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c29000BC    Bones with Neanderthal traits from this time were later found in a cave in Mladec, Czech Republic. Some scientists believed they represented interbreeding between Neanderthals and Home Sapiens.
    (SSFC, 6/19/05, p.F2)

24000BC    An early representation of a human was carved from mammoth ivory about 26,000 years ago. It was discovered in Brno, Czechoslovakia. The tiny  "Venus of Dolni Vestonici," more than 25,000 years old, is the earliest known sculpture of a human figure.
    (NG, Oct. 1988, p. 440)(SFEC, 5/23/99, DB p.43)

24000BC    A multiple burial was unearthed at Dolni Vestonice, Czechoslovakia. Three skeletons whose skulls were adorned with circles of arctic fox and wolf teeth and ivory beads.
    (NG, Oct. 1988, p.466)

903        Good King Wenceslaus, saint, duke of Bohemia (d.929), was born about this time.
    (http://saints.grettir.org/wenceslaus.html)

929        Sep 28, Wenceslaus I, duke of Bohemia, was murdered.
    (http://saints.grettir.org/wenceslaus.html)

997        St. Adalbert was martyred. He brought Christianity to Bohemia.
    (SFC, 4/26/97, p.A12)

1141        Jan 31, Pope Innocent II authorized Bishop Henry of Moravia to preach Catholicism in Prussia.
    (LHC, 1/31/03)

c1200-1300    Cesky Krumlov, 100 miles south of Prague, was founded on the Vltava River on the main trading route between Bavaria and Italy.
    (SSFC, 7/21/02, p.C5)

1230-1253    King Wenceslas I reigned over Bohemia. His sister, St. Agnes, was canonized in 1989. Both are buried in the Convent of St. Agnes in Prague.
    (SFC, 4/14/96, T-12)

1346        Nov 26, Charles of Luxembourg was crowned German king. He succeeded his father John of Luxemburg as King of Bohemia and Count of Luxembourg.
    (PC, 1992 ed, p.128)

1347        Charles IV (1316-1378) of the House of Luxembourg was crowned King of Bohemia.
    (WSJ, 10/19/05, p.D17)

1348        Apr 7, Prague Univ., the 1st in central Europe, was started by Charles IV.
    (MC, 4/7/02)

1355        Charles IV, King of Bohemia, was crowned King of the Holy Roman Empire.
    (WSJ, 10/19/05, p.D17)

1361        Wenceslaus IV (d.1419), son of Charles IV, as born.
    (WSJ, 10/19/05, p.D17)

1368        Feb 14-1368 Feb 15, Sigismund (d.1437), son of Charles IV, was born in Nuremberg, Germany. He served as Holy Roman Emperor from 1433-1437.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sigismund%2C_Holy_Roman_Emperor)

1373        Jan Huss (d.1415), Czech populist reformer. He challenged Church doctrine.
    (WSJ, 4/4/01, p.A18)

1378        Nov 29, Charles IV (b.1316), King of Bohemia and Holy Roman Emperor, died.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Holy_Roman_emperor_Charles_IV)

1378        Wenceslaus IV (1361-1419), son of Charles IV, became King of Bohemia following the death of his father. He served as Holy Roman Emperor until 1400, when he was deposed in favor of Rupert III.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wenceslaus%2C_Holy_Roman_Emperor)

1415        Jul 6, Jan Huss, Bohemian (Czech) religious reformer, was burned as a heretic at the stake at Constance, Germany. He had spoken out against Church corruption.
    (NH, 9/96, p.23)(HN, 7/6/98)

1416        May 30, Jerome of Prague was burned as a heretic by the Church.
    (HN, 5/30/98)

1419        Jul 30, Anti-Catholic Hussites, followers of executed reformer Jan Hus, stormed the town hall in Prague and threw  3 Catholic consuls and 7 citizens out the window. This episode has been called "The Defenestration in Prague." The out-the-window gentlemen all landed safely in a manure pile.
    (NH, 9/96, p.23)(MC, 7/30/02)

1419        Aug 16, Wenceslas (b.1361), son of Charles IV and King of Germany, died. He served as King Wenceslas IV of Bohemia (1363) and King of the Romans (1378-1400).
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wenceslaus%2C_Holy_Roman_Emperor)
1419        Aug 16, Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor, became king of Bohemia following the death of Wenceslaus IV, but was ejected by the Hussites due to the execution of Jan Huss.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sigismund%2C_Holy_Roman_Emperor)

1420        Jul 14, Jan Zizka (1360?-1424) led the Taborites in Battle at Vitkov Zizka's hill (Prague). The Taborites beat forces under Sigismund, the pro-Catholic King of Hungary and Bohemia. This was part of the Hussite Wars (1419-1436).
    (http://user.intop.net/~jhollis/janzizka.htm)

1420        Jul, The Hussites agreed on the Four Articles of Prague, which were promulgated in the Latin, Czech, and German languages. In summery they stated: 1) Freedom to preach the Word of God. 2) Celebration of the Lord's Supper in both kinds (bread and wine to priests and laity alike). 3) No profane power for the clergy. And 4) The same law for laity and priests.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hussite)

1420-1433    Time of the Hussite wars in Bohemia.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1671)

1424        Oct 11, Jan Zizka (b.c1370), Czech army leader (Hussite), died of plague.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jan_Zizka)

1430        Apr 14, A band of Hussites raided the monastery at Czestochowa, Poland, and robbed it of its precious artifacts.
    (http://tinyurl.com/yacc288)

1434        May 30, The Battle of Lipany virtually ended the Hussite Wars. Prokopius leader of Taborites, died in battle.
    (http://tinyurl.com/ckgv5)

1437        Dec 9, Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor, died. Major Czech factions had accepted Sigismund as king of Bohemia prior to his death.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sigismund%2C_Holy_Roman_Emperor)

1454        Aug 22, Jews were expelled from Brunn Moravia by order of King Ladislaus Posthumus (1440-1457), king of Hungary as Ladislaus V, king of Bohemia as Ladislaus I.
    (MC, 8/22/02)(Internet)

c1500-1600    The Golden Canal was dug by hand in southern Bohemia. It linked many of the 6,000 fish ponds used to raise carp.
    (SFEC, 5/2/99, p.T6)

1515        Jul 22, Emperor Maximillian and Vladislav of Bohemia forged an alliance between the Habsburg [Austria] and Jagiello [Polish-Lithuanian] dynasties in Vienna.
    (HN, 7/22/98)

1528        Jacob Hutter (d.1536), Anabaptist evangelist from South Tyrol, founded a "community of love," whose members shared everything. They settled in Moravia due to the religious tolerance there.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.13)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jakob_Hutter)

1539        Feb 19, Jews of Tyrnau, Hungary, (then Trnava, Czech), were expelled.
    (MC, 2/19/02)

1576        Rudolf II was crowned King of the Holy Roman Empire and moved the Imperial Court from Vienna to Prague.
    (WSJ, 7/10/97, p.A13)

1582        Oct 5-1582 Oct 14, Nothing happened. In Bohemia the anti-Gregorian astronomer Michael Mestlin proclaimed that the pope was stealing 10 days from everyone’s life. In 1998 David Ewing Duncan published “Calendar: Humanity’s Epic Struggle to Determine a True and Accurate Year.”
    (SFEC, 9/27/98, BR p.5)

1583        Rudolf II moved the Imperial Court of the Holy Roman Empire from Vienna to Prague.
    (WSJ, 7/10/97, p.A13)

1590        In Prague Adriaen de Vries began his sculpture "Psyche Born Aloft by Putti." It was completed in 1592.
    (WSJ, 12/7/99, p.A24)

c1590-1600    In late 16th century Prague Rabbi Judah Bezalel Loew, the Maharal, used clay and the mysticism of the Kabbalah to fashion the Golem, a human-like creature to help avenge Jewish persecution.
    (WSJ, 4/17/02, p.D7)

1591        Giuseppe Arcimboldo painted a portrait of Emperor Rudolf II as Vertumnus, the Roman god of seasons.
    (WSJ, 9/9/06, p.P9)

1594        Apr 15, Flemish painter Pieter Stevens was appointed royal painter of Rudolf II in Prague.
    (MC, 4/15/02)

1600        Feb 4, Tycho Brahe and Johannes Kepler met for 1st time near Prague.
    (MC, 2/4/02)

1600        Rudolf II, King of the Holy Roman Empire, ruled from Prague and lured the astronomer, Tycho Brahe, from Denmark, as well as his student Johannes Kepler.
    (WSJ, 9/24/96, p.A18)(WSJ, 7/10/97, p.A13)

1600        Cardinal Filippo Spinelli, Pope Clement VIII’s ambassador in Prague, wrote to the Pope that Emperor Rudolf II was bewitched by the devil.
    (WSJ, 9/9/06, p.P9)

1601        Oct 13, Tycho Brahe, astronomer, died in Prague.
    (MC, 10/13/01)

1603        In Prague Adriaen de Vries made a bust of Emperor Rudolf.
    (WSJ, 12/7/99, p.A24)

1609        Jul 9, Emperor Rudolf II granted Bohemia freedom of worship.
    (HN, 7/9/98)

1611        May 23, Matthias von Habsburg was chosen king of Bohemia.
    (MC, 5/23/02)

1611        Matthias, brother of Rudolf II, occupied Prague and captured Rudolf II.
    (WSJ, 1/8/99, p.C13)

1612        Jan 20, Rudolf II von Habsburg (59), emperor of Germany (1576-1612), died in Prague and Matthias became Holy Roman Emperor. In 1912 an enigmatic manuscript, once owned by Rudolf II, was acquired by Wilfrid Voynich and came to be known as the Voynich manuscript. In 2006 Peter Marshall authored “The Magic Circle of Rudolf II.”
    (WSJ, 1/8/99, p.C13)(www.historylearningsite.co)(Econ, 1/10/04, p.71)(WSJ, 9/9/06, p.P9)

1617-1619    Ferdinand II ruled as king of Bohemia.
    (WUD, 1994, p.524)

1618        May 23, The Thirty Years War (1618-1648) ravaged Germany. It began when three opponents of the Reformation were thrown through a window. The “official” Defenestration of Prague was the “official” trigger for the Thirty Year’s War. Local Protestants became enraged when Catholic King Ferdinand II reneged on promises of religious freedom and stormed Hradcany Castle and threw 3 Catholic councilors out of the window and into the moat.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.90)(NH, 9/96, p.18,22)(HN, 5/23/98)

1620        Nov 8, The King of Bohemia was defeated at the Battle of White Mountain, Prague. With Hapsburg support in Bohemia the Catholics defeated the Protestants at the Battle of the White Mountain. Weeks of plunder and pillage followed in Prague and after a few months the victors tortured and executed 27 nobles and other citizens and hung 12 heads on iron hooks from the Bridge Tower.
    (NH, 9/96, p.24)(HN, 11/6/98)(MC, 11/8/01)

1620        Ferdinand II became emperor of the Holy Roman Empire after the death of Rudolf II and moved the Imperial Court back to Vienna. He sold dozens of paintings collected by Rudolf II that he found “lewd.”
    (WSJ, 7/10/97, p.A13)(WUD, 1994, p.524)

1623        In Prague Adriaen de Vries created his sculpture, "Laocoon and His Sons." It was the first reinterpretation of the Greek masterpiece unearthed in Rome in 1506.
    (WSJ, 12/7/99, p.A24)

1626        In Prague Adriaen de Vries began his last sculpture, "Hercules." It was completed in 1627.
    (WSJ, 12/7/99, p.A24)

1630        Aug 13, Emperor Frederick II of Bohemia fired Albrecht von Wallenmanders, his best military commander.
    (HN, 8/13/98)

1630        Sep 11, John de White, Calvinist banker to Prague, committed suicide.
    (MC, 9/11/01)

1630        The southern wall of the Wallenstein Garden in central Prague was built as part of Gen. Albrecht von Wallenstein’s palace complex.
    (WSJ, 8/7/07, p.D10)

1631        Oct 10, A Saxon army occupied Prague.
    (MC, 10/10/01)

1632        May 25, Albrecht von Wallenstein recaptured Prague on Saksen.
    (SC, 5/25/02)

1648        At the end of the Thirty years’ War the Swedes got to Prague and picked up the remains of works collected by Rudolf II and Albrecht von Wallenstein, leader of the Hapsburg armies.
    (WSJ, 7/10/97, p.A13)(WSJ, 12/7/99, p.A24)

1700s        The Czech Castle Vranov was constructed on the Dyje River.
    (SFEC, 5/2/99, p.T6)

1730        "Argippo," the only opera Vivaldi (1678-1741) actually wrote for Prague, was staged just one time in Prague. The score was found in 2006 and another staging was set for 2008.
    (AFP, 5/1/08)

1733        May 12, Maria Theresa was crowned queen of Bohemia in Prague.
    (MC, 5/12/02)

1740        Oct 20, Maria Theresa became ruler of Austria, Hungary and Bohemia upon the death of her father, Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI.
    (AP, 10/20/06)

1744        Nov 25, Austrian forces pillaged and killed Jews of Prague.
    (MC, 11/25/01)

1745        Mar 31, Jews were expelled from Prague.
    (MC, 3/31/02)

1757        May 6, Battle at Prague: Frederik II of Prussia beat emperor's army.
    (MC, 5/6/02)

1774        Dec 18, Empress Maria Theresa expelled Jews from Prague, Bohemia and Moravia.
    (MC, 12/18/01)

1787        Oct 29, Mozart's opera Don Giovanni opened in Prague. Don Giovanni was first performed at the Prague’s Estates Theater with Mozart at the piano and conducting the orchestra. It was a sensational success.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.236)(SFC, 4/14/96, T-12)(HN, 10/29/00)

1791        Sep 6, Mozart’s last opera "La Clemenza di Tito," premiered in Prague. It was composed for the coronation festivities of the King of Bohemia.
    (WSJ, 4/10/00, p.A44)(MC, 9/6/01)

1808        Feb 2, Josef Kajetan Tyl (d.1856), Czech dramatist and songwriter, was born.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Josef_Kajet%C3%A1n_Tyl)

1813        Jul 15, Napoleon Bonaparte's representatives met with the Allies in Prague to discuss peace terms.
    (HN, 7/15/98)

1824        Mar 2, Bedrich Friedrich Smetana (1884), Czech, Bohemian composer (Bartered Bride, Moldau), was born.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1345)(WSJ, 10/4/96, p.A7)(SC, 3/2/02)

1836        May 18, Wilhelm Steinitz was born. The Czech-born world chess champion later became a naturalized American.
    (HN, 5/18/99)

1841        Sep 8, Antonin Dvorak (d.1904), Czech composer and violinist, was born in Nelahozeves. His work included the “New World Symphony.”
    (WUD, 1994 p.444)(HN, 9/8/00)(MC, 9/8/01)

1848        Jun 17, Austrian General Prince Alfred Windischgratz crushed a Czech uprising in Prague. The Habsburgs had ordered the prince to bombard Prague.
    (HN, 6/17/98)(WSJ, 9/21/99, p.A24)

1850        Mar 7, Tomas Masaryk, Pres. of Czech (1918-35), was born to a Slovak father and Czech-German mother in the small town of Hodonin in South Moravia, very close to what is now the border with Slovakia.
    (http://archiv.radio.cz/english/czechs/5-1-00.html)

1854-1928    Leos Janacek, Czech composer. His work included the opera “Makropulos” (1926), the Dostoevsky based “From the House of the Dead” and “Katya Kabanova.”
    (WSJ, 1/3/96, p.A-7)(WSJ, 8/20/96, p.A8)(WUD, 1994, p.763)(SFC, 1/27/97, p.A20)(WSJ, 6/03/97, p.A20)

1857        Ludwig Moser began making Moser glass in Karlovy Vary, Czechoslovakia.
    (SFC, 5/14/08, p.G6)

1866        May 30, Bederich Smetana's Opera "The Bartered Bride" premiered in Prague.
    (MC, 5/30/02)

1866        Aug 23, Treaty of Prague ended the Austro-Prussian war.
    (MC, 8/23/02)

1868        May 16, Bedrich Smetana's opera "Dalibor," premiered in Prague.
    (MC, 5/16/02)

1874        Jan 4, Josef Suk, Czech violinist and composer (Asrael), was born.
    (MC, 1/4/02)

1875        Mar 14, Czech composer Smetana's "Vysehrad," premiered.
    (MC, 3/14/02)

1876        Adolphus Busch, a German immigrant beer-maker, licensed the name of Budweiser in America. The name came from the town of Budweis in Bohemia. The town was later renamed Ceske Budejovice but a local brewery used the Budweiser name for its beer.
    (SFC, 4/9/98, p.A12)

1879        May 16, Czech composer Antonin Dvorak's "Slavonic Dances" premiered.
    (MC, 5/16/02)

1882        The six tone poems “Ma Vlast” (My Homeland) by Czech composer Smetana were first performed in their entirety.
    (SFC, 5/9/97, p.D6)

1883        Apr 24, Jaroslav Hasek, Czech writer (Brave soldier Schweik), was born.
    (MC, 4/24/02)

1883        Jul 3, Franz Kafka (d.1924), Czech novelist, author of “The Metamorphosis,” was born in Prague. “The Castle” and “The Trial,” were both published after his death. He died of tuberculosis.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.367-368)(WSJ, 10/10/96, p.A1)(WSJ, 3/14/97, p.A11)(HN, 7/3/98)

1883-1961    Frantisek Drtikol, Czech photographer and painter. He photographed nudes in the 1920s and then took up painting and mystical religious studies.
    (SFC, 5/6/97, p.E4)

1884        May 12, Bedrich Friedrich Smetana (60), Czech composer (MaVlast, Bartered Bride), died.
    (MC, 5/12/02)

1884        May 28, Edvard Benes, premier, president of Czechoslovakia (1921-22, 35-48), was born.
    (MC, 5/28/02)

1886        Sep 14, Jan Garrique Masaryk (d.1948), Czech statesman, was born.
    (www.britannica.com)

1890        Jan 9, Karel Capek (d.1938), Czech writer and playwright, was born. He is best remembered for his 1921 play R.U.R. which contained the first use of the word "robot."
    (Econ, 4/2/11, p.65)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Karel_%C4%8Capek)

1891-1918    Springer & Co. of Elbogen, Bohemia, now Loket, made decorative porcelain, table sets, laboratory porcelain and figurines marked by a crown above a shield that was decorated with an arm in armor holding a sword. The company went out of business in 1945.
    (SFC, 2/25/98, Z1 p.6)

1892        Apr 28, The 1st performance of Czech composer Antonin Dvorak's overture "Carneval."
    (MC, 4/28/02)

1894        Jun 8, Erwin Schulhoff (d.1942), composer, was born in Prague. He composed a body of jazz-inspired music that included “Rag Music” and “String Quartet No. 1.” http://www.fuguemasters.com/schulhoff.html
    (WSJ, 3/14/97, p.A11)

1896        Jan 8, Jaromir Weinberger, composer (Bird's Opera, Schwanda der Duddelsacpfeifer), was born in Prague, Czechoslovakia.
    (MC, 1/8/02)

1900        Jan 13, To combat Czech nationalism, Emperor Franz Joseph of Austria-Hungary decreed that German would be the language of the imperial army.
    (HN, 1/13/99)

1900        Aug 12, Wilhelm Steinitz, Chess champion (1866-1894), died in Prague.
    (SC, 8/12/02)

1901-1963    Gustav Machaty, Czech filmmaker, was known for his combination of romance and eroticism.
    (SFC, 4/24/99, p.E8)

1903        Mar 28, Rudolf Serkin, pianist (Marlboro School of Music), was born in Eger, Bohemia.
    (MC, 3/28/02)

1903        Nov 15, Eugen d'Albert's opera "Tiefland," premiered in Prague.
    (MC, 11/15/01)

1904        May 1, Antonin Dvorak (b.1841), Czech composer (Slavonic Dances, New World Symphony), died at age 62. He spent 1892-1895 in the US as an honored guest. In 2002 Michael B. Beckerman authored “New Worlds of Dvorak: Searching in America for the Composer’s Inner Life.”
    (MC, 5/1/02)(SSFC, 1/19/03, p.M5)

1905        Vaclav Laurin and Vaclav Klement, Czech bicycle makers, began making cars. They later merged with Skoda Pilsen.
    (www.skoda-auto.com/global/history/company)

1906        A Jewish Museum was founded in Prague.
    (USAT, 9/24/04, p.3D)

1907        Sep 23, Jarmila Novotna, soprano (Met Opera) and president of Czechoslovakia (1957-68), was born.
    (MC, 9/23/01)

1907-1915    The Lucerna Palace in Prague was built by Vaclav Havel, grandfather of the Czech president of 1997.
    (SFEC, 7/6/97, p.B4)

1908        Apr 5, George Schick, conductor (Chicago Symphony), was born in Prague, Czech.
    (MC, 4/5/02)

1908        Apr 11, Karel Ancerl, Czech conductor (Prague, Toronto), was born.
    (MC, 4/11/02)

1908        Sep 19, Gustav Mahler's 7th Symphony, premiered in Prague.
    (MC, 9/19/01)

1912        Feb 11, Rudolf Firkusny (d.1954), classical pianist (Julliard), was born in Napajedla, Czechoslovakia.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rudolf_Firku%C5%A1n%C3%BD)

1913        May 1, Walter Susskind, conductor, was born in Prague, Czechoslovakia.
    (MC, 5/1/02)

1915        Oct 29, Thomas Masaryk claimed independence for Czechoslovakia.
    (MC, 10/29/01)

1915        The short story “The Metamorphosis” by Franz Kafka (1883-1924), a civil servant working in Prague, was first published in a small German magazine.
    (Econ, 7/27/13, p.67)

1916        Egon Schiele painted a view of Krumau, Bohemia. In 2003 it sold for £12.6 million.
    (Econ, 8/23/03, p.55)

1917        Dec 20, Russian secret police in Czechoslovakia was formed under Felix Dzerzhinsky. He helped lead the Bolshevik revolution and set up the communist secret police, the Cheka, which later became the KGB.
    (MC, 12/20/01)(WSJ, 10/15/02, p.D6)

1918        Sep 3, The United States recognized the nation of Czechoslovakia.
    (HN, 9/3/98)

1918        Oct 14, The Czechoslovak National Council in Paris organized a provisional government of Czechoslovakia  with T.G. Masaryk as president.
    (PC, 1992 ed, p.728)

1918        Oct 18, Czechs seized Prague, renounced Hapsburg's rule and declared independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Masaryk proclaimed the foundation of Czechoslovakia from Pittsburgh, Pa.
    (HN, 10/18/98)(http://tinyurl.com/856hg)

1918        Oct 28, The Czechoslovak National Congress in Prague proclaimed the independence of Czechoslovakia.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Czechoslovakia:_1918_-_1938)

1918        Oct 30, The Slovak National Council acceded to the Nov 28 Prague proclamation for the creation of Czechoslovakian state. Slovaks joined the Czechs to form Czechoslovakia. During World War II, Slovakia existed as puppet state of Nazi-run Germany.
    (www.slovakia.org/history6.htm)(AP, 9/21/02)

1919        Mar 4, Czech Legions shot and killed some 50 German demonstrators, including women and children, in Sudetenland.
    (http://tinyurl.com/856hg)

1919        The borders of Czechoslovakia were set up by the Versailles Treaty and incorporated 3 million Germans. Most of the Germans lived along the Czech-German border known as the Sudetenland.
    (SFC, 1/22/96, p.A8)

1919        The Ditmar Urbach pottery factory was founded in Czechoslovakia with the merger of Urbach Brothers and Rudolph Ditmar’s Heirs.
    (SFC, 2/14/07, p.G3)

1920        Mar 2, Karel Capek’s "Loupeznik" premiered in Prague.
    (www.enotes.com/peoples-chronology/year-1920/theater-film)

1920        Mar 28, Thomas Masaryk was elected president of Czechoslovakia.
    (MC, 3/28/02)

1920         Jun 4, The Treaty of Trianon, signed at Versailles, was forced upon Hungary by the victorious Allies after WWII and resulted in Hungary giving up nearly three-fourths of its territory to Romania, Czechoslovakia and the Kingdom of Serbs, Croat and Slovenes. Hungary lost more than half its population, including some 3 million Hungarians. Hungary ceded the hills of Transylvania to Romania.
    (HNQ, 7/5/98)(WSJ, 1/2/97, p.1)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Trianon)

1920        Aug 10, Allies recognized Poland, Czechoslovakia and Romania.
    (MC, 8/10/02)

1921        Jan 25, Karel Capek's " R.U.R.: Rossum's Universal Robots (1920)," premiered in Prague. The play introduced the term robot (robota for forced labor).
    (www.czech-language.cz/translations/rur-introen.html)(www.kirjasto.sci.fi/capek.htm)

1921        Oct 23, Leos Janacek (1854-1928) completed his opera "Katya Kabanov," and it premiered in Brno. It was inspired by Alexander Ostrovsky’s mid 19th century play “The Storm.”
    (WSJ, 1/3/96, p.A7)(WSJ, 1/16/98, p.A12)(MC, 10/23/01)

1921        Nov 27, Alexander Dubcek (d.1992), headed Czech Communist Party (1968-69), was born.
    (MC, 11/27/01)

1922        Franz Kafka (1883-1924) authored his novel “The Castle.”
    (WSJ, 8/7/07, p.D10)

1922        The game of kickball, a mixture between baseball and soccer, was invented in Czechoslovakia.
    (Econ, 10/22/05, p.35)

1924        Jun 3, Franz Kafka (b.1883), Czech writer, died. He was born in Prague and authored "The Castle" and "The Trial," both published after his death. Kafka had requested that his papers be burned after his death, but his friend, Max Brod, kept them and carried them to Tel Aviv when he fled Prague in 1939. Brod died in 1968 and left his personal secretary, Esther Hoffe, in charge of his literary estate and instructed her to transfer the Kafka papers to an academic institution. A critical German edition of The Castle was published in 1982 and an English translation of that edition came out in 1998. In 1927 Max Brod edited Kafka’s unfinished manuscript called "The Man Who Disappeared" and published it as "Amerika." In 2005 Roberto Calasso authored “K,” a contemporary evaluation of Kafka’s work. In 2010 more of Kafka’s unfinished work emerged from safety deposit boxes in Tel Aviv and Zurich, Switzerland.
    (WSJ, 10/10/96, p.A1)(SFEC, 4/5/98, BR p.11)(SSFC, 12/8/02, p.M4)(SSFC, 2/20/05, p.B1)(SFC, 8/18/08, p.A12)(AP, 7/21/10)

1926        Karel Reisz (d.2002), film director, was born in Ostrava, Czechoslovakia. He fled Nazi occupation in 1938. His film career began in Britain and moved on to Hollywood where his work included “The French Lieutenant’s Woman.”
    (SFC, 11/28/02, p.A30)

1926        Leos Janacek composed his opera “The Makropulos Case.”
    (WSJ, 1/3/96, p.A-7)(WSJ, 2/26/00, p.A20)

1928        Jul 2, Pavel Kohout, Czech author (Poor Murderer), was born.
    (SC, 7/2/02)

1928        Aug 12, Leos Janacek (b.1854), Czech composer, conductor (Sly Little Fox), died. His work included "The Diary of One Who Vanished" based on 22 poems by Josef Kalda of a young farm boy seduced by a Gypsy girl.
    (WSJ, 1/3/96, p.A-7)(WSJ, 6/12/01, p.A20)(MC, 8/12/02)

1929        Apr 1, Milan Kundera, Czech writer (The Farewell Party), was born. His novel, “The Unbearable Lightness of Being,” was translated from the Czech in 1984 and was made into a film in 1988.
    (HN, 4/1/01)

1929        Aug 8, Josef Suk, violinist (Artist of Merit-1977), was born in Prague, Czechoslovakia.
    (MC, 8/8/02)

1929        The Czech film “Erotikon” starred Ita Rina and was directed by Gustav Machaty. It was about a young virgin seduced by a traveling salesman.
    (SFC, 4/24/99, p.E8)

1930        In Czechoslovakia Villa Tugendhat, a Modernist masterpiece by legendary German architect Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, was completed in Brno. It was commissioned by Grete and Fritz Tugendhats, co-owners of wool factories and part of a large German-speaking Jewish community in the city. In 2012 a two-year, $9 million renovation was completed.
    (AP, 1/31/12)

1931        The Czech film “From Saturday to Sunday” was directed by Gustav Machaty.
    (SFC, 4/24/99, p.E8)

1932        Feb 18, Milos Forman, Czech-US director (Cuckoos Nest, Amadeus), was born.
    (MC, 2/18/02)

1932        The Czech film “Ecstasy” with Hedy Lamarr swimming nude was directed by Gustav Machaty. Her nude run through the woods created a scandal. It featured the first on camera orgasm.
    (WSJ, 2/21/97, p.B15B)(SFEC, 10/11/97, DB p.35)(SFC, 2/13/98, p.C5)(SFC, 4/24/99, p.E8)(SFEC, 5/9/99, DB p.15)

1934        Jun 22, "Dr. Ing. h.c. F. Porsche GmbH, Konstruktionen und Beratung für Motoren- und Fahrzeugbau" received the go-ahead from the "Reichsverband der Automobilindustrie (RDA)" (the Association of the German Reich of the Automotive Industry) to construct and build the Volkswagen. Hitler had asked Ferdinand Porsche Sr., owner of a consulting and design firm, to build a "people’s car," from which resulted the Volkswagen. Porsche took the design from the Tatra T97 of Czechoslovakia’s Hans and Erich Ledwinka.
    (http://tinyurl.com/22n6kb6)(SFC, 3/28/98, p.B12)(Econ, 6/28/08, p.20)

1935        May 29, Josef Suk (61) Czech violinist composer, died at 61.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1936        Oct 5, Václav Havel, Czech dissident dramatist, was born. He became the first freely elected president of Czechoslovakia in 55 years (1989-92).
    (HN, 10/5/98)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/V%C3%A1clav_Havel)

1937        Jul 3, Tom Stoppard, British author and dramatist, was born in Czechoslovakia as Tomas Strassler. His plays include "Rosencrantz and Gilderstern are Dead" and "The Real Thing." His family soon fled the Nazis to Singapore. In 2002 Ira Nadel authored the biography “Tom Stoppard: A Life.”
    (HN, 7/3/99)(MC, 7/3/02)(SSFC, 9/1/02, p.M5)

1937        Sep 14, TG Masaryk (b.1886), the first president of Czechoslovakia, died in Bohemia.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/T.G._Masaryk)(http://tinyurl.com/856hg)

1938        Feb 20, Hitler demanded self-determination for Germans in Austria and Czechoslovakia. As Hitler's quest for Lebensraum ("living space") expanded into Czechoslovakia, thousands of Czechoslovakian soldiers and airmen escaped to participate in the liberation of their country.
    (HN, 2/19/98)

1938        Mar 12, Germany invaded Austria after the Austrian Nazi Pary invited German troops to march in and the union came to be know as the Anschluss. Hitler took over Austria and a chunk of Czechoslovakia. The Nazis took over Austria and expelled all Jews and other political opponents from the universities.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1682)(TL, 1988, p.111)(TMC, 1994, p.1938) (StuAus, April '95, p.18)

1938        Apr 23, Sudeten Germans in Czechoslovakia demanded self government.
    (MC, 4/23/02)

1938        Sep 12, In a speech in Nuremberg, Adolf Hitler demanded self-determination for the Sudeten Germans in Czechoslovakia.
    (AP, 9/12/97)

1938        Sep 21, Winston Churchill condemned Hitler's annexation of Czechoslovakia.
    (MC, 9/21/01)

1938        Sep 25, President Franklin Roosevelt urged negotiations between Hitler and Czech President Benes over the Sudetenland.
    (HN, 9/25/98)

1938        Sep 26, Hitler issued his ultimatum to Czech government, demanding Sudentenland.
    (MC, 9/26/01)

1938        Sep 29, British, French, German and Italian leaders signed the Munich Agreement, which was aimed at appeasing Adolf Hitler by allowing Nazi annexation of Czechoslovakia's Sudetenland, inhabited by a German-speaking minority. The treaty ceded three areas of Czechoslovakia to other powers: the Sudetenland was annexed into Germany, the Teschen district was given to Poland, and parts of Slovakia went to Hungary. British PM Neville Chamberlain gained a brief peace agreement from Hitler at Munich and without consulting the Czechs agreed that Nazi forces could occupy Sudetenland. Some mark this "appeasement policy" as the decisive event of the century. Chamberlain predicted "peace in our time." French PM Edouard Daladier was very depressed from the meeting. In 1980 Telford Taylor published "Munich: The Price of Peace." It is a detailed political & diplomatic history of the 1930's in Europe, culminating in the Munich conference. Taylor later helped write the rules for Nuremberg Trials. In 2008 David Vaughan authored “Battle for the Airwaves: Radio and the 1938 Munich Crises.”
    (http://www.humboldt.edu/~rescuers/book/Chlup/chluplinks/munich.html)(SFC, 6/9/96, Z1 p.5)(SFC, 6/16/96, Z1 p.6)(WSJ, 6/8/98, p.A21)(AP, 9/29/06)(SFC, 5/26/98, p.B2)(Econ, 10/11/08, p.115)

1938        Oct 1, Germany annexed Sudetenland (1/3 of Czech Republic).
    (MC, 10/1/01)

1938        Oct 10, Germany completed its annexation of Czechoslovakia's Sudetenland.
    (AP, 10/10/97)

1938        Oct 20, Czechoslovakia, complying with Nazi policy, outlawed the Communist Party and began persecuting Jews.
    (HN, 10/20/98)

1938        Nov 21, Nazi forces occupied western Czechoslovakia and declared its people German citizens. This annexation of Sudetenland was the first major belligerent action by Hitler. The allies chose to sit still for it in return for a promise of "peace in our time," which Hitler later broke.
    (MC, 11/21/01)

1938        The documentary film “Crises” was made by Herbert Kline. It was about the German conquest of Czechoslovakia.
    (SFC, 2/12/99, p.A24)

1938        In Czechoslovakia Anny K. Maass (d.1998 at 89) became the first female attorney. She was stripped of her profession when the Nazis invaded a year later.
    (SFC, 8/12/98, p.C4)

1939        Mar 9, Czech President Emil Hacha ousted pro-German Joseph Tiso as the Premier of Slovakia in order to preserve Czech unity.
    (HN, 3/9/98)

1939        Mar 14, The republic of Czechoslovakia was dissolved, opening the way for Nazi occupation of Czech areas and the separation of Slovakia.
    (AP, 3/14/08)

1939        Mar 15, Germany occupied Bohemia and Moravia, Czechoslovakia.
    (Voruta #27-28, Jul 1996, p.2)(WSJ, 12/12/96, p.A13)(HN, 3/15/98)
1939        Mar 15, The Republic of Carpatho-Ukraine, led by Avhustyn Voloshyn (d.1945), declared independence amid the Nazi dismemberment of Czechoslovakia. Independence ending that same evening by an invasion from Hungary. In 1946 the area became part of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, as the Zakarpattia Oblast ('Transcarpathian Oblast'). After the break-up of the Soviet Union, it became part of independent Ukraine as Zakarpattia Oblast.
    (Econ, 3/14/09, p.57)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carpatho-Ukraine)

1939        Mar 16, Germany occupied the rest Czechoslovakia.
    (HN, 3/16/99)

1939        Apr, In Czechoslovakia Alois Elias, an army general, became prime minister more than a month after the occupation of his country by Nazi Germany began. He maintained ties with the exiled Czechoslovak government in London and supported underground resistance at home throughout his term. He was sentenced to death in October 1941 for high treason and espionage and was executed on June 19, 1942.
    (AP, 5/7/06)

1939        Oct 28, Anti-German demonstrations and strikes took place in Czechoslovakia.
    (MC, 10/28/01)

1939        Nov 12, Lucia Popp, soprano (Die Zauberflote), was born in Uhorsk Ves, Czechoslovakia.
    (MC, 11/12/01)

1939        Nov 24, In Czechoslovakia, the Gestapo executed 120 students who were accused of anti-Nazi plotting.
    (HN, 11/24/98)

1939        Nicholas Winton (b.1909), English stockbroker, saved 669 Jewish children by organizing train transport from Prague to London at the outbreak of World War II. In 2007 the Czech Rep. awarded Sir Nicholas Winton (98) the Cross of Merit of the 1st class for saving the children. In 2001 the biography, “Nicholas Winton and the Rescued Generation,” by Muriel Emmanuel and Vera Gissing was published. The documentary film “Nicholas J Winton - the Power of Good,” was shown in September 2001 in Prague, where Sir Nicholas met 250 of those he saved.
    (AP, 10/9/07)(www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/biography/Winton.html)
1939        Nazis seized the Koh-i-noor snap button factory in Prague, owned by Zikmund Waldes, during their occupation of Czechoslovakia. In 2014 the Czech Rep. Constitutional Court confirmed a 2010 verdict, which overturned a 2009 Supreme Court ruling and all previous rulings of lower courts that found in favor of three relatives of Waldes. Heirs will also not get back a collection of some 20 paintings that were housed in the plant.
    (AP, 5/2/14)

1940-1945    The Benes decrees were issued by Pres. Edvard Benes, head of the Czechoslovak government in exile. Part of the decrees later dealt with the status of Germans and Hungarians in postwar Czechoslovakia. From 1945-1948 they were used to legalize brutal measures against the country’s German and Hungarian populations.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bene%C5%A1_decrees)(Econ, 3/29/08, p.67)

1941        Oct, In Czechoslovakia PM Alois Elias was sentenced to death for high treason and espionage. He was executed on June 19, 1942.
    (AP, 5/7/06)

1941-1942    About 80,000 Czech Jews were rounded up and sent to Terezin, a holding camp, prior to being sent to Auschwitz. The survival rate was 10%.
    (SFC, 2/4/97, p.A2)

1941-1945    In Theresienstadt the German SS ran Jewish ghetto as a holding station for Jews on their way to death camps.
    (SFC,10/24/97, p.A11)

1942        May 27, Nazi overlord and SS general Reinhard Heydrich was killed in Prague by Czech commandos, who had parachuted into Czechoslovakia and ambushed his car. Hitler promptly ordered the deaths of 10,000 residents of Lidice, near Prague. Heydrich died of his wounds a week later. The commandos had been sheltered in Lidice and as a result the entire population was either executed or driven out. This has become a hallmark of Nazi brutality. Heydrich was the man charged with “The Final Solution of the Jewish Problem.” Heydrich was responsible for the development of an espionage system outside Germany. As an SS general he was the first administrator of the concentration camps and the program to eliminate Jews from Europe.
    (HNQ, 10/20/99)(MC, 5/27/02)

1942        May 30, Reichsfuhrer Heinrich Himmler arrived in Prague.
    (MC, 5/30/02)

1942        Jun 10, German Gestapo massacred 173 male residents of Lidice, Czechoslovakia, in retaliation for the killing of SS Gen Reinhard Heydrich. All together, 340 people died in the Nazi reprisal (192 men, 60 women and 88 children). The death toll resulting from the effort to avenge the death of Heydrich is estimated at 1,300. This count includes relatives of the partisans, their supporters, Czech elites suspected of disloyalty and random victims like those from Lidice.
    (AP, 6/10/97)(HN, 6/10/98)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lidice)

1942        Jun 18, John Kubris (28), Czech resistance fighter, killed Nazi SS leader Reinhard Heydrich, died.
    (MC, 6/18/02)
1942        Jun 18, Adolf Opalka, Czech resistance fighter, was shot down.
    (MC, 6/18/02)

1942        Jun 19, In Czechoslovakia PM Alois Elias, sentenced to death in October 1941 for high treason and espionage, was executed. In 2006 his ashes were buried with state honors.
    (AP, 5/7/06)

1942        Sep, In Theresienstadt some 50,000 Jews were held in crowded conditions by the German SS and half the inmates died that year from disease.
    (SFC,10/24/97, p.A11)

1942        The opera Brundibar by Hans Krasa was 1st performed at a Prague orphanage. It had been intended for a 1938 government competition. It was later performed at the Terezin concentration camp. Krasa died at Auschwitz Oct 17, 1944.
    (WSJ, 2/7/03, p.D8)
1942        A camp was set up for Gypsies at Lety. Some 1,300 inmates passed through and at least 300 died from the harsh living conditions. Communist authorities set up a pig farm on the site in the 1970s. Makus Pape later authored a book on Lety.
    (SFC, 12/10/99, p.AA8)
1942        Alice Sommer Herz (39) of Prague and her son were sent to the Nazi camp at Theresienstadt. It was established by the Gestapo in the fortress and garrison city of Terezin, Czechoslovakia. In 2011 a new documentary about Alice Sommer Herz was made public. In 2010 Alice, the world's oldest Holocaust survivor, was about to celebrate her 107th birthday. "Music is God," she said.
    (www.youtube.com/watch?v=QlccsLr48Mw)

1943        Dec 12, The exiled Czech government signed a treaty with the USSR for postwar cooperation.
    (HN, 12/12/98)

1944        Oct 6, Soviets marched into Hungary and Czechoslovakia. [see Oct 18]
    (MC, 10/6/01)

1944        Oct 18, Soviet troops invaded Czechoslovakia during World War II.
    (AP, 10/18/97)
1944        Rudolf Vrba (1925-2006), a Jew from Czechoslovakia, and Alfred Wetzler, a Hungarian Jewish leader, escaped from the Nazi death camp of Auschwitz. They made their way to a Czech safe house and dictated a report that became known as the Auschwitz Protocols, a seminal Holocaust document containing eyewitness accounts of the atrocities. In 1963 Vrba published a memoir entitled, "I Cannot Forget," which was eventually released in six languages.
    (AP, 4/14/06)

1945        May 5, There was an uprising against SS-occupation troops in Prague.
    (MC, 5/5/02)

1945        May 9, Czechoslovakia was liberated from Nazi occupation (Nat’l Day).
    (MC, 5/9/02)

1945        May 10, Russian troops occupied Prague.
    (MC, 5/10/02)

1945        Jun 29, Ruthenia, formerly in Czechoslovakia, became part of Ukrainian SSR.
    (MC, 6/29/02)

1945        Aug 26, Franz Werfel (54), Czech-German-US poet, writer (Mirror Man), died.
    (MC, 8/26/02)

1945        Dec 31, Czechoslovakia began forcing the German population of the Sudetenland back to Germany.
    (WSJ, 11/25/96, p.A15)

1945        Slovakia reunited with the Czechs.
    (AP, 9/21/02)

1945        Eduard Benes returned from exile in London to Prague, and set up a government. Under the "Benes decrees" millions of Germans, Austrian and Hungarians were dispossessed and expelled.
    (Econ, 12/6/03, p.45)

1946         Jul 13, The first Karlovy Vary Int’l. Film Festival  (Mezinárodní Filmový Festival Karlovy Vary) was held in Czechoslovakia. Its first two years were non-competitive showcases. The competition was started in 1948 and with the exceptions of 1953 and 1955 the festival was held annually until 1958. From 1960 on to 1992 it was alternating with the Moscow Film Festival, being celebrated annually again since 1994.
    (www.imdb.com/Sections/Awards/Karlovy_Vary_International_Film_Festival/)

1946        The 1940 opera “Betrothal” by Prokofiev had its premiere in Prague. The plot was based on the 1775 comedy “The Duenna” by Richard Brinsley Sheridan.
    (SFC, 11/25/98, p.D1)

1948        Feb 20, Czechoslovakia's non-communist minister resigned.
    (MC, 2/20/02)

1948        Feb 25, Communists seized power in Czechoslovakia in a coup d’etat.
    (AP, 2/25/98)(SFC, 3/13/98, p.A6)

1948        Mar 10, Jan Masaryk (b.1886), son of the first president of Czechoslovakia and anti-Communist foreign minister, was found dead in the courtyard of Czernin Palace in Prague. He had dropped 45 feet from a window and the case remained unsolved.
    (http://www.radio.cz/en/article/24973)

1948        Jun 7, The Communists completed their takeover of Czechoslovakia with the resignation of President Eduard Benes.
    (AP, 6/7/97)

1948        Jaroslav Skala (1916-2007), a psychiatrist, established the first Czech center for treatment of people addicted to alcohol as part of a clinic in Prague. He headed the institution until his retirement in 1982.
    (AP, 11/26/07)
1948        Marie Provaznikova, Czech athlete, became the first to defect from a Communist country during the Olympics in London.
    (WSJ, 4/12/08, p.R2)(www.sokolnewyork.org/history002.htm)
1948        Ctirad Masin (1930-2011), his brother Josef and Milan Paumer became part of a resistance cell after the communists took power in Czechoslovakia. They killed two policemen while trying to capture arms in a police station, and also killed a cashier during a robbery to raise funds for their sabotage operations. In 1953, they fled to the West, killing 3 police officers in East Germany during their escape as tens of thousands of police searched for them. 2 other members of the cell were captured, sentenced to death and executed.
    (AP, 8/14/11)

1949        Jan 1, Czechoslovakia announced a 5-year plan to attain economic independence from the West.
    (EWH, 1968, p.1186)

1949        Jun, Czechoslovakia founded its own Catholic action committee to take the direction of Church affairs away from Archbishop Beran and the Church hierarchy.
    (EWH, 1968, p.1186)

1949        Jun 20, The Vatican, as a counter measure, excommunicated all active supporters of Communism in Czechoslovakia.
    (EWH, 1968, p.1187)

1949        Oct 14, In Czechoslovakia the government assumed full control over Church affairs and required all clergy to swear an oath of loyalty to the state. Most of the lower clergy complied.
    (EWH, 1968, p.1187)

1949        Czech secret police shot and killed two people. Their prosecution in 1965 was covered up by Lubomir Strougal. Strougal faced coverup charges in 2001.
    (SFC, 8/1/01, p.A9)

1949        Czech Gen. Heliodor Pika was executed after being found guilty of spying for British intelligence during and after WW II. In 2001 a court convicted former prosecutor Karel Vas for inserting forged documents into Pika’s file. Vas (85) was sentenced to 7 years in prison.
    (SFC, 6/16/01, p.A7)

1950        Feb 25, In Czechoslovakia Josef Toufar (b.1902), a Catholic priest was tortured to death by investigators after the secret police claimed he staged a fake miracle in his church in Cihost where a cross began to move for no obvious reason during a Mass.
    (www.multilingualarchive.com/ma/dewiki/en/Josef_Toufar)

1950        Jun 27, Milada Horakova (b.1901), a Czechoslovak politician, was executed by Communists on trumped-up charges of conspiracy and treason. As a one of few women ever executed in Czechoslovakia she is regarded as a symbol of anti-Communist resistance for her firm and courageous stance during her trial. In 2007 Ludmila Brozova-Polednova (86), former communist prosecutor, was found guilty of a charge of abetting judicial murder.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Milada_Hor%C3%A1kov%C3%A1)(AP, 11/1/07)

1950        In Czechoslovakia the communist government confiscated church property and arrested more than 13,000 priests and religious and put them in concentration camps.
    (www.highbeam.com/library/docFree.asp?DOCID=1G1:82803349)

1950        Milan Kundera (b.1929), later renowned as a Czech writer, informed on Miroslav Dvoracek, who had been recruited in Germany by the Czech emigre intelligence network to work as a spy against the Communist regime. Dvoracek was later sentenced to 22 years in prison and eventually served 14, working in uranium mines. Kundera had joined the Communist Party as a student, but was later expelled after criticizing its totalitarian nature. This information was only made public in 2008.
    (AP, 10/13/08)(Econ, 10/18/08, p.98)

1951        Feb 26, Bread rationing began in Czechoslovakia.
    (SC, 2/26/02)

1951        Apr 23, In Czechoslovakia American reporter William N. Oatis (1914-1997) was arrested in Prague. Secret police put him in isolation and deprived him of sleep and food. Historians agree that this psychological torture coerced his confession.
    (AP, 8/20/12)

1951        Jul 4, In Czechoslovakia American reporter William N. Oatis was convicted and sentenced to 10 years in a communist prison on trumped-up espionage charges. three Czech AP colleagues who were sentenced with him. Oatis was pardoned in May 1953. During the 1960s, Czechoslovak judicial reviewers exonerated Oatis, but this finding was overturned in 1968 after the Soviet Union-led invasion of Warsaw Pact troops ousted Alexander Dubcek's reformist government. In 1990, as the Soviet empire tottered, he was quietly cleared again. Audio tapes of the 3-day trial emerged in 2012.
    (AP, 8/20/12)

1951        Karel Teige (b.1900), Avant-Garde Czech graphic designer, architectural theorist, playwright, actor, painter and printmaker, died.
    (WSJ, 6/20/01, p.A16)

1952        Rudolf Slansky, a Czechoslovak Communist leader, was sentenced to death after a show trial with 13 other officials, including government ministers. The trial was deemed anti-Semitic because Slansky and most of the officials were Jewish.
    (AP, 4/17/06)

1953        Dec 24, 2 speeding express trains crashed head-on killing 103 in Czechoslovakia.
    (MC, 12/24/01)

1953        Klement Gottwald (b.1896), leader of the Czech Communist Party, died. His embalmed body was placed in a mausoleum in Prague until 1962, when it was buried.
    (SFC, 9/10/08, p.A5)

1954        Jan 21, In Czechoslovakia Frantisek Stransky died when a test prototype of the Oskar 54 microcar crashed. In 1956, the vehicle's name was changed to "Velorex - Oskar" and then just to "Velorex". In 1959 the company produced 120 vehicles per month. Beginning in 1936, the brothers Frantisek (1914 - 1954) and Mojmír (1924) Stransky, owners of a bicycle repair shop in village Parnik near Česká Třebová, started with the design of a small, cheap three-wheeled car, inspired by three-wheelers from Morgan Motor Company.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Velorex)

1954        The IMF expelled Czechoslovakia, ostensibly for failing to provide adequate statistics, though the cold war probably had more to do with it.
    (Econ, 2/9/13, p.38)

1954-1959    The names of 77,297 Czech Jews were put on the walls of the Pinkas Synagogue in Prague. The memorial was closed in 1968. It was renovated after the collapse of the Communist regime and re-opened in 1996.
    (www.jewishmuseum.cz/en/a-ex-pinkas.htm)

1955        May 14, Representatives from eight Communist bloc countries: Soviet Union, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland & Romania, signed the Warsaw Pact in Poland. Andras Hegedues signed for Hungary.
    (AP, 5/14/97)(SFC, 10/26/99, p.B4)(MC, 5/14/02)

1955        Czech composer Martinu wrote his orchestral triptych "The Frescoes of Piero della Francesco."
    (SFC, 3/21/00, p.B2)

1956        Aug, Yasser Arafat attended an int’l. student congress in Prague and secured membership for Palestine.
    (WSJ, 11/12/04, p.A11)

1956        Oct 18, Martina Navratilova, Czechoslovakian-born tennis player, was born.
    (HN, 10/18/98)

1956        Otto Wichterle (d.1998 at 84), Czech scientist, invented soft contact lenses.
    (SFC, 8/20/98, p.B4)

1957        Nov 18, Antonin Novotny (1904-1975) was appointed president of Czechoslovakia and served to 1968.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anton%C3%ADn_Novotn%C3%BD)

1958        The Czechoslovakian film “The Fabulous World of Jules Verne” was produced.
    (SFEM, 2/6/99, p.4)

1958        The Theater on the Balustrade was founded in Prague, Czechoslovakia. Founders Helena Philipova, Ivan Vyskocil, Jiri Suchy and Vladimir Vodicka named their professional theater after a street leading from the square to the river.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theatre_on_the_Balustrade)

1960        Mar 7, Ivan Lendl, tennis pro (US Open 1985-87), was born in Czechoslovakia.
    (MC, 3/7/02)

1960        Nov 14, In Czechoslovakia 2 passenger trains collided at high-speed killing 110 people.
    (MC, 11/14/01)

1961        Otto Wichterle, Czech chemist, introduced the world’s 1st soft plastic contact lenses.
    (Econ, 3/12/05, TQ p.12)

1962        Oct 19, A Stalin monument was removed in Prague.
    (MC, 10/19/01)

1963        Vaclav Havel, later president of Czechoslovakia and the Czech Rep. (1990-2003), published his first play: “The Garden Party.” It was first performed at the Theatre on the Balustrade in Prague.
    (SFC, 1/6/97, p.B1)(Econ, 12/31/11, p.32)

1963-1968    Jozef Lenart (d.2004) served as prime minister of Czechoslovakia.
    (AP, 2/12/04)

1965        May 1, In Czechoslovakia Allen Ginsberg was crowned King of May at the Prague May Day celebration.
    (SFEC, 4/6/97, p.A10)

1965        Bohumil Hrabal (1915-1997) wrote “Closely Watched Trains.” In the 1980s he wrote “I Served the King of England.”
    (SFC, 2/4/97, p.A16)

1965        Milos Forman filmed “Loves of a Blond” and Ivan Passer did “Intimate Lightning.”
    (WSJ, 1/24/97, p.A13)

1965        Lubomir Strougal served as interior minister and protected members of the secret police from possible prosecution for murders in 1949.
    (SFC, 8/1/01, p.A9)

1965        Czechoslovakia adopted the economic ideas of Ota Sik (1920-2004) to improve on stagnant industrial growth. His “new economic model” called for limited reforms of the Soviet system including less central planning.
    (SFC, 8/25/04, p.B7)

1966        The Czech film “Marketa Lazarova” was directed by Frantisek Vlacil.
    (SFEC, 4/13/97, DB p.44)

1967        Aug 8, Jaromir Weinberger (71), Czech-US composer (Czech Rhapsody),  died.
    (MC, 8/8/02)

1967        Milan Kundera’s 1st novel, “The Joke,” was published in Czechoslovakia under the title “Zert.”
    (SSFC, 11/3/02, p.M3)

1967        The film “Closely Watched Trains” was directed by Jiri Menzel. It was based on the novel by Bohumil Hrabal (1915-1997).
    (SFC, 2/4/97, p.A16)

1968        Jan 5, Alexander Dubcek (1921-1992) was elected First Secretary of the Communist Party in Czechoslovakia.
    (http://www.radio.cz/en/article/112505)(www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/COLDdubcek.htm)

1968        Mar 30, General Ludvik Svoboda (1895-1979) was elected president of Czechoslovakia. He stayed in office to 1975.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ludv%C3%ADk_Svoboda)

1968        Apr 8, In Czechoslovakia a new government was formed under Oldrich Cernik.
    (http://archiv.radio.cz/history/history14.html)

1968        May, The USSR KGB head Yuri Andropov, worried about the “Prague Spring,” ordered 15 agents to target the intellectual elite in Czechoslovakia. This was the first such KGB action against a Warsaw Pact ally. This was reported after documents were released in 2014, copies of KGB files smuggled out of Russia in 1992 by senior KGB official Vasili Mitrokhin.
    (AP, 7/10/14)

1968        Aug 20, Some 650,000 Soviet Union and other Warsaw Pact troops began invading Czechoslovakia to crush the "Prague Spring" liberalization drive of Alexander Dubcek's regime.
    (AP, 8/20/97)(SFC, 8/25/04, p.B7)

1968        Aug 21, The Soviet Union and other Warsaw Pact nations invaded Czechoslovakia to crush the "Prague Spring" liberalization drive led by Alexander Dubcek.
    (AP, 8/21/08)

1968        Aug 22, A Soviet-led invasion crushed the Prague Spring reforms. In 1997 3 Communist Party leaders, Milos Jakes, Karel Hoffmann and Joseph Lenart,  were accused of conspiring with the Soviets. In 1976 Prof. H. Gordon Skilling authored “Czechoslovakia’s Interrupted Revolution.”
    (SFC, 5/3/97, p.A10)(SFC, 3/19/01, p.A19)

1968        Sep 11, The Soviet troops started leaving Prague for the countryside. At the beginning of October, the Czechoslovak leadership went to Moscow to negotiate "normalization". As an outcome, the political leaders remained in office and submitted to the Soviet demands.
    (www.wien.gv.at/english/history/commemoration2008/prague-spring.html)

1968        Sep 13, Albania officially withdrew from the Warsaw Pact. Albania had condemned the August Soviet-led invasion of Czechoslovakia.
    (http://countrystudies.us/albania/153.htm)

1968        Sep, In Czechoslovakia the Plastic People of the Universe band was founded by Milan Hlavsa (d.2001 at 49).
    (WSJ, 7/22/98, p.A12)(SFC, 1/8/01, p.A19)

1968        The documentary film “Czechoslovakia 1968” was a 20-minute production by the US Information Agency.
    (SFC,11/21/97, p.C17)

1969        Apr 17, Czechoslovak Communist Party chairman Alexander Dubcek (1921-1992), considered the architect of Czechoslovakia's Prague Spring, was deposed.
    (AP, 4/17/97)(http://referat.kulichki.net/files/page.php?id=35421)

1970        The Plastic People of the Universe band lost their Czechoslovak government license due to nonconformity and went underground with support from Vaclav Havel.
    (SFC, 1/8/01, p.A19)

1970-1988    Lubomir Strougal served as prime minister of Czechoslovakia.
    (SFC, 8/1/01, p.A9)(www.charta77.org/strougal.htm)

1972        Jan 26, A DC-9 exploded over Serbska Kamenice, Czechoslovakia, and attendant Vesna Vulovic dropped 33,300 feet and survived following a 27-day coma and a 16-month recovery. The cause of the explosion has never been established, but was attributed by the Yugoslav and Czechoslovakian authorities to a bomb placed on the plane by a Croatian Terrorist group, known as the Ustasa.
    (SFEC, 3/14/99, Z1 p.10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vesna_Vulovic)

1972        Nov 12, Rudolf Friml (92), Czech-US composer (Bohemian suite), died.
    (MC, 11/12/01)

1973        Mar 7, Dr. Lubos Kohoutek, Czech astronomer, used a double exposure and discovered the comet Kohoutek then 370 million miles from earth.
    (NG, Aug., 1974, p.223)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comet_Kohoutek)

1973        Jul 28, In Czechoslovakia a retired major of the communist secret police heard 4 people singing an anti-communist song and called the police. They were convicted of hooliganism and sentenced to up to one year behind bars. In 2011 The Czech Supreme Court canceled the sentence. Ivan Martin Jirous, a poet and artistic leader of the Plastic People of the Universe, a nonconformist rock band banned by the communist regime, was among the four.
    (AP, 6/22/11)

1973        The Czech government revoked the performance license of The Plastic People of the Universe band.
    (SFEC, 3/7/99, DB p.35)

1974        The Czech Plastic People of the Universe band secretly  recorded its first album: “Egon Bondy’s Happy Hearts Club Banned.”
    (WSJ, 7/22/98, p.A12)(SFEC, 3/7/99, DB p.35)
1974        Soviet and Czech technicians began carrying out what they called “chemical mining” for uranium below the town of Straz pod Ralskem. By 1996 some 4.2 million tons of sulphuric acid and other toxic chemicals were pumped in to leach out the uranium. In 2008 a cleanup firm estimated that the site should be stabilized by 2035.
    (Econ, 5/31/08, SR p.11)
1974        British Labor Party legislator John Stonehouse, a former communications minister who also acted as an informant to the Czechs through the 1960s, faked a suicide, leaving a bundle of his clothes on a beach in Miami. He was discovered less than a month later hiding out in Melbourne, Australia. Papers released in 2010 by the National Archives showed that, after he had been exposed, Britain's government covered up his activities as there was too little evidence to put him on trial.
    (AP, 6/28/12)

1975        Sep 5, Czech tennis ace Martina Navratilova asked for political asylum in NYC.
    (http://sportsillustrated.cnn.com/tennis/1998/usopen/news/1998/08/28/stats/thisday.html)

1975        Sep 6, Czechoslovak tennis star Martina Navratilova, in New York for the US Open, requested political asylum. [see Sep 5]
    (AP, 9/6/00)

1976        The Czech Plastic People of the Universe band was arrested by the Communist government. At a public trial 2 band members were sentenced and imprisoned for 1 1/2 years.
    (WSJ, 7/22/98, p.A12)(SFEC, 3/7/99, DB p.35)

1977        Mar 13, Jan Patocka (b.1907), Czech philosophy professor and one of the three founding spokesmen of “Charter 77,” died following a grueling 11-hour interrogation.
    (Econ, 12/31/11, p.32)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jan_Pato%C4%8Dka)

1977        The 1976 trial of the Plastic People of the Universe band prompted Vaclav Havel and Czech dissidents to draft “Charter 77, a human rights manifesto. In 1981 H. Gordon Skilling (d.2001 at 89) authored “Charter 77 and Human Rights in Czechoslovakia.”
    (WSJ, 7/22/98, p.A12)(SFEC, 3/7/99, DB p.35)

1978        Mar 2, Czech pilot Vladimir Remek became the first non-Russian, non-American in space.
    (HN, 3/2/99)

1978-1984    The Czech "Asanace" (Sanitation) program focused on some 50 dissidents, signatories of the Charter 77 human rights manifesto. It resorted to threats and harsh interrogations to intimidate them and force them to leave the country. In 2001 Czech Interior Minister Jaromir Obzina  (d.2003) was charged with abuse of power for his role in the operation.
    (AP, 1/29/03)(http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/1816619.stm)

1979        Czech playwright and dissident Vaclav Havel was sentenced to 5 years in prison. He was released early in 1983.
    (Econ, 12/31/11, p.33)

1980        Feb 15, Zdenka Vavrova, Czech astronomer discovered asteroid #3592.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zde%C5%88ka_V%C3%A1vrov%C3%A1)

1984        Jaroslav Seifert, Czech writer, won the Nobel Prize for literature.
    (SFC, 3/30/02, p.A19)

1985        Mar 7, George Schick (76), Czech conductor (Chicago Symphony), died.
    (MC, 3/7/02)

1988        Nov 13, Former Czechoslovakia leader Alexander Dubcek received an honorary degree in Italy, the first time he was allowed outside his country in 18 years.
    (AP, 11/13/98)

1988         In Czechoslovakia Jiri Ruml (1925-2004) helped re-launch Lidove Noviny, becoming its editor-in-chief. The Lidove Noviny daily had been an established paper until the communists took power in 1948 in then-Czechoslovakia and banned the anti-communist publication.
    (AP, 2/22/04)

1989        Jan, Czech playwright and dissident Vaclav Havel was sentenced to 8 months in prison for hooliganism. His jailing sparked outrage and he was released in April.
    (Econ, 12/31/11, p.33)

1989        Oct 3, In a move to stem the flow of refugees to the West, East Germany suspended unrestricted travel to Czechoslovakia.
    (AP, 10/3/99)

1989        Nov 1, East Germany reopened its border with Czechoslovakia, prompting tens of thousands of refugees to flee to the West.
    (AP, 11/1/99)

1989        Nov 17, In Prague, Czechoslovakia, a protest began as a legal rally to commemorate the death of Jan Opletal, but turned instead into a demonstration demanding democratic reforms. Riot police stopped the students halfway in their march, in Narodni Trida. After a stand-off in which the students offered flowers to the riot police and showed no resistance, the police began beating the young demonstrators with night sticks. The six-week period between November 17 and December 29, 1989, also known as the "Velvet Revolution" brought about the bloodless overthrow of the Czechoslovak communist regime.
    (http://archiv.radio.cz/history/history15.html)

1989        Nov 20, More than 200,000 people rallied peacefully in Prague, Czechoslovakia, demanding democratic reforms and the ouster of Communist Party leader Milos Jakes.
    (AP, 11/20/99)

1989        Nov 23, At least 300,000 people jammed Prague's Wenceslas Square to demand democratic reforms in Czechoslovakia.
    (AP, 11/23/02)

1989        Nov 24, Czechoslovakia's hard-line Communist party leadership resigned after more than a week of protests against its policies.
    (AP, 11/24/99)

1989        Nov 25, More than 500,000 demonstrators gathered in Prague, Czechoslovakia, where they scoffed at a Communist Party shakeup and cheered Alexander Dubcek, the reformer ousted in 1968.
    (AP, 11/25/99)

1989        Nov 29, The Czechs ended the Communist party's 40-year monopoly on power. The revolution in Czechoslovakia was called the “Velvet Revolution” because of the little violence.
    (HFA, '96, p.18)(SFEC, 2/2/97, DB. p.34)(AP, 11/29/99)

1989        Dec 8, Communist leaders in Czechoslovakia offered to surrender their control over the government and accept a minority role in a coalition Cabinet.
    (AP, 12/8/99)

1989        Dec 10, Czechoslovakia's president, Gustav Husak, resigned after swearing in a coalition cabinet in which Communists were relegated to a minority role.
    (AP, 12/10/99)

1989        Dec 28, Alexander Dubcek, former Czechoslovak Communist leader deposed in 1968 in a Soviet-led Warsaw Pact invasion, was named chairman of the country's parliament.
    (AP, 12/28/99)

1989        Dec 29, Playwright Vaclav Havel was elected president of Czechoslovakia, the country's first non-Communist leader in more than four decades.
    (AP, 12/29/99)

1989        Jiri Dienstbier (1937-2011) became Czechoslovakia’s deputy prime minister and first post-revolution foreign minister. He continued serving to 1992.
    (Econ, 1/15/11, p.55)(http://jiri.dienstbier.cz/en/curriculum-vitae/)
1989        Shirley Temple was appointed US ambassador to Czechoslovakia.
    (SFC, 1/26/06, p.E3)

1990        Feb 21, Addressing the U.S. Congress, Czechoslovak President Vaclav Havel said his nation welcomed U.S. help after decades of Soviet domination, but also said Europe should eventually "decide for itself" how long American and Soviet troops should remain.
    (AP, 2/21/00)

1990        Feb 26, USSR agreed to withdraw all 73,500 troops from Czechoslovakia by July, 1991.
    (SC, 2/26/02)

1990        Apr 8, A global conference of the Prague-based International Romani Union, a coalition of organizations working to ease the plight of Gypsies, designated this day as International Day of Roma.
    (AP, 4/8/06)

1990        Apr 21, Pope John Paul II was greeted by hundreds of thousands of people as he visited Czechoslovakia to help celebrate the nation's peaceful overthrow of communist rule.
    (AP, 4/21/00)

1990        Oct 11, About 60,000 people rallied in Prague, Czechoslovakia, in support of a government proposal to seize all Communist Party property without compensation.
    (AP, 10/11/00)

1990        Nov 17, President Bush, on the first visit to Czechoslovakia by a US president, told a cheering crowd of 100,000 in Prague that “America will stand with you” through hard times ahead.
    (AP, 11/17/00)

1990        The Soviets pulled out of the Hradcany air force base north of Prague, Czechoslovakia, and left behind some 6,500 tons of jet fuel soaked into nearly 15 acres of foul-smelling land.
    (WSJ, 4/5/96, p.B-3A)(Econ, 5/31/08, SR p.11)
1990        Jul 22, Raymond Mawby (b.1922), a British ex-Conservative Party lawmaker, died. He had briefly served as a junior minister in the mid-1960s and had allegedly provided intelligence to spies working for Czechoslovakia, then a communist state, for a decade from around 1961 to 1971. In 2012 the British government said it would investigate claims that he had sold information to communist spies for a decade during the Cold War.
    (AFP, 6/28/12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ray_Mawby)
1990        Radomil Hill, distiller, began brewing absinthe and selling it to bars in Prague and elsewhere.
    (WSJ, 12/24/96, p.A1)

1991        Feb 15, In Visegrad, Hungary, a declaration of co-operation was signed by Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic and Slovakia. The 4 became known as the Visegrad countries.
    (Econ, 11/22/03, p.10S)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Visegr%C3%A1d_Group)

1991        May 9, Rudolf Serkin, Bohemia-born US pianist, died in Vermont.
    (http://tinyurl.com/bd3j6)

1991        Dec 16, "Europe Agreements" are signed with Poland, Hungary and Czechoslovakia.
    (http://europa.eu.int/abc/history/1991/index_en.htm)

1992        Jul 3, The president of Czechoslovakia, Vaclav Havel, was voted out of office as lawmakers from Slovakia blocked his re-election in parliament.
    (AP, 7/3/97)

1992        Jul 20, Vaclav Havel, the playwright who led the Velvet Revolution against communism, formally stepped down as president of Czechoslovakia after failing to halt the country's pending breakup into two entities. He was later elected president of the Czech Republic.
    (AP, 7/20/02)

1992        Jul 17, Slovak parliament asked for self rule.
    (MC, 7/17/02)

1992        Nov 7, Alexander Dubcek (b.1921), former Czechoslovak leader (1968-1969), died in a car crash. His 1968 failed attempt to loosen the Communist grip became known as the Prague Spring.
    (AP, 11/7/97)(www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/cold.war/kbank/profiles/dubcek)

1992        Dec 31, The Nation of Czechoslovakia officially ended with division into two Nations: Slovakia and the Czech Republic in 1992. When the country split, all citizens were deemed to be either Czech or Slovak, based on their parentage. The vast majority of the Romany living in the Czech Republic are of Slovak descent, and they had to apply for Czech citizenship. In 2009 Mary Haimann authored “Czechoslovakia: The State That Failed.”
    (HFA, '96, p.44)(SFC, 5/13/96, p.A-8)(Econ, 11/21/09, p.84)

1992        The Czech film “Elementary School” by Jan and Zdenek Sverak was nominated for an Oscar for best foreign-language film.
    (SFEC, 2/2/97, DB. p.34)
1992        The Prague Center on National Democratic Decision-Making and Conflict Management was founded  with financing by the Levi Strauss Foundation of San Francisco.
    (SFEC, 7/19/98, p.A3)

1993        Jan 1, Czechoslovakia peacefully split into two new countries, the Czech Republic and Slovakia. The Slovak people never voted on the 1993 split with the Czechs. When the country split, all citizens were deemed to be either Czech or Slovak, based on their parentage. The vast majority of the Romany living in the Czech Republic are of Slovak descent, and they had to apply for Czech citizenship. Vladimir Meciar (b.1942) became the premier of Slovakia and Vaclav Klaus the premier of the Czech Rep.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vladim%C3%ADr_Me%C4%8Diar)(AP, 9/21/02)(WSJ, 4/26/96, p.A-1)(SFC, 5/13/96, p.A-8)(AP, 1/1/98)

2004        Feb 11, Jozef Lenart (80), a former Czechoslovak prime minister cleared of treason charges for his alleged role in the 1968 Soviet-led invasion that crushed the country's democratic movement, died. He served as prime minister of Czechoslovakia from 1963-1968 and headed the Slovak Communist Party until 1988. A Slovak national he acquired Czech citizenship after Czechoslovakia split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia in 1993.
    (AP, 2/12/04)

2011        Aug 13, Ctirad Masin (81), a controversial anti-communist fighter in the former nation of Czechoslovakia, died in Cleveland, Ohio. He had eluded a massive East Bloc manhunt during the Cold War.
    (AP, 8/13/11)

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