Return to home 1925 Mar 12,
Chinese revolutionary leader Sun Yat-sen (b.1866) died. Soong
Ching-ling was the wife of Sun Yat-sen. Morris Abraham Cohen (d.1970
at 83) had been the right-hand man to Dr. Sen and the story was told
in 1998 by Daniel S. Levy in his book "Two-Gun Cohen." Chiang
Kai-shek, head of the Nationalist's Party military academy, took
command of the Nationalist Army after the death of Yat-sen. Chiang
married Soong Mayling the sister of Ching-ling in 1926.
(AP, 3/12/98)(SFEC, 4/12/98, Par p.20)(SFC,
1925 Dec 26, Six U.S.
destroyers were ordered from Manila to China to protect interests in
the civil war that was being waged there.
1925 A palace museum was
established in the former imperial precincts of China and opened to
(SFEC, 10/6/96, DB p.37)
1925 There was an uprising in
Canton, China. It was the setting for the Andre Malraux novel "The
(WSJ, 5/5/97, p.A16)
1925 The All-China Federation
of Trade Unions was founded. In 1927 it was crushed by the
nationalist government and then rose with the ascension of the
Communist Party in 1949. It was crushed again in the Cultural
Revolution and then revived following Mao’s death.
(Econ, 8/2/08, p.66)
1926 May 17, Chiang Kai-shek
was made supreme war lord and "generalissimo" in Canton.
1926 Jul 9, Chiang Kai-shek was
appointed to national-revolutionary supreme commander.
1926 Aug 17, Jiang Zemin was
born in China.
(WP, 6/29/96, p.A20)
1926 Oct 16, A troop ship sank
in the Yangtze River killing 1,200.
1926 Nozaki Nobuchika, Japanese
scholar, authored “Explanatory Notes on Auspicious Designs," a work
on the symbolism of Chinese art.
(WSJ, 11/22/06, p.D8)
1927 Jan 19, British government
decided to send troops to China.
1927 Jan 24, British
expeditionary force of 12,000 was sent to China to protect
concessions at Shanghai.
1927 Mar 5, Some 1,000 US
marines landed in China to "protect American property."
1927 Mar 21, Kuomintang Army
conquered Shanghai as British marines fled.
1927 Mar 24, Chinese Communists
seized Nanking and broke with Chiang Kai-shek over the Nationalist
1927 Apr 12, Generalissimo
Chiang Kai-shek began a counter revolution in Shanghai.
1927 Apr 19, In China, Hankow
communists declared war on Chaing Kai-shek.
1927 May 27, An earthquake in
China’s Qinghai (Xining) Province left some 200,000 dead.
1927 Sep 8, A woman arrived in
SF from China and claimed to be Gen. Chiang Kai-shek’s wife, who
declared that he had divorced his legal wife in 1921 and freed 2
concubines this year.
(SFC, 9/20/02, p.E6)
1927 Dec 12, Communists forces
seized Canton, China.
1927 Dec 14, China and Soviet
Union broke relations.
1927 Mu Xin, Chinese artist and
writer, was born. During the Cultural Revolution he painted in
secret and later moved to NYC.
(WSJ, 6/26/03, p.D8)
1928 Mar 6, A Communist attack
on Peking, China, resulted in 3,000 dead and 50,000 fleeing to
1928 Apr 1, China's Chiang
Kai-shek began attacks on communists as his army crossed Yang-tse.
(HN, 4/1/98)(MC, 4/1/02)
1928 Jun 2, Nationalist Chiang
Kai-shek captured Peking, China, in a bloodless takeover.
1927 Sep 8, A woman arrived in
SF from China and claimed to be Gen. Chiang Kai-shek’s wife. The
Gen. declared that he had divorced his legal wife in 1921 and freed
2 concubines this year.
(SFC, 9/20/02, p.E6)
1928 Sep 27, The United States
said it was recognizing the Nationalist Chinese government.
1928 Oct 1, Zhu Rongji, named
Premier of China in 1998, was born.
(SFC, 3/18/98, p.A12)
1928 Oct 6, Chiang Kai-shek was
elected the president of China.
1928 In 1928 the Japanese army
unilaterally instigated armed clashes in China's Manchuria region to
justify full-scale intervention.
1929 Jan 19, Liang Qichao
(b.1873), Chinese intellectual, died in Beijing. He inspired Chinese
scholars with his writings and reform movements.
1929 Feb 23, Chinese rebels
1929 Sep 21, Fighting between
China and the Soviet Union broke out along the Manchurian border.
1929 Dec 2, 1st skull of Peking
man was found 50 km out of Peking at Tsjoe Koe Tien.
1929 Sir Victor Sassoon,
Shanghai financier, built a pyramid-topped hotel and office complex
in the art-deco style, designed by Palmer and Turner and called:
Sassoon House. Cathay Mansions and Grosvenor House in Shanghai were
residences owned by tycoon Sir Victor Sassoon. The complex was
seized in 1949 by the Communist government and reopened in 1951 as
the Jin Jiang Hotel.
(Hem. 1/95, p. 84)(WSJ, 3/5/97, p.A16)
1929 Clement Keys, a Wall
Street investor, started an airline in China.
(SFEM, 2/13/00, p.38)
1930 Jan 5, Mao Tse-tung wrote
"A Single Spark Can Start a Prairie Fire."
1930 In China Mao Zedong’s 2nd
wife was executed by the Nationalists for refusing to renounce Mao.
(Econ, 9/10/16, p.37)
1930-1940 The Diqing Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture
in Yunnan province was the area described for National Geographic by
American ethnologist James Rock in the 1920s and 1930s. The 1933
James Hilton novel "Shangri-La" was thought to be based on Rock's
(SFEC, 11/28/99, p.A22)
1931 Jun 9, Britain’s HMS
Poseidon submarine sank during exercises of the coast of China. It
was raised by the Chinese in 1972. In 2012 Steven Schwankert
authored “The Real Poseidon Adventure: China’s Secret Salvage of
Britain’s Lost Submarine."
(SFC, 8/4/12, p.A2)
1931 Jun 17, British
authorities in China arrested Indochinese Communist leader Ho Chi
1931 Jul-1931 Nov, The Huang He
River (Huang Ho, Yellow River) in China flooded more than 40,000 sq.
miles and more than a million people were killed.
1931 Sep 18-1931 Sep 19, The
Mukden Incident was initiated by the Japanese Kwangtung Army in
Mukden. It involved an explosion along the Japanese-controlled South
Manchurian Railway. It was soon followed by the Japanese invasion of
Manchuria and the eventual establishment of the Japanese-dominated
state of Manchukuo. The neutrality of the area, and the ability of
Japan to defend its colony in Korea, was threatened in the 1920s by
efforts at unification of China. Within three months Japanese troops
had spread out throughout Manchuria. The occupation ended at the
conclusion of the Second World War in 1945.
1931 Sep 28, In Peking
some 200,000 demonstrators demanded a declaration of war on
1931 Nov 7, Mao Tse Tung
proclaimed the Chinese People's Republic.
1931 Nov 20, Japan and China
rejected the League of Council terms for Manchuria at Geneva.
1931 Nov 19, Xu Zhimo (34),
Chinese poet, was killed in a plane crash while flying from Nanjing
to Beijing. He left behind four collections of verse and several
volumes of translations from various languages. His poem “On Leaving
Cambridge" made famous a willow tree on the ground’s of King’s
1931 Dec 9, Japanese army
attacked the Chinese province of Jehol.
1931 Dec 12, Under pressure
from the Communists in Canton, Chiang Kai-shek resigned as President
of the Nanking Government but remained the head of the Nationalist
government that held nominal rule over most of China.
1931 The Shanghai classic
Richard Poh film "Love and Duty" was produced.
(SFEM, 2/23/97, p.6)
1931 The Chinese silent film
"The Peach Girl" starred Ruan Lingyu and Jin Yan.
(SFEC, 7/2/00, DB p.32)
1931 Ten years of comparative
peace ended when Japan attacked and seized Manchuria to ensure
a supply of natural resources. The Japanese army invaded Manchuria
without its own government's consent.
(SFC, 7/18/96, p.E6)(Jap. Enc., BLDM, p.
216)(SFC, 12/2/97, p.A22)(HN, 2/18/98)
1932 Jan 28, The Japanese
attacked Shanghai, China, and declared martial law.
1932 Feb 18, Manchurian
independence was formally declared. In 1928 the Japanese army
unilaterally instigated armed clashes in China’s Manchuria region to
justify full-scale intervention. In 1931 the Japanese army invaded
Manchuria without its own government’s consent.
1932 Feb 19, In SF Bank of
Canton manager Arthur G. Wong reported that over $1,000,000 in gold
had been wired from SF to aid Chinese forces in Shanghai.
(SSFC, 2/18/07, DB p.58)
1932 Feb 20, Japanese troops
occupied Tunhua, China.
1932 Mar 9, Former Chinese
emperor Henry Pu-Yi was installed as head of Manchuria.
1932 Jun 19, Hailstones killed
200 in Hunan Province, China PR.
1932 Dec 26, Some 70,000 were
killed in a massive earthquake in Kansu, China.
1933 Jan 3, The Japanese took
Shuangyashan, China, killing 500 in the process.
1933 Jan 21, The League of
Nations rejected Japanese terms for settlement with China.
1933 Sep 25, The 5th
"extermination campaign" against communists in Nanjing China.
1933 Nov 12, In the Kashgar
region Uyghur separatists declared the short-lived and
self-proclaimed East Turkestan Republic (ETR), using the term "East
Turkestan" to emphasize the state's break from China and new
anti-China orientation. East Turkestan referred to the Tarim Basin
in the southwestern part of Xinjiang province of the Qing Dynasty.
p.39)(Econ, 8/18/12, p.39)
1933 Cao Yu (1910-1996),
Chinese realist playwright, published his first play "Thunderstorm."
In 1935 he wrote "Sunrise."
(SFEC, 12/15/96, p.C16)
1933 With the threat of war
with Japan and between the Nationalists and Communists, custodians
of the art of the Forbidden City pack the treasures in some 20,000
boxes and ferry them to Taiwan.
(WSJ, 12/29/95, p.A-11)
1933 Wing Lung Bank was founded
in Hong Kong. It survived a forced relocation to Macau during the
Japanese occupation. In 2008 China Merchants Bank launched a
takeover of Wing Lung for $4.7 billion.
(Econ, 6/7/08, p.86)
1933 Pan American Airlines took
over China Airways, founded by Clement Keys, and renamed it China
National Aviation Corp. (CNAC).
(SFEM, 2/13/00, p.38)
1934 Mar 1, Henry Pu Yi was
crowned emperor Kang Teh of Manchuria.
1934 Oct 16, Mao Tse-tung
decided to abandon his base in Kiangsi due to attacks from Chiang
Kai-shek's Nationalists. With his pregnant wife and about 30,000 Red
Army troops, he set out on the "Long March." In late 1935, with
8,000 survivors, he reached Hanoi in northwest China, and
established Chinese Communist headquarters. In 2006 Andrew McEwen
and Ed Jocelyn authored “The Long March: The Story Behind the
Legendary Journey That Made Mao’s China." Also in 2006 Sun Shuyun
authored “The Long March."
1934 Dec 8, In China John and
Betty Stam, Christian missionaries, were beheaded by communist
soldiers in a village near Nanking.
(WSJ, 1/17/03, p.W13)
1934 The Chinese silent film
"The Goddess" starred Ruan Lingyu. It was about a young mother lured
to Shanghai to become a streetwalker.
(SFC, 6/4/99, p.C5)
1934 Folke Bergman, Swedish
archeologist, discovered the mummified remains of a Caucasoid
community in northwestern Xinjiang’s Lop Nur desert. The site was
forgotten until his book was translated into Chinese in the late
(Arch, 1/05, p.12)
1934-1935 Deng Xiaoping joined Mao Zedong on the
Long March flight from the Nationalists under Chiang Kai-shek. Yank
Shangkun also marched with Mao.
(SFC, 2/20/96, p.A4)(SFC, 9/16/98, p.C4)
1935 Mar 22, Russia sold the
Chinese Eastern Railway to Japan.
1935 May, In China Mao’s forces
crossed a narrow suspension bridge over the Dadu River in Sichuan
Province. Details of the event still remained controversial in 2006.
(Econ, 4/29/06, p.88)
1935 Sep 1, Seiji Ozawa,
conductor (Boston Symphony Orchestra), was born in Hoten, Manchuria
(now Shenyang, Liaoning, China).
1935 Oct 19, Mao Tse Tung's
army reached Shanxi.
1935 Nov 9, Japanese troops
invaded Shanghai, China.
1936 Nov 9, In China Ruth
Harkness and her party found a 3-lb giant panda cub, eyes not yet
open, in a hollow tree. They named the cub Su-Lin - Chinese for
"something very cute."
1936 Nov 22, Some 1,200 were
killed in a battle between Japanese and Mongolians in China.
1936 Dec 12, Chang Hsueh-liang
(d.2001 at 101), a northern military commander (aka Zhang Xueliang),
kidnapped Chiang Kai-shek to force him into an alliance to repel
Japanese forces. The Xi’an incident coup ended after 2 weeks. The
incident led the Nationalists and the Communists to make peace so
that the two could form a united front against the increasing threat
posed by Japan. Chang was later court-martialed and sentenced to
prison. He was taken to Taiwan in 1949 and kept under house arrest.
(SFC, 10/16/01, p.B2)(Econ, 5/9/09,
1936 Dec 12, Chinese
Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek declared war on Japan.
1936 Dec 18, Su-Lin, the 1st
giant panda to come to US from China, arrived in SF. The giant
panda, captured by Ruth Harkness, was the 1st ever seen in the US.
In 2005 Vicki Constantine Croke authored “The Lady and the Panda."
1937 Jul 7, A conflict between
troops of China and Japan came to be known as the Marco Polo Bridge
Incident. The incident occurred near the Marco Polo Bridge outside
of Beijing and eventually escalated into warfare between the two
countries and was the prelude to the Pacific side of World War II.
1937 Jul 29, Japanese troops
occupied Peking and Tientsin. [see Aug 8]
1937 Aug 8, The Japanese Army
occupied Beijing, China.
1937 Aug 13, Japanese attacked
1937 Aug 14, China declared war
1937 Aug 25, Japanese fleet
blockaded the Chinese coast.
1937 Sep 25, In China Lin Biao
masterminded the ambush and annihilation of more than 1,000 Japanese
troops, at Pingxiangguan pass in Shanxi province.
1937 Dec 13, The Japanese army
occupied Nanking, China. A group of Japanese soldiers forced their
way into the family home of Xia Shuqin (8) in Nanjing, and killed
seven of her family members. Xia and her 4-year-old sister were
seriously injured but escaped. According to Chinese media, a US
missionary then serving as the chairman of the International
Commission of the Red Cross in Nanjing filmed the killings of Xia's
family members. In 2006 a Chinese court has awarded Xia Shuqin
$200,000 in compensation after ruling in her favor against two
Japanese historians, who claimed she fabricated her account of the
(HN, 12/13/98)(AP, 8/23/06)
1937 Dec 14, Japanese troops
conquered and plundered Nanjing. Japan established a puppet Chinese
government at Peking, now called Beijing. In 1997 Iris Chang
(1968-2004) authored "The Rape of Nanking: The Forgotten Holocaust
of WW II."
(AP, 12/14/02)(SFC, 11/11/04, p.A1)
1937 Dec-1937 Jan, John Rabe
(1882-1950), a German businessman for Siemens living in China,
recorded the 2-month terror of the Japanese "Rape of Nanking" in his
diary. The Japanese sacked and pillaged the city. They raped at
least 20,000 women and killed at least 50,000 people. Rabe
established a neutral safe zone for hundreds of thousands of Chinese
refugees. Noncombatant deaths may have reached 300,000. Reporter
Tillman Durdin (d.1998 at 91) filed reports for the New York times.
(SFC, 12/13/96, p.B1)(SFEC, 2/22/98, Z1 p.6)(SFC,
1937 Dec-1937 Feb, In the
Japanese "Rape of Nanjing" more than 200,000 people were killed.
Japanese soldiers raped and killed tens of thousands of Chinese
women during their invasion of China. [photo from Nanjing] In 1997
Iris Chang (29) published "The Rape of Nanking: the Forgotten
Holocaust of world War II." The largest execution of prisoners took
place north of Nanking near Mufu Mountain where 57,000 civilians and
soldiers were gunned down.
(WSJ,2/6/97,p.A14)(SFEC, 12/1/96, p.C4)(WSJ,
12/29/97, p.A9)(SFEC, 7/26/98, Z1 p.1,4)
1937 Carl Crow, journalist,
publisher and executive in Shanghai, authored “Four Hundred Million
Customers." The bestseller described how to sell to the Chinese.
(Econ, 1/20/07, p.92)
c1937 Aisingyoro Henry Puyi,
the last emperor, Xuantong, served as the figurehead ruler of the
Manchurian state set up by Japan during WW II.
(SFC, 6/11/97, p.C16)
1937 Deng Xiaoping directed the
Communist inner-party "rectification" campaign.
(WSJ, 2/20/97, p.A20)
1937 In China Pamela Werner
(19), the adopted daughter of Edward Theodore Chalmers Werner, was
brutally murdered in Peking. The formal investigation was buried,
first by the perpetrators, then by the Chinese and British
authorities. In 2011 Paul French authored “Midnight in Peking," in
which he describes and solves the crime.
(Econ, 5/19/12, p.92)(http://tinyurl.com/6meqqoo)
1937-1945 Japan initiated a war with China that
lasted to 1945. An estimated 15 million Chinese soldiers and
civilians died in the war with 100 million made refugees. In 2013
Rana Mitter authored “China’s War With Japan, 1937-1945: The
Struggle for Survival."
(Econ, 6/22/13, p.83)(Econ, 8/15/15, p.35)
1938 Feb 23, Twelve Chinese
fighter planes dropped bombs on Japan. The China Air Task Force was
a scrappy but beleaguered fill-in that fought both the Japanese and
supplied shortcomings until the Fourteenth Air Force was formed.
1938 Jun 17, Japan declared war
1938 Sep 27, League of Nations
declared Japan the aggressor against China.
1938 Oct 21, Japanese troops
(WUD, 1994, p.1682)(MC, 10/21/01)
1938 Oct 25, Hankow,
temporary capital of China, fell to the Japanese. The Chinese again
moved their capital, this time to Chungking in the mountains above
the Yangtze River.
(WUD, 1994, p.1682)(DoD, 1999, p.452)
1938 H.J. Timperley, a reporter
for the Manchester Guardian, published "What War Means," an account
of the ‘37-’38 Nanjing tragedy.
(SFEC, 7/26/98, Z1 p.4)
1938 Edgar Snow (1905-1972)
authored “Red Star Over China."
(Econ, 5/29/04, p.85)
1938 Dr. Feng Shan Ho (d.1997),
Chinese consul general in Vienna, rescued thousands of Jews by
giving them exit visas after the Nazis annexed the country.
(SFC, 8/15/01, p.A15)
1938 Chinese Nationalist
leaders intentionally broke levees on the Yellow River to prevent
the Japanese military from advancing. More than 500,000 people,
Japanese and Chinese, died in the resulting flood. Chinese army
commander Xiong Xianyu kept a diary on the levee action.
(Econ, 6/22/13, p.83)(http://tinyurl.com/kxkkrdc)
1938 Herbert Yardley, American
cryptographer, went to Chongqing, China, to form a “Chinese Black
Chamber" for Chiang Kai-shek’s Nationalists.
(Econ, 12/19/15, p.41)
1939 In China Mao Zedong (Mao
Tse-tung), in response to the Nazi-Soviet pact, mounted a close
collaboration with Japanese intelligence to undermine Chiang
Kai-shek, head of the KMT.
(Econ, 5/28/05, p.83)
1940 Mar 30, The Japanese set
up a puppet government called Manchuko in Nanking, China.
1940 Aug 1, The idea of the
Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere was formally announced by
Japan’s Foreign Minister Matsuoka Yosuke, in a press interview, but
had already existed in various forms for many years. Japan urged the
nations of the region to unite in one economic sphere, ousting the
colonial powers and enjoying economic prosperity together. The
concept was used to justify Japan's seizure of raw materials from
throughout Southeast Asia to further its drive for economic,
political and military domination of East Asia. The Sphere was
intended to include, in addition to Japan, China, Manchukuo,
Southeast Asia and the Pacific mandates islands.
2/8/00)(Econ, 4/11/09, p.43)
1940 Dec 23, Chiang Kai-shek
dissolved all Communist associations in China.
1940 Japanese warplanes dropped
plague-infected fleas over southwest China. In 2001 Chinese doctors
testified in a Tokyo trial and said at least 109 people died as a
result. In 2002 a symposium of historians reported that the Japanese
killed at least 440,000 Chinese in the 1930s and 1940s by dropping
disease carrying fleas and cholera-coated flies from planes.
(WSJ, 1/25/00, p.A1)(WSJ, 10/22/07, p.B12)
1941 Apr 25, The United States
and China formally signed a $50 million stabilization agreement to
support the Chinese currency.
1941 Jun 5, In China some 1,500
civilians died from suffocation in a single air raid shelter in
Chongqing, the provisional capital until the end of the war with
(Econ, 8/15/15, p.36)
1941 Jul 25, The U.S.
government froze Japanese and Chinese assets.
1941 Nov 26, The US issued an
edict that "the government of Japan will withdraw all military,
naval, air and police forces from China and Indochina."
(SFC, 1/19/02, p.A19)
1941 Nov 27, In Shanghai the US
ship President Madison weighed anchor as Japan warned of little room
for prolonging Washington conversations.
(SSFC, 11/27/16, DB p.50)
1941 Dec 8, The Japanese
armoured cruiser Izumo shelled Chinese positions from the middle of
the Huangpu River in Shanghai, assisted in sinking the HMS Peterel,
the last British gunboat, and captured the USS Wake, the last
American gunboat. The Izumo and sister ship Iwate sank during the
American aerial attack on Kure in July 1945.
1941 Dec 9, China declared war
on Japan, Germany and Italy.
1941 Dec 20, The Flying Tigers,
American pilots in China, entered combat against the Japanese over
Kunming. Claire Chennault commanded the 1st American Volunteer Group
(nicknamed Flying Tigers). He headed both the volunteer group and
the uniformed US Army Air Forces units that replaced it in 1942. He
feuded constantly with General Joseph Stilwell, the US Army
commander in China, and helped China's leader Chiang Kai-shek to
convince President Roosevelt to remove Stilwell in 1944.
1941-1950 Tang Tsou (d.1999), Prof. at the Univ.
of Chicago authored "America's Failure in China, 1941-1950" in 1963.
(SFC, 8/17/99, p.C2)
1942 Feb 9, Chiang Kai-shek met
with Sir Stafford Cripps, the British viceroy in India. Detachment
101 harried the Japanese in Burma and provided close support for
regular Allied forces.
1942 May, Japanese documents in
1998 revealed that their military used poison gas in a northern
China battlefield. China claimed that poison gas was used 2,900
(SFC, 6/15/98, p.A14)
1942 Jul 15, The first supply
flight from India to China over the 'Hump' was flown to help China's
1942 Sep, More than 400
villagers died of bubonic plague in China’s eastern Zhejiang
province after Japanese warplanes of medical Unit 731 dropped germ
bombs. Unit 731 was stationed on the outskirts of Harbin, China,
until the Soviet Union entered the war. The unit deposited typhus
into the water supply flowing into Manchuria. In 2000 Yoshio
Shinozuka testified to seeing men infected with the plague and then
being dissected while still alive. Harbin had 26 affiliates across
China and its germ bombs (anthrax, cholera, typhus and bubonic
plague) killed an estimated 270,000 people. Biological warfare
activities of Unit 731 were unknown to most Japanese citizens until
1981, when author Seiichi Morimura exposed its dark history in a
book, "The Devil's Gluttony".
(SFEC, 12/8/96, p.C8)(SFC, 8/30/97, p.A12)(SFC,
8/15/98, p.A12)(SFC, 12/22/00, p.D6)(SFC, 6/12/01, p.A8)(AP,
1942 Dec, Hu Jintao was born in
China’s eastern Anhui province. He served as vice-president under
Jiang Zemin and became president in 2003.
(SSFC, 3/11/01, p.D8)(Econ, 11/5/05, p.46)
1942 After capturing and
imprisoning Vietnamese Communist leader Ho Chi Minh in 1942, the
Chinese Nationalist leader Chiang Kai-shek was pressured into
releasing him by America‘s Office of Strategic Services (OSS). The
OSS was formed during WWII to engage in intelligence operations and
was the forerunner of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). Ho Chi
Minh was leading Vietnamese resistance against the Japanese and was
captured while in China setting up his Communist-inspired Viet Minh
movement. The OSS sought his release so he could continue his fight
against the Japanese. The Viet Minh also benefited from U.S. arms
1942-1944 Zhengfeng or Cheng Feng, also known as
the Rectification Movement, was the first ideological mass movement
initiated by the Chinese Communist Party (CCP). The movement took
place at the communist base at Yan'an, a remote and isolated
mountainous area in northern Shaanxi, after the communists' Long
March. More than 10,000 were killed in the "rectification" process,
as the Party made efforts to attack intellectuals and replace the
culture of the May Fourth Movement with that of Communist culture.
1943 Jan 11, The United States
and Britain signed treaties relinquishing extraterritorial rights in
1943 Sep 6, The United States
asked the Chinese Nationals to join with the Communists to present a
common front to the Japanese.
1943 Sep 13, Chiang Kai-shek
became president of China.
1943 Oct 10, Chiang Kai-shek
took the oath of office as president of China.
1943 Oct 19, Delegates from the
U.S.S.R. met with representatives from the Allied nations of Great
Britain, the U.S., and China, in an attempt to hammer out a greater
consensus on war aims, and to improve the rapidly cooling relations
between the Soviet Union and its allies.
1943 Nov 22, President
Roosevelt, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and Chinese
leader Chiang Kai-shek met in Cairo to discuss measures for
1943 Japanese authorities in
Shanghai, China, under pressure from Nazi allies, packed the city’s
Jewish population of some 20,000 people, into a 3-square-mile area
in Hongkou District.
(SSFC, 3/5/06, p.A7)
1943-1949 Chiang Kai-shek (1886?-1975), Chinese
statesman and president of the Republic (1943-1950).
(WUD, 1994, p.254)
1944 Jan 8, Sir Edmund
Backhouse (b.1873), English Sinologist, died in Beijing. In 1977
Hugh Trevor-Roper authored “Hermit of Peking" an investigation into
the life of Backhouse.
(WSJ, 8/18/07, p.P9)
1944 Apr 24, The first B-29
arrived in China, over the Hump of the Himalayas. The phrase "flying
the hump" originated during World War II when Allied transport
planes flew dangerous missions over the Himalayan Mountains in order
to provide China with supplies needed to fight the Japanese.
(HN, 4/24/98)(HNQ, 8/1/98)
1944 Apr 26, First B-29
attacked by Japanese fighters [in China?], one fighter shot down.
1944 May 27, Japanese advanced
in Hangkhou, China.
1944 Jul, A small team of US
Army and intelligence personnel under Maj. Raymond Cromley embarked
for China on the top secret "Dixie Mission" to investigate Mao
Tse-tung and his insurgent Communist Party.
(WSJ, 5/30/02, p.A2)
1944 Aug 21, The US, Britain,
the Soviet Union and China opened the Dumbarton Oaks conference in
Washington, D.C. It laid the foundation for the establishment of the
(SFEC, 6/29/97, p.T10)(AP, 8/21/07)
1944 Aug 31, A US B-24-J bomber
crashed into Maoer Mountain in China after having completed its
bombing mission over the port of Takao in Taiwan. All 10 men onboard
were killed. The wreckage was not discovered until Oct, 1996.
(SFC, 1/17/96, p.A13)
1944 Oct 18, Lt. General Joseph
Stilwell was recalled from China by president Franklin Roosevelt.
1944-1949 The Uighers held the free Republic of
East Turkestan until Chinese Communists seized power. [see Jan 5,
1945 Jan 5, Uighur rebels in
China’s southwest Xinjiang declared the Eastern Turkestan Republic.
The republic ended in 1949 when Chinese Communists came to power. In
1949 the Russians told the Uighurs to cooperate with Mao.
p.A10)(Econ, 12/3/05, p.39)
1945 Jan 9, Maj. Raymond
Cromley, head of the top secret "Dixie Mission," sent a cable to US
military headquarters in Chunking that said Mao Tse-tung would like
send a group to Pres. Roosevelt to explain the situation in China.
Ambassador Patrick J. Hurley, who opposed the meeting, intercepted
the message and failed to pass it to Pres. Roosevelt.
(WSJ, 5/30/02, p.A2)
1945 Jan 28, During World War
II, Allied supplies began reaching China over the newly reopened
1945 Jan 28, Chiang Kai-shek
renamed the Ledo-Burma Road the Stillwell Road, in honor of General
1945 Mar 1, British 43rd
Division under General Essame occupied Xanten.
1945 Mar 1, Chinese 30th
division occupied Hsenwi.
1945 May 10, US POW Lt. John F.
Kinney (d.2006 at 91) and 4 other Marines jumped off a Japanese
prisoner train in China and journeyed for 47 days with the help of
Chinese communists before reuniting with US troops.
(SFC, 7/11/06, p.B5)
1945 Jul 26, The US, Britain
and China issued the Potsdam Declaration to Japan that she surrender
unconditionally. Two days later Japanese Premier Kantaro Suzuki
announced to the Japanese press that the Potsdam declaration is to
be ignored. In 1961 Herbert Feis authored “Japan Subdued."
(WSJ, 5/5/95, p.A-12)(WSJ, 1/14/07, p.P8)
1945 Aug 3, Chinese troops
under American General Joseph Stilwell took the town of Myitkyina
from the Japanese.
1945 Aug 8, The Soviet Union
declared war against Japan. 1.5 million Soviet troops launched a
massive surprise attack (August Storm) against Japanese occupation
forces in northern China and Korea. Within days, Tokyo's million-man
army in the region had collapsed in one of the greatest military
defeats in history.
(SFC, 9/9/96, p.A19)(AP, 8/8/97)(AP, 8/6/05)
1945 Aug 22, Soviet troops
landed at Port Arthur and Dairen on the Kwantung Peninsula in China.
1945 Aug 25, John Birch,
Baptist missionary and US army intelligence specialist, was killed
by Chinese Communists. His death is considered the first US death in
the struggle against communism.
1945 Aug 27, B-29 Superfortress
bombers began to drop supplies into Allied prisoner of war camps in
1945 Aug 28, Chinese communist
leader Mao Tse-Tung arrived in Chunking to confer with Nationalist
leader Chiang Kai-Shek in a futile effort to avert civil war.
1945 Sep 9, The Japanese in S.
Korea, Taiwan, China and Indochina surrendered to Allies.
1945 Sep 27, Misha Dichter,
pianist (Tchaikovsky 2nd prize-1966), was born in Shanghai, China.
1945 Oct 11, Negotiations
between Nationalist leader Chiang Kai-shek and Communist leader Mao
Tse-tung broke down. Nationalist and Communist troops we soon
engaged in a civil war.
1945 Oct 25, Japanese
surrendered Taiwan to Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek. Taiwan was
returned to Chinese control following the Japanese occupation during
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Taiwan)(SFC, 6/9/97, p.A8)
1945 Nov 27, Gen. George C.
Marshall was named special U.S. envoy to China to try to end
hostilities between the Nationalists and the Communists.
1945 Aisingyoro Henry Puyi, the
last emperor, Xuantong, and the figurehead ruler of the Manchurian
state, was captured by Soviet troops and later turned over the
Chinese Communists. He was sent to a re-education camp.
(SFC, 6/11/97, p.C16)
1945 John S. Service (d.1999 at
89), one of the US "China hands" experts, participated in the "Dixie
Mission" as a US Foreign Service officer, and visited Mao Zedong at
Yanan. He reported that Chiang Kai-shek was vulnerable due to
corruption and that the Communists would win the war. The US
ambassador to China, Army Gen'l. Patrick Hurley, ordered him back to
the US and later accused him of handing secret US documents to the
Chinese. In the US Service was arrested by the FBI in the Amerasia
affair and became a target of Joseph McCarthy. He was dismissed from
the State Dept. in 1951 but later vindicated.
(SFC, 2/5/99, p.D4)
1945-1957 This period in China was covered in 2013
Frank Dikotter in: “The Tragedy of Liberation: A History of the
Chinese Revolution, 1945-57."
(Econ, 9/7/13, p.80)
1946 Jan 10, Chiang Kai-shek
and the Yenan Communist forces halted fighting in China.
1946 Jul 17, Chinese communists
opened a drive against the Nationalist army on the Yangtze River.
1946 Dec 25, Chiang offered a
new Chinese constitution in Nanking pledging universal suffrage.
1946 Geraldine Townsend Fitch
and Theodore H. White authored “Blunder Out of China."
1946 Theodore H. White and
Annalee Whitmore (d.2002 at 85), war correspondents, authored
"Thunder Out of China," an examination of China’s role in WW II.
(SFC, 2/11/02, p.B5)
1947 Feb 28, There was an
anti-Kuomintang demonstration on Taiwan. As many as 20,000 civilians
were massacred by the Kuomintang (KMT). A riot was sparked by the
arrest of a woman selling contraband cigarettes in Taipei. Crowds
attacked the Nationalist Party institutions as Nationalist troops
and secret police struck back over the ensuing months. In 1996 a 69
cent postage stamp was planned in commemoration. In 2006 a team from
UC Berkeley won a design competition for a 15-acre “228 National
(SFC, 4/6/06, p.B3)(SFC, 12/26/96, p.B1)(SFC,
6/10/97, p.A8)(SFC, 4/6/06, p.B3)
1947 Mar 19, Chiang Kai-shek's
government forces took control of Yenan, the former headquarters of
the Chinese Communist Party.
1948 Feb 15, Mao Zedong's army
1948 May 23, China’s People's
Liberation Army began to encircle the Nationalist defenders in
Changchun, while cutting off air transportation. The siege lasted
for 150 days and ended when the People's Liberation Army under Gen.
Lin Biao entered Changchun after the Nationalist 60th Army and New
7th Army surrendered. Some 160,000 civilians died, mainly of hunger,
trapped in a killing zone outside the city walls.
1948 Sep 1, Chinese
Communists formed the North China People's Republic.
1948 Oct 15, China's Red army
1948 Nov 1, During the Chinese Civil War
(1945-1949) Mao's Red army conquered Mukden, Manchuria.
(DoW, 1999, p.113)
1948 Dec 3, Chinese refugee
ship "Kiangya" exploded in East China Sea killing 1,100. [see Dec 4]
1948 Dec 4, SS Kiangya hit a
mine in Whangpoo River, China. It sank and 2,750 were killed. [see
1948 Nationalist China joined
the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT).
(WSJ, 11/16/99, p.A19)
1948 Zhengzhou Baiwen
(Zhengzhou’s Hundred Goods Supply Station) was set up to distribute
household goods. In 2000 the company teetered on bankruptcy.
(WSJ, 8/1/00, p.A8)
1948 Robert Ford (1923-2013),
British radio operator, was hired by the Tibetans to create a modern
communications network. In 1950 he was imprisoned by Chinese
authorities and spent five years in jail.
(Econ, 10/5/13, p.98)
1949 Jan 11, Surrender talks in
China between the Nationalists and Communists opened as Tientsing
was virtually lost to the Communists.
1949 Jan 15, Chinese Communists
occupied Tientsin after a 27-hour battle with Nationalist forces.
1949 Jan 19, The Chiang
Government moved the capital of China to Canton.
1949 Jan 23, The Communists
Chinese forces began their advance on Nanking.
1949 Apr 19, The Amethyst
Affair began when the British frigate Amethyst came under fire from
Communist Chinese artillery and ran aground in the Yangtze River. A
tense, 103-day standoff followed until the frigate made a daring
escape on July 30. The Amethyst lost 22 men killed and 31 wounded in
the ordeal. Rescue attempts by the Royal Navy resulted in another 23
British sailors killed.
1949 Apr 23, The Chinese Red
army entered and occupied Nanjing. Reporter Chang Kuo-sin (d.2006)
w0as the 1st to flash the news that the Nationalist government had
1949 May 25, Chinese Red army
1949 Jul 30, British warship
HMS Amethyst escaped down Yangtze River after having been refused a
safe passage by Chinese Communists after 3-month standoff.
1949 Aug 18, China’s Mao Zedong
published an essay titled “Farewell, Leighton Stewart!" Stewart,
China’s American ambassador, was leaving amid escalating tension
with the nearly victorious Communist Party.
(Econ, 3/8/14, p.47)
1949 Sep 21, The Communist
People’s Republic of China was proclaimed under Mao Tse Tung with
Chou En-Lai as Premier. "Today, the Chinese people have stood
up." Mao-Tse-Tung led his people to power after half a century (50
yrs.) of civil strife. The Chinese Communists drove Chiang Kai-shek
to Formosa. The capitalist stronghold of Shanghai fell to Mao
Tse-tung Communist guerrillas. The Communist People’s Liberation
Army brought with them to Beijing a northeastern folk dance called
(TOH, 1982, p.1949)(WSJ,12/10/93)(TMC, 1994,
p.1945)(WSJ, 10/26/95, p.A-12)(WSJ, 8/5/96, p.A1)(AP, 9/21/97)
1949 Oct 1, Communist Party
Chairman Mao Tse-tung (Zedong) raised the first flag of the People's
Republic of China during a ceremony in Beijing (National Day).
As the Communists came to power there were over 400 ethnic groups in
China. By 2009 the official number of ethnic groups was reduced to
(AP, 10/1/97)(Econ, 10/10/09, p.45)
1949 Oct 1, Republic of China
(Taiwan) was formed on island of Formosa. The Nationalists under
Chiang Kai-shek had been defeated and fled to Taiwan and took
control. Chiang Kai-shek established the "temporary" government of
the Republic of China in Taipei and established martial law.
(SFC, 6/9/97, p.A8)(SFC, 6/10/97, p.A9)
1949 Oct 2, USSR recognized the
People's Republic of China.
1949 Oct 6, China and Korea
established diplomatic relations. Korea became one of the first
groups of countries having diplomatic relations with new China.
1949 Oct 14, The Chinese Red
army occupied Canton.
1949 Oct 17, Liu Wencai
(b.1887), Chinese landlord from Sichuan province, died. He was
depicted as the archetype of the exploiter of peasant farmers.
6/25/11, SR p.11)
1949 Oct 19, The People's
Republic of China was formally proclaimed.
1949 Oct 25, Communist troops
landed at the small village of Kuningt’ou (Kuningtou), hoping to
capture Kinmen Island and prepare an assault on Taiwan. Nationalist
Col. Lee Kuang-chi’en died in a 3-day battle, which turned back the
communist assault. A plaque in honor of Col Lee was later changed,
dropping references to anti-communism.
1949 Nov 29, Nationalist regime
of China left for Formosa (Taiwan). [See Dec 7]
1949 Nov 30, Chinese Communists
1949 Dec 7, The Nationalist
Chinese government escaped to Formosa. The Chinese Communists drove
Chiang Kai-shek to Formosa. [see Nov 29]
(WUD, 1994, p.1684)(TMC, 1994, p.1945)
1949 Dec 8, The Chinese
Nationalist government moved from the Chinese mainland to Formosa as
the Communists pressed their attacks.
1949 Dec 16, Chinese Communist
leader Mao Tse-tung was received at the Kremlin in Moscow.
1949 Chiang Kai-shek’s
Koumintang forces shipped 230,000 of the best art pieces from the
Summer Palace in Beijing’s Forbidden City to Taiwan. The Koumintang
shipped an estimated 138 tons of gold to Taiwan.
(Econ, 12/21/13, p.8)(Econ, 12/17/16, p.34)
1949 In China the “Work Method
of Party Committees" was first published.
(Econ, 3/5/15, p.42)
1949 Zang Kejia (d.2004 at 99),
poet, edited the "Selected Poems of Chairman Mao."
(SFC, 2/7/04, p.A20)
1949 The Catholic Church was
expelled from China.
(SFC, 6/13/97, p.A19)
1949 Cao Yu, realist
playwright, was named head of the Beijing People’s Arts Theater.
(SFEC, 12/15/96, p.C16)
1949 The Chinese Red Army
invaded Tibet believing it was liberating the serfs and peasants.
(SFEM, 12/20/98, p.18)(WSJ, 8/30/08, p.A8)
1949 Rebels in parts of
Xinjiang, a region of Turkic Muslims (Uighurs), set up an
independent republic, but it was quickly snuffed out by China’s
Communist Party. By 2014 Han Chinese made up more than 40% of the
province’s 22 million people.
(Econ, 8/9/14, p.10)
1949 Phuntso Wangye
(1922-2014), founder of the Tibetan Communist Party, joined forces
with the Chinese Communist Party. He had already launched a series
of guerrilla uprisings against Nationalist Chinese rule.
1949 The capitalist stronghold
of Shanghai fell to Mao Tse-tung Communist guerrillas.
(WSJ, 10/26/95, p.A-12)
1949 The Muslim republic of
East Turkestan briefly existed in northwest China before the
(SFC, 5/2/01, p.A9)
1949 The Russians, having
liberated Manchuria from the Japanese, handed the key industrial
base over to the Chinese communists.
(Econ, 5/28/05, p.83)
1949-1957 In China an estimated 5 million people,
labeled as “counter-revolutionaries," were killed during this period
under the rule of Mao Zedong.
(Econ, 9/10/16, p.37)
1950 Jan 6, Britain recognized
the Communist government of China.
1950 Jan 14, US recalled all
consular officials from China.
1950 Jan 19, Communist Chinese
leader Mao recognized the Republic of Vietnam.
1950 Feb 15, Joseph Stalin and
Mao Tse-tung signed a mutual defense treaty in Moscow.
1950 Feb 27, Generalissimo
Chiang Kai-shek was elected president of Nationalist China.
1950 Mar 1, Chiang Kai-shek
resumed the Presidency of National China on Formosa.
1950 Mar 18, Nationalist troops
landed on the mainland of China and captured Communist held Sungmen.
1950 Apr 23, Chaing Kai-shek
evacuates Hainan, leaving mainland China to Mao Zedong and the
1950 May 1, New marriage laws
were enforced in People's Republic China.
1950 Sep 19, The UN rejected
membership of China's People Republic.
1950 Oct 2, Mao Tse Tung sent a
telegram to Stalin. China intervened in Korea.
1950 Oct 14, Chinese Communist
Forces began to infiltrate the North Korean Army.
1950 Oct 21, Chinese forces
1950 Oct, Chamdo, Tibet, fell
to Chinese occupation.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Chamdo)(Econ, 10/5/13, p.98)
1950 Nov 5, A US bomber caught
fire and crashed while flying over China’s southern Guangdong
province. Its mission was not known. Records and eyewitness accounts
indicated that four bodies were buried at the crash site, while the
fate of the other 11 on board wasn't clear.
1950 Nov 6, A Chinese offensive
was halted at Chongchon River, North Korea.
1950 Nov 25, Mao Anying
(b.1922), the eldest son of Mao Zedong and Yang Kaihui, was killed
by an American air strike during the Korean war.
1950 Nov 26, China entered the
Korean conflict, launching a counter-offensive across the Yaly River
against soldiers from the United Nations, the United States and
South Korea. North Korean and Chinese troops halted the UN
(WSJ, 6/24/96, C1)(AP, 11/26/97)(HN,
1950 Nov 27, East of the Chosin
River, Chinese forces annihilated an American task force. Col.
Barber (d.2002 at 82) and 220 soldiers in Fox Company withstood a
5-day assault to protect an escape pass.
(HN, 11/27/98)(SFC, 4/23/02, p.A18)
1950 Dec 19, Tibet's Dalai Lama
fled a Chinese invasion.
1950 Dec 28, Chinese troops
crossed the 38th Parallel into South Korea.
1950 Walter Henry Judd
(1898-1994), American politician, authored “Autopsy on our Blunders
1950 China pulled out of the
world GATT trade association following the Communist takeover.
(WSJ, 11/16/99, p.A19)
1950 China passed a new
marriage law. It was revised in 1980.
(SSFC, 1/14/01, p.D8)
1950 Ah Bing (Hua Jan-Jun
b.1893), blind Chinese folk musician, died. A ballet based on his
life, written by Yong Yao premiered in 2006 in San Jose, Ca., under
the title “Moon Reflection on Crystal Spring."
1950-1959 During the 1950s bicycles took over the
flat streets of Beijing from rickshaws.
(SFC, 10/23/98, p.D4)
1951 Jan 17, China refused a
cease-fire in Korea.
1951 Feb 1, The UN condemned
the People's Republic of China as aggressor in Korea.
1951 Feb 13, At the Battle of
Chipyong-ni, in Korea, U.N. troops contained the Chinese forces'
offensive in a two-day battle.
1951 Mar 24, MacArthur
threatened the Chinese with an extension of the Korean War if the
proposed truce was not accepted.
1951 Mar 28, China proclaimed
the “peaceful liberation" of Tibet. Some 5,000 Tibetans were killed
in the process.
(Econ, 7/10/10, p.40)
1951 Mar 29, The Chinese
rejected MacArthur's offer for a truce in Korea.
1951 May 16, Chinese Communist
Forces launched a second step, fifth-phase offensive [in Korea] and
gained up to 20 miles of territory.
1951 May 23, The Dalai
Lama signed the “17-point agreement" in which he agreed to accept
Chinese sovereignty over Tibet.
1951 May 27, Chinese Communists
forced the Dalai Lama to surrender his army to Beijing.
1951 Sep 3, On the eve of the
San Francisco conference, Premier Stalin and Mao Tse-tung, in an
exchange of personal messages, reaffirmed the unity and "unbreakable
friendship" of the Soviet Union and Communist China in the "just
cause of the struggle against Japanese imperialism and in defense of
peace in the Far East."
1951 Mayor Chen Yi of Shanghai
began the Shanghai Museum.
(WSJ, 5/9/96, p.A-16)
1951 China and the Vatican
broke formal relations after missionaries were kicked out and
Catholics were forced to sever ties with Rome.
(SFC, 1/7/00, p.A14)
1951 Peng Zhen began his
15-year mayorship of Beijing.
(SFEC, 4/27/97, p.B8)
1951 The average life
expectancy in China was 46. By 2011 it was 73.
(Econ, 6/25/11, SR p.16)
1951 Indian troops occupied
Tawang, some 2000 square km. of valley and high mountains just south
of the McMahon Line in northeast Arunachal Pradesh. This took place
shortly after China dispatched troops to Tibet.
(Econ, 8/21/10, p.18)
1952 Oct 8, The Chinese began
an offensive in Korea.
1952 Nov 29, A plane carrying
CIA paramilitary officers on their first overseas assignment, John
T. Downey (22) of New Britain, Conn., and Richard G. Fecteau (25),
of Lynn, Mass., was shot down over Jilin province. Pilots, Robert C.
Snoddy (31), a native of Roseburg, Ore., and Norman A. Schwartz (29)
of Louisville, Ky., did not survive. Downey and Fecteau were
captured. They had been assigned to a covert program called "Third
Force," intended to create a resistance network. Fecteau was
released by China in December 1971 and Downey in March 1973, shortly
after President Richard Nixon publicly acknowledged Downey's CIA
(SFC, 7/3/98, p.A11)(SFC, 7/10/02, p.A12)(AP,
1952 Larry Wu-Tai Chin, a US
CIA translator, began spying for China. He was convicted while
retired in 1986 and within days killed himself.
(SFC, 11/19/96, p.A17)
1953 Jan 30, President Dwight
Eisenhower announced that he would pull the Seventh Fleet out of
Formosa to permit the Nationalists to attack Communist China.
1953 Nov 23, North Korea signed
10-year aid pact with Peking.
1953 China’s first 5-year plan,
formulated with Soviet help, called for the manufacture of 6 million
tons of cement, 5m tons of pig iron, and 4.12m tons of steel. All of
these targets were surpassed by 1957.
1954 May 20, Generalissimo
Chiang Kai-shek became president of Nationalist China.
1954 Jun, India’s Jawaharla
Nehru and China’s Zhou Enlai devised and embraced “five principles
of peaceful coexistence."
(Econ, 7/31/04, p.36)
1954 Aug 11, After Chinese
Nationalists placed 58,000 troops on Quemoy and 15,000 troops on
Matsu the ROC began building defensive structures and the PRC began
shelling ROC installations on Quemoy. Zhou Enlai, Premier of the
People's Republic of China responded with a declaration that Taiwan
must be "liberated." He dispatched the People's Liberation Army
(PLA) and began shelling both Quemoy and Matsu.
1954 Sep 3, China began
artillery bombing on Quemoy. Despite warnings from the US against
any attacks on the Republic of China, the People's Liberation Army
unleashed a heavy artillery bombardment of Quemoy, and intensified
its actions in November by bombing the Tachen Islands.
1954 China’s first constitution
said that citizens enjoyed “freedom of residence and freedom to
change their residence."
(Econ, 4/19/14, SR p.7)
1954 Deng Xiaoping condemned
the "Gao Gang-Rao Shushi anti-Party clique."
(WSJ, 2/20/97, p.A20)
1954 In China the bingtuan was
founded in Xinjiang province. It consisted mainly of demobilized Han
soldiers and were ordered to turn desert areas into farmland while
keeping their guns to fend off potential Soviet incursions. Mao
Zedong abolished the corps in 1975. Deng Xiaoping re-established it
(Econ, 5/25/13, p.46)
1954 In China a flood on the
Yangtze killed 30,000 people.
(NH, 7/96, p.2)
1955 Sep, Chinese-born Tsien
Hsue-sen, an American-trained rocketry expert and co-founder of
NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, left the United States for China.
His departure came after five years of virtual house arrest
following accusations of communist sympathies. He became the leader
of China's rocketry program.
1955 Bishop Ignatius King
(1901-2000) was arrested, brought to trial and sentenced to life in
prison for leading a "counterrevolutionary clique under the cloak of
religion." He was released in 1985. In 1979 he was secretly named a
cardinal by Pope John Paul II.
(SFC, 3/13/00, p.B2)
1955 Zhang Bairen (1915-2005),
Roman Catholic bishop of Hanyang, was imprisoned and spent 24 years
in prison and slave labor camp for refusing to renounce the Pope as
(SFC, 10/13/05, p.B7)
1955 Tibetan fighting flared up
in the eastern Kham region prompting an exodus of refugees and
swelling the ranks of resistance to Chinese rule.
(WSJ, 8/30/08, p.A8)
1955 Sydney Wignall
(1922-2012), a Welsh explorer, launched the first Welsh Himalayan
Expedition. The 3-man team was captured by the Chinese and held for
two months under interrogation for spying. 25 years later it was
revealed that Wignall had been recruited by Gen. Thimayya of the
Indian army to find out what the Chinese were up to in Tibet. In
1997 his book: "Spy on the Roof of the World" was published.
(SFEC,12/14/97, BR p.4)(Econ, 5/5/12, p.94)
1955-1972 Jin Yong, founder and publisher of the
Hong Kong Ming Pao newspaper, authored a series of Kung Fu novels
that ran to 36 volumes.
(WSJ, 3/9/00, p.A24)
1956 Aug 23, US Navy pilot Lt.
James B. Deane Jr. was shot out of the sky on a nighttime spy flight
off the coast of China. The Martin P4M-1Q Mercator in which Deane
and 15 other men were flying was shot down over the East China Sea.
China later acknowledged that its jet fighters attacked the Mercator
as it scooped up electronic intelligence on military radars and
other sensitive Chinese systems. The remains of four crew members
were recovered, two by the crew of a U.S. search vessel and two by
China, which returned the bodies through British authorities in
Shanghai. The other 12 were never found.
1956 John Hersey authored his
novel "A Single Pebble," about a trip through the Yangtze River
(SSFC, 10/27/02, p.M3)
1956 China extended an olive
branch to Washington, inviting American reporters to visit the
People's Republic for the first time. But the offer, coming just
three years after US and Chinese forces fought each other in the
Korean War, was flatly rebuffed.
1956 The Communist Party of
China (CPC) encouraged its citizens to openly express their opinions
of the communist regime the Hundred Flowers Campaign. Differing
views and solutions to national policy were encouraged based on the
famous expression by Communist Party Chairman Mao Zedong. After a
brief period of liberalization, Mao abruptly changed course.
1956 In Guangzhou the Canton
Trade Fair was begun with markets held in April and October of every
(WSJ, 5/7/96, p.A-14)
1956 China introduced the Panda
cigarette brand and it became the exclusive property of the
political and military elite.
(WSJ, 5/26/04, p.A1)
1956 In China the Baiyin copper
mine opened in Gansu province. By 1988 Baiyin’s state-owned mine was
exhausted. In 2003 the central government declared Baiyin a city on
the path to “resource exhaustion." In 2008 Baiyin was selected for a
pilot program in transformation.
(Econ, 1/11/14, p.36)
1956 A Sino-Soviet split
developed along ideological lines.
(TL, 1988, p.115)
1956-58 The Soviet Union provided
intermediate-range ballistic missile to China for study.
1957 Feb 27, Mao made his
speech "On Correct Handling of Contradictions Among People."
1957 Apr, Mao experimented
under the slogan: “Let a hundred flowers bloom, and a hundred
schools of thought contend." Alarmed at the resulting barrage of
criticism, he reversed course and some 300,000 of intellectuals were
jailed or sent to the countryside to do manual labor.
1957 Jun 8, Mao ordered an
"anti-rightist" witch hunt and Deng Xiaoping executed it.
1957 Sep 16, Qi Baishi
(b.1864), Chinese artist, died in Beijing. In 2011 one of his ink
paintings was auctioned for $65 million.
1957 Nov, Communist bosses
gathered in Moscow. Mao Zedong predicted that between a third and a
half of the world’s population might be killed in a nuclear
conflagration, but that most survivors would be living in the
socialist block and “imperialism would be razed to the ground."
1957 The words "freedom of
migration" were struck from China’s constitution. This effectively
confined the peasants to the land where they were born. Authorities
did not loosen up until 1983.
(USAT, 2/13/97, p.8A)
1957 The Chinese Catholic
Patriotic Association (CCPA) was established to ensure that Chinese
Catholics not act contrary to the interests of their country.
1957 China under Mao Zedong set
up its reform-through-labor system, known as laojiao.
(Econ, 1/12/13, p.13)
1957 China’s Dongzhang
Reservoir in Fuqing Province was filled. Prehistoric tombs were
(Arch, 1/05, p.12)
1957 A flu pandemic began in
China and killed 1-4 million people. It caused about 70,000 deaths
in the United States. First identified in China in late February
1957, the Asian flu spread to the United States by June 1957. The
Asian flu broke out in Guizhou, China, and over the next two years
killed at least 1 million people worldwide. This H2N2 influenza
virus continued to circulate until 1968, when it transformed via
antigenic shift into influenza A virus subtype H3N2, the cause of
the 1968 influenza pandemic.
1957 The first team of 6
Tibetans trained at a Saipan US CIA base and then airdropped back
into Tibet with modern weapons and radios. From 1957 to the early
1970s America spirited young Tibetans out through East Pakistan,
trained them in Colorado, and parachuted them back to Tibet where
they fought the Chinese army.
(WSJ, 8/30/08, p.A8)(Econ, 1/2/16, p.64)
1957-1960 In China some 3,000 scholars and
government officials were incarcerated at the Jiabiangou forced
labor camp in the northwestern desert. Only a few hundred outlived
the camp. In 1997 Xianhui Yang (b.1946) began speaking survivors and
over the next 5 years interviewed nearly 100. In 2000 he published a
collection in China of 13 stories. In 2009 “Woman From Shanghai:
Tales of Survival From a Chinese Labor Camp" was published in
(SFC, 9/2/09, p.E2)
1957-1964 Jean Pasqualini spent these years in a
labor camp after being sentenced to 12 years detention for "counter
revolutionary activities." His 1973 book "Prisoner of Mao" described
(SFC, 10/14/97, p.A19)
1958 Mar 24, Kejun, a Chinese
army doctor posted to Tibet, died soon after his arrival. His newly
wed wife and doctor, Shu Wen, traveled to Tibet to verify that he
had died. In 2005 her story was told in novel form by Xinran: “Sky
Burial: An Epic Love Story of Tibet," translated by Julia Lovell and
(SSFC, 7/17/05, p.F1)
1958 May 18, Chairman Mao Tse
Tung spoke at the Second Session of the Eight Party Congress and
called for schoolchildren to assist in the elimination of the four
pests, which included sparrows, rats, flies and mosquitoes. A
massive 3-day campaign soon began to exterminate sparrows, which
were thought harmful because they ate the peasant's grain. Numerous
other birds were killed in the process and the following year a
plague of locusts became a problem. In 2001 Judith Shapiro, Donald
Worster and Alfred W. Crosby authored “Mao's War Against Nature:
Politics & the Environment in Revolutionary China."
1958 May 23, Mao Tse Tung
started his "Great leap forward" movement in China. China tried to
modernize its economy in "The Great Leap Forward" and urged
factories and farms to meet impossible production targets. Farmers
were forced to pool their possessions and devote all land to grain
cultivation. Rather than concede failure, local officials misled
central planners about output. The result: a famine that may have
killed as many as 30 million people by the end of 1960. The story is
told by Jasper Becker in his 1997 book "Hungry Ghosts: Mao’s Secret
(WSJ 12/10/93)(SFEC, 10/7/96, A12)(WSJ, 2/7/97,
1958 Jul 31, There was an
anti-Chinese uprising in Tibet.
1958 Aug 23, China resumed fire
on Quemoi and Matsu.
1958 Sep 11, Responding to
Communist China's artillery attacks on the Taiwan-held islands of
Quemoy and Matsu, President Eisenhower said in a broadcast address
the US had to be prepared to fight to prevent a communist takeover
of the islands.
1958 China’s Mao Zedong wrote a
poem titled "Farewell to the god of plague" to celebrate the
country's victory over snail fever. Snail fever remained a major
health risk for more than 50 million Chinese, with approximately 1
million people and several hundred thousand livestock infected as of
1958 China began construction
of its National Art Museum of China (NAMOC) in Beijing. It was
formally opened to the public in 1963. Construction of a new
facility, based on a design by French architect Jean Nouvel, was set
to begin in 2014.
1958 China’s Mao Zedong
introduced the hukou, a certificate system, in order to prevent a
flood of migrants into cities. It was eased in the 1980s when China
needed cheap labor for its factories.
(Econ, 4/19/14, SR p.7)(Econ, 5/17/14, p.43)
1958 China introduced its first
leading small group, a shadowy committee that often eclipses the
power of more public political structures.
(Econ 6/10/17, p.43)
1958 Yu Qiuli became petroleum
minister and took charge of building the Daqing oil field, the
largest in China.
(SFC, 2/6/99, p.A21)
1958 In China Ai Qing
(1910-1996), a poet, was denounced as a rightist and spent the next
18 years in hard labor in the Xinjiang region. His son Ai Weiwei
(b.1957), later became renowned as an artist and political
1958 In China Christian Pastor
Samuel Lamb (1924-2013) was jailed a 2nd time for 20 years. He had
already served time from 1955-57. Fewer than 400 worshippers
attended his underground church, Damazhan. He was a leader in the
Chinese house church movement, and known for his resistance against
participation in the churches of the state-controlled "Three-Self
1958 The Chinese government
updated the system for spelling Chinese words with Roman letters. It
also introduced simplified written Chinese characters in a system
called pinyin. Zhou Youguang (1906-2017) invented pinyin, the
romanized spelling system that linked ancient Chinese writing to the
modern age. He had been drafted in 1955 to lead the committee in
developing an alphabetic system.
(SFC, 5/8/06, p.A1)(CSM, 1/15/17)
1958 The US CIA began
airdropping weapons over Tibet.
(WSJ, 8/30/08, p.A8)
1958-1961 China underwent its Great Leap Forward.
1958-1962 China experienced a great famine during
this period. An estimated 36 million people died. In 2008 Yang
Jisheng authored “Tombstone: The Great Chinese Famine 1958-1962." In
2012 the book became available in English.
(Econ, 10/27/12, p.83)
1959 Mar 10, In Tibet an
uprising against Chinese occupation force took place in Lhasa. China
reacted harshly, arrested tens of thousands and held strict control
until the late 1970s. The Chinese forced the Dalai Lama, Tenzin
Gyatso, and many of his followers to flee to India. The Communists
destroyed 6,500 monasteries. About 250 monks of the Drepung Loseling
Monastery escaped to India and established a replica of their
(SFEC, 10/7/96, A12)(TMC, 1994, p.1959)(SFC,
10/10/96, p.E1)(WSJ, 9/4/97, p.A9)(MC, 3/10/02)
1959 Mar 28, China announced
the dissolution of the Tibetan government. The State Council of the
People's Republic of China dissolved the Government of Tibet, which
according to official history, liberated Tibetans from feudalism and
theocracy. On January 19, 2009, this day was adopted as a holiday,
“Serf Emancipation Day," by the Tibetan legislature.
1959 Mar 30, Dalai Lama
(b.1935), Tenzin Gyatso, having fled the Chinese suppression of a
national uprising in Tibet, crossed the border into India. India
granted him political asylum.
1959 Apr 27, Liu Shaoqi
(d.1969) was named president of China in the wake of the Great Leap
1959 Oct 23, Chinese troops
moved into India and 17 died.
1959 Dec 4, Peking pardoned Pu
Yi, ex-emperor of China and of the Japanese puppet state of
Manchukuo. Aisingyoro Henry Puyi, the last emperor, Xuantong, was
declared rehabilitated and released as "citizen" Puyi. He settled
down as a gardener and wrote the book "From Emperor to Citizen."
(SFC, 6/11/97, p.C16)(HN, 12/4/98)
1959 The Chinese Natural
History Museum was built at the eastern end of Tiananmen Square. In
1985 archeologist Yu Weichao became its director.
(Arch, 9/00, p.38)
1959 China’s Great Hall of the
People was completed in Beijing.
(WSJ, 3/13/06, p.A14)
1959 In China defense minister
Peng Dehuai was sacked for criticizing Mao’s “Great leap Forward"
economic experiment. Lin Biao replaced Defense Minister Peng Dehuai.
(Econ, 1/14/06, p.84)(AP, 7/16/07)
1959 The People’s Republic of
China (PRC) approved the construction of a National Grand Theater
along with the Three Gorges Dam Project. Construction on the theater
did not begin until 2000.
(WSJ, 9/6/00, p.A24)
1959 Liu Chi Kung, a world
class pianist, was jailed for 7 years by cultural revolutionaries
with no piano. He played concerts after being released and said he
had practiced daily while jailed in his mind.
(SFEC, 10/22/00, Z1 p.2)
1959 China discovered huge oil
reserves in the northern basin of the Songhua and Liao Rivers. This
ended dependence on Soviet supplies. The area was named Daqing
(WSJ, 3/1/00, p.A8)(Econ, 5/1/04, p.41)
1959-1961 In China mass starvation followed Mao’s
"Great Leap Forward." The famine killed millions of people. The
famine of this period is described by Jasper Becker in his book:
"Hungry Ghosts: Mao’s Secret Famine" (1997).
(WSJ, 2/7/97, p.A14)(Econ, 5/8/10, p.28)(SFEC,
8/17/97, BR p.8)
1960 Jun 4, The Taiwan island
of Quemoy was hit by 500 artillery shells fired from the coast of
1960 Aug 13, The Soviet Union
withdrew advisors, aid and other support from China.
(SFC, 10/1/99, p.A14)(MC, 8/13/02)
1960 China launched its first
rocket despite a cutoff of Soviet aid amid a political falling-out.
1960 China completed the
construction of the Sanmenxia Dam on the middle-reaches of the
Yellow River near Sanmenxia on the border Shanxi and Henan Province.
Soon after completion, sediment-accumulation threatened the benefits
of the dam. Silt balance was achieved in 1970. Two more bottom
sluices began operating in 1990 along with another in 1999 and the
final in 2000.
1960s A woman was arrested in
Hunan who spoke a language that was not understood. Her speech was
found to be Nu Shu, a secret language developed by women hundreds of
years earlier. The 1999 film "Nu Shu: A Hidden Language of Women in
China" was directed by Yang Yueqing.
(SFC, 10/22/99, p.A16)
1960 Tibetan fighters retreated
to a mountain range on Tibet’s border with Nepal, known as Mustang.
(WSJ, 8/30/08, p.A8)
1960-1962 In the famine of this period an
estimated 30 million people died.
(SFC, 10/14/97, p.A19)
1961 Feb 16, China used it's
1st nuclear reactor.
1961 Feb 22, British Foreign
Sec. Douglas-Home said in a "Top Secret" letter to Defense Minister
Harold Watkinson that, "It must be fully obvious to the Americans
that Hong Kong is indefensible by conventional means and that in the
event of a Chinese attack, nuclear strikes against China would be
the only alternative to complete abandonment of the colony." The
document was made public in 2006.
1961 Jul 11, China and North
Korea signed the Treaty on Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual
Assistance. This committed China to defend North Korea if attacked.
1962 Aug 15, Lei Feng (b.1940),
a Chinese revolutionary soldier, died after being hit by a falling
telephone pole. Mao Zedong recognized Lei Feng for his humble
heroism, said to include washing his comrades' uniforms and giving
his pay to the needy. A government publicity campaign later used him
as a model to promote selflessness.
1962 Oct 20, A Chinese army
landed in India for a brief border war in the Himalayas. The
northeast Indian state of Arunachal Pradesh, twice the size of
Switzerland, was occupied in a week-long assault by China and closed
to foreign tourists. Some 3,000 Indian officers and men were killed.
China gained control from India of the northeast region of Kashmir
known as Aksai Chin. Some 4,500 lives were lost before China
unilaterally declared the war over. Arunachal Pradesh re-opened in
1993. In 2015 Bruce Riedel authored “JFK’s Forgotten Crisis: Tibet,
the CIA and the Sino-Indian War."
(WSJ, 5/16/96, p.A-10)(SFC, 11/29/96, p.A1)(SSFC,
12/30/01, p.A22)(SSFC, 1/4/04, p.C10)(Econ, 7/5/08, p.95)(Econ,
8/21/10, p.17)(Econ, 10/20/12, p.36)(Econ, 1/2/16, p.63)
1962 Nov 21, China agreed to a
cease-fire on India-China border.
1962 Da Chen, author, was born
in Fujian province. At age 23 he moved to America and later authored
the autobiographical works: "Colors of the Mountain (2000) and
"Sounds of the River" (2002).
(SSFC, 2/10/02, p.M3)
1962 Pu Yi, ex-emperor of
China, married Li Shuxian, a gold digging former dance hall hostess.
In 2001 Jia Yinghua authored "Unlocking the Secrets of the Emperor’s
(SFC, 5/11/01, p.D6)
1962 China exacted control over
western Tibet and many nomad refugees fled to Ladakh.
1962 The Panchem Lama, senior
Buddhist cleric after the Dalai Lama, issued a 120-page report that
described conditions in Tibet under Chinese control. He described
starvation due to the Chinese "Great leap Forward" program when
authorities confiscated the nomad’s food reserves. The Panchem Lama
was arrested and sent to Beijing for rehabilitation until 1988.
(SFEC, 10/7/96, A12)
1963 Mar 13, China
invited Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev to visit Peking.
1963 Mar, Pakistan and China
signed a historic border agreement. Three years later, the two
countries agreed to construct a road that would provide a hitherto
non-existent road-link for mutual benefit. In 1978 the Karakoram
Highway from Kashgar, China, to the edge of Rawalpindi, Pakistan,
1963 Pan Tianshou,
traditional-style painter, created "Red Lotus."
(WSJ, 2/19/98, p.A20)
1964 Feb 9, The U.S. embassy in
Moscow was stoned by Chinese and Vietnamese students.
1964 Mar 15, Cambodia was
receiving military aid from Communist China.
1964 Oct 16, Red China
detonated its first atomic bomb, codenamed "596," on the Lop Nur
Test Ground, and became the world's 4th nuclear power.
(TMC, 1994, p.1964)(AP, 10/16/07)
1964 China launched its
Dongfeng ballistic missile.
(WSJ, 10/23/07, p.B4)
1964 The US used an unmanned
aerial vehicle (UAV) called the Firebee, a small jet-powered drone,
for taking photographs over China. It was launched from another
plane and released a parachute upon return for pickup by a
helicopter. It was later used in the Vietnam war.
(Econ, 12/8/07, TQ p.23)
1965 Sep 9, Tibet was made an
autonomous region of China.
1965 Nov 17, General Meeting of
UN refused admittance of China.
1965 Nov, Yao Wenyuan
(1931-2005), one of China’s Gang of Four, published a piece titled
“On the New Historical Beijing Opera ‘Hai Rui Dismissed from
Office." It was a 10,000 word diatribe against the popular play.
(Econ, 1/14/06, p.84)
1965 The Gang of Four included
Wang Hongwen, Yao Wen-yuan, Zhang Chunqiao (1917-2005) and Mao
Zedong’s third wife, Jiang Qing. All four were relatively
low-ranking members of the Communist party, albeit favored by Mao.
Beginning around 1965, they were able to manipulate the media and
youth to leverage their positions over party moderates, such as Deng
Xiaoping. Mao’s death in 1976 ended their influence and led to their
imprisonment and trial in 1980-81 for their role in the Cultural
(HNQ, 6/6/01)(SFC, 5/11/05, p.B7)
1965 China began the
construction of a subway system in Beijing. The first line of 17
miles began regular service in 1981. By 2008 the subway network
boasted 8 lines over 120 miles.
(WSJ, 1/6/09, p.A10)
1965 In China the local
government of Pingyang, near the southern provincial capital of
Nanning, built a smelting factory for lead and antimony. For decades
the waste was discarded in piles near farmland, where rains washed
the metals into fields and ponds used to water crops. Villagers
later tested for extremely high levels of lead, cadmium and other
metals. The factory was torn down in 2004.
(WSJ, 6/30/07, p.A12)
1965 Chinese military
researchers isolated artemisinin, a compound based on sweet
wormwood, and found to be very effective against malaria.
(SFC, 5/10/04, p.A5)(Econ, 11/20/04, p.81)
1966 May 16, Mao exploited his
cult status as Communist China's "red, red sun" and urged young
Chinese to revolt against traditional culture and leaders. The
country descended into the ideological frenzy of the Cultural
Revolution. Teenagers armed with red booklets of Mao's speeches
battled one another and dispatched millions to the countryside. Many
"capitalist roaders" were hounded to death. The Cultural Revolution
was a radical upheaval of Chinese society initiated by Chinese
leader Mao Zedong. Mao, fearing his influence fading, chose to
promote the movement, which amounted to anarchy and terror erupting
in China’s urban centers. In doing so, he circumvented his
designated successors with individuals committed to his vision,
including the Gang of Four.
(WSJ 12/10/93)(HNQ, 6/6/01)(Econ, 5/20/06, p.43)
1966 Jun, Radicals hounded Peng
Zhen from office as mayor of Beijing under charges that he had
transformed Beijing into a personal empire in opposition to Mao’s
(SFEC, 4/27/97, p.B8)
1966 Aug 31, In China a
response to Mao’s call for a Cultural Revolution led to a massacre
in Hongsheng, one of 13 communes in Beijing’s Daxing district, that
left 110 people dead. The official death toll for all 13 communes
was put at 324. Over 2 weeks some 2,000 Beijing residents were
(Econ, 5/20/06, p.43)
1966 Dec, In China an outbreak
of meningitis led to the beginning of a CIA program, one of the
first in "disease intelligence," a boutique field of espionage and
analysis that aims to uncover the signs before and consequences
after a pandemic.
(Good Morning America, 6/20/20)
1966 William Hinton (1919-2004)
authored “Fanshen: A Documentary of Revolution in a Chinese
(Econ, 5/29/04, p.85)
1966 Lao She (b.1899), author,
committed suicide. His work included the play "Teahouse" and the
novel "Rickshaw Boy."
(WSJ, 5/10/01, p.A16)
1966 Chen Mengjia (b.1911),
Chinese poet, oracle-bone scholar and spiritual opponent of the
Communist’s simplification of the writing system, committed suicide.
1966-1972 There were no films produced during this
time on the Chinese mainland.
(Econ, 4/29/06, p.69)
1966-1976 The period of Mao’s "Cultural
Revolution." Scholars later believed that over 1 million people were
killed or driven to suicide in China during this period. In 1986
Tang Tsou, Univ. of Chicago Prof., authored "The Cultural Revolution
and Post-Mao Reforms: A Historical Perspective." In 2016 Frank
Dikotter authored “The Cultural Revolution" A people’s History
(SFEC, 10/7/96, A12)(SFC, 8/17/99, p.C2)(Econ,
5/20/06, p.44)(Econ, 5/14/16, p.73)
1967 Jun 17, China detonated
its 1st hydrogen bomb and became the world's 4th thermo-nuclear
1967 Aug 7, A speech by Wang Li
to the Red Guards led their violent takeover of the Foreign Ministry
building. In the weeks that followed they rampaged among foreign
diplomats and often beat envoys.
(SFC, 10/23/96, p.C2)
1967 Aug 22, The British
Mission in Beijing surrendered to the Red Guards.
(Econ, 2/13/10, p.87)
1967 Sep, The government
delegations of China, Tanzania and Zambia held talks in Beijing and
formally signed the "Agreement of the Government of the People's
Republic of China, the Government of the United Republic of Tanzania
and the Government of the Republic of Zambia on the Construction of
the Tanzania-Zambia Railway".
1967 Oct 17, Aisin-Gioro Henry
Puyi (61), the last emperor of China, died of cancer. Official
reports said his death occurred while under persecution from
ultra-leftists of the Cultural Revolution.
1967 The Chinese Cultural
Revolution briefly spilled over into Hong Kong with street riots.
(SFEC, 6/22/97, p.A14)
1967 Liu Shaoqi (d.1969),
president of China since 1959, and his wife Wang Guangmei were put
under house arrest in Beijing. The couple were soon separated and
imprisoned. Liu died in prison. Wang Guangmei (d.2006) spent nearly
12 years in prison before she was released in 1979.
1967-1982 Wang Li, close associate to Mao Zedong,
was jailed. He had been deputy editor-in-chief of the party
magazine, Red Flag, and was accused of inciting the Red Guards to
(SFC, 10/23/96, p.C2)
1968 Oct 31, Liu Shaoqi
(1898-1968), president of China since 1959, was ousted. Mao had
called him the No.1 Capitalist Roader.
1968 China established a
research center to prepare for manned space flight, with 1973 target
date for launch. Program later canceled because of lack of money and
1968 In Foshan, China, He
Xiangjian founded Medea to make plastic bottlecaps, glass bottles
and rubber balls. In 2016 it gobbled up Kuka, a German robotics firm
in a deal worth nearly $5 billion.
(Econ, 4/8/17, SR p.8)
1969 Mar 2, Chinese and Russian
soldiers clashed on Damansky Island and approximately 70 died. The
Soviet and Chinese border troops had been skirmishing since 1959
along the 2,500 mile border. Recent skirmishes were along the Ussuri
River border. The Soviets used a full scale tank assault to repulse
a Chinese attack on the island of Damansky. A border treaty in the
1990s gave the island to China.
p.A1)(SFC, 12/28/96, p.A13)(WSJ, 12/16/05,
1969 Mar 15, A violent
Chinese-Russian border dispute left 100s dead.
1969 Apr 1, Lin Biao
(1907-1971) was named Mao's constitutional successor. Chinese
historical accounts later said Biao showed his true nature two years
later as a murderous opportunist obsessed with seizing power.
1969 Jun 11, Soviet and Chinese
troops clashed on Sinkiang border.
1969 Nov 12, Liu Shaoqi
(b.1898), former Chinese president (1959-1968), died after being
tortured in prison.
1970 Jan 5, A 7.7 earthquake in
Yunnan province killed over 15,000 people and was covered up by
authorities amid the chaos of the cultural revolution.
(SFC, 1/8/00, p.A8)
1970 Mar 5, A nuclear
non-proliferation treaty went into effect after 43 nations ratified
it. France and China only signed on in 1992.
(AP, 3/5/98)(Econ, 6/10/06, p.21)
1970 Apr 24, China launched its
1st satellite, known as China 1 or Mao 1, to orbit on a Long March
rocket. It kept transmitting a song, "The East is Red." China became
the fifth country to launch a satellite into space, sending up the
Dongfanghong-1, which means "The East is Red."
1970 Oct 13, Canada established
diplomatic relations with China.
1970 Oct, China began
construction of the 1,160 mile Tazara Railway between Lusaka, Zambia
and the Tanzanian port of Dar es Salaam. China brought in its own
workers for the project, which in 1976 finished ahead of schedule.
1970 Nov 20, UN General
Assembly accepted membership of the People’s Republic of China.
1970 China established
relations with Ethiopia.
(WSJ, 3/29/05, p.A2)
1970 Cambodia's Prince Norodom
Sihanouk fled to China and began compiling his Bulletin Mensuel de
Documentation (Monthly Documentation Bulletin). The bulletin
continued on an off thru 2003.
(WSJ, 5/15/03, p.A1)
1970 China opened its
Sandaoling coal mine on the edge of Xinjiang province.
(Econ, 11/30/13, p.46)
1970 Wang Jinxi (47), icon of
Chinese communism, died. Known as the “iron man," he helped turn
Daqing into China’s biggest oil production center.
(Econ, 1/10/04, p.60)
1970-1980 Some 94% of China's villagers were
covered by cooperative medical schemes. But the collectives were
disbanded during market reforms of the 1980s which ended
cradle-to-grave welfare for the masses.
1971 Apr 10, The American table
tennis team arrived in China.
1971 Apr 14, President Nixon
ended a blockade against People's Republic of China.
1971 Apr, The world table
tennis championship was held in Japan. Zhuang Zedong (d.2013 at 72)
of China met Glenn Cowan of Santa Monica and their friendship
inspired Chairman Mao to invite the American team to China thus
starting ping-pong diplomacy.
(Econ, 2/23/13, p.90)
1971 Jul 9, Henry Kissinger
secretly visited China and met with Premier Zhou Enlai. The
Forbidden City in Beijing reopened for the Kissinger visit.
1971 Sep 13, Lin Biao (b.1907)
died in a plane crash in Mongolia as he was trying to flee to the
Soviet Union after the unsuccessful plot to assassinate Mao. He was
once designated as Mao's "closest comrade in arms" and hand-picked
to be the chairman's successor.
1971 Oct 25, The UN General
Assembly voted to admit the People’s Republic of China and expel
Nationalist China (Taiwan).
1971 Nov 23, The People's
Republic of China was seated in the UN Security Council. The UN vote
to admit was Oct 25.
(WUD, 1994, p. 1688)(AP, 11/23/97)
1972 Feb 17, President Nixon
departed on his historic 10-day trip to China.
(AP, 2/17/98)(SSFC, 6/9/02, p.F7)
1972 Feb 21, Pres. Nixon began
his visit to China as he and his wife arrived in Shanghai. He was
the 1st US president to visit a country not diplomatically
recognized by the US. He brought along a bottle of Schramsberg
sparkling wine from California.
(HN, 2/21/01)(AP, 2/21/04)(WSJ, 7/1/05, p.W6)
1972 Feb 22, President Nixon
met with Mao Tse-tung in Peking and Chinese Premier Chou En-Lai in
Beijing. In 2006 Margaret McMillan authored “Seize the Hour: When
Nixon Met Mao."
(HN, 2/22/98)(Econ, 10/28/06, p.93)
1972 Feb 28, President Nixon
and Chinese Premier Chou En-lai signed the Shanghai Communique at
the Jin Jiang Hotel Assembly Hall on the last night of Nixon’s
(WSJ, 3/5/97, p.A16)(AP, 2/28/07)
1972 Mar 12, The U.K. and China
agreed to establish a full diplomatic relationship. China, newly
admitted to the UN, said it wanted Hong Kong back.
(SFEC, 6/22/97, p.A14)(SFC, 7/1/97, p.A8)(HN,
1972 Apr 16, The Republic of
China presented two Pandas to the US National Zoo: Hsing-Hsing and
Ling-Ling. Ling-Ling died in 1992.
(SFC, 4/16/97, p.C14)(HN, 4/16/98)
1972 Sep 28, Japan and
Communist China agreed to re-establish diplomatic relations.
1972 Nov 22, US Pres. Nixon
ended a 22 year travel ban to China. The ban had been put in place
on February 8, 1963.
1972 Chen Yifei (b.1946),
Shanghai born artist, painted "Eulogy of the Yellow River," as
China’s Yellow River dried up for the 1st time in history before
reaching the Yellow Sea. From 1980 to 1996 he worked in the US and
became known as the Norman Rockwell of China.
(WSJ, 1/6/97, p.A10)(SFC, 3/4/02, p.A3)
1972 The documentary film
"Chung Kuo China" was directed by Michelangelo Antonioni at the
behest of the Chinese government during the cultural revolution.
(SFEC, 1/17/99, DB p.43)
1972 The Yellow River dried up
for the 1st time in history before reaching the Yellow Sea. Toxins
from cities and factories continued to make the river unfit for
irrigation and human use along much of its route.
(SFC, 3/4/02, p.A3)
1972-1974 Ji Pengfei (1910-2000) served as China’s
foreign minister. He later headed the committee that drafted the
Basic Law, a mini-constitution for Hong Kong after the 1997
(SFC, 2/19/00, p.A21)
1972-1974 The Dalai Lama urged Tibetan fighters to
return to India. Many committed suicide rather than give up the
fight against Chinese rule.
(WSJ, 8/30/08, p.A8)
1973 Feb 22, The United States
and Communist China agreed to establish liaison offices.
1973 Nov 10, In China Henry
Kissinger (b.1923) briefed Zhou Enlai (1898-1976) in the Great Hall
of the People about the Soviets and said that it was in the
interests of the US to prevent a Soviet nuclear attack on China.
(SFEC, 1/10/99, p.A18)
1973 Nov 14, In China Henry
Kissinger and Zhou Enlai agreed to provide China with satellite
intelligence on Soviet military buildup "in a manner so that no one
feels we are allies."
(SFEC, 1/10/99, p.A18)
1973 Jean Pasqualini
(1926-1997) authored "Prisoner of Mao" with journalist Rudolph
Chelminski. He told of his 7 years in China as a political prisoner
in a labor camp. He was born in Beijing to a Corsican father and
Chinese mother, Mr. Pasqualini was educated in French and British
schools in Tianjin and Shanghai. His Chinese name was Bao Ruowang.
(SFC, 10/14/97, p.A19)(http://tinyurl.com/4oc5vw)
1973 Ethiopian Airlines became
the first African carrier to fly to China.
(Econ, 10/22/16, p.59)
1973 North Korea made a filmed
version of the 8-act opera "The Flower Girl" and showed it across
(WSJ, 2/23/99, p.A20)
1974 Jan 17-1974 Jan 19, China
occupied the Paracel Islands following the Battle of Hoang Sea, a
bloody skirmish with Vietnam. Dozens of South Vietnamese sailors
drowned in a vain attempt to stop China’s annexation of the Paracel
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Hoang_Sa)(Econ, 3/31/07, SR
p.7)(Econ, 1/18/14, p.40)
1974 Feb 4, Mao Tse-tung
proclaimed a new "cultural revolution" in China.
1974 In China Wan Xizhe wrote
an anti-government petition and was sent to prison for 14 of the
next 19 years for his campaign for democracy and human rights.
(SFC, 4/5/99, p.A9)
1974 In China the Li Yi Zhe
manifesto attacked communist privileges and corruption.
(SFC, 11/26/01, p.A17)
1974 Columnist Jack Anderson
blew the cover of CIA agent James Lilley, attached to the US
representative office in Beijing. In 2004 James and Jeffrey Lilley
authored “China Hands: Nine Decades of Adventure, Espionage and
Diplomacy in Asia."
(WSJ, 5/6/04, p.D10)
1974 Mao launched the “Learn
from Dazhai" campaign. The Chinese agricultural settlement at Dazhai
was set up as a Communist utopia and peasants were encouraged to
(Arch, 9/00, p.37)
1974 In China an ancient
terracotta army created by Qin Shi Huang, China’s first emperor
(221-206BC) was discovered by a peasant digging a well. It
represented one of the greatest archaeological finds of modern
times, and was listed as a World Heritage Site in 1987.
Archeologists continued to unearth terracotta figurines from the
site into 2012.
1974 Deaths from cancer began
to escalate in the village of Dragon Range in the mountains of
Central China. Tests in 2000 showed high levels of lead and arsenic
from 4 factories in a nearby valley.
(SSFC, 11/11/01, p.F5)
1975 Apr 5, Chiang Kai-shek
(b.1887), Chinese statesman and president of the Republic
(1943-1950) and President of the Republic of China, Taiwan
(1950-1975), died at age 87. Madame Chiang Kai-shek (Soong Mayling)
moved to New York following her husband's death. In 1982 Sterling
Seagrave authored "The Soong Dynasty." In 2009 Jay Taylor authored
“The Generalissimo: Chiang Kai-shek and the Struggle for Modern
(WUD, 1994, p.254)(AP, 5/5/97)(SFC, 1/27/00,
p.E1,5)(Econ, 5/9/09, p.86)
1975 Jul 1, Thailand and China
signed a formal agreement on diplomatic relations.
1975 Jul 11, Archaeologists
unearthed an army of 8,000 life-size clay figures created more than
2,000 years ago for the Emperor Qin Shi Huangdi (Shihuangdi). [see
210BC] Villagers had uncovered the first of the figures in 1974.
(HN, 7/11/01)(Econ, 9/8/07, p.87)
1975 Aug 7, In China a dam
collapse in Henan province killed tens of thousands of people. The
event was covered up for many years. A typhoon from the South China
Sea brought three successive days of enormous rain storms to the
area of southern Henan Province. Altogether 62 dams failed in one
night, including two major dams. As a result of this catastrophe
85,600 people died according to the official government figures but
others place the toll at 230 thousand.
(WSJ, 8/29/07, p.A12)(
1975 Sep 15, Feng Zikai
(b.1898), influential Chinese painter and pioneering manhua artist
popular in the 1920s and 1930s, died.
1975 Oct 20, China and India
engaged in a border skirmish at Tulung La that left a number of
soldiers killed. Four Assam Rifles personnel were ambushed and
killed at Tulung La.
1975 In China Mou Qizhong
co-authored the book "Whither China" that criticized the Cultural
Revolution and earned him a four-year prison term.
(WSJ, 8/28/96, p.A1,4)
1975 Aides of Chairman Mao
ordered pieces of white porcelain dappled with pink plum and peach
blossoms to gain his favor. They were made at the Ceramics Industry
Research Institute in southern Jiangxi province. In 1986 there was
an auction in Beijing that drew about $1 million for 87 of the
(SFEC, 12/15/96, p.C4)
1975 China’s First Vice Premier
Deng Xiaoping (1904-1997) ordered the army to crackdown on a Muslim
village in Yunnan province. This resulted in some 1,600 deaths
including 300 children.
(Econ, 10/22/11, p.104)
1975 In China Yu Qiuli was
appointed Vice-Minister of Metallurgy.
1975 Chen Xilian (d.1999 at age
84) was named vice-premier of China. He resigned after 5 years to
make way for economic reformers favored by Deng Xiaoping.
(SFC, 6/12/99, p.A23)
1975 Jiang Hua (d.1999 at 93)
was appointed president of China’s Supreme People's Court.
(SFC, 12/25/99, p.B4)
1975 Hong Kong established
China’s first reserve to protect migrating shore birds at Mai Poi.
(Econ, 12/20/08, p.67)
1976 Jan 8, Chou En-lai (78),
Chinese premier (1949-1976), died in Beijing.
1976 Feb 27, The final meeting
between Mao tse Tung and Richard Nixon took place.
1976 Apr 7, China's leadership
deposed Deputy Prime Minister Deng Xiaoping and appointed Hua
Kuo-feng (Guofeng) prime minister and first deputy chairman of the
1976 Jul 28, In China a 7.8-8.2
earthquake in the northern city of Tangshan killed at least 242,000
people, according to an official estimate.
(AP, 7/28/97)(SFC, 1/8/00,
1976 Jul, China completed the
construction of a railway between Tanzania and Zambia.
1976 Sep 9, Mao Tse-tung (82),
Chinese Communist party chairman (1949-76) died in Beijing. "Who
controls a man’s ideas controls the man." In 1965 he launched the
controversial Cultural Revolution, an often-brutal campaign to
reform Chinese society. He was later held responsible for over 70
million deaths. Mao Zedong’s death triggered a 2-year power
struggle. The Cultural Revolution's chief architects, Mao’s widow
(Jiang Qing) and 3 others, the so-called Gang of Four, were jailed.
Deng Xiaoping returned from disgrace and eventually seized power. In
2005 Jung Chang and Jon Halliday authored “Mao: The Unknown Story."
(SFEC, 10/7/96, A9)(WSJ, 5/12/98, p.A22)(SSFC,
10/23/05, p.M1)(AP, 9/9/07)
1976 Oct 6, The so-called "Gang
of Four," Chairman Mao Tse-tung's widow, Jiang Qing, and 3
associates (Zhang Chunqiao (d.2005), Yao Wenyuan, and Wang Hongwen)
were arrested in Peking, setting in motion an extended period of
turmoil in the Chinese Communist Party.
(SFC, 12/25/99, p.B4)(Econ, 5/21/05, p.90)
1976 Oct 12, It was announced
in China that Hua Guo-feng (1921-2008) had been named to succeed the
late Mao Tse-tung as chairman of the Communist Party. He was
effectively stripped of his powers in 1978 and formally lost the
chairmanship in 1981.
1976 In China Huang Hua
(1913-2010), a former translator for Mao Zedong, began serving as
foreign minister and continued to 1982. Huang oversaw the formation
of diplomatic ties with Washington in 1979 and accompanied paramount
leader Deng Xiaoping on his tour of the United States that year.
1976 India and China
re-established diplomatic ties. PM Indira Gandhi chose K. R.
Narayannan to serve as ambassador to Beijing.
(AP, 7/25/98)(SFC, 11/10/05, p.B8)(Econ, 8/21/10,
1976 In China the Triangle
Group, a tire maker, was founded by the local Weihai government. In
2008 it was scheduled to become a publicly owned company.
(Econ, 6/28/08, p.72)
1977 May 22, Final European
scheduled run of Orient Express took place after 94 years.
1977 China at this time had
some 300-odd museums, most of them little more than displays of
Communist Party propaganda. By year 2000 the number had grown to
(Econ, 6/16/07, p.49)
1977 Jul 22, Deng Xiaoping was
(SFC, 2/20/96, p.A4)
1978 Feb 16, China and Japan
signed a $20 billion trade pact, which was the most important move
since the 1972 resumption of diplomatic ties.
1978 Feb, After China’s
Cultural Revolution ended, some books were gradually unbanned. A few
novels by Balzac were sold openly in Beijing's Xinhua Book Stores.
1978 Aug 12, China’s Deng
Xiaoping and Japan normalized relations. Japan signed a Peace and
Friendship Treaty with China in Beijing.
8/23/03, p.34)(Econ, 8/25/12, p.11)
1978 Oct 23, China and Japan
exchanged treaty ratification documents in Tokyo, formally ending
four decades of hostility.
1978 Dec 15, President Carter
announced he would grant diplomatic recognition to the People’s
Republic of China, i.e. Communist China, on New Year's Day and sever
official relations with the Republic of China (Taiwan).
(WUD, 1994, p.1691)(AP, 12/15/98)
1978 Dec 22, The Communist
Party in China issued a communiqué following 2 meetings on the
economy. Teng Hsiao-p’ing (Deng Xiaoping) led the Chinese people in
a Great Leap Forward with a program of economic reform in a market
oriented economy. Deng introduced the "household responsibility
system" in a drought-parched region which allowed farmers to keep
some of the benefits of their labors. Deng Xiaoping announced a new
"open door" policy.
A-1)(SFC, 2/20/96, p.A4)(WSJ, 5/3/99, p.A22)(Econ, 12/13/08, p.31)
1978 The Beijing Film Academy
reopened for the first time since it was closed during the Cultural
Revolution. 4 years later 152 students graduated and were labeled as
the “fifth generation" of film makers to emerge since the birth of
(Econ, 6/18/05, p.81)
1978 In China Xinwen Lianbo
(News Simulcast) began chronicling the country’s transformation.
News was chosen for its political value in bolstering the Communist
(Econ, 2/6/15, p.42)
1978 The Karakoram Highway from
Kashgar, China, to the edge of Rawalpindi, Pakistan, was completed.
(NH, 5/96, p.9)
1978 The Chinese Academy of
Sciences set up the River Dolphin Research Group in Wuhan. The
baiji, a white river dolphin, was declared a "rare and precious
aquatic animal" the following year.
(SFC, 3/23/98, p.a8)
1978 Deng Xiaoping emerged as
China’s paramount leader. In early 1979 he shut down the Democracy
Wall protest and imprisoned its leaders. His political formula was
"one country, two systems." Yang Shangkun also regained power after
12 years in prison.
(WSJ, 2/20/97, p.A20)(SFC, 9/16/98, p.C4)
1978 Fang Yi (d.1997 at 81), a
guerrilla leader of the Revolution under Mao, became a vice premier.
He accompanied Deng on a tour of the US in 1979.
(SFC, 10/20/97, p.A19)
1978 In China the Time of the
Democracy Wall movement began. For 4 winter months citizens in
Beijing plastered a 200-meter wall with posters calling for freedom
and democracy. Dissident Ren Wanding was jailed from 1979 to 1983
for having advocated multiparty democracy. In 1996 Wanding was
released after seven years in prison for his role in the 1989
Tiananmen Square demonstrations.
C2)(http://tinyurl.com/2w88be)(Econ, 12/13/08, p.30)
1978 In China the 2000-year-old
massive "bianzhong" bells were unearthed.
(WSJ, 6/25/97, p.A20)
1978 In China the tomb of Zeng
Hou Yi (c400 BCE) was discovered. Artifacts were later exhibited in
the Hubei Provincial Museum.
(SSFC, 4/14/02, p.C9)
1978 China’s share of the
global GDP was about 1.8%. In 2008 this grew to 6%.
(Econ, 12/13/08, p.30)
1978 China began its The Green
Wall tree planting project. By 2014 some 66 billion trees were
planted as part of the Three North Shelterbelt project to hold back
the expansion of the Gobi Desert.
(Econ, 8/23/14, p.58)
1978-2016 Since China opened up in 1978 some 10
million Chinese have moved abroad.
(Econ, 7/9/16, SR p.13)
1979 Jan 1, China and the
United States held celebrations in Beijing and Washington to mark
the establishment of diplomatic relations between the two countries.
Deng Xiaoping arranged to visit the US. China standardized the
spelling of people and place names using the Pinyin system. Peking
thus became Beijing.
(SFC, 2/20/96, p.A4)(AP, 1/1/98)(SFC, 2/05/04,
1979 Jan 7, The Vietnamese army
captured the Cambodian capital of Phnom Penh overthrowing the Khmer
Rouge government. The People’s Party, a Hanoi installed Khmer Rouge
faction, took power with Hun Sen as prime minister. This finally
ended the mass genocide depicted in the 1984 film "The Killing
Fields." The Khmer Rouge retreated into sanctuaries along the Thai
border, set up bases and picked up support from Thailand and China.
(NG, 5/85, p.574-5)(WSJ, 2/27/96, p.A-1)(SFC,
6/14/97, p.A15)(WSJ, 5/3/96, p.A-10)(SFC, 4/29/97, p.A8)(AP, 1/7/98)
1979 Jan 29, President Carter
formally welcomed Chinese Vice Premier Deng Xiaoping to the White
House, following the establishment of diplomatic relations.
1979 Feb 1, The People's
Republic of China opened its 1st two American Consulates in San
Francisco and Houston.
(SFC, 1/30/04, p.E6)
1979 Feb 17, China invaded
Vietnam and began a "pedagogical" war against Vietnam. China
completed its withdrawal on March 19. In China’s border war with
Vietnam deputy commander Zhang Wannian led a victorious division
offensive in the battle of Liang Shan.
1979 Mar 6, Chinese forces
occupied Vietnam’s city of Lang Son. They claimed the gate to Hanoi
was open, declared their punitive mission achieved, and withdrew
1979 Mar 29, In China dissident
Wei Jingsheng (b.1950) was first arrested in the crackdown on the
Democracy Wall pro-democracy movement. In his most famous essay, The
Fifth Modernization, Wei argued that modernization was impossible in
China without necessary democratic reform. On December 13, 1995, Wei
Jingsheng (47) was sentenced to 14 years in prison and charged with
"conspiring to subvert the government." In 1997, after a total of 18
years in prison, Wei was taken from his cell and placed on a plane
bound for the United States as a bargain result between then US
President Clinton and the Chinese President Jiang Zemin.
1979 Mar, Gov. Sir Murray
McLehose was received in Beijing by Deng Xiaoping. McLehose raised
the issue of the 1997 end of lease and Deng said Hong Kong can rest
(SFC, 7/1/97, p.A8)
1979 Apr 10, The US Government
established the Taiwan Relations Act which said: "to make clear that
the US decision to establish diplomatic relations with the People's
Republic of China rests upon the expectation that the future of
Taiwan will be determined by peaceful means."
1979 Apr 11, Chinese diplomats
of Cambodia crossed into Thailand after a 15-day, 125-mile escape
from the Vietnamese Army. In 1992 "Chinese Diplomats in
International Crisis Situations" was authored by Yun Shui. An
English translation came out in 2003.
1979 Jun 21, Mayor Diane
Feinstein returned from her visit to China, where she signed a
sister-city relationship with Shanghai. In August Wang Bingnam
announced that San Francisco and Shanghai will become “friendship
(SFC, 6/27/96, p.A3)(SFC, 12/15/99, p.A19)(SFC,
6/18/04, p.F2)(SFC, 8/27/04, p.F2)
1979 The documentary film "From
Mao to Mozart" covered the China tour of violinist Isaac Stern and
pianist David Golub (d.2000). It won an academy award in 1980 for
(SFC, 10/24/00, p.A26)
1979 Chinese leader Deng
Xiaoping launched his "open door" policies and trade reform.
(WSJ, 2/20/97, p.A20)(WSJ, 11/16/99, p.A19)
1979 Chinese leader Deng
Xiaoping met with Gyalo Thondup, the brother of the Dalai Lama,
beginning nearly a decade of on and off dialogue over Tibet.
(WSJ, 8/30/08, p.A8)
1979 China and the US formed
the U.S.-China Joint Economic Commission forum to thrash out
1979 China adopted a family
planning policy that limited families to one child. There were a
number of exceptions such as for rural families, fisherman and
ethnic minorities. In 2013 single children raised under the policy
were to be allowed 2 children.
(SFC,10/20/97, p.A8)(Econ, 11/7/15, p.39)
1979 China created commercial
banks and began allowing commercial advertising again. This quickly
weakened the alliance between art and the Communist Party.
(Econ, 12/20/14, p.65)(Economist, 4/4/20, p.63)
1979 China increased the number
of its official ethnic groups to 56.
(Econ 7/15/17, p.40)
1979 At Davos, Switzerland, the
World Economic Forum became the first nongovernmental institution to
initiate a partnership with China’s economic development
(WSJ, 1/23/08, p.A8)
1980 Jan 24, In an action
obviously designed as another in a series of very strong reactions
to the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, US officials announce that
America is ready to sell military equipment (excluding weapons) to
communist China. The surprise statement was part of the US effort to
build a closer relationship with the People's Republic of China for
use as leverage against possible Soviet aggression.
1980 Jan 28, San Francisco
Mayor Diane Feinstein signed a Friendship City agreement with Zhao
Xingzhi, vice mayor of Shanghai. It was the 1st of its kind between
an American city and the PRC.
(SFC, 1/28/05, p.F7)
1980 Jan 30, The first-ever
Chinese Olympic team arrived in New York for the Winter Games.
1980 May 18, China People's
Republic launched its 1st intercontinental rocket.
1980 May 31, Deng Zxiaoping
made a speech in which he stated that: "We must eliminate feudalism
from the life of the party and from the life of society."
(WSJ, 2/20/97, p.A20)
1980 May, China’s Vice Premier
Deng Xiaoping formally designated the city of Shenzhen as China’s
first special economic zone (SEZ).
1980 Sep 12, Yao Ming was born
in Shanghai, China. He grew to 7’6’’ and in 2002 was drafted to play
for the Houston Rockets basketball team.
(SSFC, 5/22/05, p.24)
1980 Nov 20, In China the Gang
of Four, scapegoats for the 1966-1976 Cultural Revolution, were put
on trial. They were tried and sentenced in nationally televised
court proceedings. Jiang Hua led the special tribunal that was set
up to try Jiang Qing and her 3 Politburo allies known as the Gang of
Four. Qing was sentenced to death but her sentence was later
commuted to life in prison.
(SFC, 2/20/96, p.A4)(SFC, 12/25/99,
1980 In China Hua Guofeng
(1921-2008) was replaced as premier by Zhao Ziyang, and by Hu
Yaobang as party chairman in 1981, two of Deng's proteges who were
dedicated to economic reform.
1980 China recognized its first
private business when street hawker Zhang Huamei (19) registered her
stall selling buttons and toys in the port city of Wenzhou.
(Econ., 5/2/20, p.51)
1980 A US-funded program,
staffed by professors from business schools across the US, brought
Western business ideas to Chinese managers.
(SFC, 11/3/05, p.B6)
1980 A mummy titled the "Beauty
of Kiruran," was found in the Taklimakan Desert in China. The
Uighurs have been the majority population of this area for centuries
and speak a Turkic language.
(SFC, 5/6/96, p.C-1)
1980-1987 Zhao Ziyang (1920-2005) served as
premier of China after which he took over as secretary of the
Chinese Communist Party.
(SFC, 1/17/05, p.B4)
1980-1989 During the 1980s the US purchased
millions of Type 56 rifles from China to arm the Afghan Mujahedeen
in their war against the Soviet army. The rifles were copycats of
the AK-47s used by Russian soldiers. The US gave an average of $500
million in military aid annually to the Mujahedeen. The US also
purchased Chinese and Polish AK-47s to supply the Contra guerillas
(SFC, 5/27/96, p.A9)(SFC, 9/23/96, A9)
1981 Jan 25, In China Jiang
Qing (1914-1991), Mao's widow, received a suspended death sentence.
1981 Apr 15, Coca-Cola opened
its first bottling plant in China since the country’s Communist
(Econ, 1/25/14, p.9)
1981 Jun 1, The China Daily
newspaper was launched as China’s first English-language daily.
1981 Jun 29, Hu Yaobang, a
protege of Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping, was elected Communist Party
chairman, replacing Mao Tse-tung’s handpicked successor, Hua
Guofeng. A Party communiqué cited the Cultural Revolution as a
disaster, and criticized Mao's role and the policies of his last
1981 In China Mao Yushi
(b.1929) wrote a widely circulated mathematical defense of market
pricing. In 2012he was awarded the Cato Institute's Milton Friedman
Prize for Advancing Liberty for his work in classical liberalism and
1981 China’s Central Committee
published a “Resolution on Certain Questions in the History of Our
Party." It argued that the Cultural Revolution initiated and led by
Chairman Mao was a grave blunder.
(Econ, 5/14/16, p.38)
1981 China emerged as a major
arms supplier to the Siad Barre regime in Somalia.
1981 The Bank of China became
the 1st Chinese bank to establish a branch in NYC.
(Econ, 11/17/07, p.90)(www.bocusa.com/bocny/)
1982 Jan 12, Peking protested
the sale of U.S. planes to Taiwan.
1982 Sep 24, British PM
Margaret Thatcher visited Beijing. Deng refused her request for
continued British administration of Hong Kong after 1997, but agreed
to open negotiations on handover.
1982 Oct 27, China announced
its population at 1 billion people plus.
1982 Nov 8, China announced the
creation of its first batch of national parks.
(Econ, 9/14/13, SR
1982 Dec 4, A new version of
China’s constitution dropped the worker’s right to strike.
1982 Sterling Seagrave authored
"The Soong Dynasty," a history of China’s rich and powerful Soong
(SFC, 1/27/00, p.E5)
1982 In China Yu Qiuli was made
deputy secretary general of the Central Military Commission, which
controlled the army.
(SFC, 2/6/99, p.A21)
1982 China acceded to the 1951
Convention on the Status of Refugees and the 1967 Protocol.
(Econ, 10/10/15, p.46)
1982 China and Britain began
negotiations on Hong Kong’s future.
1982 The China National
Offshore Oil Corp. (CNOOC) was formed to develop offshore oil and
(WSJ, 7/31/06, p.B1)
1982 TCL was founded in China
to make magnetic tape in response to the mainland’s hunger for music
coming in from Hong Kong and Taiwan. It soon expanded to television
manufacturing. In 2004 it entered into a joint venture (TTE) with
Thompson Electronics of France. The company suffered heavy losses as
flat screen televisions entered the market.
(Econ, 11/4/06, p.78)
1982 In China an entrepreneur
opened a bra factory in Gurao, Guangdong province. Underwear
enterprises expanded and Gurao became known as the “Town of
Underwear." By 2010 fabric-dying plants had severely polluted the
local water making it unfit to drink.
(Econ, 4/16/15, p.35)
1982-1984 In California Edward J. Malatesta S.J.
(d.1998 at 66) worked on the China Jesuit History Project and then
founded the Ricci Institute for Chinese-Western Cultural History as
part of the USF Center for the Pacific Rim.
(SFC, 2/9/98, p.A19)
1983 Jan 25, China's supreme
court commuted the death sentence of Jiang Qing, Mao's widow, to
1983 Jun 6, First Session of
Sixth National People's Congress opened. The Congress elected Li
Xiannian as President and Deng Xiaoping as supreme commander of
1983 Deng Xiaoping launched his
"anti-spiritual pollution" campaign.
(WSJ, 2/20/97, p.A20)
1983 Peng Zhen (d.1997) was
appointed chairman of the National People’s Congress and served to
(SFEC, 4/27/97, p.B8)
1983 China signed on to the
1967 Outer Space Treaty banning all weapons of mass destruction from
(SSFC, 7/15/07, p.D1)
1983 Armand Hammer negotiated a
joint venture through Deng Xiaoping to create China’s largest
open-pit coal mine. Occidental Petroleum wrote off the $250 million
venture following Hammer’s death in 1990.
(WSJ, 3/19/02, p.A20)
1983 Algeria signed a secret
deal with China for the fabrication of the 15MW Es Salam reactor at
Ain Oussera. It came online in 1993.
1983 In China over 600 million
people, i.e. two-thirds of the population, lived on $1 a day or
less. By 2008 this number was less than 180 million.
(Econ, 1/26/08, p.27)
1983 In China some 14 million
women had abortions, many of them coerced, organized by family
planning committees. By 2009 this dropped to some 6 million.
(Econ, 6/23/12, p.49)
1983 Zhang Daqian (b.1899),
Chinese painter, died. He had imitated the style of the old masters.
(SFC, 2/6/04, p.D2)
1983-1986 Deng Xiaoping directed a massive
(WSJ, 2/20/97, p.A20)
1984 Apr, Chinese launched
renewed attacks against Vietnam.
1984 Sep 19, Britain and China
completed a draft agreement on transferring Hong Kong from British
to Chinese rule by 1997.
1984 Oct, The Communist Party
announced economic reforms, a plan to lift government price
subsidies and promised to relax party control over enterprises.
(SFC, 2/20/96, p.A4)
1984 Dec 19, British PM
Margaret Thatcher and Chinese Premier Zhao Ziyang signed an accord
to return Hong Kong to Chinese sovereignty on Jul 1, 1997. China
pledged to grant Hong Kong a high degree of autonomy in everything
but foreign affairs and national defense and permit it to retain its
capitalist system for 50 years. This laid the ground for Hong Kong’s
(SFEC, 6/22/97, p.A14)(SFC, 7/1/97, p.A8)(Econ,
7/19/14, p.11)(Econ, 10/10/15, p.42)
1984 Dec, Zhang Ruimin took
over the helm of the Haier Group Co, a failing appliance
manufacturer in China’s port city of Qingdao. He turned the
operation around with modern refrigerator-making equipment from
Germany. In 2004 Fortune magazine rated Zhang Ruimin as one of the
25 most powerful business people outside America.
(WSJ, 9/17/97, p.A1)(Econ, 3/20/04, p.72)
1984 The Southern Weekend
entertainment supplement was established by the Southern Daily, a
newspaper owned by the Communist Party Committee of Guangdong
province. In 1998 under Shen Hao (27) it began featuring real news
and investigative stories.
(WSJ, 7/21/98, p.A1)
1984 Deng Xiaoping moved to
streamline the military. He cut the ranks from 4 million to 3
million and ordered the military to find ways to pay for itself.
(SFEC, 5/4/97, p.A14)
1984 In China the ICBC bank was
spun out of the People’s Bank of China.
(Econ, 5/15/10, SR p.5)
1984 Shanghai Automotive
Industry Corp. (SAIC) with government support partnered with
Volkswagen and produced the Santana model sedan. VW was the
first foreign carmaker to establish operation in China.
(WSJ, 6/30/99, p.A19)(Econ, 11/15/08, SR p.4)
1984 China’s Lenovo computer
firm was founded by 11 engineers, including Liu Chuanzhi, with a
$25,000 loan from the Chinese Academy of Sciences to help
commercialize government-funded technologies. Until 2004 it was
known as Legend Computer. By 2012 Lenovo’s revenues reached $15
(Econ, 8/4/12, p.61)(Econ, 1/12/12, p.55)(Econ,
1984 Rabbit Calicivirus Disease
was 1st discovered among rabbits in China. It appeared in the US for
the 1st time in 2000.
(WSJ, 7/3/02, p.A1)
1984 In China Hu Yaobang, the
Communist party's general secretary, suggested that Chinese people,
for the sake of hygiene, eat food in the Western way with knives and
forks. Yaobang's death in 1989 sparked the Tiananmen Square
(Econ, 4/25/20, p.34)
1985 Feb 19, Mickey Mouse was
welcomed in China.
1985 Apr, Many Chinese lined up
for hours to buy $1.75 tickets to the groundbreaking concert by
Wham! at the People's Gymnasium, the biggest stadium in Beijing at
the time. Wham! was the first major Western band to play in the
country after the death of Mao Zedong and decades of cultural
isolation. George Michael and Andrew Ridgeley danced in
big-shouldered jackets with bleached and feathered hair. The backing
dancers' strapless costumes and polka-dot miniskirts also stunned
the audience in China at a time when people still dressed in similar
shades of green and gray.
1985 May 27, In a brief
ceremony in Beijing, representatives of Britain and China exchanged
instruments of ratification on the pact returning Hong Kong to the
Chinese in 1997.
1985 Jun 12, The town of Xintan
on the Yangtze was obliterated by a landslide that sent a 128-foot
surge wave down the river.
(NH, 7/96, p.32)
1985 Nov 23, Retired CIA
analyst Larry Wu-tai Chin was arrested and accused of spying for
China. He committed suicide a year after his conviction.
1985 A US-China Agreement on
Peaceful Nuclear Cooperation was reached.
(WSJ, 10/29/97, p.A22)
1985 China gave in to free
(TMC, 1994, p.1985)
1985 China began to enact laws
to protect patents, but did not enforce them much until 2001.
(Econ, 4/12/08, p.74)
1985 China adopted an
inheritance law. At this time divorce and remarriage numbers were
low. Modest changes were approved in 2003.
(Econ, 11/22/14, p.40)
1985 In China a group of
foreign and national economists gathered on the Bashan steamship for
a weeklong voyage down the Yangzi river swapping ideas on how to
steer China’s economy. This “steamship conference" was organized by
the World Bank at the request of a Chinese government commission.
(Econ, 3/3/12, p.57)
1985 Ma Jian, Chinese Buddhist
poet and dissident, fled Tibet. In 1987 he published “Stick Out Your
Tongue," an account of his travels in Tibet. The book was denounced
and banned n China. In 2006 it was translated to English.
(SSFC, 6/4/06, p.M3)
1985 Peter H. Lee (45), a
scientist at Los Alamos, visited China and turned over information
about US national security laser programs. He confessed in Dec 1997
and was sentenced in Mar 1998 to one year in a halfway house,
$20,000 in fines, and 3,000 hours of community work.
(SFC, 3/9/99, p.A13)(SFC, 5/10/99, p.A3)
1985 China began a commercial
satellite program marketing its rockets as vehicles to send Western
satellites into orbit.
(SFC, 6/15/98, p.A5)(WSJ, 10/23/07, p.B4)
1985 The Huadong Winery opened
northeast of Qingdao on Mount Leoshan under British interests.
(SFEC, 2/6/00, p.T13)
1985 ZTE, a Chinese networking
gear maker, was founded. By 2008 it was among the top ten world wide
makers of mobile phones.
(Econ, 10/18/08, p.74)
1985 In China Zhang Ruimin,
appointed a year earlier to rescue Haier, a state-owned refrigerator
company, tackled quality control programs joined workers taking
sledgehammers to 76 defective refrigerators. By 2011 Haier had some
(Econ, 10/1/11, p.45)
1985 In China a lead and acid
mine collapsed in Chenzhou flooding nearby farms with arsenic. 30
year later arsenic concentrations in the soil were 24 times the
(Econ 6/10/17, p.25)
1985 In China Shanghai began
holding Auto Shanghai, a biennial auto show alternating with the
Beijing Auto Show.
1986 May 20, A tornado picked
up 12 children and deposited them on a sand dune 12 miles away
(SFEC, 7/6/97, Z1 p.6)
1986 Sep, China’s 1st stock
market opened in Shanghai.
(SFC, 2/20/96, p.A4)
1986 Dec 10-1986 Dec 30, In
China thousands of students began protesting for democracy in
Shanghai and the demonstrations spread to Beijing.
(SFC, 2/20/96, p.A4)
1986 Dec 21, 500,000 Chinese
students gathered in Shanghai’s People’s Square calling for
democratic reforms, including freedom of the press.
1986 Cui Jian, later considered
the father of Chinese rock, recorded “Nothing To My Name." The song
became the soundtrack for the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989.
(Econ, 8/16/14, p.36)
1986 Hua Wenyi, opera soprano,
received the Plum Blossom Award, the nation’s highest artistic
honor. In 1989 she traveled to the US and did not return.
(SFC, 9/24/97, p.A17)
1986 Bikinis began to be worn
in China when an int’l. bodybuilding contest required female
contestants to wear them.
(Econ, 4/16/15, p.36)
1986 China applied to join the
GATT world trade association.
(WSJ, 11/16/99, p.A19)
1986 China introduced a
compulsory education law that required local governments to ensure
that all children receive 9 years of free education.
(Econ, 8/12/06, p.33)
1986 China passed a law for
state-owned companies allowing only their government supervisor to
put them into bankruptcy. First claim to any assets belonged to the
(Econ, 6/2/07, p.82)
1986 Wong Kwong Yu (16) and his
older brother, natives of Shantou in southern China, opened up Gome,
a clothing store in Beijing. A year later they switched to home
appliances and consumer electronics. In 1992 Wong split the business
with his brother, keeping the stores while his brother kept the real
estate. By 2006 Mr. Wong was one of China’s richest men.
(Econ, 2/4/06, p.60)
1986 In China an earthquake
destroyed the old Jihong Bridge over the Lancang River.
(SFEC, 10/6/96, T5)
1987 Jan 16, China’s Communist
Party chief Hu Yaobang became the scapegoat for student protests and
was forced to resign. He was succeeded by Zhao Ziyang.
(SFC, 2/20/96, p.A4)
1987 Apr 13, Portugal signed an
agreement to return Macau to China in 1999.
1987 Jun, A huge forest fire in
China that began in May destroyed more than 3.7 million hectares of
trees in Manchuria. This forced Chinese officials to open up
commercial logging and consequently caused pressure on the
Manchurian tiger. In the Black Dragon Fire 20 million acres of
forest land along the Heilongjang River, which separates China from
Russia, were burned. In 1989 Harrison E. Salisbury authored “Great
Black Dragon Fire: A Chinese Inferno."
(NOHY, 3/90, p.287)(http://tinyurl.com/jfvom)
1987 Aug, Zong Qinghou (b.1945)
founded beverage producer Wahaha (laughing child) in Hangzhou,
Zhejiang province. He was ranked as China's richest man in 2012 and
second-richest in 2013.
1987 Sep 14, The first e-mail
from China was sent to an int’l. network and proclaimed: “Across the
Great Wall we can reach every corner in the world."
(Econ, 4/6/13, SR p.3)
1987 Sep, In China Wang Ruoshui
(1926-2002), a writer for the People’s Daily, was thrown out of the
Communist Party. He went to Boston for an appointment at Harvard.
1987 Oct 25, Deng Xiaoping
stepped down from all but the top military post.
(SFC, 2/20/96, p.A4)
1987 Nov 1, Chinese leader Deng
Xiaoping retired from the Communist Party's Central Committee.
1987 Nov, The US-headquartered
KFC (Kentucky Fried Chicken) launched its first China outlet in the
Qianmen area of Beijing, neighboring Tiananmen Square.
1987 By this year China had
stationed nine armies (approximately 400,000 troops) in the
Sino-Vietnamese border region, including one along the coast. It had
also increased its landing craft fleet and was periodically staging
amphibious landing exercises off Hainan Island, across from Vietnam,
thereby demonstrating that a future attack might come from the sea.
1987 China disbanded the
engineers corp. of the People’s Liberation Army (PLA).
(Econ, 6/4/11, p.80)
1987 Ren Zhengfei (b.1944)
started Huawei, a Chinese maker of telecoms equipment firm, with
just 21,000 yuan. By 2011 it employed 110,000 people and was the
world’s 2nd largest company in the field, just behind Sweden’s
(Econ, 6/4/11, p.80)(Econ, 8/4/12, p.20)
1987 In China Dr. Zhang
JianDong (d.1999) produced a study on villages downstream from the
JinZhou Ferroalloy Co. smelter, where large amounts of chromium
waste was being spilled into the groundwater. His 2-decade study
showed that villagers in the area had a higher death rate from all
cancers and especially stomach and lung cancer. A 1997 report by the
consulting firm ChemRisk, hired by PG&E Corp., said the results
of Dr. Zhang’s study reflected lifestyle or environmental factors
rather than exposure to chromium 6.
(WSJ, 12/23/05, p.A1)
1987 Giant pandas in China were
down to about 35 isolated populations in the wild, most of them of
fewer than 20 pandas each. They were confined to the wooded
mountains of Sichuan province, on the edge of the Tibetan plateau.
(NOHY, 3/90, p.52)
1988 Jan 18, An airliner
crashed in southwestern China, killing all 108 people on board,
according to the official Xinhua news agency.
1988 Mar 14, Chinese troops
killed 64 Vietnamese sailors in clashes over the Spratly Islands.
Nine Vietnamese engineering soldiers were taken prisoner.
(Econ, 10/22/11, p.53)(AP, 3/14/16)
1988 Apr, In China Zhu Rongji
(b.1928) was named Mayor of Shanghai.
(SFC, 3/18/98, p.A12)
1988 Oct 11, China agreed to
the opening of an Israeli Scientific Exchange office in Beijing.
1988 Dec 26, An anti African
student rebellion took place in China.
1988 A Chinese a television
series called “River Elegy" portrayed China as a country weighed
down by a long history of backwardness and inward looking
(Econ, 10/29/16, p.37)
1988 The Zhong Gong
meditation-exercise sect was founded. By 2000 it had attracted some
20 million followers and was ordered suppressed by the government as
an "evil cult."
(SFC, 2/1/00, p.A10)
1988 Wang Jianlin formed a
property company in Dalian, China, using $80,000 in borrowed money.
By 2015 his firm, Dalian Wanda, was China’s biggest private property
(Econ, 2/14/15, p.55)
1988 China began hosting its
Peasant Olympics in the city of Quanzhou. The event continued every
(Econ, 11/15/08, p.54)
1988 China amended its
(SFEC, 1/31/99, p.A22)
1988 Hu Jintao was appointed as
the top party official in Tibet.
(WSJ, 5/17/99, p.A21)
1988 China suffered severe
(Econ, 1/9/16, p.36)
1988 Hainan, a resource-rich
tropical island about the size of Sri Lanka, became a separate
province. The capital is Haikou. Hainan, the home to a new strategic
naval harbor, also developed a beach resort at Sanya.
1988 China abolished its silk
(WSJ, 7/9/96, p.A13)
1988 Huawei, a Chinese maker of
telecom equipment, was founded. By 2008 it was ranked a the world’s
4th largest maker of network equipment.
(Econ, 9/26/09, SR p.13)
1988 US intelligence detected a
Chinese test of a neutron bomb. The 1999 Cox report held that the
technology was believed to have been stolen from the US. In July,
1999, China announced that it had developed the design technology to
make neutron bombs in 1988 and could make miniaturized nuclear
(SFC, 5/15/99, p.A3)(SFC, 7/15/99, p.A9)(WSJ,
1988 In China Cardinal Ignatius
Kug was released following 32 years in prison.
(SFC, 10/29/99, p.A16)
1988 China Merchants convinced
the government to allow it back into the insurance business. It was
permitted to establish Ping An Insurance, at first providing
coverage for trucks moving goods from a single part of Shenzhen.
(Econ, 7/23/11, p.69)
1988 The China Agribusiness
Development Trust and Investment Corp. was set up to channel
domestic and foreign funds into the agricultural sector. By 1997 it
was closed with reports of being involved in smuggling, tax evasion
and ruinous real estate speculation.
(SFC, 2/17/96, p.B3)
1988 Atlanta-based United
Parcel Service (UPS) first entered the Chinese market in a
partnership with Sinotrans.
1988 Hon Hai, a small Taiwanese
plastics manufacturer, opened a factory in Shenzhen, China. By 2009
it had grown to the size of a city with over a quarter of a million
(Econ, 2/21/09, p.70)
1988 China and Uruguay
established diplomatic ties.
1988-2013 China’s panda population increased from
1,114 to 1,864 during this period. By 2016 China counted 67
protected panda reserves.
(Econ, 9/10/16, p.36)
1989 Feb 4, Soviet Foreign
Minister Eduard Shevardnadze wrapped up four days of high-level
talks in China, the first visit by a Soviet foreign minister in
1989 Feb 21, Fifty four members
of the 14 K triad were arrested in 4 countries (US, Canada, Hong
Kong and Singapore). Some 800 pounds of heroin were seized,
supposedly worth a billion dollars at street prices. US police
estimated that Chinese organized crime, and not the Mafia, provided
70 to 80 per cent of all heroin smuggled into New York City.
1989 Feb 25, President Bush
left Japan, where he had attended the funeral of Emperor Hirohito,
and arrived in China for a three-day visit.
1989 Feb 26, President Bush's
visit to China was marred by the refusal of Chinese authorities to
allow dissident Fang Lizhi to attend a banquet hosted by Bush.
1989 Mar, Hu Jintao, Chinese
Party Secretary, imposed martial law in Tibet to quell separatist
unrest following the worst there violence in 30 years. Martial law
was not lifted until May 1990.
(SSFC, 3/11/01, p.D8)(Econ, 3/22/08, p.28)
1989 Apr 15, In China Hu
Yaobang, former party chief, died. Thousands of students in Shanghai
and Beijing took to the streets to mourn his death. The protests
culminated in the June 5 Tiananmen Square massacre.
(SFC, 2/20/96, p.A4)(AP, 4/15/99)
1989 Apr 18, Thousands of
Chinese students demanding democracy tried to storm Communist Party
headquarters in Beijing.
1989 Apr 21, Tens of thousands
of people crowded into Beijing's Tiananmen Square, cheering students
who waved banners demanding greater political freedoms.
1989 Apr 22, The Xinhua News
Agency reported the first outbreak of violence stemming from China's
pro-democracy protests, in the provincial capital of Xian.
1989 Apr 23, Students in
Beijing China announced class boycotts.
1989 Apr 24, Thousands of
students went on strike in Beijing.
1989 Apr 26, Deng Xiaoping
approved an editorial that labeled pro-democracy demonstrators as
(WSJ, 2/20/97, p.A20)
1989 Apr 27, In China more than
150,000 students and workers calling for democracy marched, cheered
and sang as they took over Tiananmen Square in central Beijing.
(HN, 4/27/98)(AP, 4/27/99)
1989 Apr 29, In a sign that
student demonstrators in Beijing had gained influence, China's
government conducted informal talks with leaders of the democracy
protests, and then televised the discussions.
1989 May 13, Some 2,000
students began a hunger strike in Tiananmen Square, China.
1989 May 14, The 2nd day of a
hunger strike for democratic reforms took place in Beijing's
1989 May 15, Soviet President
Mikhail S. Gorbachev arrived in Beijing for the first Sino-Soviet
summit in 30 years. His 3-day visit was overshadowed by
pro-democracy demonstrations led by Chinese students.
(SFC, 2/20/96, p.A4)(AP, 5/15/99)
1989 May 16, During his visit
to Beijing, Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev met with Chinese
leader Deng Xiaoping, formally ending a 30-year rift between the two
1989 May 17, More than 1
million people swarmed into central Beijing to express support for
Chinese students fasting for democracy.
1989 May 18, In China a million
protestors filled Tiananmen Square.
(SFC, 2/20/96, p.A4)
1989 May 18, Soviet President
Mikhail S. Gorbachev concluded his historic visit to China, which
officially marked the end of a 30-year Sino-Soviet rift.
1989 May 20, China declared
martial law in Beijing. During the pro-democracy protests, Beijing
officials ordered CBS and CNN to end their live on-scene reports.
1989 May 21, Thousands of
native Chinese marched in Hong Kong, Paris, Tokyo and scores of
other cities in a worldwide show of support for the pro-democracy
demonstrators in Beijing.
1989 May 22, More than 100 top
Chinese military leaders vowed to refrain from entering Beijing to
suppress pro-democracy demonstrations.
1989 May 23, An estimated 1
million people in Beijing and tens of thousands in other Chinese
cities marched to demand that Premier Li Peng resign.
1989 May 23, In China Yu
Zhijian (25) led two others in throwing paint-filled eggs at a giant
portrait of Mao Zedong in Tiananmen Square. They were all jailed and
served almost 12 years after which they fled the country.
(http://tinyurl.com/yc46499r)(Econ 6/10/17, p.88)
1989 May 24, China's top army
command published a letter strongly supporting hard-line Premier Li
Peng, who was reportedly locked in a power struggle with rival
factions who opposed his strong stance against student protesters.
1989 May 27, Leaders of the
Chinese student protest movement proposed that demonstrators hold
one more rally, then end their occupation of Tiananmen Square, an
idea that was later abandoned.
1989 May 29, Student protesters
in Tiananmen Square China constructed a replica of the Statue of
1989 May 30, Student
demonstrators at Tiananmen Square in Beijing erected a 33-foot
statue they called the "Goddess of Democracy."
1989 Jun 2, 10,000 Chinese
soldiers were blocked by 100,000 citizens protecting students
demonstrating for democracy in Tiananmen Square, Beijing
1989 Jun 3-1989 Jun 4, Chinese
troops entered Beijing. They fired into the crowd at Tiananmen
Square and killed at least hundreds of demonstrators.
(SFC, 2/20/96, p.A4)
1989 Jun 4, In China hundreds
of people died as Chinese army troops stormed Beijing to crush the
pro-democracy movement. Hundreds of thousands of discontented
Chinese took to the streets of Beijing, demanding more reform, but
the military crushed the protests in the Tiananmen Square crackdown.
Zhao Ziyang was ousted. The West and Japan cut off aid. Bao Tong was
the only Communist Party official arrested in the Tiananmen Square
uprising. He was released with ill-health in 1996. Han Dongfang,
leader of China’s first independent trade union spent 22 months
behind bars for his role in the pro-democracy uprising. Ren Wanding
was also again jailed for giving speeches in the pro-democracy
(WSJ 12/10/93)(SFC, 5/28/96, p.A6)(SFC, 6/4/96,
p.A11)(SFC, 6/10/96, C2)(AP, 6/4/97)
1989 Jun 4, We’er Kiaxi,
21-year-old leader of the Autonomous Student Federation, confronted
Premier Li Peng during a televised face-to-face meeting.
(SFC, 5/29/96, p.A8)
1989 Jun 4, In San Francisco
thousands of demonstrators gathered in front of the Chinese
Consulate to protest the slaughter of students and other citizens at
Tiananmen Square in Beijing. In Chinese Tiananmen translates as Gate
of Heavenly Peace.
(SSFC, 6/1/14, DB p.46)
1989 Jun 5, Chinese soldiers
slaughtered pro-democracy students at Tiananmen Square in Beijing.
In one of the most remembered images of China's crushed
pro-democracy movement, a lone man stood defiantly in front of a
line of tanks in Beijing until friends pulled him out of the way. In
2001 "The Tiananmen Papers," a book based on classified documents
smuggled out of China, was published. Zhang Liang was the pseudonym
of the compiler. In 2009 Philip Cunningham authored “Tiananmen Moon:
Inside the Chinese Student Uprising of 1989."
(HN, 6/5/99)(AP, 6/5/99)(SFC, 1/6/01, p.A7)(SFCM,
3/18/01, p.4)(Econ, 8/22/09, p.75)
1989 Jun 8, Chinese Premier Li
Peng appeared on TV, praising a group of army soldiers, apparently
for their role in crushing the student-led pro-democracy movement.
1989 Jun 9, China began
reporting large-scale arrests in the wake of the crushed
pro-democracy movement. The arrests coincided with the public
reappearance of Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping, who was rumored to
have been seriously ill. Li Wangyang (d.2012) was arrested for his
labor activism, five days after the military crackdown on protesters
in Tiananmen Square. Sentenced for "counterrevolutionary propaganda
and incitement," he spent much of his 11-year term at hard labor.
(AP, 6/9/99)(AP, 6/6/12)
1989 Jun 11, The government of
China issued a warrant for the arrest of dissident physicist Fang
Lizhi (1936-2012), who had taken refuge inside the US Embassy in
Beijing. Fang and his wife were allowed to go into exile.
(AP, 6/11/99)(Econ, 4/14/12,
1989 Jun 15, Three Chinese
workers in Shanghai were sentenced to death for helping to set fire
to a train during recent pro-democracy protests.
1989 Jun 17, In China's
crackdown on the pro-democracy movement, eight people were sentenced
to death for allegedly beating soldiers and burning vehicles in
1989 Jun 24, In China Communist
Party general secretary Zhao Ziyang (1920-2005) was ousted for
allegedly supporting the protests and put under house arrest. Jiang
Zemin became the third hand-picked successor to Deng Xiaoping. Deng
resigned from his last official post.
(AP, 6/24/99)(SFC, 1/17/05, p.B4)
1989 Jun 28, China's new
Communist Party chief, Jiang Zemin (the "core of the third
generation"), said his government would show no mercy to leaders of
the crushed pro-democracy movement, which he termed a
(AP, 6/28/99)(SSFC, 3/11/01, p.)
1989 Dec 9, President Bush's
national security adviser, Brent Scowcroft, and Deputy Secretary of
State Lawrence Eagleburger began a surprise visit to Beijing, six
months after China's crackdown on pro-democracy demonstrators.
1989 In China Wang Shuo
published “Whatever You Do, Don’t Treat Me as a Human." He had began
a literary movement known as "hooligan literature" in the
1980s. His novels included "The Operators." In 1996 the
government halted the printing of his books on the basis of moral
(SFC, 11/29/96, p.B9)
1989 The low-level Gezhouba Dam
on the Yangtze River was completed.
(NH, 7/96, p.38)
1989 Liu Baiqiang of Guangdong
was sentenced to 17 years in prison for tying anti-government
statements to the legs of locusts that he released from his prison
cell, while jailed for robbery. His sentence was later reduced and
release was scheduled in 20002.
(SFC, 4/6/00, p.C16)
1989 US Pres. Bush required a
presidential waiver for the sale of commercial satellites to China.
He later approve the export of 9 such satellites for launch on
(SFC, 5/25/98, p.A3)
1989 The US and the EU imposed
an arms embargo on China to protest the post-Tiananmen clampdown.
(Econ, 5/7/05, p.27)
1989 Chinese scientists and
scholars in New York founded the non-profit group “Human Rights in
(WSJ, 2/13/06, p.A9)
1990 Jan 10, Chinese Premier Li
Peng lifted Beijing's 7-month-old martial law and said that by
crushing pro-democracy protests the army had saved China from "the
abyss of misery."
1990 May 10, The government of
China announced the release of 211 dissidents who had been involved
in pro-democracy demonstrations a year earlier.
1990 Oct, McDonald's chose
Shenzhen for its first Chinese restaurant.
1990 In China Zhao Weishan
(b.1951) founded the Eastern Lightning religious cult in Henan. He
later fled to the United States from where he continued to lead the
1990 China promulgated the
Basic Law, a mini-constitution for post-1997 Hong Kong.
(SFC, 7/1/97, p.A8)
1990 Shanghai, China, became an
autonomous municipality. Shanghai Center, a joint venture city
within a city, opened.
(Hem., 2/97, p.72)(SFCM, 3/20/05, p.28)
1990 In China the local
bingtuan militia put down an uprising by Uighurs near Kashgar,
Xinjiang province, leaving 50 Uighurs dead.
(Econ, 5/25/13, p.45)
1990 China launched stock
(Econ, 1/9/16, p.36)
1990 The Chinese census counted
(SFC, 10/14/00, p.A12)
1990 China consumed 2.4 million
barrels of oil per day leaving 400,000 barrels per day of domestic
production for export. By 2008 consumption rose to over 7 million
barrels per day with about half of that coming from imports.
(Econ, 3/15/08, SR p.8)
1990 Nicaragua switched
diplomatic recognition from Beijing to Taipei.
(Econ, 11/9/13, p.43)
1990-1995 In the early 1990s truckloads of foreign
waste computer equipment began to be trucked in to Guiyu, China.
Salvaging operations soon caused fish to disappear and the drinking
water to go foul.
(SFC, 3/1/02, p.B3)
1991 Feb 12, In China 2
longtime democracy activists (Wang Juntao and Chen Ziming) were
sentenced to 13 years in prison. Both were later freed.
1991 May 14, Jiang Qing (77),
widow of Chinese leader Mao Tse Tung, committed suicide in prison.
(SFC, 12/25/99, p.B4)(AP, 6/4/01)
1991 Jun 4, The government of
China announced the death of Jiang Qing (77), the widow of Mao
Tse-tung, saying she had committed suicide on May 14th.
1991 July, China opened a
second stock exchange in Shenzhen.
(Hem. 1/95, p. 28)
1991 Nov 17, Secretary of State
James A. Baker III concluded a three-day visit to China, touting an
arms control agreement and progress on human rights and trade as
"clear gains," but acknowledging that the gains fell short of U.S.
1991 Dec 13, Iran’s Pres. Akbar
Hashemi Rafsanjani visited Sudan with some 157 officials. He signed
agreements to train Sudan’s Popular Defense Forces, a version of
Iran’s Revolutionary Guards, and agreed to pay China $300 million
for weapons ordered for Sudan.
(Econ, 4/4/09, p.50)(http://tinyurl.com/d6ruxp)
1991 Dec 29, A Boeing 747-200F
of China Airlines crashed into a mountain at Taipei and 5 people
1991 Jung Chang (b.1952)
authored her family portrait “Wild Swans: Three Daughters of China,"
which soon became an international best seller.
1991 The Chinese film Raise the
Red Lantern was directed by Zhang Yimou. The film won an academy
award and was made into a ballet in 2001.
(SFEC, 5/16/99, DB p.58)
1991 China introduced the
B-share security market to trade stocks reserved for foreigners. In
2001 the B-share market was legally opened to Chinese nationals.
(WSJ, 3/7/00, p.A18)
1991 China passed its first
stand-alone adoption law. State-run orphanages routinely gave
foundlings the surname "Dang" (meaning Party) or "Guo" meaning
(Econ., 7/6/20, p.34)
1991 Ye Xuanping, a popular
leader of China’s Guangdong Province, was moved to a sinecure in
Beijing to prevent him from expanding on a personal power base.
(Econ, 6/3/06, p.37)
1991 Tsien Hsue-sen,
American-trained rocketry expert, retired in China.
1991 Anta, a Chinese maker of
sportswear, was founded by Ding Shizhong. By 2020 it was the world's
third biggest sportswear firm by market capitalization.
(Econ., 5/16/20, p.53)
1991 Ermenegildo Zegna became
the first Italian luxury company to enter the Chinese market. By
2007 it had some 52 shops there.
(Econ, 4/14/07, p.82)
1991 China and Vietnam
(Econ, 8/16/14, p.33)
1991 China established the
Laoshan National Forest Park on the north bank of the Yangtze River.
It covers 120 thousand acres with 35 km east to west and 15 km north
1992 Jan-1992 Feb, In China
Deng Xiaoping toured the southern provinces and urged more economic
(SFC, 2/20/96, p.A4)(SFC, 8/5/97, p.A5)
1992 Apr 3, Huang Shunxing, a
delegate opposed to the Three Gorges Dam, had his microphone turned
off as he was about to address the National People’s Congress.
(NH, 7/96, p.2)
1992 Sep 27, In Tibet Ogyen
Trinley Dorje (7) was enthroned as the 17th Karmapa under an
agreement with the Chinese government.
1992 Oct 23, Japanese Emperor
Akihito began a visit to China, the first by a Japanese monarch.
1992 Dec, The top portion of a
Long March missile peeled away 45 seconds into its flight and
destroyed a telecomm. satellite for Australia.
(SFC, 6/15/98, p.A5)
1992 In the “1992 consensus"
China and Taiwan’s ruling Koumintang party (KMT) affirmed the notion
of one China though each held their own interpretation.
(Econ, 2/18/17, p.34)
1992 Mo Yan (b.1955) authored
his novel "The Republic of Wine." It was translated into English in
(SFEC, 6/4/00, BR p.4)
1992 The Chinese film “The
Story of Qiu Ju" featured Gong Li as a pregnant peasant who travels
to Beijing to obtain justice for her husband.
(Econ, 6/18/05, p.59)
1992 Li Hongzhi founded the
Falun Gong system of meditation and exercise. It was borrowed from
qi gong, a centuries old system of controlled breathing, martial
arts, meditation and healing that became popular again after the
bans on cultural traditions were lifted in the late 1970s.
(SFC, 4/26/99, p.A13)(WSJ, 4/26/99, p.A1)
1992 Jiang Zemin, Communist
Party leader, gave the go-ahead for a secret manned space program
known as Project 921.
(SFEC, 11/21/99, p.A14)
1992 China established
diplomatic relations with Israel.
(Econ, 5/11/13, p.52)
1992 China, Russia and South
Korea normalized relations that allowed for air-service agreements.
(WSJ, 6/18/96, p.A10)
1992 China received
Russian-designed Sukhoi-27 fighter airplanes.
(SFC, 6/10/97, p.A8)
1992 China’s Communist Party
declared a “socialist market economy" as its goal.
(Econ, 1/9/16, p.36)
1992 China began to allow
private firms and trading resumed on the Shanghai stockmarket.
Closed since 1941 it had begun trading in the 1860s listing both
domestic and foreign firms.
(Econ, 8/16/08, p.69)(Econ, 1/31/15, p.55)
1992 China launched a manned
space program, code-name Project 921, with target launch date of
October 1999. Qi Faren, trained in Russia, was named chief
1992 China issued a license to
explore for oil in block WAB-21, 650 miles from its coast. This was
the first time it claimed resources in the South China Sea, so far
from its shore.
(Econ, 1/24/15, p.36)
1992 The China Construction
Bank announced the nation’s first personal loans following efforts
by Liu Chuanzhi, founder of Lenovo, to push a handful of employees
into owning their own homes. In 2006 Ling Zhijun authored “The
Lenovo Affair: The Growth of China’s Computer Giant and Its Takeover
(Econ, 6/17/06, p.91)
1992 Guo Guangchang (b.1967)
and four graduates of Fudan University in Shanghai, co-founded
the Guangxin Technology Development Company, later the Fosun Group,
a Chinese conglomerate and investment company.
1992 Mou Qizhong, Chinese
entrepreneur, stuffed 500 railroad cars with surplus pork, clothes
and cheap electronic goods and sent them to Russia. He received 4
Tupelov 154 airplanes in exchange, which he sold to Sichuan Airlines
and netted $11 million.
(WSJ, 8/28/96, p.A1,4)
1992 China’s Shougang company
bought an iron ore mine in Peru. This was China’s first investment
in the region.
(Econ, 8/15/09, p.20)
1992 The Asian Development Bank
began building and improving transport and telecom links between
China, Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam.
(Econ, 11/8/03, p.42)
1992 Russian Pres. Boris
Yeltsin visited China and signed a nuclear cooperation agreement.
1993 Feb, The Chinese A share
index in Shanghai rose to 10,000.
(Hem. 1/95, p. 49)
1993 Mar 28, Chinese Premier Li
Peng won a second term.
1993 Jun 6, The freighter
Golden Venture, a 150 foot cargo vessel carrying illegal immigrants
from Fujian Province on the southern coast of China ran aground in
New York harbor. It carried 286 illegal Chinese passengers, 10 of
whom drowned while trying to swim ashore. In 1997 Lee Peng Fei (47)
was extradited from Thailand for running the immigrant smuggling
ring that was responsible. In 2000 Hong Kong police arrested Cheng
Chui Ping for her role in the operation. A TV Dateline special was
presented in 2001. In 2005 gangster Ah Kay turned government witness
in the federal trial of Cheng Chui Ping, the reputed mastermind of
the smuggling attempt.
(WSJ, 2/27/96, p.A-16)(SFC, 10/7/97, p.A8)(SFC,
4/21/00, p.A8)(AP, 6/6/98)(WSJ, 8/3/01, p.W9)(AP, 5/21/05)
1993 Aug 25, The United States
applied limited sanctions against China and Pakistan after
concluding the Chinese had sold M-11 missile technology to the
(WSJ, 6/13/96, p.A4)(AP, 8/25/98)
1993 Sep 17, President Clinton
urged China to cancel an underground nuclear test, assuring the
Beijing government it had nothing to fear from the world's other
1993 Oct 5, China set off an
underground nuclear blast, ignoring a plea from President Clinton
not to do so.
1993 Nov, Wang Zhihua boarded a
scheduled flight from Hangzhou to Fuzhou, the capital of Fujian
province opposite Taiwan. He showed fake explosives to the crew,
saying he had a bomb, and forced the plane to fly to Taiwan. In 2008
Wang was returned to China and sentenced to 12 years in prison.
1993 Beijing Publishing House
published "The Abandoned Capital" Jia Pingwa. It was advertised as
the raciest novel since the Ming Dynasty. The author self-edited the
most salacious parts leaving blank spaces. The novel was banned
after several months. The novel continued selling over the black
(SFC, 4/17/98, p.A12)
1993 The 1st dam on the Mekong
River was completed at Man Wan, China.
(Econ, 1/3/04, p.29)
1993 China amended its
(SFEC, 1/31/99, p.A22)
1993 China set up a Preliminary
Working Committee (PWC) to shape the post-1997 Hong Kong
(SFC, 7/1/97, p.A8)
1993 China curbed satellite
dish sales and ownership after Rupert Murdoch said that satellite
broadcasting threatened totalitarian regimes by enabling viewers to
bypass state controlled media. Unauthorized satellite reception was
(WSJ, 3/26/96, p.A-15)(SFC, 5/8/99, p.C1)
1993 The Unirule Institute of
Economics, an independent Chinese think tank, was founded in
Beijing. In 2017 the government shut down two of its websites as
well as all of its social media accounts and those of its
(Econ, 2/18/17, p.37)
1993 Feng Jun founded Aigo, the
trade name of Beijing Huaqi Information Digital Technology Company,
to sell keyboards. In 2008 Mr. Feng carried the Olympic torch in
(Econ, 8/2/08, SR p.8)
1993 In China Chen Feng led a
coalition of private investors and the government of Hainan to
launch Hainan Airlines. In 2016 it recorded revenues of $90 billion.
(Econ, 4/15/17, p.56)
1993 China banned the use of
rhino horn and demand fell sharply.
(Econ 5/6/17, p.69)
1993 Vietnamese border
crossings with China were opened for trade.
(SFC, 12/14/98, p.A12)
1993 Coca-Cola established a
memorandum of understanding with Beijing for expansion in China and
obligations to the domestic soft-drink industry. 10 new
joint-venture bottling plants were allowed.
(WSJ, 5/31/96, p.B3B)
1993 China and the Tibet
Autonomous Region established the Chang Tang Reserve setting aside
at least 109,000 sq. mls. Added to the smaller, contiguous Arjin
Shan Region, the total preserved area is now almost as a large as
(NH, 5/96, p.52)
1993 Chinese hijackers
commandeered jets to Taiwan at least twice. In 1999 two children and
9 hijackers were returned to China.
(SFC, 2/6/99, p.A12)
1993 Michael Yu and his wife
founded New Oriental’s 1st school to teach English to Chinese
students. In 2006 New Oriental raised $129.4 million in an initial
public offering on the NYSE.
(WSJ, 11/27/06, p.B3)
1993-1993 In China investments grew at an annual
rate of 60%, GDP peaked at over 15%, and inflation hit 28%.
(Econ, 4/17/04, p.71)
1994 Feb 28, Pu Chieh (87),
brother of last Chinese emperor, Pu Yi (d.1967), died.
1994 Feb, Deng Xiaoping made
his last public appearance.
(SFC, 2/20/96, p.A4)
1994 Mar 11, Secretary of State
Warren Christopher arrived in Beijing, the mood of his trip already
soured by a fresh government crackdown on Chinese dissidents.
1994 Mar 14, Secretary of State
Warren Christopher wrapped up three days of meetings with Chinese
leaders, who rejected attempts to link their human rights record
with preferred trade status.
1994 Mar, The China Development
Bank was founded to support state policies to implement disciplined
development and build harmonious society.
1994 May 26, President Clinton
renewed trade privileges for China, and announced his administration
would no longer link China's trade status with its human rights
1994 May, Two labor organizers,
Li Wenming and Guo Baosheng, were arrested but not charged after
they sought to form an independent labor union among the workers of
Shenzhen. In Nov 1996, the 2 men were charged with counterrevolution
and trying to overthrow the government.
(SFC, 12/31/96, p.A10)
1994 Jun 6, A China Northwest
Airlines Tu-154 on a flight from Xian to Guangzhou crashed 10
minutes after takeoff, and killed all 160 onboard.
(SFC, 5/12/96, p.A-14)(WSJ, 11/13/01, p.A14)
1994 Jul, The Chinese A share
index dropped 80% to 1,744.
(Hem. 1/95, p.49)
1994 Sep 3, China and Russia
proclaimed an end to any lingering hostilities, pledging they would
no longer target nuclear missiles or use force against each other.
1994 Sep 17, Fifty-six miners
confirmed killed in a gas blast at the Nanshan coal mine,
northeastern Heilongjiang province.
1994 Oct 18, US Defense
Secretary William Perry, nearing the end of a visit to China, said
Beijing had agreed to brief the Pentagon on its overall military
strategy and defense spending plans.
1994 Li Zhisui, Mao’s personal
doctor, authored “The Private Life of Chairman Mao."
(Econ, 5/28/05, p.83)
1994 Harry Wu (1937-2016),
Chinese human rights activist and writer, published his "Bitter
Winds: A Memoir of My Years in China’s Gulags," with Carolyn
Wakeman. Wu Hongda had been sent to a labor camp in 1960 to be
turned into “a new socialist person." In 1985 he left for
(SFC, 5/19/96, Z1, p.3)(Econ, 5/7/15, p.86)(Econ,
1994 China’s foreign minister,
Qian Qichen, and US Sec. of State Warren Christopher, agreed to halt
sales of M-11 and other missiles to Pakistan.
(WSJ, 6/13/96, p.A4)
1994 China’s central government
changed the way it shared tax revenues with the provinces, leaving
the center with a much bigger portion.
(Econ, 6/3/06, p.37)
1994 China began a pilot
program in some cities to provide a subsistence guarantee for those
whose income was below the minimum needed for adequate comfort. The
dibao program was implemented by local authorities and failed to
reach most rural needy.
(Econ, 10/31/15, p.43)
1994 China established a
unified official exchange rate and pegged the yuan, also known as
the renminbi (people's money), at about 8.28 to the US dollar.
(SFC, 7/5/03, p.B1)(Econ, 9/25/10, p.87)
1994 In China the
guided-missile destroyer ship Harbin was built with weapons and
engineering systems made in 40 countries.
(SFC, 3/22/97, p.A3)
1994 China accelerated its
drive to join GATT.
(WSJ, 11/16/99, p.A19)
1994 China started its first
nuclear plant. By 2016 there were 36 nuclear reactors in operation.
(Econ, 9/24/16, p.43)
1994 China passed a Maternal
Infant Health Care Law. It guaranteed pediatric health care to poor
women and stipulated that couples be informed of any genetic
problems. It also directed doctors to take steps to prevent
childbearing in the event of detected problems.
(SFEC, 8/16/98, p.A25)
1994 China passed rules that
permitted executed prisoners to donate organs with written consent
by the prisoner of relatives.
(SSFC, 3/11/01, p.D1)
1994 The Internet was
introduced to China.
(Wired, 2/99, p.127)
1994 China’s steel making
capacity was 11% of the world total. By 2006 it reached 25%.
(Econ, 12/10/05, p.67)
1994 China started a national
campaign to fortify all salt with iodine. Some 2,500 salt police
enforced the state monopoly.
(SFC, 11/15/02, p.J4)
1994 China’s government
announced plans to develop a stand-alone automobile industry.
(Econ, 2/24/07, p.79)
1994 China lifted a ban on dogs
in Beijing. Strict licensing was enforced until 2003.
(Econ 7/8/17, p.38)
1994 Suzhou Industrial Park was
established west of Shanghai.
(WSJ, 11/30/01, p.A13)
1994 In China leaders in
Tianjin established the Binhai New Area for economic development. In
2005 the central government backed the project as one of national
(Econ, 6/24/06, p.47)
1994 Shengda Economics, Trade
and Management College was founded in Longhu, Henan province, China.
(Econ, 8/12/06, p.32)
1994 The World Journal, a
Chinese-language newspaper based in new York reported that blood
products in China were contaminated with the AIDS virus.
(SFC, 10/25/96, p.A14)
1994 A ferry and freighter
slammed into each other on China’s Yangtze River and 133 people
(SFC, 11/26/99, p.A23)
1994 Myanmar leased the 2 Coco
Islands in the Indian Ocean to China. China proceeded to establish
surveillance stations there.
1994 South African Breweries
(SAB) moved into the China market.
(Econ, 7/15/06, p.59)
1994-1995 China carved 4 big new commercial banks
out of the old communist banking system. The banks soon made 2 bad
loans for every three good ones. The government began cleaning them
up in 1999 taking loans equivalent to 17% of GDP off their books.
(Econ, 5/20/06, Survey p.20)
1994-2004 Mass protests in China rose from 74,000
to some 74,000.
(Econ, 12/17/05, p.41)