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  The islands of Gozo, Comino and Malta comprise the Maltese archipelago, 50 miles southeast of Sicily.
 (AM, Jul/Aug '97 p.43)

5000BC    The Ghar Dalam cave near the harbor of Marsaxlokk revealed bones of domesticated animals and potsherds.
    (AM, Jul/Aug ‘97 p.42)

4500-4200BC    The Skorba phase on Malta was marked by a growing population, with increased forest clearance for agriculture and grazing that may have led to erosion. Obsidian on Malta from the islands of Lipari and Panteleria indicate links to the outside world.
    (AM, Jul/Aug ‘97 p.40)

4200-3800BC    The Zebbug phase indicated evidence of collective burials.
    (AM, Jul/Aug ‘97 p.40)

c4000BC    The Hypogeum, a complex of rock-cut chamber tombs, dated to this time. They were discovered in 1902.
    (SFEC, 9/17/00, p.T3)

3600-3000BC    The Gantija phase saw the construction of the first megalithic temples.
    (AM, Jul/Aug ‘97 p.43)

3600-2500BC     The Late Neolithic in Malta.
    (AM, 7/04, p.43)

c3,000BC    A Neolithic temple at Mnajdra dates to this time.
    (AM, 7/01, p.15)

3000-2500BC    The Tarxien phase is marked by the collapse of the temple culture.
    (AM, Jul/Aug ‘97 p.44)

2500BC    By about his time the megalithic temples were no longer in use.
    (AM, Jul/Aug ‘97 p.47)

700BC    A ship carrying Phoenician cargo sank about this time near the Maltese island of Gozo. Divers in 2014 discovered its remains, which included 20 grinding stones and 50 amphorae.
    (SFC, 8/26/14, p.A2)

60CE        Feb 10, St. Paul is believed to have been shipwrecked near Malta while enroute to Rome for trial for practicing Catholicism. The story is told in the Bible’s New Testament Acts of the Apostles, chapter 27. The event is marked in Malta every February 10.
    (www.maltamedia.com/artman2/publish/out_about/article_5012.shtml)(WSJ, 6/21/08, p.W8)

1522        Suleiman I captured Rhodes from the Knights Hospitallers of St. John. The knights surrendered after a 6-month siege. In 1530 the knights were resettled on Malta by Charles V.
    (WSJ, 7/21/08, p.A11)

1530        The Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V, offered the Knights Hospitallers of St. John the Isle of Malta. In exchange for a perpetual lease the Knights undertook to send the emperor a falcon (made famous in the mystery novel, The Maltese Falcon, and the movie of the same name) once every year as a token of their fealty. They remained there until the time of Napoleon, and became known as the Knights of Malta.
    (WSJ, 12/30/94, A-6)(WSJ, 7/21/08, p.A11)

1530        Feb 24, Charles V was crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Clement V in the 1st imperial coronation by a Pope. Charles restored the Medici to power after capturing Florence and ceded Malta to the landless religious order of the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem.
    (TL-MB, p.14)(MC, 2/24/02)

1551        Turkish forces captured Tripoli but failed to take Malta.
    (TL-MB, p.18)

1565        May 19-Sep 8, In Malta the Great Siege lasted over this period as Suleyman the Magnificent sought to add the island to his conquests. The Turkish army of 40,000 men besieged the Knights of Malta, led by Grand Master Jean de la Valette, at their garrison, St. Elmo. The defenders numbered 540 knights, 400 Spanish troops, and Maltese gentry. In the initial attack 200 of 260 defenders lay dead at the end of the day but the garrison held out. The Turks continued their efforts for four months when reinforcements arrived and saved them. The arrival of a fleet from Spain, the “Gran Soccorso," turned the tide. This halted the westward advance of Islam in the Mediterranean. St. Elmo was later transformed into Valletta, the capital of Malta. The Order of St. John continues to thrive to today.
    (HNQ, 4/8/99)(WSJ, 12/30/94, p.A-6)(AM, Jul/Aug ‘97 p.40)(WSJ, 7/21/08, p.A11)

1571        The Palace of the Grand Masters was begun.
    (AM, Jul/Aug ‘97 p.40)

1573-1577    The Cathedral of St. John was built.
    (AM, Jul/Aug ‘97 p.40)

1647        Gian Francesca Abela, vice-chancellor of the Knights of St. John and the father of Maltese historiography, authored “Descrittione di Malta." His antiquities, willed to the College of Jesuit Fathers in Valetta, later formed the nucleus of Malta’s National Museum of Archeology.
    (AM, 7/97, p.48)

1731        The Manoel Theater was constructed.
    (AM, Jul/Aug ‘97 p.40)

1733-1740    The Cathedral Museum in Mdina was built as a seminary opposite the Mdina Cathedral. Traces of the classical city of Melite were later found beneath it.
    (AM, 7/97, p.48)

1798        Sep 2, The Maltese people revolted against the French occupation, forcing the French troops to take refuge in the citadel of Valetta in Malta.
    (HN, 9/2/98)

1798        Napoleon expelled the Knights of Malta from their base in Malta. The Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of St. John of Jerusalem (SMOM), without citizens or territory, became a permanent observer at the UN in 1994.
    (WSJ, 6/28/01, p.A1)

1800        Sep 5, Malta surrendered to British after they blockaded French troops.
    (MC, 9/5/01)

1804        Samuel Taylor Coleridge (32), poet, fled to Malta and worked as an assistant to the civilian governor. He returned to England in 1806.
    (WSJ, 4/15/99, p.A20)

1902        The 6,000 year-old Hypogeum, a complex of rock-cut chamber tombs, was discovered.
    (SFEC, 9/17/00, p.T3)

1915-1919    Themistocles Zammit, father of Maltese prehistory, excavated the Tarxien temples.
    (AM, 7/97, p.48)

1940        Jun 11, The Italian Air Force bombed the British fortress at Malta in the Mediterranean.
    (HN, 6/11/98)

1942        Mar 7, 15 Mk-VB Spitfires reached Malta.
    (MC, 3/7/02)

1942        Mar 20-22, There was a major German assault on Malta.
    (MC, 3/20/02)(MC, 3/21/02)(MC, 3/22/02)

1942        Apr 7, There was a heavy German assault on Malta.
    (MC, 4/7/02)

1942        Apr 15, George VI awarded the George Cross to the citizens of Malta.
    (HN, 4/15/98)

1942        Apr 16, Britain’s King George V awarded the Island of Malta the George Cross in recognition for heroism under constant German air attack. It was the first such award given to any part of the British Commonwealth.
    (HN, 4/16/99)(HNQ, 7/8/01)

1942        Apr 20, Heavy German assault on Malta.
    (MC, 4/20/02)

1942        Jun 11-Oct 20, In Malta the German and Italian air blockade and repeated bombing failed to break the people-who lived in caves and catacombs through the worst. Hitler’s planned airborne invasion-Operation Hercules-was finally called off.
    (HNQ, 4/8/99)

1945        Feb 2, President Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill departed Malta for the Yalta summit with Soviet leader Josef Stalin.
    (AP, 2/2/97)

1964        Sep 21, Malta gained independence from Britain and joined the UN.
    (SFC, 7/1/97, p.A9)(AP, 9/21/97)

1958        The National Museum of Archeology was established by British authorities in Valetta.
    (AM, 7/97, p.49)

1964        Sep 21, Malta became an independent member of the British Commonwealth.
    (AP, 9/21/97)(Econ, 7/14/07, p.57)(www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/5382.htm)

1967        Arvid Pardo (d.1999 at 85), Maltese delegate to the UN, proposed that the bounty of the sea should be considered "the common heritage of mankind" and asked that some of the sea's wealth be used to bankroll a fund to help close the gap between rich and poor nations. The Law of the Sea was ratified in 1993 and took effect on Nov 16, 1994.
    (SFC, 7/19/99, p.A22)

1971        John Evans (b.1925), English archeologist, published the comprehensive survey: "The Prehistoric Antiquities of the Maltese Islands."
    (AM, 7/97, p.48)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Davies_Evans)

1977        Arvid Pardo published "The New International Order and the Law of the Sea with Elisabeth Mann Borgese.
    (SFC, 7/19/99, p.A22)

1980        The film “Popeye," directed by Robert Altman, was made in Malta. A replica of the town of Sweethaven was built at Anchor Bay and remained as a tourist attraction.
    (WSJ, 9/11/00, p.A1)

1985        Nov 23, Egypt Air flight 648 was hijacked to Malta by Palestinian militant Omar Mohammed Ali Rezaq, a member of the Abu Nidal terrorist group.  
    (SFC, 7/20/96, p.A6)(SFEC, 10/8/96, D1)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/EgyptAir_Flight_648)

1985        Nov 24, The hijacking of an EgyptAir jetliner parked on the ground in Malta ended violently as Egyptian commandos stormed the plane. Fifty-eight people died in the raid, in addition to two others killed by the hijackers. Ali Rezaq of the Abu Nidal terrorist group was imprisoned in Malta for 7 years and then released. The US FBI apprehended him in Nigeria in 1993 and he was convicted by a US federal jury in 1996 and sentenced to life in prison.
    (SFC, 7/20/96, p.A6)(SFEC, 10/8/96, D1)(AP, 11/24/97)

1988        The Grand Master of The Order of St. John (Knights of Malta) died. Fidel Castro declared a national day of mourning in Cuba.
    (WSJ, 12/30/94, p.A6)

1989        Apr 4, Censu Tabone (1913-2012) began serving as the 4th president of Malta and continued to 1994.
    (AP, 3/14/12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C4%8Aensu_Tabone)

1989        Dec 3, In Malta Presidents George Bush and Mikhail Gorbachev announce the official end to the Cold War.
    (HN, 12/3/02)

1994        Nov 16, The UN Law of the Sea, ratified in 1993, took effect. Arvid Pardo (d.1999 at 85), Maltese delegate to the UN, proposed in 1967 that the bounty of the sea should be considered "the common heritage of mankind" and asked that some of the sea's wealth be used to bankroll a fund to help close the gap between rich and poor nations. The International Seabed Authority came into existence as the law took effect. The first Secretary-General of the Authority, Satya Nandan (Fiji) was elected in March 1996, and the Authority became fully operational as an autonomous international organization in June 1996, when it took over the premises and facilities in Kingston, Jamaica. The UN Law of the Sea treaty, which extended internationally recognized territorial waters to 200 miles offshore, came into force one year after the sixtieth state, Guyana, signed it.
    (http://tinyurl.com/2wsq9p)(SFC, 7/19/99, p.A22)

1995        Oct 26, Islamic Jihad leader Fathi Shakaki was shot to death on the Mediterranean island of Malta in a killing his supporters blamed on Israel.
    (LVRJ, 11/1/97, p.17A)(AP, 10/26/05)

1996        Oct 27, The opposition socialist leader, Alfred Sant, won elections that could return his Labor Party back to power after 16 years. His party has opposed the push to join the European Union. He was sworn in as prime minister by Pres. Ugo Mifsud Bonnici, a former minister of the defeated Nationalist Party.
    (SFC, 10/28/96, p.A10)(SFC, 10/29/96, p.A8)

1999        Apr 4, Guido De Marco (1931-2010) began serving as president of Malta and continued to 2004. He helped the island nation win European Union membership in 2004.
    (AP, 8/13/10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guido_de_Marco)

1999        Dec 10, The EU granted preliminary consideration for membership to Bulgaria, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, Slovakia, and Malta.
    (SFC, 12/11/99, p.A16)

1999        Dec 12, The Erika, a Maltese registered oil tanker, broke in two during a storm off the coast of Brest, France, with 8 million gallons of diesel oil. Half the ship was towed to deeper waters and 3 million gallons were spilled. In 2008 a French court found Total SA guilty of maritime pollution and fined it the maximum penalty of $560,000. It also ordered Total and three other defendants to pay total damages of $285 million.
    (SFC, 12/13/99, p.A13)(WSJ, 12/13/99, p.A1)(SFC, 11/20/02, p.A14)(AP, 1/16/08)

2001        May 8, In Malta Pope John Paul II was welcomed on the final stop of his 6-day pilgrimage to retrace the steps of the Apostle Paul.
    (WSJ, 5/9/01, p.A1)

2002        Oct 9, The European Union's executive Commission declared Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Cyprus, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Romania, Slovenia, and Slovakia nearly ready for EU membership and recommended they be invited to join in 2004. Romania and Bulgaria likely will be delayed until 2007 because of weak economies, the Commission said, adding Turkey was the weakest link among candidates.
    (AP, 10/9/02)

2002        Dec 13, The EU reached agreement to accept 10 new countries in 2004. These included Czech Republic, Cyprus, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia, and Slovenia.
    (SFC, 12/14/02, p.A3)

2003          Mar 8, Malta became the first of 10 countries to vote on whether to join the European Union, which is luring new members with a $40 billion aid package. The referendum was approved 53.65 to 46.35%.
    (AP, 3/8/03)(SFC, 3/10/03, p.A3)

2003        Apr 12, Malta held parliamentary elections. PM Eddie Fenech Adami won and said his nation will go ahead with European Union membership.
    (AP, 4/13/03)

2004        May 1, Revelers across ex-communist eastern Europe celebrated their historic entry to the European Union. 10 new members (Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia, and Slovenia) joined. Malta joined with 70 exemptions to EU rules. Poland had 43 exemptions. Latvia had 32. The Turkish occupied area of Cyprus was suspended from entry.
    (AP, 5/1/04)(Econ, 2/28/04, p.50)(Econ, 4/16/05, p.16)

2004        The equity index of the Maltese Stock Exchange (MSE) rose 40%.
    (Econ, 2/11/06, p.71)

2005        Dec 29, Britain’s tax authorities recognized the Maltese Stock Exchange (MSE). The equity index of the MSE rose 60% this year.
    (http://business.timesofmalta.com/article.php?id=3721)(Econ, 2/11/06, p.71)

2006        Malta’s population was about 392,000.
    (Econ, 2/11/06, p.71)

2007        Jun 3, Pope Benedict XVI named four new saints from France, Malta, the Netherlands and Poland at a ceremony in St. Peter's Square. Among those honored was Sister Marie Eugenie de Jesus Milleret, a French nun who in 1839 founded the Religious of the Assumption to educate young girls; the Rev. George Preca of Malta, who founded the Society of Christian Doctrine in 1932 as a group of lay people who teach the faith to others; the Rev. Szymon z Lipnicy of Poland, a Franciscan monk who comforted Poles afflicted by the plague that broke out in Krakow from 1482-83 and died of it himself; and the Rev. Charles of St. Andrew (Dublin), who was born Karel Van Sint Andries Houben in the Netherlands in 1821.
    (AP, 6/3/07)

2007        Jun 25, Frontex, the EU's external border agency, kicked off a new series of patrols in the Mediterranean coastal area, known as operation Nautilus, in order to halt the influx of illegal immigrants, crossing over from North Africa to Europe. Many migrants aimed to reach Malta as a stepping stone to Italy and Europe.
    (www.eubusiness.com/Malta/1181678401.8/)(Econ, 6/23/07, p.59)

2007        Jul 10, Cyprus and Malta received approval from EU finance ministers to join the euro.
    (Econ, 7/14/07, p.57)

2007        Malta’s population was about 400,000.
    (Econ, 6/23/07, p.59)

2008        Jan 1, The Maltese lira was scheduled to give way to the EU euro.
    (Econ, 10/6/07, p.78)

2007        Dec 20, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovenia, Slovakia and the Czech Republic halted land and sea border controls at midnight in a wave of new members of Europe's passport-free Schengen zone. They all joined the EU on May 1, 2004.
    (AFP, 12/20/07)(WSJ, 12/21/07, p.A1)

2008        Jan 1, EU newcomers Cyprus and Malta adopted the euro, bringing to fifteen the number of countries using the currency with increasing clout over the slumping US dollar.
    (AP, 1/1/08)

2008        Jan 18, It was reported that the EU’s environment commissioner has threatened to take Malta to the European Court of Justice to force an end spring shooting of turtledoves and quail. Bird hunting and trapping is a traditional pastime in Malta where migrating stop twice every year. Numerous protected birds have been killed.
    (WSJ, 1/18/08, p.A1)

2008        Jan 31, It was reported that the EU is suing Malta for permitting residents to hunt 2 species of birds in the spring. The Maltese government said it qualifies for an exemption under EU rules.
    (WSJ, 2/1/08, p.A6)

2008        Jun 4, An undetermined amount of fuel oil was released after the Greece-registered Syros slammed against the Malta-registered Sea Bird near Montevideo, Uruguay.
    (AP, 6/5/08)

2008        Aug 26, A Maltese fishing trawler rescued the migrants. Authorities said the survivors first told the fishermen that 10 people were missing, but later said as many as 70 people from Somalia, Eritrea and Sudan made the sea voyage with them.
    (AP, 8/28/08)

2008        Oct 30, Scientists reported that 1 in 17 men living on the coasts of North Africa and southern europe may have a Phoenician direct male line ancestor. Evidence was based on Y-chromosomes collected in Cyprus, Malta, Morocco, the West Bank, Syria and Tunisia.
    (SFC, 10/31/08, p.A14)

2009        Apr 18, About 140 migrants remained stranded aboard a Turkish cargo ship for a third day as Malta and Italy argued about which country should accept them.
    (AP, 4/18/09)

2009        Apr 19, Italy agreed to accept 140 migrants stranded aboard a Turkish cargo ship that rescued them in the Mediterranean, ending a four-day standoff with Malta about who would take them in.
    (AP, 4/20/09)

2009        Sep 22, A sharply divided EU failed to protect the threatened bluefin tuna, as the bloc's Mediterranean nations refused to back even a temporary a ban on catching the fish prized by sushi aficionados. Greece, Cyprus, Malta, Spain, France and Italy, with strong fishermen's lobbies at home, insisted on continuing the hunt despite the precarious state of the species. Conservation groups had earlier criticized the EU for not pushing to list the bluefin tuna under the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species.
    (AP, 9/22/09)

2010        Apr 18, Pope Benedict XVI met in Malta with a group of clerical sex-abuse victims and promised them with tears in his eyes that the Catholic Church would seek justice for pedophile priests and implement "effective measures" to protect young people from abuse. 10 Maltese men came forward earlier this month saying they wanted to meet with the pope to tell him their stories and to request an apology. They said they were abused by 4 priests at a Catholic orphanage.
    (AP, 4/18/10)

2010        Aug 12, Guido De Marco (79), former president of Malta (1999-2004), died. He helped the island nation win European Union membership (2004).
    (AP, 8/13/10)

2010        Dec 17, Maltese Foreign Minister Tonio Borg promised during a visit to the Gaza Strip to donate funds to the United Nations agency caring for Palestinian refugees.
    (AFP, 12/17/10)

2011        Mar 1, Malta said it was refusing to return two Libyan fighter jets that landed on the island last week after their pilots defected.
    (AP, 3/1/11)

2011        May 28, Malta, a staunchly Catholic Mediterranean island, voted in favor of introducing divorce in a referendum. Malta was the last remaining European nation to ban divorce. Some 95 percent of the 400,000 population calls itself Roman Catholic.
    (AP, 5/29/11)

2011        Jul 25, Maltese lawmakers have approved a law allowing citizens of this heavily Catholic Mediterranean island to divorce in their own country. The law takes effect in October, after Malta's president signs it. The ruling Nationalist Party had opposed divorce.
    (AP, 7/25/11)

2011        Aug 1, Malta sentenced Rev. Charles Pulis and Rev. Godwin Scerri to 5 and 6 years in prison after they were convicted of sexually abusing boys under their care in St Joseph's Home for children more than 20 years ago.
    (AP, 8/2/11)

2011        Oct 31, A Tunisian court was reported to have issued an international arrest warrant against Suha Arafat (48), the widow of the late Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat over alleged corruption. The case appeared to be connected to a school she founded in 2006 with the wife of the ousted Pres. Ben Ali. She was stripped of her Tunisian citizenship in 2007 following a dispute with the former ruling family and currently lives in Malta.
    (AFP, 11/1/11)(SFC, 11/1/11, p.A2)

2012        Mar 14, Censu Tabone (b.1913), former Malta President (1989-1994), died. In 1989 he hosted a US-Soviet summit that declared an end to the Cold War.
    (AP, 3/14/12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C4%8Aensu_Tabone)

2012        Aug 16, Malta said its navy has recovered two bodies and rescued around 160 Eritrean and Somali migrants from two boats which got into trouble on the Mediterranean Sea.
    (AFP, 8/16/12)

2012        Oct 5, Ten European and North African leaders meet in Malta for the first such summit of Mediterranean neighbors in a decade, with the agenda focused on fighting terrorism and lawlessness, and strengthening political and economic cooperation in the aftermath of the Arab Spring.
    (AP, 10/5/12)

2013        Mar 10, Malta’s PM Lawrence Gonzi of the Nationalist Party conceded defeat as ballots were still being counted in the island nation and eurozone member. Labor leader Joseph Muscat will be sworn in as the new prime minister on March 11. Muscat swept to office with an implausible pledge to cut the island’s sky-high energy tariffs by 25%.
    (AP, 3/11/13)(Econ, 11/14/15, p.55)

2013        Jul 11, Malta's PM Joseph Muscat called for a regional approach to tackle the flood of African immigrants landing on the shores on the tiny island after meeting EU and Libyan officials.
    (Reuters, 7/11/13)

2013        Aug 6, The EU said the Maltese government, which has refused entry to a tanker carrying 102 African migrants, had a "humanitarian duty" to allow them to land as soon as possible. Malta faced a record influx of African migrants, with 1,000 arriving in the past month.
    (Reuters, 8/6/13)

2013        Aug 7, Italy allowed 102 migrants who were stranded on a tanker in the Mediterranean to disembark on the Sicilian coast after Malta refused them entry for three days despite European Union calls for it to help on humanitarian grounds.
    (Reuters, 8/7/13)

2013        Oct 11, An overloaded migrant boat went down off Malta. The next day about 200 shocked survivors were plucked from the sea. Over 30 lives were lost in the latest deadly migrant tragedy to hit the Mediterranean.
    (AFP, 10/12/13)

2015        Apr 11, Malta voted in a referendum to decide whether to overturn a law that allows the hunting of breeding birds in spring, a centuries-old tradition that is not allowed anywhere else in the European Union.
    (Reuters, 4/11/15)

2015        Nov 27, Queen Elizabeth openeed 24th biennial Commonwealth Summit in Malta. Leaders of 53 countries -- around a quarter of the world's countries and a third of its population, gathered to discuss global issues.
    (AFP, 11/27/15)

2015        Nov 28, In Malta heads of government from the Commonwealth family, which represents around a third of the world's population, pledged to demand an "ambitious" and legally-binding outcome from the world climate change summit in Paris, which officially starts on Nov 30.
    (AFP, 11/29/15)

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