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Today in History - July 21

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365        Jul 21, An earthquake, whose epicenter was in Crete, leveled the Egyptian Port of Alexandria as well as the Roman outpost of Leptis Magna in Libya. Some 50,000 people died. The ancient Egyptian city, known as Leukaspis or Antiphrae, was hidden for centuries after it was nearly wiped out by the tsunami. When Chinese engineers began cutting into the sandy coast to build the roads for a new resort in 1986, they struck the ancient tombs and houses of the town founded in the second century B.C.
    (www.earthscape.org/r2/jos/vol1-1june1997/pg55.html)(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.18)(AP, 9/8/10)

1160        Jul 21, Peterus Lombardus, Italian theologian, bishop of Paris, died.
    (MC, 7/21/02)

1403        Jul 21, Henry IV defeated the Percys in the Battle of Shrewsbury in England. Henry IV fought down an insurrection from Henry Percy, the Earl of Northumberland and Ralph Neville, the Earl of Westmorland, the same men who had helped him overthrow Richard II. Henry Percy (39), [Harry Hotspur] was killed in the battle.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1671)(MWH, 1994)(HN, 7/21/98)

1425        Jul 21, Manuel Palaeologus, Byzantine Emperor (1391-1425), writer, died. He ended his days after signing a humiliating peace with the Ottoman Turks.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manuel_II_Palaeologus)(Econ, 9/23/06, p.59)

1515        Jul 21, St. Philippus Nerius, [Philippo Neri], Italian merchant, priest, was born.
    (MC, 7/21/02)

1542        Jul 21, Pope Paul III launched the Inquisition against Protestants (Sanctum Officium). Alleged heretics were tried and tortured in an effort to stem the spread of the Reformation.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.16)(MC, 7/21/02)

1620        Jul 21, Jean Picard, French astronomer, was born.
    (MC, 7/21/02)

1664        Jul 21, Matthew Prior, English poet, was born.
    (MC, 7/21/02)

1667        Jul 21, The Peace of Breda ended the Second Anglo-Dutch War and ceded Dutch New Amsterdam to the English. The South American country of Surinam, formerly Dutch Guiana, including the nutmeg island of Run was ceded by England to the Dutch in exchange for New York in 1667 after the second Anglo-Dutch War.
    (WUD, 1994, p.961)(HN, 7/21/98)(HNQ, 8/21/98)(WSJ, 5/21/99, p.W7)

1669        Jul 21, John Locke's Constitution of English colony Carolina was approved.
    (MC, 7/21/02)

1676        Jul 21, Anthony Collins, English philosopher (A discourse on free-thinking), was born.
    (MC, 7/21/02)

1683        Jul 21, Lord William Russell, English plotter against Charles II, was beheaded.
    (MC, 7/21/02)

1711        Jul 21, Russia and Turkey signed the Treaty of Pruth, ending the year-long Russo-Turkish War.
    (HN, 7/21/98)

1718        Jul 21, The Turkish threat to Europe was eliminated with the signing of the Treaty of Passarowitz between Austria, Venice and the Ottoman Empire.
    (HN, 7/21/98)

1730        Jul 21, States of Holland put a death penalty on "sodomy."
    (MC, 7/21/02)

1773        Jul 21, Pope Clement XIV abolished the Jesuit order. He disbanded, defrocked, and stripped them of their sustenance. They were ignored by other orders and denounced as schemers and plotters. The Jesuits finally regained respectability in 1814after flourishing underground.
    (HN, 7/21/98)(MC, 7/21/02)

1796        Jul 21, Robert Burns (b.1759), Scottish poet and a lyricist (Auld Lang Syne), died. In 2009 Robert Crawford authored “The Bard: Robert Burns."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Burns)(SSFC, 1/25/09, Books p.3)

1798        Jul 21, Napoleon Bonaparte defeated the Arab Mameluke warriors at the Battle of the Pyramids, becoming the master of Egypt.
    (HN, 7/21/98)

1804        Jul 21, Victor Schoelcher, abolished French slavery, was born in Guadeloupe.
    (MC, 7/21/02)

1816        Jul 21, Paul Julius Baron von Reuter (d.1899), founder of the British news agency bearing his name, was born in Hesse, Germany, as Israel Beer Josaphat.
    (AP, 7/21/99)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paul_Julius_Reuter)

1831        Jul 21, Belgium became independent as Leopold I was proclaimed King of the Belgians.
    (AP, 7/21/97)

1846        Jul 21, Mormons founded the 1st English settlement in the San Joaquin Valley of Calif.
    (MC, 7/21/02)

1861        Jul 21, In the first major battle of the Civil War, Confederate forces repelled an attempt by the Union Army to turn their flank in Virginia. The battle became known by the Confederates as Manassas, while the Union called it Bull Run. The 33rd Virginia Infantry held Henry House Hill at the first Battle of Bull Run in Manassas, Virginia, resulting in a Confederate victory. This was the spot from which Jackson took on the title of "Stonewall" and his brigade the "Stonewall Brigade." Union forces had 3,000 men killed, wounded, or missing in action while the Confederates suffered 2,000 casualties.  Bernard Bee coined the nickname associated with Confederate General Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson. At the Battle of First Manassas, it is General Bee who supposedly rallied his troops by calling out, "Look! There is Jackson standing like a stone wall. Rally to the Virginians!" Though there is some controversy about exactly what was said, when Bee said it, and what exactly he meant by it, the words helped create a legend. Bee couldn‘t explain further; he was mortally wounded during the battle and died the next day. Brig. Gen. Irvin McDowell was in command of the Union forces at the First Battle of Bull Run (First Manassas).
    (HT, 3/97, p.48)(AP, 7/21/97)(HN, 7/21/99)(HN, 1/18/00)(HNQ, 7/30/01)(MC, 7/21/02)

1865        Jul 21, Wild Bill Hickok killed gunman Dave Tutt in Springfield, Illinois, in the first formal quick-draw duel.
    (HN, 7/21/98)

1866        Jul 21, A cholera-epidemic killed hundreds in London.
    (MC, 7/21/02)

1870        Jul 21, Josef Strauss (42), Austrian composer (Dynamids), died.
    (MC, 7/21/02)

1873        Jul 21, At Adair, Iowa, more than seven years after the Liberty holdup, the James-Younger gang made their first train robbery. See 1866 for the 1st US train robbery.
    (OGA, 11/24/98)(HN, 7/18/00)

1877        Jul 21, In West Virginia 26 railroad strikers were killed and the Union Depot and machine shops were burned down.
    (HNQ, 12/11/98)
1877        Jul 21-27, The US army broke a railroad strike.
    (MC, 7/21/02)

1881        Jul 21, Frederick Dick, physician, was born.
    (HN, 7/21/02)

1896        Jul 21, Mary Church Terrell founded the National Association of Colored Women in Washington, D.C.
    (HN, 7/21/98)

1897        Jul 21, The Tate Gallery opened in England.
    (MC, 7/21/02)

1898        Jul 21, Spain ceded Guam to US.
    (OGA, 11/24/98)

1899        Jul 21, Poet Hart Crane was born in Garrettsville, Ohio.
    (AP, 7/21/99)
1899        Jul 21, Ernest Hemingway (d.1961), American novelist and short-story writer, was born in Oak Park, Ill. "Never confuse motion with action."
    (AP, 7/21/97)(HN, 7/21/98)(AP, 11/21/98)

1877        Jul 21-1877 Jul 22, Pres. Rutherford Hayes sent federal troops and Marines to Baltimore to restore order against striking railroad workers. President Hayes then sent federal troops from city to city. They suppressed strike after strike until the strike ended in September, approximately 45 days after it had started.

1903        Jul 21, Dr. Horatio Nelson Jackson arrived in Cleveland with his mechanic Sewell Croker escorted by a fleet of new Winton automobiles. They were enroute to NYC from San Francisco in a $2,500 Winton touring car.
    (ON, 9/04, p.10)

1904        Jul 21, After 13 years, the 4,607-mile Trans-Siberian railway was completed.
    (MC, 7/21/02)

1911        Jul 21, Marshall McLuhan (d.1980), English professor and communication theorist, author of "The Medium is the Message," was born. He wrote the book:  "Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man."
    (V.D.-H.K.p.357)(HN, 7/21/98)

1918        Jul 21, The residents and coastguardsmen of Orleans, Massachusetts, were amazed to see the German U-boat, U-156, firing at an American tug and four barges just off shore.
    (HNQ, 2/1/02)

1919        Jul 21, A dirigible crashed through a bank skylight killing 13 in Chicago.
    (MC, 7/21/02)
1919        Jul 21, The British House of Lords ratified the Versailles Treaty.
    (HN, 7/21/98)
1919        Jul 21, Anthony Fokker established an airplane factory at Hamburg and Amsterdam.
    (MC, 7/21/02)

1920        Jul 21, Isaac Stern, violinist, was born in Kreminiecz, Russia.
    (HN, 7/21/98)

1921        Jul 21, Billy Taylor, jazz pianist, was born.
    (HN, 7/21/02)
1921        Jul 21, Gen. Billy Mitchell flew off with a payload of makeshift aerial bombs and sank the former German battle ship Ostfriesland off Hampton Roads, Virginia; the 1st time a battleship was ever sunk by an airplane.
    (MC, 7/21/02)

1922        Jul 21, Djemal Pasha, dictator of Turkey, was murdered.
    (MC, 7/21/02)

1924        Jul 21, Don Knotts (d.2006), later film and TV star (The Andy Griffith Show, Matlock, Three’s Company), was born in Morgantown, West Virginia.
    (SSFC, 2/26/06, p.B7)

1925        Jul 21, The so-called "Monkey Trial" ended in Dayton, Tenn., with John T. Scopes convicted of violating state law for teaching Darwin's theory of evolution. Scopes was found guilty and was fined $100. The conviction was later overturned on a technicality.
    (HN, 7/21/99)(AP, 7/21/08)

1926        Jul 21, Norman Jewison, director (Moonstruck, ...and Justice For All), was born.
    (MC, 7/21/02)

1928        Jul 21, Dame Ellen Terry (b.1847), British actress, died in England. In 2009 Michael Holroyd authored “A Strange Eventful History: The Dramatic Lives of Ellen Terry, Henry Irving and Their Remarkable Families." Her relationship with actor Henry Irving (d.1905) lasted over 2 decades.
    (Econ, 8/30/08, p.79)(WSJ, 3/6/09, p.W6)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ellen_Terry)

1930        Jul 21, President Herbert Hoover signed an executive order establishing the Veterans Administration.
    (AP, 7/21/07)

1933        Jul 21, John Gardner (d.1982), poet and novelist (Grendel, October Light), was born.
    (HN, 7/21/02)
1933        Jul 21, The DJIA dropped 7.8%
    (SFC,10/17/97, p.B2)
1933        Jul 21, Haifa Harbor in Palestine opened.
    (MC, 7/21/02)

1938        Jul 21, Les Aspin, (Rep-D-Wisc, 1971-93), Minister of Defense (1993-94), was born.
    (MC, 7/21/02)
1938        Jul 21, Janet Reno, US attorney general (1993-2001), was born.
    (MC, 7/21/02)
1938        Jul 21, Paul Hindemith & Leonide Massines ballet premiered in London.
    (MC, 7/21/02)
1938        Jul 21, Owen Wister (b.1860), novelist, died at his summer home in Rhode Island.  His 1902 novel "The Virginian" inspired 5 films. He had earlier begun a novel set in his native Philadelphia but stopped work on it when his wife died during childbirth on Aug 24, 1913.
    (HN, 7/14/01)(SFC, 1/9/02, p.D8)(AH, 10/02, p.20)

1939        Jul 21, Ambroise Vollard (b.1866), French art patron, author and publisher, died in a car crash. He wrote biographies on Cézanne, Degas, and Renoir. Many of his works, including pantings by Derain, Renoir, Cezanne, Picasso and Matisse, ended up in the hands of Erich Slomovic, a young Croatian Jew who had come to Paris in the mid-1930s and befriended the aging dealer. Slomovic was killed by the nazis in 1942. The art remained locked up in a Paris bank vault until it was found in 1979. In 2010 it was put up for auction.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ambroise_Vollard)(SFC, 6/12/10, p.E3)(http://tinyurl.com/2dbmtbc)

1940        Jul 21, The new USSR-organized parliaments of Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania held simultaneous sessions. They declared their countries to be soviet socialist republics and applied for admission to the USSR.

1941        Jul 21, France accepted Japan's demand for military control of Indochina.
    (HN, 7/21/98)
1941        Jul 21, Himmler ordered the building of the Majdanek concentration camp. The camp was built in eastern Poland as a principal site to exterminate Jews. It contained 7 gas chambers.
    (SFC, 3/5/98, p.A14)(MC, 7/21/02)
1941        Jul 21, 200 Jewish Torahs were burned in Ukraine.
    (MC, 7/21/02)

1943        Jul 21, Tess Gallagher, American writer, was born.
    (HN, 7/21/02)
1943        Jul 21, Edward Herrmann, actor (Day of the Dolphin, Reds), was born in Wash., DC.
    (MC, 7/21/02)

1944        Jul 21, Paul Wellstone, (Sen-D-Minnesota), was born.
    (MC, 7/21/02)
1944        Jul 21, The Democratic National Convention in Chicago nominated Sen. Harry S. Truman to be vice president. He replaced Henry Wallace. In Room 708 of the Blackstone Hotel in Chicago Roosevelt told Truman at the convention that he wanted him on the ticket
    (WSJ, 8/26/96, p.A12)(AP, 7/20/97)(WSJ, 4/27/98, p.A20)
1944        Jul 21, US Army and Marine forces landed on Guam in the Marianas during WW II.
    (AP, 7/21/97)(HN, 7/21/98)
1944        Jul 21, Von Kluge warned Hitler of the impending collapse of front in Normandy.
    (MC, 7/21/02)
1944        Jul 21, Henning von Tresckow, Gen-Maj, "July 20th plotter", committed suicide.
    (MC, 7/21/02)
1944        Jul 21, Jerzy Bielecki (23), a German-speaking Catholic Pole arrested as a resistance fighter, walked in broad daylight down a pathway at Auschwitz, wearing a stolen SS uniform with his Jewish sweetheart Cyla Cybulska (1922-2002) by his side. Both managed to escape. They became separated in 1945 and did not meet again until 1983.
    (AP, 7/20/10)

1947        Jul 21, Cat Stevens, rock vocalist (Peace Train, Father & Son), was born as Steven Demetre Georgiou. The British singer-songwriter, multi-instrumentalist, educator, philanthropist, converted to Islam in Dec 1977. In 1978 he adopted the name of Yusuf Islam.
1947        Jul 21, Life Magazine featured the photo of a drunk on a motorcycle from the Jul 4 gathering in Hollister, Ca. The photo was later revealed to have been set up for effect.
    (SFEC, 6/29/97, p.A12)

1948        Jul 21, Garry Trudeau, political cartoonist (Doonesbury), was born.
1948        Jul 21, Arshile Gorky (b.1904/5), artist, (born as Vostanig Adoian of Armenian parents in Eastern Turkey) died of suicide. He came to the US in 1920 and assumed a new name in admiration of Russian writer Maxim Gorky. His works included "Gray Drawing for Pastoral" (1946). His last paintings were described as "imaginary erotic cosmologies." In 1999 Matthew Spender published the biography "From a High Place: A Life of Arshile Gorky."
    (WSJ, 1/28/04, p.D6)(www.legacy-project.org/artists/display.html?ID=5)

1949        Jul 21, The US Senate ratified the North Atlantic Treaty (NATO) 82-13.
    (EWH, 1968, p.1207)(AP, 7/21/97)

1951        Jul 21, Dalai Lama returned to Tibet.
    (MC, 7/21/02)

1952        Jul 21, Robin Williams, American comedian and actor, was born in Chicago, Ill.
    (HN, 7/21/98)

1954        Jul 21, France surrendered North Vietnam to the Communists at Geneva. The French signed an armistice, the Geneva Accords, with the Viet Minh that ended the war but divided Vietnam into two countries. This led to almost a million anti-Communists in the north to flee to the south.
    (AP, 7/21/97)(HN, 7/21/98)(OGA, 11/24/98)(SFEC, 4/23/00, p.A19)

1955        Jul 21, During the Geneva summit, President Eisenhower presented his "open skies" proposal under which the United States and the Soviet Union would trade information on each other's military facilities and allow aerial reconnaissance.
    (AP, 7/21/07)
1955        Jul 21, First sub powered by liquid metal cooled reactor launched - Seawolf.
    (OGA, 11/24/98)

1959        Jul 21, The 1st atomic powered merchant ship, NS Savannah, was christened at Camden, NJ. In 1995 it was docked as part of the Navy’s James River Reserve Fleet at Fort Eustis, Va. Soviets launched the world’s 1st operational nuclear surface ship in 1958. The NS Savannah served until 1971.
    (OGA, Internet, 11/24/98)(SFC, 3/12/05, p.B5)(AH, 2/03, p.2)

1960        Jul 21, Francis Chichester arrived in NY aboard Gypsy Moth II, setting a record of 40 days for a solo Atlantic crossing.
    (MC, 7/21/02)
1960        Jul 21, Sirimavo Bandaranaike became the first woman prime minister of Ceylon. In Sri Lanka, an island country in the Indian Ocean formerly known as Ceylon she served as prime minister twice, 1960-65 and 1970-77. Under her leadership a republican constitution was adopted in 1972 and the name of Ceylon changed to Sri Lanka.
    (HNQ, 5/23/98)(HN, 7/21/98)
1960        Jul 21, Germany passed the Volkswagen law legislation privatizing Volkswagen. It capped a shareholder's voting rights at 20%, regardless of the number of shares held, and required a majority of 80% for "important decisions." It also gave Lower Saxony, the state in which Volkswagen is based, a controlling minority stake in the automaker. In 2007 the European Court ruled that the VW law had to go.
    (http://uk.reuters.com/article/businessNews/idUKL2232313720071023)(Econ, 6/14/08, p.82)

1961        Jul 21, Capt. Virgil "Gus" Grissom became the second American to rocket into a suborbital pattern around the Earth, flying on the Mercury 4 Liberty Bell 7. The Mercury capsule sank in the Atlantic, 302 miles from Cape Canaveral and Grissom was rescued by helicopter. The space capsule was recovered in 1999.
    (AP, 7/21/97)(OGA, 11/24/98)(SFC, 4/17/99, p.A6)(WSJ, 7/21/99, p.A1)

1962        Jul 21, 160 civil right activists were jailed after demonstration in Albany, Ga.
    (MC, 7/21/02)
1962        Jul 21, George Macaulay Trevelyan (b.1876), British historian, died in Cambridge. Many of his writings promoted the Whig Party, an important aspect of British politics from the 17th century to the mid-19th century, and its successor, the Liberal Party.

1966        Jul 21, Gemini X returned to Earth.
    (OGA, 11/24/98)

1967        Jul 21, Basil Rathbone (75), actor (Sherlock Holmes), died of heart attack.
    (MC, 7/21/02)
1967        Jul 21, In South Africa ANC president Albert Lutuli (Luthuli) (b.~1898) died after being hit by a train in what was widely thought to have been an assassination operation. The anti-apartheid icon received the 1960 Nobel prize for his role in the struggle against whites-only rule, becoming the first African to win a Nobel Prize.
    (AP, 7/11/07)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albert_Lutuli)

1969        Jul 21, Apollo 11 astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin "Buzz" Aldrin blasted off from the moon aboard the lunar module.
    (AP, 7/21/99)
1969        Jul 21, Riots in York, Pa., left 2 people dead, Lillie Belle Allen (27) along with rookie officer Henry Schaad (22). Schaad was mortally wounded 3 days before Allen was killed. Over 60 people were arrested as one city block burned. In 2001 Arthur (47) and Robert Messersmith (52) were arrested for the slaying of Allen. In 2001 Rick Lynn Knouse (48) and Gregory Henry Neff (53), former members of the Girarders white street gang, were also charged in the murders. In 2001 York Mayor Charles Robertson was arrested on homicide charges for allegedly handing out ammunition to white gang members and exhorting them to "Kill as many niggers as you can." In 2001 Thomas P. Smith was accused in the ambush shooting of Allen. In 2001 Stephen Freeland (49) and Leon Wright (53) were charged in the murder of officer Schaad. Robertson was acquitted in 2002. Messersmith and Neff were found guilty of 2nd degree murder. 6 white men were sentenced up to 3 years in prison. Wright's brother Michael implicated himself in 2003 and was charged for the murder of Schaad. In 2005 York city officials announced a $2 million settlement with the children and sisters of Lillie Belle Allen.
    (SFC, 4/28/01, p.A5)(SFC, 5/10/01, p.A7)(SFC, 5/17/01, p.A2)(SFC, 5/22/01, p.A5)(YD, 5/24/01)(YD, 6/25/00)(SFC, 10/31/01, p.C2)(SSFC, 10/20/02, p.A7)(SFC, 11/14/02, p.A8)(BS, 6/26/03, 5A)(SFC, 12/7/05, p.A3)

1970        Jul 21, The Aswan Dam opened in Egypt. Over the years the giant dam caused the disruption of the Nile's flow and destroyed vital mineral deposits. Fishing industries have been linked to the spread of disease. Formal opening ceremonies were held Jan 15, 1971.
1970        Jul 21, Libya ordered the confiscation of all Jewish property.

1972        Jul 21, A total of 22 IRA-bombs exploded in Belfast killing 9 people including two soldiers. 130 civilians were injured in what came to be called Bloody Friday.

1973        Jul 21, "Bad, Bad Leroy Brown" reached the top spot on the "Billboard" pop-singles chart, becoming Jim Croce’s first big hit. He died in a plane crash on September 20.
1973        Jul 21, Israeli intelligence mistakenly assassinated Ahmed Bouchiki, a Moroccan living in Lillehammer, Norway, as part of its retribution for the Sep 5, 1972, terrorist attack in Munich. He was mistaken for Ali Hassan Salameh (d.1979). Mossad agent Michael Harari (1927-2014) escaped from Norway, but six Israeli agents were arrested. Five were later convicted and sentenced one to five years in prison. Norway later pardoned three of the agents.
    (WSJ, 12/21/05, p.D10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ahmed_Bouchiki)(SFC, 9/29/14, p.C3)
1973        Jul 21, The Russian Mars 4 Orbiter braking engine malfunctioned and it failed to go into orbit around Mars.
    (SFC, 11/19/96, p.B1)(http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/masterCatalog.do?sc=1973-047A)

1976        Jul 21, "Legionnaire's Disease" struck in Philadelphia, Pa. 29 people died from the disease. The disease was first identified after an outbreak at the Bellevue Stratford Hotel in Philadelphia. It was identified as Legionella pneumophila and found to infest water systems in general and the hotel ventilation system in this case.
    (OGA, 11/24/98)(SFC, 4/13/96, p.A-17)

1978        Jul 21, In Bolivia Gen’l. Juan Pereda Asbun overthrew Pres. Banzer in a coup.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1691)

1980        Jul 21, Draft registration began in the United States for 19- and 20-year-old men.
    (AP, 7/21/97)

1982        Jul 21, Dave Garroway (b.1913), former TV host of the "Today Show" (1952-1961, committed suicide.
    (SFC, 1/11/02, p.D19)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dave_Garroway)

1983        Jul 21, The coldest temperature ever measured on Earth was -128.6 Fahrenheit (-89.2 Celsius) at Vostok, Antarctica.
    (AP, 7/23/03)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vostok_Station)

1984        Jul 21, In Jackson, Michigan, a male die-cast operator (34) was pinned by a hydraulic Unimate robot. He died after 5 days. This was the 1st documented case of a robot killing a human in US.

1986        Jul 21, Gary Lee Davis (1944-1997) and his wife, Rebecca, abducted, raped and killed Virginia May (32) in Byers, Colorado. After exhausting all appeals he was executed by lethal injection on Oct 13, 1997. Rebecca was convicted of murder and sentenced to life in prison.
    (SFC, 10/13/97, p.A7)(SFC, 10/14/97, p.A3)

1987        Jul 21, Defying a threatened veto by President Reagan, the Senate approved a trade bill containing a provision requiring companies to give 60 days' notice to employees of impending plant closings and large-scale layoffs. Reagan vetoed the bill, but ended up allowing a separate plant-closing notice measure to become law.
    (AP, 7/21/97)

1988        Jul 21, Massachusetts Gov. Michael Dukakis accepted the Democratic presidential nomination at the party's convention in Atlanta, declaring, "this election isn't about ideology; it's about competence."
    (AP, 7/21/98)
1988        Jul 21, Canada’s Multiculturalism Act of 1988 replaced a previous policy of assimilation with one of acceptance of diversity.
    (Econ, 11/18/06, p.39)(www.pch.gc.ca/progs/multi/policy/act_e.cfm)

1989        Jul 21, The State Department confirmed an ABC News report that Felix S. Bloch, a veteran U.S. diplomat, was being investigated as a possible Soviet spy. Bloch was never charged with espionage, but was fired from his job in 1990.
    (AP, 7/21/99)

1990        Jul 21, A day after Supreme Court Justice William J. Brennan announced his retirement, President Bush convened a meeting with key administration officials to begin finding a replacement.
    (AP, 7/21/00)

1991        Jul 21, US Secretary of State James A. Baker the Third met with Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Shamir, trying to persuade the Israelis to agree to the talks.
    (AP, 7/21/01)
1991        Jul 21, Jordan became the fourth Arab country to sign on to a US-backed Middle East peace conference.
    (AP, 7/21/01)

1992        Jul 21, Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin met in Cairo with Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak, who said afterward that he'd accepted Rabin's invitation to visit Israel.
    (AP, 7/21/97)

1993        Jul 21, More rain set back cleanup and recovery efforts in parts of the Midwest; Transportation Secretary Federico Pena examined flood damage along the Mississippi in Keokuk, Iowa.
    (AP, 7/21/98)

1994        Jul 21, Hugh Scott (93) former US Senate Republican leader died in Falls Church, Va.
    (AP, 7/21/99)
1994        Jul 21, Britain's Labor Party elected Tony Blair its new leader, succeeding the late John Smith.
    (AP, 7/21/99)

1995        Jul 21, At a 16-nation conference in London, the United States and NATO allies warned Bosnian Serbs that further attacks on UN safe havens would draw a "substantial and decisive response."
    (AP, 7/21/00)
1995        Jul 21, Elleston Trevor, British author, died.
1995        Jul 21 China began conducting a series of ballistic missile test firings 85 miles from Taiwan. The missiles were all MTCR class four short range and two intermediate range. All were modern, mobile, nuclear-capable. No country has ever held this level of field tests for nuclear capable missiles before.

1996        Jul 21, There was a review of "Please Kill Me" by Legs McNeil and Gillian McCain, a historical chronicle of the American punk-rock movement.
    (SFC, 7/21/96, p.B7)
1996        Jul 21, At the Atlanta Olympics, swimmer Tom Dolan gave the United States its first gold, in the 400-meter individual medley. The men's 800-meter freestyle relay team also won.
    (AP, 7/21/97)
1996        Jul 21, Dozens of memorial services were held across the country to remember the 230 people killed in the crash of TWA Flight 800.
    (AP, 7/21/97)
1996        Jul 21, It was reported that as many as 6,000 immigrants were naturalized as US citizens every month in SF.
    (SFC, 7/21/96, p.B1)
1996        Jul 21, In Burundi Hutu rebels killed 320 Tutsis, mostly women and children, at a refugee camp 45 miles north of the capital.
    (WSJ, 7/22/96, p.A1)
1996        Jul 21, Danish cyclist Bjarne Riis won the Tour de France. In 2007 he admitted to using performance enhancing drugs to win the race.
    (WSJ, 5/26/07, p.A1)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1996_Tour_de_France)
1996        Jul 21, Thirteen pounds of explosives were hurled at the Hell’s Angel’s headquarters in Copenhagen. Their compound consists of 5 buildings surrounded by a 10-foot fence.
    (SFEC, 8/11/96, p.A13)

1997        Jul 21, The General Convention of the Episcopal Church in Philadelphia voted to require all Episcopal dioceses to ordain women.
    (SFC, 7/22/97, p.A2)
1997        Jul 21, The U.S.S. Constitution, aka Old Ironsides,, which defended the United States during the War of 1812, set sail with 216 crew members under its own power for first time in 116 years, leaving its temporary anchorage at Marblehead, Mass., for a one-hour voyage marking its 200th anniversary. The actual anniversary was the following October. It was built in 1797 and was never defeated in 42 battles.
    (HT, 3/97, p.34)(SFC, 7/22/97, p.A1)(AP, 7/21/98)
1997        Jul 21, In Canada fishermen released the Malaspina ferry, a blocked Alaska-bound ship at Prince Rupert. They were protesting US fishing of sockeye salmon heading for spawning in British Columbia.
    (SFC, 7/22/97, p.A10)

1998        Jul 21, President Clinton announced a crackdown on nursing homes that were lax about quality and on states that do a poor job of regulating them.
    (AP, 7/21/99)
1998        Jul 21, The Pentagon said it found no evidence to support allegations in a CNN report that U.S. troops had used nerve gas against American defectors in Laos.
    (AP, 7/21/99)
1998        Jul 21, In NYC a 48-story elevator scaffold collapsed at the construction site of the Conde Nast building on West 43rd St. One woman (85) was killed.
    (SFC, 7/22/98, p.A3)
1998        Jul 21, Astronaut Alan Shepard, the first American in space, died in Monterey, Calif., at age 74.
    (SFC, 7/23/98, p.A1)(AP, 7/21/99)
1998        Jul 21, Robert Young, actor, died in Westlake Village, Calif. at age 91. He was best known for his TV roles in "Father Knows Best" and "Marcus Welby, M.D."
    (SFC, 7/23/98, p.C4)(AP, 7/21/99)
1998        Jul 21, Pakistan announced austerity measures to cope with imposed sanctions.
    (WSJ, 7/22/98, p.A1)
1998        Jul 21, Serbian forces forced the Kosovo Liberation Army out of Orahovac. The rebels and some 15,000 refugees fled northeast to the city of Malisevo.
    (SFC, 7/22/98, p.A10)
1998        Jul 21, Puerto Rico accepted a sweetened GTE-led bid for the government owned phone system that included concessions to appease workers.
    (WSJ, 7/22/98, p.A1)

1999        Jul 21, Navy divers found the bodies of John F. Kennedy Junior, his wife, Carolyn, and sister-in-law, Lauren Bessette, in the wreckage of Kennedy’s plane in the Atlantic Ocean off Martha’s Vineyard.
    (AP, 7/21/00)
1999        Jul 21, It was reported that the Lilly Endowment Inc. of Indianapolis presented a $50 million grant to the SF based Hispanic Scholarship Fund.
    (SFC, 7/21/99, p.A1)
1999        Jul 21, David Ogilvy (88), British-born American advertising executive, died in Bonnes, France. In 2009 Kenneth Roman authored “the King of Madison Avenue: David Ogilvy and the making of Modern Advertising."
    (AP, 7/21/00)(WSJ, 1/21/08, p.A15)

2000        Jul 21, Group of Eight leaders met for an economic summit on the Japanese island of Okinawa, where President Clinton also sought to soothe long-simmering tensions over the huge American military presence.
    (AP, 7/21/01)
2000        Jul 21, Special Counsel John C. Danforth concluded "with 100 percent certainty" that the federal government was innocent of wrongdoing in the siege that killed 80 members of the Branch Davidian compound near Waco, Texas, in 1993.
    (AP, 7/21/01)
2000        Jul 21, Norm Mineta, the 1st Asian American to serve in a president’s cabinet, was sworn in as the 33rd US secretary of commerce.
    (SFC, 7/22/00, p.A3)
2000        Jul 21, Researchers reported that human general intelligence, as measured in IQ tests, came from clearly defines regions in the frontal lobes.
    (SFC, 7/21/00, p.B3)
2000        Jul 21, It was reported that warming climate was causing Greenland to lose 11 cubic miles of ice a year, or 12.5 trillion gallons, enough to raise sea level by .005 inches annually.
    (SFC, 7/21/00, p.B3)
2000        Jul 21, It was reported that physicists at the Fermi lab had observed evidence of the tau neutrino. The Higgs boson still remained undetected.
    (WSJ, 7/21/00, p.A1)(SFC, 7/21/00, p.B2)
2000        Jul 21, It was reported that computers at Los Alamos simulated a nuclear blast in 3 dimensions for the 1st time.
    (WSJ, 7/21/00, p.A1)
2000        Jul 21, In Hawaii a tour helicopter crashed and killed 7 people on Maui.
    (SFC, 7/22/00, p.A6)
2000        Jul 21, Marc Reisner, author of "Cadillac Desert," died in Marin, Ca., at age 51. His 1986 book was an angry indictment of water depletion in the American West.
    (SFC, 7/24/00, p.A21)
2000        Jul 21, In Chechnya 4 Russian soldiers were killed when a land mine blew up their truck in the Shali region.
    (SFC, 7/22/00, p.C1)
2000        Jul 21, It was reported that the drought in Kenya had caused water and electricity rationing in Nairobi and an appeal to the UN for $88 million to feed 3.3 million people. 13 million people in 6 countries around the Horn of Africa were at risk of starvation.
    (SFC, 7/21/00, p.B7)
2000        Jul 21, In Russia 19 airmen were killed when a Mi-8 helicopter crashed north of St. Petersburg.
    (SFC, 7/22/00, p.C1)

2001        Jul 21, In Genoa, Italy, site of a Group of Eight meeting, a 2nd day of violent protests turned the city into a war zone of rolling riots despite pleas for calm from protest leaders and global summit leaders alike.
    (SSFC, 7/22/01, p.A1)(AP, 7/21/02)
2001        Jul 21, Over 140 UN nations agreed on a voluntary pact to stem small arms into conflict zones. It required manufacturers to compile records of sales and to mark weapons to enable their traces. The US managed to keep out some restrictions.
    (SSFC, 7/22/01, p.A14)(WSJ, 7/23/01, p.A1)
2001        Jul 21, In Indonesia an impeachment session of the People’s Consultative Assembly convened early and voted that Pres. Wahid defend himself with an accountability speech.
    (SSFC, 7/22/01, p.A12)
2001        Jul 21, In Japan 10 people, mostly children, were killed on a crowded pedestrian bridge as they left a fireworks display in Akashi.
    (SSFC, 7/22/01, p.A14)

2002        Jul 21, WorldCom filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy about a month after disclosing it had inflated profits by nearly $4 billion through deceptive accounting. With $107 billion in assets, it was the largest US bankruptcy ever.
    (SFC, 7/22/02, p.A1)(AP, 7/21/03)
2002        Jul 21, In south central Oregon an 87,000 acre wildfire burned along a mile-long front.
    (SFC, 7/22/02, p.A3)
2002        Jul 21, Ernie Els won the British Open in the first sudden-death finish in the 142-year history of the tournament.
    (AP, 7/21/03)
2002        Jul 21, In Iraq executions of 15 political dissidents took place in the Abu Gharib prison, west of Baghdad, and the bodies were buried at night in a mass grave at al-Karkh cemetery in Baghdad. The Iraqi opposition group Center for Human Rights reported this Sep 30.
    (AP, 9/30/02)
2002        Jul 21, In Israel an explosion under a moving passenger train near Tel Aviv moderately injured one Israeli.
    (AP, 7/21/02)
2002        Jul 21, In the Philippines 3 people drowned in floods and a landslide buried alive a family of three as heavy rains pummeled the main island of Luzon, including Manila.
    (Reuters, 7/21/02)
2002        Jul 21, In Russia fighting started when a vendor at the Moscow Orion market opened fire at a group of wholesale buyers who allegedly refused to pay him for his goods. The armed vendor was from the Dagestan region in southern Russia, and the buyers were from the former Soviet republic of Azerbaijan.
    (AP, 7/22/02)
2002        Jul 21, A methane gas explosion tore through a Ukrainian coal mine, killing at least six miners and leaving more than 28 missing.
    (AP, 7/21/02)

2003        Jul 21, President Bush said he was working to persuade more nations to help in Iraq.
    (AP, 7/21/04)
2003        Jul 21, Carlton Dotson Jr., the roommate of missing Baylor basketball player Patrick Dennehy, was arrested and charged with Dennehy's murder. Dotson later pleaded guilty and was sentenced to 35 years in prison.
    (AP, 7/21/08)
2003        Jul 21, About 1,000 soldiers of Afghanistan's new national army launched their first major operation, sweeping for insurgents in the east of the country.
    (AP, 7/24/03)
2003        Jul 21, In southwest Cameroon water-logged hillsides gave way after a week of heavy rain, killing at least 21 people.
    (AP, 7/24/03)
2003        Jul 21, In southwest China a magnitude-6.2 earthquake toppled thousands of mud-brick houses in a mountainous area, killing at least 16 people and injuring more than 300 others.
    (AP, 7/22/03)
2003        Jul 21, In Haiti a high tension wire snapped and fell, electrocuting 15 people who were gathered to watch the final match of a basketball game in Petit-Goave. All 15 died.
    (AP, 7/22/03)
2003        Jul 21, In Liberia mortar shells hit the heavily fortified U.S. Embassy in the Monrovia, injuring at least three people. Fighting in the Liberian capital of Monrovia left over 600 dead.
    (AP, 7/21/03)(AP, 7/22/03)
2003        Jul 21, In Peru 8 mountain climbers were missing after an avalanche on Alpamayo mountain. Four Germans, two Israelis, one Venezuelan and one Peruvian were believed to have been buried,
    (AP, 7/23/03)
2003        Jul 21, In Sao Tome military coup leaders freed seven government ministers detained in last week's bloodless rebellion and resumed talks with international mediators on restoring civilian rule.
    (AP, 7/21/03)
2003        Jul 21, Monsoon rains were reported to have killed at least 579 people in South Asia. India reported a total of 263 deaths, Bangladesh 169, Pakistan 78, and Nepal 69.
    (AP, 7/21/03)
2003        Jul 21, The Saudi government announced that police arrested 16 al-Qaida-linked terror suspects over the last 4 days and used tractors to dig up an underground arsenal: 20 tons of bomb-making chemicals, detonators, rocket-propelled grenades and rifles.
    (AP, 7/22/03)

2004        Jul 21, Pres. Bush sketched out a 2nd-term domestic agenda, telling campaign donors he would shift focus to improving high school education and expanding access to health care.
    (AP, 7/21/05)
2004        Jul 21, Stephen Hawking presented findings that contradicted his earlier work on black holes and said black holes form an apparent horizon from which information can eventually escape. This change lost him a 1977 bet with Dr. Preskill of CalTech.
    (Econ, 7/24/04, p.74)
2004        Jul 21, Richard Block (78), co-founder of H&R Block (1955), died in Kansas City.
    (SFC, 7/22/04, p.B8)
2004        Jul 21, Jerry Goldsmith (75), Academy Award-winning composer, died. He created the memorable music for scores of classic movies and television shows ranging from the "Star Trek" and "Planet of the Apes" series to "The Man from U.N.C.L.E." and "Dr. Kildare."
    (AP, 7/22/04)
2004        Jul 21, In Afghanistan 10 militant fighters were killed and 5 wounded and captured when they attacked a US-led force near Kandahar.
    (SFC, 7/22/04, p.A3)
2004        Jul 21, Defence Secretary Geoff Hoon announced Britain is to slash around 19,000 posts from its armed forces over the next four years as part of an overhaul of military priorities.
    (AFP, 7/21/04)
2004        Jul 21, Insurgents in Iraq said they have kidnapped 6 more foreign hostages, 3 Indians, 2 Kenyans and an Egyptian. They threatened to behead one every 72 hours unless their employer shuts down operations in Iraq.
    (SFC, 7/22/04, p.A1)
2004        Jul 21, Fighting between US troops and insurgents in Ramadi left 25 Iraqis dead and 17 wounded. A decapitated corpse was found in Baiji.
    (SFC, 7/23/04, p.A3)
2004        Jul 21, Rwanda officials said 500 judges were fired and 223 new ones appointed in a reform move to improve the judiciary.
    (SFC, 7/22/04, p.A3)
2004        Jul 21, South Korea pledged to expand economic ties with North Korea while Japan said it would seek normal relations with the communist state when a dispute over the North's nuclear ambitions is resolved.
    (AP, 7/21/04)

2005        Jul 21, The House voted to extend the USA Patriot Act.
    (AP, 7/21/06)
2005        Jul 21, A US appeals court ordered the government to sell the Unabomber’s property and give the proceeds to victims of his bombings.
    (WSJ, 7/22/05, p.A1)
2005        Jul 21, Sealed court documents were filed in which the U.S. Attorney's Office initiated attempts to seize the home of U.S. Rep. Randy "Duke" Cunningham, alleging that the California Republican's $3.5 million estate in Rancho Santa Fe, a San Diego suburb, was purchased with bribe money. In 2006 prosecutors alleged that Brent Wilkes, a San Diego businessman, paid Cunningham over $626,000 in bribes between 2000 and 2004 to win government contracts for his companies.
    (AP, 8/19/05)(SSFC, 5/14/06, p.A18)
2005        Jul 21, US and Canadian authorities reported the shutdown of a newly completed 100-yard border crossing tunnel outside Lynden, Wa., intended for smuggling marijuana.
    (SFC, 7/22/05, p.A3)
2005        Jul 21, The US Centers for Disease Control reported that the bodies of American children and adults contained over 100 toxic substance including pyrethroids, a pesticide ingredient, and phthalates, found in beauty products and soft plastics.
    (SFC, 7/22/05, p.A12)
2005        Jul 21, In Phoenix, Az., a blistering heat wave was blamed for the deaths of 18 people. 14 were thought to be homeless; 3 were elderly women.
    (AP, 7/21/05)
2005        Jul 21, Airbus said it has received an order for 20 of its twin-aisle A330 passenger jets from Air China, in a deal worth about 3.2 billion euros ($3.9 billion) at list prices.
    (AP, 7/21/05)
2005        Jul 21, Long John Baldry (64), British blues musician, died in Canada.
    (WSJ, 7/25/05, p.A1)
2005        Jul 21, Suspected Taliban rebels ambushed a car carrying a local administrator in southern Afghanistan. Gul Mohammed, an acting deputy district chief, and his unidentified driver were killed when militants opened fire on their car in Helmand province.
    (AP, 7/22/05)
2005        Jul 21, In Brazil an Indian rights group warned that wildcat miners who have entered the Yanomami Indians' Amazon reservation have brought guns and diseases that threaten the stone-age tribe. An estimated 500 prospectors have invaded the reservation, which is rich in gold, magnesium and niobium.
    (AP, 7/21/05)
2005        Jul 21, Explosions struck 3 London Underground stations and a bus at midday in a chilling but less deadly replay of the suicide bombings that killed 56 people two weeks ago. One person was seriously wounded. In 2007 a British prosecutor told a jury that 6 men plotted to kill London subway and bus passengers with bombs made from hydrogen peroxide and flour on July 21, 2005, two weeks after suicide bombers killed 52 commuters in the city. The devices failed to explode. In 2007 a jury convicted Muktar Said Ibrahim (29), Yassin Omar (26), Ramzi Mohammed (25), and Hussain Osman (28) for conspiracy to murder. The jury failed to reach a verdict for Manfo Kwaku Asiedu (34) and Adel Yahya (24). The 4 convicted men were sentenced to life in prison. In 2007 Manfo Kwaku Asiedu, who was born in Ghana, admitted a charge of conspiracy to cause explosions over the failed bombings. Asiedu was supposed to be carrying a fifth bomb on the day but ended up dumping the rucksack with his device in a park in north London. Asiedu was sentenced to 33 years in prison. In 2008 Siraj Ali (33), Muhedin Ali (29), Ismail Abdurahman (25), Wahbi Mohammed (25) and Abdul Sherif (30), were convicted on 22 charges of failing to disclose information about terrorism and assisting an offender. They included the brothers of two of the July 21, 2005 bombers.
    (AP, 7/21/05)(AP, 1/15/07)(AP, 7/11/07)(Reuters, 11/9/07)(AP, 11/20/07)(AFP, 2/4/08)
2005        Jul 21, China scrapped the yuan's peg to the US dollar and tied it to a basket of currencies revaluing the yuan by 2.1 percent and leaving the door open to further rises.
    (Reuters, 7/21/05)
2005        Jul 21, Germany's Pres. Horst Koehler agreed to dissolve parliament and hold early elections Sept. 18 that could give the country its first woman chancellor.
    (AP, 7/21/05)
2005        Jul 21, Hong Kong said it would maintain its 21-year-old peg to the US dollar.
    (Econ, 8/6/05, p.60)
2005        Jul 21, In Indonesia the first suspect to face charges in the 2004 bombing of the Australian Embassy was sentenced to 3 ½ years in prison for assisting the attack's perpetrators, but was cleared of more serious charges.
    (AP, 7/21/05)
2005        Jul 21, The chief of Algeria's diplomatic mission, Ali Belaroussi, and fellow envoy Azzedine Belkadi were seized at gunpoint from the upscale Mansour district of western Baghdad. In an Internet statement 2 days later al-Qaida in Iraq said it was responsible. Al-Qaida later announced it had killed the diplomats.
    (AP, 7/23/05)(AP, 7/21/06)
2005        Jul 21, In Indian Kashmir 2 bus passengers were killed and three were wounded when they were caught in an exchange of fire between militants and soldiers.
    (AP, 7/21/05)
2005        Jul 21, A Kurdish party official said Kurdish leaders have presented a redrawn map with a larger Kurdistan to the Iraqi National Assembly for consideration in the new constitution.
    (AP, 7/21/05)
2005        Jul 21, The aid agency Oxfam said about 3.6 million people face starvation in Niger unless the international community responds urgently to the food crisis there.
    (AP, 7/21/05)
2005        Jul 21, A truck strike paralyzed fuel deliveries across Puerto Rico.
    (AP, 7/21/05)
2005        Jul 21, Russian and US officials inaugurated a new U.S-financed command center aimed at improving Russia's ability to prevent trafficking of nuclear materials.
    (AP, 7/21/05)
2005        Jul 21, Russia reported its 1st case of bird flu in Siberia’s Novosibirsk region.
    (WSJ, 7/22/05, p.A10)
2005        Jul 21, Sudanese security officers roughed up members of Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice's entourage; Rice demanded and got an apology.
    (AP, 7/21/06)
2005        Jul 21, Turkish forces killed 5 Kurdish rebels, including a woman, in a gunbattle in the southeast.
    (AP, 7/23/05)
2005        Jul 21, Venezuelan leaders condemned a U.S. decision to transmit broadcasts to this South American country to ensure its citizens receive "accurate news."
    (AP, 7/21/05)
2005        Jul 21, In Yemen protesters clashed with security forces for a 2nd day after the government reduced subsidies on oil products. The violence in the capital and elsewhere left four dead and seven injured. 2 days of rioting left 16 people dead.
    (AP, 7/21/05)(SFC, 7/22/05, p.A14)

2006        Jul 21, In NYC residents of Queens suffered through a 5th day of power blackouts. ConEdison said power blackouts in Queens had affected some 25,000 customers.
    (SFC, 7/22/06, p.A3)
2006        Jul 21, The California Dept. of Education said an estimated 5% of high school seniors (40,173 of 436, 374) did not qualify for graduation because they failed exit exam.
    (SFC, 7/22/06, p.B1)
2006        Jul 21, Mako (b.1933 as Makoto Iwamatsu), Japanese-born film and TV actor, died at his home in Ventura Ct., Ca. His films included “The Sand Pebbles" (1966). In 1965 he co-founded the East West Players, the 1st Asian-American theater company.
    (SFC, 7/24/06, p.B8)
2006        Jul 21, The Netherlands’ military chief said Dutch commandos had killed 18 enemy fighters who set up positions in rugged hills overlooking a Dutch camp in southern Afghanistan.
    (AP, 7/21/06)
2006        Jul 21, In Cambodia Ta Mok (80), known as "The Butcher" for his brutality as military chief of the communist Khmer Rouge, died.
    (AP, 7/21/06)(Econ, 8/5/06, p.77)
2006        Jul 21, India urged Pakistan to hand over a top Kashmiri militant as a gesture of its determination to fight terrorism.
    (Reuters, 7/21/06)
2006        Jul 21, In Iraq US troops raided a neighborhood northeast of Baghdad, killing 5 people, including two women and a child, after gunmen fired from the rooftops of buildings. Bombs killed two worshippers at mosques in Iraq during prayers and the authorities extended a daytime curfew on Baghdad after one of the bloodiest weeks this year.
    (AP, 7/21/06)(Reuters, 7/21/06)
2006        Jul 21, Israel called up reserve troops and warned civilians to flee Hezbollah-controlled southern Lebanon, as it prepared for a likely ground invasion to set up a deep buffer zone. Hezbollah guerrillas fired two volleys of rockets at Haifa, wounding five people and damaging shops and office buildings. At least 335 people have been killed in Lebanon in the Israeli campaign. 34 Israelis also have been killed, including 19 soldiers.
    (AP, 7/21/06)
2006        Jul 21, A Hamas activist and three relatives were killed in an explosion at his home in Gaza City, hospital officials said. Palestinians said the house was hit by an Israeli tank shell.
    (AP, 7/21/06)
2006        Jul 21, An Islamic militia leader called for a holy war against Ethiopian troops protecting Somalia's weak UN-backed government.
    (AP, 7/21/06)
2006        Jul 21, In Oaxaca, Mexico, protests initiated by striking teachers continued. Protest leaders said their fight is not with the tourists but with Gov. Ulises Ruiz, whom they accuse of rigging the state election in 2004 and using force to repress dissent.
    (AP, 7/21/06)
2006        Jul 21, It was reported that Saudi Arabia has ordered 76 artillery howitzers from the French armaments manufacturer Giat Industries as defense minister Crown Prince Sultan bin Abdul Aziz completed a two-day visit.
    (AFP, 7/21/06)
2006        Jul 21, The UN refugee agency said international aid operations in refugee camps in the Zalinge area of Sudan's Darfur region have been suspended after three water workers were killed by a mob.
    (Reuters, 7/21/06)
2006        Jul 21, Turkey killed 4 Kurdish rebels after a soldier died in an attack.
    (WSJ, 7/22/06, p.A1)
2006        Jul 21, Venezuela formally entered Mercosur, increasing the South American trade bloc's economic might and vowing to transform the policy organization into a force for profound social change. Cuba’s Fidel Castro signed a modest trade at the 2-day Mercosur meeting in Cordoba, Argentina.
    (AP, 7/21/06)(Econ, 7/29/06, p.36)

2007        Jul 21, Doctors removed five small growths from President Bush's colon after he temporarily transferred the powers of his office to Vice President Dick Cheney under the rarely invoked 25th Amendment.
    (AP, 7/21/08)
2007        Jul 21, The protracted suspense finally lifted for Harry Potter fans who flooded bookshops worldwide to grab the series finale, "Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows," and find out whether author J.K. Rowling slays or spares the boy wizard.
    (AFP, 7/21/07)(AP, 7/21/08)
2007        Jul 21, A purported Taliban spokesman said the militia killed two German hostages because Germany didn't announce a troop withdrawal. The Afghan government, however, said one of the Germans died of a heart attack and that the second was still alive. Ruediger Diedrich, one of two Germans kidnapped in southern Afghanistan on July 18, was found dead. Germany has 3,000 soldiers in NATO's International Security Assistance Force.
    (AP, 7/21/07)(AP, 7/21/08)
2007        Jul 21, Security sources said a week-long offensive by Algerian special forces in a mountainous area east of Algiers has killed between eight and 11 Islamist militants.
    (AFP, 7/21/07)
2007        Jul 21, Helicopters rescued dozens of people following heavy rains and floods in England that also forced more than 2,000 motorists, homeowners and train passengers to spend the night in shelters.
    (AP, 7/21/07)
2007        Jul 21, Jean Berchmans Ndayshimiye, the military leader of Burundi's last rebel group (FNL), escaped back to the bush, sparking fears of renewed civil conflict.
    (AFP, 7/22/07)
2007        Jul 21, Developers of the Burj Dubai, a 1,680-foot skyscraper still under construction in oil-rich Dubai, claimed that it has become the world's tallest building, surpassing Taiwan's Taipei 101 which has dominated the global skyline at 1,667 feet since 2004.
    (AP, 7/21/07)
2007        Jul 21, A bomb left on a minibus also exploded shortly after noon in the predominantly Shiite area of Baladiyat in eastern Baghdad, killing at least five Iraqis and wounding 11. A mortar attack also struck the eastern outskirts of Baghdad, killing two people and wounding four. A top aide to Iraq's Shiite spiritual leader Ayatollah Ali al-Sistani was stabbed to death in the city of Najaf. American and Iraqi forces continued operations to clear Sunni extremists from Baqouba. Americans said earlier this week that they have killed at least 67 al-Qaida operatives in Baqouba, arrested 253, seized 63 weapons caches and have destroyed 151 roadside bombs since last month. A roadside bomb killed a US soldier.
    (AP, 7/21/07)(AP, 7/22/07)(AP, 7/23/07)
2007        Jul 21, Italian police arrested three Moroccans, an imam and two of his aids, they accuse of being part of a militant cell that allegedly used a mosque in a central Italian city as a terror training camp.
    (AP, 7/21/07)
2007        Jul 21, In southern Nigeria armed men seized the son (30) of a local chief near Port Harcourt.
    (AFP, 7/22/07)
2007        Jul 21, Attackers dressed in dark clothes and wielding metal pipes raided a camp of environmental protesters near Angarsk, Siberia, leaving one dead and several injured. Over 20 demonstrators had been camped out by a reservoir, about 2,600 miles east of Moscow, to protest nuclear waste processing at the state-owned Angarsk Electrolysis Chemical Plant.
    (AP, 7/21/07)
2007        Jul 21, Jesus de Polanco (77), chairman of Spain's main media group Prisa and one of the country's richest men, died in Madrid.
    (AFP, 7/21/07)
2007        Jul 21, Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir, implicated by many in the international community in Darfur's genocide, visited the troubled region for the first time in the four-year conflict there.
    (AP, 7/21/07)
2007        Jul 21, In northern Syria 2 buses collided head-on, killing 20 people and wounding 50.
    (AP, 7/21/07)
2007        Jul 21, Former US president Bill Clinton said his foundation had secured a deal for Zambia to access cheap HIV/AIDS drugs.
    (AFP, 7/22/07)
2007        Jul 21, Zimbabwe’s official Herald newspaper said the government had revived the Zimbabwe State Trading Corporation (ZSTC) to work alongside the state Zimbabwe Development Corporation (ZDC) "as vehicles for acquiring companies that it might want to take over for engaging in economic sabotage."
    (AP, 7/21/07)

2008        Jul 21, The US FDA issued an advisory for consumers to avoid eating uncooked jalapeno peppers after it found a jalapeno grown in Mexico in a Texas border town warehouse that tested positive with the same strain of salmonella that was earlier associated with tomatoes.
    (SFC, 7/22/08, p.A10)
2008        Jul 21, The war crimes trial of Salim Hamdan, bin Laden’s driver, began at Guantanamo. The judge barred evidence obtained in Afghanistan, citing coercive conditions.
    (WSJ, 7/22/08, p.A1)
2008        Jul 21, Brocade Communications said it will pay nearly $3 billion for Foundry Networks, founded in 1996. Both Silicon Valley firms companies competed with Cisco Systems.
    (WSJ, 7/22/08, p.B8)
2008        Jul 21, A US B-52 bomber that was due to fly in a Liberation Day parade in the US territory of Guam crashed into the Pacific Ocean soon after take-off. All of the bomber's six-man crew were killed.
    (AFP, 7/21/08)(AP, 7/23/08)
2008        Jul 21, Sid Craig (b.1932), co-founder of the Jenny Craig chain of diet centers (1983), died. Craig founded Jenny Craig, named after his wife, in Australia and expanded to the US in 1985. The company went public in 1992. In 2006 Nestle SA bought the operation.
    (WSJ, 7/26/08, p.A5)
2008        Jul 21, In Sidney Pope Benedict XVI met privately with Australians who were sexually abused as children by priests, ending a pilgrimage to the country with a gesture of contrition and concern over a scandal that has rocked the Roman Catholic church.
    (AP, 7/21/08)
2008        Jul 21, Eric Dowling (b.1915), former English POW, died. He was nicknamed "Digger" for helping excavate tunnels used in the breakout from a World War II German prison camp that became known as the "Great Escape." Dowling played a key role in planning the march 24, 1944, escape by 76 prisoners from Stalag Luft III prison near Sagan in eastern Germany — now Zagan, Poland.
    (AP, 8/7/08)
2008        Jul 21, Talks between Cambodia and Thailand to resolve a military stand-off on their joint border ended without a solution.
    (AFP, 7/21/08)
2008        Jul 21, In Chechnya the bullet-riddled bodies of three officers, who had been guarding an Interior Ministry trailer, were found on a collective farm. The assailants made off with the officers' guns.
    (AP, 7/21/08)
2008        Jul 21, China and Russia signed an agreement that demarcated their 2,700 mile border ending a long running border dispute.
    (WSJ, 7/22/08, p.A1)
2008        Jul 21, In China 2 people were killed in explosions aboard two public buses in Kunming city, Yunnan province. On Dec 24 Li Yan reportedly confessed to his role in the bombings as he lay on his death bed after trying to plant another bomb. 20 miners escaped or were rescued from a flooded coal mine in southern China but six have died and 30 remain trapped.
    (AFP, 7/21/08)(AP, 7/22/08)(SFC, 12/29/08, p.A3)
2008        Jul 21, Egyptian police arrested 39 members of the country's largest opposition group, the banned Muslim Brotherhood during a raid on a camp north of Cairo. The men, aged 18 to 35, said they were only on vacation. Egyptian authorities shut down the Cairo office of an Iranian TV network, as the two nations spar over "Assassination of a Pharaoh," a film that justifies the killing of former Egyptian President Anwar Sadat by Islamic militants.
    (AP, 7/21/08)(AP, 7/24/08)
2008        Jul 21, President Nicolas Sarkozy's risky bid to rewrite France's political rules with sweeping constitutional changes worked, but just barely, with both houses of parliament meeting in special session to pass the measures by a single vote. The reform gives parliament greater power but also adds a new privileges to France's already strong presidency, notably allowing the chief of state to address together the two houses of congress. However, it limits the president to two five-year terms.
    (AP, 7/21/08)
2008        Jul 21, Rakhat Aliyev, the ex-son-in-law of Kazakhstan Pres. Nazarbayev, accused the president of diverting billions in state assets and other corruption.
    (WSJ, 7/22/08, p.A1)
2008        Jul 21, An aid agency said Kenyan armed forces are preventing aid workers from helping homeless, hungry families caught between a brutal militia and an army crackdown.
    (AP, 7/21/08)
2008        Jul 21, A UN-led report said Myanmar needs at least $1 billion over the next three years to put the survivors of Cyclone Nargis back on their feet, in the first comprehensive assessment of damage caused by the disaster that killed more than 84,000 people.
    (AP, 7/21/08)
2008        Jul 21, Lawmakers in Nepal voted in the Himalayan nation's first post-royal president, but their rejection of a candidate backed by the Maoists was likely to lead to more political deadlock. Ram Baran Yadav, who was supported by the centrist Nepali Congress party, won 308 out of 590 votes cast in Nepal's constitutional assembly.
    (AFP, 7/21/08)
2008        Jul 21, A Pakistani court barred the disgraced architect of Pakistan's atomic weapons program from speaking about nuclear proliferation, less than three weeks after he implicated the army in the sharing of nuclear technology with North Korea. Intelligence officials in Quetta said at least 30 insurgents, including three rebel commanders, had been killed. Suspected Islamic militants shot dead a pro-government tribal chief and wounded three other people in an attack on the outskirts of Khar near Pakistan's border with Afghanistan.
    (AP, 7/21/08)(AFP, 7/21/08)
2008        Jul 21, Pakistan’s Geo TV broadcasted a recent interview with Mustafa Abu al-Yazeed, a senior al-Qaida leader. He urged Pakistanis to help Afghans fight US-led coalition forces and condemned President Pervez Musharraf for arresting Arab and Afghan fighters and handing them over to Washington.
    (AP, 7/22/08)
2008        Jul 21, Radovan Karadzic (63), the wartime leader of Bosnian Serbs, was arrested in a Belgrade suburb. A judge ordered his transfer to the UN war crimes tribunal in The Hague.
    (AP, 7/22/08)
2008        Jul 21, In Singapore the 10 members of ASEAN adopted a common charter that included a list of 15 purposes.
    (www.aseansec.org/21806.htm)(Econ, 2/12/11, p.52)
2008        Jul 21, In Sri Lanka 44 rebels and two government soldiers were killed in fighting.
    (AP, 7/22/08)
2008        Jul 21, The African Union urged the UN Security Council to put on hold the International Criminal Court's move to indict Sudanese President Omar Hassan al-Bashir over war crimes in Darfur.
    (Reuters, 7/21/08)
2008        Jul 21, Swiss pharmaceutical giant Roche offered 43.7 billion dollars to acquire the remaining shares in US subsidiary Genentech, the bio-tech pioneer underpinning its dominance of the cancer treatment market.
    (AP, 7/21/08)
2008        Jul 21, Vietnam raised its fuel prices by 31%.
    (WSJ, 7/22/08, p.A13)
2008        Jul 21, In Zimbabwe mediator South African Pres. Thabo Mbeki oversaw a ceremony in Harare at which Robert Mugabe and opposition leader Morgan Tsvangirai signed an agreement for negotiations to bring the country out of political chaos in their first meeting in a decade.
    (AFP, 7/21/08)

2009        Jul 21, The US Senate voted to stop production of the F-22 fighter plane, handing President Barack Obama a victory as he tries to rein in defense spending.
    (Reuters, 7/21/09)
2009        Jul 21, In Delaware creditors charged in a court filing that racetrack operator Magna Entertainment Corp fraudulently transferred more than $125 million to companies controlled by Canadian billionaire Frank Stronach before filing for bankruptcy.
    (Reuters, 7/22/09)
2009        Jul 21, The Ninth US Circuit Court of Appeals in SF ruled that police who tell investigators about alleged corruption in their departments have no constitutional protection for their statements and can be fired.
    (SFC, 7/22/09, p.D2)
2009        Jul 21, Oakland, Ca., residents overwhelmingly voted to approve a first-of-its kind tax on medical marijuana sold at the city's four cannabis dispensaries.
    (AP, 7/22/09)
2009        Jul 21, John Dawson (64), co-founder of the “New Riders of the Purple Sage" (1969), a psychedelic country rock band, died at his home in San Miguel de Allende, Mexico. His band released 8 albums from 1971-1976 including the gold certified “The Adventures of Panama Red" (1973). His songs included “Glendale Train." He was also a long time collaborator with Jerry Garcia and the Grateful Dead.
    (SFC, 7/25/09, p.C4)
2009        Jul 21, In Afghanistan Taliban militants attacked three government buildings in Gardez and a US base near Jalalabad and in near-simultaneous attacks, a signature of major Taliban assaults. 8 insurgents and 5 Afghan security forces died. Canadian troops were involved in two shooting incidents in southern Afghanistan, killing a girl and wounding three policemen. Afghan authorities said later that police arrested 7 would-be suicide bombers, who would have inflicted mayhem in further coordinated strikes.
    (AP, 7/21/09)(AP, 7/23/09)(AFP, 7/25/09)
2009        Jul 21, Several Chinese Internet sites and parts of popular Web portals went offline amid tightening controls that have already left mainland Web users without access to Facebook, Twitter and other well-known social networking sites.
    (AP, 7/21/09)
2009        Jul 21, The general manager of Dubai's Al Nassma said the world's first brand of chocolate made with camels' milk plans to expand into new Arab markets, Europe, Japan and the United States.
    (AP, 7/21/09)
2009        Jul 21, French factory workers angry over layoffs and cost cuts locked up their bosses at a Michelin tire plant and a US-owned cigarette-paper mill. The managers were released the next morning after regional officials offered to mediate.
    (AP, 7/22/09)
2009        Jul 21, Honduras’s interim government ordered Venezuelan diplomats to leave the country in 72 hours as the int’l. community threatened new sanctions if negotiations fail the resolve the overthrow of Pres. Manuel Zelaya.
    (SFC, 7/22/09, p.A2)
2009        Jul 21, Iran's supreme leader handed a humiliation to Pres. Ahmadinejad, ordering him to dismiss Esfandiar Rahim Mashai, his choice for top deputy, after the appointment drew sharp condemnation from their hard-line base. Mashai, a relative by marriage to Ahmadinejad, angered hard-liners in 2008 when he said Iranians were "friends of all people in the world, even Israelis." Ahmadinejad appeared to openly defy the order.
    (AP, 7/22/09)(SFC, 7/22/09, p.A3)
2009        Jul 21, In Iraq bombs killed 19 people and wounded 80 across the country. 6 bombs exploded in Baghdad killing 14 people and wounded at least 30 others. These included 2 bombs near a group of day laborers in Baghdad's Sadr City area.
    (AP, 7/21/09)(SFC, 7/22/09, p.A2)
2009        Jul 21, Japan’s PM Taro Aso dissolved the powerful lower house of the parliament and vowed his divided ruling party will make a new start in national elections next month despite forecasts it may lose the grip it has held on the nation for most of the past 55 years.
    (AP, 7/21/09)
2009        Jul 21, In southern Japan torrential rains triggered floods and landslides, leaving at least six people dead and 10 others missing, including elderly residents at a nursing home.
    (AP, 7/22/09)
2009        Jul 21, In southwest Kenya a bus driver swerved at a sharp corner and collided with another bus, killing at least 22 people and injuring dozens.
    (AP, 7/22/09)
2009        Jul 21, Mali's president's office announced that Spain plans to help Mali fight Al-Qaeda of the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM), which is active in the desert north of the west African nation.
    (AFP, 7/21/09)
2009        Jul 21, Mexican police detained a woman (65) in the deaths of two professional wrestlers who were found drugged in a low-rent hotel in Mexico City on June 29. One of the diminutive wrestlers went by the name "La Parkita" (Little Death") and wore a skeleton costume in the ring. The other was known as "Espectrito Jr." An autopsy on the two wrestlers, who were brothers, detected a substance found in eye drops that can damage the nervous system when mixed with alcohol. Three bodies, one of them headless, were found floating in an irrigation ditch in the northern border city of Ciudad Juarez, where drug violence has spiked despite the presence of thousands of soldiers. Police captured four men, members of the La Familia drug cartel, accused of slaying 12 federal agents on the weekend of July 12 and dumping their bloodied bodies along a highway in President Felipe Calderon's home state of Michoacan.
    (AP, 7/21/09)(http://alibi.com/index.php?story=28392&scn=news)(AP, 7/23/09)
2009        Jul 21, Pakistan’s military said 3 days of clashes between security forces and militants in the northwest left more than 56 militants and six soldiers dead. Pakistani fighter jets destroyed two suspected militant hide-outs in South Waziristan, killing six men believed to be associates of Taliban commander Baitullah Mehsud.
    (AP, 7/21/09)(AP, 7/22/09)
2009        Jul 21, Spain’s foreign minister, Miguel Angel Moratinos, drove across the border to Gibraltar to meet with British foreign secretary, David Miliband, and Gibraltar chief minister, Pater Caruana. This was the first time in over 300 years that a Spanish government minister had visited the British territory.
    (Econ, 7/25/09, p.51)
2009        Jul 21, Sri Lanka welcomed a tentative agreement with the IMF for a 2.5-billion-dollar bailout as the country emerged from a near four-decade-long separatist war.
    (AFP, 7/21/09)
2009        Jul 21, In Turkey a father and two sons allegedly opened fire in the eastern village in Elazig province, killing six people and wounding seven others. They were soon captured.
    (AP, 7/22/09)
2009        Jul 21, The WHO said that deaths from the H1N1 swine flu virus have double in the past 3 weeks to over 700.
    (SFC, 7/22/09, p.A2)

2010        Jul 21, Pres. Obama signed major financial overhaul legislation named after Sen. Chris Dodd (D-Conn) and Rep. Barney Frank (D-Mass). The Volcker rule in the legislation only took effect on July 21 2015. This banned banks from proprietary trading and ties to hedge and private equity funds. 
    (SFC, 7/22/10, p.D1)(Econ, 7/25/15, p.60)
2010        Jul 21, The United States announced new sanctions against North Korea, targeted against its leadership, and warned of serious consequences if it again attacked the South.
    (Reuters, 7/21/10)
2010        Jul 21, A US federal judge ordered imprisoned former media baron Conrad Black released on $2 million bond, while she decides whether to throw out his 2007 conviction for defrauding shareholders. The Canadian-born Black, a British peer who once led the world's third-largest newspaper publisher, entered a Florida prison in March 2008. Black still faced numerous civil suits related to Hollinger, and US tax authorities have demanded $71 million from him for unpaid taxes.
    (Reuters, 7/21/10)
2010        Jul 21, A US federal jury found Beau Diamond of Sarasota, Fla., guilty of 18 counts of fraud and money laundering crimes in association with a $37 million Ponzi scheme between 2006 and 2009. In December Diamond was sentenced to over 15 years in federal prison.
    (www.heraldtribune.com/article/20100722/ARTICLE/7221060)(SFC, 12/23/10, p.A6)
2010        Jul 21, Scientists said a huge ball of brightly burning gas in a neighboring galaxy may be the heaviest star ever discovered, hundreds of times more massive than the sun after working out its weight for the first time. The star, called R136a1, was identified at the center of a star cluster in the Tarantula Nebula, a sprawling cloud of gas and dust in the Large Magellanic Cloud, a galaxy about 165,000 light-years away from our own Milky Way.
    (AP, 7/21/10)
2010        Jul 21, Don Backer (66), UC astronomer and pioneer in the use of the radio telescope, died in Berkeley, Ca. In 1982 Don Backer led a group which discovered PSR B1937+21, a pulsar with a rotation period of just 1.6 milliseconds.
    (SFC, 7/31/10, p.C4)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pulsar)
2010        Jul 21, In northern Afghanistan insurgents beheaded six policemen after attacking their checkpoint in Baghlan province's Dahanah-ye Ghori district. A Danish service member was killed by an explosion in the south. In Kabul NATO and Afghan forces captured another suspected insurgent who had planned attacks against this week's international conference.
    (AP, 7/21/10)(AP, 7/22/10)(SFC, 7/22/10, p.A4)
2010        Jul 21, In Argentina Pres. Cristina Fernandez signed a new law making Argentina the first country in Latin America to legalize marriage for same-sex couples.
    (AP, 7/22/10)
2010        Jul 21, Thet Sambat, Cambodian journalist, and Rob Lemkin, British director, premiered their documentary “Enemies of the People" in Cambodia. It features his conversations with Nuon Ceha, Pol Pot’s right hand man. In January it won the World Cinema Documentary Special Jury Prize at the prestigious Sundance Film Festival.
    (Econ, 7/31/10, p.31)(http://enemiesofthepeoplemovie.com/)
2010        Jul 21, The Central American Integration System readmitted Honduras.
    (Econ, 7/24/10, p.40)
2010        Jul 21, President Omar al-Bashir arrived in Chad, the first time Sudan's leader has been in a member state of the International Criminal Court. He arrived to take part in a summit of the Community of Sahel-Saharan States. Human Rights Watch said that Chad should arrest al-Bashir or risk becoming the first ICC member state to harbor a suspected war criminal.
    (AP, 7/21/10)
2010        Jul 21, China said flood waters this year have killed 701 people and left 347 missing. The overall damage thus far totaled 142.2 billion yuan ($21 billion).
    (AP, 7/21/10)
2010        Jul 21, China's largest reported oil spill had more than doubled, closing beaches on the Yellow Sea and prompting an environmental official to warn the sticky black crude posed a "severe threat" to sea life and water quality. The oil was spread over 165 square miles (430 square km) of water five days since a pipeline at a busy northeastern port exploded.
    (AP, 7/21/10)
2010        Jul 21, The leaders of Egypt and Turkey met in Cairo to discuss stuttering international efforts to coax Israeli and Palestinian leaders back to the negotiating table.
    (AFP, 7/21/10)
2010        Jul 21, Iran's nuclear agency said it will conduct scientific studies for the construction of an experimental nuclear fusion reactor, an engineering challenge that no nation has yet overcome.
    (AP, 7/21/10)
2010        Jul 21, Southern Iran was shaken by a 5.8 magnitude earthquake killing one person.
    (AFP, 7/21/10)
2010        Jul 21, In Iraq a car bomb outside a Shiite mosque in Baqouba, Diyala province, killed 15 people, the third deadly attack in the region in as many days. A US soldier was killed in a separate bombing in the same province. Iraqi soldiers arrested Saleem Khalid al-Zawbayi, the minister of defense for the Islamic State of Iraq (ISI). Zawbayi was suspected of organizing a July 18 suicide bombing in the town of Radwaniyah.
    (AP, 7/21/10)(AP, 7/25/10)
2010        Jul 21, Israel said it will restrict its use of white phosphorus munitions and seek to limit civilian casualties in future wars, in a report to the UN secretary general released this week. Israeli fire killed two Palestinians and wounded 10 in the northern Gaza Strip.
    (AFP, 7/21/10)
2010        Jul 21, Kyrgyzstan police detained Akhmat Bakiyev, a brother of deposed President Kurmanbek Bakiyev, in the latest effort to solidify control over the country's tense south and dismantle the former leader's entourage. International health and rights groups said that minority ethnic Uzbeks in southern Kyrgyzstan are being deprived of medical treatment and opportunities to seek refuge in neighboring Uzbekistan.
    (AP, 7/21/10)(AP, 7/22/10)
2010        Jul 21, Nigeria laid out plans to bail out its badly struggling banks by removing up to 21 billion dollars in deadbeat loans from their balance sheets.
    (AFP, 7/21/10)
2010        Jul 21, In Pakistan heavy monsoon rains killed at least 17 people and affected thousands more.
    (AFP, 7/23/10)
2010        Jul 21, In Romania forensic scientists exhumed what are believed to be the bodies of Romanian dictator Nicolae Ceausescu and his wife Elena to solve the mystery of where they are truly buried.
    (AP, 7/21/10)
2010        Jul 21, In southern Russia 2 carloads of assailants attacked a hydroelectric station, killing two workers and setting off bombs in Kabardino-Balkariya.
    (AP, 7/21/10)
2010        Jul 21, In Somalia 2 Ugandan soldiers were killed during clashes in Mogadishu's Bondhere district. Al-Shabab introduced 3 former members of the presidential guard, who said they had quit working for the government because it was protected by AU forces who were killing Somali civilians with indiscriminate shelling.
    (AP, 7/23/10)(SFC, 7/23/10, p.A4)
2010        Jul 21, It was reported that security forces from Somalia's semiautonomous northern region of Puntland were rounding up hundreds of southerners. Officials said they posed a security threat. Activist Khadija Dahir said about 500 people were deported. She called the move unacceptable and clear violation against innocent refugees.
    (AP, 7/21/10)
2010        Jul 21, Spain accepted a third former inmate from the US prison for terrorism suspects at Guantanamo Bay. The inmate was originally from Afghanistan.
    (AP, 7/22/10)
2010        Jul 21, Sudanese rebel group JEM signed a landmark deal with the UN, pledging to protect children caught up in the Darfur conflict.
    (AFP, 7/21/10)
2010        Jul 21, Ugandan police said 10 people died after a boat they were traveling in capsized on the Ugandan side of Lake Victoria.
    (AP, 7/21/10) 
2010        Jul 21, Yemeni tribal and rebel sources said fighting in the mountainous north between Shiite rebels and army-backed tribes over the past four days have left at least 49 people dead, threatening a fragile truce.
    (AFP, 7/21/10)
2010        Jul 21, The Yugoslav war crimes tribunal ruled that Kosovo's former prime minister must be retried on murder and torture charges related to the country's 1998-99 war with Serbia, calling his acquittal two years ago "a miscarriage of justice." Tribunal President Patrick Robinson said the original trial for Ramush Haradinaj and two former Kosovo Liberation Army comrades was marred by intimidation that left two prosecution witnesses too scared to testify.
    (AP, 7/21/10)

2011        Jul 21, The US Federal Election Committee ruled that John Edwards, the former North Carolina presidential candidate, must repay $2.3 million to the US Treasury mostly as a result of excessive matching funds that his 2008 campaign accepted. On Aug 5 the US Federal Election Commission ruled that Edwards must repay $2.2 million.
    (SFC, 7/22/11, p.A12)(SFC, 8/6/11, p.A6)
2011        Jul 21, The US Justice Department said US authorities have arrested nearly 2,000 people on narcotics charges in a 20-month sting targeting Mexico's La Familia Michoacana drug cartel. The arrests and charges were carried out in 12 states and the US capital Washington in a major operation dubbed "Project Delirium."
    (AFP, 7/23/11)
2011        Jul 21, In Georgia Andrew DeYoung (37) was executed by lethal injection for the 1993 murder of his parents and sister. The videotaped execution was likely the first in the nation in almost 2 decades.
2011        Jul 21, Express Scripts announced an agreement to buy larger rival Medco Health Solutions in a $29.1 billion deal. The combination would handle the prescriptions of more than one in three Americans.
    (SFC, 7/22/11, p.D3)
2011        Jul 21, The space shuttle Atlantis glided home to the Kennedy Space Center through a clear moonlit sky to complete a 13-day cargo run to the International Space Station and a 30-year odyssey for NASA's shuttle program.
    (Reuters, 7/21/11)
2011        Jul 21, Afghan security forces took over responsibility for the city of Herat, the country's western capital. 2 British nationals were reported detained in Herat as part of a counter-terrorism operation to stop a possible attack back home.
    (AFP, 7/21/11)
2011        Jul 21, Australian police raided the Sydney offices of Greenpeace over their destruction of an experimental crop of genetically modified wheat at a government research farm.
    (AFP, 7/21/11)
2011        Jul 21, Britain’s Financial Services Authority said it has fined insurance broker Willis Limited nearly £7 million for failing to ensure payments to overseas third parties were not used for corrupt purposes. The announcement came after Britain earlier this month implemented new bribery laws.
    (AFP, 7/21/11)
2011        Jul 21, Canada’s government began a website identifying 30 suspected war criminals that have entered the country illegally, mostly from Rwanda, Central and South America and from the Balkan states.
    (SFC, 7/22/11, p.A2)(SSFC, 7/24/11, p.A4)
2011        Jul 21, Ecuadoran authorities said they have seized 357 dead sharks from a boat fishing illegally in the protected waters off the Galapagos Islands.
    (SFC, 7/22/11, p.A2)
2011        Jul 21, El Salvador’s congress approved a ban on smoking in public places overriding a veto by Pres. Mauricio Funes.
    (SFC, 7/23/11, p.A2)
2011        Jul 21, Eurozone leaders agreed to give Greece euro109 billion ($156 billion) in new financing in a complex package that includes new loans, buybacks of Greek debt, and credit guarantees under the deal agreed.
    (AP, 7/22/11)(Econ, 7/30/11, p.65)
2011        Jul 21, EU leaders cut the interest rate on the Irish bailout.
    (Econ, 10/22/11, p.63)
2011        Jul 21, In Indonesia unidentified gunmen ambushed soldiers and killed one of them in the easternmost province of Papua. A small, poorly armed separatist group, known as Free Papua Movement, or OPM, has battled for independence since 1969.
    (AP, 7/21/11)
2011        Jul 21, Ivory Coast President Alassane Ouattara called on the new army to "clean up" its ranks as alleged violations continue three months after the end of the post-electoral crisis.
    (AFP, 7/21/11)
2011        Jul 21, Mzuzu, Malawi, suffered half of the deaths from two days of protests and rioting left at least 19 dead across the impoverished country. More than 275 people were arrested across the country during two days of rioting.
    (AFP, 7/22/11)(AFP, 8/9/11)
2011        Jul 21, In Nigeria a gun battle between soldiers and suspected Islamists broke out after a failed bomb attack in Maiduguri leaving one extremist dead.
    (AFP, 7/21/11)
2011        Jul 21, Senegal's government banned political demonstrations in front of government buildings and on major avenues and squares, just days before a planned opposition protest to call for the departure of President Abdoulaye Wade (85).
    (AP, 7/21/11)
2011        Jul 21, In Somalia Shebab spokesman Sheik Ali Mohamud Rage said Shebab won't allow banned aid workers into the areas it controls. He called the UN's declaration of famine in parts of Somalia politically motivated and pure propaganda. Shebab rebels in Balad abducted and detained Asha Osman Aqiil, a newly appointed woman minister, while she was on her way to take up office in Mogadishu.
    (AFP, 7/21/11)(AP, 7/22/11)
2011        Jul 21, About 100 Swazi AIDS activists marched to the finance ministry to demand that the kingdom not allow a crippling financial crisis to interrupt the supply of life-saving drugs. Swaziland has the world's highest HIV infection rate, with one in four adults carrying the virus.
    (AFP, 7/21/11)
2011        Jul 21, Syrian security forces swept through neighborhoods in Homs, firing machine guns and pulling people from their homes in a series of arrests. Activists said up to 50 people have been killed in Homs since the latest crackdown and sectarian violence began on July 16. 3-4 more people were reportedly killed in Homs.
    (AP, 7/21/11)(AP, 7/21/11)
2011        Jul 21, Eugene Koffi Adoboli (76), Togo’s former prime minister (1998-2000) was sentenced to five years in prison in absentia for allegedly embezzling some 1.2 million euros of the budget allocated for the construction of villas in the capital Lome in 1999. Adoboli, who has lived in Switzerland since 2002, strongly denied the accusations. Two other people were also sentenced in absentia over the allegations.
    (AFP, 7/27/11)(http://tinyurl.com/3wxoron)
2011        Jul 21, A Tunisian court opened two more trials of ousted president Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, now living in exile in Saudi Arabia, accusing him of corruption and property fraud. Hundreds of Tunisians rallied in the capital, denouncing the "violence and chaos" that persist six months after the toppling of authoritarian president Zine El Abidine Ben Ali.
    (AFP, 7/21/11)
2011        Jul 21, Yemeni Republican Guards shot dead one protester and wounded three in the second-largest city of Taez. 10 soldiers were killed and 33 wounded in fighting against militants at al-Code area, near Zinjibar, over the past 24 hours.
    (AFP, 7/21/11)(AP, 7/21/11)

2012        Jul 21, The US government said it has cut this year's $200,000 planned military assistance to Rwanda amid concerns that the government in Kigali is supporting rebel movements in neighboring Congo.
    (AP, 7/21/12)
2012        Jul 21, In San Diego, Ca., active US service members marched for the first time in full uniform at the city’s Gay Pride Parade.
    (SSFC, 7/22/12, p.A6)
2012        Jul 21, In Aurora, Colorado, bomb experts disarmed the booby-trapped apartment of James Holms, who killed 12 people in a movie theater on July 20.
    (SSFC, 7/22/12, p.A8)
2012        Jul 21, In eastern Afghanistan a NATO service member died in an insurgent attack. Taliban insurgents whipped two men 40 times in public in a village south of Kabul after accusing them of attempting to kidnap a young boy for ransom.
    (AFP, 7/22/12)
2012        Jul 21, Nearly 400 rockets and shells were fired into Afghanistan and killed at least four people in Dangam district along the border with Pakistan.
    (AP, 7/22/12)
2012        Jul 21, In China at least 54 people died, including 37 in Beijing, during torrential rainstorms which battered much of northern and southwestern China over the last 24 hours. Heavy rainfall was expected to last for another day. On July 26 the toll in Beijing was increased to 77.
    (AFP, 7/21/12)(AP, 7/22/12)(AFP, 7/23/12)(AFP, 7/26/12)
2012        Jul 21, An Egyptian court sentenced Ali Wanees, an ultraconservative former lawmaker and cleric, to a year in prison for public indecency, after police said they found him fondling a woman on his lap in a parked car at night. He was tried in absentia and is allowed a retrial. The court sentenced the woman he was with to six months in jail.
    (AP, 7/21/12)
2012        Jul 21, Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, who became head of the Islamic State of Iraq in 2010, claimed that the Al-Qaida affiliated militant network is returning to the old strongholds from which it was driven by US forces and their Sunni allies prior to the American withdrawal at the end of last year.
    (AP, 7/22/12)
2012        Jul 21, Jamaican police torched nearly 15,000 pounds of marijuana seized in raids on trafficking operations, most of which was found this year.
    (SFC, 7/23/12, p.A2)
2012        Jul 21, A Japanese H-IIB rocket blasted off from the southern island of Tanegashima to deliver an unmanned supplies vessel to the International Space Station.
    (AFP, 7/21/12)
2012        Jul 21, Six Malian self-defense groups said they have joined forces to oust Islamist militants who have seized control of the country's northern half for almost four months.
    (AFP, 7/21/12)
2012        Jul 21, Mozambique launched a Brazilian funded pharmaceutical plant that will make anti-retroviral drugs to battle the HIV/AIDS scourge in the southern African country. The plant will initially package drugs from Brazil but start producing the pills by the end of the year.
    (AFP, 7/21/12)
2012        Jul 21, In Pakistan gunmen shot dead seven soldiers at a checkpoint in Gwadar, in southwestern Baluchistan province, as violence marred the start of Ramadan. At least twelve people were killed and a further 24 wounded in two bomb attacks in the northwestern Kurram tribal district and in the Upper Dir district.
    (AFP, 7/21/12)
2012        Jul 21, In the Philippines 2 people were killed and six others were missing as floods inundated parts of Manila and nearby areas while a storm tore through the country's north.
    (AFP, 7/21/12)
2012        Jul 21, Russia reported that President Vladimir Putin has signed into law a new measure that requires from non-governmental groups receiving funding from abroad and engages in political activity to register as a foreign agent.
    (AP, 7/21/12)
2012        Jul 21, In South Africa two busses collided in the country's southeast killed 18 people near the Eastern Cape town of Cradock. Three of them were elementary school children headed to a sports event.
    (AP, 7/21/12)
2012        Jul 21, Syrian troops clashed with rebels in the city of Aleppo for a second day, forcing inhabitants to flee to safer areas in some of the fiercest fighting to date. At least 20 people were killed across Syria.
    (AP, 7/21/12)(AFP, 7/21/12)
2012        Jul 21, In Tajikistan rebel leader, Tolib Ayombekov, allegedly had the head of provincial security killed in Gorno-Badakhshan province. This was believed to be the result of a dispute over who would control how much of the drug smuggling from Afghanistan.
2012        Jul 21, In Togo several thousands anti-government demonstrators rallied in the capital to protest what they say is a crackdown on the opposition movement.
    (AFP, 7/22/12)

2013        Jul 21, Bahrain said authorities have arrested three suspects in connection with a bombing last week outside a mosque near the royal residences. No one was injured in the July 17 blast.
    (AP, 7/21/13)
2013        Jul 21, King Philippe I (53) became Belgium's seventh monarch during a national holiday after his father Albert (79) abdicated as the head of the nation.
    (AP, 7/21/13)
2013        Jul 21, Britain’s Chris Froome pedaled through the streets of Paris as victor of the 2013 Tour de France.
    (CSM, 7/21/13)
2013        Jul 21, In Egypt a bus carrying soldiers crashed into a truck on a highway betgween Cairo and Alexandria early today, killing 15 soldiers and a driver.
    (AP, 7/21/13)
2013        Jul 21, In France Gilles Bourdouleix, a member of parliament and mayor for the town of Cholet near Nantes, had a confrontation with Gypsies, when he visited a field owned by the town where Gypsies were illegally living in caravans. He asked them to leave. Some of the Gypsies made Nazi salutes at Bourdouleix and he responded by saying: "Maybe Hitler didn't kill enough of them."
    (AP, 7/23/13)
2013        Jul 21, In Iraq a bomb exploded in a fish market in Taji, killing 4 and wounding one. Another bomb exploded outside the house of an anti-al-Qaida Sunni militia leader in the town of Basmaiya, killing 2 and wounding four. Gunmen attacked a checkpoint manned by the Kurdish security forces known as peshmerga near Kirkuk, killing 5 of them. Gunmen also sprayed a security checkpoint with bullets in Mosul, killing 2 soldiers. Late-night jailbreak attempts at Taji and Abu Ghraib prisons outside Baghdad killed dozens, including at least 25 members of Iraq's security forces and at least 10 militants. Hundreds of inmates were set free including some al-Qaida followers.
    (AP, 7/21/13)(AP, 7/22/13)(AP, 7/23/13)
2013        Jul 21, Japanese PM Shinzo Abe's ruling coalition won a majority in the upper house of parliament, giving it control of both chambers and a mandate to press ahead with difficult economic reforms.
    (AP, 7/21/13)
2013        Jul 21, In New Zealand a 6.5 magnitude earthquake hit Wellington. Four people were injured. The quake was centered under the Cook Strait, 35 miles southwest of Wellington.
    (Reuters, 7/22/13)(SFC, 7/22/13, p.A2)
2013        Jul 21, In Syria forces loyal to President Bashar al-Assad killed at least 13 members of a family in the Sunni Muslim village of Baida. 4 women and 6 children were among those killed in the village. Mortar shells struck the town of Ariha  killing at least 20 civilians. 49 rebels were killed in an ambush in Damascus' northeastern suburb of Adra. 17 rebels died in fighting in clashes in Damascus neighborhoods of Qaboun and Jobar. Another 9 were killed in clashes that have raged in the suburbs of Daraya, Harasta and Douma.
    (Reuters, 7/21/13)(AP, 7/21/13)(AP, 7/22/13)
2013        Jul 21, Syrian Kurdish forces freed a local leader linked to al Qaeda as part of an agreed ceasefire to end fierce fighting with Islamist rebels in the northern Syrian town of Tel Abyad. In return Islamist rebels promised to release hundreds of Kurds taken hostage as collateral from the leader of the Islamic State of Iraq and Sham (ISIS), known as Abu Musaab.
    (Reuters, 7/21/13)
2013        Jul 21, In Venezuela 4 men and a woman were killed by hooded gunmen at a birthday party in Valle de La Pascua in central Guarico state.
    (Reuters, 7/21/13)
2013        Jul 21, In Yemen armed men seized an employee of the Iranian embassy in Sanaa. Diplomat Nour Ahmad Nikbakht was freed by Iranian special operatives in March, 2015.
    (Reuters, 7/21/13)(AP, 3/5/15)

2014        Jul 21, In Boston Azamat Tazhayakov (20), a friend of Boston Marathon bombing suspect Dzhokhar Tsarnaev, was convicted of trying to protect Tsarnaev by agreeing with another friend to get rid of a backpack and disabled fireworks three days after the April 15, 2013, attack.
    (SFC, 7/22/14, p.A4)
2014        Jul 21, Detroit, Mi., suspended its aggressive policy of cutting off water to customers with unpaid bills for at least the next 15 days.
    (SFC, 7/22/14, p.A4)
2014        Jul 21, In Michigan pension cuts were approved by Detroit workers and retirees after 60 days of voting. Support for the pension changes triggered an $816 million bailout from the state, foundations and the Detroit Institute of Arts, but a judge was still required to agree.
    (SFC, 7/23/14, p.A8)
2014        Jul 21, In Michigan the Ilitch family, owners of the Detroit Red Wings, unveiled details of an already approved taxpayer funded financed stadium, said to cost the public $283 million.
    (SFC, 7/25/14, p.A14)
2014        Jul 21, A local lawmaker said Texas Gov. Rick Perry, a vocal critic of the White House's response to the surge of children and families entering the US illegally, plans to deploy as many as 1,000 National Guard troops to the Texas-Mexico border.
    (AP, 7/22/14)
2014        Jul 21, In southern Afghanistan a suicide bomber targeted a police convoy in Lashkar Gah, Helmand province, killing 2 people. In the north at least 8 local policemen and 27 Taliban fighters were killed in an overnight firefight in the Qaysar district of Faryab province. In southern Uruzgan province 4 Afghan policemen were shot to death at a checkpoint in Shahid Asass district. The attackers were two other policemen from the same unit who fled the scene.
    (AP, 7/21/14)
2014        Jul 21, In Iraq a roadside bomb struck an army patrol overnight in Baghdad's western suburb of Abu Ghraib, killing 2 soldiers and 3 volunteers who took up arms following the recent Sunni militant push.
    (AP, 7/21/14)
2014        Jul 21, In Libya Islamist militants attacked an army base in the eastern city of Benghazi, triggering fierce clashes involving helicopters and jets that killed at least one person and wounding 20 others. A week of fighting between rival militias for control of Tripoli International Airport in the capital has killed at least 47 people.
    (Reuters, 7/21/14)
2014        Jul 21, Six Palestinians with German citizenship were among the people killed when an airstrike caused a Gaza high-rise apartment building to partially collapse. An Israeli shot dead Mahmud Shawamreh (21), a Palestinian who had been throwing stones at his car north of Jerusalem in the West Bank.
    (AP, 7/22/14)(AFP, 7/21/14)
2014        Jul 21, Philippine President Benigno Aquino presided over the opening of the $175-million Philippine Arena, billed as the world's largest indoor stadium, erected by the Iglesia ni Cristo (Church of Christ), a politically-influential religious sect.
    (AFP, 7/22/14)
2014        Jul 21, South Sudan rebels and government troops battled over the strategic town of Nasir, with rebels launching their largest offensive since an oft-broken May truce.
    (AFP, 7/21/14)
2014        Jul 21, Syrian rebels battled jihadists from the Islamic State (IS) near Damascus, pressing their bid to expel them from their strongholds.
    (AP, 7/21/14)
2014        Jul 21, Thai media organizations called on the military government to ease restrictions after the junta said it would shut down news outlets putting out what it considers critical coverage.
    (Reuters, 7/21/14)
2014        Jul 21, Turkish PM Recep Tayyip Erdogan said he has stopped talking to US President Barack Obama on the phone, amid growing strains between Ankara and Washington over Syria and the Gaza conflict.
    (AFP, 7/22/14)
2014        Jul 21, In eastern Ukraine fighting flared in the city of Donetsk as investigators began to inspect the bodies of victims of the downing of Malaysia Airlines flight MH17 last week. Four people were reported killed in the clashes. 13 government troops were killed in fighting in the east when "terrorists" attacked the army and their roadblocks 20 times.
    (Reuters, 7/21/14)(Reuters, 7/22/14)
2014        Jul 21, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon and US Secretary of State John Kerry headed to Cairo to try to end two weeks of Israel-Hamas fighting that has killed at least 508 Palestinians and 20 Israelis and displaced tens of thousands of Gaza residents.
    (AP, 7/21/14)

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