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Sweden is about the same size as California . Stockholm is built on an archipelago of 14 islands woven together by 50 bridges.
(SSFC, 10/9/05, Par p.27) (SSFC, 10/18/09, p.M4)

Long and narrow, the Scandinavian nation sits on Europe's northern fringe and covers nearly 411,000 square kilometers (158,000 square miles), about the size of California. It is bounded by Norway, Finland and the Baltic Sea.
Some 85 percent of Swedes nominally are members of the Lutheran Church of Sweden, although only about 5 percent attend church regularly. Literacy is virtually 100 percent, life expectancy is among the world's highest, 76.7 years for men, 81.8 for women, and the United Nations Development Program says Sweden has the world's smallest percentage of poor residents.
Government: Constitutional monarchy, but the king is a figurehead. The government is led by a prime minister who is elected by a 349-seat single-chamber parliament, the Riksdag. The ruling Social Democratic party has had support in parliament from the ex-communist Left Party and the Green Party, with four parties in opposition. 42.7 percent of the members of parliament are women.
(AP, 9/15/02)


  The nyckelharpa is a keyed fiddle from Sweden.
 (NH, 6/97, p.66)

7542BC    In 2008 Umeaa University said the world's oldest living tree on record, a spruce, took root about this time in central Sweden.
    (AP, 4/17/08)

7000BC    In 2012 a group of Swedish marine archeologists said they have found what they believe could be the world's oldest stationary fishing traps on the bottom of the Baltic Sea, with the most ancient dating back about this time.
    (AP, 6/5/12)
7000BC    The Sami people began herding reindeer in northern Europe about this time as the last Ice Age ended. They were later considered to be Europe’s only indigenous people. By 2013 they numbered about 80,000 including 8,000 in Finland, 50,000 in Norway, 20,000 in Sweden and 2,000 in Russia.
    (SFC, 8/30/13, p.A2)

c900BC    The Fossum panel was carved on a rock outcropping in Sweden about this time and depicted 2 Bronze Age figures with raised axes.
    (NH, Jul, p.32)

800-900    In Scandinavia Futhark evolved around the 9th century. Instead of 24 letters, the Scandinavian "Younger" Futhark had 16 letters. In England, Anglo-Saxon Futhorc started to be replaced by the Latin alphabet by the 9th century, and did not survive much more past the Norman Conquest. Futhark continued to be used in Scandinavia for centuries longer, but by 1600 CE, it had become nothing more than curiosities among scholars and antiquarians.
    (www.ancientscripts.com/futhark.html)

860        Jun 18, Swedish Vikings attacked Constantinople.
    (MC, 6/18/02)

870        Swede Garoar Svavarsson led the first Vikings to Iceland.
    (SSFC, 8/23/15, p.N4)

c1050    In 2004 some 280 silver coins, that probably originated from a trade journey by Gotlanders to the area around the river Elbe in Germany around 1050, were found on the Swedish island of Gotland.
    (AP, 3/1/04)

1160        May 18, Erik IX Helgi (The Saint), King of Sweden, died. According to legends, the king was beheaded and miracles occurred after his death. Uppsala Cathedral was later built on the murder site to house his remains.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eric_IX_of_Sweden)(AP, 4/23/14)

1167        Sweden’s King Charles VII was assassinated after ruling for 6 years. Charles VII was the first Swedish king with the name Charles.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_VII_of_Sweden)

1288        In Sweden a charter recognized the sale of a stake in the Stora Kopparberg copper mine to Bishop Petrus of Vasteras for his parish. In the 1970's Stora sold its mining operations to focus on forest products and power. In 1998 it merged to become Stora Enso, a paper-packaging and timber firm.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)(Econ, 12/18/04, p.105)

1291-1340    In Sweden a Gothic-style cathedral was built in the heart of Strangnas.
    (AP, 8/1/18)

1341        Jun 19, Juliana van Falconieri, Italian saint, Swedish tenor, died.
    (MC, 6/19/02)

1361        Jul 27, The Battle of Wisby (Visby) was fought near the town of Visby on the Swedish island of Gotland, between the forces of the Danish king and the Gotland peasants. The Danish force was victorious.
    (Econ, 12/18/10, p.111)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Visby)

1373        Jul 23, Birgitta of Sweden, Swedish saint, died.
    (MC, 7/23/02)

1375-1412    Queen Margaret I (b.1353) ruled over Denmark. In 1388 her rule extended over Norway and in 1389 extended to include Sweden.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Margaret_I_of_Denmark)

1391        Saint Bridget (1303-1373), Sweden’s first saint, was canonized. She was the founder of the Bridgettines nuns and monks after the death of her husband of twenty years.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bridget_of_Sweden)

1397        Jun 17, The Union of Kalmar united Denmark, Sweden, and Norway under one monarch. The alliance grew out of the dynastic ties of the Scandinavian countries of Denmark, Norway and Sweden in response to rising German influence in the Baltic. The Kalmar Union is a historiographical term meaning a series of personal unions (1397–1523) that united the three kingdoms of Denmark, Norway (with Iceland, Greenland, the Faroe Islands and, prior to their annexation by Scotland in 1471, Shetland and Orkney), and Sweden (including Finland) under a single monarch.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kalmar_Union)

1435        In Sweden the main building of the Uppsala Cathedral was completed. Spires were added in the 19th century.
    (SSFC, 7/26/15, p.M16)

1489        A sculpture St. George and the Dragon, created by Bernt Notke, was unveiled in Stockholm, Sweden. He composed the dragon entirely of elk horns.
    (SSFC, 8/19/07, p.G4)

1500s        The popularity of surströmming, a Swedish fermented herring with a noxious stench, surged in the early 1500s and again in the early 1700s.
    (WSJ, 8/13/02, p.A1)

1520        Nov 4, Danish-Norwegian king Christian II was crowned king of Sweden.
    (MC, 11/4/01)

1520        Nov 9, Swedish King Christian II executed 600 nobles.
    (MC, 11/9/01)

1522        Gustavus Vasa became administrator of Sweden and pledged to free his country from Danish control.
    (TL-MB, p.12)

1523        Jun 6, [Gustav] Gustavus Vasa was elected Gustavus I of Sweden.
    (HFA, '96, p.32)(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)(HN, 6/6/98)

1523        Sweden became independent and dropped out of the Kalmar Union, formed in 1397 with Denmark and Norway.
    (www.emersonkent.com/historic_documents/kalmar_union.htm)

1524        Denmark confirmed Swedish independence under Gustavus Vasa in the Treaty of Malmo.
    (TL-MB, p.12)

1527        Jun 24, Gustaaf I began Reformation in Sweden, taking RC possessions.
    (MC, 6/24/02)

1544        Gustavus I of Sweden signed an alliance with France.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.16)

1550        Helsinki was founded by the Swedes.
    (SFEM, 8/8/99, p.44)

1552        Apr 14, Laurentius Andreae, [Lars Andersson], Swedish church reformer, died.
    (MC, 4/14/02)

1557        Olaus Magnus (b.1490), Swedish mapmaker, died. He guessed at the location of the northern land of Thule mentioned by Greek explorer Pytheas (c380-310BC).
    (WSJ, 3/4/06, p.P9)

1561        Poland-Lithuania gaining control over Livonia. In response Sweden seized the territory of Estonia with the major port of Reval.  Denmark, also invested in the war, seized the Livonian Islands.
    (http://tinyurl.com/bngyy)

1568        Sep 30, Eric XIV, king of Sweden, was deposed after showing signs of madness. The Swedes declared Eric XIV unfit to reign and proclaimed John III king.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.21)(HN, 9/30/98)

1570        Dec 15, The Peace of Stettin was concluded in Livonia. Denmark recognized the independence of Sweden in the Peace of Stettin. Sweden gave up her claim to Norway.
    (TL-MB, p.22)(http://depts.washington.edu/baltic/papers/livonianwar.htm)

1577        Feb 26, Erik XIV Wasa (43), King of Sweden (1560-69), died.
    (SC, 2/26/02)

1581        Sweden and Poland overran Livonia (a territory that included southern Latvia and northern Estonia).
    (TL-MB, p.23)

1594        Dec 9, Gustavus II Adolphus (d.1632), king who made Sweden a major power (1611-32), was born.
    (MC, 12/9/01)

1598        Sep 25, King Sigismund was defeated at Stangebro by his Uncle Charles.
    (HN, 9/25/98)

1605        Sep 27, Jan Karol Chodkiewicz (1560-1621), Lithuanian Hetman (Jonas Karolis Katkevičius-Katkus), led Lithuanian and Polish forces to victory against a Swedish army at Kircholm, Latvia. Chodkiewicz carried the day in a victory that, taking into account the disparity of power and strategic result, was huge. It is estimated that 6000 Swedes died. Sweden’s King Charles IX was wounded.
    (www.kismeta.com/diGrasse/images/kircholm_27_sept.htm)

1610        Jul 4, Battle at Klushino: King Sigismund III of Poland beat Russia & Sweden.
    (Maggio)

1617        Mar 9, The Treaty of Stolbovo ended the occupation of Northern Russia by Swedish troops.
    (HN, 3/9/99)

1626        Dec 8, Christina (d.1689), queen of Sweden (1644-1654), was born. She negotiated the Peace of Westphalia (1648), ending the Thirty Years' War. "Fools are more to be feared than the wicked." "Dignity is like a perfume; those who use it are scarcely conscious of it."
    (AP, 7/8/97)(AP, 1/14/99)(HN, 12/8/99)

1628        Aug 10, The Swedish 228-foot warship Vasa capsized and sank in Stockholm harbor on her maiden voyage because the ballast was insufficient to counterweight the 64 guns and ballast. The wreckage was found in 1956. It opened as part of the Vasa museum in 1990. Twenty-five men and women drowned when the ship sank. Vasa was the most expensive and richly ornamented warship of its time in Sweden. She was recovered in 1961 and the skeletal remains were exhumed in 1989.
    (NG, 5/95, Geographica)(WSJ, 7/21/00, p.W12)(HN, 8/10/00)

1631        Jul 23, Sweden's King Gustavus II Adolfus repulsed an imperialist force at Werben, Russia.
    (AP, 7/23/97)

1631        Sep 17, At the Battle of Breitenfeld (Leipzig) Sweden’s King Gustaaf Adolf led a Saxon-Swedish army and defeated Gen. Tilly.
    (MC, 9/17/01)(PCh, 1992, p.231)

1632        Apr 15, Swedish and Saxon army beat Earl Tilly.
    (MC, 4/15/02)

1632        Sep 3, Battle at Nuremberg: Duke Wallenstein beat Sweden.
    (MC, 9/3/01)

1632        Nov 6, Gustavus II Adolphus (37), king of Sweden, died in battle.
    (MC, 11/6/01)

1632        Nov 16, Battle at Lutzen: Sweden beat the imperial armies under Wallenstein.
    (MC, 11/16/01)

1634        Sep 5, Battle at Nordlingen: King Ferdinand III & Catholic Spain beat Sweden & German protestants.
    (MC, 9/5/01)

1634-1644    Hugo Grotius (d.1645) of Holland, father of international law, served the Swedish government as ambassador to France.
    (HN, 4/10/98)(HNQ, 3/15/00)

1637        Nov 20, Peter Minuit & 1st Dutch and Swedish immigrants to Delaware sailed from Sweden. Peter later purchased Manhattan Island for 60 guilders.
    (MC, 11/20/01)

1638        Mar 29, The first permanent white settlement was established in Delaware. Swedish Lutherans who came to Delaware were the first to build log cabins in America. The first English colonists did not know how to build houses from logs but those who lived in the forests of Scandinavia, Germany and Switzerland did. German pioneers who settled in Pennsylvania built the first log cabins there in the early 1700s. The Scotch-Irish immigrants who settled in the Appalachian highlands after 1720 made the widest use of log cabins and by the time of the American Revolution, log cabins were the mainstay among settlers all along the western frontier.
    (HNQ, 9/15/99)(AP, 3/29/08)

1640s    The violin was introduced, possibly by French musicians at the court of Queen Christina.
    (NH, 4/97, p.32)

1645        In Sweden the Post Och Inrikes Tidningar began daily publication for bankruptcies, corporate and government announcements. On Jan 1, 2007, the world’s oldest newspaper stopped publishing on paper and moved to the Internet.
    (WSJ, 1/2/07, p.B4)

1646        Akzo Nobel, a Dutch multinational firm, traced its origins to a foundry established this year in the Swedish countryside by Paul Hossman. Milestone mergers and divestments led to the formation of AKZO in 1969 and the merger with Nobel Industries in 1994 to form Akzo Nobel.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/AkzoNobel)    (Econ, 4/22/17, p.58)

1648        At the end of the Thirty years’ War the Swedes got to Prague and picked up the remains of works collected by Rudolf II and Albrecht von Wallenstein, leader of the Hapsburg armies.
    (WSJ, 7/10/97, p.A13)(WSJ, 12/7/99, p.A24)

1650        Feb 11, Rene Descartes (b.1596), French mathematician and philosopher: "I think therefore I am", died in Stockholm. In 1666 his bones were exhumed for transfer to France. In 2008 Russell Shorto authored “Descartes’ Bones: A Skeletal History of the conflict Between Faith and Reason."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ren%C3%A9_Descartes)(SFC, 11/5/08, p.E3)

1654        Jun 6, Queen Christina of Sweden resigned and converted to Catholicism.
    (MC, 6/6/02)

1655        Aug 29, Swedish king Karel X Gustaaf occupied Warsaw.
    (MC, 8/29/01)

1655        Sep 26, Peter Stuyvesant recaptured Dutch Ft. Casimir from Swedish in Delaware.
    (MC, 9/26/01)

1655        Eastern Lithuania was occupied by Russian and Cossack forces. Western Lithuania was occupied by Swedish forces. Following three days of pillaging Vilnius was burned in a fire the lasted 17 days.
    (http://tinyurl.com/pm9nvcc)

1656        Jan 17, Prussian Duke Frederick Wilhelm withdrew ties with Lithuania and Poland and acknowledged vassal status with Sweden.
    (LHC, 1/17/03)

1656        Oct 24, Treaty of Vilnius (Lithuania): Russia and Poland signed an anti-Swedish covenant.
    (MC, 10/24/01)

1661        Sweden became the first European country to introduce bank notes.
    (AP, 3/17/12)

1668        Feb 7, The Netherlands, England and Sweden concluded an alliance directed against Louis XIV of France.
    (HN, 2/7/99)

1668        Sweden’s Sveriges Riksbank, the first central bank, was set up as a tool of government financial management.
    (Econ, 2/25/12, SR p.4)(Econ, 4/29/17, p.56)

1675        Jun 28, Frederick William of Brandenburg crushed the Swedes.
    (HN, 6/28/98)

1676        Apr 17, Frederick I, king of Sweden, was born.
    (HN, 4/17/98)

1676        Jun 1, The Swedish ship Svardet, armed with 86 bronze canons and under command of Claes Uggla, went under when Sweden was defeated by a Danish-Dutch fleet in the Battle of Öland. In 2011 Deep Sea Productions said it believed it had found the ship off the island of Oland.
    (AP, 11/16/11)(www.ocean-discovery.org/thesword.htm)

1682        Jun 27, Charles XII (d.1718), King of Sweden (1697-1718), was born.
    (WUD, 1994, p.249)(SFC, 8/17/96, p.E5)(HN, 6/27/98)

1685        Dec 3, Charles II barred Jews from settling in Stockholm, Sweden.
    (MC, 12/3/01)

1689        Apr 19, Christina (b.1626), Queen of Sweden (1644-54), died. In 2004 Veronica Buckley authored “Christina: Queen of Sweden."
    (www.sweden.se)(WSJ, 10/29/04, p.W10)

1697        The Royal Palace in Stockholm, Sweden, burned down. It was rebuilt in Italian Baroque style with 608 rooms.
    (SSFC, 8/19/07, p.G4)

1697-1718    Charles XII ruled Sweden.
    (WUD, 1994, p.249)(SFC, 8/17/96, p.E5)

1698        Aug 18, After invading Denmark and capturing Sweden, Charles XII of Sweden forced Frederick IV of Denmark to sign the Peace of Travendal.
    (HN, 8/18/98)

1700          Feb 22, Augustus II with the help of the Saxon army attacked Swedish controlled Riga. This began the Northern War (1700-1721).
    (LHC, 2/22/03)

1700        Nov 20, Sweden's 17-year-old King Charles XII defeated the Russians at Narva.
    (HN, 11/20/98)

1701        Nov 27, Anders Celsius (d.1744), Swedish astronomer who devised the centigrade temperature scale, was born in Uppsala.
    (WUD, 1994, p.238)(AP, 11/27/06)

1707        May 23, Carolus Linnaeus [Carl von Linné, d.1778], Swedish botanist, was born.
    (HN, 5/23/01)(WUD, 1994 p.834)

1707        Aug 31, The Treaty or Convention of Altranstädt was signed between Charles XII of Sweden and Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor. It settled the rights of Protestants in Silesia.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Altranst%C3%A4dt_%281707%29)

1708        Jul 4, Swedish King Karel XII beat Russians.
    (Maggio)

1708        Sep 28, At the Battle at Lesnaya the Russian army captured a Swedish convoy.
    (MC, 9/28/01)

1709        Jun 27, Russians under Peter the Great defeated the Swedes under Charles XII and Cossacks at the Battle of Poltava. [O.S. See July 8].
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Poltava)

1709        Jul 8, Peter the Great defeated Charles XII at Poltava, in the Ukraine, effectively ending the Swedish empire. [N.S. see June 28].
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Poltava)

1718        Dec 11, Charles XII, King of Sweden (1697-1718), was shot dead.
    (MC, 12/11/01)

1721        Aug 30, The Peace of Nystad ended the Second Northern War between Sweden and Russia, giving Russia considerably more power in the Baltic region.
    (HN, 8/30/98)

1722        Mar 29, Emanuel Swedenborg (b.1688), Swedish scientist and clairvoyant, died in London. In 1744 he entered into a spiritual phase in which he experienced dreams and visions. The foundation of Swedenborg's theology was laid down in “Arcana Cœlestia" (Heavenly Secrets), published in eight volumes from 1749 to 1756.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emanuel_Swedenborg)

1741        Anders Berch became the first professor of economics in Uppsala.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)

1742        Dec 9, Carl W. Scheele, Swedish pharmacist and chemist (lemon acid), was born.
    (MC, 12/9/01)

1743        Aug 17, By the Treaty of Abo, Sweden ceded southeast Finland to Russia, ending Sweden's failed war with Russia.
    (HN, 8/17/98)

1746        Jan 24, Gustav III, king during Swedish Enlightenment (1771-92), was born.
    (MC, 1/24/02)

1753        In Sweden Linnaeus (1707-1778), father of systematics, authored “Species Plantarum," a compilation of some 6,000 plants from around the world.
    (NH, 4/1/04, p.39)
1753        Peter Kalm, Swedish-born naturalist, published the first of his 3 volumes of “Travels in North America," which described his 1748-1751 trip there. Kalm later spent much of his life as a professor at Turku, Finland. In 2007 Paula Ivaska Robbins authored “The Travels of Peter Kalm.
    (WSJ, 11/17/07, p.W11)

1756-1763    The Seven Years War. France and Great Britain clashed both in Europe and in North America. In 2000 "Crucible of War" by Fred Anderson was published. France, Russia, Austria, Saxony, Sweden and Spain stood against Britain, Prussia and Hanover. Britain financed Prussia to block France in Europe while her manpower was occupied in America.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.223)(SFC, 7/7/96, BR p.7)(WSJ, 2/10/00, p.A16)

1758        Linnaeus (1707-1778), father of systematics, worked on his wasp specimens.
    (PacDis, Winter/’96, p.43)

1766        Sweden guaranteed freedom of the press.
    (Econ, 2/2/13, SR p.16)

1772        Aug 19, Gustavus III of Sweden eliminated the rule of parties and establishes an absolute monarchy. It had been subordinate to parliament since 1720.
    (HN, 8/19/98)(MC, 8/19/02)

1773        The Royal Swedish Ballet was founded.
    (WSJ, 6/25/99, p.W7)

1778        Jan 10, Carolus Linnaeus [Carl von Linné, b.1707], Swedish botanist, died. His system for classifying living organisms in a hierarchy placed kingdoms at the top and species at the bottom.
    (HN, 5/23/01)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carolus_Linnaeus)

1783        Feb 5, Sweden recognized the independence of the United States.
    (AP, 2/5/97)(HN, 2/5/99)

1785        The first Illis Quorum Meruere Labores (For Those Whose Labors Have Deserved It), a gold medal, was awarded.
    (NH, 4/97, p.31)

1786        May 21, Carl W. Scheele (43), Swedish pharmacist, chemist, died.
    (MC, 5/21/02)

1786        The secretive Swedish Academy was established by King Gustav III. It is not a government agency and its statutes say once a member is elected he or she cannot step down. The academy was set up to safeguard the Swedish language. It was later assigned to pick the winner of the Nobel Prize only in the field of literature.
    (Reuters, 4/18/18)(Reuters, 3/5/19)

1787        Carl Axel Arrhenius discovered the mineral ytterbite in Ytterby, Sweden. Two years later yttrium oxide was found in the sample and named. It took another 329 years for yttrium, a rare earth element, to be isolated from its oxide.
    (SSFC, 11/25/12, p.E7)

1790        Jul 9, The Swedish navy captured one third of the Russian fleet at the naval battle of Svensksund in the Baltic Sea.
    (HN, 7/9/98)

1792        Mar 16, Sweden's King Gustav III was shot and mortally wounded during a masquerade party by a former member of his regiment. He was murdered by Count Ankarstrom at an opera. It became the inspiration for Giuseppe Verdi's Un Ballo in Maschera. Gustav died 13 days later.
    (AP, 3/16/06)(WSJ, 1/28/07, p.P10)

1792        Mar 29, Gustav III, King of Sweden (1771-92), died of wounds inflicted by an assassin on March 16.
    (AP, 3/16/06)

1796        Jul 23, Franz Adolf Berwald, Sweden, composer, was born.
    (MC, 7/23/02)

1800        Count Baltazar Von Platen started the Göta Canal.
    (SFEC, 4/20/97, p.T8)

1805        Aug 9, Austria joined Britain, Russia, Sweden and the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia in the Third Coalition against Napoleonic France and Spain.
    (HN, 8/9/98)(HNQ, 10/19/98)

1809        Jun 6, Sweden declared independence and a constitutional monarchy was established.
    (MC, 6/6/02)

1809        Finland broke free of Sweden to become a Grand Duchy of Russia. Finland fell into Russian hands after Europe's Napoleonic wars, though it was allowed to develop as an autonomous part of the Czarist empire until 1917.
    (SFEC, 4/11/99, p.T4)(AP, 12/6/17)
1809        Russia took the Aland island group from the Swedes and held it until the Russian Revolution.
    (WSJ, 12/5/97, p.A1)

1810        Aug 21, Sweden’s Riksdag elected Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte, Marshal of France under Napoleon, as heir apparent to the Swedish throne.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bernadotte)(Econ, 10/14/06, p.73)

1810-1832    The 54-mile Göta Canal was built to connect Sweden's east and west coasts to circumvent Danish shipping controls between the Baltic and North Seas. The project was conceived and led by Count Baltzar von Platen (d.1830).
    (SSFC, 4/18/04, p.D12)

1812        Mar 9, Swedish Pomerania was seized by Napoleon.
    (HN, 3/9/98)

1812        Jul 18, Great Britain signed the Treaty of Orebro, making peace with Russia and Sweden.
    (HN, 7/18/98)

1814        Jan 14, The Treaty of Kiel or Peace of Kiel was concluded between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the Kingdom of Sweden on one side and the Kingdoms of Denmark and Norway on the other side in Kiel. It ended the hostilities between the parties in the ongoing Napoleonic Wars, where the United Kingdom and Sweden were part of the anti-French camp (the Sixth Coalition) while Denmark-Norway was allied to Napoleon Bonaparte.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Kiel)

1814        May 17, Norway's constitution was signed, providing for a limited monarchy. Denmark ceded Norway to Sweden.
    (AP, 5/17/97)(HN, 5/17/98)

1820        Oct 6, Jenny Lind (d.1887), soprano, was born. She was known as the “Swedish Nightingale."
    (HN, 10/6/00)

1832        King Karl XIV Johan inaugurated the Göta Canal.
    (SFEC, 4/20/97, p.T8)

1833        Oct 21, 1833, Alfred Bernhard Nobel was born. The Swedish-born chemist, engineer and industrialist who invented dynamite, later established the prestigious Nobel prizes to honor the world’s greatest scientists, writers and peacemakers. In 1859, after four years in the United States, Nobel returned to Sweden and built a factory to manufacture the explosive nitroglycerin. In 1864 the factory accidentally blew up, killing Nobel’s youngest brother and four others. Two years later, Nobel invented dynamite, a safe and manageable form of nitroglycerin. A pacifist by nature, Nobel hoped that the destructive power of his invention would bring an end to wars.  By the time of his death on December 10, 1897, Nobel had acquired a massive fortune. In his will, he left instructions that the bulk of his estate should endow the annual Nobel prizes for those who had most contributed to the areas of physics, chemistry, medicine, literature and peace. In 1968, a sixth award for economics was established.
    (WUD, 1994, p.969)(SFEC,12/797, Par p.28)(HNPD, 10/21/98) (HNPD, 10/21/99)

1846-1920s    A major immigration of Swedes to the US brought in 1.2 million people.
    (FB, 9/12/96, p.A2)

1849        Johan August Strindberg (d.1912), novelist, dramatist, essayist and photographer, was born. In 1985 Michael Meyer authored a Strindberg biography.
    (WUD, 1994 p.1407)(SFC, 8/10/00, p.D2)(WSJ, 12/11/01, p.A17)

1850        Sep 11, Jenny Lind, the “Swedish Nightingale," gave her first  concert in the United States, at Castle Garden in New York.
    (AP, 9/11/00)

1852        Sep 3, Anti Jewish riots broke out in Stockholm.
    (MC, 9/3/01)

1854        Nov 8, Johannes Robert Rydberg (d.1919), Swedish physicist, was born. He is mainly known for devising the Rydberg formula, in 1888, which is used to predict the wavelengths of photons (of light  and other electromagnetic radiation) emitted by changes in the energy level of an electron  in an hydrogen atom.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Johannes_Rydberg)

1856        In Sweden Andre Wallenberg founded Skandinaviska Enskilda Banken (SEB). By 2006 it was one of the Nordic region’s biggest banks. Wallenberg had just returned from America with a book on how to set up a bank.
    (Econ, 10/14/06, p.73)(Econ, 3/12/15, p.62)

1858        Nov 20, Selma Lagerdorf (d.1940), Swedish novelist, was born. Her work included “The Story of Gosta Berling."
    (HN, 11/20/00)

1859        Feb 19, Svante Arrhenius, Swedish chemist, founder of physical chemistry, was born.
    (HN, 2/19/01)

1859        After four years in the United States, Alfred Nobel returned to Sweden and built a factory to manufacture the explosive nitroglycerin.
    (HNPD, 10/21/98)

1864        The Alfred Nobel factory for the manufacture of nitroglycerin accidentally blew up, killing Nobel's youngest brother and four others.
    (HNPD, 10/21/98)

1866        Alfred Nobel invented dynamite, a safe and manageable form of nitroglycerin. A pacifist by nature, Nobel hoped that the destructive power of his invention would bring an end to wars.
    (HNPD, 10/21/98)

1867        Nov 25, Alfred Nobel patented dynamite.
    (MC, 11/25/01)

1868        Apr 3, Franz Adolf Berwald (71), Swedish composer, died.
    (MC, 4/3/02)

1872        May 1, Hugo Alfvjen, composer (Midsommarvaka), was born in Stockholm, Sweden.
    (MC, 5/1/02)

1873-1924    The Scandinavian Monetary Union established a common currency for its members.
    (WSJ, 1/13/98, p.A1)

1876        The Swedish firm Ericsson was founded. It started selling phones in China in the 1890s.
    (Econ, 2/2/13, SR p.8)

1880        Swedish Egyptologist Karl Piehl uncovered the tomb of Amenhotep, the deputy seal-bearer of the Pharaoh King Tuthmosis III (1504BC-1452BC), in the city of Luxor, about 600 km (375 miles) to the south of the capital Cairo. It later disappeared under the sand and was rediscovered in 2009.
    (Reuters, 3/1/09)

1880-1920    Some 20-25% of Sweden’s population left for America.
    (Econ, 6/18/16, p.31)   

1885        A Swedish “Treskilling Yellow" postage stamp was printed with a one-of-kind error. In 1996 it sold for a record $2.3 million. In 2010 it was again sold but the price was not revealed.
    (SSFC, 5/23/10, p.A6)

1887          Nov 2, Jenny Lind (b.1820), known as the Swedish Nightingale, soprano, died in London, England.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jenny_Lind)

1887        Skanska was founded in Sweden and started by manufacturing cement products. It quickly diversified into a construction company and within 10 years the company received its first international order.
    (www.skanska.com/)

1889        Mar 8, Jens/John Ericsson (85), Swedish-US, engineer (fire extinguisher), died.
    (MC, 3/8/02)

1891        May 23, Par Lagerkvist, Swedish writer (The Dwarf, Barabbas), was born.
    (HN, 5/23/01)

1891        In Sweden the Skansen folk museum opened in Stockholm by Artur Hazelius (1833-1901) to show the way of life in the different parts of the country before the industrial era.
    (SSFC, 12/18/11, p.H5)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Skansen)

1893        Johan August Strindberg (43) married Frida Uhl (20), the daughter of a renowned Viennese theater critic and newspaper editor. The marriage lasted 4 years. In 2000 Monica Strauss authored “Cruel Banquet: The Life and Loves of Frida Strindberg."
    (SFEC, 8/13/00, BR p.3)

1895        Jan 2, Count Folke Bernadotte (d.1948), statesman (Red Cross, UN), was born in Sweden.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Folke_Bernadotte)

1895        Nov 26, Bertil Lindblad, Swedish astronomer (Milky Way system), was born.
    (MC, 11/26/01)

1895        Nov 27, Alfred Nobel, explosives magnate, signed his last will and testament at the Swedish-Norwegian Club in Paris, setting aside his estate to establish the Nobel Prize after his death (see Dec 10, 1896). He named Ragnar Sohlman (25), his favorite lab assistant, as his executor and Rudolf Lilljequist as co-executor.
    (http://nobelprize.org/alfred_nobel/will/will-full.html)(ON, 4/07, p.6)

1896        Apr, Svante Arrhenius, Swedish chemist, explained the "greenhouse effect" in an article of the April issue of the London, Edinburgh, and Dublin Philosophical Magazine. This article included a table of predictions as to how warming the planet could expect latitude by latitude. Arrhenius predicted a warming effect due to an increase in heat-trapping atmospheric gases due mainly to the burning of fossil fuels. He was the first to posit a link between surface temperatures and the concentration of carbon dioxide.
    (NOHY, Weiner, 3/90, p.29,58)(Econ, 6/16/12, SR p.4)(Econ 7/8/17, p.46)

1896        Dec 10, Alfred Nobel (63), Swedish Nobel Prize ceremony on this date, died. By the time of his death Nobel had acquired a massive fortune. In his will, he left instructions that the bulk of his estate should endow the annual Nobel prizes for those who had most contributed to the areas of physics, chemistry, medicine, literature and peace. In 1968, a sixth award for economics was established  [see Nov 27, 1895]. The Nobel Peace Prize is therefore awarded on December 10. The first of the Nobel Prizes was presented in 1901 according to instructions in his will. At his death he was one of the richest men in the world, he also felt it would be wrong to leave his fortune to relatives. "Inherited wealth is a misfortune which merely serves to dull man's faculties." Nobel wished the Peace Prize to be administered in Norway.
    (HNPD, 10/21/98)(AP, 12/10/06)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nobel_Peace_Prize)

1897        Jul 14, Swede Saloman Andrée (b.1854)) and 2 accomplices, Knute Fraenkle and Nils Strindberg, in the Ornen balloon were forced down after 64 hours in the first expedition to fly by balloon from Spitsbergen across the North Pole. Their attempt to return ended on White Island. Their fate was only discovered Aug 5-6, 1930, by Norwegian whalers.
    (HNQ, 5/22/01)(ON, 11/01, p.11)(Econ, 5/11/13, p.89)

1897        Ragnar Sohlman, executor of Alfred Nobel’s will, moved Nobel’s stock certificates and papers out of France to Sweden, and thus beyond the jurisdiction of French courts.
    (ON, 4/07, p.7)

1898        Dec 6, Gunnar Myrdal, Swedish economist and sociologist, was born.
    (HN, 12/6/00)

1898        Knut Wicksell, Swedish economist, authored “Interest and Prices," in which he introduced the concept of the credit cycle.
    (Econ, 3/16/13, p.73)

1900        The Nobel Foundation was established in Sweden in accord with the will of Alfred Nobel.
    (ON, 4/07, p.7)

1901        Jacobus Henricus van't Hoff won the first Nobel Prize in chemistry for his work on the relationship of volume, pressure and temperature in gases which became known as van't Hoff's Law. The 1st Nobel Banquet was held at the Grand Hotel in Stockholm for 118 male guests. In 2000 Burton Feldman authored “The Nobel Prize: A History of Genius, Controversy and Prestige."
    (SFC, 6/30/99, p.C2)(WSJ, 12/8/00, p.W11)

1903        Svante Arrhenius (1859-1927), Swedish scientist, won the Nobel Prize in chemistry.
    (http://tinyurl.com/lxu4w)

1904        Sep 2, Set Svanholm, tenor (Met Opera and London Convent Garden), was born in Vesteras, Sweden.
    (MC, 9/2/01)

1904        Denmark and Sweden issued the first Christmas seals to raise money to fight tuberculosis.
    (SFEC, 12/13/98, Z1 p.10)

1905        Feb 7, Ulf Svante von Euler-Chelpin, Swedish physiologist, was born.
    (HN, 2/7/01)

1905        Jun 7, Norway declared independence from Sweden. Their union had been in effect in since 1814.
    (SC, 6/7/02)(SSFC, 6/5/05, p.F7)

1905        Jul 29, Dag Hammerarskjold, Nobel Peace Prize (1961) winning secretary-general of the United Nations (1953-1961), was born in Sweden.
    (HN, 7/29/98)

1905        Sep 18, Greta Garbo (d.1990), actress nominated for Oscars for her roles in "Anna Christie" and "Ninotchka," was born in Stockholm.
    (HN, 9/18/98)(MC, 9/18/01)

1907        Nov 14, Astrid Lindgren (d.2002), children's writer, was born near Vimmerby, Sweden. Her books included “Pippi Longstocking."
    (SFC, 1/29/02, p.A17)(AP, 11/14/07)

1907        Dec 8, Oscar II (78), the king of Sweden and former king of Norway, died in Stockholm.
    (AP, 12/8/07)

1907        August Strindberg completed his anti-naturalistic play “The Ghost Sonata."
    (WS, 6/27/01, p.A12)

1908        May 30, Hannes Alfvén, Swedish, Nobel Prize-winning astrophysicist.
    (HN, 5/30/01)

1908        Svante Arrhennius, Swedish chemist, proposed the idea of “panspermia," the idea that our solar system was inoculated with living organisms from outside the galaxy.
    (PacDis, Winter ’97, p.34)

1909        Mar 26, August Strindberg's "Bjalb-jarle-ti" premiered in Stockholm.
    (SS, 3/26/02)

1909        Selma Lagerdorf (1858-1940), Swedish novelist, won the Nobel Prize in Literature.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Selma_Lagerl%C3%B6f)

1910        Oct 15, Torbjorn Oskar Caspersson, Swedish cytologist and geneticist, was born.
    (HN, 10/15/00)

1911        Feb 2, Johan J. "Jussi" Bjorling, great Swedish tenor, was born. Now regarded by many as the greatest opera tenor of the middle 20th Century.
    (MC, 2/2/02)

1911        In Stockholm, Sweden, construction began on a new city hall. The design was a mix of Italian Renaissance, Moorish and Byzantine style and was  completed in 1923.
    (SSFC, 8/19/07, p.G4)

1912        May 14, Johan August Strindberg (b.1849), Swedish novelist, dramatist and essayist, died. In 1985 Michael Meyer authored a Strindberg biography.
    (WUD, 1994 p.1407)(SFC, 8/10/00, p.D2)(MC, 5/14/02)

1914        The Swedish firm Kreuger & Toll, a construction and engineering firm co-founded by Ivar Kreuger (1880-1932) and a partner, went public.
    (Econ, 12/22/07, p.116)

1915        Aug 15, Signe Larsson (d.2002), film actress later known as Signe Hasso, was born in Stockholm.
    (SFC, 6/10/02, p.B6)

1915        Aug 29, Ingrid Bergman (d.1982), Oscar winning actress famous for her role in "Casablanca" and "Anastasia," was born in Stockholm, Sweden. "Happiness is good health and a bad memory."
    (HN, 8/29/98)(AP, 7/21/97)

1916        Oct 19, Karl-Birger Blomdahl, Sweden, opera composer (Herr von Hancken), was born.
    (MC, 10/19/01)

1916        Nov 3, On the Baltic off of Finland a German U-boat under Captain Bruno Hoppe ordered Captain E.B. Eriksson of the Swedish schooner Jonkoping to halt for an inspection. Beverages headed for the Russians were discovered and the ship was evacuated and sunk. In 1998 some 1,000 bottles of 1907 Heidsieck Monopole champagne were recovered, of which 500 were preserved in drinking condition. Hoppe later sank the schooner Akir. The 66-ton Joenkoeping was sunk in the Baltic Sea by a German U-boat. It carried 44 creates of champagne, 67 barrels of cognac, and 17 barrels of port wine intended for the Russian army. Divers planned to recover the cargo in 1998.
    (SFC, 7/11/98, p.A14)(SFC, 9/21/98, p.A19)(AP, 9/21/98)

1916        A Russian submarine sank off Sweden’s eastern coast after it collided with a Swedish ship in poor visibility, killing all 18 crew members. Wreckage of the submarine was found in 2015.
    (Reuters, 7/28/15)

1917        Mar 20, Gideon Sundback, Swedish-born engineer, patented an all-purpose zipper while working for the Automatic Hook and Eye Co. of Hoboken, New Jersey. The zipper name was coined by B.F. Goodrich in 1923, who used it to fasten rubber galoshes. In 1994 Robert Friedel authored “Zipper: An Exploration in Novelty."
    (ON, 7/04, p.5)(www.inventors.about.com)

1917        In Sweden Knut Wallenberg set up a foundation as a tax saving way to keep the family together.
    (Econ, 10/14/06, p.73)
1917        Ivar Kreuger (1880-1932) exited his construction and engineering business and founded the Swedish Match Company, which he used to monopolize the match industry and swindle numerous investors up to his suicide in 1932.
    (Econ, 12/22/07, p.116)

1918        Apr 3, Sixten Ehrling, conductor (Royal Opera of Stockholm), was born in Malmo, Sweden.
    (MC, 4/3/02)

1918        Apr 25, Astrid Varnay, soprano (Met Opera 1941-56), was born in Stockholm, Sweden.
    (SS, 4/25/02)

1918        May 17, Birgit Nilsson, operatic soprano (Isolde, Turandot, Elektra, Salome), was born in Karup, Sweden.
    (MC, 5/17/02)

1918        Jul 14, Ingmar Bergman, Swedish film director (The Seventh Seal, Fanny and Alexander), was born in Uppsala, Sweden.
    (HN, 7/14/01)(MC, 7/14/02)

1919        Dec 28, Johannes Robert Rydberg (b.1854), Swedish physicist, died. He is mainly known for devising the Rydberg formula, in 1888, which is used to predict the wavelengths of photons (of light  and other electromagnetic radiation) emitted by changes in the energy level of an electron  in an hydrogen atom.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Johannes_Rydberg)

1920        Aug 22, Swedish artist Anders Zorn (b.1860) died. His work included “the Thorn Bush" (1886).
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anders_Zorn)(SFC, 11/9/13, p.E1)

1920        Oscar Swahn (72) of Sweden won a silver medal for shooting in the Antwerp Olympics.
    (WSJ, 3/31/08, p.A1)

1921        May 8, Sweden abolished capital punishment.
    (MC, 5/8/02)

1921        The League of Nations granted the Aland Island group to the new Finnish Republic.
    (WSJ, 12/5/97, p.A1)

1922        Dec 3, Sven Nykvist, Swedish cinematographer, was born.
    (HN, 12/3/00)

1922        Jean Borlin, Swedish dancer, choreographed the ballet "Skating Rink." The décor and costumes were designed by Ferdnand Leger. The music was by Atrhur Honneger.
    (WSJ, 6/25/99, p.W7)

1922        Total prohibition of alcohol was narrowly defeated in a Swedish referendum.
    (Econ, 11/15/03, p.49)

1923        A new City Hall was built in Stockholm, Sweden, in an amazing mix of bricks and gilt mosaic.
    (SSFC, 10/18/09, p.M4)

1924        Mar 15, Sweden recognized the U.S.S.R.
    (HN, 3/15/98)

1927        Jan 30, Olof Palme (d.1986), PM of Sweden (1969-76, 1982-86), was born in Stockholm.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Olof_Palme)

1927        Apr 14, Swedish automaker Volvo was officially founded. Volvo was established in 1915 as a subsidiary of SKF, a ball bearing manufacturer; however the Volvo Group and Volvo Cars considered themselves to have been officially founded when the first car, the Volvo ÖV 4 series, affectionately known as "Jakob", rolled out of the factory in Hisingen, Gothenburg.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Volvo)(SFC, 7/10/15, p.F1)

1927        Jul 19, Jan Myrdal, Swedish writer, journalist (Albania Defiant), was born.
    (MC, 7/19/02)

1927        Oct 2, Svante Arrhenius (b.1859), Swedish scientist and Nobel Prize winner in chemistry (1903), died in Uppsala. At the turn of the century, Svante Arrhenius had calculated that emissions from human industry might someday bring a global warming.
    (http://tinyurl.com/lxu4w)(www.aip.org/history/climate/co2.htm)

1929        Jan 28, Claus Oldenburg, US pop artist (Alphabet/Good Humor), was born in Stockholm, Sweden. He worked in Chicago as a newspaper reporter and then went to New York in 1956. He opened his “Store" in 1961, which was a storefront stocked with painted plaster replicas of food, clothing, and inexpensive household goods.
    (WSJ, 10/11/95, p. A-12)(MC, 1/28/02)

1929        Apr 10, Max Von Sydow, actor (Hawaii, Exorcist, Dune, Seventh Seal, Dreamscape), was born in Lund, Sweden.
    (MC, 4/10/02)

1932        Mar 12, Ivar Kreuger (b.1880), the so-called "Swedish Match King," committed suicide in Paris, leaving behind a financial empire that turned out to be worthless. The “Kreuger crash’ shook Wall Street and led to a 1933 Securities Act, which strengthened disclosure requirements for all companies selling stock. In 1961 Robert Shaplen authored “Kreuger, Genius and Swindler." In 2009 Frank Partnoy authored “The Match King."
    (AP, 3/12/99)(Econ, 12/22/07, p.115)(WSJ, 4/17/09, p.A11)

1935-1976    An involuntary sterilization program was conducted over this period during which some 63,000 people were deemed genetically inferior and involuntarily sterilized. In 1999 a commission recommended that victims, 90% women, be paid $21,000 each. Checks for over $22,000 were soon mailed out to some 200 victims.
    (SFC, 8/26/97, p.C3)(SFC, 1/27/99, p.C10)(SFEC, 11/14/99, p.A26)

1936        Mar 22, May Britt, actress (Young Lions), wife of Sammy Davis Jr., was born in Sweden.
    (MC, 3/22/02)

1936        Ragnar Sohlman (1870-1948) became managing director of Sweden’s Nobel Foundation and served to 1946.
    (ON, 4/07, p.7)
1936        Marquis Childs, American journalist, authored “Sweden: The Middle Way." It chronicled his research on the reform policies of the Swedish Social Democratic Party based on his visits to the country as a reporter.
    (Econ, 2/2/13, SR p.3)

1937        Apr 25, Bo Brundin, actress (Rhinemann Exchange), was born in Stockholm, Sweden.
    (SS, 4/25/02)

1937        Saab was founded as an aviation and defense company in Linkoping, Sweden. Its name was an acronym for "Svenska Aeroplan AB," where "AB" stands for "aktiebolaget" ("limited company"), thus written as 'SAAB'.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saab)

1937        Edvin Ohrstrom (1906-1994), artist and sculptor, and 2 others developed the Ariel technique at Orrefors in Orrefors, Sweden. This technique created a design by trapping air bubbles between two layers of glass. In 1990 Orrefors merged with Kosta Boda AB, which in turn became part of the New Wave Group in 2005.
    (SFC, 11/19/08, p.G6)

1938        Jun 16, Torgny Lindgren, Swedish writer, was born.
    (HN, 6/16/01)

1938        In Sweden the Saltsjobaden Accord was signed between unions and employers ushering in a consensus system of labor relations.
    (Economist, 10/13/12, SR p.20)
1938        Sweden’s collective wage deal system began. The system set wages through sector-wide deals with employers. In 2005 the system faced problems as cheaper workers arrived from other EU countries.
    (AP, 8/23/05)

1939-1945    A 1997 report said that Sweden received some 38 tons of gold from the Nazis in payment for exports.
    (SFC, 1/22/96, p.A9)

1940        Mar 16, Selma Lagerdorf (b.1858), Swedish Nobel prize winning novelist (1909), died.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Selma_Lagerl%C3%B6f)

1941        Apr 28, Ann-Margret, actress (Bye Bye Birdie, Tommy), was born in Valsjobya, Sweden.
    (MC, 4/28/02)

1941-1943    Over 200 mentally ill people were starved to death at the Vipeholm hospital in Lund.
    (SFEC, 11/14/99, p.A26)

1941-1945    Sweden maintained neutrality during the war but allowed German troops to cross its territory to invade the Soviet Union. It also allowed 250,000 German troops to use the railroad system to travel between occupied Norway and Germany. The Swedish navy provided escort service for German military supply ships and Swedish industry helped make up for German losses in their ball-bearing industry due to Allied bombing raids.
    (SFEC, 6/21/98, p.A13)

1943        Feb-Nov ‘44, Sweden received about 12.8 tons of gold from Germany.
    (SFC, 1/22/96, p.A9)

1943        The Riksbank director Ivar Rooth wrote a memorandum that said he and Trade Minister Hermann Eriksson discussed the risk that the gold Sweden received from Germany was looted.
    (SFC, 1/22/96, p.A9)

1943        Ingvar Kamprad (b.1926) of Elmtaryd, Agunnaryd, began selling farm implements by mail order under the name IKEA. The first deliveries were made by milk truck. The 1st catalog was published in 1951 and the 1st showroom opened in Almhult in 1953. By 1996 the Swedish firm had grown to $6.5 billion in sales. In 1999 it had 152 stores in 28 countries.
    (WSJ, 9/9/99, p.A24)(SFC, 3/10/00, p.B2)(http://tinyurl.com/4r88f4z)

1943        Over 7,000 Danish Jews crossed to Sweden to escape the Nazis.
    (Econ, 7/10/04, p.46)

1944        Jul 9, Raoul Wallenberg, a Swedish National Guardsman, arrived in Budapest to head the local office of the US-sponsored War Refugee Board. He had been recruited in June by a US Embassy official in Stockholm and sent to Nazi-controlled Budapest under Swedish diplomatic cover. He used US funds to bribe Nazi officials and saved over 20,000 Hungarian Jews from Nazi death camps.
    (SFC, 5/5/96, p.A-7)(MT, Spg. ‘99, p.18)(WSJ, 2/28/09, p.A7)

1944        Jul 19, Swedish diplomat Raoul Wallenberg 1st met SS ober Sturmbannfuhrer Adolf Eichmann.
    (MC, 7/19/02)

1944        Oct 30, Sweden announced its intention to stay neutral and refused sanctuary in WW II.
    (MC, 10/30/01)

1945        Jan 17, Swedish diplomat Raoul Wallenberg, credited with saving tens of thousands of Jews, disappeared in Hungary while in Soviet custody. Raoul Wallenberg was jailed by the Soviets who believed that he was an American spy. He had saved more than 20,000 Hungarian Jews from Nazi death camps. Wallenberg was a graduate of the Univ. of Michigan and studied there from 1931-1935. In 2000 a Kremlin commission believed that he was shot in a KGB prison.
    (SFC, 5/5/96, p.A-7)(AP, 1/17/98)(MT, Spg. ‘99, p.18)(SFC, 11/28/00, p.A18)

1945        Apr 25, Bjorn Ulvaeus, rock vocalist, guitarist (ABBA-Waterloo, Dancing Queen), was born.
    (SS, 4/25/02)

1945        Astrid Lindgren (1907-2002) authored her novel “Pippi Longstocking."
    (SFC, 1/29/02, p.A17)

c1945        Sweden returned about 14 tons of presumably looted gold to Belgium and the Netherlands that it had received from the Nazis in payment for exports.
    (SFC, 1/22/96, p.A9)

1945        Gundeer Haag (1919-2004), Swedish runner, set the world record for the mile and held it until 1954.
    (SFC, 12/3/04, p.B7)

1946        Scandinavian airlines began as a co-operative venture between the airlines of Denmark, Norway and Sweden. In 1951 they merged. Marcus Wallenberg Jr. (1899-1982), tennis champion, sold out of railways to concentrate on airplanes. Wallenberg helped to establish the Scandinavian Airlines System and controlled companies that employed one of every eight working Swedes.
    (www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,925746-2,00.html)(Econ, 10/14/06, p.73)(Econ, 5/19/12, p.74)

1947        Jul 16, Raoul Wallenberg, Swedish diplomat jailed by the Soviets who believed that he was an American spy, reportedly died at the Lubyanka prison in Moscow of an alleged heart attack. He had saved more than 20,000 Hungarian Jews from Nazi death camps. A 2001 Swedish report failed to confirm his death. In 2010 Russian Security Services archives said a man identified as Prisoner No. 7, who was interrogated 6 days after the diplomat’s reported execution on July 17, was likely Wallenberg. On Oct 26, 2016, Swedish officials declared Wallenberg officially dead as of July 31, 1952.
    (SFC, 5/5/96, p.A-7)(SFC, 12/23/00, p.A12)(SFC, 1/13/01, p.A14)(WSJ, 2/28/09, p.A7)(SFC, 4/2/10, p.A4)(Econ, 11/12/16, p.82)


1947        Sweden’s culture award Illis Quorum Meruere Labores (For Those Whose Labors Have Deserved It) was first given to the folk-musician, Hjort Anders Olsson.
    (NH, 4/97, p.31)
1947        Sweden began requiring all citizens to have a national ID number.
    (Econ, 4/15/17, p.12)
1947        Apparel retailer H&M was established in Sweden. The company expanded into Europe and opened its 1st US stores in 2000. Its 1st SF store opened in 2005.
    (SFC, 11/19/05, p.C1)
1947        The first Saab automobile, a prototype, was produced.
    (Sky, 9/97, p.97)

1948        Sep 17, Count Folke Bernadotte (b.1895) of Sweden, the UN mediator for Palestine, was assassinated in Jerusalem by members of the extreme Zionist Stern Group. Yehoshua Zettler (d.2009 at 91), one of the founding members of the group, masterminded the assassination.
    (AP, 9/17/98)(www.us-israel.org/jsource/biography/Bernadotte.html)(AP, 5/25/09)

1949        Dec 12, Saab, a Swedish aircraft maker, began full-scale production of the Saab 92 automobile based on the prototype Saab 92001.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saab_92)

1950        The ballet "Miss Julie," based on the play by August Strindberg, premiered  with choreography by Birgit Cullberg.
    (SFC, 9/10/99, p.D6)

1950        The film “Waiting Women" featured Jarl Kulle (d. 1997 at 70) and was directed by Ingmar Bergman.
    (SFC, 10/4/97, p.A20)

1951        Jun 27, Ulf Andersson, International Chess Grandmaster (1972), was born in Sweden.
    (SC, 6/27/02)

1951        Sweden’s Kiki Hakansson became the first Miss World.
    (AFP, 12/12/09)
1951        Ruben Rausing (1895-1983) of Sweden founded Tetra Pak as a subsidiary to Akerlund & Rausing  to produce milk cartons. In 1963 the company gave the world a flat-topped carton that can be packed and shipped like bricks. The development revolutionized the packaging and distribution of milk and fruit juices worldwide.
    (AP, 7/11/12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ruben_Rausing)

1952        Jun 16, Soviet Fighters shot down a Swedish Catalina reconnaissance flight.
    (MC, 6/16/02)

1953-1961    Dag Hammarskjold of Sweden served as the Secretary-General of the UN.
    (SFC, 12/14/96, p.A1)

1955        The film “Smiles of a Summer Night" featured Jarl Kulle (d. 1997 at 70) and was directed by Ingmar Bergman.
    (SFC, 10/4/97, p.A20)

1955        Alcohol in Sweden was rationed until this year.
    (Econ, 11/15/03, p.49)

1956        Jul 25, The Italian luxury liner Andrea Doria sank after colliding with the Swedish ship Stockholm in 200 feet of water 50 miles southeast of Nantucket Island, Mass. 46 people of its 1,706 passengers and crew were killed. The Dorea was headed from Genoa, Italy, to NY, and sank eleven hours after the crash.
    (WSJ, 5/30/97, p.A1)(AP, 7/25/97)(SFC, 1/1/99, p.A16)(SFC, 7/30/99, p.D5)(AP, 1/14/12)

1956        The Eugene O’Neill play “Long Day’s Journey Into Night" premiered at the Royal Dramatic Theater in Stockholm with Jarl Kulle as Edmond.
    (SFC, 10/4/97, p.A20)

1957        Dec 26, The Ingmar Bergman film "Wild Strawberries," starring Victor Sjostrom, opened in Sweden.
    (AP, 12/26/07)

1957        The Academy Chamber Choir of Uppsala was founded by Folke Bohlin and Eric Ericson.
    (SFC, 10/26/01, p.C15)

1958         Jun 29, Brazil won its first World Cup in thrilling fashion, defeating host Sweden 5-2 in the final and in the process becoming the first team to win the tournament outside its continent. The tournament is largely remembered for the emergence of 17-year-old Edson Arantes do Nascimento, aka Pele.
    (AP, 6/2/18)

1958        Oct 8, Dr. Ake Senning installed the 1st fully implantable pacemaker in Stockholm. Arne Larsson (43) received the pacemaker, which was built Dr. Rune Elmqvist. Larsson died in 2001 after receiving 26 different pacemakers.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Artificial_cardiac_pacemaker)(Econ, 3/7/09, TQ p.25)

1958        The first IKEA retail store opened in Almhult.
    (Hem., 2/97, p.31)

1959        Nov 20, Seven European nations (Austria, Britain, Denmark, Norway, Portugal, Sweden, Switzerland) signed the Stockholm Convention to form the European Free Trade Association (EFTA). The organization becoming operative on May 3, 1960. After the accession of Denmark, Ireland, and the UK to the EEC in January 1973, the EFTA began to falter. Portugal (1985), followed in 1995 by Austria, Finland and Sweden, left to join the EU. In 2017 Four members remained: Switzerland, Norway, Liechtenstein and Iceland.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/European_Free_Trade_Association)

1959        In boxing American Floyd Patterson was knocked out by Sweden’s Ingemar Johansson.
    (SFC, 6/28/97, p.B1)

1960        Sep 8, Jussi Bjorling, Swedish epic tenor (Manrico, Cavaradossi, Faust, Rodolfo, Riccardo, Romeo), died of heart failure at 49.
    (MC, 9/8/01)

1960        Nov 13, Sammy Davis Jr. married Swedish actress May Britt.
    (MC, 11/13/01)

1960        The Lutheran Church of Sweden ordained its first female ministers.
    (SFC, 10/16/12, p.A2)

1961        Sep 18, Dag Hammarskjold, Secretary-General of the UN, was killed in a plane crash in Northern Rhodesia (now Zambia). He was flying to negotiate a cease-fire in the Congo. Hammarskjold was the son of a former Swedish prime minister. In 1953, he was elected to the top UN post and in 1957 was reelected. During his second term, he initiated and directed the United Nation's vigorous role in the Belgian Congo. Hammarskjold had sent Conor O’Brien (1919-2008), an Irish diplomat, to the Congo where a rebellion was openly being backed by Belgium and secretly by Britain and France. O’Brien ordered in UN troops, but the mission ended in disarray and the UN repudiated the mission. O’Brien recounted his version of the events in his book “To Katanga and Back" (1962).
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dag_Hammarskj%C3%B6ld)(AP, 9/18/97)(SSFC, 12/21/08, p.B6)

1961        Westerlund 1, one of the biggest cluster of superstars in the Milky Way, was discovered by a Swedish astronomer and became a favored observation site in stellar physics. It is located 16,000 light years away in the constellation of Ara, the Altar. It contained a neutron star with a mighty magnetic field. The stars were all born from a single event just three and a half to five million years ago.
    (AFP, 8/18/10)

1963        The film “Now About These Women" featured Jarl Kulle (d. 1997 at 70) and was directed by Ingmar Bergman.
    (SFC, 10/4/97, p.A20)

1965        Apr 8, Erik A. Blomberg (70), Swedish art historian, poet, author, died.
    (MC, 4/8/02)

1965        IKEA opened its first retail store in Stockholm.
    (Hem., 2/97, p.31)

1966        S.Y. Agnon (1888-1970), Jewish writer, shared the Nobel Prize in Literature with Nelly Sachs, a German-born Swede.
    (www.kirjasto.sci.fi/agnon.htm)(AP, 10/8/09)

1967        May 2, The Stockholm Vietnam Tribunal opened and continued to May 10. The formation of this investigative body immediately followed the 1966 publication of Bertrand Russell's book, “War Crimes in Vietnam." It condemned US aggression in Vietnam and Cambodia. A 2nd session of the tribunal was held at Roskilde, Denmark, Nov 20 – Dec 1, 1967.
    (www.vietnamese-american.org/contents.html)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russell_Tribunal)

1967        Jul 14, The Convention Establishing the World Intellectual Property Organization, or WIPO Convention, was signed at Stockholm, Sweden, and entered into force on April 26, 1970. As its name suggests, it established the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO). WIPO Convention has 184 Contracting Parties. The Convention is written in English, French, Russian and Spanish, all texts being equally authentic. The Convention was amended on September 28, 1979.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_Intellectual_Property_Organization)

1967        Sep. 3, Motorists in Sweden began driving on the right-hand side of the road instead of the left.
    (AP, 9/3/97)

1967        Birgit Cullberg (d.1999 at 91) founded the Cullberg Ballet.
    (SFC, 9/10/99, p.D6)

1967        Växjö University was founded in southern Sweden. In 2005 the rapidly developing knowledge centre had about 15,500 students enrolled in undergraduate studies with 900 people employed as researchers, teachers or administrators.
    (www.msi.vxu.se/)

1968        The first gathering of folk-musicians at Bingsjö was held.
    (NH, 4/97, p.31)

1968        The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences was first endowed by Sweden’s central bank. It is the only Nobel Prize that was not created by Alfred Nobel in 1901.
    (WSJ, 10/11/95, p. A-16)(WSJ, 10/15/98, p.A22)

1970        Oct, Sir Bernard Katz (d.2003 at 92) shared the Nobel Prize (medicine or physiology) for his discovery of how nerve cells communicate with each other and with the muscles they control. Ulf von Euler of Sweden and Julius Axelrod of the US shared the prize for their work on neuro-transmitters.
    (SFC, 5/1/03, A21)

1970        Oct, The Nobel Prize for Physics was won by Louis Neel (d.2000 at 95) of France for discoveries about magnetic fields and Hanes Alfven of Sweden for work on interactions between plasmas and magnetic fields.
    (SFC, 11/25/00, p.A23)

1970        Professional boxing was banned in Sweden after a study found that it involved severe and even life-threatening injuries, had a brutalizing effect on the audience and was governed by unsound economic interests.
    (http://sports.espn.go.com/sports/boxing/news/story?id=2679831)

1971        Apr 7, Miro Baresic (b.1950), a declared pro-Ustasha who strived for Croatia's independence from Yugoslavia, and his friend Andelko Brajkovic shot Ambassador Vladimir Rolovic inside the Yugoslav embassy in Stockholm. A group of Croatian far-right radicals hijacked a Scandinavian Airlines passenger plane in 1972, forcing his release. He found refuge in Paraguay, but was eventually captured again and extradited to Sweden in 1980, where his life sentence was converted to 18 years. He returned to Croatia in 1991 where he was killed in fighting against Serb-led forces fighting against Croatia's independence.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Miro_Bare%C5%A1i%C4%87)(AP, 8/1/16)

1971        Oct, Earl W. Sutherland Jr. (1915-1974), US pharmacologist, won the Nobel Prize in Medicine for his discoveries concerning the mechanisms of the action of hormones.
    (http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1971/press.html)

1971        Sweden moved to keep out foreign shoes on the grounds of national security.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R50)
1971        Sweden’s Saab become the first car to have heated seating.
    (AP, 12/19/11)

1972        Jun 5, A United Nations Conference on the Human Environment began in Stockholm. World Environment Day (WED) from this day on was celebrated every year on 5 June to raise global awareness of the need to take positive environmental action.
    (http://tinyurl.com/qd8kqy2)

1972        Jun, The London Convention was called for by the UN Conference on the Human Environment in Stockholm. The treaty was drafted at the Intergovernmental Conference on the Convention on the Dumping of Wastes at Sea on Nov 13, 1972, in London and it was opened for signature on Dec 29, 1972.
    (http://tinyurl.com/lczas5o)

1972        Sweden’s PM Olof Palme compared America’s bombing in Vietnam to Nazi atrocities during WWII. America in response cut diplomatic ties with Sweden; they were not restored until 1974.
    (Econ, 9/7/13, p.54)

1973        Aug 23, A bank robbery-turned-hostage standoff began in Stockholm, Sweden; by the time the crisis ended, the four hostages had come to empathize with their captors, an occurrence that came to be known as "Stockholm Syndrome."
    (AP, 8/23/07)

1974        The group Abba of Sweden won the Eurovision song contest with their song “Waterloo."
    (Econ, 5/14/05, p.57)
1974        Eyvind Johnson and Harry Martinson of Sweden shared the Nobel Prize in Literature.
    (AP, 10/8/09)
1974        In Sweden the giant Kockums crane became the symbol of the city of Malmo. Its last use in Malmö was in 1997, when it lifted the foundations of the high pillars of the Oresund Bridge. It was dismantled and sent to South Korea in 2002.
    (Econ, 2/2/13, SR p.8)
1974        Sweden established a parental leave program for new fathers. When state-subsidized parental leave was introduced this year, women took nearly all of the parental leave. Men would wash dishes and fold the laundry, but child-rearing was considered a female domain. A milestone was crossed in 1995 when the government started earmarking one month of parental leave benefits for each parent. Seven years later it was increased to two months. Then came the equality bonus that further encouraged men to take daddy leave.
    (Econ, 1/10/04, p.46)(AP, 10/23/11)

1975        Apr 24, Hanna Krabbe (b.1945), a German Red Army faction guerrilla, took part in a Baader-Meinhof gang attack on the German embassy in Stockholm in which two German diplomats died. German chancellor Helmut Schmidt approved the storming of the building by  Swedish police. Krabbe was arrested and sentenced to 21 years confinement and was released in 1996.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/West_German_embassy_siege)(SFC, 5/11/96, p.A-9)

1975        Sweden established one of the world’s first national biobanks.
    (Econ, 12/10/05, TQ p.28)

1976        Apr 22, Director Ingmar Bergman left Sweden due to taxation.
    (MC, 4/22/02)

1976-1982    A center-right government led Sweden.
    (Econ, 9/15/07, p.66)

1978        The opera "Le Grande Macabre" by Gyorgi Ligeti (1923-2006) premiered in Stockholm.
    (WSJ, 7/31/97, p.A16)(www.naxos.com/composerinfo/bio22120.htm)

1979        Sweden became the first country to outlaw all violence by adults on children and teenagers.  By 2010 twenty five countries had anti-spanking statutes.
    (Econ, 9/4/04, p.54)(Econ, 5/31/08, p.62)(AP, 7/14/10)
1979        Stig Bergling (1937-2015), a former Swedish security officer who sold secrets to the Soviet Union, was caught in Israel. He had given Moscow details on the location of coastal defense sites and weapon systems, forcing neutral Sweden to revamp much of its defense system. In Sweden he was sentenced to life in prison, but fled while on leave in 1987. He and his wife returned to Sweden in 1994. He went back to prison, but was released in 1997 after his life sentence was commuted.
    (AP, 1/29/15)

1980        Dec 10, Czeslaw Milosz of UC Berkeley, a Polish-born American, received the Nobel Prize in literature from King Carl Gustaf in Sweden.
    (SFC, 12/9/05, p.F2)(AP, 10/8/09)

1980        Sweden passed a referendum to wean itself off nuclear power. In 2010 a center-right government overturned the 1980 decision. As of 2012 Sweden had 10 nuclear reactors at the country's three power plants: Ringhals, Forsmark and Oskarshamn, providing about half of the country's electricity.
    (Econ, 8/12/06, p.44)(AP, 6/21/12)
1980        Swedish-German philanthropist Jakob von Uexkull founded the annual Right to Livelihood Awards  to recognize work he felt was being ignored by the Nobel Prizes.
    (AP, 10/13/09)(AP, 11/24/17)

1981        Apr 30, William Eugene Cox and Annika Oestberg Deasy (27) robbed and killed Joseph Torre (58), a restaurant owner, in Stockton, Ca. A few days later they killed Sgt. Richard Helbush and stole his patrol car. They were both caught and sentenced to long jail terms. Cox later hanged himself in jail. In 1999 Sweden called for the transfer of Deasy to Sweden under the 1983 Strasbourg Treaty, which provided for prisoner transfers. In 2009 a Swedish court ruled that Annika Ostberg (55) would be released in 2011.
    (SFC, 11/9/99, p.A13)(AP, 11/16/09)

1981        Oct 5, President Ronald Reagan signed a resolution granting honorary American citizenship to Swedish diplomat Raoul Wallenberg, credited with saving about 100,000 Hungarians, most of them Jews, from the Nazis during WW II. He became the second honorary American. Winston Churchill was the first.
    (AP, 10/5/01)

1981        Oct 27, In an incident that became known as “Whiskey-on-the-rocks" Soviet Whiskey-class submarine S-363, ran aground near Karlskrona, a Swedish naval base. Sweden designated it U137.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soviet_submarine_S-363(Econ, 10/25/14, p.54)

1982        Aug 29, Ingrid Bergman (b.1915), Swedish film star, died in England. In 1997 Donald Spoto wrote a biography of Ingrid Bergman: "Notorious, The Life of Ingrid Bergman." Bergman’s own autobiography was titled "My Story."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ingrid_Bergman)(SFEC, 7/20/97, BR p.6)(SFC, 5/31/00, p.A22)

1982        Sep 13, In Sweden Marcus Wallenberg Jr. (b.1899), former tennis champion and banker, died.
    (http://tinyurl.com/yebq39)

1982        Oct 7, Olof Palme was sworn in as Sweden’s prime minister.
    (www.islandnet.com/~kpolsson/swedhis/swed1980.htm)

1982        The film “Fanny and Alexander" featured Jarl Kulle (d. 1997 at 70) and was directed by Ingmar Bergman. The part of innkeeper and seducer Gustav Adolf Ekdahl was especially written for Mr. Kulle. The film won 4 Academy Awards.
    (SFC, 10/4/97, p.A20)

1982        Swedish scientists Dr. Sune Karl Bergstrom (d.2004), Bengt Samuelsson and John R. Vane of Britain shared the Nobel Prize for Physiology or medicine for their work on natural chemicals involved in birth, blood clotting and pain control. Samuelson received the Nobel Prize for his work in 1979 when he identified a natural chemical produced in the body that helps spawn the severe, breath shortening attacks that are the hallmark of asthma.
    (WSJ, 4/5/96, p.B-1)(SFC, 8/19/04, p.B7)

1982        The Stichting Ingka Foundation, a Dutch-registered, tax-exempt, non-profit legal entity, was given the shares of Ingvar Kamprad (b.1926), the Swedish founder of IKEA. In 2006 Ingka Holding, a private Dutch-registered company, was the parent of 207 of 235 worldwide IKEA companies, and it belonged to the Stichting Ingka Foundation.
    (Econ, 5/13/06, p.69)(SFC, 4/6/04, p.C3)

1985        Sep 15, In Sweden Olof Palme (1927-1986) formed a minority government.
    (www.brandt21forum.info/Bio-Palme.htm)

1985        Nov 17, Olof Palme stopped, as he should have since he was mediating an end of the Iran-Iraq war for the UN, an illegal shipment of 80 HAWK missiles through Sweden from Israel to Teheran.
    (http://www.skog.de/writers/e040831.htm)

1986        Feb 28, Olof Palme, Swedish Prime Minister (1969-76, 82-86), was shot to death in central Stockholm. In 1996 South African former police officer Eugene de Kock said that Craig Williamson, a South African spy, was involved in the murder. In 1997 lawyer Pelle Svensson said that his client, Lars Tingstrom, wrote a statement on his deathbed in prison in 1993 that he had committed the killing. The family was convinced that Christer Pettersson, a drug addict and alcoholic, was the killer. In 1999 Abdullah Ocalan in Turkey suggested that a rival PKK organization killed Olof Palme.
    (SFC, 9/27/96, p.A12)(SFC, 3/26/97, p.A12)(AP, 2/28/98)(SFEC, 8/23/98, p.A26)(SFC, 6/2/99, p.C2)

1986        Mar 1, In Sweden Social Democrat Ingvar Carlsson became prime minister. He served until October 1991. Under his administration Sweden made the decision to apply to join the EU.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prime_Minister_of_Sweden)(Econ, 3/3/07, p.57)

1986        Mar 24, A $15 billion contract between the Indian government and Swedish arms company AB Bofors was signed for supply of over 400 155mm Howitzer field guns.
    (AP, 3/21/11)

1987        Apr 16, Swedish Radio claimed that Swedish arms company AB Bofors paid kickbacks to top Indian politicians and key defense officials to secure a deal.
    (http://tinyurl.com/47jy7dp)

1987        May 17, Gunnar Myrdal (b.1898), Swedish economist (Nobel 1974), died.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gunnar_Myrdal)

1987        Oct 22, Nobel prize for literature was awarded to Joseph Brodsky (1940-1996). At an interview in the Stockholm airport, to a question: "You are an American citizen who is receiving the Prize for Russian-language poetry. Who are you, an American or a Russian?" He responded: "I am Jewish".
    (http://tinyurl.com/zx2yz)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Brodsky)

1987        An Ikea subsidiary in Berlin and an East German company contracted for Cuban prison labor to build 45,000 tables and 40,000 sofa groupings. The deal blossomed into a scandal in 2012 following reports of the deal by a German newspaper.
    (SFC, 5/11/12, p.A7)

1988        Apr 5, Alf Kjellin, Swedish actor, director (Juggler), died.
    (www.tv.com/alf-kjellin/person/24487/summary.html)

1988        Sep 11, Mats Wilander of Sweden won the men's U.S. Open title in New York.
    (AP, 9/11/98)

1988        Dec 6, Arafat met prominent American Jews in Stockholm, Sweden.
    (http://openweb.tvnews.vanderbilt.edu/1988-12/1988-12-06-NBC-15.html)

1988        The Swedish film “Pelle the Conqueror" with Max von Sydow won the Cannes Festival Palme d’Or.
    (SFEC, 4/20/97, DB p.47)

1988        Max von Sydow wrote and directed the film “Katinka" based on the Danish book by Herman Bang.
    (SFEC, 4/20/97, DB p.47)

1989        Sep, Werner Aspenstrom (1919-1997), Swedish poet, resigned from the Nobel Academy for literature, along with novelists Kerstin Ekman and Lars Gyllensten, for the academy’s weak response to the Salmon Rushdie controversy. Aspenstrom’s work included "Snolegend" (1949) and "Varelser" (1989).
    (http://tinyurl.com/nw7gr)

1989        Nov 1, A Scandinavian Airlines System (SAS) and Finnair ban on smoking took effect for all Nordic flights.
    (http://tc.bmjjournals.com/cgi/content/full/13/suppl_1/i20)

1989        Dec 15, GM and SAAB agreed to form a 50-50 joint auto-making company, called Saab Automobile A.B. GM acquired the rest of SAAB a decade later.
    (http://tinyurl.com/oktgl)(Econ, 1/31/09, p.72)

1989        Mohammed Abu Talb was arrested in Sweden for the 1985 bombing in Copenhagen that killed one person and injured 16. He was also implicated in the 1988 bombing of the Pan Am Flight 103 over Lockerbie, Scotland.
    (SFC, 11/25/99, p.A14)

1990        Mar, GM and SAAB completed setting up a joint auto-making venture in Europe. They had agreed on Dec. 15, 1989, to form a 50-50 joint auto-making company, called Saab Automobile A.B.
    (http://tinyurl.com/oktgl)

1990        Jul 8, Sweden’s Stefan Edberg beat Boris Becker of West Germany to capture his second men’s tennis championship at Wimbledon.
    (AP, 7/8/00)

1990        Oct 21, Walther Sommerlath (b.1901), the father of Sweden’s Queen Silvia, died in Heidelberg. During WWII he swapped a coffee farm in Brazil for a German-based business owned by Efim Wechsler, a Jewish businessman. This allowed Wechsler to emigrate from Nazi Germany.
    (SFC, 12/21/12, p.A8)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Walther_Sommerlath)

c1990    The Ishotellet, or Ice Hotel, in Jukkasjaervi began annual operations. The one-story hotel was rebuilt every December and lasted to May.
    (SFC, 2/11/98, p.B3)

1990        Sweden adopted legislation that lowered the blood alcohol limit for all drivers to .02%. The US standard was .08%.
    (AP, 12/22/09)

1991        Oct 4, Carl Bildt (b.1949), leader of the Moderates, began serving PM of Sweden and continued to Oct 7, 1994. His center-right government was blighted by a deep recession followed by a huge row over whether to build the Oresund Bridge to Denmark.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carl_Bildt)(SFC, 9/20/98, p.A12)(Econ, 9/23/06, p.60)

1991        Sweden’s right-wing government passed a law allowing charities, religious organizations, groups of parents and businesses to open schools and get as much state money per student as state-run schools.
    (Econ, 4/24/10, p.24)
1991        Sweden cancelled its financial transactions tax (FTT).
    (Econ, 3/16/13, p.20)

1992        Feb 23, In Germany Blanka Zmigrod (68), a Jewish employee at a Moevenpick restaurant in Frankfurt, was shot dead on her way home from work. Police later suspected that John Ausonius, dubbed "Laserman" for the gunsight he used, was responsible. In 2016 Germany said Ausonius, serving a life sentence in Sweden for a racially motivated spree in Sweden in 1991 and 1992 in which he killed one person and injured 10 others in attacks in the Stockholm area. He will be extradited to Germany to stand trial for the murder of Zmigrod.
    (AP, 12/15/16)(Reuters, 12/13/17)

1992        Mar 5, In Copenhagen the Ministers for Foreign Affairs of Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, Poland, Russia and Sweden, in the presence of the representative from the European Commission, opened a 2-day meeting and decided to establish a Council of the Baltic Sea States to serve as a forum for guidance and overall coordination among the participating states. Iceland joined the CBSS in 1995
    (www.bmwi.de/English/Navigation/European-policy/baltic-market.html)(Econ, 6/7/08, p.63)

1992        Sweden rescued its banking system pushing its gross public debt up to 73% of its GDP from 55% a year earlier. Sweden set up 2 bad banks to handle the crummier assets of Nordbanken and Gota Bank, which were nationalized. The eventual cost of the bailout was kept under 2% of GDP. Nordbanken was partly refloated in 1995, but the state remained its largest shareholder. In 2001 Nordbanken was combined with Danish, Norwegian and Finnish lenders to create Nordea.
    (Econ, 10/11/08, p.100)(Econ, 11/29/08, p.76)(Econ, 5/16/09, SR p.5)(Econ 5/6/17, SR p.15)

1993        Sep 6, Automakers Renault of France and Volvo of Sweden announced they would merge; however, Volvo canceled the deal the following December.
    (AP, 9/6/98)

1993        Dec 3, Viktor Gunnarsson, a suspect in the 1986 assassination of Swedish PM Olof Palme, disappeared. His body was found five weeks later. In 1997 North Carolina police officer Lamont Claxton "L.C." Underwood (d.2018) was convicted for the murder. Gunnarsson had started a relationship with Underwood's ex-girlfriend Kay Weden after moving to the US. Weden's mother, Catherine Miller (77), was found shot to death on Dec. 9.
    (http://tinyurl.com/yakmejpj)(AP, 12/29/18)

1993        Fredrik Reinfeldt (28) authored “The Sleeping People," in which he said that Swedes were mentally handicapped and indoctrinated to believe that politicians can create and guarantee welfare. In 2006 he led a 4-party center right alliance to oust the Social Democrats.
    (Econ, 9/23/06, p.61)
1993        Sweden privatized Posten AB, its postal network.
    (Econ, 1/20/07, p.76)

1994        Mar 17, Mae Zetterling (b.1925), Swedish director and actress (Night Games), died.
    (www.imdb.com/name/nm0955195/)

1994        Jun 11, Mattias Flink (b.1970), a Swedish army lieutenant went berserk and killed 7 people. Flink was placed in the Norrköping prison but was subsequently moved to Beateberg prison outside of Stockholm.
    (SFEC, 8/23/98, p.A26)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mattias_Flink)

1994        Nov 13, Sweden voted to join the European Union.
    (AP, 11/13/99)

1994        Anders Isaksson wrote “Always More, Never Enough," a critique of the welfare system.
    (WSJ, 9/25/96, p.A1)

1994        In Sweden reforms came into force that allowed pretty much anyone, who satisfies basic standards, to open a new school and take in children at the state’s expense.
    (Econ, 6/14/08, p.83)

1995        Jan 1, Austria, Finland and Sweden joined the European Union. Sweden held their elections to the parliament later that year on 17 September. Austria held its elections on 13 October, 1996 and Finland on 20 October, 1996.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_European_Union)(Econ, 5/1/04, p.26)

1995        Sweden granted registered partnership becoming the third country to legally recognize same-sex unions, after Denmark and Norway.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Same-sex_marriage_in_Sweden)

1995        Esstar Corp., sold Milwaukee Electric Tool to Sweden’s Atlas Copco and changed its name to Essex Industries. In Dec., Essex agreed to be acquired by Assa Abloy, a Swedish lock maker. It had begun in 1891 as American Sugar Refining Co.
    (WSJ, 5/28/96, p. R-45)

1995        Metro Int’l., a Swedish firm, pioneered free daily newspapers supported by advertising.
    (Econ, 8/26/06, p.54)

1995        Upjohn Co. of Kalamazoo merged with Pharmacia AB of Sweden to form Pharmacia & Upjohn. Fred Hassan was called in to lead the new company.
    (WSJ, 2/2/99, p.B1)

1995        In Sweden a young man killed 4 people and wounded 20 with an assault rifle after he was denied admittance to a discotheque.
    (SFEC, 8/24/98, p.A26)

1996        Jun 9, The latest unemployment rate was 9.6%.
    (SFC, 6/9/96, Parade, p.9)

1996        Jul 7, The average cost of a Big Mac in Sweden was $3.87.
    (SFC, 7/7/96, Parade, p.17)

1996        Sep 19, The Arctic Council was founded to promote joint scientific research and to study pollution, conservation and mapping. The Ottawa Declaration named eight members of the Arctic Council: Canada, Russia, Norway, Denmark, Iceland, the United States, Sweden and Finland. The first step towards the formation of the Council occurred in 1991 when eight Arctic countries signed the Arctic Environmental Protection Strategy (AEPS).
    (Econ, 3/24/12, p.61)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arctic_Council)
    (AFP, 4/5/12)

1997        Jan 5, Prince Bertil (84), son of King Gustof Adolf VI, died.
    (SFC, 1/7/97, p.A17)

1997        Jul 4, Ritt Goldstein, a businessman from Danbury, Conn., arrived and sought political asylum. He claimed to be persecuted in the US for his crusade for civilian oversight of the police.
    (SFC, 10/14/98, p.A10)

1997        Oct 25, In Norway it was reported that a new 8-mile tunnel outside of Oslo was draining water from nearby lakes at the rate of 10,000 gallons a minute. The sealing compound Rhoca-Gil was supposed to stop the leaks, but its use in Sweden had already caused water to be contaminated with acrylamide, an agent that causes nerve damage. In Sweden construction of a controversial tunnel was halted when water draining from the tunnel was found to be contaminated by the sealing compound, Rhoca-Gil.
    (SFC,10/24/97, p.A11)

1997        Gunvor, a Cyprus-registered commodities dealer, was created by Russian oil trader Gennady Timchenko and Swedish oil trader Torbjorn Tornqvist. By 2011 its revenues had grown to $80 billion.
    (Econ, 5/5/12, p.59)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gunvor_%28company%29)

1998        May 12, Singer Ray Charles and sitar master Ravi Shankar received the Polar Music Prize, $133,000, from King Carl Gustav XVI in Sweden. The award was established by Stig Anderson, manager of the Abba pop group.
    (SFC, 5/15/98, p.C5)

1998        Jul 15, It was reported that Sweden’s highest administrative court ruled that anyone can read “sacred documents" of the Church of Scientology. 150 confidential pages of the “sacred documents" were restricted to only some 350 of 8 million Scientologists. Copies were given to the Swedish parliament by a Church enemy and made public. Scientology asserts, and the US agrees, that copyright was violated. The case may wind up in the European Court of Justice.
    (SFC, 7/15/98, p.A8)(http://tinyurl.com/oq3lr)

1998        Sep 20, The Social Democrats led by Prime Minister Goran Persson won the elections with 36.5% of the vote vs. 22.7% for the opposition Moderates led by Carl Bildt.
    (SFC, 9/20/98, p.A12)

1998        Oct 5, Prime Minister Goran Persson of the Social Democrats reached a 3-party agreement with the Left and the Greens.
    (SFC, 10/6/98, p.A12)

1998        Oct 12, Canada planned to begin discussion with Norway, Sweden, Iceland and Liechtenstein for the first trans-Atlantic free-trade pact.
    (WSJ, 10/12/98, p.A1)

1998        Oct 29, In Goteberg a fire burned a discotheque with hundreds of teenagers and 63 people were killed. In 2000 four young men were sentenced to prison terms of 3-8 years.
    (SFC, 10/30/98, p.A15)(WSJ, 11/4/98, p.A1)(SFC, 6/9/00, p.A15)

1998        Nov 18, The Swedish bank Skandinavska Enskilda acquired a 32% stake in Eesti Uhispank of Estonia, as well as a 36% stake in Latvia’s Latvijas Unibanka. Skandinavska Enskilda, controlled by the Wallenberg family, was also negotiating a deal to acquire interest in Vilniaus Bank of Lithuania.
    (WSJ, 11/19/98, p.A16)

1998        Dec 25, Seven days into their journey, American millionaire Steve Fossett, British mogul Richard Branson and Per Lindstrom of Sweden set down their ICO Global Challenger balloon in the Pacific near Honolulu. This ended their latest effort to circumnavigate the world.
    (SFC, 12/26/98, p.A1)(AP, 12/25/99)

1998        Dec, In Sweden a Latvian team won the first European championships in Fire Sculpture.
    (SFC, 1/7/99, p.D5)

1998        Walter Galenson (d.2000 at 85), American labor economist, authored "The World's Strongest Trade Unions," a work about Scandinavian unions.
    (SFC, 1/800, p.A19)

1998        IKEA purchased a stake in Skanska, a large Swedish construction firm.
    (http://tinyurl.com/ghmco)

1998        Sweden declared prostitution a form of male violence and changed policies so that men buying sex were charged with committing a criminal offence.
    (Econ, 12/23/06, p.86)

1999        Jan 28, Ford Motor Co, confirmed the acquisition of the passenger car division of Volvo AB.
    (SFC, 1/28/99, p.B1)

1999        Jan, Norway and Sweden announced a plan to merge their state-owned phone carriers.
    (WSJ, 3/29/99, p.A21)

1999        Feb 22, The Pinkerton detective agency was sold to the Swedish company Securitas AB for $384 million.
    (SFC, 2/23/99, p.C4)

1999        Aug 8, AB Volvo reached a deal to acquire Scania AB for $7.3 billion.
    (WSJ, 8/9/99, p.A13)

1999        Sep 30, A spot currency trader in Germany for Electrolux of Sweden amassed losses that totaled some $28.3 million by this date.
    (WSJ, 1/4/00, p.A17)

1999        Oct 12, Bjorn Soderberg (b.1958), a member of a Swedish far-left union, was shot and killed. Prosecutors said the killing was revenge for the Soderberg's public denouncement of a co-worker who belonged to a neo-Nazi organization. In 2000 three men, including Hampus Hellekant, were convicted in the fatal shooting. Hellekant served 7 years in prison and in 2007 was admitted to the medical school of the Karolinska institute under the name Karl Svensson. He was expelled after 4 months when his former identity was revealed.
    (AP, 1/25/08)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bj%C3%B6rn_S%C3%B6derberg)

1999        The musical “Mamma Mia!" opened in London based on the music by Abba. The songs were written by founders Benny Anderson and Bjorn Ulvaeus.
    (WSJ, 10/24/01, p.A20)
1999        The Swedish film “Lucky People Center International" was a patchwork film by the Lucky People Center collective.
    (SFEC, 4/11/99, DB p.35)
1999        Sweden established its so-called "Sex Purchase Law," where paying for sex is punished by fines or up to six months in prison, plus the humiliation of public exposure. Sweden became the first country to criminalize the purchase of sex.
    (AP, 3/16/08)(Econ, 8/9/14, p.9)
1999        South Africa signed a deal with Saab for 26 JAS Gripen fighter jets for 1.6 billion euros. The deal was later trimmed to 26 planes. Allegations of fraud later arose after Saab disclosed that bribes had been paid in the form of bonuses and salaries between 2003 and 2005 by its South African subsidiary Sanip, which was then controlled by BAE Systems.
    (AP, 7/31/11)

2000        Jul 1, The Oeresund Fixed Link (Oresund Bridge), the centerpiece of a $3.5 billion, 10-mile rail, motorway, bridge and tunnel project between Copenhagen and southern Sweden was scheduled for completion. Danish Queen Margrethe II met with Swedish King Carl Gustaf XVI on the artificial isle of Peberholm, half way across.
    (WSJ, 5/26/00, p.A20)(SFEC, 6/25/00, p.T3)

2000        Dec 22, Three armed robbers stormed into Stockholm's National Museum and made off with a Rembrandt self-portrait and two masterpieces by Renoir. 10 people were later sentenced to prison for their roles in the theft; all three paintings have been recovered.
    (AP, 12/22/05)

2000        In Sweden, in the first round of pension fund choice, individuals had to choose from a staggering array of 465 funds.
    (www.brookings.edu/papers/2005/06saving_weaver.aspx)

2000        In Sweden Kunskapsskolan (Knowledge Schools), a private education provider, opened its first 6 schools. By 2008 it had 30 schools.
    (Econ, 6/14/08, p.83)

2000        GM took full control of Saab.
    (www.detnews.com/2005/autosinsider/0501/19/C01-63842.htm)

2001        Jan 1, Sweden took over the 6-month rotating presidency of the EU. Its priorities centered on enlargement of the union, along with environment and employment concerns.
    (WSJ, 1/04/00, p.A15)

2001        May 22, In Sweden delegates from 127 countries formally adopted a global treaty banning 12 toxic chemicals called persistent organic pollutants (POPS).
    (SFC, 5/23/01, p.C4)

2001        May 23, The Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPS) opened for signature in Stockholm, Sweden. The convention entered into force on May 17th, 2004 with ratification by an initial 128 parties and 151 signatories.
    (http://tinyurl.com/5exstm)(SSFC, 7/6/08, p.A2)

2001        Jun 15, In Goteborg some 12,000 demonstrators demonstrated and set up flaming barricades to protest globalization. Police cordons had kept them away from Pres. Bush and EU leaders.
    (SFC, 6/16/01, p.A6)

2001        Jun 16, In Goteborg 15 EU leaders ended a 3-day summit and agreed to a firm timetable to admit new members by 2004.
    (SSFC, 6/17/01, p.A12)

2001        Nov 27, Olaf Stromberg, a Swedish TV journalist, was killed while sleeping in northern Afghanistan during a suspected robbery attempt. He was the 8th journalist slain in the conflict.
    (SFC, 11/27/01, p.A10)(SFC, 11/28/01, p.A1)

2001        Dec, Vebjorn Sand, Norwegian artist, completed a 330-foot bridge linking Norway and Sweden at Aas, 16 miles south of Oslo. The design was based on plans drawn up by Leonardo da Vinci in 1502.
    (SSFC, 12/9/01, p.C2)
2001        Dec, Ahmed Agiza and fellow Egyptian Muhammed Alzery were handed over to US agents at Bromma Airport in Stockholm and taken to Egypt, where they were tortured as a result. Alzery was released in 2003 without standing trial, while Agiza was convicted of planning to overthrow the Egyptian government and sentenced to 15 years in prison. He was freed by Egyptian authorities last year.
    (AFP, 7/4/12)

2001        KaZaA, an internet file-sharing program, was founded in Amsterdam by Niklas Zennstrom of Sweden and Janus Friis of Denmark.
    (Econ, 7/3/04, p.54)
2001        Braathens, a Norwegian airline, was taken over by the SAS Group, partly owned by the governments of Sweden, Denmark and Norway. It merged with SAS in 2004.
    (Econ, 4/27/13, p.61)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Braathens)
2001        At Washington’s request the UN Security Council ordered that the assets of Yassin Qadi, a Saudi businessman and multimillionaire, be frozen soon after the Sep 11 attacks in NYC. He was alleged to be a financier of Islamic terrorism with close links to al-Qaida. The European Union governments froze the assets of the assets of Yasin al-Qadi,  a Saudi businessman, and the Al-Barakaat International Foundation, a Sweden-based charity suspected of funding al-Qaida terror groups. In 2008 the European Union's highest court overturned the decision saying the order failed to offer those on a terror blacklist any legal rights to a judicial review under European law.
    (WSJ, 8/29/07, p.A1)(AP, 9/3/08)

2002        Jan 28, In Sweden Astrid Lindgren (b.1907), author of “Pippi Longstocking" (1945), died in Stockholm.
    (SFC, 1/29/02, p.A17)

2002        Feb 21, It was reported that Sweden had fallen to 17th place among the world’s wealthiest nations in per capita income from 3rd or 4th in the 1970s.
    (WSJ, 2/21/02, p.A14)

2002        Jun 5, Legislators voted to let same-sex couples adopt children.
    (SFC, 6/6/02, p.A10)

2002        Aug 19, Swedish financier Jan Stenbeck (59), who developed an extensive network of media and telecommunications companies, died in Paris.
    (AP, 8/20/02)

2002        Aug 25, Former Swedish diplomat Per Anger (88), who'd worked with Raoul Wallenberg in shielding thousands of Hungarian Jews from Nazi death camps, died in Stockholm, Sweden.
    (AP, 8/25/03)

2002        Aug 29, Kerim Sadok Chatty, 29, of Tunisian origin was arrested with a gun in his carry-on luggage at a Swedish airport as he headed to an Islamic conference in Birmingham, England. He had flunked out of a flight school in South Carolina in 1996. Chatty was charged with attempted hijacking on Sep 2.
    (AP, 9/1/02)(SFC, 9/3/02, p.A6)

2002        Sep 15, Sweden's voters bucked the conservative trend in Europe, reaffirming support for the country's generous welfare system. The ruling Social Democrats claimed victory in the national elections.
    (AP, 9/16/02)

2002        Dec 10, In Sweden King Carl XIV Gustaf awarded the Nobel Prizes.
    (AP, 12/10/02)

2002        In Stockholm, Sweden, Christer Gardell and Lars Forberg founded Cevian Capital, an activist hedge fund. In 2017 its assets were over $15.4 billion.
    (Econ 6/17/17, p.58)
2002        In Sweden gunmen stole about $5.6 million in foreign currency being unloaded from a plane at Stockholm's Arlanda airport. Several suspects were arrested, but all were released due to lack of evidence.
    (AP, 3/8/06)
2002        Signe Hasso (b.1915), film actress, died in LA.
    (SFC, 6/10/02, p.B6)

2003        Jan 28, In Sweden Keith Jarrett was named winner of the $117,000 Polar Music Prize, founded in 1989 by Stig Anderson, manager of ABBA.
    (SFC, 1/29/03, p.D8)

2003        Jan 30, Sweden said it will contribute $5.9 million to help Afghanistan repay debts to the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank.
    (AP, 1/30/03)

2003        May 11, Anson Carter scored at 13:49 of overtime to give Canada a 3-2 victory over Sweden and win its first world ice hockey championship since 1997.
    (AP, 5/11/03)

2003        Sep 10, Swedish Foreign Minister Anna Lindh was stabbed in the stomach and wrist at an exclusive department store in downtown Stockholm. She died the next day. In 2003 Mijailo Mijailovic, a 25-year-old Swede of Yugoslav origin, confessed to the murder. In 2004 Mijailovic was sentenced to life in prison.
    (AP, 9/10/03)(AP, 9/11/03)(AP, 1/7/04)(SFC, 3/24/04, p.A8)

2003        Sep 11, Sweden's Foreign Minister Anna Lindh died after being stabbed Sep 10 by a mystery attacker.
    (Reuters, 9/11/03)

2003        Sep 14, Sweden voted 56-42% "No" in a referendum on whether to adopt the euro.
    (Reuters, 9/15/03)

2003        Sep 23, A power outage struck the capital of Denmark and southern Sweden, leaving nearly 4 million people without electricity.
    (AP, 9/23/03)

2003        Sep 24, Swedish police arrested a new suspect in the murder of Foreign Minister Anna Lindh, and released a man they had held for more than a week.
    (AP, 9/24/03)

2003        Oct 8, The Bank of Sweden Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel was awarded to American Robert F. Engle (60) of NY Univ. and Briton Clive W.G. Granger (1934-2009) of visiting scholar at Canterbury Univ. in New Zealand for their work in statistical techniques to measure investment risk and track economic trends.
    (WSJ, 10/9/03, p.A2)(USAT, 10/9/03, p.8B)(SFC, 6/3/09, p.B5)

2003        Dec 1, A report laid bare a corporate scandal at Skandia, Sweden's largest insurer.
    (Econ, 12/6/03, p.67)

2003        Dec 10, The Nobel Prize awards ceremony were held in Sweden and Norway. Iranian democracy activist Shirin Ebadi, the first Muslim woman to win the Nobel Peace Prize, accepted the award in Oslo, Norway.
    (AP, 12/10/03)(AP, 12/10/08)

2003        Sweden passed legislation requiring women to hold 30% of the seats in parliament.
    (Econ, 9/20/08, p.76)

2004        Jan 7, Ingrid Thulin (b.1926), Swedish actress, died in Stockholm. Her films included "Foreign Intrigue" (1956).
    (SFC, 1/9/04, p.A21)

2004        Jan 6, Mijailo Mijailovic confessed to the fatal stabbing of Swedish Foreign Minister Anna Lindh in September 2003.
    (AP, 1/6/05)

2004        Feb 28, It was reported that 80% of Americans claim to believe in God, compared with 62% of the French and 52% of Swedes.
    (Econ, 2/28/04, p.34)

2004        Jul 8, A Swedish appeals court threw out a life prison sentence for the convicted killer of Foreign Minister Anna Lindh, ruling that Mijailo Mijailovic should receive treatment for his "significant psychiatric problems."
    (AP, 7/8/05)

2004        Aug 15, In Sweden Dr. Sune Karl Bergstrom (88), 1982 Nobel laureate, died.
    (SFC, 8/19/04, p.B7)

2004        Oct 4, Tiger Woods married Swedish model Elin Nordegren in Barbados.
    (AP, 10/5/05)

2004        Nov 9, Stieg Larsson (b.1954), Swedish novelist, died of a heart attack. By 2009 his “The Millennium Trilogy," published posthumously, had sold more than 12 million copies around the world. The books centered on the heroine Lisbeth Salander, a tattooed bisexual waif with autistic tendencies, a profound distrust of authority, as well as astonishing computer skills and physical courage. The first book in the trilogy, “The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo," was released as a film in 2010.
    (Econ, 10/31/09, p.98)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stieg_Larsson)(Econ, 3/13/10, p.85)

2004        Dec 26, Thousands of Europeans died in the Asian tsunami disaster. The dead included 543 from Sweden.
    (AP, 12/31/04)(Econ, 9/9/06, p.27)

2005        Jan 1, Sweden was forecast for 2.7% annual GDP growth with a population at 9.1 million and GDP per head at $43,480.
    (Econ, 1/8/05, p.89)

2005        Jan 8, Hurricane-force winds swept across northern Europe, leaving at least 13 dead including 3 in Carlisle, England, 4 in Denmark and 6 in Sweden.
    (AP, 1/9/05)

2005        Feb 25, Gapminder was founded in Stockholm by Ola Rosling, Anna Rosling Rönnlund and Hans Rosling. It is a non-profit venture promoting sustainable global development and achievement of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals by increased use and understanding of statistics and other information about social, economic and environmental development at local, national and global levels.
    (www.gapminder.org/about-gapminder/)(Econ, 12/11/10, TQ p.26)

2005        Jun 10, King Harald V of Norway and King Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden met in the middle of the Svinesund bridge and opened the span over a fjord south of Oslo.
    (AP, 6/10/05)

2005        Jun 28, Swedish truck and bus maker Volvo AB said it will close an assembly plant in Botswana and open a new factory in Durban, South Africa.
    (AP, 6/28/05)

2005        Aug 25, In Sweden robbers toting automatic weapons crashed a tractor through the wall of a Securitas compound in a Stockholm suburb. Swedish media reported that the robbers got away with 60 million kronor (euro6.4 million, US$7.86 million), which would make it one of the largest cash robberies ever in the country. 2 men, aged 35 and 32, were arrested Sep 15 in northern Stockholm on suspicion of involvement in the robbery.
    (AP, 9/16/05)

2005        Aug 27, In Sweden the HSB Turning Torso skyscraper was completed and became the new landmark for the city of Malmo.
    (Econ, 2/2/13, SR p.8)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turning_Torso)

2005        Aug 29, A Swedish nuclear power plant shut down one of its three reactors because of an abnormal accumulation of jellyfish in the cooling system.
    (AP, 8/29/05)

2005        Sep 6, Lars Erik Petersson, former chief executive of Sweden's largest insurer, Skandia, was charged with fraud for allegedly handing out large bonuses to other executives without board approval.
    (AP, 9/6/05)

2005        Sep 29, In Sweden Saab said it plans to recall almost 300,000 cars worldwide because of a problem with the ignition system.
    (AP, 9/29/05)

2005        Oct 5, Americans Robert H. Grubbs and Richard R. Schrock and Yves Chauvin of France won the Nobel Prize in chemistry for discoveries that let industry create drugs and advanced plastics in a more efficient and environmentally friendly way.
    (AP, 10/5/05)

2005        Oct 10, Robert J. Aumann of Israel and Thomas C. Schelling of the Univ. of Maryland won the 2005 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences for their work in game theory that explains political and economic conflicts, arms races and even preventing warfare.
    (AP, 10/10/05)

2005        Oct 13, British playwright Harold Pinter, who juxtaposed the brutal and the banal in such works as "The Caretaker" and "The Birthday Party" and made an art form out of spare language and unbearable silence, won the 2005 Nobel Prize in literature.
    (AP, 10/13/05)

2005        Oct 17, Abdi Hassan Awale, who once served as Somalia's interior minister, was arrested on suspicion of war crimes while attending a conference in Sweden. He is suspected of being a militia leader during the Oct 3, 1993, "Black Hawk Down" battle that left 18 Americans dead.
    (AP, 10/17/05)

2005        Dec 12, Swedish home-appliance maker AB Electrolux said it will close its plant in Nuremberg, Germany, by the end of 2007, transferring production to Poland and Italy and eliminating 1,750 jobs.
    (AP, 12/12/05)

2005        Dec 22, Sweden's immigration authority was facing harsh criticism after media reported that employees celebrated deportations of asylum-seekers with cakes and champagne.
    (AP, 12/22/05)

2005        Dec 25, Birgit Nilsson (b.1918), Swedish opera singer, died. Her prodigious voice, unrivaled stamina and thrilling high notes made her the greatest Wagnerian soprano of the post-World War II era.
    (AP, 1/11/06)(SFC, 1/12/06, p.A2)

2005        Sweden eliminated its inheritance tax.
    (Economist, 10/13/12, SR p.20)

2006        Jan 19, A Swedish man who confessed to killing two women and drinking their blood was charged with double murder. The 29-year-old man was arrested in October on suspicion of stabbing the women to death in two separate attacks.
    (AP, 1/19/06)

2006        Jan 20, German factory workers at Swedish home-appliances maker AB Electrolux launched a strike, demanding a better severance package when the plant shuts down late next year.
    (AP, 1/20/06)

2006        Feb 21, It was reported that the Stockholm chapter of the biker gang Hell's Angels is being investigated for fraud after police found 70 percent of members were certified as depressed by the same doctor and were getting state sickness benefits.
    (Reuters, 2/21/06)

2006        Feb 26, On the final day of the Turin Winter Olympics, Sweden beat Finland 3-2 to win the men's hockey gold. Germany led the gold medal count with 29. The US won 25 medals including 9 gold, Canada won 24, Austria 23 and Russia 22. Drew Lachey leaped to victory with professional partner Cheryl Burke on ABC's "Dancing with the Stars." Shizuka Arakawa won a gold medal for Japan in figure skating.
    (SFC, 2/27/06, p.A1)(SFC, 2/27/06, p.A1)(AP, 2/26/07)

2006        Feb, In Sweden a painting by Swedish writer and painter August Strindberg (1849-1912) was stolen from a Stockholm museum. The 1893 painting "Svartsjukans Natt," or "Jealousy's Night," was valued at $1.5 million. In 2008 police recovered the work and arrested 2 suspects.
    (AP, 3/8/08)

2006        Mar 3, An EU executive said Sweden's first case of mad cow disease has been confirmed by the European Union's central laboratory.
    (AP, 3/3/06)

2006        Mar 7, In Sweden masked gunmen crashed through an airport fence at the Landvetter airport outside Goteborg, held up luggage handlers unloading crates of foreign currency from an airliner, and left behind a suspicious package that looked like a bomb.
    (AP, 3/7/06)

2006        Mar 15, Sweden recorded its first case of the deadly H5N1 bird flu strain, saying European laboratory tests confirm two wild birds found dead in the southeast were infected with the virus.
    (AP, 3/15/06)

2006        Mar 21, Sweden's foreign minister resigned, accused of lying about shutting down a far-right Web site that solicited cartoons of the Prophet Muhammad.
    (AP, 3/21/06)

2006        Apr 23, It was reported that Sweden has allowed the letter 'W' into the mainstream of the Swedish language. The Swedish language, according to the Swedish Academy, now has 29 letters instead of 28.
    (AP, 4/23/06)

2006        May 2, In Iran a court sentenced two Swedes to three years in prison each for photographing military installations. The two men, both in their 30s, were convicted of photographing military buildings and telecommunications equipment on Qeshm, an Iranian island in the Strait of Hormuz.
    (AP, 5/2/06)

2006        Jun 1, Swedish lawmakers approved a law that makes it possible for the Scandinavian country to imprison former Liberian President Charles Taylor if a UN-backed tribunal convicts him of war crimes.
    (AP, 6/1/06)

2006        Jul 19, Sweden launched a fresh effort to salvage Sri Lanka's troubled truce as ceasefire monitors reported at least 900 people killed in a surge of ethnic violence since December.
    (AP, 7/19/06)

2006        Jul 25, Officials and news reports said the Swedish government knew in 2000 that Saddam Hussein's government demanded kickbacks from companies participating in the UN Oil-for-Food Program.
    (AP, 7/25/06)

2006        Sep 1, World donors pledged $500 million in aid for Palestinians, including $55 million for a UN emergency appeal for humanitarian help. Carin Jamtin, Sweden's aid minister and host of the donors' conference held in the Swedish capital, said a total of $114 million of the money pledged will go toward humanitarian aid, with the rest going to rebuilding infrastructure and other projects.
    (AP, 9/1/06)

2006        Sep 2, The former Stella Polaris, a historic ocean liner (1927-1970), sank overnight off Japan's southeastern coast. The Swedish company Petro-Fast AB had planned to operate the ship, renamed the Scandinavia, as a hotel-restaurant in Stockholm.
    (AP, 9/2/06)

2006        Sep 16, Sten Andersson (b.1923), a leading figure in Sweden's governing Social Democratic Party and one-time mediator in the Middle East peace process, died. As foreign minister from 1985 to 1991, Andersson helped start a dialogue between the Palestine Liberation Organization and the US.
    (AP, 9/17/06)

2006        Sep 17, In Sweden PM Goeran Persson, head of the minority Social Democrat government for 10 years, faced Fredrik Reinfeldt (41), who led the four-party Alliance for Sweden, after a campaign focused on getting Swedes back into the job market. The center-right opposition, vowing to streamline Sweden's famed welfare state, ousted the Social Democratic government with 48.1% of the vote, ending 12 years of leftist rule. Fredrik Reinfeldt (41), head of the main opposition Moderate Party, became prime minister. He authored the 1993 book "The Sleeping Nation," in which he criticized the cradle-to-grave welfare state. Fredrik Reinfeldt renamed his party the “New Moderates."
    (AP, 9/17/06)(Econ, 9/23/06, p.16)(Econ, 9/23/06, p.60)

2006        Sep 20, Sven Nykvist (b.1922), Swedish cinematographer, died. He began working with Ingmar Bergman in 1953, eventually became his full-time cinematographer, pushing the director's work in a new direction. Nykvist won the Academy Award for Best Cinematography for two Bergman movies, Cries and Whispers (1973), and Fanny and Alexander (1982).
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sven_Nykvist)

2006        Oct 14, Maria Borelius, Sweden's trade minister, resigned over allegations of tax evasion after just one week in office, saying media pressure has made her life impossible.
    (http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/6051220.stm)

2006        Oct 16, Sweden’s Culture Minister Cecilia Stego Chilo issued a statement saying she could not carry out her duties after it was revealed that she evaded taxes by paying a nanny under the table and failed to pay her mandatory TV license fee. Surveys showed about one-third of Swedes have bought "black market services," mostly for cleaning, painting or carpentry jobs. Hiring a cleaner legally costs around $40 an hour, including taxes, while a black market hire will do the job for less than $14, tax-free.
    (AP, 10/16/06)(AP, 10/20/06)

2006        Nov 1, A Swedish freighter capsized and sank in a storm on the Baltic Sea, forcing its 14-member crew to jump overboard to save themselves. Rescue officials said helicopters plucked all but one man from the high waves and chilly waters. The 500-foot-long Finnbirch went down between the Swedish islands of Gotland and Oland.
    (AP, 11/1/06)

2007        Jan 14, Hurricane-strength winds whipped across southwestern Sweden, leaving more than 100,000 households without power and causing major disruptions in train and boat traffic across Scandinavia.
    (AP, 1/14/07)

2007        Jan 22, Klas Bergenstrand (61), the head of Sweden's intelligence agency, died from an apparent heart attack.
    (AP, 1/23/07)

2007        Jan 26, The Swedish government announced an agreement with suborbital space-tourism company Virgin Galactic that Swedish officials believe will lead to midsummer and mid-winter flights of Virgin's SpaceshipTwo vehicle to observe the Aurora Borealis from Sweden.
    (www.space.com/news/070128_sweden_virgin.html)

2007        Jan 30, In Sweden former UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan and Darfur human rights activist Mossaad Mohamed Ali won the Olof Palme Prize for their work to protect human rights.
    (AP, 1/30/07)’

2007        Feb 27, In central Sweden 2 crowded commuter buses collided on a slippery road, killing six people and injuring nearly 50.
    (AP, 2/27/07)

2007        Mar 6, Volkswagen's new chief executive Martin Winterkorn has been nominated as chairman of Swedish truck maker Scania in a new phase in the plans for a three-way tie-up with German group MAN. VW is Scania's biggest shareholder with a voting stake of 34 percent and traditionally holds the chair of the Swedish truck maker's supervisory board.
    (AFP, 3/6/07)

2007        Mar 20, Nyamko Sabuni (37), a Congolese immigrant and Sweden's first black minister, said the oppression of women and girls in the name of family honor has become an urgent problem in Sweden with the arrival of growing numbers of immigrants over the past few years.
    (AP, 3/20/07)

2007        Mar 24, Swedish truck maker Volvo said it has successfully acquired Japan's Nissan Diesel, the latest merger in the industry as companies prepare for more stringent emissions rules.
    (AP, 3/24/07)

2007        Mar 27, Swedish artist Hans Hedberg (89), known for his outsized fruit and egg ceramic sculptures and, died.
    (AP, 3/29/07)

2007        Apr 16, In Iran 2 Swedish construction workers, who had been convicted of espionage and imprisoned for taking photographs of military installations, were released after being pardoned.
    (AP, 4/17/07)

2007        May 8, In Argentina 7 managers of Skanska, a Swedish construction firm, were arrested for tax evasion. Skanska sacked the managers and paid the tax authority almost $5 million.
    (Econ, 5/12/07, p.42)

2007        May 18, In Ethiopia 3 Swedish citizens were released after spending five months in jail. The three were among dozens of foreigners detained earlier this year as terror suspects.
    (AP, 5/19/07)

2007        May 19, Miroslav Deronjic (52), Bosnian Serb war criminal, died in a hospital in Sweden. Deronjic, the top authority in the eastern Bosnian city of Bratunac during the 1992-1995 Bosnian War, was convicted of ordering a 1992 attack on a Bosnian village in which 65 civilians were killed. He had been serving a 10-year sentence for war crimes.
    (AP, 5/20/07)

2007        May 21, Japanese Emperor Akihito and Empress Michiko arrived in Sweden, kicking off a 10-day tour of Europe that will take in the three Baltic nations and Britain, where they have faced protests in the past.
    (AP, 5/21/07)

2007        May 29, Sweden said it plans to cut greenhouse gas emissions by 30% by 2020, bettering the EU's proposal to cut emissions by at least 20%.
    (AP, 5/29/07)

2007        Jun 10, Sweden’s telecoms network firm Ericsson signed a framework agreement to provide $1 billion worth of networking equipment to China Mobile Communications Corp.
    (AP, 6/10/07)

2007        Jun 25, A Swedish court ruled that convicted sex offenders are free to read pornography in their cells. It said the country's prison system had no right to deny an imprisoned rapist access to his porn magazines.
    (www.thelocal.se/7699/20070625/)

2007        Jul 30, Ingmar Bergman (b.1918), Swedish film and stage director, died. The iconoclastic filmmaker was widely regarded as one of the great masters of modern cinema. His 1987 autobiography was titled "The Magic Lantern."
    (AP, 7/30/07)

2007        Aug 17, Borse Dubai made a $3.95 billion takeover bid for OMX AB, challenging US-based NASDAQ Stock Market Inc. for ownership of the Stockholm-based Nordic stock exchange operator.
    (AP, 8/17/07)

2007        Sep 15, An al-Qaida front group warned it will hunt down and kill Sunni Arab tribal leaders who cooperate with the US and its Iraqi partners, saying the assassination of the leader of the revolt against the terror movement was just a beginning. An Iraqi soldier was killed when gunmen attacked a checkpoint in Baqouba. Police and army officials said eight civilians also were killed and five others wounded in attacks in and around Baqouba. The leader of al-Qaida in Iraq offered money for the murder of a Swedish cartoonist and his editor who recently produced images deemed insulting to Islam.
    (AP, 9/15/07)

2007        Sep 17, Lars Vilks, a Swedish cartoonist who depicted Islam's Prophet Muhammad with the body of a dog, said that police have taken him to a secret location and told him he cannot return home following a death threat from al-Qaida in Iraq.
    (AP, 9/17/07)

2007        Nov 8, Nordic countries again dominated the World Economic Forum's ranking of gender-equal countries. New Zealand squeezed into the top five and the US fell to 31st place. Sweden, Norway, Finland and Iceland retained the top four spots in the 2007 Gender Gap Index released by the Swiss-based think tank.
    (Reuters, 11/8/07)

2007        Dec 30, Bert Bolin (82), a Swedish climate scientist and co-founder of the Nobel Peace-winning UN panel on climate change, died in Stockholm. His last book, "A History of the Science and Politics of Climate Change: The Role of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change" was published in November 2007.
    (AP, 1/2/08)

2007        Sweden eliminated its wealth tax.
    (Econ, 10/13/12, SR p.20)
2007        Sweden removed its 1970 ban on professional boxing.
    (Econ, 1/17/15, p.58)

2008        Jan 9, Norway and Sweden dropped plans to send some 400 troops to the UN peacekeeping force in Darfur because of opposition by Sudan.
    (WSJ, 1/10/07, p.A1)

2008        Jan 16, Sun Microsystems agreed to buy MySQL AB, a Swedish-based database firm, for $1 billion.
    (SFC, 1/17/08, p.C3)

2008        Feb 1, In Sweden Christer Merrill Aggett (32), a British man, was sentenced to 14 years in prison for infecting two young women with HIV and putting 13 more at risk of infection. Six of them were under the age of 15, the legal age of consent in Sweden, when the sexual encounters took place.
    (AP, 2/1/08)
2008        Feb 1, Wireless equipment maker LM Ericsson AB reported a sharp drop in fourth-quarter net profits and said it would lay off around 1,000 employees in Sweden because of costs cuts.
    (AP, 2/1/08)

2008        Feb 28, Swedish and Norwegian authorities cracked down on terror financing, arresting six people in what Swedish investigators said were coordinated raids in Stockholm and Oslo.
    (AP, 2/28/08)

2008        Mar 5, Sweden’s Karolinska Institute said researchers have discovered a protein that stimulates the formation of fat cells, a finding that could potentially be used to treat obesity.
    (AP, 3/5/08)

2008        Mar 16, Ola Brunkert (62), a former drummer for 1970s Swedish pop group ABBA, was found dead after an apparent accident in his house in Mallorca. He first played with ABBA on the group's first single, "People Need Love," and toured with the band in 1977, 1979 and 1980.
    (AP, 3/17/08)

2008        Mar 30, Pernod Ricard SA, a French spirits company, agreed to pay the Swedish government 5.28 billion euros for Vin & Sprit, the maker of Absolut, outbidding three competitors.
    (AP, 3/31/08)

2008        Apr 17, Umeaa University said the world's oldest living tree on record is a 9,550 year-old spruce discovered in central Sweden. That would mean it had taken root in roughly the year 7,542 BC.
    (AP, 4/17/08)

2008        Apr 19, In France the charred body of Sussanna Zetterberg (19), a Swedish teenager, was discovered in woods outside Paris just hours after she left a nightclub. A postmortem showed she had been stabbed.
    (Reuters, 4/24/08)

2008        May 21, Two Swedish contractors were arrested suspected of preparing to sabotage The Oskarshamn nuclear power plant in southern Sweden, after traces of explosives were found on one of the men. Police released the 2 men the next day as technical experts continued an investigation.
    (AFP, 5/21/08)(Reuters, 5/22/08)

2008        Jun 3, In Sweden world chess star turned political activist Garry Kasparov told world news industry leaders that PM Vladimir Putin had assaulted press freedoms in Russia, and urged them to challenge Kremlin leaders over the issue.
    (AP, 6/4/08)

2008        Jun 14, Swedish jazz star Esbjoern Svensson was killed at the weekend in a scuba diving accident off Stockholm.
    (AFP, 6/16/08)

2008        Jun 18, Sweden's Parliament narrowly approved a contentious law that gives authorities sweeping powers to eavesdrop on all e-mail and telephone traffic that crosses the Nordic nation's borders. Outrage over the statute soon led to 2 million protests, filed by e-mail.  In September the government approved 15 changes following the widespread protests.
    (AP, 6/18/08)(AP, 7/2/08)(SFC, 9/26/08, p.A4)

2008        Jun 25, Swedish car maker Volvo, a unit of US auto giant Ford, said it planned to cut 2,000 jobs worldwide, most of them in Sweden.
    (AFP, 6/25/08)

2008        Aug 20, Swedish wireless equipment maker LM Ericsson AB and Swiss chip-maker STMicroelectronics NV unveiled plans to create a 50-50 joint venture that will make a key component known as chipsets for mobile phones.
    (AP, 8/20/08)

2008        Oct 6, Three European scientists shared the 2008 Nobel Prize in medicine for separate discoveries of viruses that cause AIDS and cervical cancer, breakthroughs that helped doctors fight the deadly diseases. French researchers Francoise Barre-Sinoussi and Luc Montagnier were cited for their discovery of human immunodeficiency virus, or HIV; while Germany's Harald zur Hausen was honored for finding human papilloma viruses that cause cervical cancer.
    (AP, 10/6/08)

2008        Oct 7, The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences announced that two Japanese citizens and a Japanese-born American won the 2008 Nobel Prize in physics for discoveries in the world of subatomic physics.
    (AP, 10/7/08)

2008        Oct 8, The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences said two Americans and a US-based Japanese scientist won the Nobel Prize in chemistry for discovering and developing a glowing jellyfish protein that revolutionized the ability to study disease and normal development in living organisms. Japan's Osamu Shimomura and Americans Martin Chalfie and Roger Tsien shared the prize for their work on green fluorescent protein, or GFP. Shimomura discovered the jellyfish protein in 1961. In the early 1990s Douglas Prasher conducted research on the jellyfish gene that made Chalfie’s and Tsien’s work possible.
    (AP, 10/8/08)(SFC, 10/21/08, p.A6)
2008        Oct 8, Six central banks jolted markets by cutting interest rates together in an attempt to shore up confidence in the world's crisis-stricken financial system. The US Fed reduced its key rate from 2% to 1.5%. The Bank of England unexpectedly slashed its key lending rate by a half-point to 4.5%. The Bank of Canada cut its key interest rate by 50 basis points to 2.5%. China also cut its key interest rates for a second time in less than one month to 6.9%. The European Central Bank sliced its rate by half a point to 3.75%. Sweden, and Switzerland also cut rates. Earlier in a day Japan's Nikkei showed its biggest drop since the October, 1987 stock market crash. The IMF said the world economy is entering a major downturn.
    (AP, 10/8/08)(AFP, 10/8/08)(Econ, 10/11/08, p.100)

2008        Oct 9, The Swedish Academy announced French novelist Jean-Marie Gustave Le Clezio (b.1940) as the 2008 Nobel Prize in literature for his poetic adventure and "sensual ecstasy." Le Clezio made his breakthrough as a novelist with "Desert," in 1980.
    (AP, 10/9/08)
2008        Oct 9, In Tobago Anna Sundsval (62) and Oke Olsoon (73) of Sweden were slashed to death at their home in the Bon Accord area. A suspect was arrested the next day.
    (AP, 10/11/08)

2008        Oct 10, A Swedish court sentenced Chilean tenor Ernesto "Tito" Beltran (43) to two years and six months in prison for raping an 18-year-old nanny and molesting a 7-year-old girl. The appeals court in Goteborg upheld a previous rape conviction, but overturned an acquittal in the molestation case.
    (AP, 10/10/08)

2008        Oct 13, Paul Krugman, the Princeton University scholar and New York Times columnist, won the Nobel prize in economics for his analysis of how economies of scale can affect trade patterns and the location of economic activity. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences praised Krugman for formulating a new theory to answer questions about free trade and said his theory has inspired an enormous field of research.
    (AP, 10/13/08)(Econ, 10/18/08, p.90)

2008        Nov 10, Sweden's financial regulator says it has revoked the banking license from troubled investment bank Carnegie and that Sweden's national debt office will take control of the bank.
    (AP, 11/10/08)

2008        Nov 11, Swedish truck and bus maker Volvo AB said it will lay off nearly 1,000 staff at its powertrain unit in Sweden and the United States as the global financial crisis continues to weigh on the demand for heavy vehicles.
    (AP, 11/11/08)

2008        Dec 4, Sweden’s central bank cuts its benchmark interest rate from 3.75% to 2% saying monetary policy was less effective than usual.
    (Econ, 12/6/08, p.92)

2008        Dec 10, The Nobel Prizes were awarded in twin ceremonies in Stockholm and Oslo.
    (AP, 12/10/08)

2008        Dec 16, The central banks of Sweden and Denmark came to the aid of Latvia with currency swap agreements. This enabled the Bank of Latvia, to borrow as much as €500 million.
    (WSJ, 12/17/08, p.C2)

2008        The term mansplaining took off after an essay from author Rebecca Solnit, “Men Explain Things To Me." The term covers scenarios in which arrogant men impose their knowledge on women. In 2016 Sweden’s largest trade unions, Unionen, launched a mansplaining hotline.
    (CSM, 11/20/16)
2008        Sweden eliminated its taxes on residential property.
    (Economist, 10/13/12, SR p.20)
2008         Sweden-based Spiber Technologies, an advanced biomaterials company, was founded. Its primary goal was to develop and commercialize state-of-the-art patented technologies based on the recombinant spider silk protein.
    (http://www.spiber.se/company)
2008        Spotify, a Swedish Internet music streaming service, was founded.
    (Econ, 3/22/14, p.64)
2008        The World Bank launched its "Strategic Framework for Development and Climate Change" to help stimulate and coordinate public and private sector activity to combat climate change. It began using green bonds with proceeds tied to environmental activities. The idea was invented by Christopher Flensborg, with SEB, a Swedish bank.
    (http://tinyurl.com/y9dznbz)(Econ, 3/22/14, p.73)

2009        Jan 6, Signs mounted that the conflict in Gaza is starting to spill over into violence in Europe's towns and cities, with assaults against Jews and arson attacks on Jewish congregations in France, Sweden and Britain.
    (AP, 1/6/09)

2009        Jan 13, Swedish truck maker AB Volvo said it will lay off more than 1,600 employees in Sweden as it slows production amid falling demand for trucks.
    (AP, 1/13/09)

2009        Feb 5, The Swedish government agreed to scrap a three-decade ban on building new nuclear reactors, saying it needs to avoid producing more greenhouse gases.
    (AP, 2/5/09)

2009        Feb 20, General Motors Corp.'s Swedish-based subsidiary Saab went into bankruptcy protection so the unit can be spun off or sold by its struggling US parent.
    (AP, 2/20/09)

2009        Feb 23, Swedish power company Vattenfall said it had made a friendly 8.5-billion-euro (10.9-billion-dollar) offer for Nuon of the Netherlands in a takeover aimed at creating one of Europe's biggest energy groups.
    (AP, 2/23/09)

2009        Mar 9, In Sweden researchers reported that a chimpanzee named Santino had collected a stash of rocks and then hurled them at visitors at the Furuvik Zoo, confirming that apes can plan ahead just like humans.
    (SFC, 3/10/09, p.A3)

2009        Mar 17, In Colombia Erik Roland Larsson (69), a partially paralyzed Swede, was released by leftist rebels after nearly two years of captivity. He was the last known foreign hostage held in Colombia by the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC).
    (AP, 3/18/09)

2009        Apr 1, Sweden’s Parliament adopted a new law giving same sex couples the same marriage rights as heterosexuals, becoming the 5th European country to allow gay marriage.
    (SFC, 4/2/09, p.A2)
2009        Apr 1, In Sweden a new law cracking down on online copyright violation went into force leading to a sharp drop in internet traffic.
    (AP, 4/3/09)(http://tinyurl.com/c96saw)

2009        Apr 17, A Swedish court found four men guilty of promoting copyright infringement by running The Pirate Bay, one of the world's top illegal file-sharing websites, sentencing them to a year in prison in a landmark ruling.
    (AP, 4/17/09)

2009        May 26, A Swedish Navy ship detained seven suspected pirates after stopping them from capturing a cargo ship in the Gulf of Aden.
    (AP, 5/26/09)

2009        May 28, Swedish media reported that a 16-year-old Iraqi immigrant living in Sweden has cracked a maths puzzle that has stumped experts for more than 300 years. Mohamed Altoumaimi has found a formula to explain and simplify the so-called Bernoulli numbers, a sequence of calculations named after the 17th century Swiss mathematician Jacob Bernoulli.
    (AFP, 5/28/09)

2009        Jun 16, GM and Sweden's Koenigsegg said they have struck a deal for Koenigsegg, a niche manufacturer of some of the world's fastest and most expensive sports cars, to buy loss-making Saab Automobile from General Motors.
    (Reuters, 6/16/09)

2009        Jun 21, In China the Danish-Swedish comedy “Original," about mental illness, won the best picture at the 12th Shanghai International Film Festival. It also took the best actor award for lead Sverrir Gudnason.
    (AFP, 6/22/09)

2009        Jun 23, Swedish retailer IKEA announced that it was suspending its investment in Russia because of “the “unpredictable character of administrative procedures, a euphemism for graft.
    (Econ, 7/4/09, p.63)

2009        Jun 24, Denmark's Post Danmark A/S and Sweden's Posten AB merged to form the new holding company Posten Norden AB in the industry’s first-ever cross border tie up.
    (Econ, 10/31/09, p.74)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Post_Danmark)

2009        Jul 1, Sweden took over the rotating presidency of the EU.
    (Econ, 7/4/09, p.51)

2009        Jul 9, The Swedish government said it will expel Sylvere Ahorugeze (53) within three weeks, fulfilling a request from authorities in Rwanda and marking the first time an EU nation has sent back a suspect to face charges in the 1994 genocide.
    (AP, 7/10/09)

2009        Jul 25, Swedish wireless equipment maker LM Ericsson said it had penned a deal to buy a majority of Nortel Networks' North American wireless business for $1.13 billion.
    (AP, 7/25/09)
2009        Jul 25, In Sweden a woman in her 40s and her five daughters were killed when they tried to escape an apartment fire in a Stockholm suburb.
    (AP, 7/26/09)

2009        Jul 27, Sweden said it was demanding an explanation as to why Swedish-made anti-tank rocket launchers, sold to Venezuela years ago, were obtained by Colombia's main rebel group. Three launchers were recovered in October in a FARC arms cache belonging to a rebel commander known as "Jhon 40" and Colombia only recently asked Sweden to confirm whether they had been sold to Venezuela.
    (AP, 7/27/09)

2009        Jul 30, A Hamburg court ordered a German publisher to pay Sweden's Princess Madeleine euro400,000 ($560,000) in damages for fabricating stories about her. Sonnenverlag GmbH & Co KG magazines had carried false reports about the 27-year-old princess being engaged and pregnant, among other things. Sonnenverlag's parent company, Baden-Baden based KLAMBT media group, confirmed the ruling.
    (AP, 7/31/09)

2009        Aug 17, In Sweden the Aftonbladet tabloid published an incendiary article claiming that Israeli soldiers had harvested the organs of some Palestinians whom they had shot. Israel quickly denounced the article, while Sweden defended its freedom of expression.
    (Econ, 8/29/09, p.44)

2009        Aug 24, The Stockholm District Court threatened to fine Internet provider Black Internet 500,000 Swedish kronor (about $70,000) unless it stopped serving Pirate Bay. Court documents showed the company has to comply with the order until the ongoing case between Pirate Bay and the entertainment industry is over.
    (AP, 8/25/09)

2009        Aug 28, Mehdi-Muhammed Ghezali, a Swedish national and former Guantanamo detainee, was arrested on the outskirts of Dera Ghazi Khan in southern Pakistani town along with a group of foreigners, including 7 Turks and 3 other Swedes, who lacked proper immigration stamps. They were allegedly trying to join al-Qaida in the lawless tribal areas.
    (AP, 9/14/09)

2009        Sep 5, In Sweden Tesfaldet Tesloy (28), an illegal Eritrean immigrant who has lived in Sweden for six years, appeared on TV to collect a tax-free lottery prize of 1.2 million Swedish crown (101,654 pounds). Sweden's attempts to deport the man have failed due to his country's refusal to take him back, highlighting a common problem for immigration officials.
    (Reuters, 9/5/09)

2009        Sep 19, Sweden's centre-right government announced income tax cuts of 10 billion kronor to stimulate the job market, its primary objective.
    (AFP, 9/19/09)

2009        Sep 23, Swedish police held one suspect after armed robbers used a helicopter to stage a spectacular raid on the roof of a cash storage facility belonging to Anglo-Danish firm G4S in Vastberga, just south of Stockholm. On August 2, 2010, ten men accused of stealing nearly 40 million kronor ($5 million) pleaded innocent as prosecutors opened their trial with surveillance video of the brazen helicopter heist.
    (Reuters, 9/23/09)(AP, 8/2/10)

2009        Oct 15, Colleen R. LaRose (46), a self-described "Jihad Jane," was arrested in Philadelphia. LaRose was later accused, in an indictment filed March 9, 2010, of actively recruiting fighters, as well as agreeing to murder Swedish artist Lars Vilks, marry a terrorism suspect so he could move to Europe and martyr herself if necessary.
    (AP, 3/10/10)

2009        Oct 22, The Swedish government approved the early release of former Bosnian Serb President Biljana Plavsic (79), who was sentenced to 11 years in prison by a war crimes tribunal. The Justice Ministry says she will be released on Oct 27 after serving two-thirds of her sentence for persecution.
    (AP, 10/22/09)

2009        Nov 4, Morocco ordered the immediate departure of a Swedish diplomat accused of handing official Moroccan documents to Western Sahara-linked "separatists."
    (AFP, 11/4/09)

2009        Nov 5, Finland and Sweden approved a Baltic Sea pipeline project that would ship Russian natural gas to Germany, clearing two key obstacles for construction to begin next year.
    (AP, 11/5/09)

2009        Nov 14, Sweden held a solemn ceremony at Stockholm's Museum of National Antiquities for the return of 23 skulls taken from the native Hawaiian community. Five of the skulls will be returned by the museum. They were brought to Sweden by a Swedish scientist in the 1880s after he took part in a trip around the world. The other 17 skulls will be returned by Stockholm's medical university Karolinska Institutet.
    (AP, 11/14/09)

2009        Nov 18, Swedish museum officials returned the remains of five indigenous Maori people to New Zealand as part of a broader move in Europe to repatriate remains taken from burial grounds.
    (AP, 11/18/09)

2009        Dec 4, North Korea made an unlikely foray into designer denim as the "Noko Jeans" label was launched in Sweden. The brand is Swedish but the black jeans are manufactured in North Korea, an experiment its creators described as a way to open doors to the reclusive communist country. The next day Stockholm’s PUB department store removed the new line of designer jeans from its shelves, saying it wants to avoid courting controversy through ties with the isolated communist nation. Noko Jeans founders said they will continue to sell the jeans on their Web site and that retailer Aplace will continue to sell them on their Web site.
    (AP, 12/4/09)(AP, 12/5/09)

2009        Dec 8, Swedish telecom giant Ericsson said it would cut 946 jobs in Sweden in an effort to downsize its production staff as it strives to improve efficiency.
    (AFP, 12/8/09)

2009        Dec 18, General Motors Co. said it will shut down Saab after talks to sell the brand to a Dutch carmaker collapsed, marking the third time this year that a deal by GM to sell an unwanted brand     has fallen through.
    (AP, 12/18/09)
2009        Dec 18, In Poland the Nazis' infamous iron sign declaring "Arbeit Macht Frei," German for "Work Sets You Free," was stolen from the entrance of the former Auschwitz death camp. On Feb 2, 2010, a Polish court issued a European arrest warrant for former neo-Nazi leader Anders Hogstrom (34) of Sweden, on suspicion of incitement to commit theft of a cultural treasure. Hogstrom was arrested in Stockholm on Feb 11.
    (AP, 12/18/09)(SFC, 2/3/10, p.A2)(AP, 2/11/10)

2009        Dec 20, Dutch sports carmaker Spyker said it has made a new bid for Sweden's Saab Automobile, two days after General Motors said it would close the loss-making unit.
    (AFP, 12/20/09)

2009        Dec 23, US auto giant Ford said it had agreed the main terms for selling its Swedish brand Volvo Cars to Chinese carmaker Geely, in a deal set to underline China's growing economic clout.
    (AFP, 12/23/09)

2009        Swedish doctors created a virtual autopsy system using computed tomography.
    (Econ, 12/12/09, p.90)
2009        Germany’s Hamburg theater staged an opera about IKEA, “Wunder von Schweden" (Miracle from Sweden), a biography of IKEA set to Swedish folk tunes.
    (Econ, 2/26/11, p.67)

2010        Jan 21, Sweden's Royal Academy of Sciences awarded Austria-born American scientist Walter Munk (92) the 2010 Crafoord Prize in Geosciences for his research on ocean circulation. The Crafoord award has been given annually since 1982 for scientific research in areas not covered by the Nobel Prizes.
    (AP, 1/21/10)

2010        Jan 25, Sweden’s Ericsson, the world leader in phone network equipment, announced an extra 1,500 job cuts under restructuring which bit deeply into 4th-quarter net profit.
    (AFP, 1/25/10)

2010        Jan 26, General Motors agreed to sell Saab, its Swedish subsidiary, to Spyker Cars, a Dutch maker of sports cars, for $74 million in cash and preference shares worth $326 million.
    (Econ, 1/30/10, p.76)

2010        Feb 8, Sweden's unemployment agency was found guilty of discrimination for expelling a Muslim man from a job training program because he refused to shake hands with a woman.
    (AP, 2/8/10)

2010        Mar 10, At least three Swedish newspapers published a cartoon depicting the Prophet Muhammad with the body of a dog after an alleged plot to murder Swedish artist Lars Vilks, who created it, was uncovered in Ireland. Irish police said those arrested were two Algerians, two Libyans, a Palestinian, a Croatian and an American woman married to one of the Algerian suspects. They were not identified by name. On March 13 Irish police said they had released three of the arrested Muslims and American Jamie Paulin-Ramirez (31) without charges.
    (AP, 3/10/10)(AP, 3/13/10)

2010        Mar 11, Sweden's parliament narrowly approved a resolution recognizing the 1915 mass killing of Armenians in Turkey as genocide, prompting the Turkish government to recall its ambassador in protest.
    (AP, 3/11/10)

2010        Mar 22, US scientist Rita Colwell (76) won the $150,000 Stockholm Water Prize for her research on the prevention of cholera and other waterborne diseases.
    (AP, 3/22/10)

2010        Mar 28, Zhejiang Geely Holding Group signed a binding deal to buy Ford Motor Co.'s Volvo Cars unit for $1.8 billion, representing a coup for the independent Chinese automaker which is aiming to expand in Europe.
    (AP, 3/28/10)

2010        May 11, In Sweden a maritime museum said a "giant herring" measuring 3.5 meters (11.4 feet) had been discovered off Sweden's western coast -- the first such fish found in the Scandinavian country in more than 130 years.
    (AFP, 5/12/10)

2010        May 14, In Sweden the home of cartoonist Lars Vilks, who once drew a cartoon of the Prophet Muhammad as a dog, was hit by a suspected arson attack.
    (AP, 5/15/10)

2010        Jun 2, The Stockholm Int’l. Peace Research Institute said that world military spending grew 5.9% from 2008-2009 and that the US accounted for some 54% of the increase.
    (SFC, 6/2/10, p.A2)

2010        Jun 8, A report by the European Coalition on Oil in Sudan (ECOS) charged that a consortium led by Swedish Lundin Petroleum is partly to blame for war crimes  committed in Sudan between 1997 and 2003.
    (AFP, 6/8/10)

2010        Jun 21, Sweden's public prosecutor opened a criminal investigation into allegations that Swedes working for a consortium of oil companies during the Sudanese civil war may have been complicit in human rights abuses.
    (Reuters, 6/21/10)

2010        Jun 23, The Swedish Dock Workers Union launched a week-long blockade of cargo to and from Israel to protest the Israeli raid on a Gaza-bound aid flotilla last month.
    (AFP, 6/23/10)

2010        Jul 1, Sweden abolished compulsory military service for men during peacetime.
    (WSJ, 7/2/10, p.A1)

2010        Jul 13, Divers found bottles of champagne in a wreck near the Aland Islands between Finland and Sweden. 5 bottles of dark, foamy beer wee later recovered while salvaging the champagne. The shipwreck was believed to be from the early 19th century. In 2011 Finnish scientists said they hoped to re-brew an old ale after studying the ancient beer found in the shipwreck. On June 8, 2012, 11 bottles of the champagne were auctioned for over $156,000.
    (http://tinyurl.com/4kawd2n)(AP, 2/8/11)(SFC, 6/9/12, p.D3)

2010        Aug 6, In Sweden a gang of thieves staged a remarkable break-in near the Swedish royal family's residence in Stockholm, smashing display cases at a historic 18th-century Chinese-style landmark and getting away with artifacts that police called potentially priceless.
    (AP, 8/6/10)

2010        Aug 20, In Sweden a prosecutor in Stockholm issued an arrest warrant for WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange (39) on suspicion of rape. The move means police are ordered to seek his arrest as part of an investigation but doesn't necessarily mean that criminal charges will be filed. Authorities the next day revoked the arrest warrant saying a rape accusation against him lacked substance.
    (AP, 8/21/10)

2010        Aug 22, In Tehran, Iran, the headquarters of Sweden-based Oriflame, a direct-sales cosmetics firm, were "searched and sealed" and "four top managers were arrested on accusations of 250,000 cases of fraud" linked to a 70-million-dollar (55-million-euro) pyramid scheme.
    (AFP, 8/23/10)

2010        Aug 28, Sweden's financial supervisory authority said has revoked the license of investment bank HQ Bank AB, saying it breached Swedish legislation and demonstrated serious deficiencies in its trading operations.
    (AFP, 8/29/10)

2010        Sep 1, A senior Swedish prosecutor reopened a rape investigation against WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange, the latest twist to a puzzling case in which prosecutors of different ranks have overruled each other.
    (AP, 9/1/10)

2010        Sep 3, Finland and Sweden urged the European Union to create an independent peace institute to broaden the scope of the bloc's peacekeeping efforts around the world.
    (AP, 9/3/10)

2010        Sep 8, Belgian police say 10 people have been arrested in raids across Europe against hackers who put illegal copies of movies and television series on the Internet. Police said 5 arrests were in Belgium and the other arrests were made in Poland, Norway and Sweden, where the alleged leaders of four computer piracy networks were being held.
    (AP, 9/8/10)

2010        Sep 19, Swedes voted for a new parliament. Polls showed the center-right government heading for a historic second term unless an Islam-bashing far-right group spoils its majority. The ruling center-right coalition faced the prospect of forming a minority government after losing its majority in the election because of a surge in support for Sweden Democrats, an anti-immigrant party. PM Fredrik Reinfeldt was re-elected by moving his Moderate party to the center, vowing to overhaul but not dismantle the state.
    (AP, 9/19/10)(Reuters, 9/20/10)(Econ, 1/29/11, p.56)

2010        Sep 30, In Sweden activists from Nepal, Nigeria, Brazil and Israel were named the winners of this year's Right Livelihood Award, also known as the "alternative Nobel," for work that included fighting to save the Amazon rain forest and bringing health care to Palestinians cut off from services. The recipients included Nigeria's Nnimmo Bassey (42), Catholic Bishop Erwin Kraeutler (71) of Brazil, Shrikrishna Upadhyay (65) of Nepal, and the organization Physicians for Human Rights Israel.
    (AP, 9/30/10)

2010        Oct 22, World Wildlife spokeswoman Marie von Zeipel, speaking at a seminar in Sweden, estimated that only 3,200 tigers remain in the wild and that this population would shrink 97% over the next 100 years.
    (SFC, 10/23/10, p.A2)

2010        Oct 30, Police in Goteborg, Sweden, were on high alert over the weekend after receiving reports about a bomb threat and arrested the two men in early morning raids. Both men were soon released due to lack of evidence.
    (AP, 11/1/10)

2010        Nov 6, Swedish police arrested Peter Mangs (38) on suspicion of shooting at people with immigrant backgrounds in a yearlong rampage in Malmo, Sweden's third largest city. The first shooting was Oct. 10, 2009, when a 21-year-old convicted drug smuggler on furlough from prison was shot in the head in a parked car. Swedish media said he was hospitalized for a month with a bullet in his brain but survived. A 20-year-old woman sitting next to him was also hit in the head and died. On May 7, 2012, Mangs was charged with three counts of murder and 12 counts of attempted murder. On Nov 23, 20112, Mangs was sentenced to life in prison and ordered 40-year-old Peter Mangs to pay 1.2 million kronor ($180,000) in damages to survivors and their families.
    (AP, 11/7/10)(AP, 11/9/10)(AP, 5/7/12)(AP, 11/23/12)

2010        Nov 18, Swedish prosecutors was permission to seek an int’l. arrest warrant for Julian Assange, the founder of the WikiLeaks, on allegations of rape and other sexual offenses.
    (SFC, 11/19/10, p.A4)

2010        Dec 7, WikiLeaks' founder Julian Assange was remanded in custody until December 14 by a London court after he said he would fight extradition to Sweden where he faces rape allegations.
    (AFP, 12/7/10)

2010        Dec 8, Cyber attacks apparently organized by Internet activists sympathetic to WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange shut down the website of credit card company Mastercard and two Swedish sites. WikiLeaks published a new set of cables, and in a defiant message posted online the secret-spilling website promised that the leaks would keep on flowing despite the arrest and jailing of its founder on sex allegations.
    (Reuters, 12/8/10)(AP, 12/8/10)

2010        Dec 10, In Sweden a court convicted two men linked to the al Shabaab militant group for conspiracy to commit a terrorist act and sentenced them to four years jail.
    (AP, 12/13/10)

2010        Dec 11, In Sweden two blasts rocked central Stockholm, killing the suspected bomber, later identified as Taymour Abdulwahab al-Abdaly (b.1981). Two people were wounded. Police had good leads into what they said were "terror crimes." On March 8, 2011, police in Scotland arrested Ezedden Khalid Ahmed Al Khaledi (30) on suspicion of aiding the suicide bomber who had targeted the Stockholm Christmas shoppers.
    (Reuters, 12/12/10)(Reuters, 12/13/10)(SFC, 12/14/10, p.A3)(AP, 3/8/11)(AP, 3/14/11)

2010        Dec 15, Sweden deported 5 Iraqi Christians, part of a group of at least 20 Iraqis, who failed to gain asylum and were flown out of the country. On Dec 17 the UN refugee agency called itself "dismayed" over the deportation and called on countries to take in Iraqis from Baghdad, Kirkuk and three northern provinces that the UN considers unsafe because of repeated attacks, sectarian tensions and human rights violations.
    (AP, 12/17/10)

2010        Dec 29, In Denmark 4 men planning to shoot as many people as possible in a building housing the newsroom of a paper that published cartoons of the Prophet Muhammad were arrested in an operation that halted an imminent attack. The 4 were Swedish residents, a Tunisian (44), a Lebanese-born man (29), an Iraqi asylum seeker, and a 30-year-old whose national origin was not released. Police in Stockholm arrested a Swedish citizen of Tunisian origin, suspected of being linked to the plot. Denmark freed the Iraqi suspect the next day due to an apparent lack of evidence.
    (AP, 12/29/10)(AP, 12/30/10)

2010        Gunnar Wetterberg, Swedish historian, authored “The Nordic Federal State," which proposed a pan-Nordic federation to unite Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden under a single monarch: Denmark’s Queen Margrethe.
    (Econ, 11/6/10, p.66)
2010        Sweden’s population stood at about 9.4 million, of whom 14 percent was foreign-born. Some 71 percent of Swedes nominally are members of the Lutheran Church of Sweden, although few attend church regularly. Literacy is virtually 100 percent. Life expectancy is among the world's highest, 79 years for men, 83 for women.
    (AP, 9/18/10)

2011        Jan 5, Swedish officials said 50 to 100 jackdaw birds, a type of crow. were found lying in a snow-covered street in the southwestern town of Falkoeping.
    (AFP, 1/5/11)

2011        Jan 27, The European Commission launched legal action against Sweden for allowing hunters to shoot 20 wolves this year even though the species is threatened with extinction.
    (AFP, 1/27/11)

2011        Mar 1, Swedish carmaker SAAB, now owned by Spyker Cars, showed off its new PhoeniX prototype at the Geneva motor show.
    (Econ, 4/9/11, p.72)(http://tinyurl.com/3bmnxnx)

2011        Apr 2, Swedish wireless equipment maker LM Ericsson said it is suing Chinese rival ZTE Corp. for alleged infringement of several of its patents in handset and network technology.
    (AP, 4/2/11)

2011        Apr 26, Congolese children's rights activist Murhabazi Namegabe was named winner of the $100,000 World Children's Prize for his efforts to protect children exploited by armed groups in the African country. The award foundation based in Mariefred, Sweden, cited Murhabazi's "dangerous struggle to free children forced to be child soldiers or sex slaves" in Congo.
    (AP, 4/26/11)

2011        May 12, Sweden’s struggling car maker Saab Automobile faced renewed uncertainty Thursday as the financing deal with China's Hawtai Motor Group fell apart, raising fresh concerns about the company's future. Spyker Cars NV, which bought Saab from General Motors Corp. in 2010, said it was "forced to terminate" the $223 million (euro150 million) agreement with Hawtai since the Chinese company was not able to obtain all the necessary consents, including approvals from different shareholders.
    (AP, 5/12/11)

2011        May 20, In Sweden a 43-year old man was charged with having provided 23 women with 510 films and photos of children being exploited in "especially ruthless" manner. The 23 women from across Sweden were charged with involvement in what investigators call a unique child pornography case.
    (AP, 5/20/11)
2011        May 20, Swedish defense group Saab said an ongoing probe into reports it had secretly paid millions of euros to ensure South Africa did not back out of a deal to buy 26 fighter jets had turned up no evidence of wrongdoing.
    (AP, 5/20/11)

2011        Jun 27, Two Swedish freelancer journalists, Johan Persson and Martin Schibbye, entered Ethiopia from Somalia to report about allegations of human rights violations in the region including torture and rape.
    (AP, 7/4/11)

2011        Jul 7, Swedish officials said a man (36) with tracheal cancer has received a new lab-made wind pipe seeded with his own stem cells in the first successful attempt of its kind.
    (SFC, 7/8/11, p.A2)

2011        Jun 16,  Swedish arms-maker Saab said that it had unwittingly paid over $3 million to a South African ANC defense consultant. Saab said payments had been made in 2003 through the British arms producer, BAE Systems.
    (Econ, 7/23/11, p.43)(www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-13813281)

2011        Aug 3, Thai police arrested a Swedish man wanted in Scandinavia for a $3 million banking scam committed 1998-2001. Carl-Gustav Alexander Tartagni (52) was detained in the seaside town of Hua Hin, where he had been living for a year.
    (AP, 8/4/11)

2011        Aug 12, Stockholm Film Festival organizers say French actress Isabelle Huppert (53) will be honored with its 2011 lifetime achievement award for a career in movie and television spanning almost four decades.
    (AP, 8/12/11)

2011        Sep 3, Around 50 expatriated Syrian Kurds gathered in Sweden for a two-day conference on how to strengthen Kurds inside Syria and get them more involved in efforts to overthrow Bashar al-Assad's regime.
    (AFP, 9/3/11)

2011        Sep 10, Swedish police arrested four people on suspicion of preparing a terror attack and evacuated an arts center in Goteborg, Sweden's second largest city on the eve of the 9/11 anniversary. In December three of the suspects, of Somali and Iraqi origin, were charged with plotting to stab to death artist Lars Vilks for depicting the Prophet Muhammad as a dog in 2007. On Jan 20, 2012, a Swedish court acquitted three men accused of plotting to murder Vilks.
    (AP, 9/11/11)(AP, 12/6/11)(AP, 1/20/12)

2011        Sep 29, In Sweden the winners of Right Livelihood Awards, sometimes referred to as the alternative Nobel prizes, were announced. Human rights activist Jacqueline Moudeina of Chad; Spanish-based nonprofit GRAIN; and American midwifery educator Ina May Gaskin will share the euro150,000 ($205,000) cash award. Chinese solar power pioneer Huang Ming received an honorary award for developing "cutting-edge technologies."
    (AP, 9/29/11)

2011        Oct 3, Sweden’s Nobel committee at Stockholm's Karolinska institute said three scientists won the Nobel Prize in medicine for discoveries about the immune system that opened new avenues for the treatment and prevention of infectious illnesses and cancer. American Bruce Beutler and French scientist Jules Hoffmann shared the 10 million-kronor ($1.5 million) award with Canadian-born Ralph Steinman.
    (AP, 10/3/11)

2011        Oct 4, Three US-born scientists won the Nobel Prize in physics for overturning a fundamental assumption in their field by showing that the expansion of the universe is constantly accelerating. During the 1990s, Saul Perlmutter, Brian Schmidt and Adam Riess found that the light from more than 50 distant exploding stars was far weaker than they expected, meaning that galaxies had to be racing away from each other at increasing speed.
    (AP, 10/4/11)

2011        Oct 5, Israeli scientist Dan Shechtman was awarded the Nobel Prize in chemistry for a discovery that faced skepticism and mockery. While doing research in the US in 1982, Shechtman discovered a new chemical structure, quasicrystals, that researchers previously thought was impossible.
    (AP, 10/5/11)

2011        Oct 6, The Nobel Prize in literature was awarded to Sweden’s top poet Tomas Transtromer (80).
    (AP, 10/7/11)

2011        Oct 10, The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences was awarded Americans Thomas Sargent and Christopher Sims won for their research on cause and effect in the macroeconomy.
    (AP, 10/10/11)

2011        Nov, The Swiss Cabinet decided to order 22 Gripen fighters from Sweden's Saab AB to replace the air force's aging Northrop F-5 Tigers.
    (AP, 2/14/12)

2011        Dec 19, Sweden’s Saab Automobile filed for bankruptcy, giving up a desperate struggle to stay in business after previous owner General Motors Co. blocked takeover attempts by Chinese investors.
    (AP, 12/19/11)

2011        Dec 21, An Ethiopian court convicted Swedish journalists Martin Schibbye and Johan Persson of supporting a terrorist group and entering the country illegally, with the prosecution calling for a maximum sentence of 18 years and six months. On Dec 27 a court  sentenced the two journalists to 11 years in prison on charges of supporting terrorism.
    (AFP, 12/22/11)(AP, 12/27/11)

2012        Jan 5, In southern Sweden dozens of police took to the streets of Malmo to try calm the public and to collect tips about the attacks, which come only a year after a suspected serial shooter was arrested in the city. In less than six weeks, five people have been shot dead in this city of 250,000, including a 15-year-old boy.
    (AP, 1/5/12)

2012        Feb 2, The Anglo-Swedish drugs giant AstraZeneca said that it would axe 7,300 jobs by the end of 2014 in a new cost-cutting drive, despite delivering bumper annual profits.
    (AFP, 2/2/12)

2012        Mar 6, Swedish Public Radio said the Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI) had secret plans since 2007 to help Saudi Arabia build a plant for the production of anti-tank weapons. Construction on "Project Simoom" was yet to begin. It involved the creation of a shell company called SSTI to handle dealings with Saudi Arabia, in order to avoid any direct links to FOI and the government.
    (AFP, 3/6/12)(AFP, 3/29/12)

2012        Mar 15, A Norwegian military plane crashed killing all five people on board during an exercise in northern Sweden. Four men and one woman, all Norwegians, were on board the C-130 heading from Evenes, on Norway's Arctic coast, to the Swedish city of Kiruna.
    (AP, 3/17/12)

2012        Mar 29, Swedish Defense Minister Sten Tolgfors resigned after weeks of controversy over revelations Sweden planned to help Saudi Arabia build an arms factory.
    (AFP, 3/29/12)

2012        Apr 9, In Peru suspected Shining Path gunmen seized 30 Skanska workers overnight but soon freed 23 at the Kepashiato in the Camisea gas fields. The Swedish construction company was building a natural gas plant in the Amazon jungle.
    (AP, 4/9/12)

2012        Apr 25, European ministers began returning to Belarus. Poland, Lithuania and Sweden sent their representatives back to Minsk today. Other ambassadors will return over the next hours and days.
    (Reuters, 4/25/12)

2012        May 26, In Azerbaijan Loreen of Sweden piled up 372 points with her uplifting dance track "Euphoria" at the Eurovision Song Contest in Baku.
    (AFP, 5/27/12)

2012        Jun 20, In Sweden explosives were found on a truck at the southwestern Ringhals atomic power station. Bomb technicians said the material lacked a detonating device, meaning there was no danger of an imminent explosion.
    (AP, 6/21/12)

2012        Jul 4, Sweden granted permanent residency to Ahmed Agiza (49), a former Egyptian terror suspect. The Swedish government has acknowledged blame for the circumstances of the 2001 deportation and that Agiza and fellow Egyptian Muhammed Alzery were tortured in Egypt. It has awarded them 3 million kronor ($433,000) each in compensation for circumstances related to their deportations.
    (AFP, 7/4/12)
2012        Jul 4, A Swedish ad team from Studio Total dropped hundreds of teddy bears carrying messages promoting human rights onto Belarus. On Aug 11 the ad team was summoned by Belarus' top security agency — the KGB — for violating the country's air space. On Aug 14 Studio Total instead offered to discuss the stunt directly with Belarus President Alexander Lukashenko and invited him to Sweden.
    (AP, 8/11/12)(AP, 8/14/12)

2012        Jul 9, British police found Eva Rausing (48) dead at her multimillion-pound (dollar) London home. Initial post-mortem examinations failed to establish a formal cause of her death. Her husband Hans Kristian Rausing (49) is an heir to the Tetra Pak fortune his father built in Sweden as a globally successful manufacturer of laminated cardboard drink containers. British media later reported that she had been dead for several days. On August 1 Rausing pleaded guilty to preventing her proper burial and was given a 10-month suspended jail sentence. On Dec 14 a coroner said she died from cocaine abuse.
    (AFP, 7/11/12)(SFC, 7/18/12, p.A2)(AP, 8/1/12)(AP, 12/14/12)

2012        Aug 8, Belarus ordered Sweden to close its embassy in Minsk by the end of the month, a move that comes only days after Belarusian President Alexander Lukashenko's regime forced the Swedish ambassador out of the country.
    (AP, 8/8/12)

2012        Aug 30, Cambodia police arrested Gottfrid Svartholm Warg, a co-founder of The Pirate Bay file-sharing website following a request by Sweden. He faced a one-year prison term in Sweden for violating copyright laws.
    (SFC, 9/4/12, p.A2)

2012        Sep 3, A Hong Kong-owned company, National Electric Vehicle Sweden (NEVS), said it has completed the acquisition of bankrupt car maker Saab and will move ahead with its business plan to make electric cars under the Swedish brand.
    (AP, 9/3/12)

2012        Sep 6, Sweden's central bank cut its key interest rate by a quarter of a percentage point to 1.25 percent, saying economic growth will slow due to the downturn in the eurozone.
    (AP, 9/6/12)

2012        Sep 10, Ethiopia said Swedish journalists Johan Persson and Martin Schibbye are to be pardoned and released. They have been in jail since July 2011 for abetting terrorism and entering the country illegally.
    (AP, 9/10/12)

2012        Nov 20, A woman (37) in Sweden was charged "with violating the peace of the deceased" after investigators found some 100 skeleton parts in her apartment. Police also found a CD titled "My Necrophilia" as well as photographs in which a woman is seen kissing and hugging the skulls.
    (AP, 11/20/12)

2012        Memoto, a Swedish startup, raised over $500,000 on Kickstarter, a crowdfunding platform. The company also raised €500,000 in seed funding enabling it to build a stamp-sized wearable camera that takes pictures every 30 seconds. The company later moved to San Francisco and in 2016 introduced the Varrative Clip 2, a body cam for civilians.
    (Econ, 5/11/13, p.69)(SFC, 4/22/16, p.C1)

2013        Jan, Nordea Bank AB, the largest bank in Sweden, said its 250 customers were robbed of eight million Swedish krona (about 1.66 billion won). It was online theft; they stole and withdrew money from the victims’ accounts. The Swedish police only found out what had been happening 15 months after the scheme was started, and the theft was still at large. The theft traced to a Russian hacker who goes by the sobriquet “the Corpse."
    (www.nytimes.com/2007/01/25/technology/25hack.html?_r=0)

2013        Feb 1, A court in northern Sweden ordered retrials in 2 remaining two cases against Sture Bergwall (62), an alleged serial killer who had confessed to more than 30 murders over three decades, and was convicted of eight of them. Bergwall later said his ghastly tales of slaughter, rape and even cannibalism were all lies, spawned by loneliness, a desire for attention and heavy medication. On July 31, 2013, prosecutors dropped the last remaining charges against Bergwall.
    (AP, 2/2/13)(AP, 7/31/13)

2013        Feb 15, Swedish photographer Paul Hansen won the 2012 World Press Photo award for newspaper Dagens Nyheter with a Nov 20 picture of two Palestinian children killed in an Israeli missile strike being carried to their funeral.
    (AP, 2/15/13)

2013        Feb 25, Swedish furniture giant Ikea was drawn into Europe's widening food labeling scandal as authorities said they had detected horse meat in frozen meatballs labeled as beef and pork and sold in 13 countries across the continent.
    (AP, 2/25/13)

2013        Mar 10, Welsh-born Princess Lilian (b.1915) died in her Stockholm home. Lilian Davies met Sweden's Prince Bertil (d.1997) in 1943, but his obligations to the throne and her status as a divorced commoner prevented them from making their love public. In 1976 the new king finally gave them approval to marry.
    (AP, 3/11/13)

2013        Mar 18, The Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, a Swedish think tank, said China has bypassed Britain as the world's fifth largest arms exporter.
    (AP, 3/18/13)

2013        Apr 6, Sweden-based Ikea said it has withdrawn 17,000 portions of moose lasagna from its home furnishings stores in Europe after traces of pork were found in a batch tested in Belgium. The product had only been on sale for a month when it was pulled off the shelves on March 22.
    (AP, 4/6/13)

2013        May 7, In Sweden a new museum opened in Stockholm dedicated to ABBA, the 1970s superstar pop group that sold over 400 million records.
    (SFC, 5/7/13, p.A2)

2013        May 15, The Arctic Council, meeting in Sweden, agreed to expand membership and provide observer status to 6 new nations including China, India, Italy, Japan, Singapore and South Korea.
    (SFC, 5/16/13, p.A4)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arctic_Council)

2013        May 20, In Sweden gangs of youth angered by the police shooting death of an elderly man in a mainly immigrant neighborhood hurled rocks at police and set cars and buildings on fire in a Stockholm suburb early today, forcing the evacuation of an apartment block.
    (AP, 5/20/13)

2013        May 23, In Sweden groups of youths early today burned down a restaurant, torched more than 30 cars and injured 3 police in a fourth night of riots in suburbs Stockholm that started following a fatal police shooting.
    (AP, 5/23/13)

2013        Aug 1, In Sweden two topless activists climbed over a fence into the Russian embassy in Stockholm to protest against the country's anti-gay bill and stigmatization of homosexuals.
    (AP, 8/1/13)

2013        Sep 4, President Barack Obama opened a three-day overseas trip with a stop in the Swedish capital of Stockholm.
    (AP, 9/4/13)

2013        Sep 27, In Sweden top climate scientists of a UN-backed climate change panel formally endorsed an upper limit on greenhouse gases for the first time.
    (SFC, 9/28/13, p.A3)

2013        Sep 29, In Sweden a wave of jellyfish forced the shut down of Oskarshamn nuclear reactor number 3. By Oct 1 the pipes were cleaned of the jellyfish and engineers prepared to restart the reactor.
    (AP, 10/1/13)

2013        Sep 30, Swedish flat-pack furniture giant IKEA started selling residential solar panels at its store in Southamptom, Britain, the first step in its plan to bring renewable energy to the mainstream market worldwide.
    (AP, 9/30/13)

2013        Oct 15, The Church of Sweden elected the country's first female archbishop. Antje Jackelen (58) will join a growing number of female church leaders around the world.
    (AP, 10/15/13)(SFC, 10/16/13, p.A2)

2013        Nov 2, Britain’s Guardian newspaper reported that spy agencies in Germany, France, Spain and Sweden are carrying out mass surveillance of online and phone traffic in collaboration with Britain, according to documents leaked by Edward Snowden.
    (AFP, 11/2/13)

2013        Dec 5, Sweden's public broadcaster said it has obtained secret documents leaked by former National Security Agency contractor Edward Snowden suggesting a Swedish spy agency has been a key supplier of intelligence on Russian leaders to the NSA.
    (AP, 12/5/13)

2013        Dec 10, Nobel Prize winners collected their awards in Sweden amd Norway.
    (AP, 12/10/13)

2013        Dec 15, Swedish police arrested 28 people after a group of neo-Nazis attacked an anti-Nazi demonstration in a Stockholm suburb.
    (SFC, 12/16/13, p.A2)

2013        Dec 18, Brazil’s defense minister said Sweden's Saab has edged out French and US rivals to win a multi-billion-dollar contract to supply Brazil's air force with 36 new fighter jets.
    (AFP, 12/18/13)

2013        Dec 21, Vandals in Sweden burned down a giant straw goat meant to symbolize Christmas spirit. This was the 27th time it was burned down since 1966, when the Yule symbol was first erected.
    (AP, 12/21/13)

2013        Dec 22, In Sweden thousands took to the streets of Stockholm in a protest against racism following a neo-Nazi attack on a similar but much smaller rally last weekend.
    (Reuters, 12/22/13)

2013        Sweden’s population was about 9.5 million. 67% were members of the Lutheran Church of Sweden.
    (SFC, 10/16/13, p.A2)

2014        Jan 13, Swedish Dr. Mats Brannstrom said nine women have successfully received transplanted wombs donated from relatives and will soon try to become pregnant.
    (AP, 1/13/14)

2014        Mar 11, In Afghanistan Swedish journalist Nils Horner (51) was shot to death while he was talking to a translator on a street in Kabul.
    (AP, 3/11/14)

2014        Mar 19, In Sweden a court in Falun ordered the release of Sture Bergwall (63) from a secure psychiatric unit where he's been held since 1991. He had confessed to more than 30 killings over three decades and was convicted in eight cases. He later withdrew his confessions, saying they were made under heavy medication.
    (AP, 3/19/14)

2014        Mar 28, Sweden sentenced a Malaysian couple to prison for beating their four children with sticks and clothes hangers. The abuse occurred from 2010 until December 2013, when Swedish police arrested the couple. The children, aged 7-14, were taken back to their home country following a massive social media campaign calling for their return.
    (AP, 3/28/14)

2014        May 13, In Sweden Malik Bendjelloul (36), the director of the acclaimed "Searching for Sugar Man" documentary, committed suicide following bouts of depression.
    (AP, 5/14/14)

2014        Sep 6, In Sweden at least 20 cars were set on fire overnight in a poor immigrant suburb of Stockholm, days before an election in which joblessness and Sweden's open door asylum policy are major issues.
    (Reuters, 9/6/14)

2014        Sep 14, Swedish PM Fredrik Reinfeldt conceded defeat after a narrow victory by the center-left over an Alliance government that has governed Sweden for eight years.
    (Reuters, 9/14/14)

2014        Sep 15, Microsoft announced a $2.5 billion deal to acquire Mojang, the Swedish firm behind the “Mindcraft" video game said to have over 100 million players.
    (SFC, 9/16/14, p.A1)

2014        Sep 24, In Sweden fugitive US intelligence agent Edward Snowden was jointly awarded Sweden’s 2014 Right Livelihood Honorary Award for his courage and skill in revealing the unprecedented extent of state surveillance violating basic democratic processes and constitutional rights.
    (AFP, 9/24/14)

2014        Sep 25, In Sweden a man of Rwandan origin, who is suspected of involvement in the 1994 genocide, was remanded in custody, while a Rwandan national was released after questioning.
    (AFP, 9/25/14)

2014        Sep, A Swedish woman (36), in a medical first, gave birth after having received a womb transplant.
    (SFC, 10/4/14, p.A3)

2014        Oct 3, Sweden’s PM Stefan Lofven said his new center-left government will recognize the state of Palestine in a move that will make it the first major European country to take the step.
    (Reuters, 10/3/14)

2014        Oct 6, Sweden’s minority center-left coalition of Social Democrats and Greens agreed to demands by the Left Party to restrict the profit private firms can make in welfare and education - a key condition to get the non-government party to support the budget bill, which it will present in the coming weeks.
    (Reuters, 10/6/14)

2014        Oct 19, The Swedish military said it had made three credible sightings of foreign undersea activity in its waters during the past few days amid reports of a suspected Russian intrusion in the area.
    (AP, 10/20/14)

2014        Oct 29, A ship carrying 52 tons of oil in the Baltic Sea ran aground off Stockholm’s sprawling archipelago and began leaking its cargo.
    (SFC, 10/30/14, p.A2)

2014        Oct 30, Sweden’s PM Stefan Lofven ignored Israeli protests and announced his country’s formal recognition of a Palestinian state, becoming the first EU member in western Europe to do so.
    (AFP, 10/30/14)(SFC, 10/31/14, p.A2)
2014        Oct 30, Researchers in Sweden said they have identified genetic variations at two key sites the human genome that may distinguish extremely violent individuals following a study of some 794 convicts in Finland.
    (SFC, 10/31/14, p.A7)(Econ, 11/1/14, p.75)

2014        Nov 12, A Swedish official in Kiruna said a bus driver has been sacked for forcing black people off her bus, highlighting lingering xenophobia in a country traditionally known for tolerance.
    (AFP, 11/12/14)

2014        Nov 13, Eight northern European nations (Britain, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, Sweden) agreed to step up cooperation to counter an increase in Moscow's military activity that has included a tripling of NATO intercepts of Russian jets this year.
    (Reuters, 11/13/14)

2014        Nov 20, A Swedish appeals court upheld the detention order on Julian Assange, dismissing a challenge by the WikiLeaks founder who is wanted by prosecutors in an investigation of alleged sex crimes. Assange has avoided being extradited to Sweden by taking shelter in the Ecuadorean Embassy in London since 2012.
    (AP, 11/20/14)

2014        Dec 3, Sweden's parliament voted down the minority center-left coalition's budget proposal sparking a government crisis and raising the chance PM Stefan Lofven will call a snap election for early next year.
    (Reuters, 12/3/14)

2014        Dec 20, In Sweden two car bombs shattered dozens of windows in a district of Malmo, the country’s third largest city. The Rosengaard district is dominated by immigrants from Iraq, Kosovo, Bosnia and Lebanon.
    (AP, 12/20/14)

2014        Dec 27, Sweden's mainstream parties reached a deal that will allow the minority center-left government to remain in office and sideline the anti-immigration Sweden Democrats, who hold the balance of power in parliament.
    (Reuters, 12/27/14)

2014        Dec 29, In Sweden a fire ripped through a mosque early today in the second suspected arson attack on a Muslim center in four days.
    (Reuters, 12/29/14)

2015        Jan 1, Swedish police hunted for at least one suspect following what is believed to be the third arson attack on a mosque in a week.
    (AFP, 1/1/15)

2015        Jan 2, In Sweden hundreds of demonstrators marched in three cities to condemn recent arson attacts against mosques.
    (SFC, 1/3/15, p.A2)

2015        Jan 19, In Sweden Peter Wallenberg (b.1926), the former head of a Swedish financial dynasty, died at his home on the island of Varmdo.
    (AP, 1/19/15)

2015        Mar 4, Thousands of passengers were stranded in Denmark, Norway and Sweden as a strike by pilots of Norwegian Air Shuttle continued for a fifth day.
    (AP, 3/4/15)

2015        Mar 7, Swedish police began investigating what could be a triple homicide after 3 people were found dead in the country's southwest.
    (AP, 3/7/15)

2015        Mar 9, Swedish Foreign Minister Margot Wallstroem accused Saudi Arabia of blocking her speech at an Arab League meeting due to her stance on human rights in the region.
    (AFP, 3/9/15)

2015        Mar 10, Sweden scrapped a long-standing military deal with the Saudis after accusing the country of blocking Swedish Foreign Minister Margot Wallstroem from speaking at an Arab League meeting. Saudi Arabia in response recalled its Stockholm ambassador.
    (AFP, 3/11/15)

2015        Mar 11, Sweden said it has offered Ukraine a bilateral loan of $100 million to help shore up its finances.
    (Reuters, 3/11/15)

2015        Mar 14, Sweden-based Ikea, the world's largest furniture retailer, said it is halting its online magazine in Russia out of fears it violates the country's law banning promotion of same-sex gay values to minors.
    (AP, 3/14/15)

2015        Mar 16, The Stockholm Int’l. Peaced Research Institute reported that China has overtaken Germany as the world’s third largest arms exporter with a 5% share, behind the US at 31% and Russia at 27%.
    (SFC, 3/17/15, p.A2)
2015        Mar 16, A Swedish man (20) was ordered to pay damages of 76,000 kronor ($8,750, 8,300 euros) to his ex-girlfriend for posting a video online of them having sex. The case sparked outrage in Sweden in 2013 when an appeals court slashed the damages imposed by the district court of Joenkoeping in eastern Sweden, from 136,000 down to 31,000 kronor.
    (AFP, 3/16/15)

2015        Mar 18, In Sweden gunmen with automatic weapons stormed into a restaurant in in suburban Goteborg, killing two people and wounding about a dozen in a shooting that police said was likely gang-related.
    (AP, 3/19/15)

2015        Mar 19, A senior Saudi official said that the kingdom will no longer issue business visas to Swedes or renew the current visas of Swedish nationals living in the country in response to Swedish Foreign Minister Margot Wallstrom's recent criticism of human rights and women's rights in Saudi Arabia.
    (AP, 3/19/15)

2015        Mar 26, Tomas Transtromer (83), Swedish poet and Nobel laureate (2011), died.
    (SFC, 3/28/15, p.A2)

2015        Apr 9, Sweden said it will send up to 120 troops to northern Iraq to train Iraqi and Kurdish fighters as part of the US-led coalition against the Islamic State group.
    (AFP, 4/9/15)

2015        Apr, In Sweden the conventional control tower at Ornskoldsvik was closed and controllers moved to a remote tower at Sundsvall. It was built by LFV, Sweden’s air navigation agency, and became the first airport to deploy a virtual control tower.
    (Econ 5/27/17, p.70)

2015        May 23, In Vienna, Austria, Sweden beat Russia to win the 60th Eurovision Song Contest, in an event described by organizers as beyond politics but marred by boos for the Russian that were apparently prompted by the Ukraine conflict and the Kremlin's anti-gay policies.
    (AP, 5/24/15)

2015        Jun 29, Israel's navy intercepted a Swedish vessel attempting to breach a naval blockade of the Gaza Strip and redirected it to an Israeli port.
    (AP, 6/29/15)

2015        Aug 10, In Sweden 2 people were killed and one seriously injured in a knife attack at an IKEA store in the city of Vasteras, about an hour west of Stockholm. Swedish police the next day said two suspects arrested after the knife attack were born in Eritrea and lived in a nearby asylum center. Abraham Ukbagabir (36) soon confessed to the deadly stabbing. The other (23) was released for lack of evidence. On Dec 22 Ukbagabir was sentenced to life in prison.
    (Reuters, 8/10/15)(AP, 8/11/15)(AP, 8/13/15)(AP, 12/22/15)

2015        Aug 13, Swedish prosecutors dropped a sexual assault probe against Julian Assange after the time limit on the case expired but the Wikileaks founder, who still faces a rape claim, voiced disappointment.
    (AFP, 8/13/15)
2015        Aug 13, Britain said it would make a formal protest to Ecuador over its decision to provide asylum to WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange in its London embassy and so prevent his extradition to Sweden over alleged sex crimes.
    (Reuters, 8/13/15)

2015        Aug 26, The Swedish ship Poseidon, working with the European Union's border control agency Frontex, found 52 migrants dead in the hold of a boat off the coast of Libya. Rescue operations saved over 700 other people. On Aug 28 prosecutors in Sicily detained crew included seven Moroccans, two Syrians and a Libyan on suspicion of smuggling and murder.
    (Reuters, 8/26/15)(SFC, 8/27/15, p.A4)(AP, 8/28/15)

2015        Sep 10, Sweden said it will increase spending on better integrating immigrants into the labor market and increase compensation for municipalities where refugees settle.
    (Reuters, 9/10/15)

2015        Oct 5, In Sweden Henning Mankell (67), internationally renowned crime writer, died in Goteborg. His books about the gloomy, soul-searching police inspector Kurt Wallander enticed readers around the world. His work included some 50 novels and numerous plays.
    (AP, 10/5/15)   

2015        Oct 7, Sweden's Tomas Lindahl, Paul Modrich of the United States and Aziz Sancar, a Turkish-American, won the 2015 Nobel Chemistry Prize for work on how cells repair damaged DNA.
    (AFP, 10/7/15)

2015        Oct 14, In Sweden Cambodian activist Phymean Noun was awarded the $50,000 World's Children's Prize for helping children who live in garbage dumps in Cambodia's capital, Phnom Penh. Another $50,000 was evenly split between the winners of the World's Children's Honorary Award: Javier Stauring of the Catholic Archdiocese in Los Angeles who works with jailed children, and India's Nobel Peace Prize winner Kailash Satyarthi who fights against child slavery and for children's right to education.
    (AP, 10/14/15)

2015        Oct 20, In southern Sweden arsonists attacked asylum seekers' housing in the small town of Munkedal, the latest in a wave of attacks as migrant numbers, and tensions, rise. Since the start of the year, 15 arson attacks throughout the country have targeted refugee reception centers and apartments, reducing some to cinders.
    (AFP, 10/20/15)

2015        Oct 22, Sweden said it expected up to 190,000 migrants this year, putting unprecedented strain on a country famous for welcoming refugees but planning to house many in tents this winter.
    (Reuters, 10/22/15)
2015        Oct 22, In Sweden a teacher and student died and another teacher and student were badly injured in an attack by a knife-wielding masked man in the town of Trollhattan. Attacker Anton Lundin Pettersson (21) died after being shot by police, who later confirmed racial motivations. Wounded teacher Nazir Amso (42) died on Dec 3.
    (AP, 10/22/15)(AFP, 10/23/15)(AP, 12/4/15)

2015        Oct 30, Coast Guard leaders from the US, Canada, Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden signed an agreement setting up the Arctic Coast Guard Forum dedicated to stewardship of Arctic waters.
    (SFC, 10/31/15, p.A4)

2015        Nov 9, The United Arab Emirates Air Force announced a $1.27-billion deal with Swedish defense giant Saab to purchase two surveillance planes and upgrade two others.
    (AFP, 11/9/15)

2015        Nov 12, Sweden reinstated border controls in a bid to gain control over the massive influx of migrants arriving in the country, without blocking the steady flow of asylum seekers.
    (AFP, 11/12/15)

2015        Nov 30, Officials say that more than 35,000 people were without electricity in Sweden after a storm battered southern Scandinavia, damaging buildings, toppling trees, canceling trains and closing bridge links between Denmark and Sweden.
    (AP, 11/30/15)

2015        Dec 13, Ecuador said it has signed a pact with Sweden that would allow WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange to be questioned by Swedish authorities at Ecuador's embassy in London where he has been holed up for more than three years since facing sexual assault charges.
    (Reuters, 12/13/15)

2015        Dec 14, A Swedish court sentenced two men to life in prison on terrorism charges over their role in two "cruel and brutal" murders in Syria in 2013. Hassan al-Mandlawi (320 and Al-Amin Sultan (30) both Swedish nationals, were convicted after graphic videos showed them taking part in the killing of two men in the northern city of Aleppo.
    (AFP, 12/14/15)

2015        Dec 16, Sweden said it would send a transport plane and logistical support to Mali and other parts of Africa to free up French forces stationed there and let them join the fight against Islamic State.
    (Reuters, 12/16/15)

2015        Dec 17, National Electric Vehicle Sweden, the electric vehicle company born out of the ashes of Swedish automaker Saab, said it has inked a $12 billion deal with Chinese leasing firm Panda New Energy Co.
    (AP, 12/17/15)

2015        Dec 19, Karin Soder (87), Sweden’s first female foreign minister (1976-1978) and party leader (1985-1987), died in Stockholm.
    (AP, 12/27/15)

2015        Dec 21, Sweden's state-owned railway operator SJ said it would halt its passenger services to and from Denmark because it was unable to carry out the identity checks demanded by the government to stem an influx of refugees.
    (Reuters, 12/21/15)

2015        Dec 31, In Sweden at least 15 young women were reportedly groped by groups of men on New Year's Eve in the city of Kalmar.
    (AP, 1/8/16)

2015        In Sweden some 163,000 asylum seekers arrived this year.
    (Econ 5/20/17, p.47)

2016        Jan 4, Denmark and Sweden tightened border checks. Six countries in Europe's document-free travel area now have wide-ranging border checks in place.
    (AP, 1/4/16)

2016        Jan 7, A Swedish-registered freight jet crashed in a mountainous area near the Norwegian border. Two crew members from Spain and France were feared dead.
    (AP, 1/8/16)

2016        Jan 25, In Sweden Alexandra Mezher (22), an asylum center social worker, wasfatally stabbed. She was knifed by a 15-year-old boy as she tried to break up a fight in a center for unaccompanied minors where she worked in Molndal.
    (AFP, 2/2/16)

2016        Jan 27, Sweden said it intends to expel up to 80,000 migrants who arrived in 2015 and whose application for asylum has been rejected.
    (AFP, 1/27/16)

2016        Feb 5, A UN panel said it had adopted an opinion "in which it considered that Mr Julian Assange was arbitrarily detained by the governments of Sweden and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland." It added: "The working group also considered that the detention should be brought to an end and that Mr Assange should be afforded the right to compensation."
    (AFP, 2/5/16)

2016        Feb 8, Swedish police arrested 14 men for allegedly planning to attack an asylum center after finding axes, knives and iron pipes in their cars.
    (AFP, 2/9/16)

2016        Feb 23, A Stockholm court sentenced Swedish Dr. Martin Trenneborg (38) to 10 years in prison for abducting a woman and locking her up in a home-made bunker, but acquitted him of charges of aggravated rape. On April 28 an appeals court reduced his sentence to eight years.
    (AP, 2/23/16)(AP, 4/28/16)

2016        Mar 21, Robbers in Genarp, Sweden, were suspected of blowing up the walls of a building in an apparent effort to empty an ATM. It was not clear if the damaged ATM had contained any money.
    (AP, 3/21/16)

2016        Mar 24, The Swedish Academy, which awards the Nobel Prize for Literature, denounced the 1989 Iranian fatwa on British writer Salman Rushdie. The Academy decided to take a position on the fatwa after the amount offered for the assassination of Rushdie was recently increased.
    (AFP, 3/24/16)

2016        Apr 4, Swedish banking group Nordea said it would end its end its association with law firm Mossack Fonseca at the center of the Panama Papers scandal.
    (Reuters, 4/5/16)

2016        Apr 5, In Sweden Meg Rosoff (59) was named the winner of the 5 million kronor ($615,000) Astrid Lindgren Memorial Award for literature aimed at children and young adults. A Boston native living in London, Rosoff's novels include "How I Live Now" (2004), "Just in Case" (2006) and "What I Was" (2007).
    (AP, 4/5/16)

2016        Apr 6, In honor of the 250th anniversary of Sweden’s abolishment of censorship, the country’s Swedish Tourist Association debuted its newest marketing strategy: 1-800-CALL-A-SWEDE. Interested people worldwide can, however, call 46-771-793-336 to speak to a random Swedish volunteer about anything and everything.
    (CSM, 4/10/16)

2016        May 13, President Barack Obama welcomed a group of Nordic leaders to the White House and celebrated the five Nordic nations (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden) as models of reliability, equality, generosity, responsibility, even personal happiness. Obama said that he and the five Nordic nations agreed on the need to maintain sanctions against Russia.
    (AP, 5/13/16)(Reuters, 5/13/16)

2016        May 15, Jubilant Ukrainians erupted in celebration after Jamala won the Eurovision Song Contest with a powerful tribute to her Tatar people's deportation from Russian-annexed Crimea in 1944.
    (AFP, 5/15/16)
2016        May 15, Australians cheered contestant and juries' favorite Dami Im for placing second at the annual Eurovision song contest in Sweden.
    (AFP, 5/15/16)

2016        May 16, Swedish citizen Claver Berinkindi (61), originally from Rwanda, was sentenced in Stockholm to life in prison for his role in the 1994 genocide in the African country.
    (AP, 5/16/16)

2016        Jun 5, Pope Francis proclaimed two new saints: Swedish-born Elizabeth Hesselblad (1870-1957), a Lutheran convert, who hid Jews during World War II and Stanislaus Papczynski (1631-1701), the Polish founder of the first men's religious order dedicated to the immaculate conception.
    (AP, 6/5/16)

2016        Jun 10, A Swedish court awarded 30,000 kronor ($3,700) each in damages to 11 Roma plaintiffs who sued the government for discrimination, saying they were registered by police due to their ethnicity.
    (AP, 6/10/16)

2016        Jun 28, Sweden-based  Ikea said it would recall its hugely popular Malm model of chest of drawers in North America after six children were crushed to death when the chests tipped over.
    (AFP, 6/28/16)

2016        Jul 8, Leaders of the NATO military alliance met in Warsaw and began a landmark summit that will order ambitious actions against a daunting array of dangers to the security of their nations and citizenry, including a rearmed and increasingly unfriendly Russia to Europe's east and violent Islamic extremism to the south. Finland and Sweden joined NATO leaders at the top table for the first time as Russia's military build-up pushed the two countries closer to the western military alliance.
    (AP, 7/8/16)(Reuters, 7/8/16)

2016        Jul 20, Czech police said an international law enforcement team has broken up a gang that allegedly produced amphetamines to distribute on the black market in Sweden. Police said seven suspected members of the group have been arrested in a joint operation by Czech, Swedish and Hungarian forces.
    (AP, 7/20/16)

2016        Jul 30, In Sweden some 45 thousand people, including the prime minister, participated in Stockholm's annual gay pride parade, walking along streets sprinkled with balloons and rainbow flags.
    (AP, 7/30/16)

2016        Oct, In Sweden five teenagers from Afghanistan reportedly dragged another Afghan boy into a forest, threatened him with a knife and raped him. On Dec 6 Swedish authorities charged the five teenagers with aggravated rape.
    (AP, 12/6/16)

2016        Nov 16, The Swedish Academy said music icon Bob Dylan will not attend the Nobel ceremony in December to accept his literature prize because he has other commitments.
    (AFP, 11/16/16)

2016        Dec 10, In Sweden Colombian President Juan Manuel Santos accepted the Nobel Peace Prize, saying it helped his country achieve the "impossible dream" of ending a half-century-long civil war.
    (AP, 12/10/16)

2016        Dec 21, Aron Anderson of Sweden reached the South Pole following a 21-day journey in a wheelchair on skis.
    (SFC, 12/23/16, p.A2)

2017        Jan 22, In Sweden teenager and two men in their 20s were arrested in the city of Uppsala, after police received tips about a rape and live streaming in a closed Facebook group from users.
    (AP, 1/24/17)

2017        Jan 28, Swedish photographer Lennart Nilsson (94) died. His pictures of fetuses developing in the womb illustrated a 1965 book was translated into several languages.
    (AP, 1/28/17)

2017        Feb 10, Swedish banking group SEB issued its first green bond, raising 500 million euros ($532 million) for loans to low-carbon projects.
    (Reuters, 2/13/17)

2017        Feb 16, A Swedish court sentenced Haisam Omar Sakhanh (46), a Syrian refugee, to life imprisonment for participation in the 2012 mass execution of seven government troops in Syria.
    (AP, 2/16/17)

2017        Feb 21, Swedish police began investigating a riot that broke out overnight in a predominantly immigrant suburb in Stockholm after officers arrested a suspect on drug charges.
    (AP, 2/21/17)

2017        Mar 2, Sweden reintroduced compulsory military service for men and women, seven years after abandoning it for men, in response to global security challenges including Russia's assertive behavior in the Baltic Sea region.
    (AFP, 3/2/17)(SFC, 3/3/17, p.A4)

2017        Mar 31, Swedish prosecutors investigating a suspected gang rape and its broadcast via Facebook Live said they had received a copy of the footage from the US social media company.
    (Reuters, 3/31/17)

2017        Apr 1, In Sweden Bob Dylan (75) received his Nobel literature diploma in a small afternoon ceremony in Stockholm before performing a concert in the evening.
    (SSFC, 4/2/17, p.A4)

2017        Apr 2, In central Sweden a bus carrying high school students to a ski resort crashed  south of Sveg, killing three people and injuring 20 others — seven of them seriously.
    (AP, 4/2/17)

2017        Apr 7, In Sweden a truck slammed into a crowd of people outside a busy department store in central Stockholm, killing two Swedes, a British man and a Belgian woman. PM Stefan Lofven described it as a "terror attack". Police soon detained suspect Rakhmat Akilov (39), a native of Uzbekistan, who had been denied asylum last year. Uzbekistan’s foreign minister later said Akilov had been recruited by the Islamic State and had encouraged fellow nationals to fight for the IS in Syria. A 5th victim died three weeks later of her injuries.
    (AFP, 4/7/17)(AP, 4/8/17)(Reuters, 4/11/17)(SFC, 4/15/17, p.A3)(AP, 4/28/17)

2017        Apr 25, A Swedish court sentenced three men aged 18-24 for participating in a gang rape that was streamed live on a closed Facebook group. The men were arrested last Jan 22.
    (AP, 4/25/17)

2017        May 2, It was reported that Sweden will end temporary border controls introduced in 2015 to stem a large influx of asylum seekers.
    (Reuters, 5/2/17)

2017        May 19, Sweden announced that the investigation of Julian Assange, founder of WikiLeaks, has been discontinued. Assange won his battle against extradition to Sweden, which wanted to question him about a rape allegation. He has spent nearly five years inside the Embassy of Ecuador in London to avoid being sent to Sweden.
    (AP, 5/19/17)

2017        Jun 8, Thailand arrested a fugitive (38) on an international arrest warrant He was suspected of rapes that took place in several locations in Sweden on May 17-19.
    (AP, 6/8/17)

2017        Jun 30, Finland and Sweden joined a British-led military rapid reaction force that can either operate alone or jointly with the UN, NATO or the EU.
    (AP, 6/30/17)

2017        Jul 1, In southern Sweden the Bravalla festival in Norrkoping was called off for next year after a rape was reported a day earlier. Swedish police say they so far have 11 cases of sexual abuse and one rape at the July 28-July 1 festival.
    (AP, 7/1/17)

2017        Jul 7, In Sweden three men with ties to the neo-Nazi Nordic Resistance Movement were sentenced to up to eight and a half years in prison for bomb attacks in western Sweden over the past year.
    (Reuters, 7/7/17)

2017        Jul 9, The leaders of Sweden and Japan demanded that North Korea halts missile tests, and pledged increased cooperation in the UN as PM Shinzo Abe met with PM Stefan Lofven in Helsinki.
    (AP, 7/9/17)

2017        Jul 26, The family of Swedish diplomat Raoul Wallenberg, who saved thousands of Hungarian Jews during World War II before disappearing under Soviet rule, sued Russia's security service for access to its files.
    (AFP, 7/27/17)

2017        Jul 27, Swedish PM Stefan Lofven replaced two ministers in a scandal over the leaking of sensitive data, trying to contain the damage and stave off an early election. The scandal involved the handling of data under a 2015 outsourcing deal between the Swedish Transport Agency and IBM Sweden. Lofven admitted on July 24 that his country and its citizens had been exposed to risks by potential leaks of sensitive information.
    (Reuters, 7/27/17)

2017        Aug 4, In northern Sweden an employee at Orsa Rovdjurspark, one of Europe's largest predator parks, died of bite wounds after being attacked by a bear. The 2-year-old bear was euthanized after the attack.
    (AP, 8/4/17)

2017        Sep 30, In Sweden dozens of people were arrested as neo-Nazis and anti-fascists clashed with police during a march by the extreme right-wing Nordic Resistance Movement (NMR) in Gothenburg.
    (AP, 9/30/17)

2017        Oct 19, Swedish steel production company SSAB Americas said it is moving its Unites States division headquarters from Lisle, Illinois, to Mobile, Alabama. The move will unfold over the course of next year. The company has operated a mill north of Mobile in Axis since 2001.
    (AP, 10/20/17)

2017        Oct 26, Nordea Bank AB, the Nordic region's largest bank, said it plans to cut at least 6,000 jobs over the next four years to stay competitive as its retail banking operations increasingly become digital and automation hits the financial industry. The cuts will spread across its home markets of Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden.
    (AP, 10/26/17)

2017        Nov 10, In Sweden some listeners to commercial radio station Mix Megapol heard 30 minutes of an Islamic State propaganda song after hackers took over the station's frequency.
    (Reuters, 11/10/17)

2017        Nov 11, Swedish police detained 16 people in connection with an unlawful demonstration of about 65 members of a right-wing group in Goteborg.
    (AP, 11/11/17)

2017        Nov 17, Swedish utility Vattenfall said it will invest 900 million kronor ($107 million) to update two reactors at Sweden's largest nuclear plant, saying the Ringhals facility will continue to supply electricity into the 2040s.
    (AP, 11/17/17)

2017        Nov 21, Sweden said it was stopping new aid for Cambodia, except in education and research, and would no longer support a reform program after the main opposition party was outlawed by the Supreme Court at the government's request.
    (Reuters, 11/21/17)

2017        Nov 24, The organization behind the "Alternative Nobel" said that a 2017 prize winner from Azerbaijan would not be able to attend the Dec. 1 award ceremony in Stockholm because of a travel ban linked to a suspended sentence she is serving. Azeri investigative journalist Khadija Ismayilova claimed in a statement issued by the Right Livelihood Award that she is under the travel ban "because I criticize the government when it steals the people's money."
    (AP, 11/24/17)

2017        Dec 8, Swedish music streaming service Spotify and Chinese internet company Tencent said they will acquire new shares representing minority equity stakes in each other for cash.
    (AP, 12/7/17)
2017        Dec 8, Britain, France, Germany, Sweden and Italy called on the United States to put forward detailed proposals for peace between Israel and the Palestinians and described as "unhelpful" a decision by President Donald Trump to recognize Jerusalem as Israel's capital.
    (Reuters, 12/8/17)

2017        Dec 9, In Germany the Swedish comedy "The Square" swept this year's European Film Awards in Berlin, winning six prizes, including for best film, director and screenwriter. This year's best actress award went to Alexandra Borbely of Slovakia for her role in "On Body and Soul."
    (AP, 12/10/17)

2017        Dec 10, In Sweden three people were arrested early today after an attempted arson attack at a synagogue in the city of Gothenburg.
    (Reuters, 12/10/17)

2017        Dec 27, China’s Geely Holding Group, the owner of Sweden's Volvo Cars, said it is buying an 8.2% stake in truck manufacturer AB Volvo from Cevian Capital, a fund manager. Geely will get 15.6 percent of voting rights.
    (AP, 12/27/17)

2017        Sweden’s population was about 10 million.
    (Econ 5/20/17, p.47)

2018        Jan 7, In Sweden a man died of his wounds after he picked up an object from the ground outside the Varby Gard subway station in Stockholm that detonated in his hand. A second person was injured in the explosion.
    (AP, 1/7/18)

2018        Jan 23, Sweden's radiation safety authority (SSM) and an environmental court issued diverging recommendations to the government on whether to allow the construction of a nuclear waste repository.
    (Reuters, 1/23/18)

2018        Jan 27, In Sweden IKEA founder Ingvar Kamprad (91) died at his home in Smaland. He founded the company on the family farm when he was 17 years old.
    (AP, 1/28/18)

2018        Feb 17, The Swedish foreign ministry confirmed that it had granted citizenship to Ahmadreza Djalali, an Iranian academic with Swedish residency. He was arrested in Tehran in April 2016 and later convicted of espionage, accused of providing information to Israel to help it assassinate Iranian nuclear scientists.
    (Reuters, 2/20/18)

2018        Feb 21, In Germany John Ausonius (64), one of Sweden's most notorious criminals, was sentenced to life in prison by a Frankfurt court for a murder he was convicted of having committed in Frankfurt more than 25 years ago.
    (Reuters, 2/21/18)

2018        Mar 16, North Korea's foreign minister met briefly with Sweden's prime minister during a surprise trip to Stockholm that has fueled speculation about a possible meeting in the Scandinavian country between US President Donald Trump and North Korean leader Kim Jong Un.
    (AP, 3/16/18)

2018        Mar 30, Russia ordered new cuts to the number of British envoys in the country, escalating a dispute with the West over the poisoning of an ex-spy in Britain. Scores of foreign ambassadors streamed into the Russian Foreign Ministry in Moscow to receive the notices given to 23 nations: Albania, Australia, Canada, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Romania, Spain, Sweden and Ukraine.
    (AP, 3/30/18)

2018        Apr 3, Sweden-based Spotify made its NYSE market debut in a "direct listing" that allows investors to sell shares directly, but does not raise money for the company.
    (AP, 4/3/18)

2018        Apr 12, Swedish authorities said they have charged Dorjee Gyantsan (49), a Tibetan man, with spying for China, on suspicion that he gathered information on Tibetans who had fled to Sweden.
    (AP, 4/12/18)

2018        Apr 13, The Swedish Academy, which awards the Nobel Literature Prize, appointed a new head as a sexual harassment scandal rocked the prestigious institution. Anders Olsson, a writer and professor of literature, was appointed to the post on a temporary basis. The scandal centered on allegations by 18 women that they had been subject to harassment and physical abuse by Jean-Claude Arnault, the French husband of Academy member Katarina Frostenson.
    (AFP, 4/13/18)

2018        Apr 17, In Sweden Indian PM Narendra Modi and Swedish PM Stefan Lofven held talks that focused on trade, growth, global security and climate. Later in the day Modi met with the five Nordic prime ministers for the first India-Nordic Summit.
    (AP, 4/17/18)

2018        Apr 18, Sweden's king said he wants to change the rules of the Swedish Academy, which awards the Nobel Literature Prize each year, to allow board members to resign even though they are appointed for life.
    (AP, 4/18/18)

2018        Apr 20, Swedish DJ Tim Bergling (28), aka Avicii, died in Oman. He was one of the world's most successful DJs who helped usher in the global boom in electronic music but struggled to cope with the hard-partying lifestyle.
    (AFP, 4/21/18)

2018        Apr 25, Danish submarine builder Peter Madsen (47), a self-taught engineer, was sentenced to life in prison after a Copenhagen court found him guilty of the premeditated murder and sexual assault of Swedish journalist Kim Wall onboard his homemade submarine last year.
    (AFP, 4/25/18)

2018        Apr 27, Sweden's legendary disco group ABBA announced that they have reunited to record two new songs, 35 years after their last single, sparking joy and surprise among fans.
    (AFP, 4/27/18)

2018        May 4, The Swedish Academy which decides the Nobel Prize for Literature said it would not make the award this year because of a sexual misconduct scandal that has caused turmoil in its ranks and led to a string of board members stepping down.
    (Reuters, 5/4/18)

2018        May 10, Guatemala asked both Sweden and Venezuela to remove their ambassadors and accused them of interfering in its internal affairs. A few days earlier Sweden's ambassador Anders Kompass had announced Sweden's financial support for a United Nations-sponsored commission investigating corruption in Guatemala.
    (AP, 5/11/18)

2018        May 17, PayPal and iZettle announced an agreement for Paypal to acquire the Swedish mobile payments startup for $2.2 billion.
    (SFC, 5/19/18, p.D1)

2018        May 22, Belarus appointed an ambassador to Stockholm, ending a six-year-old diplomatic spat over a pro-democracy stunt that saw hundreds of teddy bears airdropped by a Swedish public relations firm over the former Soviet republic.
    (Reuters, 5/22/18)

2018        Jun 7, Sweden-based IKEA, the world's biggest furniture retailer, said it plans to use only renewable and recycled materials in its products by 2030.
    (Reuters, 6/7/18)

2018        Jun 8, A Swedish court sentenced Kingsley Sarfo, a Ghanaian midfielder with top Swedish club Malmo FF, to 32 months in prison after he was found guilty of two cases of rape of an under-aged girl.
    (AP, 6/8/18)

2018        Jun 15, A Swedish court found Dorjee Gyantsan (40), a Tibetan who worked for a pro-Tibetan radio station, guilty of spying for China by gathering information on Tibetans who had fled to Sweden, and sentenced him to 22 months in jail.
    (AP, 6/15/18)

2018        Jun 18, In Sweden three people were killed and three others injured in a gang shooting in the southern city of Malmo. The victims were all known criminals.
    (AFP, 6/19/18)

2018        Jun 25, A Swedish court sentenced two refugees and one rejected asylum seeker to prison for attacking a synagogue with Molotov cocktails on Dec. 9, 2017, in the wake of the US recognition of Jerusalem as Israel's capital last year.
    (AFP, 6/25/18)
2018        Jun 25, Swedish police arrested Qiao Jianjun, a man wanted by Beijing on suspicion of having embezzled millions of dollars and who has been on the run since 2011. He was detained in the town of Huddinge, near Stockholm. A Chinese government list of 100 "most wanted" suspects published about five years ago includes a man called Qiao Jianjun, also known as Feng Li, who is suspected of embezzling from a state grains company.
    (Reuters, 8/3/18)

2018        Jul 18, In Sweden dozens of forest wildfires raged across Sweden the country, prompting Stockholm to ask for emergency EU help to fight the blazes, which broke out during an extreme heatwave in the Nordic region.
    (AFP, 7/18/18)

2018        Jul 20, Swedish PM Stefan Lofven said his government is working "every minute" to get necessary resources to the hundreds of firefighters and emergency workers fighting some 50 blazes mostly in central and western Sweden but also in the north, above the Arctic Circle.
    (AP, 7/20/18)

2018        Jul 31, In Sweden thieves made off with two crowns and an orb worth about 65 million Swedish crowns ($7.1 million) from a hilltop cathedral in Strangnas, 60 miles west of Stockholm, before fleeing via on Lake Malaren near the capital city. In 2019 Police said they had recovered what they believed to be King Karl IX's funeral jewels in an area around Stockholm. In Sweden thieves in broad daylight walked into a medieval cathedral in Strangnas and stole priceless crown jewels dating back to the early 1600s before escaping by speedboat on Lake Malaren.
    (AP, 8/1/18)(Reuters, 2/5/19)

2018        Aug 2, Sweden said it will buy the Patriot air defense missile system from US arms manufacturer Raytheon, as it looks to boost its defenses amid growing tensions with Russia.
    (Reuters, 8/2/18)
2018        Aug 2, Swedish police shot dead a 20-year-old autistic man with Down Syndrome holding a toy gun in central Stockholm. Three police officers shot the man who, according to his family, had a three-year-old's intellectual capabilities and difficulties communicating.
    (AFP, 8/3/18)

2018        Aug 9, Swedish home furnishings giant IKEA opened its first store in India in the southern city of Hyderabad.
    (AP, 8/9/18)

2018        Aug 10, Ryanair pilots in several European countries staged a strike over work conditions that prompted the budget carrier to cancel 400 flights. Walkouts called by German and Belgian unions accounted for many of the cancelations, with strikes also called in Sweden and Ireland.
    (AP, 8/10/18)

2018        Aug 14, In Sweden masked youths set ablaze about 80 cars overnight, chiefly in the second largest city, Goteborg, and nearby Trollhattan, an industrial city. Fires were also reported on a smaller scale in Malmo, Sweden's third largest city. No motive was yet known. One man suspected of the arson was arrested as he tried to enter Turkey. Two others, aged 16 and 21 and living in Frolunda, a suburb of Goteborg where of some the fires took place, were arrested on suspicion of arson.
    (AP, 8/14/18)(AP, 8/15/18)

2018        Sep 8, Sweden's PM Stefan Lofven denounced the Sweden Democrats, an increasingly popular far-right party, as racist and a threat to the nation's European values as political candidates made their final pre-election pitches to voters.
    (AP, 9/8/18)

2018        Sep 9, Swedes voted in an election dominated by fears over asylum seekers and welfare, with the anti-immigration Sweden Democrats vying to become the biggest party in a country long seen as a bastion of liberal values. The far-right made gains in legislative elections whose result makes it tough to form a functioning government. The final tally later showed PM Stefan Lofven's Social Democrats getting 28.3 percent, the center-right Moderate Party 19.8 percent and the Sweden Democrats 17.5 percent.
    (Reuters, 9/9/18)(AFP, 9/10/18)(AP, 9/16/18)

2018        Sep 10, Swedish prosecutors said they will charge a medical doctor who is suspected of sexual violence, misconduct and child rape in a case involving 52 minors and 18 adults. The crimes, which also include sexual misconduct and child pornography, took place between 2015 and 2017.
    (AP, 9/10/18)

2018        Sep 24, Swedish authorities said they had temporarily halted the deportation of Muslim minority Uighurs to China due to concerns over the situation there.
    (AFP, 9/24/18)

2018        Sep 25, Sweden's center-right opposition and the far right ousted PM Stefan Lofven in a vote of no-confidence, as the left and right blocs wrangle over who can form a new government after neither won a majority in September 9 elections.
    (AFP, 9/25/18)
2018        Sep 25, Sweden's public broadcaster said it regretted that a satirical show it aired about China offended some — but stressed that it would not apologize to Beijing for the sketch.
    (AP, 9/25/18)

2018        Oct 1, In Sweden Jean-Claude Arnault (72), the man at the center of a sex abuse and financial crimes scandal that is tarnishing the academy that awards the Nobel Prize in Literature, was convicted of rape and sentenced to two years in prison.
    (AP, 10/1/18)

2018        Oct 5, The Swedish Academy, which awards the Nobel Literature Prize, announced an Iranian-born poet and a judge as new members as it seeks to recover from a #MeToo scandal that forced it to postpone this year's Nobel.
    (AFP, 10/5/18)

2018        Oct 15, Sweden's outgoing Social Democrats PM Stefan Lofven was given a mandate to form a government a day after a rival center-right leader failed in his first attempt.
    (AFP, 10/15/18)

2018        Oct 21, A Norwegian citizen of Iranian background was arrested in Sweden in connection with a plot to assassinate an Iranian Arab opposition figure in Denmark. He was extradited to Denmark. The attack was meant to target the leader of the Danish branch of the Arab Struggle Movement for the Liberation of Ahvaz (ASMLA).
    (AP, 10/30/18)

2018        Oct 31, Sweden offered to host talks between Yemen's warring parties as Washington called for an urgent halt to hostilities and the UN special envoy ramped up efforts to revive discussions that failed nearly two months ago.
    (AP, 10/31/18)

2018        Nov 7, In Sweden Jayne Svenungsson, a member of the academy that awards the Nobel Prize in Literature, said she is leaving the body. She became the eighth person to quit or to be forced off the 18-member board of the Swedish Academy since the scandals broke last year.
    (AP, 11/7/18)

2018        Nov 9, In Sweden Michael Salonen (43), was convicted of attempted murder for sending a letter bomb to a bitcoin company in London and also convicted of sending threatening letters to lawmakers in Sweden, including government members. He was sentenced to seven years in prison.
    (AP, 11/9/18)

2018        Nov 19, The Swedish Academy said its new committee would have five of its own members and five external experts that could pick the Nobel Prize in Literature winners in 2019 and 2020.
    (Reuters, 11/19/18)

2018        Nov 27, Sweden's Center Party said it would consider accepting Social Democrat Stefan Lofven as prime minister if he meets their policy demands, including lower taxes.
    (Reuters, 11/27/18)

2018        Dec 3, A Swedish appeals court found Jean-Claude Arnault, the man at the center of a sex scandal that forced the postponement of this year's Nobel Prize in Literature, guilty of an additional rape and increased his prison term.
    (Reuters, 12/3/18)

2018        Dec 4, A Houthi delegation left for Sweden for UN-sponsored Yemen peace talks, the first since 2016, as Western nations pressed for an end to the war and the United Nations warned of a looming economic disaster.
    (Reuters, 12/4/18)

2018        Dec 6, Meeting in Sweden Yemen's warring sides agreed to free thousands of prisoners, in what a UN mediator called a hopeful start to the first peace talks in years to end a war that has pushed millions of people on the verge of starvation.
    (AP, 12/6/18)

2018        Dec 12, Sweden said it was freezing its support to UNAIDS until executive director Michel Sidibe is removed. An expert report has blasted the agency's leadership for systematically failing to address bullying, abuse and sexual harassment.
    (AFP, 12/12/18)
2018        Dec 12, Eight European Union nations (Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Poland, Sweden and the United Kingdom) underlined their commitment to the Iran nuclear deal while urging Tehran to stop its "destabilizing regional activities" especially the launch of ballistic missiles.
    (AP, 12/12/18)

2019        Jan 12, In northern Sweden a mining company truck crashed into a minibus early today. Six Swiss citizens were killed and one person was injured in the crash.
    (AP, 1/12/19)(AP, 1/13/19)

2019        Jan 18, In Sweden the Centre Party played a decisive role in allowing Stefan Lofven to win a second term as prime minister by abstaining in a parliamentary vote, ending more than four months of political deadlock. The Centre Party and the allied Liberal Party will not join Lofven's new Social Democrat-Green coalition but will support it in return for pursuing such center-right policies as tax cuts and deregulation of the labor and property rental markets.
    (Reuters, 1/18/19)
2019        Jan 18, The scandal-plagued Swedish body that awards the Nobel Prize for literature said that poet Katarina Frostenson would leave the Academy after an investigation determined she had leaked the names of winners.
    (Reuters, 1/18/19)

2019        Jan 23, In Sweden a man in his 50s fatally shot his two children before announcing on social media he was killing himself in an apparent murder-suicide.
    (AP, 1/24/19)

2019        Jan 24, Germany extradited to Sweden John Ausonius (65), the convicted killer known as the "the laser man" for using a precision-scope rifle to target immigrants.
    (AFP, 1/25/19)

2019        Jan 30, Sweden's state employment agency said it would lay off a third of its own workers, in the first sign of budget cuts and reforms under a newly-formed government propped up by two center-right parties.
    (Reuters, 1/30/19)

2019        Feb 1, TIPH (Temporary International Presence in Hebron) countries Switzerland, Sweden, Norway, Italy and Turkey, condemned in a joint statement the Israeli government's unilateral decision not to extend the observer force's mission in the flashpoint city.
    (AP, 2/2/19)

2019        Feb 6, Swedish automaker Volvo Cars, owned by China's Geely holding company, said it is recalling 167,000 cars worldwide because the hatch lid lift system on electric trunks can loosen, stop working in cold weather, and possibly cause damage.
    (AP, 2/6/19)

2019        Feb 13, In Sweden Angela Gui, the daughter of a detained Swedish publisher, published an account detailing a "strange" meeting with businessmen arranged by Sweden's ambassador to China. She said they threatened her after offering to help secure her father's release from prison in China.
    (AP, 2/15/19)

2019        Feb 15, In Sweden the main suspect (22) in the theft of royal funeral artifacts from a Swedish cathedral confessed to stealing them last July 31 after his DNA was found on the items that were pulled out last week from a garbage bin north of Stockholm.
    (AP, 2/15/19)

2019        Feb 19, A Swedish court convicted Kurda Bahaalddin H Saeed H Saeed (38), who fought against the Islamic State group in Iraq, of war crimes for posting macabre pictures and videos on Facebook. He was sentenced to 15 months in jail.
    (AP, 2/19/19)

2019        Feb 20, India's Supreme Court found Anil Ambani, the chairman of Reliance Communications, and two of his directors guilty of contempt of court and ordered them to pay 5.5 billion rupees ($77.29 million) owed to Swedish telecom equipment maker Ericsson.
    (AP, 2/20/19)

2019        Feb 22, In Sweden Johan Nicklas Backstrom (22) was sentenced to four and a half years in prison after he was convicted of stealing 17th-century Swedish royal treasures estimated to be worth 65 million kronor ($7 million) from a cathedral last year.
    (AP, 2/22/19)

2019        Feb 26, Sweden arrested a suspected Russian spy in Stockholm.
    (Reuters, 2/27/19)

2019        Feb 27, Volvo's electric performance brand Polestar unveiled a battery-powered compact car touted as a rival to Tesla's Model 3. Sweden-based Volvo is a subsidiary of Chinese automaker Geely.
    (AP, 2/27/19)

2019        Mar 7, Singapore axed a gig by Watain, a Swedish metal band with Satanic beliefs, whose performances have involved throwing pig's blood onto revelers, just hours before it was due to go ahead.
    (AFP, 3/7/19)

2019        Mar 8, A Swedish court convicted David Idrisson, a 46-year old Uzbek citizen, of plotting to carry out a bombing in Sweden in the name of Islamic State, sentencing him to seven years in prison followed by expulsion from the country.
    (Reuters, 3/8/19)

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