (MC, 2/28/02)

1883        The W.S. Reed Co. of Leominster, Mass., produced a couple of cast-iron mechanical banks, that never made it to mass production. One sold at auction in 1998 for $426,000.
    (WSJ, 5/15/98, p.W12)

1884        Mar 27, The first long-distance telephone call was made, between Boston and New York City.
    (AP, 3/27/97)(HN, 3/27/98)

1884        Aug 4, Thomas Stevens (1853-1935) arrived in Boston after 104 days from SF in the 1st bicycle trip to cross the US. He later continued around world (2 yrs 9 mos) on a trip financed with articles for "Outing and the Wheelman" magazine.
    (MC, 4/22/02)(ON, 9/03, p.12)

1884        Charles Eliot, president of Harvard, captured the prevailing impatience with the old-fashioned curriculum: Are our men being educated for the work of the twentieth century of the seventeenth."
    (WSJ, 1/28/02, p.A13)

1884        Episcopalian Rev. Endicott Peabody founded the Groton School in Massachusetts. He was backed by affluent figures of the time, such as the Rt. Rev. Phillips Brooks, the Rev. William A. Lawrence, William Crowninshield Endicott, J.P. Morgan, and his father, Samuel Endicott Peabody. Peabody received pledges of $39,000 for the construction of a schoolhouse, if an additional $40,000 could be raised as an endowment.
    (WSJ, 1/6/07, p.P13)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Groton_School)

1885        Apr 30, Boston Pops Orchestra formed.
    (MC, 4/30/02)

1885        May 19, First mass production of shoes (Jan Matzeliger in Lynn, Massachusetts).
    (DT, 5/19/97)

1885        The Concord, Mass., public library banned "The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn" by Mark Twain.
    (SFC, 1/21/04, p.D2)

1885-1920    Sisters Frances and Mary Allen of Deerfield, Massachusetts, began their careers as schoolteachers, but when deafness forced a change of profession, they turned to photography. Their work shows everyday activities in a rural community.  Self-taught in their craft, the Allen sisters achieved remarkable success. During their photography career from 1885 to 1920, their work appeared in numerous books and magazines as covers, illustrations and frontispieces.
    (HNPD, 1/3/00)

1886        Mar 6, The 1st US alternating current power plant started in Great Barrington, MA.
    (MC, 3/6/02)

1886        May 15, Poet Emily Dickinson (b.1830) died in Amherst, Mass., where she had lived in seclusion for the previous 24 years. In 2001 Alfred Habegger authored her biography: "My Wars Are laid Away in Books." In 2008 Brenda Wineapple authored “White Heat: The Friendship of Emily Dickinson & Thomas Wentworth Higginson (1823-1911). In 2010 Lyndall Gordon authored “Lives Like Loaded Guns: Emily Dickinson and her Family Feuds,” in which he presents evidence that Dickinson suffered from congenital epilepsy.
    (AP, 5/15/97)(HN, 5/15/01)(WSJ, 11/2/01, p.W11)(Econ, 7/26/08, p.96)

1887        Sep 16, Nadia Boulanger (d.1979), conductor, was born in Paris, France. She became the 1st woman to conduct Boston Symphony (1939).
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nadia_Boulanger)(www.glbtq.com/arts/boulanger_n.html)

1888        Mar 6, Louisa May Alcott (b.1832) died in Boston just hours after the burial of her father. Her novels included "Little Women" (1868). In 1998 "Little Women" premiered in Houston as an opera by Mark Adomo. In 2010 Susan Cheever authored “Louisa May Alcott: A Personal Biography.”
    (WSJ, 8/29/01, p.A12)(SSFC, 12/5/10, p.F3)

1888        Sep 6, Joseph P. Kennedy, Boston Mass, diplomat, father of JFK, RFK & Teddy, was born.
    (MC, 9/6/01)

1888        In Massachusetts the Searles Castle was built in Great Barrington on commission by Mary Hopkins (d.1891), the widow of railroad tycoon Mark Hopkins. Its seven turrets and blue dolomite exterior created a 60,000-square-foot fortress at the end of Main Street. Mary Hopkins hired noted interior decorator Edward Searles for the project, and the two married a year before it was finished. In 2007 it sold for $15 million.
    (AP, 5/19/07)
1888        Massachusetts introduced the secret ballot. Most US states had moved to secret ballots soon after the presidential election of 1884.
    (http://tinyurl.com/6fxlatg)

1889        Jun 28, Maria Mitchell (b.1818), American astronomer, died in Lynn, Mass.
    (ON, 2/07, p.10)

1890        Mar 18, The 1st US state naval militia was organized in Massachusetts.
    (MC, 3/18/02)

1891        Nov 10, The 1st Woman's Christian Temperance Union meeting was held in Boston.
    (MC, 11/10/01)

1891        The Canadian, Dr. James B. Naismith, sports figure, inventor, teacher, invented the game of basketball at the YMCA in Springfield, Mass. A janitor provided peach baskets instead of the requested boxes.
    (Hem, Dec. 94, p.126)(DT internet 11/28/97)

1891        Pierre Lallemont (47), French mechanic, died in Boston. In 1866 he was granted a US patented for his velocipede, a rotary crank bicycle.
    (ON, 2/10, p.3)

1892        Jan 15, The rules of basketball were published for the first time, in Springfield, Mass., where the game originated.
    (AP, 1/15/00)

1892        Aug 4, Lizzie Borden’s father and stepmother, Andrew and Abby Durfee Gray Borden, were killed with an ax in Fall River, Mass. Based on strong circumstantial evidence, Sunday school teacher Lizzie (32), Andrew Borden's daughter from a previous marriage, was charged and acquitted of the murders by an all-male jury. Later an opera titled "Lizzie Borden" by Jack Beeson drew a portrait of family pathology that depicted her as guilty of the crime.
    (WSJ,3/13/95, p.A-13)(AP, 8/4/97)(SFC, 9/17/97, p.A16)(HNPD, 8/4/98)

1892        Sep 8, An early version of "The Pledge of Allegiance" appeared in "The Youth’s Companion," published in Boston and edited by Francis Bellamy, a Christian socialist, and cousin of writer Edward Bellamy. James Upham (d.1906), Bellamy’s supervisor, collaborated on the pledge. Frank E. Bellamy (1876-1915) of Cherryvale High School in Kansas had authored a 500-word patriotic essay which included the words of the Pledge of Allegiance and instructions on saluting the American Flag. His teacher entered the "Salute to the Flag" in a contest sponsored by the popular scholastic publication The Youth's Companion. His essay won first place in this national school contest. [see Oct 12]
    (AP, 9/8/97)(SSFC, 6/30/02, p.A3)(www.leatherockhotel.com/FrankBellamy.htm)(WSJ, 7/6/04, p.A23)

1893        Jun 20, A jury in New Bedford, Mass., found Lizzie Borden innocent of the ax murders of her father and stepmother.
    (AP, 6/20/97)

1893        Aug 12, Howard Smith, actor (Harvey Griffin-Hazel), was born in Attleboro, Mass.
    (SC, 8/12/02)

1893        Sep 22, Bicycle makers Charles and Frank Duryea showed off the first American automobile produced for sale to the public by taking it on a maiden run through the streets of Springfield, Massachusetts.
    (HN, 9/22/00)

1893        The first automobile license plates were issued this year in Paris, France.  The first American city to require drivers to be licensed and register their vehicle was Boston a few years later.
    (HNQ, 7/18/00)

1893-1924    Henry Cabot Lodge was the Republican senator from Massachusetts.
    (SFC, 5/7/96, p.A-6)

1894        May 14, Fire in Boston bleachers spread to 170 adjoining buildings.
    (MC, 5/14/02)

1894        Jul 25, Walter Brennan, actress (Real McCoys, At Gun Point), was born in Swampscott, Mass.
    (SC, 7/25/02)

1894        Dec 17, Arthur Fiedler, conductor (Boston Pops), was born in Boston, Mass.
    (MC, 12/17/01)

1895        Feb 9, Volleyball was invented by W.G. Morgan in Massachusetts. A game called "mintonette" was created by William George Morgan, physical director at the YMCA in Holyoke, Mass., to accommodate players who thought basketball was too strenuous. The objective was to hit a basketball over a rope. It was the predecessor to volleyball.
    (SFC,11/15/97, p.C4)(HNQ, 11/26/99)(MC, 2/9/02)

1895        Apr 24, Joshua Slocum (1844-1909), a Canadian-American sailor, began a voyage around the world from Boston in a 37-foot rebuilt fishing boat called the Spray. He ended on Jun 27, 1898, at Newport, Rhode Island. His record was not beaten until 1938. In 1899 Slocum authored "Sailing Alone Around the World."
    (www.millicentlibrary.org/slocum.htm)(WSJ, 3/9/00, p.A27)(WSJ, 6/21/08, p.W8)

1895        Jul 4, The words to "America the Beautiful" appeared for the first time in "The Congregationalist", a Boston magazine; the author was Katherine Lee Bates (1819-1910), a Wellesley professor, who penned it in 1893. It has often been suggested that this song be adopted as the national anthem of the US since it is easier to sing than the "The Star Spangled Banner." In 1904 Clarence Barbour adapted it to the melody of Samuel Ward’s “Materna” (1890). Bates’ final version was completed in 1911. In 2001 Lynn Sherr authored "America the Beautiful."
    (WSJ, 9/28/01, p.W13)(SSFC, 10/21/01, Par p.8)(AH, 10/04, p.26)

1895        George Henderson founded Dorchester Pottery outside Boston. Charles A. Hill, his brother-in-law, was the plant manager and decorator. It went out of business in 1979.
    (SFC, 6/17/98, Z1 p.3)(SFC, 12/26/07, p.G3)

1896        Oct 30, Ruth Gordon, actress (Rosemary's Baby, Harold & Maude), was born in Mass.
    (MC, 10/30/01)

1897        Apr 19, The first Boston Marathon was run from Ashland, Mass., to Boston. Winner John J. McDermott ran the course in 2 hours, 55 minutes and 10 seconds.
    (AP, 4/19/97)

1897        Sep 1, The first section of Boston’s subway system was opened. The Park St. Station in Boston was the nation’s first subway station. The Boylston Street subway opened in 1897.
    (AP, 9/1/97)(BS, 5/3/98, p.5R)(HNQ, 5/17/99)

1898        Feb 8, John Ames Sherman patented the 1st envelope folding & gumming machine in Mass.
    (MC, 2/8/02)

1898        Nov 26, The SS Portland, a 280-foot side-wheeler, left Boston for Cape Cod. A major storm arose that killed over 400 people in the next 36 hours [see Nov 27].
    (AH, 6/02, p.53)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portland_Gale)

1898        Nov 27, The SS Portland, under Capt. Hollis H. Blanchard, sank overnight in the Portland Gale off New England and all 192 people aboard were killed. In 2002 John Rousmaniere authored “After the Storm: True Stories of Disaster and Recovery at Sea.”
    (AH, 6/02, p.55)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portland_Gale)

1898        Frederick Law Olmsted (d.1903), the architect of Central Park in NYC, was confined to the McLean Asylum in Waverly, Mass., for dementia. He had earlier designed the grounds for the asylum.
    (WSJ, 5/21/99, p.W5)

1899        May 24, The 1st US auto repair shop opened in Boston.
    (MC, 5/24/02)

1899        Dec 12, George F. Bryant of Boston patented the wooden golf tee.
    (MC, 12/12/01)

1899        In Cambridge the Semitic Museum of Harvard Univ. was founded.
    (AM, 7/97, p.68)

1900        Aug 17, Quincy Howe, newscaster (CBS Weekend News), was born in Boston, Mass.
    (SC, 8/17/02)

1900        Aug 23, Booker T. Washington formed the National Negro Business League in Boston, Massachusetts.
    (HN, 8/23/98)

1900        Oct 15, Boston’s Symphony Hall, one of the world's most highly regarded concert halls, was inaugurated. It was the 1st to be built in known conformity with acoustical laws described by Harvard physicist Wallace Sabine.
    (www.bach-cantatas.com/Bio/BSO.htm)(WSJ, 4/24/02, p.D9)

1900        Nov 18, Dr. Howard Thurman, theologian and first African American to hold a full time position at Boston University, was born.
    (HN, 11/18/98)

1901        Jan 28, Byron Bancroft Johnson announced that the American League would play the 1901 baseball season as a major league and would not renew its membership in the National Agreement. The new league would include Baltimore and Washington, DC, recently abandoned by the National League. The league would also invade 4 cities where National League teams existed: Boston, Cleveland, Detroit and Philadelphia. The 8 charter teams included: the Baltimore Orioles, Boston Americans, Chicago White Stockings, Cleveland Blues, Detroit Tigers, Milwaukee Brewers, Philadelphia Athletics, and Washington Senators.
    (ON, 6/09, p.11)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_League)

1901        Apr 5, Chester Bowles, ambassador, writer (Conscience of a Liberal), was born in Mass.
    (MC, 4/5/02)

1901        Sep 3, Miss Ellen Stone, a Protestant missionary from Haverhill, Mass., was kidnapped in Bulgaria by a Macedonian revolutionary gang, who demanded $110,000 in gold. Katerina Tsilka, her pregnant Bulgarian companion, was also kidnapped and gave birth during her captivity to a baby girl. In 2003 Teresa Carpenter authored "The Miss Stone Affair: America's First Modern Hostage Crisis."
    (SSFC, 6/22/03, p.M4)

1901        Edith Wharton purchased 113 acres in Lenox, Mass., and built The Mount. The Berkshire Hills house, modeled on a 17th century design by Christopher Wren, was her first laboratory for experiments in architecture and interior design.
    (WSJ, 9/13/99, p.A42)(WSJ, 9/13/02, p.W11)

1901        The Indian Motorcycle Manufacturing Co. of Springfield, Mass., produced the first commercially marketed gasoline-powered bike in the US. The last Indian motorcycle was made in 1953. A 2nd generation of the company started up in 1998 but folded in 2002.
    (WSJ, 4/16/99, p.W14)(SFC, 7/27/04, p.D1)

1902        Jan 1, The L Street Brownies swim club began diving into South Boston’s Carson Beach in what became an annual affair.
    (SFC, 1/2/01, p.A3)

1902        Aug 23, Fanny Farmer, among the first to emphasize the relationship of diet to health, opened her School of Cookery in Boston.
    (HN, 8/23/00)

1902        Sep 3, US Secret Service agent William Craig was killed when a speeding trolley car rammed into the open-air horse carriage carrying Pres. Theodore Roosevelt in Pittsfield, Mass.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Craig_%28Secret_Service%29)

1903        Oct 13, Boston defeated Pittsburgh in baseball’s first World Series. In 2003 Roger I. Abrams authored "The First World Series and the Baseball Fanatics of 1903;" Louis P. Masur authored "Autumn Glory: Baseball's First World Series;" and Bob Ryan authored "When Boston Won the World Series."
    (WSJ, 7/8/96, p.A8)(HN, 10/13/98)(WSJ, 3/28/03, p.W9)(SSFC, 6/8/03, p.M6)

1903-1906    The United Shoe Manufacturing Plant was built. It was pioneering reinforced concrete structure in Beverly, Mass., devised by the engineer Ernest L. Ransome. He patented a way to embed twisted square iron rods in concrete.
    (WSJ, 10/2/97, p.A16)

1904        Jan 10, Ray Bolger, actor, dancer (Scarecrow-Wizard of Oz), was born in Dorchester, Mass.
    (MC, 1/10/02)

1904        Mar 2, Theodor Seuss Geisel [Dr. Seuss] was born in Springfield, Mass. He was the Pulitzer Prize-winning author of "The Cat in the Hat," "Green Eggs and Ham," "The Grinch Who Stole Christmas" and other children's books.
    (HC, Internet, 2/3/98)(HN, 3/2/99)(SSFC, 5/26/02, Par p.8)

1904        May 5, Denton True "Cy" Young of the Boston Red Sox pitched the first perfect game against the Philadelphia Athletics in Boston.
    (HFA, ‘96, p.30)(SFC, 9/27/99, p.A23)

1904        Jul 18, Hiram Washington Hayden (b.1820), American inventor, died in Massachusetts. In 1851 he had patented a design for brass kettles.
    (SFC, 6/11/08, p.G3)(http://tinyurl.com/5trd82)

1904        Nov 4, Harvard Stadium became the 1st stadium built specifically for football.
    (MC, 11/4/01)

1904        Roger Babson (1875-1967), investment advisor, founded his “Office of Roger W. Babson.” Babson was later famed for predicting “The Great Wall Street Crash” in 1929 and for prior positioning of his clients’ assets. On September 5, 1929, he gave a speech saying, "Sooner or later a crash is coming, and it may be terrific." Later that day the stock market declined by about 3%. This became known as the "Babson Break". The Wall Street Crash of 1929 and the Great Depression soon followed.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roger_Babson)(Econ, 9/11/10, p.88)(www.babson.com/)
1904        The Newburyport Silver Co. was founded in Newburyport, Mass. In 1905 it move to Keene, New Hampshire. The operation closed in 1914.
    (SFC, 7/26/06, p.G2)

1905        Feb 16, 1st US Esperanto club was organized in Boston. Dr. Lazarus Ludwig Zamenhof (1859-1917), a Polish ophthalmologist, invented the artificial language in 1885.
    (MC, 2/16/02)(SFCM, 6/8/03, p.18)

1906        Dec 24, Canadian physicist Reginald A. Fessenden became the first person to broadcast a music program over radio, from Brant Rock, Mass.
    (AP, 12/24/97)

1907        Nov 28, Future movie producer Louis B. Mayer opened his first movie theater, in Haverhill, Mass.
    (AP, 11/28/07)

1907        Whiting & Davis Co. of Plainville, Mass., established in 1896, developed a chain mail mesh machine about this time and became the world’s largest manufacturer of mesh products.
    (SFC, 7/11/07, p.G4)(http://bagladyemporium.com/BLU/index.php?n=Main.WhitingDavisCo)

1908        Apr 12, Fire devastated the city of Chelsea, Massachusetts.
    (AP, 4/12/08)

1908        Jun 29, American composer Leroy Anderson (d.1975), known for light orchestral pieces such as "The Typewriter" and "The Syncopated Clock," was born in Cambridge, Mass.
    (AP, 6/29/08)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leroy_Anderson)

1908        Jul 2, Thurgood Marshall (d.1993), first African-American US Supreme Court Justice, was born in Baltimore. He served on the US Supreme Court from 1967-1991. As a civil rights lawyer in the 1950s he maintained a confidential relationship with the FBI.
    (SFC, 12/3/96, p.A3)(HN, 7/2/98)(AP, 7/2/08)

1908        Mary Baker Eddy founded the Christian Science Monitor in Boston.
    (SFC, 7/14/99, p.A17)

1908        The Harvard Graduate School of Business Administration was established as the world's first MBA program. It had a faculty of 15 with 33 regular students and 47 special students.
    (Econ, 6/6/09, p.68)(www.hbs.edu/about/history.html)

1909        Apr 1, Eddie Duchin, society pianist, bandleader (Eddie Duchin Orch), was born in Mass.
    (MC, 4/1/02)

1909        Sigmund Freud‘s only visit to the United States was to accept an honorary degree at Clark University in 1909. G. Stanley Hall, the president of the university in Worcester, Massachusetts, had invited Freud to "[set] forth your own views" in a series of lectures at a conference honoring Clark‘s 20th anniversary. Following a visit to New York City, Freud delivered five lectures at Clark, all of them in German. He then went on to visit Niagara Falls and the Adirondacks before returning to Europe.
    (HNQ, 6/4/00)

1910        Oct 1, Mass. 1st state fair was the Berkshire Cattle Fair in Pittsfield.
    (MC, 10/1/01)

1910        The Loeb Classical Library was founded.
    (SFEC, 8/20/00, p.B12)

1911        Mar 8, Alan Hovhaness, composer (Lousadzak, Ukiyo), was born in Somerville, Mass.
    (MC, 3/8/02)

1911        Freud and Jung visited NYC as a prelude to their lectures at Clark Univ. [see 1909]
    (SFEC, 4/4/99, BR p.3)

1911        Rev. William Wolcott willed paintings by Monet, Pissarro and 14 other artists to the Daniel White Fund to "create and gratify a public taste for fine art, particularly among the people of Lawrence." He requested that the paintings be housed in a museum until a gallery was built.
    (WSJ, 9/9/99, p.A25)

1912        Jan 1, A Massachusetts law reducing the work-week from fifty-six to fifty-four hours for women and children, went into effect. Workers struck spontaneously on Jan 12 when the mill owners reduced wages to coincide with the reduced work-week.
    (www.fortunecity.com/tinpan/parton/2/johngold.html)

1912        Jan 12, In Lawrence, Mass., over 20,000 textile factory workers went on strike to protest wage cuts.
    (www.socialistworld.net/eng/2002/07/12history.html)

1912        Mar 24, The “Bread and Roses” textile workers strike in Lawrence, Mass., ended. Mill owners, fearing that government intervention and investigation would jeopardize the high tariff on woolens, had finally agreed to bargain. Offers of pay increases from five to twenty-five percent, time-and-a-quarter for overtime, and no discrimination against strikers led to the end of the strike.
    (www.fortunecity.com/tinpan/parton/2/johngold.html)

1912        Apr 20, Boston’s Fenway Park, home to Boston Red Sox, opened with its first official baseball game.
    (SFC, 3/8/12, p.A7)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fenway_Park)

1912        Jun 4, Massachusetts passed the 1st US minimum wage law.
    (MC, 6/4/02)

1912         Jul 1, Drama critic Harriet Quimby (b.1875) took a passenger up in her new BlÚriot monoplane from Boston to fly over Dorchester Bay at the Harvard-Boston Aviation Meet. As she descended for landing, the plane went into a dive and, without seat belts, she and her passenger were thrown out into the shallow water of the bay, where they struck the muddy bottom and were crushed to death. Quimby was the first American to receive a pilot's license (1911) and was the first woman to solo across the English Channel (1912). Her interest in flight was piqued at an aviation meet in 1910.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harriet_Quimby)(HNPD, 7/31/98)(ON, 1/00, p.11)

1912        Fenway Stadium, home of the Boston Red sox, opened.
    (SFEC, 8/28/98, p.T4)

1912-1913    Ho Chi Minh (1890-1969), later revolutionary head of Vietnam, lived in the US and worked as a baker at the Parker House Hotel in Boston.
    (SSFC, 6/15/08, p.E5)

1913        A Massachusetts state law prohibited non-residents from getting married in the state if their union would not be legal in their home state. The law was repealed in 2008.
    (SFC, 5/19/04, p.A3)(SFC, 8/1/08, p.A4)

1914        Jul 10, The Boston Red Sox purchased Babe Ruth (19) from the Baltimore Orioles for 30 pieces of gold.
    (Hem., 4/97, p.105)(MC, 7/10/02)

1914        Jul 11, Babe Ruth debuted in the major leagues with the Boston Red Sox. He earned $2,900 in his rookie season.
    (MC, 7/11/02)

1915        Jan 3, Jack Levine, artist, was born in Boston, Mass. His social realist and expressionist art included political and satirical undertones.
    (SFC, 7/24/04, p.E1)

1915        May 6, Babe Ruth (20), pitcher with the Boston Red Sox, hit his 1st HR. The Red Sox lost to the Yanks 4-3 in 13 innings.
    (http://baseballguru.com/hfrommer/analysishfrommer31.html)

1916        Nov, Ray Conniff (d.2002), bandleader and composer, was born in Attleboro, Mass.
    (SFC, 10/19/02, p.A21)

1917        May 29, John Fitzgerald Kennedy, the 35th president of the United States (1961-1963), was born at 83 Beals St. in Brookline, Mass. He was assassinated in his first term.
    (AP, 5/29/97)(HN, 5/29/99)(SSFC, 9/8/02, p.C12)

1917        Sep 2, Cleveland Amory, conservationist and TV reviewer (TV Guide), was born in Nahant, Mass.
    (MC, 9/2/01)

1917        Edith Wharton authored the novel "Summer." It was the story of a woman's sexual awakening. In 1999 it premiered as an opera by the Berkshire Opera Company.
    (WSJ, 9/13/99, p.A42)

1917        In Ashland, Mass., a plant run by various textile companies began operations. Nyanza Inc. operated it as a dye manufacturing plant from 1965 until the company went bankrupt in 1978. during this period Nyanza released manufacturing waste containing such substances as mercury, chromium, lead and cadmium into unlined lagoons and nearby streams. The site was added to the federal Superfund list in 1983. In 2006 a 7-year study confirmed that children who swam or waded in the water near the now-closed dye plant ran an increased risk of cancer.
    (AP, 5/11/06)

1918        May 9, Mike Wallace, newscaster (Biography, 60 Minutes), was born in Brookline, Mass.
    (MC, 5/9/02)

1918        Jul 21, The residents and coastguardsmen of Orleans, Massachusetts, were amazed to see the German U-boat, U-156, firing at an American tug and four barges just off shore.
    (HNQ, 2/1/02)

1918        Aug 25, Leonard Bernstein, conductor and composer who initiated the television series "Young People's Concerts," was born in Lawrence, MA.
    (WUD, 1994, p.141)(HN, 8/25/98)(MC, 8/25/02)

1918        Oct 12, The 1st use of iron lung  was at Boston's Children Hospital.
    (MC, 10/12/01)

1919        Jan 2, Calvin Coolidge (1872-1933) was inaugurated as governor of Massachusetts.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calvin_Coolidge)

1919        Jan 15, In Boston an explosion opened a tank of molasses and the cylindrical sides toppled outward knocking down 10 nearby buildings. 2 million gallons of molasses oozed onto the streets and killed 21 people. Another 50 were injured [see 1872].
    (www.snopes.com/horrors/freakish/molasses.asp)

1919        May 14, The first transatlantic flight by a U.S. Navy seaplane began at Chatham Naval Air Station in Mass. [see May 27]
    (WSJ, 9/10/99, p.W6)

1919        May 9, James Reese Europe (b.1881), jazz band leader and founder of the NYC Clef Club, died after he was stabbed during the intermission of a performance at Mechanic’s Hall in Boston. Europe led the Clef Club Symphony Orchestra before WW I and during the war led a US Army band in the all-black 369th Infantry Regiment, which was attached to the French Army. In 1995 Reid Badger authored “A Life in Ragtime,” a biography of Europe.
    (WSJ, 11/10/05, p.D7)(www.jass.com/Others/europe.html)

1919        May 27, The first transatlantic flight was completed by a U.S. Navy seaplane. U.S. Navy Curtiss flying boat NC-4, piloted by Lt. Cmdr. Albert C. Read, arrived safely in Lisbon, Portugal, to become the first aircraft to complete a transatlantic flight. Three aircraft, designated NC-1, NC-3 and NC-4--called "Nancy" boats--had taken off from New York's Rockaway Naval Air Station [Chatham Naval Air Station in Mass.] for Lisbon on May 8, with intermediate stops planned for Newfoundland and the Azores. Only NC-4 completed the 3,925-mile transatlantic flight. Heavy rain and fog forced NC-1 down at sea, where it sank on May 17. NC-3, came down in rough seas and taxied 200 miles into the harbor at Horta in the Azores.
    (HN, 5/27/98)(HNPD, 5/27/99)(WSJ, 9/10/99, p.W6)

1919        Sep 9, Most of Boston's 1,500-member police force went on strike. The city’s police commissioner fired the strikers and Calvin Coolidge (1872-1933), who was running for governor, came out in support of the firings. 
    (AP, 9/9/99)(AH, 6/07, p.67)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calvin_Coolidge)

1919        Carl Linder won the Boston Marathon. He was rejected for military service due to flat feet.
    (SFEC, 7/9/00, Z1 p.2)

1919        Charles Ponzi of Boston hatched a scheme that defrauded thousands of investors in a postal-coupon scam in the 1920s. He bilked investors in a scheme of high return similar to the "520% Miller" con of 1899. He was convicted and spent 13 years in prison and was deported to Italy in 1934.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)(WSJ, 7/23/99, p.A14)(WSJ, 7/10/02, p.A8)(SSFC, 7/14/02, p.G2)

1920        Jan 3, The Red Sox sold Babe Ruth to the Yankees for $100,000, twice the amount of any previous player transaction. The deal also included a $300,000 loan secured by a mortgage on Fenway Park, a contractual clause that made the Yankees owners the Red Sox's landlords.
    (http://espn.go.com/sportscentury/features/00242487.html)

1920        Jan 8, Massachusetts’ Gov. Calvin Coolidge stated: "There is a limit to the taxing power of the state beyond which increased rates produce decreased revenues."
    (www.calvin-coolidge.org/html/address_to_the_general_court_b.html)

1920        Apr 15, A paymaster and his guard at a shoe factory in Braintree, Massachusetts, were killed in a robbery. Italian immigrants Sacco and Vanzetti were accused of the crime.
    (HN, 8/23/98)(WSJ, 8/18/07, p.P8)

1920        Jun 12, Republicans in Chicago nominated Warren G. Harding for president and Calvin Coolidge, governor of Massachusetts, for vice president.
    (HN, 6/12/98)(WSJ, 6/16/98, p.A17)

1920        Aug 17, Georgia Gibbs, singer (Ballin the Jack, Kiss of Fire), was born in Worcester, Mass.
    (SC, 8/17/02)

1920        Nov 3, "Emperor Jones" opened at Provincetown Theater.
    (MC, 11/3/01)

1920        Dec 6, In Boston, Mass., a dog with spectacles was shown at the annual fair of the Animal Rescue League.
    (http://tinyurl.com/5hbur6)

1920        Harvard University, under president A. Lawrence Lowell (1909-1933), conducted a clandestine court and “tried” 30 male students and staff members for the “crime of homosexuality.” As a result 2 men committed suicide and the lives of most of the others were shattered. In 2005 William Wright authored “Harvard’s Secret Court: The Savage 1920 Purge of Campus Homosexuals.”
    (SSFC, 11/13/05, p.M5)

1920        The Dalton Plan, a secondary education technique based on individual learning, was developed in Massachusetts. The plan grew out of the reaction of some progressive educators to the fact that students learned at different speeds. The Dalton Plan divided each subject in the curriculum into monthly assignments and the students had to finish one assignment before starting another.  They were given freedom in planning their work schedules and were encouraged to work in groups. Its popularity in the United States waned, but it gained influence in England and France.
    (HNQ, 9/8/00)

1920        Charles Ponzi (37), an immigrant from Italy, began selling notes in Boston with 50% interest payments payable in 45 days. In 1921 he pleaded guilty to mail fraud. He was released from prison in 1924 and went to Florida for the land boom offering investors profits of 200%. He again spent time in jail and was eventually deported and died broke. In 2005 Michael Zuckoff authored “Ponzi’s Scheme.”
    (WSJ, 3/4/05, p.W6)

1921                Sep 19, WBZ in Springfield, Mass., made its first radio broadcast. It operated under one of the first three "commercial licenses" for broadcasting in the new 360 meter frequency.
            (www.hammondmuseumofradio.org/wbz.html)

1922        Apr 1, William Manchester, historian (Death of a President), was born in Attleboro, Mass.
    (MC, 4/1/02)

1924        Sep 24, Boston, Massachusetts, opened its airport.
    (MC, 9/24/01)

1924        Three Boston securities executives pooled their money together to create Massachusetts Investors Trust, the first modern US mutual fund. A Dutch merchant had cobbled together the earliest mutual-style fund, Eendragt Maakt Magt (Unity creates Strength) in 1774.
    (Econ, 4/21/07, p.83)(http://mutualfunds.about.com/cs/history/a/fund_history.htm)(WSJ, 1/3/07, p.R6)

1925        Feb 8, Jack Lemmon, actor (Days of Wine & Roses, Missing), was born in Boston, Mass.
    (MC, 2/8/02)

1925        Jul 4, 44 died when Dreyfus Hotel in Boston collapsed.
    (Maggio, 98)

1925        Nov 20, Robert F. Kennedy, U.S. Attorney General and Senator, was born in Brookline, Mass. While at Harvard during World War II, Robert F. Kennedy joined the U.S. Naval Reserve and served as a seaman on the destroyer Joseph P. Kennedy, Jr. The ship was named for Kennedy’s eldest brother, who had been killed in battle during World War II. Kennedy died from an assassin’s bullet June 6, 1968, in Los Angeles after proclaiming victory in California’s Democratic Party primary election.
    (AP, 11/20/97)(HNQ, 7/14/98)(HN, 11/20/98)

1926        Mar 16, Rocket science pioneer Robert H. Goddard successfully tested the first liquid-fueled rocket, in Auburn, Mass. It went 184' (56 meters).
    (HN, 3/16/98)(AP, 3/15/07)

1926        Johnny Miles (d.2003 at 97) of Canada won the Boston Marathon.
    (BS, 6/26/03, 7A)

1927        May 18, The Ritz Hotel opened in Boston.
    (SC, 5/18/02)

1927        Aug 6, A Massachusetts high court heard the final plea from Sacco and Vanzetti, two Italians convicted of murder.
    (HN, 8/6/98)

1927        Aug 23, Italian-born anarchist immigrants Nicola Sacco (right) and Bartolomeo Vanzetti, convicted of murder in 1921, were executed in Boston in spite of worldwide protests. On April 15, 1920, a paymaster and his guard at a shoe factory in Braintree, Massachusetts, were killed in a robbery. In the national climate of suspicion of anarchists, communists and foreigners in general, Sacco and Vanzetti, two admitted radicals, were arrested for the crime and convicted on flimsy circumstantial evidence in a trial presided over by the openly prejudiced Judge Webster Thayer. For six years, the two gained support as they attempted to obtain a new trial, but their request was denied even after a convicted killer confessed to the 1920 murders. In April 1927, Judge Thayer sentenced Sacco and Vanzetti to die in the electric chair. In 1977 Sacco and Vanzetti were vindicated when Massachusetts Governor Michael Dukakis established a memorial in the victims’ honor. In 2007 Bruce Watson authored “Sacco & Vanzetti.”
    (TMC, 1994, p.1927)(AP, 8/23/97)(HNPD, 8/23/98)(HN, 8/23/98)(WSJ, 8/18/07, p.P8)

1928        Jan 2, Vaughn Beals, later CEO of Harley Davidson motorcycle, was born in Cambridge, Mass.
    (www.definition-of.net/who-is-Vaughn%2BBeals)

1928        Jun 3, Commander Amelia Earhart departed with pilot Bill Stultz from Boston Harbor to Halifax, Nova Scotia, and then to Trepassey, Newfoundland. From there on June 17 they embarked on a trans-Atlantic flight from Newfoundland to Wales.
    (AP, 6/17/97)(HNQ, 3/8/02)(ON, 12/07, p.8)

1928        Nov 17, The Boston Garden officially opened.
    (MC, 11/17/01)

1929        Jul 4, Al Davis (d.2011), NFL team owner, was born in Brocton, Mass. In 1982 he moved the Oakland Raiders to Los Angeles. The team moved back to Oakland in 1995.
    (SFC, 1/22/03, p.A10)(SSFC, 10/9/11, p.A18)

1929        Sep 16, Boston Mayor Nichols banned the performance of Eugene O'Neill play "Strange Interlude" on the grounds that it was obscene. The play had never been banned anywhere, and many Bostonians wanted to see it, but the mayor would not change his mind. The mayor of neighboring Quincy, Mass., allowed the play to be performed there on September 30th, and it played to sold-out crowds for a month. This was later among events covered in the book “Censorship of the American Theatre in the 20th Century” (2003).
    (http://tinyurl.com/2ejfsl2)

1930        American industrialist Charles R. Crane bought 18 brass bells from the Soviet government, saving them from being melted down in Josef Stalin's purges that saw thousands of monks executed and churches and monasteries destroyed or turned into prisons, orphanages or animal barns. They hung for decades in the towers at Lowell House and Harvard Business School's Baker Library. In 2007 Harvard returned the largest of the bells, the Everyday Bell, to the Danilovsky Monastery and planned to return the rest in 2008.
    (AP, 9/12/07)

1931        Mar 13, Rosalind Elias, mezzo-soprano, was born in Lowell, Mass.
    (MC, 3/13/02)

1931        Mar 26, Leonard Nimoy, actor (Spock-Star Trek, Mission Impossible), was born in Boston, MA.
    (SS, 3/26/02)

1931        Apr 6, Richard Alpert, later known as the spiritual leader Ram Dass, was born in Boston.
    (SFEC, 5/23/99, Z1 p.5)

1931        Jun 20, Olympia Dukakis, actress (Moonstruck, Cemetery Club), was born in Lowell, Mass.
    (MC, 6/20/02)

1932        Jul 18, The Matson luxury liner "Lurline" was christened in Quincy, Mass. by  Lurline M. Roth, daughter of company founder Capt. William Mattson.
    (Ind, 11/4/00,5A)

1932        Eugene O’Neill’s play, "Strange Interlude," opened in Quincy. The crowds saved the restaurant across the street owned by Howard Johnson.
    (SFEC, 12/6/98, Z1p.10)

1933        Jan 5, The 30th president (1923-1929) of the United States, Calvin Coolidge, died in Northampton, Mass., at age 60. In 1998 Robert Sobel published his biography: "Coolidge: An American Enigma." Robert Ferrell published "The Presidency of Calvin Coolidge." In 2006 David Greenberg authored “Calvin Coolidge.”
    (AP, 1/5/98)(WSJ, 6/16/98, p.A17)(WSJ, 8/7/98, p.W13)(WSJ, 12/12/06, p.D8)

1933        Jul, Rodolphe Agassiz, recently acquitted of insider trading by the Mass. state supreme court, died. The court ruled that his 1926 purchase of Cliff Mining stock, based on a geologist’s estimates, was a perk.
    (WSJ, 7/3/02, p.B1)

1933        Oct 30, Michael S. Dukakis, (Gov-D-Mass) and presidential candidate (D-1988), was born.
    (MC, 10/30/01)

1933-1953    James Conant ran Harvard Univ. He took what was a regional, parochial and snobbish institution, resistant to Jews and women, and  turned it into a national, meritocratic university.
    (Econ, 2/25/06, p.38)

1934        Dec 27, The 1st youth US hostel opened at Northfield, Mass.
    (MC, 12/27/01)

1934        Hound & Horn, originally subtitled "a Harvard Miscellany", folded. It was a literary quarterly founded by Harvard undergrads Lincoln Kirstein (1906-1996) and Varian Fry in 1927.
    (WSJ, 2/17/07, p.P18)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hound_&_Horn)

1935        May 25, Babe Ruth hit his last three and 714th and final home run for the Boston Braves in a game against the Pittsburgh Pirates.
    (AP, 5/25/97)(SC, 5/25/02)

1936        May 12, Frank Stella, painter, was born in Massachusetts.
    (HN, 5/12/01)(SFC, 6/17/04, p.E5)

1938        Walter Gropius (1883-1969), German architect and Bauhaus founder, built his modern style Gropius House in Lincoln, Massachusetts. Gropius had fled Germany in 1934.
    (WSJ, 8/18/07, p.P14)

1938        Massachusetts inventor Earl Silas Tupper left the Du Pont company in 1938 to form the Tupper Plastics Company. The material called "Poly-T" used to create Tupperware was developed from a black, putrid, rock-hard oil refining waste product called polyethylene slag. He refined and purified the slag into a higher quality plastic. He then turned his attention to replacing the widely used glass and metal food containers with his waterproof and airtight seal introduced in 1947.
    (HNQ, 2/13/99)

1939        Mar 2, The Massachusetts legislature voted to ratify the Bill of Rights, 147 years after the first 10 amendments to the U.S. Constitution had gone into effect.
    (AP, 3/2/98)

1939        Earl Tupper (d.1983), a Massachusetts tree surgeon and inventor, founded Tupperware. In 1942 he introduced a polyethylene container with a fitted cap. The containers took off in 1951 when he hired Brownie Wise (d.1992), a secretary from Detroit, who developed a sales network based on patio parties. Tupper forced Wise out in 1958 and sold the company to Rexall Drugs. [see 1938]
    (WSJ, 2/18/04, p.A9)

1941        Robert McCloskey (d.2003), author and illustrator, wrote "Make Way for Ducklings." It was set in Boston and became a children's classic.
    (WSJ, 7/2/03, p.D8)

1942        Nov 28, 491 people died in a fire that destroyed the Cocoanut Grove nightclub in Boston. The cause of the fire was never officially determined, though many blamed a busboy who had survived the blaze.
    (AP, 11/28/97)(DT internet 11/28/97)

1943        William Whyte (d.2000 at 86) authored "Street Corner Society," a study of Italian gangs in Boston’s North End.
    (SFC, 7/20/00, p.C2)

1946        Nov 5, John F. Kennedy (D-Mass) was elected to House of Representatives.
    (MC, 11/5/01)

1946        Nov 13, The 1st artificial snow was produced from a natural cloud at Mt. Greylock, Mass.
    (MC, 11/13/01)

1946        The Boston Red Sox lost the World Series.
    (SFC, 10/28/04, p.A7)

1946        Georges Doriot (1899-1987), a French-born Harvard professor, took public his Boston-based American Research & Development Corporation, America’s first venture fund.  In 1972 ARD was taken over by Textron. In 2008 Spencer E. Ante authored “Creative Capital: Georges Doriot and the Birth of Venture Capital.”
    (WSJ, 5/21/08, p.A17)(Econ, 3/14/09, SR p.9)

1947        Feb 14, Donna Halper, Boston-based historian, author, educator and radio consultant, was born. Since 1984, Halper has been the advocate for an adult with autism. She continues to do presentations on such topics as media history, women’s history, and popular culture at museums, schools, and historical societies.
    (www.donnahalper.com/dlh.htm)

1947        Feb 15, John Adams, composer (Nixon in China), was born in Worcester Mass.
    (MC, 2/15/02)

1947        Jun 5, Secretary of State George C. Marshall in a speech at Harvard Univ. called for a European Recovery Program to be initiated by the European powers and supported by American aid (Marshall Plan). The program was intended to assist European nations, including former enemies, to rebuild their economies. From 1947 to 1952 it helped Western Europe recover by providing some $13 billion worth of technical and economic aid. In 2007 Greg Behrman authored “The Most Noble Adventure: The Marshall Plan and the Time When America Helped Save Europe.”
    (SFEC, 5/25/97, p.A10)(AP, 6/5/97)(HN, 6/5/98)(Econ, 9/29/07, p.89)

1947        Joseph Lloyd "Wally" Walcott (d.1998 at 101) opened Wally’s Paradise in Boston’s South End neighborhood. He attracted jazz stars from New York to play there.
    (SFC, 3/24/98, p.B2)

1947        Congressman Tommy D'Alesandro Jr. was elected mayor of Baltimore. He was the city's first Italian-American and Catholic mayor and served for 12 years. In 2002 his daughter Nancy Pelosi became the 1st woman to lead a party in the US Congress after Democrats voted 177-29 in support of the liberal from SF.
    (http://tinyurl.com/u6bdk)(SFC, 11/15/02, p.A1)

1947        Massachusetts executed its last inmate and functionally abolished capital punishment.
    (WSJ, 4/8/06, p.P8)

1948        Sep 2, Christa McAuliffe, the first civilian passenger on a space mission, was born in Boston, Mass. During that 1986 mission, she and the six other crew members on the space shuttle Challenger perished in an explosion shortly after launch.
    (HN, 9/2/98)

1948        In Boston, Mass., Bess. L. Hawes (1921-2009) and Jacqueline Steiner co-wrote the political hit “Charlie on the MTA.’’ The song became a big hit for the Kingston Trio in 1959.
    (http://tinyurl.com/ygtrqh8)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/M.T.A.)

1948        William Rosenberg (d.2002 at 86) opened a doughnut shop called Open Kettle in Quincy. Mass. 2 years later the name was changed to Dunkin’ Donuts. In 1955 he began selling franchises and helped create the Int’l. Franchise Assoc.
    (SFC, 9/23/02, p.B5)

1948        The US government launched a heart study in Framingham, Mass., amid an epidemic of heart disease, to compile reams of health data on a group of people in their 30s, 40s and 50s, and hope that over time links would emerge between their lifestyles and heart health. Discoveries by the long term study included: Cigarette smoking, high blood pressure and high cholesterol and diabetes raise the risk of heart disease, and physical exercise lowers the risk. In 2009 researchers reported that the data showed that loneliness spreads very much like a communicable disease.
    (AP, 11/30/07)(Econ, 12/12/09, p.90)

1948        Richard Bolt and Leo Beranek, professors at MIT, established a small acoustics consulting firm and soon added a former student of Bolt’s, Robert Newman. In 1949 BBN won its first major consulting contract, designing the acoustics for the UN General Assembly Hall. In 2008 Leo Beranek authored “Riding the Waves: A Life in Sound, Science and Industry.”
    (www.bbn.com/about/timeline/)(WSJ, 5/22/08, p.A13)

1949        Oct 9, Harvard Law School began admitting women.
    (HN, 10/9/98)

1949        William Schwann (d.1998 at 85) began a record catalog in Cambridge, Mass., that grew to become the Schwann Opus Catalog.
    (SFC, 6/19/98, p.B6)

1950        Jan 17, In Boston 11 men robbed the Brink's office of $1.2M cash & $1.5M securities. The 1978 film "The Brink’s Job" starred Peter Falk and Peter Boyle. It was based on the nonfiction book "The Big Stick-Up at Brink’s" by Noel Behn.
    (SFC, 8/1/98, p.A19)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Brinks_Robbery)

1950        Jan 29, Ann Jillian, actress (Mr. Mom, Jennifer Slept Here), was born in Cambridge, Mass.
    (www.imdb.com/name/nm0422713/)

1950        The DeCordova Museum and Sculpture Park opened on the former estate of Julian DeCordova, a Boston entrepreneur and supporter of the arts.
    (WSJ, 5/21/99, p.W2)

1951        The 8-inch Ginny dolls were introduced by Vogue Dolls Inc. of Bedford, Mass.
    (SFC,11/12/97, Z1 p.7)

1952        Feb 18, Two tanker ships broke apart off Cape Cod. 14 men died in the wrecks, 9 of 41 on the Pendleton and 5 of 43 on the Fort Mercer.
    (SSFC, 2/1/09, p.B7)

1953        Mar 18, The Braves baseball team announced that they were moving from Boston to Milwaukee.
    (HN, 3/18/98)

1953        Jun 7, The 1st color network telecast in compatible color was in Boston, Mass.
    (SC, 6/7/02)

1953        Jun 9, About 100 people died when a tornado struck Worcester, Mass. The tornado from the Midwest roared into Massachusetts. By the time it left, 94 people were dead, and more than $58 million in property damage occurred. It was the worst tornado in New England history.
    (AP, 6/9/97)(http://tinyurl.com/yg8dhcd)

1953        Sep 12, Senator John Fitzgerald Kennedy (36) of Massachusetts married Jacqueline Lee Bouvier (24).
    (AP, 9/12/03)

1953        Nov 11, The Polio virus was identified and photographed for the first time in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
    (HN, 11/11/98)

1953-1971    Nathan Marsh Pusey (1907-2001), served as president of Harvard Univ.
    (SFC, 11/22/01, p.A29)

1954        Feb 26, 1st typesetting machine (photo engraving) used at Quincy, MA.
    (SC, 2/26/02)

1954        Jun 28, US Sen. John F. Kennedy wrote a letter to Gunilla von Post, a Swedish woman he had met on the French Riviera in August 1953, and suggested sailing with her for 2 weeks around the Mediterranean. Kennedy was 36 when he met Post (21). In 1997 Post authored a book, “Love, Jack,” that detailed her long-distance affair with Kennedy. In 2010 an auction house put 11 letters and 3 telegrams of their correspondence up for sale.
    (SFC, 2/17/10, p.A9)

1954        Jul 3, In Salem Mass., champion female athlete Mildred "Babe" Didrikson Zaharias (1911-1956) won the US Women's Open. She had just come back from a battle with cancer, yet won the event by 12 strokes.
    (www.uswomensopen.com/2004/press/whatta-gal.html)

1954        Dec 23, Dr. Joseph Murray led a team of surgeons at Peter Bent Brigham Hospital in Boston in the 1st successful organ transplant. Ronald Herrick donated a kidney to his twin brother, Richard. In 1990 Dr. Murray was warded a Nobel Prize for his work.
    (SFEC, 1/30/00, p.A14)(SFC, 12/3/01, p.A17)(SSFC, 12/19/04, Par p.7)

1955        Nov 28, Boston Red Sox General Manager Joe Cronin announced the purchase of the SF Seals baseball team for $150,000.
    (SFC, 11/25/05, p.F2)

1955        Gov. Christian Herter sent a National Guard tank to quell a Charlestown prison riot led by Theodore "Teddy" Green (d.1998 at 82). Green’s daughter (17) persuaded her father to surrender and ended the 85-hour standoff. He was sent to Alcatraz after the riot. Green later bragged of robbing 20 banks and making 40 prison break attempts.
    (SFC, 2/23/98, p.A21)

1955        Sen. John Kennedy began seeing Dr. Janet Graham Travell for his back pain. Travell later became the 1st woman to serve as White House physician.
    (SFC, 11/22/04, p.A2)

1956        Feb 26, Writers Sylvia Plath and Ted Hughes met at a party in Cambridge.
    (SC, 2/26/02)

1956        Jul 25, The Italian liner Andrea Doria collided with the Swedish passenger ship Stockholm off the New England coast late at night and began sinking in 200 feet of water 50 miles southeast of Nantucket Island, Mass. 51 people died as a result of the impact. The Dorea was headed from Genoa, Italy, to NY. The Andrea Doria sank eleven hours after the crash.
    (WSJ, 5/30/97, p.A1)(SFC, 1/1/99, p.A16)(SFC, 7/30/99, p.D5)(AP, 7/25/07)   

1957        Jun 13, The Mayflower 2, a replica of the ship that brought the Pilgrims to America in 1620, arrived at Plymouth, Mass., after a nearly two-month journey from England.
    (AP, 6/13/07)

1957        National Geographic Magazine published a picture of flamingos that inspired Donald Featherstone of Leominster, Mass., to start a business making plastic models for yard ornaments. The plastic flamingo was designed at Union Products in Mass. In 1958.
    (SFEC, 11/24/96, zone 1 p.2)(SFC, 7/14/99, p.8)

1957        Sarah Caldwell (b.1924) founded the Opera Company of Boston.
    (WSJ, 6/16/04, p.D8)

1958-1960    The city of Boston evicted some 7,000 people from the West End and sold the land to a builder, who put up luxury high-rise apartments.
    (WSJ, 8/23/00, p.A1)

1959        The Central Artery freeway was erected in Boston. It was scheduled to come down in 2004 the completion of the "Big Dig" underground freeway.
    (SFC, 12/20/02, p.J12)

1959        Allan Calhamer, a Harvard undergrad, published Diplomacy, a war strategy board game about pre-World War I Europe.
    (WSJ, 7/2/10, p.W9)

1960        Jan 2, Sen. John F. Kennedy of Massachusetts announced his candidacy for the Democratic presidential nomination.
    (AP, 1/2/98)

1960        Jun 27, Chlorophyll "A" was synthesized at Cambridge, Mass.
    (SC, 6/27/02)

1960        Oct 5, A Lockheed Electra turbo-prop crashed in Boston Harbor and 62 people died. The plane had flown into a flock of starlings.
    (MC, 10/5/01)(SFC, 8/16/03, p.A21)

1960        Nov 8, Massachusetts Sen. John F. Kennedy was elected 35th president by 118,550 popular votes. He defeated Richard Nixon in the US pres. elections. Popular legend later held that the political machine of Richard Daley in Chicago provided the necessary votes for Kennedy to win Illinois (27 electoral votes) and the elections. The Electoral College result was 303 to 219.
    (SFEC, 8/31/97, p.B5)(AP, 11/8/97)(SFEC, 1/18/98, Par p.2)(HN, 11/6/98)

1960s        Taj Mahal began performing with his R&B band around Boston coffeehouses and later earned a degree in animal husbandry.
    (SFEC, 8/31/97, DB p.9)

1960s        Edward Lorenz, MIT meteorologist, popularized the notion of the butterfly effect: where a small turbulence, such as a butterfly flapping its wings, can set in motion atmospheric events that can climax in a hurricane.
    (SFC, 8/15/03, p.A6)

1961        Jan 20, Francis Poulenc's "Gloria," premiered in Boston.
    (MC, 1/20/02)

1962        Apr 24, The Massachusetts Institute of Technology achieved the first satellite relay of a television signal, between Camp Parks, Ca., and Westford, Mass.
    (AP, 4/24/02)

1962        Aug 14, Robbers held up a U.S. mail truck in Plymouth, Mass., making off with more than $1.5 million.
    (AP, 8/14/97)

1962        Nov 6, Edward M. Kennedy (1932-2009) of Massachusetts was 1st elected as US Senator (D) to fill the vacancy caused by the 1960 resignation of his brother, John Fitzgerald Kennedy, for the term ending January 3, 1965. Pres. Kennedy had persuaded the governor of Massachusetts to appoint his college roommate, Benjamin A. Smith II, until Edward turned 30.
    (http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=K000105)(Econ, 8/29/09, p.30)

1962        Herbert Gans authored "The Urban Villagers," a study of the working-class in Boston’s West End.
    (WSJ, 8/23/00, p.A6)

1962        Steve Russell at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology created "Spacewar!", one of the earliest video games for a digital computer.
    (AFP, 10/20/06)

1962-1964    The Boston Strangler killed 13 women during this period. [see DeSalvo, 1967, 1973]
    (SFC, 7/10/99, p.A3)

1963        Jan 29, Poet Robert Frost (b.1874) died in Boston at age 88. In 1999 Jay Parini published "Robert Frost: A Life." Lawrance Thompson authored a 3-volume biography (1966-1976).
    (AP, 1/29/98)(SFEC, 4/18/99, BR p.3)

1963        Mar 11, Bessie Goldberg was murdered at her home in Belmont, a Boston suburb. Roy Smith, an ex-convict who had been sent to clean the home, was convicted of the murder and sentenced to life in prison. In 1976 Gov. Dukakis commuted his sentence. Smith died of cancer 3 days after his parole. In 2006 Sebastian Junger authored “A Death in Belmont” an account of the case.
    (WSJ, 4/8/06, p.P8)

1963        Jun 18, 3,000 blacks boycotted Boston public school.
    (MC, 6/18/02)

1963        Julia Child made her TV debut as "The French Chef" on Boston's WGBH-TV. PBS picked up the show a year later.
    (SFEM, 8/10/97, p.23)

1963        Harvey R. Ball (d.2001 at 79), advertising executive, created the yellow smiley face (happy face) for the Massachusetts based State Mutual Life Assurance Company of America. He was paid $45 for the artwork and never applied for a trademark or copyright. In 2006 Darrin M. McMahon authored “Happiness: A History.”
    (SFC, 4/17/01, p.A20)(Econ, 1/14/06, p.82)

1963        The Lestoil Co. of Holyoke, Mass., began selling its liquid cleaner in special-edition reproduction glass flasks, which resembled 19th century whiskey flasks. The special edition ended in 1964.
    (SFC, 5/28/08, p.G2)

1964        Jan, Mary Sullivan (19) was raped and strangled in her Boston apartment. In 2001 there was evidence that she was not killed by Albert DeSalvo (d.1973), the suspected Boston Strangler. In 2013 DNA evidence linked DeSalvo to Sullivan’s slaying.
    (SFC, 12/7/01, p.A2)(SFC, 7/12/13, p.A10)

1964        Jun 2, Rolling Stones made their 1st US concert tour debut in Lynn, Mass.
    (SC, 6/2/02)

1965        Mar 12, Edward "Teddy" Deegan was found dead in an alley in Chelsea, Mass. A week later an FBI memo named 6 men, including Vincent J. Flemmi and Joseph "The Animal" Barboza, as the killers. Barboza became a star witness and provided false testimony to convict 4 innocent men. The New England Mafia shotgunned Barboza in SF in 1976. Over the next 3 decades FBI informants in Boston murdered over 20 people.
    (SSFC, 7/28/02, p.A5)(SFC, 11/21/03, p.A3)

1965        Nov 26, Arlo Guthrie (17) was arrested in Stockbridge, Mass., for dumping some trash following a Thanksgiving feast at a restaurant run by Alice Brock. He wrote a song about the event that became a folk classic and was turned into a movie in 1969.
    (WSJ, 11/22/06, p.A1)

1965        Thomas Winship (d.2002 at 81) succeeded his father, Lawrence Winship, as editor of the Boston Globe.
    (SFC, 3/16/02, p.A22)

1966        Mar 21, Supreme Court reversed Massachusetts ruling that Fanny Hill" is  obscene.
    (MC, 3/21/02)

1966        Nov 8, Republican Edward Brooke of Massachusetts was the first African-American elected to the Senate by popular vote in 85 years.
    (AP, 11/8/97)(HN, 11/6/98)

1966        The Standells song “Dirty Water,” an ode to Boston and its polluted waterways, reached No. 11 on the Billboard’s Top 40 chart. In 2006 the group filed a suit against Anheuser-Busch for illegal use of the song in commercials.
    (SFC, 6/12/06, p.D11)

1967        Jan 10, Edward W. Brooke, R-Mass., the first black elected to the U.S. Senate by popular vote, took his seat.
    (AP, 1/10/98)

1967        Jan 18, Albert DeSalvo, who claimed to be the "Boston Strangler," was convicted in Cambridge, Mass., of armed robbery, assault and sex offenses. Sentenced to life, DeSalvo was killed by a fellow inmate in 1973. DeSalvo had confessed to being the Boston Strangler and killing 13 women. He was never convicted of murder. A portrait of him with police interviews was made in 1996 for the TV show Biography. In 1999 DNA evidence was sought to confirm DeSalvo's claims.
    (SFC, 6/6/96, E9)(AP, 1/18/98)(SFC, 7/10/99, p.A4)

1967        May 28, Francis Chichester arrived home at Plymouth from a round-the-world, one man sailboat trip.
    (MC, 5/28/02)

1967        Apr 19, Katherine Switzer (b.1947) ran in the Boston Marathon registered under the name K. Switzer. Up to this time women were not allowed to register for the race.
    (SFC, 2/22/13, p.E6)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kathrine_Switzer)

1967        Jun 2, Race riots took place in the Roxbury section of Boston.
    (http://ksgaccman.harvard.edu/hotc/DisplayPlace.asp?id=11607)

1967        The film “Titicut Follies” was directed by Frederick Wiseman. It was banned by the Massachusetts Supreme Court for its stark portrayal of inmate conditions in Bridgewater, Mass.
    (WSJ, 11/11/06, p.P2)

1967        The Boston Red Sox lost the World Series.
    (SFC, 10/28/04, p.A7)

1967        Arlo Guthrie recorded the 18.5 minute ballad "Alice’s Restaurant." It was about his arrest for dumping garbage that had piled up at the former Episcopal Church where Alice and Ray Brock lived in Great Barrington, Mass. Guthrie bought the building in 1991 for $300,000 and set up a foundation to promote understanding among religious traditions. "It’s a bring your own god church."
    (SFC, 1/5/02, p.A2)

1968        May 20, The US Supreme Court (United States v. United Shoe Machinery Corp., 391 U.S. 244) ruled for the breakup of United Shoe Machinery Company in Mass.
    (http://supreme.justia.com/us/391/244/)(WSJ, 10/2/97, p.A16)

1968        Jun 14, Four of the Boston Five were convicted of conspiracy in their organized draft protest. Mitchell Goodman (1924-1997) organized the protest that included the burning of draft cards. Dr. Benjamin Spock (1903-1998), American pediatrician, was one of the defendants and the trial came to be known as the "Spock trial." The convictions were later overturned.
    (SFC, 2/7/97, p.A28)(www.stg.brown.edu/projects/1968/reference/timeline.html)

1968        Jul 31, In Boston 4 men were convicted for shooting Edward "Teddy" Deegan in a Chelsea, Mass., alley in 1965. In 2007 a federal judge in Boston ordered the government to pay a record nearly $102 million for the FBI's role in the wrongful murder convictions of the 4 men. Two of the men convicted, Louis Greco and Henry Tameleo, died behind bars. The others, Peter Limone (73) and Joseph Salvati (74) spent three decades in prison.
    (www.justicedenied.org/issue/issue_27/fbi%27s_legacy_of_shame.html)

1969        Jan 22, In Massachusetts Francis Sargent (1915-1998) became governor after John Volpe was made transportation secretary in the Nixon administration.
    (SFC, 10/24/98, p.A22)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francis_W._Sargent)

1969        Mar 2, Phil Esposito of the Boston Bruins became the 1st NHL Player to score 100 points in a season.
    (www.nhl.com/history/030269.html)

1969        Jul 18, A car driven by Sen. Edward M. Kennedy (1932-2009), D-Mass., plunged off a bridge on Chappaquiddick Island near Martha's Vineyard. His passenger, 28-year-old Mary Jo Kopechne, died. Kennedy did not report the accident until it was discovered 9 hours later.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1969)(AP, 7/18/97)(Econ, 8/29/09, p.30)

1969        Aug 17, Donald E. Wahlberg Jr., rocker (New Kids-Hangin' Tough), was born in Boston.
    (www.donniewahlberg.com/bio.htm)

1969        Oct 12, Nancy Ann Kerrigan, figure skater, was born in Woburn, Mass. In 1994 she won an Olympics silver medal.
    (www.imdb.com/name/nm0449872/bio)

1969        Nov 22, Jonathan Beckwith and others of Harvard Univ. announced the isolation of a single gene of E. coli.
    (http://content.nejm.org/cgi/content/extract/359/18/1970)

1969        In Boston the City Hall Plaza was built. 1,246,343 bricks covered the 9 acres.
    (WSJ, 1/22/00, p.A1)
1969        Smith & Wesson began a school for training police and law enforcement officials from around the world.
    (WSJ, 9/12/97, p.A20)
1969        The Harvard faculty voted to exile ROTC because of the Vietnam War.
    (WSJ, 10/4/01, p.A1)
1969        The Leonard Silver Manufacturing Company was started by Leonard Florence in Chelsea, Massachusetts, to market silver plate holloware. Products were manufactured by firms in India. The company was acquired by Towle Silversmiths in 1978. At that time, the headquarters were moved to Boston, Mass. The Leonard Silver line is now a part of International Silver Company (Syrtech Corp.).
    (www.livingvictorian.com/askrenipm/askreninov03.html)

1970        Apr 29, Uma Thurman, actress, was born in Boston, Mass. Her films included “The Adventures of Baron Munchausen” (1988) and “Pulp Fiction” (1994).
    (http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0000235/)

1970        Aug 1, The dance piece "The Fugue," created by Twyla Tharp (b.1941), premiered at the Univ. of Massachusetts in Amherst.
    (WSJ, 10/17/96, p.A20)(www.abt.org/education/archive/ballets/fugue.html)

1970        Nov, Rev. Robert Drinan (1920-2007), a Jesuit priest, was elected US congressman from Massachusetts. He later became the 1st member of Congress to call for the impeachment of Pres. Nixon due to the administration’s undeclared war in Cambodia.
    (SFC, 1/30/07, p.B5)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Drinan)

1970s        Antitrust laws forced the breakup of the United Shoe Company.
    (WSJ, 10/2/97, p.A16)

1971        Mar 21, Daniel Ellsberg obtained a copy of the Pentagon Papers, commissioned by then-Defense Secretary Robert McNamara, from his former pentagon colleagues and showed it to Neil Sheehan, a young New York Times reporter, at Cambridge, Massachusetts.
    (SFC, 7/7/96, BR p.6)(www.topsecretplay.org/index.php/content/timeline)

1971-1991    Derek Bok ran Harvard Univ. In 2006 he returned as interim president following the resignation of Larry Summers.
    (Econ, 2/25/06, p.37)

1972        Apr 17, A handful of women were first accepted as entrants to the Boston marathon.
    (SFC, 3/10/00, p.D8)(www.boston.com/marathon/history/1972.shtml)

1972        Jun 20, Joseph Yandle drove the getaway car after his partner robbed a Mystic Bottled Liquors store in Medford and killed manager Joseph Reppucci. Yandle was sentenced to life in prison but was released after 23 years when he reported that he was a Vietnam veteran addicted to heroin at the time of the crime. In 1998 the story was found to be a hoax and Yandle went back to prison.
    (SFC, 8/27/98, p.A4)

1972        John Kerry lost a bid for Congress and enrolled in Boston College Law School.
    (SSFC, 8/29/04, p.J5)

1973        Nov 25, Albert DeSalvo, Boston strangler, was stabbed to death in prison. DeSalvo, the self-admitted Boston strangler, had been tried and convicted on unrelated assaults. 13 women were killed in Boston between 1962-1964. DNA evidence was sought in 1999. Susan Kelly wrote a book in 1995 on the Boston Strangler.
    (SFC, 7/10/99, p.A3)(www.us.imdb.com/name/nm1108915/)

1973        Gene Sharp (b.1928), Boston based scholar, authored his 902-page “Politics of Nonviolent Action.” Following a 1992 trip to Burma (Myanmar) he authored “From Dictatorship to Democracy,” a 90-page work that offered a list of 198 methods of nonviolent action. His writings impacted political action in numerous dictatorial regimes.
    (WSJ, 9/13/08, p.A10)

1974        Sep 9, In Boston, Massachusetts, a group called Restore Our Alienated Rights (R.O.A.R.) held a rally at City Hall Plaza a few days before the start of school. When Senator Ted Kennedy took the stage to speak in favor of busing, the crowd reacted in anger. Protests and violence continued for three years.
    (www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/mlk/maps/maps_pop.html)

1974        Sep 12, The start of court-ordered busing to achieve racial integration in Boston's public schools was marred by violence in South Boston. The Boston desegregation plan had been drafted by Robert Dentler (1928-2008) and Marvin Scott of Boston Univ.
    (AP, 9/12/99)(SFC, 4/8/08, p.B5)

1974        Oct 4, Anne Sexton (b.1928), American poet, committed suicide in Massachusetts. In 1991 Diane Middlebrook (1939-2007), authored “Anne Sexton: A Biography.”
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anne_Sexton)(SSFC, 12/16/07, p.A1)

1974        Oct 15, National Guard mobilized to restore order in Boston school busing.
    (MC, 10/15/01)

1974        Michael Dukakis defeated Francis Sargent for the governorship.
    (SFC, 10/24/98, p.A22)

1975        Apr 21, Bill Rodgers won the Boston Marathon, the 1st local winner in 30 years.
    (WSJ, 9/30/02, p.R3)(http://boston.com/marathon/history/1975.shtml)

1975        Sep 8, Boston's public schools began their court-ordered citywide busing program amid scattered incidents of violence.
    (AP, 9/8/97)

1975        The Boston Globe under Thomas Winship won a Pulitzer Prize for its coverage of the busing crises.
    (SFC, 3/16/02, p.A22)

1975        The Boston Red Sox lost the World Series.
    (SFC, 10/28/04, p.A7)

1975        The USS Constitution (aka Old Ironsides) was restored and reopened to the public in Boston Harbor.
    (SFEC, 7/13/97, Par p.14)

1975        Harvard voted to cut off all university funding for ROTC because of the military policy on gays.
    (WSJ, 10/4/01, p.A1)

1975        The Board of Trustees of Smith College selected Jill Ker Conway, an Australian resident of Canada, as their 1st woman president. In 2001 Conway authored the 3rd volume of her autobiography "A Woman’s Education."
    (SSFC, 11/11/01, p.M3)

1976        Dec 21, The Liberian-registered tanker Argo Merchant ran aground near Nantucket Island, spilling millions of gallons of oil into the North Atlantic.
    (AP, 12/21/97)

1976        Massachusetts moved its primary from late April to early March. New Hampshire reacted by moving the due date to February and then to late January.
    (SSFC, 1/25/04, p.D6)

1976        James Anthony Martin was believed to have escaped to Canada after he shot and killed Edward Paulsen. Canadian authorities later charged Martin with 31 crimes over the next 24 years.
    (SFC, 12/27/00, p.C18)

1977        Seiji Ozawa left the SF Symphony to lead the Boston Symphony.
    (SFEC, 8/10/97, p.B9)

1978        In Massachusetts Aveline (d.2001 at 78) and Michio Kushi founded the Kushi Institute to teach macrobiotics. Aveline later authored her autobiography "Aveline: The Life and Dream of the Woman Behind Macrobiotics Today."
    (SFC, 7/14/01, p.C2)

1978        Nicholas Mavroules (d.2003) was elected as US Congressman from Massachusetts.
    (SFC, 12/27/03, p.A18)

1978        Edwin Dickinson (b.1891), American painter, died in Wellfleet, Mass. His work included "The Cello Player" (1924-1926).
    (SFC, 12/4/00, p.B1)

1979        Jul 10, Conductor Arthur Fiedler, who had led the Boston Pops orchestra for a half-century, died in Brookline, Mass., at age 84.
    (AP, 7/10/99)

1979        Oct 1, Pope John Paul II arrived in Boston for the start of a U.S. tour.
    (AP, 10/1/99)

1979        Oct 20, The John F. Kennedy Library was dedicated in Boston.
    (AP, 10/20/99)

1979        Oct, Stephen Howard Fagan (37) abducted his two daughters, aged 2 & 4, from his former wife, Barbara Kurth. Fagan told his daughters that their mother had died and raised them in Florida. He was arrested in 1998 for kidnapping and brought back to Boston to answer charges.
    (SFEC, 4/19/98, p.A17)

1979        In Boston Joseph P. Kennedy launched the Citizen’s Energy Corp., a tax-exempt social welfare program that later depended on for-profit subsidiaries. The initial idea was to ease heating bills during the oil crises. The group signed its 1st crude oil contract with Venezuela. By 2007 the company had expanded to 16 states delivering los-cost oil to as many as 400,000 households. In 1987 Kennedy was elected as a Massachusetts Representative to Congress and served until 1999.
    (WSJ, 3/25/98, p.A1,10)(SFC, 2/17/07, p.A3)

1980        Apr 21, At the Boston Marathon, Rosie Ruiz was the first woman to cross the finish line; but she was disqualified as a fraud when officials discovered she had jumped into the race about a mile from the finish.
    (AP, 4/21/00)

1980        Dec 11, Massachusetts Sec. of State Michael Connolly banned the sale of Apple Computer stock arguing that the $22 price per share was too high.
    (SFC, 12/9/05, p.F6)

1980        Stephen Bernard (d.2009 at 61) and his wife Lynn founded his kettle-cooked Cape Cod Potato Chips brand. The company was sold to Anheuser-Busch in 1985, but they reacquired it when the brewer sold its Eagle Snacks division to Lance Inc. in 1999.
    (SFC, 3/13/09, p.B7)

1981        State Supreme Court cases in Massachusetts and New Jersey ruled that husbands can be prosecuted for raping their wives.
    (NW, 6/30/03, p.44)

1981        Roger Wheeler, chairman of Telex Corp. and owner of World Jai Alai, was shot execution style at a Tulsa country club. In 2001 2 reputed Boston mobsters, James Bulger and Stephen Flemmi, were charged. Jai Alai executive John B. Callahan was murdered in Aug 1982 in Miami.
    (SFC, 3/15/01, p.A8)

1982        May 11, In Massachusetts Michael Donohue (b.1906) and FBI informant Brian Halloran were shot to death in a hit allegedly planned and carried out by gang boss James Bulger.
    (http://tinyurl.com/lfzujv2)(Econ, 7/20/13, p.28)
1982        John Kerry was elected lieutenant governor of Mass.
    (SSFC, 8/29/04, p.J5)

1983        Mar 6, In a case that drew much notoriety, a woman in New Bedford, Mass., reported being gang-raped atop a pool table in a tavern; four men were later convicted.
    (AP, 3/6/98)

1983        May 15, The Madison Hotel in Boston, Mass., was destroyed by implosion.
    (http://tinyurl.com/2j8cul)

1983        Jul 20, The US House censured Reps. Gerry Studds of Massachusetts and Daniel B. Crane of Illinois for having sexual relations with pages. Studds, a liberal Democrat who acknowledged having sex with a 17-year-old male page in 1973 and making sexual advances to two others, admitted an error in judgment but did not apologize. The first openly gay member of Congress went on to win re-election until his retirement in the mid-1990s. Crane admitted having sex several times with a 17-year-old female page in 1980. He apologized to the House in a quavering voice "for the shame I have brought down on this institution." The conservative Republican was defeated a year later.
    (AP, 9/30/06)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1983_Congressional_page_sex_scandal)

1983        Oct 5, Earl Tupper (b.1907), a Massachusetts tree surgeon, inventor and founder of Tupperware  [see 1938], died in Costa Rica. In 2008 Bob Kealing authored “Tupperware: Brownie Wise, Earl Tupper, and the Home Party Pioneers.”
    (WSJ, 2/18/04, p.A9)(www.ideafinder.com/history/inventors/tupper.htm)(WSJ, 7/30/08, p.A13)

1983        Napoleon Crepeau Jr. was convicted for the kidnapping and rape of a 17-year-old Dartmouth woman. He was convicted for 16 years in prison. He told psychologists in prison that he would attack more women if released. He was released in 1998.
    (SFC, 6/9/98, p.A5)

1983        Dennis Maher was convicted in Boston of raping 3 women and spent the next 19 years in prison. In 2003 DNA evidence proved his innocence.
    (SFC, 4/4/03, p.A3)

1983        Boston Cardinal Humberto Medeiros died and was replaced by Cardinal Bernard Law.
    (SFC, 4/27/02, p.A3)

1983-1990    David Saxon (1920-2005), president of the Univ. of California, left to serve as chairman of MIT Corp. and served there until 1990.
    (SFC, 12/9/05, p.B5)

1984        Jun 30, Lillian Hellman (b.1905), writer, died in Massachusetts. Her work included the play "The Little Foxes" (1939), and her memoirs "Scoundrel Time" (1976) and "Pentimento" (1973). The 1977 film "Julia" was based on a chapter from Pentimento which described Muriel Gardiner, an American medical student at the Univ. of Vienna active in anti-Nazi resistance. In 2005 Deborah Martinson authored “Lillian Hellman: A Life with Foxes and Scoundrels.” In 2012 Alice Kessler-Harris authored “A Difficult Woman: The Challenging Life and Times of Lillian Hellman.”
    (WSJ, 12/16/98, p.A21)(WSJ, 4/26/99, p.A16)(WSJ, 5/24/99, p.A28)(Econ, 12/17/05, p.82)(Econ, 4/14/12, p.91)

1984        In Mass. District Attorney Scott Harshbarger brought the first child-sex-abuse charges against the Amiraults, owners of the Fells Acres Day School in Malden. A new trial was ordered in 1998 due to flawed techniques in interviewing the young accusers. Gerald Amirault served 18 years in prison and was released in 2004.
    (WSJ, 10/14/97, p.A22)(SFC, 6/13/98, p.A3)(WSJ, 5/28/04, p.A8)

1984        Massachusetts banned the death penalty.
    (SFC, 11/21/00, p.A7)

1984        John Kerry was elected as US senator for Mass.
    (SSFC, 8/29/04, p.J5)

1985        Mar 3, Kevin McHale of Memphis State University set a Boston Celtics scoring record this night as he poured in 56 points in a 138-129 win over the Detroit Pistons.
    (http://celticsbandwagon.blogspot.com/2006_12_01_archive.html)

1985        J. Anthony Lukas (d.1997) published “Common Ground,” an exploration of school desegregation through the experiences of three Boston families.
    (SFEC, 10/5/97, BR p.1)
1985        Charles Taylor escaped from a Plymouth County jail in Massachusetts while awaiting extradition to Liberia, where he was accused of embezzling money as an official in the dictatorship of Samuel Doe. Charges against Taylor were dropped in 1999.
    (SFC, 7/3/99, p.A10)
1985        Boston, Mass., began a $3.5 billion harbor clean-up program.
    (Econ, 6/1/13, p.28)

1986        Oct 25, Michael Sergio parachuted into Shea Stadium during game 6 of the World Series. In game 6 of the Baseball World Series a slowly hit ball trickled through the legs of Bill Buckner and cost the Red Sox the game. They lost game 7 and the NY Mets won the series.
    (WSJ, 7/23/98, p.A1)(MC, 10/25/01)

1986        The Boston Red Sox lost the World Series.
    (SFC, 10/28/04, p.A7)

1986        The Hearst Corp. acquired WCVB-TV in Boston.
    (SFC, 8/7/99, p.A9)

1987        Jun 2, Georges Doriot (b.1899), a French-born Harvard professor, died in Boston. In 1946 he took public his American Research & Development (ARD) company. In 2008 Spencer E. Ante authored “Creative Capital: Georges Doriot and the Birth of Venture Capital.”
    (WSJ, 5/21/08, p.A17)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Georges_Doriot)

1987        Aug 9, In Worcester Audrey Santo (3) fell into a backyard swimming pool and was left inert and bedridden. Later Masses were celebrated at her home and pilgrims began visiting her and claimed to be cured of illnesses.
    (SFEC, 8/28/98, p.A8)

1987        Sep 30, Two top campaign aides to Massachusetts Gov. Michael S. Dukakis resigned after one of them, campaign manager John Sasso, admitted leaking an attack videotape that helped bring down the presidential candidacy of Delaware Sen. Joseph Biden. Sasso returned to the campaign a year later.
    (AP, 9/30/97)

1987        Will Fitzhugh began publishing the Concord Review, an academic journal dedicated to the work of high school students.
    (WSJ, 5/26/00, p.W15)

1987        The US Congress approved a $6.4 billion budget for "the Big Dig" in Boston. Its 85% support later shrank to 55%, as costs in 2002 rose to $14.6 billion.
    (SFC, 12/20/02, p.J12)

1988        Jun 18, Vice President George Bush launched a sharp attack against Democratic presidential candidate Michael Dukakis, accusing the Massachusetts governor of coddling criminals by allowing some convicts out of prison on weekend furloughs.
    (AP, 6/17/98)

1988        Jul 21, Massachusetts Gov. Michael Dukakis accepted the Democratic presidential nomination at the party's convention in Atlanta, declaring, "this election isn't about ideology; it's about competence."
    (AP, 7/21/98)

1988        Sep 24, Members of the eastern Massachusetts Episcopal diocese elected Barbara C. Harris the first female bishop in the church's history.
    (AP, 9/24/98)

1988        Nov 8, The US held elections and Republican VP George Bush defeated Massachusetts Gov. Michael Dukakis. Bush was elected the 41st president with 54% of the popular vote. He and Dan Quail were elected over Dukakis and Bentson. There have been 14 American vice presidents who have gone on to serve as president. John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, Martin Van Buren, John Tyler, Millard Fillmore, Andrew Johnson, Chester A. Arthur, Theodore Roosevelt, Calvin Coolidge, Harry S. Truman, Richard M. Nixon, Lyndon Johnson, Gerald Ford, George Bush.
    (WSJ, 8/5/96, p.A10)(AP, 11/8/98)(HN, 11/6/98)(HNQ, 2/20/00)

1988        John Kerry, US senator for Mass., sold his cookie business.
    (SSFC, 8/29/04, p.J5)

1989        Jul 17, Isidore Feinstein Stone (b.1907), author (I.F. Stone's Weekly), died in Boston. In 2006 Myra MacPherson authored “All Governments Lie,” a biography of Stone. In 2009 D.D. Guttenplan authored “American Radical: The Life and Times of I.F. Stone.”
    (http://tinyurl.com/nm97z)(WSJ, 9/30/06, p.P8)(Econ, 5/16/09, p.90)

1989        Sep 1, A. Bartlett Giamatti (51), Baseball Commissioner, died of heart attack at his summer home in Martha's Vineyard, Mass.
    (AP, 9/1/99)

1989        Oct 23, In a case that inflamed racial tensions in Boston, Charles Stuart claimed he and his pregnant wife, Carol, had been shot in their car by a black robber. Carol Stuart and her prematurely delivered baby died; Charles Stuart later died, an apparent suicide, after he was implicated.
    (AP, 10/23/99)

1989        Oct 29, Angelo Mercurio (1936-2006), an FBI informant, attended a Mafia induction ceremony at a suburban Boston home. His evidence helped bring down the crime family led by Raymond “Junior” Patriarca.
    (SFC, 2/13/07, p.B4)(http://tinyurl.com/36ccng)

1989        Nov 6, Kitty Dukakis, wife of Massachusetts Gov. Michael S. Dukakis, was hospitalized after ingesting rubbing alcohol.
    (AP, 11/6/99)

1989        The Loeb Classical Library was taken over by Harvard Univ. Press.
    (SFEC, 8/20/00, p.B12)

1990        Mar 18, There was a theft of art work from the Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum in Boston. 2 men dressed as policemen made off with masterworks that included Rembrandt’s "The Storm on the Sea of Galilee," Vermeer’s "The Concert," Manet’s "Chez Tortoni," and 5 paintings and drawings by Edgar Degas and a 1200 BC Chinese bronze beaker valued at $300 million. The theft led Sen. Edward Kennedy to sponsor the museum theft provision of the 1994 Omnibus Crime Act. In 2009 Ulrich Boser authored “The Gardner Heist.” In 2013 the FBI said it knows who stole the artwork but withheld the identity of the thieves.
    (WSJ, 8/9/96, p.A8)(WSJ, 5/13/97, p.A21)(SFC, 8/26/97, p.A3)(SFC,12/15/97, p.A3)(WSJ, 2/20/09, p.W10)(SFC, 2/19/13, p.A6)

1990        May 20, In Massachusetts the body of Cheryl Kosilek (35) was found in her car at a North Attleborough shopping mall. Robert Kosilek (41) was convicted of her murder in 1993 and while in prison demanded that the state of Massachusetts provide him or her with a sex-change operation.
    (SFC, 11/24/09, p.A9)(www.highbeam.com/doc/1P2-8176530.html)

1990        Dec 28, 33 people were injured in a trolley collision in Boston.
    (AP, 12/28/00)

1990        William Weld was elected governor of Massachusetts.
    (www.msnbc.msn.com/id/9004742/)

1990        The state civil commitment law was repealed by the legislature because it was possibly unconstitutional.
    (SFC, 6/9/98, p.A6)

1991        Sep 24, Children's author Theodor Seuss Geisel, better known as Dr. Seuss, died in La Jolla, Calif., at age 87. In 2002 Springfield, Mass., his childhood home, opened a $6.2 million sculpture garden in his memory.
    (AP, 9/24/97)(SFC, 5/27/02, p.A2)

1991        Oct 28, The Andrea Gail, a 72-foot swordfish boat from Gloucester, Mass., disappeared off the coast of Nova Scotia. Six fishermen were lost. In 1997 Sebastian Junger authored "The Perfect Storm: A True Story of Men Against the Sea." A film version followed in 2000.
    (SFC, 6/21/08, p.A3)(www.imdb.com/title/tt0177971/)
 
1992        Aug 7, The luxury liner Queen Elizabeth 2 ran aground off Massachusetts.
    (AP, 8/7/97)

1992        Nicholas Mavroules (d.2003) lost his Congressional seat to Peter Torkildsen after being indicted on bribery and racketeering charges. He pleaded guilty in 1993 and served 11 months.
    (SFC, 12/27/03, p.A18)

1993        Mar 3, Howard Stern radio show premiered in Boston on WBCN 104.1 FM-evenings.
    (SC, 3/3/02)

1993        Jul 27, Boston Celtics star Reggie Lewis died after collapsing on a Brandeis University basketball court during practice; he was 27.
    (AP, 7/27/98)

1993         Sep 15 Katherine Ann Power, former 60s radical who spent 23 years in hiding, surrendered to authorities at Boston College law school in Newton. She faced charges stemming from a 1970 bank robbery in which Boston police officer Walter Schroeder Sr. (42) was killed. Power pleaded guilty to charges of armed robbery and the reduced charge of manslaughter. On October 6, 1993, she received a five-year federal term, to run concurrently with an 8-12 year state sentence. She was released in 1999.
    (AP, 9/15/98)(www.holysmoke.org/sdhok/dep11.htm)

1993        Dec 6, A judge in New Bedford, Mass., sentenced former priest James R. Porter, who'd admitted molesting 28 children in the 1960s, to 18 to 20 years in prison for sexual assault.
    (AP, 12/6/98)

1993        Composer John Williams retired from the Boston Pops. He composed the music for the Star Wars films.
    (WSJ, 5/13/99, p.A28)
1993        Jim Koch, founder of Boston Beer co., the maker of Samuel Adams beer, set a new bar by creating Triple Bock, a beverage with 17.5% alcohol by volume. In the early 2000s, Dogfish Head responded with beverages of their own that went to 22%. In 2009 Boston Beer released an updated version of its biennial beer Utopias, to date the highest alcohol content beer on the market. It was 27% alcohol by volume and $150 a bottle.
    (AP, 11/30/09)
1993        The Boston Globe was purchased by the New York Times for $1.07 billion.
    (WSJ, 8/9/99, p.B9)

1994        Jan 5, Former House speaker Thomas P. "Tip" O'Neill died in Boston at age 81.
    (AP, 1/5/98)

1994        Dec 23, John Connolly, FBI agent, came to the Winter Hill gang’s headquarters in a Boston liquor store and warned Kevin Weeks of pending FBI arrests for mobsters James Bulger, Stephen Flemmi and Francis Salemme. Connolly was convicted for corruption in 2002 and sentenced to 121 months.
    (SFC, 5/29/02, p.A3)(SFC, 9/17/02, p.A5)

1994        Dec 30, John Salvi opened fire at two abortion clinics in suburban Boston and killed 2 clinic receptionists, Lee Ann Nichols and Shannon Lowney. He was convicted on two accounts of first-degree murder in Mar, 1996. Salvi committed suicide in prison on Nov 29, 1996. His conviction was voided in 1997 because he died before his appeal was heard.
    (WSJ, 3/19/96, p.A-1)(SFC, 11/30/96, p.A1,15)(SFEC, 2/2/97, p.A3)(AP, 12/30/99)

1995        Jan 5, A warrant was issued for the arrest of James “Whitey” Bulger (b.1929), top mobster of Boston’s Winter Hill Gang. He had disappeared with his girlfriend just days before the warrant was issued. Bulger was linked to 21 murders and in 2000 became a fixture on the FBI’s “Ten Most Wanted” list. In 2007 Kevin Weeks authored “Brutal: The Untold Story Of My Life Inside Whitey Bulger's Irish Mob.”
    (http://tinyurl.com/2c8u37f)(SSFC, 1/30/05, p.A13)(http://tinyurl.com/29unfq4)

1995        Jul 17, Thirty-two people were injured when a Boston Green Line trolley rammed another train under Copley Square.
    (AP, 7/17/00)

1995        Aug 23, Alfred Eisenstaedt (96), "Life" magazine photographer, died on Martha’s Vineyard. His picture of a sailor kissing a nurse in Times Square became one of the best-known images of America's joy at the end of World War Two.
    (AP, 8/23/00)(www.cnn.com/EVENTS/year_in_review/passages/)

1996        Samuel Huntington, a Harvard professor, authored his best-selling book: "The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order."
    (WSJ, 11/7/96, p.A18)(Econ, 10/24/09, SR p.10)

1996        US Congress named the 842-square mile Gerry E. Studds Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary after Massachusetts Representative Gerry E. Studds (d.2006) in recognition of his work protecting the marine environment.
    (AP, 10/14/06)

1996        A train hauled away the 360 ton reactor vessel of the Yankee Rowe nuclear plant.
    (SFC, 8/7/99, p.A3)

1997        Feb 9, In Newton, Mass., an 8-month old baby died while under the care of a 19-year-old British nanny. Louisa Woodward, pleaded innocent, but was tried and convicted on 2nd-degree murder charges in Oct.
    (SFC,10/31/97, p.A1)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louise_Woodward)

1997        Apr 20, Lameck Aguta of Kenya won the Boston Marathon with a time of 2:10:34. Ethiopia’s Fatuma Roba won the women’s best time at 2:26:24.
    (WSJ, 4/22/97, p.A1)

1997        Jul 9, Louise Woodward failed to respond to a wrongful death suit filed by the parents of Matthew Eappen, the baby she was convicted of killing, and this allowed a federal court to automatically rule against her.
    (www.courttv.com/trials/woodward/070998.html)

1997        Jul, AT&T agreed to pay Wellesley Congregational Church $2,500 per month for a decade for the right to install wireless transmission equipment in the church steeple. An annual $6,000 bonus was included plus costs for rebuilding the steeple. Rev. Lee Woofenden of the New Jerusalem Church in Bridgewater also made a deal and stated: "Doing business in this world is part of religion."
    (WSJ, 12/23/97, p.A1)

1997        Sep, MIT student Scott Krueger fell into a coma and died following a drinking binge at the Phi Gamma Delta fraternity. In 1998 the fraternity was charged with homicide.
    (SFC, 9/18/98, p.A3)

1997        Oct 30, A jury in Cambridge, Mass., convicted British au pair Louise Woodward of second-degree murder in the death of 8-month-old Matthew Eappen. The judge, Hiller B. Zobel, later reduced the verdict to manslaughter and set Woodward free.
    (HN, 10/30/98)

1997        Oct, Jeffrey Curley (10) was smothered to death with a gasoline rag after resisting sexual advances from Salvatore Sicari and Charles Jaynes. Sicari and Jaynes were convicted of murder and imprisoned. In 2000 Curley’s family was awarded a $328 million wrongful death judgement.
    (SFC, 8/24/00, p.A10)

1997        Nov 10, The English nanny, Louise Woodward, had her murder conviction reduced to manslaughter by Mass. judge Hiller Zobel. Her sentence was reduced to the 279 days she had already spent in custody.
    (SFC,11/11/97, p.A1)

1997        Dec 28, In Medford a fire in a 3-story building left 6 people dead including 4 children.
    (SFC,12/30/97, p.A9)

1997        Massachusetts Gov. Weld, 1st elected in 1990, resigned after Pres. Clinton named him ambassador to Mexico.
    (Econ, 8/27/05, p.27)

1998        Apr 20, Moses Tanui of Kenya won the 102nd Boston Marathon in 2 hrs, 7 min . and 43 sec. Fatuma Roba of Ethiopia won among the women in 2:23:21.
    (WSJ, 4/21/98, p.A1)

1998        Apr 24, The American Health for Women magazine reported that Seattle was the healthiest city for women and that SF rated # 2 and Boston # 3.
    (SFC, 4/25/98, p.A5)

1998        Apr 26, In New Bedford police killed one of 2 gunmen who robbed a McDonald’s restaurant. The other gunman got away with 2 captives who later escaped.
    (SFC, 4/28/98, p.A3)

1998        Jun 1, Rev. Eugene F. Rivers had his picture on the cover of Time Mag. for his youth ministry work in Dorchester. His Operation 2006 planned to put an adult volunteer into the life of every at-risk child in Dorchester, who needed help, by the year 2006.
    (WSJ, 6/5/98, p.W13)

1998        Jun 6, In Boston Cardinal Bernard Law announced that he defrocked retired priest, John Geoghan, who was accused of sexually molesting more than 50 children over 3 decades. The church had already paid millions to settle claims brought by dozens of alleged victims. Geoghan went on trial in 2002 and was convicted for fondling a boy in 1992. Geoghan was sentenced 9-10 years in prison for molesting a 10-year-old boy.
    (SFEC, 6/7/98, p.A8)(WSJ, 1/18/02, p.W18)(SFC, 1/19/02, p.A2)(SFC, 2/22/02, p.A3)

1998        cJun 14, The Boston Globe asked for the resignation of columnist Patricia Smith due to fabricated quotations and people in her column. The New Republic recently reported that writer Stephen Glass had fabricated parts or all of 27 of 41 articles.
    (SFC, 6/29/98, p.A4)

1998        Jun 16, Massachusetts' highest court cleared the way for Louise Woodward to return home to England, upholding a judge's ruling that freed the au pair convicted of killing a baby.
    (AP, 6/16/99)

1998        Jul 1, The state Board of Education voted not to pass some 260 people who flunked the first-ever certification test for prospective teachers.
    (SFC, 7/2/98, p.A10)

1998        Nov 21, Isao Okawa, chairman of CSK Corp., and Sega Enterprises, donated $27 million to MIT for the creation of a center for children founded on the belief that new digital technology will drive fundamental changes in education.
    (SFC, 11/23/98, p.A5)

1998        Nov, Thomas Johnson was discovered to be living in a 3-room underground home on Boy Scout property on Nantucket Island.
    (SFC, 1/4/99, p.A3)

1998        Dec 1, In Walpole Irene Kennedy (75) was bludgeoned and stabbed to death in Bird Park near Bird Pond.
    (SFC, 12/3/98, p.A10)

1998        Dec 30, Walker Hancock, sculptor, died in Gloucester. His work included statues of Douglas MacArthur, John Paul Jones, and the Stone Mountain Memorial to Confederate heroes.
    (SFC, 1/2/99, p.C2)

1998        William F. Weld, former governor, published his first political novel: "Mackerel by Moonlight."
    (WSJ, 11/4/98, p.A20)

1998        Lois Orswell (b.1904), art collector, died. She donated her collection to Harvard’s Fogg Art Museum.
    (WSJ, 1/30/03, p.D8)

1999        Feb 24, In Lynn a triple-decker home was burned down and 5 people died. The next day the boyfriend of a resident was arrested and charged with violating a restraining order.
    (SFC, 2/26/99, p.A3)

1999        Feb 24, Andre Dubus, short story writer, died in Haverhill, Mass., at age 62. His work included the novel: "The Lieutenant" (1967), the short story collection "Dancing after Hours" and essays "Meditations from a Movable Chair." Dubus became crippled in 1986 when he stopped to help a motorist and was hit by a passing car.
    (WSJ, 2/26/99, p.A1)(SFC, 2/27/99, p.C2)

1999        Mar 8, It was reported that the new US Courthouse on Boston harbor was recently completed. It was designed by Henry Cobb.
    (WSJ, 3/9/99, p.A20)

1999        Apr 6, In Massachusetts Maria Grasso (54), a Chilean immigrant working as a baby sitter for a millionaire, won the $197 million Big Game jackpot.
    (SFC, 4/15/99, p.A2)

1999        Apr 20, Radcliffe Univ. announced that it would merge fully with Harvard and become the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study, a graduate program.
    (SFC, 4/21/99, p.A2)

1999        May 29, The new $31.4 million Massachusetts Museum of Contemporary Art opened at the abandoned Sprague Electric Company factory complex.
    (WSJ, 6/1/99, p.A20)

1999        Jun 6, The new book "Home Town" by Tracy Kidder, was reviewed. The work focused on the city of Northampton.
    (SFEC, 6/6/99, BR p.3)

1999        Jul 4, A 2,000 pound tombstone for "Unknown Civilians Killed in Wars" departed from Sherborn on a 450-mile trek to Arlington National Cemetery. It was impounded by police on August 6 for safekeeping pending approval by Congress.
    (SFC, 8/7/99, p.A2)

1999        Jul 14, In Boston the school board voted to end busing after 25 years. The system held 85% minority students.
    (SFC, 7/15/99, p.A3)

1999        Jul 16, John F. Kennedy Jr. (38), his wife Carolyn Bessette Kennedy and sister, Lauren Bessette, were killed when the Piper Saratoga, which he piloted crashed into the Atlantic Ocean near Martha's Vineyard, Mass.
    (SFEC, 7/18/99, p.A1)(AP, 7/16/07)

1999        Dec 3, In Worcester, Mass., 6 firefighters died after 4 tried to rescue 2 who were in trouble in a burning warehouse. A homeless couple who allegedly knocked over a candle were later charged with involuntary manslaughter.
    (SFEC, 12/5/99, p.A2)(SFC, 12/8/99, p.A13)

1999        Dec 31, It was reported that some residents in the Boston suburb of Belmont protested the construction of a $30 million Mormon Temple and cited the Dover Amendment zoning law as unconstitutional. The amendment prohibited zoning restrictions on property used for religious purposes.
    (SFC, 12/31/99, p.D3)

1999        Leonard P. Zakim, civil rights activist, died of cancer at age 46. The new cable-stayed bridge over Boston’s Charles River Basin, scheduled for completion in 2002, was named in his honor.
    (SFC, 8/18/00, p.A9)

1999        The infant son of Jacques and Karen Robidoux died 3 days shy of his 1st birthday after being fed just breast milk from his mother pregnant, who was on a diet water and almonds. Jacques Robidoux, head of the Body fundamentalist sect, was convicted of 1st degree murder in 2002.
    (SFC, 6/15/02, p.A14)

2000        Jan 15, In Boston investigators found the bodies of 2 men and a woman believed to be the victims of mobsters Stephen "The Rifleman" Flemmi and James "Whitey" Bulger. One of the bodies was said to be Arthur "Bucky" Barrett, one of 6 men who stole $1.5 million in a 1980 bank robbery.
    (SFC, 1/15/00, p.A8)

2000        Feb 1, Big Dig officials disclosed that the huge highway project was $1.4 billion over budget. The project which included a tunnel under Boston Harbor was conceived in the 1980s as a $2.5 billion job called the Central Artery/Tunnel.  The total cost was later estimated to reach $13.5 billion.
    (WSJ, 4/10/00, p.A4)

2000        Feb 28, In Massachusetts computer-industry publisher Patrick J. McGovern and his wife, Lore Harp McGovern, pledged a $350 million donation over 20 years to MIT to finance brain research.
    (SFC, 2/29/00, p.A2)(WSJ, 2/29/00, p.A1)

2000        Apr 3, In Massachusetts the nation’s most comprehensive gun safety laws went into effect.
    (SFC, 4/3/00, p.A11)

2000        Apr 11, James Kerasiotes, the state’s top road officials, resigned as head of the Big Dig following federal criticism of cost overruns.
    (WSJ, 4/12/00, p.A1)

2000        Apr 15, Wellesley Women’s College received a $25 million gift from Lulu Wang and her husband Anthony.
    (SFEC, 4/16/00, p.A17)

2000        Jul 5, Thomas Junta, a hockey father, killed coach Michael Costin (40) following a practice hockey match in Reading, Mass. Junta went on trial in 2001. In 2001 Junta was found guilty of involuntary manslaughter. In 2002 Junta was sentenced 6 to 10 years in prison.
    (SFC, 1/3/02, p.A3)(SFC, 1/11/02, p.A3)(SFC, 1/12/02, p.A1)(SFC, 1/26/02, p.A3)

2000        Sep, In Boston the world’s longest offshore sewage tunnel began transporting waste water deep into the ocean.
    (SFC, 9/6/00, p.A13)

2000        Nov 2, Robert Cromier, author, died at age 75. His young-adult novels included "The Chocolate War" (1974).
    (SFC, 11/4/00, p.A23)

2000        Nov 20, The trial of nurse Kristen Gilbert (33) began. She was charged with murdering 4 patients at a veterans hospital.
    (SFC, 11/21/00, p.A7)

2000        Dec 26, Michael McDermott, a software tester at Edgewater Tech. In Wakefield, Mass., shot and killed 7 co-workers. He wielded a semiautomatic rifle and a shotgun. He was beset by both financial and personal problems. McDermott, convicted in 2002, was sent to prison for life.
    (SFC, 12/27/00, p.A1)(AP, 12/26/01)(SFC, 4/25/02, p.A7)

2000        Dec 27, Software engineer Michael McDermott pleaded innocent to 7 counts of murder in the shooting deaths of seven co-workers the day before at an Internet consulting company in Wakefield, Mass. McDermott was later convicted and sentenced to life without parole.
    (AP, 12/27/05)

2000        The 100th Mormon temple was dedicated in Belmont, Mass.
    (NW, 9/10/01, p.48)

2000        The US government sued Andrei Shleifer, a top Harvard Univ. economist, for seeking profit from his management of a foreign-aid program in Russia.
    (WSJ, 10/12/04, p.A1)

2000        Bradford College of Massachusetts closed its doors and left debts of almost $20 million.
    (Econ, 5/20/06, p.79)

2001        Feb 13, Pres. Bush nominated Gov. Paul Cellucci as ambassador to Canada and cleared the way for Jane Swift to become the state’s 1st female governor.
    (SFC, 2/14/01, p.A7)

2001        Mar 2, The Harvard School of Education announced that Jane Fonda had pledged $12.5 million for the creation of a center on gender and education to be named after psychologist Carol Gilligan.
    (SFC, 3/3/01, p.A2)

2001        Mar 11, Lawrence Summers, former Clinton Treasury Secretary, was named as the 27th president of Harvard. Neil Rudenstine planned to step down in June.
    (WSJ, 3/12/00, p.A1)

2001        Apr 1, Massachusetts began offering full health insurance to poor people with HIV.
    (SFC, 4/5/01, p.A4)

2001        Apr 10, Jane Swift became acting governor following the resignation of Gov. Paul Celluci, who was chosen as ambassador to Canada.
    (SFC, 5/16/01, p.A5)

2001        Apr 16, Lee Bong Ju of South Korea won the men’s Boston Marathon in 2:09:43. Catherine Ndereba of Kenya won among the women in 2:23:53.
    (WSJ, 4/17/01, p.A1)

2001        Apr 27, Four students from Newton, Mass., were killed near Sussex, New Brunswick, when their bus crashed while enroute to a music festival in Halifax. At least 37 others were injured.
    (SFC, 4/28/01, p.A10)

2001        May 15, Acting Gov. Jane Swift gave birth to twin girls.
    (SFC, 5/16/01, p.A5)

2001        May 28, U.S. Rep. Joseph Moakley, D-Mass., died at age 74.
    (AP, 5/28/02)

2001        Jul 9, In Salem Christopher Reardon (29), a former church leader and YMCA swim coach, pleaded guilty to 75 charges of sex abuse of young boys. He faced 130 counts involving 29 children.
    (SFC, 7/10/01, p.A4)

2001        Sep 3, Pauline Kael (82), film critic, died in Great Barrington, Mass. Her first 1953 movie review was published in City Lights, a small SF magazine. In 2011 Brian Kellow authored “Pauline Kael: A Life in the Dark.”
    (SFC, 9/4/01, p.A16)(SFC, 12/30/01, p.D5)(AP, 9/3/02)(SSFC, 10/30/11, p.F1)

2001        Oct 31, The governor of Massachusetts signed legislation exonerating 5 women executed in the Salem witch trials of 1692, whose names had not yet been cleared.
    (WSJ, 9/15/06, p.A10)

2001        Nov 4, Edward Boland (90), state congressman from 1953-1988, died.
    (WSJ, 11/6/01, p.A1)

2001        Donna Halper, Boston-based historian and radio consultant, authored “Invisible Stars: A Social History of Women in American Broadcasting.”
    (www.amazon.com/Invisible-Stars-American-Broadcasting-Communication/dp/0765605813)

2001        Thomas H. O’Connor authored "The Hub: Boston Past and Present."
    (WSJ, 5/7/01, p.A20)

2001        Nathan Marsh Pusey (b.1907), former president of Harvard Univ. (1953-1971), died.
    (SFC, 11/22/01, p.A29)

2002        Jan 3, Acting Gov. Jane Swift picked Patrick C. Guerriero (33), a gay former mayor and legislator, as her candidate for lieutenant governor.
    (SFC, 1/4/02, p.A3)

2002        Jan 6, Christa Worthington (46), fashion writer, was found dead at her home in Truro on Cape Cod, Mass. Her 2-year-old daughter was next to her, covered in blood but unharmed. In 2005 DNA evidence identified Christopher McCowen, a local trash collector, as the murderer. In 2006 McCowen was convicted and sentenced to life without parole.
    (SFC, 4/16/05, p.A5)(SFC, 11/17/06, p.A4)

2002        Feb, The Archdiocese of Boston identified 80 priests as having abused children over the last 40 years.
    (SFC, 2/16/02, p.A8)

2002        Mar 1, Under pressure from prosecutors, the Archdiocese of Boston agreed to turn over the names of people allegedly molested by priests.
    (AP, 3/1/07)

2002        Mar 12, Attorneys for the Boston archdiocese agreed to pay $15-30 million to 86 additional victims of defrocked priest John J. Geoghan.
    (SFC, 3/13/02, p.A3)

2002        Apr 12, Cornel West, author of "Race Matters," announced that he would leave Harvard for Princeton due to a clash with Pres. Summers.
    (SFC, 4/13/02, p.A3)

2002        Apr 15, The Boston Marathon was won by Rodgers Rop of Kenya for the men, 2:09:02, and Margaret Okayo of Kenya for the women, 2:20:43.
    (WSJ, 4/16/02, p.A1)

2002        May 2, The Rev. Paul Shanley, a priest at the epicenter of the clergy sex abuse scandal, turned himself in to authorities in San Diego to face charges in Massachusetts of raping boys during the 1980s. Shanley pleaded innocent but was later convicted of repeatedly raping one boy, and was sentenced to 12 to 15 years in prison.
    (AP, 5/2/07)

2002        May 5, In Boston Cardinal Law supported the Archdiocese decision to scuttle a multimillion settlement with 86 people for some 15-30 million over sexual abuse because the number of new cases had grown to over 150.
    (SFC, 5/6/02, p.A1)

2002        May 13, In Baltimore Dontee Stokes (26), a former altar boy, shot and seriously wounded Rev. Maurice Blackwell (56), who had sexually abused him from age 9 to 13. Stokes was acquitted of murder, but was sentenced to 18 months of home detention on gun charges. In 2005 Blackwell was convicted of molesting Stokes.
    (SFC, 5/15/02, p.A3)(AP, 5/13/03)(SFC, 2/18/05, p.A7)

2002        May 19, Boston Cardinal Bernard Law said in a letter distributed to parishes that he did not become aware until 1993 of sexual abuse allegations against the Rev. Paul Shanley.
    (AP, 5/19/03)

2002        Jun 20, Paul Shanley (71), a retired priest, was indicted in Cambridge, Mass., on charges of raping 4 children from 1979-1989. Shanley was convicted on 4 charges in 2005 and sentenced 12-15 years in prison.
    (SFC, 6/21/02, p.A3)(SFC, 6/8/04, p.A3)(SFC, 2/16/05, p.A4)

2002        Jul 30, At Cape Cod, Mass. 46 pilot whales beached themselves a 2nd time one day after rescuers managed to return most of a pod back to sea. All the animals died.
    (SFC, 7/31/02, p.A3)

2002        Sep 20, William Rosenberg (86), founder of the Dunkin' Donuts chain, died in Mashpee, Mass.
    (AP, 9/20/03)

2002        Nov 5, Mitt Romney, a Mormon and Harvard graduate (business and law), was elected Republican governor of Massachusetts. He had made a fortune as a venture capitalist with investments in Domino’s and Staples.
    (Econ, 9/30/06, p.44)(www.rga.org/governors/state.aspx?St=MA)

2002        Nov 24, John Rawls (81), philosopher, died in Boston. His work included "A Theory of Justice" (1971), which advanced the concept of a social compact. The Rawls test: would the best off accept the arrangements if they believed at any moment they might find themselves in the place of the worst off."
    (WSJ, 11/26/02, p.A1)(SFC, 11/29/02, p.A27)

2002        Dec 1, Sen. Kerry of Massachusetts announced that he would seek the Democratic nomination for president.
    (WSJ, 11/3/04, p.A6)

2002        Dec 3, Thousands of personnel files released under a court order showed that the Archdiocese of Boston went to great lengths to hide priests accused of abuse, including clergy who allegedly snorted cocaine and had sex with girls aspiring to be nuns.
    (AP, 12/3/03)

2002        Dec 13, Pope John Paul II accepted the resignation, due to sex abuse, of Boston's Cardinal Bernard Law (71).
    (SFC, 12/14/02, p.A1)(AP, 12/13/07)

2002        In Massachusetts a US marshal knocked on the door of Lithuanian immigrant Vladas Zajanckauskas (b.1915) to serve him with papers alleging he was a high-ranking noncommissioned officer in a Nazi training camp who took part in one of the most heinous massacres of World War II, the 1943 liquidation of the Warsaw Ghetto. Zajanckauskas denied having been in Warsaw.
    (www.evri.com/person/vladas-zajanckauskas-0xad165)(SSFC, 4/4/10, Par. p.5)

2003        Apr 7, Pulitzer Prize winners included Jeffrey Eugenides for fiction (Middlesex); Rick Atkinson for history (An Army at Dawn: The War in North Africa (1942-1943); and Samantha Power for general nonfiction (A Problem from Hell: American and the Age of Genocide”). The Boston Globe won the Pulitzer Prize for public service for its coverage of the priest sex abuse scandal.
    (SFC, 4/8/03, p.A2)(AP, 4/7/08)

2003        May 8, Elizabeth Neuffer (46), an award-winning reporter for The Boston Globe, died in a car accident in Iraq.
    (AP, 5/10/03)

2003        Jul 1, Bishop Sean O'Malley was named by Pope John Paul II the new archbishop of Boston, succeeding Cardinal Bernard Law, who'd resigned in the wake of a clerical sex abuse scandal.
    (AP, 7/1/04)

2003        Aug 23, Former priest John Geoghan (67), a convicted child molester, died after being attacked by Joseph L. Druce (37), a fellow inmate, at the Souza-Baranowski state prison in Shirley, Mass. Druce was convicted of murder in 2006.
    (SSFC, 8/24/03, p.A1)(SFC, 1/26/06, p.A3)

2003        Aug 8, The Boston Roman Catholic archdiocese offered $55 million to settle lawsuits stemming from sex abuse by priests. The archdiocese later settled for $85 million.
    (AP, 8/8/04)

2003        Sep 9, The Catholic archdiocese of Boston agreed to pay $85 million to settle claims by more than 550 people who said they were sexually abused by priests.
    (SFC, 9/10/03, p.A3)

2003        Oct 27, A new US stamp dedicated to Theodore Geisel (d.1991), creator of Dr. Seuss, was introduced at the Dr. Seuss National Memorial Sculpture Garden in Springfield, Mass.
    (SFC, 10/16/03, p.E13)

2003        Nov 18, The Massachusetts Supreme Court ruled 4-3 that a ban on same sex marriage is illegal. Lawmakers were given 180 days to allow gay marriages.
    (SFC, 11/19/03, p.A1)(WSJ, 11/19/03, p.A1)

2003        Nov 23, Adolfo “Big Al” Bruno (57), a regional Mafia boss, was killed in Springfield, Mass. In 2008 Frankie Roche (35), a low level Mafia member, admitted to the murder.
    (SFC, 4/18/08, p.A4)

2003        Dec 25, Nicholas Mavroules (74), former 7 term Mass. Congressman, died in Peabody, Mass.
    (SFC, 12/27/03, p.A18)

2003        MIT introduced the Int’l. Genetically Engineered Machine (iGEM) competition.
    (Econ, 9/5/09, TQ p.30)

2003        The population of Massachusetts this year was about 6.4 million.
    (Econ, 6/28/03, p.32)

2004        Feb 4, A Massachusetts advisory opinion of the state Supreme Court said gay couples had the right to marry.
    (WSJ, 2/5/04, p.A4)

2004        Mar 29, Massachusetts lawmakers approved a proposed constitutional amendment to ban gay marriage and legalize civil unions, sending the issue to the next legislative session.
    (AP, 3/29/05)

2004        Apr 19, In the Boston Marathon Timothy Cherigat of Kenya won for the men at 2:10:37; Catherine Ndereba of Kenya won for the women at 2:24:27.
    (WSJ, 4/20/04, p.A1)

2004        May 25, Catholic church officials said the Archdiocese of Boston would close 65 of 357 parishes due to declining attendance and increased financial problems.
    (SFC, 5/26/04, p.A5)(AP, 5/25/05)

2004        Jul 9, Geraldine Williams (67) of Lowell, Mass., accepted a lump sum payment of $168 million for her July 3 win in the $294 million lotto.
    (SFC, 7/10/04, p.A2)

2004        Jul 26, The Democratic National Convention opened in Boston with an estimated 35,000 visitors. Speakers included Al Gore, Jimmy Carter, Hillary and Bill Clinton.
    (SFC, 7/27/04, p.A1)

2004        Jul 27, Barack Obama, Democratic U.S. Senate candidate from Illinois, delivered a speech at the Democratic National Convention in Boston. Other speakers included Ted Kennedy, Howard Dean, Ron Reagan, and Teresa Heinz Kerry.
    (AP, 7/27/04)

2004        Jul 28, Democrats in Boston made John Kerry their nominee for president as John Edwards, the vice-presidential nominee, promised the country “hope is on the way.”
    (SFC, 7/29/04, p.A1)

2004        Jul 29, John Kerry gave his acceptance speech as the Democratic presidential nominee before 15,000 supporters in Boston’s FleetCenter: “I’m John Kerry, and I’m reporting for duty.”
    (SFC, 7/30/04, p.A1)

2004        Jul, Yuri Levintoff was recruited by Boris Barshevsky, a Boston-area taxi driver, to help organize paid protesters for rallies in NYC against Chechen separatists. The rallies were then filmed by Russian state television.
    (WSJ, 6/24/06, p.A1)

2004        Aug 26, MIT named Yale neuroscientist Susan Hockfield as its new president, the 1st woman to ever hold that job.
    (WSJ, 8/27/04, p.A1)

2004        Sep 30, The 14th annual Ig Nobel prizes were handed out at Harvard. Winners included the late Frank Smith and his son Donald for their 1977 combover patent; Steven Stack of Wayne State University and James Gundlach of Auburn University won for their 1992 report on "The Effect of Country Music on Suicide."
    (AP, 10/1/04)

2004        Oct 20, Boston Red Sox fans poured into the streets outside Fenway Park to celebrate their team's victory over the New York Yankees. Victoria Snellgrove (21) died the next day after a crowd control pellet hit her in the eye.
    (AP, 10/21/04)(WSJ, 10/22/04, p.A1)(SFC, 10/23/04, p.A2)

2004        Oct 24, The Boston Red Sox beat the St. Louis Cardinals 6-2 for a 2-0 World Series lead.
    (AP, 10/24/05)

2004        Oct 27, The Boston Red Sox won the World Series over the St. Louis Cardinals 3-0 in game 4. It was Boston's sixth championship, but the first after 86 years of frustration.
    (AP, 10/28/04)

2004        Oct 28, Boston Red Sox fans turned out by the tens of thousands near historic Fenway Park to celebrate their World Series champion team, the city's first since 1918.
    (AP, 10/28/05)

2004        Massachusetts changed its law regarding a Senate vacancy and required a special election to fill empty Senate seats within 145-160 days of a vacancy. The Democratic legislature did not want Republican Gov. Mitt Romney to appoint a fellow Republican to the fill John Kerry’s seat, if Kerry were to win the presidential election.
    (Econ, 9/5/09, p.34)

2005        Feb 6, The New England Patriots became a full-fledged dynasty with their third Super Bowl victory in four years, beating the Philadelphia Eagles 24-21.
    (AP, 2/7/05)

2005        Feb 15, Defrocked priest Paul Shanley was sentenced in Boston to 12 to 15 years in prison on child rape charges.
    (AP, 2/15/06)

2005        Apr 18, The Boston Marathon was won by Hailu Negusie of Ethiopia, 2:11:45; Catherine Ndereba of Kenya led the women, 2:25:13.
    (WSJ, 4/19/05, p.A1)

2005        May 7, MIT students held their 1st convention for time travelers.
    (Econ, 5/7/05, p.75)

2005        May 9, In Hingham, Mass., the bodies of two homeless men were found. They had likely been killed the previous April. In 2007 Eric Snow (25) and James Winquist (23) were accused of beating the 2 men to death with baseball bats.
    (SFC, 9/5/07, p.A3)

2005        May 31, The Massachusetts Legislature voted to override Gov. Romney’s veto of a bill easing stem-cell research curbs.
    (WSJ, 6/1/05, p.A1)

2005        Jun 4, It was reported that Larry Ellison, head of Oracle Corp., planned to create a database and journal to track improvements in world health through a joint venture with Harvard that would be accompanied by as much as $115 million. In 2006 Ellison decided against the donation due to the resignation of Pres. Lawrence Summers.
    (SFC, 6/4/05, p.C1)(SFC, 6/28/06, p.C1)

2005        Jun 9, The governor of Massachusetts requested federal aid due to an unusually big red tide of toxic algae that has crippled the state’s shellfish industry.
    (WSJ, 6/10/05, p.A1)

2005        Jun, The board of MassMutual Financial Group voted to fire CEO Robert O’Connell following an investigation that revealed padding in his supplemental retirement account and other allegations that involved a romantic affair with a top female executive.
    (WSJ, 8/19/05, p.A1)

2005        Aug 21, Harvard scientists said they have fused an adult skin cell with an embryonic stem cell in a potentially dramatic development that could lead to the creation of useful stem cells without first having to create and destroy human embryos.
    (AP, 8/22/05)(SFC, 8/22/05, p.A2)

2005        Sep 15, The Massachusetts state Legislature voted to override Gov. Mitt Romney's veto of a measure that will expand access to emergency contraception.
    (AP, 9/15/05)

2005        Sep 22, In Massachusetts Holli Strickland (33) died of gunshot wounds, along with her grandmother Constance F. Young (71) in what police said was either a double suicide or murder-suicide in Young's West Springfield apartment. They had been released from jail 2 days earlier following charges of severe abuse of Haleigh Poutre (11), who was hospitalized in a vegetative state after her brain stem was partly sheared.
    (SFC, 12/6/05, p.A4)(http://tinyurl.com/7jeol)

2005        Nov 22, Massachusetts signed an agreement with Venezuela to obtain discounted home heating oil. Democrat Rep. William Delahunt helped broker the deal.
    (WSJ, 11/23/05, p.A14)

2005        Nov 25, Massachusetts’ attorney general said it is opening an investigation into several supermarkets that opened on Thanksgiving in defiance of the state’s Puritan-era blue laws.
    (SFC, 11/26/05, p.C2)

2005        Dec 14, In Boston 4 men were shot and killed in the basement of a home on Bourneside Street that was set up as a music studio. The killings pushed Boston homicides for the year to 71, the highest in a decade.
    (SFC, 12/15/05, p.A6)

2005        Harvard Univ. and economics Prof. Shleifer paid nearly $30 million to settle a civil suit brought by the US government for violation of federal conflict of interest rules for investments a decade earlier in Russia.
    (WSJ, 3/8/06, p.A6)

2005        Pierre Omidyar, the founder of eBay, and his wife, Pam, donated $100 million in stock to Tufts Univ.
    (WSJ, 5/12/06, p.W2)

2006        Jan 19, Lifeline Systems Inc. announced that it has signed a definitive merger agreement with Royal Philips Electronics under which Philips will acquire Lifeline, a leader in personal emergency response services. Royal Philips Electronics NV paid $750 million for Massachusetts based Lifeline.
    (WSJ, 1/11/07, p.A1)(http://tinyurl.com/334w4c)

2006        Jan 22, In Massachusetts the bodies of Rachel (27) and 9-month-old daughter Lillian Entwistle were found in their home in Hopkinton. Rachel was shot in the head and the young baby in the body. They had been killed as much as 3 days earlier. On Jan 27 Neil Entwistle (27) was seen leaving his parents home in Worksop, Nottinghamshire, accompanied by two plain-clothes detectives. He was soon extradited back to Massachusetts. In 2008 Entwistle was convicted of murder.
    (AP, 1/27/06)(SFC, 6/26/08, p.A2)

2006        Feb 2, In New Bedford, Mass., Jacob D. Robida (18) used a hatchet and a gun to attack 3 patrons at a gay bar. On Feb 4 in Arkansas Robida shot himself after he killed a Gassville police officer and a woman in his car. He died the next day.
    (AP, 2/3/06)(AP, 2/5/06)(SFC, 2/8/06, p.A3)

2006        Feb 9, Neil Entwistle (27), a British man, whose wife and daughter were found shot dead in their Massachusetts home, was arrested in Britain and charged with murder.
    (AFP, 2/9/06)

2006        Feb 21, Lawrence Summers, president of Harvard Univ., announced his resignation effective at the end of the academic year.
    (SFC, 2/22/06, p.A2)

2006        Feb 25, Portugal and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) signed an accord that could lead to technology partnerships in the Iberian nation.
    (AP, 2/25/06)

2006        Mar 30, The Massachusetts top court said gay couples can’t marry in Massachusetts if they are from US states where same-sex unions are prohibited.
    (WSJ, 3/31/06, p.A1)

2006        Apr 3, In Boston a 10-ton construction platform collapsed and fell 13 stories killing 3 people on Boylston St.
    (SFC, 4/4/06, p.A3)

2006        Apr 4, In Massachusetts legislators passed a bill requiring all citizens to have health insurance. Gov. Romney signed it on April 12. The cost of the plan was estimated at $1 billion, about as much as the state spends on the uninsured. A dearth of primary-care physicians threatened to undermine the program.
    (WSJ, 4/5/06, p.A1)(Econ, 4/8/06, p.35)(SFC, 4/12/06, p.A4)(WSJ, 1/25/07, p.B1)

2006        Apr 17, Robert Cheruiyot and Rita Jeptoo pulled off a Kenyan sweep of the Boston Marathon.
    (AP, 4/17/07)

2006        Apr 23,  It was reported that Massachusetts has decided to begin requiring doctors to state the names of anyone testing positive for HIV.
    (SSFC, 4/23/06, p.A3)

2006        May 12, Jonathan Tisch (52), co-chairman of Loews Corp., announced a donation of $40 million to Tufts Univ., his alma mater.
    (WSJ, 5/12/06, p.W2)(www.tufts.edu/main.php?p=flash)

2006        May 13, In Boston, Mass., unbeaten Ricky Hatton of England dethroned World Boxing Association welterweight champion Luis Collazo, lifting the title with a 12-round unanimous decision in his welterweight debut.
    (AFP, 5/14/06)

2006        May 14, Maine's governor declared a state of emergency in the southern most county, and the governors of Massachusetts and New Hampshire also declared states of emergency  as a 3-day deluge turned streets into rivers across New England, flooding homes up to their door knobs, forcing dozens of schools to close because the buses couldn't get through, and threatening dams and communities as rivers rise.
    (AP, 5/15/06)

2006        Jul 10, Falling concrete slabs crushed a car inside one of Boston's troubled Big Dig tunnels, killing Milena Delvalle (38) and tying up traffic with another shutdown in the massive building project that has become a central route through the city. In 2007 the family of Delvalle reached a $6 million settlement with the epoxy supplier blamed for the accident. In 2008 the family settled a wrongful death suit for over $28 million.
    (AP, 7/11/06)(SFC, 7/12/06, p.A5)(SFC, 12/26/07, p.A4)(SFC, 10/1/08, p.C5)

2006        Jul 13, The Massachusetts Turnpike authority said it found as many as 240 potential defects in ceiling bolts on Boston’s Big Dig tunnel. Gov. Mitt Romney filed emergency legislation and called for the resignation of the head of the Turnpike Authority in the wake of falling concrete slabs that killed a woman on July 10.
    (SFC, 7/14/06, p.A4)

2006        Jul 27, Matthew Amorello, chairman of the Massachusetts Turnpike Authority, resigned in the wake of problems with Boston’s Big Dig tunnels.
    (SFC, 7/28/06, p.A10)

2006        Oct 14, Former US Rep. Gerry Studds (69) died at Boston Medical Center, several days after he collapsed while walking his dog. He was the first openly gay person elected to Congress (1972-1997).
    (AP, 10/14/06)

2006        Oct 29, In the northeast US thousands of homes and businesses had no electricity as a storm system blasted the region with winds gusting to more than 50 mph, knocking over trees and a construction crane. The storm was blamed for at least two deaths.
    (AP, 10/29/06)

2006        Oct 30, Mass. Sen. John Kerry told a California college audience that young people who didn't study hard might "get stuck in Iraq," prompting harsh Republican criticism; Kerry later said it was a botched joke against President Bush's handling of the war.
    (AP, 10/30/07)

2006        Nov 1, Senator John Kerry, D-Mass., apologized to "any service member, family member or American" offended by his "botched joke" about how young people might get "stuck in Iraq" if they did not study hard and do their homework.
    (AP, 11/1/07)

2006        Nov 8, US Democrats took over Republican–held mansions in 6 states to boast 28 of the nation’s 50 governors. In Massachusetts Deval Patrick succeeded Mit Romney; in Ohio Ted Strickland won over Kenneth Blackwell by 24 percent; Bill Ritter won in Colorado.
    (Econ, 11/11/06, p.39)(Econ, 8/2/08, p.31)

2006        Nov 22, Two explosions at a chemical plant in Danvers, Mass., wrecked 25 homes and left nearly 400 people homeless. 10 people suffered minor injuries.
    (SFC, 11/23/06, p.A4)

2006        Dec 10, Boston opened its new $41 million Institute of Contemporary Art, designed by Diller Scofidio + Renfro architects.
    (SFC, 12/5/06, p.F3)

2007        Feb 11, Harvard Univ. appointed Drew Gilpin Faust as its 28th and first female president.
    (SFC, 2/12/07, p.A5)

2007        Feb 13, Mitt Romney, former one-term Republican governor of Massachusetts, officially entered the 2008 presidential race. In what amounted to a made-for-TV coming-out tour, Romney announced his candidacy in Michigan, the place of his birth. His father George Romney, a Michigan governor in the 1960s and an AMC chief executive, made a short-lived attempt at the presidency four decades ago.
    (AP, 2/13/07)

2007        Feb 15, The Mashpee Wampanoag Indians on Cape Cod, Mass., were recognized as a sovereign Indian nation. They first submitted their petition for recognition in 1990. This was the group that befriended the Pilgrims in 1620.
    (Econ, 3/3/07, p.37)

2007        Mar 13, In Boston Raymond Echavarria (23) dragged his ex-girlfriend, Xiomara Rhodes (21) into an elevator in the office building where she worked and ignited a can of gasoline. Investigators treated the slaying as a murder-suicide.
    (SFC, 3/16/07, p.A8)

2007        Apr 16, Robert Cheruiyot of Kenya won his 3rd Boston Marathon in 2:14:13. Russia’s Lidiya Grigoryeva won in 2:29:18.
    (WSJ, 4/17/07, p.A1)

2007        May 9, Alfred D. Chandler Jr., American historian, died in Massachusetts. He helped establish the field of business history. His books included “Strategy and Structure: Chapters in the History of the Industrial Revolution” (1962).
    (WSJ, 5/12/07, p.A8)(Econ, 5/19/07, p.91)

2007        Jul 1, Former Gov. Mitt Romney’s compulsory health plan for Massachusetts went into force.
    (Econ, 7/7/07, p.30)

2007        Jul 26, A federal judge in Boston ordered the government to pay a record nearly $102 million for the FBI's role in the 1968 wrongful murder convictions of four men. Judge Nancy Gertner powerfully condemned misconduct that she said ran "all the way up to the FBI director."
    (www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/07/27/AR2007072700282.html)

2007        Sep 1,  Clay Buchholz threw a no-hitter in his second major league start, just hours after being called up by the Boston Red Sox. Buchholz struck out nine, walked three and hit one batter to give the Red Sox a 10-0 victory over Baltimore.
    (AP, 9/1/08)

2007        Sep 6, Alex (31), a gifted African Grey parrot that could count to six, identify colors and even express frustration with repetitive scientific trials, died at Brandeis Univ., Mass., after 30 years of helping researchers better understand the avian brain.
    (AP, 9/12/07)(Econ, 9/22/07, p.103)

2007        Oct 2, Nasdaq agreed to acquire the Boston stock Exchange for about $61 million.
    (WSJ, 10/3/07, p.C3)

2007        Oct 21, The Boston Red Sox won the American League championship in Game 7 of their series with the Cleveland Indians, 11-2.
    (AP, 10/21/08)

2007        Oct 28,     In Denver the Boston Red Sox swept to their second World Series title in four years with a 4-3 win over the Colorado Rockies in Game 4.
    (AP, 10/29/07)

2007        Oct 29, Police in riot gear cleared several large crowds gathered around Fenway Park in the early morning after the Red Sox won their second World Series title in four years.
    (AP, 10/29/07)

2008        Jan 23, Bechtel Corp. and its partner Parsons Brinckerhoff in Boston’s Big Dig announced an agreement to pay $407 million to settle a government lawsuit and avoid criminal charges over the 2006 collapse that left one woman dead.
    (SFC, 1/24/08, p.C1)

2008        Jan, In Massachusetts Ly Van Aggadipo (b.1917), a Cambodia-born Buddhist monk, died. He had fled Cambodia in 1979 and later settled in the US. In 2010 friends and followers released a book of his poetry titled “Oh! Maha Mount Dangrek,” which contained an autobiographical poem on the horrors of the Khmer Rouge and a friend’s story of love in the time of genocide.
    (SFC, 3/23/10, p.E3)

2008        May 20, Massachusetts Sen. Edward Kennedy (76) was diagnosed with a malignant bran tumor.
    (WSJ, 5/21/08, p.A1)

2008        May 28, In Newton, Massachusetts, a collision between two commuter trains killed driver Terrese Edmonds (24). Passengers reported seeing Ms. Edmonds using a cell phone moments before the collision.
    (WSJ, 5/30/08, p.A2)

2008        Jun 12, The University of Massachusetts rescinded an honorary law degree awarded 22 years ago to Zimbabwean President Robert Mugabe, calling his politics "egregious" and his leadership an "assault on human rights."
    (AP, 6/13/08)

2008        Oct 7, Harvard Univ. said medical device billionaire Hansjorg Wyss, chairman of Swiss-based Synthes Inc., had donated $125 million, the largest one-time gift in the history of the school. In 2004 Wyss had donated $25 million to support doctoral programs at Harvard.
    (WSJ, 10/8/08, p.A6)

2008        Oct 17, Harvard Univ. announced a gift of $45 million and 31 major works of art from 1936 alumna Emily Rauh Pulitzer for the Harvard Art Museum. It was the largest gift in the history of the museum.
    (SFC, 10/18/08, p.E3)

2008        Oct 26, In Massachusetts Christopher Bizilj died after accidentally shooting himself in the head with an Uzi submachine gun. In 2011 gun fair organizer Edward Fleury was cleared of charges of furnishing machine guns to minors during the gun fair in Westfield.
    (www.mahalo.com/christopher-bizilj)(SFC, 1/15/11, p.A4)

2008        Nov 4, Massachusetts voters passed Question 2, a measure to decriminalize the possession of less than an ounce of marijuana, with 65% in support. Under the state constitution the measure becomes law after 30 days.
    (SFC, 11/7/08, p.A7)(Econ, 11/8/08, p.48)

2008        Dec 13, In New Hampshire 370,000 customers still had no electricity following a huge ice storm. Utility crews worked through a night of hand-numbing cold in the Northeast but they still had a long way to go before restoring power to all of the more than 1 million homes and businesses blacked out by the storm. Most of the outages were in New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Maine and New York.
    (AP, 12/13/08)

2008        In Boston a biohacker movement began when Jason Bobe co-founded a 2-member group called DIYbio (do-it-yourself biology).
    (SSFC, 12/20/09, p.A18)

2009        Jan 5, Former US Representative Joseph P. Kennedy said Citgo Petroleum, the US refiner owned by the Venezuelan government, planned to stop deliveries to his Boston-based nonprofit, Citizens’ Energy, due to falling oil prices. The stop order was removed 2 days later.
    (WSJ, 1/6/08, p.A7)(AP, 1/8/09)

2009        Feb 11, Massachusetts' top securities regulator said the wife of accused Wall Street swindler Bernard Madoff pulled $15 million out of a brokerage account only days before her husband was arrested.
    (Reuters, 2/12/09)

2009        Mar 28, In Milton, Massachusetts, Samantha Revelus (17) was stabbed and killed by her brother. Kerby Revelus (23) then decapitated his 5-year-old sister as her birthday cake from the day before sat on the kitchen table. He then turned on his 9-year-old sister, who called police. Responding officers broke down the door and shot him dead. Sarafina was hospitalized with defensive wounds to her hands and stab wounds in her abdomen and one of her legs.
    (AP, 3/30/09)

2009        Apr 14, In Massachusetts Julissa Brisman (26) was found dead at the Boston Marriott Copley Place. On April 20 police arrested medical student Philip Markoff (22) of Quincy, in the woman's death. Police believed Markoff may have been involved in other crimes against women who also posted ads on Craigslist. On Aug 15, 2010, Markoff was found dead in his cell in Boston.
    (AP, 4/21/09)(SFC, 8/16/10, p.A7)

2009        Apr 21, The 114th Boston Marathon was won by Ethiopia’s Deriba Merga for the men and Salina Kosgei of Kenya for the women.
    (WSJ, 4/21/09, p.A1)

2009        Apr 27, Five members of the US Congress were arrested while protesting the expulsion of aid groups from Darfur in front of the Sudanese Embassy in Washington, DC. The included Democratic Reps. Keith Ellison of Minnesota, Jim McGovern of Massachusetts, John Lewis of Georgia, Donna Edwards of Maryland and Lynn Woolsey of California.
    (AP, 4/27/09)

2009        May 13, Massachusetts transportation officials banned nearly all mass-transit drivers from carrying cell phones or other digitals assistants in response to a trolley driver’s recent text message that cause a crash injuring nearly 50 people.
    (SFC, 5/14/09, p.A4)

2009        May 23, It was reported that millions of bats in at least 7 US states (Connecticut, New York, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, Vermont, Virginia and West Virginia) have died from white-nose syndrome, a fungal diseases. In 2011 the fungus Geomyces destructans was identified as the cause.
    (Econ, 5/23/09, p.36)(SFC, 10/28/11, p.A18)

2009        May 31, Phil Bolger (81), Gloucester, Mass., boat designer, committed suicide. His 600-700 boat designs included the famed Gloucester Gull (1961).
    (SFC, 6/3/09, p.B5)(www.smallboatforumtwo.com/forum7/30.html)

2009        Jun 30, Boston disbanded its mounted police unit due to budget cuts. Founded in 1873 it was the first mounted unit in the country.
    (SFC, 6/29/09, p.A4)

2009        Jul 22, In Lynn, Massachusetts, 6 boys, aged 7-15, used bricks to severely beat Damien Merida (30), a Guatemalan immigrant, as he slept near railroad tracks.
    (http://tinyurl.com/l6cuf3)(SFC, 9/17/09, p.A7)

2009        Jul 24, President Barack Obama conceded his words, that a white police officer "acted stupidly" when he arrested a black university scholar in his own home, were ill-chosen. He invited both men to visit him at the White House, but stopped short of publicly apologizing for his remark. Obama said he had personally telephoned the two men, Harvard professor Henry Louis Gates Jr. and Cambridge, Mass., police Sgt. James Crowley, in an effort to end the rancorous back-and-forth over the issue. The case began on July 20, when word broke that Gates (58) had been arrested five days earlier at the 2-story home he rents from Harvard.
    (AP, 7/25/09)

2009        Jul 31, A jury ordered Joel Tenenbaum (b.1983), a student at Boston Univ., to pay damages of $675,000 for sharing 30 songs over the Internet. He was later ordered to destroy his illegal music files — but a judge declined to force him to stop promoting the activity.
    (Econ, 9/5/09, TQ p.4)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joel_Tenenbaum)(AP, 12/7/09)

2009        Aug 11, Eunice Kennedy Shriver (88), the sister of President John F. Kennedy, died at a Hyannis hospital. She carried on the family's public service tradition by founding the Special Olympics and championing the rights of the mentally disabled. Shriver organized the first Special Olympics in 1968 in Chicago.
    (AP, 8/11/09)

2009        Aug 25, Sen. Edward M. Kennedy (b.1932) of Massachusetts, died at his home on Cape Cod after a yearlong struggle with brain cancer. He was the last surviving brother in an enduring political dynasty and one of the most influential senators in history. His memoir “True Compass: A Memoir” was published in September.
    (AP, 8/26/09)(Econ, 9/19/09, p.97)

2009        Sep 22, The Massachusetts state Senate approved a bill allowing the appointment of a temporary replacement for the late Sen. Edward Kennedy. The measure had passed the House last week.
    (SFC, 9/23/09, p.A10)

2009        Sep 24, Massachusetts’ Gov. Deval Patrick named former Democratic Party chairman Paul G. Kirk Jr. to temporarily fill the late Sen. Edward Kennedy's seat. The appointment will let Kirk, who was close friends with the senator, serve in the post until voters pick a permanent replacement in a Jan. 19 special election.
    (AP, 9/24/09)

2009        Oct 1, The 19th annual Ig Nobel Prizes were awarded at Harvard. The physics prize went to a study of why pregnant women don’t tip over. The chemistry prize was awarded to scientists who turned tequila into diamonds. The veterinary medicine prize was given for finding that cows that have names make more milk than those who remain anonymous. The medicine prize went to a physician who, for fifty years, cracked the knuckles on only his left hand to test his mother’s contention that knuckle-cracking causes arthritis.
    (http://tinyurl.com/yc5pndy)

2009        Oct 21, US federal prosecutors in Massachusetts arrested Tarek Mehanna (27) of Sudbury, a suburb of Boston. Prosecutors said he had conspired to kill two prominent US politicians and carry out a holy war by attacking shoppers in US malls and American troops in Iraq. Mehanna, a US citizen, had been arrested in November and charged with lying to the FBI in December 2006 when asked about the whereabouts of Daniel Maldonado, who is now serving a 10-year prison sentence for training alongside al-Qaida members to overthrow the Somali government. On Dec 20, 2011, Mehanna was convicted of conspiring to support al-Qaida and other terrorism charges.
    (AP, 10/21/09)(SFC, 10/22/09, p.A4)(SFC, 12/21/11, p.A8)

2009        Dec 2, Court documents filed in Boston said Wal-Mart Stores Inc. has agreed to pay $40 million to 87,500 Massachusetts employees who claimed the retailer denied them rest and meals breaks, manipulated time cards and refused to pay overtime.
    (AP, 12/2/09)

2009        Christian Carl Gerhartsreiter, a German national who came to the United States in the 1970s, was convicted in Boston in the kidnapping of his 7-year-old daughter. He was sentenced to 4-5 years in prison. In 2011 Los Angeles prosecutors filed a murder charge against Gerhartsreiter in the 1985 disappearance of 27-year-old John and Linda Sohus. In the past Gerhartsreiter had assumed many identities, including Clark Rockefeller. In 2011 Mark Seal authored “The Man in the Rockefeller Suit: The Astonishing Rise and Spectacular Fall of a Serial Imposter.” In 2012 he was convicted of first degree murder in the death of John Sohus.
    (AP, 3/16/11)(SSFC, 7/10/11, p.G6)(SFC, 4/11/13, p.A6)

2010        Jan 14, In Massachusetts Phoebe Prince (15), an Irish immigrant, hanged herself following extensive bullying at South Hadley High School. 9 teenagers later faced charges including statutory rape by 2 boys and criminal harassment by 9 girls.
    (SFC, 3/30/10, p.A10)

2010        Jan 19, In Massachusetts Democrat Martha Coakley lost to Republican State Sen. Scott Brown (50) in a special election slowing down President Barack Obama's agenda and loosening the Democratic grip on the US Senate.
    (AP, 1/19/10)(AP, 1/20/10)

2010        Jan 24, Daniel Kerrigan (70), the father of figure skater Nancy Kerrigan, died after a disturbance at the family's Massachusetts home. Brother Mark Kerrigan (45) was charged with assaulting the 70-year-old father.
    (AP, 1/25/10)

2010        Apr 1, Massachusetts regulators issued their first batch of health care price controls, rejecting the vast majority of small business health premium increases sought this year by the state's major insurers. Insurers said caps on their charges are justified only if there are similar caps on the costs that health care providers, such as doctors and hospital networks, charge them. That is the subject of pending legislation.
    (AP, 4/1/10)

2010        Apr 16, US banking regulators shut down 8 banks, including 2 in northern California, 3 in Florida, one in Washington state, one in Massachusetts, and one in Michigan, bringing the total this year to 50. In 2009 140 banks failed in the US compared to 25 in 2008 and 3 in 2007.
    (SFC, 4/19/10, p.D3)

2010        Apr 26, Massachusetts-based Charles River Laboratories International Inc., a medical research equipment and services company, announced plans to buy WuXi PharmaTech, a Chinese pharmaceutical outsourcing company, for $1.6 billion.
    (AP, 4/26/10)

2010        Jun 3, Former Massachusetts state Sen. Dianne Wilkerson pleaded guilty to 8 counts of attempted extortion. The Boston Democrat had been captured on video stuffing bribe money into her sweater and bra.
    (SFC, 6/4/10, p.A6)

2010        Jul 8, The curator of the Nieman Foundation at Harvard, which has offered mid-career Nieman fellowships since 1938, said that a consular official at the US Embassy in Bogota told him that Colombian journalist Hollman Morris has been ruled permanently ineligible for a visa under the "Terrorist activities" section of the USA Patriot Act. Hollman has been highly critical of ties between illegal far-right militias and allies of outgoing President Alvaro Uribe.
    (AP, 7/8/10)

2010        Sep 4, Hurricane Earl brushed past the Northeast US and dumped heavy, wind-driven rain on Cape Cod cottages and fishing villages, but caused little damage. It continued north and made landfall near Western Head, Nova Scotia. Earl lost its tropical storm status over Canada, but the storm still left one person dead and nearly one million people without power in the northeastern.
    (AP, 9/4/10)(AFP, 9/5/10)

2010        Nov 14, Delvonte Tisdale (16) apparently fell from the sky after stowing away in an airplane’s wheel well at the Charlotte-Douglas International Airport in Charlotte, NC. His mutilated body was found in a Boston suburb.
    (SFC, 12/11/10, p.A4)(http://tinyurl.com/2dmblgm)

2010        Nov 23, Alfred Gaynor (43), a serial killer from western Massachusetts admitted to strangling a woman in 1995, his first victim of eight.
    (SFC, 11/24/10, p.A8)

2010        Dec 16, Lorillard Tobacco Co. was ordered to pay $81 million in punitive damages to the estate and son of a Boston woman who started smoking at age 13. A day earlier jurors ordered Lorillard to pay $71 million in compensatory damages to Willie Evans and the estate of his mother Marie, who died of lung cancer in 2002.
    (SFC, 12/17/10, p.A10)

2010        Dec 26, In Massachusetts police officer John McGuire was shot dead while investigating a robbery in Woburn. Scott Hanwright (19) was charged for murder and Kevin Dingwell (51) was charged with being an accessory after the fact. A 3rd suspect, Dominic Cinelli (57) was fatally shot by responding officers.
    (SFC, 12/28/10, p.A6)

2011        Jan 3, Boston scientists and health care giant Johnson & Johnson announced that they are joining forces to bring a blood test for cancer to market. Four big cancer centers also will start studies using the experimental test this year. The test is so sensitive that it can spot a single cancer cell lurking among a billion healthy ones.
    (AP, 1/3/11)

2011        Feb 13, In Brockton, Massachusetts, the bodies of Maria Palaguachi-Cela (25) and her 2-year-old son, Brian Caguana, were found stuffed into a dumpster. They had been bludgeoned to death. Suspect Luis Guaman (42) soon fled to Ecuador. On April 30, 2012, Guaman was convicted in Ecuador of premeditated murder and faced 16-25 years in prison. On May 8, 2012 he was sentenced to 25 years in prison and fined $10,000.
    (http://tinyurl.com/6n7clej)(AP, 4/30/12)(AP, 5/8/12)

2011        Feb 20, In Massachusetts a car driven by Aaron Deveau (17) slipped across the center line of a Haverhill street and crashed into a truck driven by Donald Bowley (55), who died 18 days later. Bowley’s girlfriend survived the crash. Car driver Aaron Deveau was convicted in 2012 for texting while driving and sentenced to a year in jail.
    (SFC, 6/7/12, p.A9)(http://tinyurl.com/77c4ouq)

2011        Feb 27, Joule Unlimited, a Massachusetts biotechnology company, said it has invented a genetically-engineered organism that it says simply secretes diesel fuel or ethanol wherever it finds sunlight, water and carbon dioxide.
    (AP, 2/28/11)

2011        Jun 1, In Massachusetts at least two late-afternoon tornadoes shocked emergency officials with their suddenness and violence. At least 3 people were killed in the state's first tornado-related deaths in 16 years.
    (AP, 6/2/11)

2011        Jun 9, Goldman Sachs Group agreed to pay a $10 million fine and stop giving special treatment to wealthy clients, in a consent order that settled an action brought by Massachusetts’ securities regulators. Goldman Sachs was accused of having a two-tiered approach to its Massachusetts customers: giving preferential financial advice and tips to its wealthiest clients, while not giving its other customers equal access to that information.
            (Reuters, 6/9/11)

2011        Jun 10, Officials from NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) were trying to find the person who has been shooting and killing gray seals. In the past month, five adult seals, all with gunshot wounds to the head, have been found dead on Cape Cod (MA) beaches.
            (Boston Globe, 6/10/11)(New Bedford MA Standard-Times, 6/10/11)
2011        Jun 10, In a surgical procedure that took more than twenty hours, Charla Nash (57), a Connecticut woman disfigured in a Feb 16, 2009, attack by her friend’s chimpanzee Travis, received a face transplant at Brigham & Women’s Hospital in Boston. She is only the third person in the United States to receive a full face transplant. At the same time, surgeons also attempted to give Nash a hand transplant, but this procedure was not successful.
            (Boston Globe, 6/10/11)(AP, 6/10/11)

2011         Jun 15, A jury convicted Salvatore (Sal) DiMasi, former speaker of the Massachusetts House of Representatives, of corruption, finding that he used his office help a software company to gain lucrative state contracts in exchange for kickbacks.  He was found guilty of seven of the nine charges against him, including extortion and conspiracy to defraud citizens of his honest services.
            (Boston Globe, 6/15/11)

2011        Jun 18, Yelena Bonner (b.1923), Russian rights activist and widow of Nobel Peace Prize winner Andrei Sakharov, died in Boston.
    (SFC, 6/20/11, p.C3)

2011        Jul 19, Harvard Univ. fellow Aaron Schwartz, a student of ethics, was charged with hacking into the MIT computer network to steal nearly 5 million academic articles from JSTOR.
    (SFC, 7/20/11, p.A7)

2011        Aug 18, US researchers reported that the drug, SRT-1720, protects mice from the usual diseases of obesity. The drug is one of a set designed by Sirtris, a small pharmaceutical company in Cambridge, Mass.
    (SFC, 8/19/11, p.A13)

2011        Sep 11, In Massachusetts Adam Hall (34), a senior member of a local Hells Angels chapter, was charged with the murders of three men, including a key witness scheduled to testify against him. The charges were announced a day after a two-week search for three Pittsfield men ended with the recovery of their bodies in the western part of the state. The men had disappeared on Aug 28 under suspicious circumstances.
    (Reuters, 9/12/11)
2011        Sep 11, In Massachusetts Brendan Mess (25), Raffael Teken (37) and Eric Weissman (31) had their throats slit and their bodies were left with cash and marijuana placed on top of them. Authorites later said Tamerlan Tsarnaev participated in the killing, based on information provided by his friend Ibragim Todashev. Tsarnaev was killed by police in the aftermath of the April 15, 2013, Boston Marathon bombing. In May, 2013, Todashev was shot to death during questioning by FBI and Florida state police. He was shot 7 times, once in the head.
    (ABCNews, 5/22/13)(SFC, 10/24/13, p.A8)

2011        Sep 30, Massachusetts police arrested Steven Bernard Hill, a singer known for his 1990 chart-topping love song, on charges of owing $420,000 in unpaid child support. Hill, who  performs as Stevie B, is best known for the song "Because I Love You (The Postman Song)." It reached No. 1 on the Billboard charts in late 1990.
    (AP, 10/3/11)

2011        Oct 11, In Boston more than 50 protesters from the Occupy Boston movement were arrested after they ignored warnings to move from a downtown greenway near where they have been camped out for more than a week.
    (AP, 10/11/11)

2011        Oct 29, A snowstorm socked the Northeast US over the weekend, knocking out power to 2.7 million, snarling air and highway travel and dumping more than 2 feet of snow in a few spots as it slowly moved north out of New England. States of emergency were declared in New Jersey, Connecticut, Massachusetts and parts of New York.
    (AP, 10/30/11)

2011        Dec 10, In Massachusetts police swept through Dewey Square tearing down tents of the Occupy Boston encampment and arrested dozens of protesters.
    (SSFC, 12/11/11, p.A11)

2011        Donna L. Halper authored “Boston Radio: 1920-2010.”
    (http://tinyurl.com/6znfohh)

2012        Jan 10, Former Massachusetts governor Mitt Romney won the New Hampshire primary claiming 39.4% of the vote. Ron Paul took a strong second with 22.8%. Jon Huntsman, Obama's former ambassador to China, came in third with 16.8%. Newt Gingrich finished fourth with 9.4% and Rick Santorum fifth with 9.3%.
    (AP, 1/11/12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Hampshire_primary)

2012        Jan 15, In Massachusetts the bodies of two people were recovered on a beach in Brewster following a crash of their small plane.
    (SFC, 1/16/12, p.A4)

2012        Jan 20, A US federal appeals court in Boston upheld multimillion-dollar judgments that found the federal government liable for the deaths of 3 people allegedly murdered by James “Whitey” Bulger. The FBI had used Bulger and associate Stephen Flemmi as informants and had shielded them from prosecution.
    (SSFC, 1/22/12, p.A7)

2012        Jan 24, Republican presidential candidate Mitt Romney bowed to political pressure and cracked the books on his personal finances, releasing US tax returns showing he pays a lower effective tax rate than many top wage-earners. Romney and his wife Ann paid an effective tax rate of 13.9 percent in 2010 and expect to pay a 15.4 percent effective tax rate when they file their returns for 2011.
    (Reuters, 1/24/12)

2012        Feb 14, In Massachusetts 11 more dolphins beached themselves at Cape Cod. Ten were rescued. Over the last month some 178 have stranded in the area and 125 died.
    (SFC, 2/17/12, p.A7)

2012        Feb 22, Boston College student Franco Garcia was last seen drinking with friends at a bar near campus. On April 11 his body was pulled from the water of a reservoir near campus.
    (SFC, 4/12/12, p.A6)

2012        Mar 2, James Q. Wilson, social scientist (b.1931), died in Boston. His books included “Bureaucracy” (1989). In 1982 he and George L. Kelling introduced their broken windows theory, a criminological theory of the norm setting and signaling effect of urban disorder and vandalism on additional crime and anti-social behavior. It was implemented in NYC under Mayor Giuliani (1994-2001), and led to a plunge in violent felonies.
    (SSFC, 3/4/12, p.C9)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Broken_windows_theory)(Econ, 3/10/12, p.106)

2012        Mar 6, Ten US states voted in the Super Tuesday Republican primaries. Republican presidential frontrunner Mitt Romney edged out conservative rival Rick Santorum in the vital battleground of Ohio and won five of the night's other contests. Romney also notched victories in Alaska, Idaho, Vermont, Virginia and his home-state of Massachusetts, while Santorum won North Dakota, Oklahoma and Tennessee, and Newt Gingrich carried his home state of Georgia.
    (SFC, 3/7/12, p.A6)(Econ, 3/10/12, p.18)

2012        Mar 14, Sexual Minorities Uganda (SMUG) filed suit against Scott Lively of the Abiding Truth Ministries at a Massachusetts court, claiming he pushed Ugandan officials to crack down on homosexuals.
    (AFP, 3/16/12)

2012        Apr 6, The Transition Roadable Aircraft, developed by Terrafugia, Inc., made its auto show debut at the 2012 New York International Auto Show. The Massachusetts firm priced the commercial flying car at $279,000.
    (Econ, 3/3/12, TQp.3)(www.terrafugia.com/news_media.html)

2012        Apr 25, In Massachusetts Anthony DiNunzio, the alleged head of the New England Cosa Nostra, was arrested in Boston. He pleaded not guilty to multiple counts including racketeering and conspiracy.
    (SFC, 4/26/12, p.A6)

2012        May 12, In New Zealand 3 Boston University students, who were studying in New Zealand, were killed when their minivan crashed. At least five other students from the university were injured in the accident. On May 18 BU student Stephen Houseman (20) was charged with careless driving.
    (AP, 5/12/12)(SFC, 5/19/12, p.A2)

2012        May, Edx, a non-profit provider of massive open online courses (MOOCS), was found by Harvard Univ. and MIT. After one year it grew to a consortium of 28 institutions.
    (Econ, 7/20/13, p.55)

2012        Jun 12, A federal judge in Boston sentenced Catherine Grieg (61), girlfriend of mobster James “Whitey” Bulger, to 8 years in prison for helping Bulger stay on the run for 16 years.
    (SFC, 6/13/12, p.A8)

2012        Jul 7, In Massachusetts Democratic Representative Barney Frank wed his longtime partner, James Ready, becoming the first sitting congressman to enter into a same-sex marriage.
    (Reuters, 7/7/12)

2012        Jul 20, In Massachusetts Rezwan Ferdaus (26), a Muslim American, admitted that he had plotted to use remote controlled model planes packed with explosives to blow up the Pentagon and the US Capitol.
    (SFC, 7/21/12, p.A5)

2012        Jul 28, In Massachusetts Daryl Benway (41), who had recently separated from his wife, shot his two children, killing his 7-year-old daughter, before committing suicide.
    (AP, 7/29/12)

2012        Sep 4, A US federal judge ordered Massachusetts’ state prison officials to provide a taxpayer-funded sex-reassignment surgery to Robert Kosilek, a transgender inmate serving life in prison for the murder of his wife in 1990.
    (AP, 9/4/12)

2012        Sep 28, Massachusetts chemist Annie Dookhan, 34, accused of faking drug test results, was arrested. She faced more than 20 years in prison on charges of obstruction of justice and falsely pretending to hold a degree form a college or university. Her alleged mishandling of drug samples prompted the shutdown of the Hinton State Laboratory Institute in Boston last month.
    (AP, 9/28/12)

2012        Oct 4, US health officials warned the hundreds of people who got steroid back injections in 23 states could be at risk for meningitis from contaminated vials of a steroid produced by the new England Compounding Center of Framingham, Mass. At least 5 deaths were already reported. The fungus causing the meningitis was later identified as Exserohilum rostratum.
    (SFC, 10/5/12, p.A10)(SFC, 10/19/12, p.A9)

2012        Oct 14, The US CDC said 15 people have died and 205 people in 14 states have now been infected meningitis traced to contaminated steroid shots mixed by a pharmacy in Framingham, Mass.
    (SFC, 10/15/12, p.A4)

2012        Oct 16, The US CDC said the number of people linked to the meningitis outbreak has climbed to 233 in 15 states. It has been traced to contaminated steroid shots mixed by a pharmacy in Framingham, Mass.
    (SFC, 10/17/12, p.A6)

2012        Oct 26, The US CDC said the number of people linked to the meningitis outbreak has climbed to 338 in 18 states and included 25 deaths. It has been traced to contaminated steroid shots mixed by a pharmacy in Framingham, Mass.
    (SFC, 10/27/12, p.A6)

2012        Nov 6, President Barack Obama rolled to re-election, vanquishing former Massachusetts Gov. Mitt Romney despite a weak economy that plagued his first term and put a crimp in the middle class dreams of millions. Obama claimed 303 electoral votes vs. 206 for Romney and 49.8% of the popular vote vs. 48.7%.
    {Major Event, ObamaB, USA, Massachusetts}
    (AP, 11/7/12)(SFC, 11/7/12, p.A1)
2012        Nov 6, Massachusetts voters approved a measure to allow marijuana for medical reasons, joining 17 other states.
    (SFC, 11/7/12, p.A10)

2012        Nov 7, A wintry storm dropped snow and rain on the Northeast, bringing dangerous winds and knocking out power in a region where hundreds of thousands were still in the dark after Superstorm Sandy. A mix of rain and snow fell on parts of New York, New Jersey, Connecticut, Pennsylvania and Massachusetts, causing airport delays.
    (Reuters, 11/7/12)

2012        Nov 23, In Massachusetts more than 40 buildings were damaged in a natural gas explosion in Springfield that injured 18 people.
    (AP, 11/25/12)

2012        Nov 30, US Interior Sec. Ken Salazar said the government plans to sell leases for wind farms off the coasts of Rhode Island, Massachusetts and Virginia.
    (SFC, 12/1/12, p.A5)

2012        Dec 19, In Las Vegas Olivia Culpo (20), a student at Boston University, became the new Miss Universe, defeating dozens of contestants from six continents. An American had not won the Miss Universe title since Brook Lee won in 1997.
    (AP, 12/20/12)

2012        Dec 24, In Massachusetts a man from Puerto Rico was arrested after cocaine was found in his wheelchair at Logan Int’l. Airport.
    (SFC, 12/25/12, p.A8)

2012        Major League Ultimate, the first centrally managed professional league for Frisbee-flinging, began its first season.The Boston Whitecaps won this year’s championship.
    (Econ, 10/5/13, p.68)

2013        Feb 9, A record-breaking blizzard packing hurricane-force winds hammered the northeastern United States, cutting power to 700,000 homes and businesses, shutting down travel and leaving at least five people dead. The storm centered its fury on Connecticut, Rhode Island and Massachusetts. 38 inches fell in Milford, Connecticut. 29.3 inches fell on Portland, Maine, breaking a 1979 record.
    (Reuters, 2/9/13)

2013        Mar 13, The 2012 A.M Turing Award for computer scientists was awarded to Shafi Goldwasser and Silvio Micali of MIT.
    (Econ, 3/23/13, p.84)

2013        Apr 15, Two bombs exploded near the finish of the Boston Marathon  killing 3 people, a boy (8) and two young women. More than 140 people were injured. The explosives were fashioned out of pressure cookers and packed with shards of metal, nails and ball bearings to inflict maximum carnage.
    (AP, 4/16/13)(AP, 4/16/13)(Econ, 4/20/13, p.29)

2013        Apr 18, In Watertown, Mass., local police were involved in a car chase and shootout with 2 men identified by the FBI as Suspect 1 and Suspect 2 in the April 15 Boston bombings. MIT police officer, Sean Collier (26), was shot and later died.  
    (AP, 4/19/13)

2013        Apr 19, Federal agents swarmed Watertown, Mass., after local police were involved in a car chase and shootout with 2 men identified by the FBI as Suspect 1 and Suspect 2 in the April 15 Boston bombings. The shootout occurred after a gunfight erupted near the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Suspect 1, identified as Tamerlan Tsarnaev (26), was killed in the shootout. Suspect 2, identified as Dzhokhar A. Tsarnaev (19), a second-year student, was wounded but escaped. He was soon found hiding under a boat tarp in a neighborhood backyard. The brothers' family was originally from Chechnya.
    (AP, 4/19/13)(AP, 4/20/13)

2013        Apr 22, US prosecutors charged Dzhokhar Tsarnaev for the Boston Marathon bombings in an impromptu hearing in his hospital room, accusing him of crimes that could carry the death penalty if he is convicted. Sixteen hours after investigators began interrogating him, Tsarnaev went silent: He'd just been read his constitutional rights.
    (Reuters, 4/22/13)(AP, 4/25/13)

2013        May 1, US federal authorities arrested three friends of Boston Marathon bombing suspect Dzhokhar Tsarnaev, accusing them of trying to obstruct justice by hiding evidence in the case and lying about it.
    (Lookout, 5/1/13)

2013        May 22, In Florida Ibragim Todashev (27), a Chechen immigrant, was shot dead by an FBI agent in Orlando early today as he was "about to sign a statement" admitting to a role, along with Boston Marathon bombing suspect Tamerlan Tsarnaev, in an unsolved triple murder in Massachusetts on Sep 11, 2011. Todashev and Tamerlan Tsarnaev both fought mixed martial arts in the name of Boston's Wai Kru gym, where one of the 2011 triple murder victims, Brendan Mess, also trained. An investigation into Todashev’s death continued through August.
    (SFC, 5/23/13, p.A12)(SFC, 8/14/13, p.A6)

2013        Jun 25, Veteran Representative Edward Markey of Massachusetts won the US Senate seat vacated by John Kerry and helped Democrats maintain their majority in the chamber.
    (AP, 6/26/13)

2013        Jun 27, A 30-count federal indictment was opened against Boston Marathon suspect Dzhokhar Tsarnaev.
    (SFC, 6/28/13, p.A6)

2013        Jul 10, Boston Marathon bombings suspect Dzhokhar Tsarnaev's pleaded not guilty during a seven-minute arraignment in federal court in Boston. He faced 30 federal charges, including using a weapon of mass destruction to kill, in connection with the April 15 attack that left three people dead and more than 260 wounded.
    (AP, 7/10/13)

2013        Jul 17, In Massachusetts a jogger discovered the body of Stephen Rakes (59) in woods on the side of a street in Lincoln. Rakes had hoped to testify in the trial of mobster James Bulger.
    (SFC, 7/19/13, p.A6)

2013        Aug 3, The New York Times said it would sell the Boston Globe and its affiliated companies to businessman John Henry, the principal owner of the Boston Red Sox, for $70 million. In 1993 the New York Times Company paid $1.1 billion to acquire Boston Globe.
    (SSFC, 8/4/13, p.A7)(Econ, 8/10/13, p.55)

2013        Aug 12, A federal jury in Boston found James "Whitey" Bulger guilty of conspiracy and racketeering charges that will likely put him behind bars for the rest of his life.
    (SFC, 8/13/13, p.A5)

2013        Aug 25, In Massachusetts 3 suburban Boston high school soccer players used a broomstick to rape one freshmen and try to rape two others at a sports team-building retreat in the Berkshires at Camp Lenox in Otis.
    (SFC, 9/4/13, p.A5)

2013        Sep 17, In Massachusetts Geoffrey Portway was sentenced to almost 27 years in prison after prosecutors showed photos of a basement dungeon he had built related to online chats on kidnapping, raping, killing and eating children.
    (SFC, 9/18/13, p.A7)

2013        Oct 22, In Massachusetts Danvers High School math teacher Colleen Ritzer (24) was reported missing. Her body was found the next day in the woods behind her school. Student Philip Chism (14) was arrested and suspected of beating her to death.
    (SFC, 10/24/13, p.A8)

2013        Nathaniel Philbrick authored “Bunker Hill, A City, a Siege, a Revolution.” The battle was fought on June 17, 1775 near Boston.
    (Econ, 4/27/13, p.77)

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