Timeline 1937

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1937        Jan 1, The US Social Security system began levying taxes on workers’ wages.
    (Econ, 8/20/05, p.23)(www.ssa.gov/history/1930.html)
1937        Jan 1, At a party at the Hormel Mansion in Minnesota, a guest won $100 for naming a new canned meat-Spam. SPAM was originally called Hormel Spiced Ham in 1936 without much success.
    (HN, 1/1/00)(http://tinyurl.com/3soounh)

1937        Jan 4, Grace Bumbry, soprano (Venus, in "Tannhauser"), was born in St. Louis.
    (MC, 1/4/02)

1937        Jan 6, The U.S. banned the shipment of arms to war-torn Spain.
    (HN, 1/6/99)

1937        Jan 8, In San Francisco demonstrations took place in front of the German Consulate at 201 Sansome Street protesting the bombing of Madrid.
    (SSFC, 1/8/12, p.42)
1937        Jan 8, Nash Motors, a component of the Dow Jones, changed its name to Nash Kelvinator.
    (WSJ, 4/8/04, p.C4)

1937        Jan 9, Italian regime banned marriages between Italians and Abyssinians.
    (MC, 1/9/02)

1937        Jan 13, The United States barred Americans from serving in the Spanish War.
    (HN, 1/13/99)

1937        Jan 19, Millionaire Howard Hughes set a transcontinental air record by flying his monoplane from Los Angeles to Newark, N.J., in seven hours, 28 minutes and 25 seconds.
    (AP, 1/19/06)
1937        Jan 19, In the Soviet Union, the People's Commissars Council was formed under Molotov.
    (HN, 1/19/99)

1937        Jan 20, President Franklin Roosevelt was inaugurated for a 2nd term. He became the first chief executive to be inaugurated on Jan. 20 instead of March 4.
    (AP, 1/20/08)(SSFC, 1/18/09, p.D6)
1937        Jan 20, In San Francisco a fire gutted the 7-story Wilson building at 975 Market St.
    (SSFC, 1/15/12, p.46)

1937        Jan 22, In San Francisco riots between longshoremen factions surged through the financial district. 33 men were sent to jail and 4 to the hospital. This was the first major disturbance in the 85-day-old maritime strike.
    (SSFC, 1/22/12, DB p.42)

1937        Jan 23, 17 people went on trial in Moscow during Josef Stalin’s "Great Purge."
    (AP, 1/23/98)

1937        Jan 25, The US radio program "The Guiding Light," made its debut. In 1952 it became a television soap opera on CBS.

1937        Jan 27, The Ohio River crested at 57.1 feet, almost thirty feet above flood stage. The flood of 1937 took place in late January and February. Damage stretching from Pittsburgh to Cairo, Illinois. One million persons were left homeless, with 385 dead and property losses reaching $500 million. The Mississippi River crested at 14.8 meters. Flooding left 37 people dead in Arkansas. In 2010 Patrick O’Daniel authored “Memphis and the Superflood of 1937: High Water Blues."   

1937        Jan 30, Mexico's Pres. Lazaro Cardenas created the AGPN, "Administracion General del Petroleo Nacional." The AGPN became a public organism that would guide the Mexican oil industry. The creation of the AGPN constituted the transformation of Petromex into a publicly driven firm.

1937        Jan, Arab riots spread across Palestine and British forces sought to restrict Jewish immigration. In the Beit Shean Valley 30 young people set up a defensible tower and stockade that became the Kibbutz Sde Nahum.
    (SFEC, 9/28/97, p.A26)

1937        Feb 1, Don Everly, was born. (singer: group: The Everly Brothers with brother, Phil: Wake Up Little Susie, Bye Bye Love, Cathy’s Clown, All I Have To Do Is Dream)
    (440 Int'l, 2/1/1999)
1937        Feb 1, Garrett Morris, was born. (comedian: Saturday Night Live, actor: The Anderson Tapes, Almost Blue)
    (440 Int'l, 2/1/1999)
1937        Feb 1, Ray Sawyer, was born. (singer: group: Dr. Hook and The Medicine Show: Only Sixteen, Cover of the Rolling Stone, Sylvia’s Mother)
    (440 Int'l, 2/1/1999)

1937        Feb 5, President Roosevelt proposed increasing the number of Supreme Court justices. Critics charged that he was attempting to "pack" the court.
    (AP, 2/5/97)

1937        Feb 9, In San Francisco United Airlines DC-3 crashed 2 miles from Mills Field. The co-pilot had dropped his microphone which jammed the controls preventing the pilot from pulling out of the glide. The plane crashed killing all 11 aboard.
    (http://planecrashinfo.com/unusual.htm)(SSFC, 2/5/12, DB p.42)

1937        Feb 11, In Flint, Mich., a sit-down strike against General Motors ended after 44 days, with the company agreeing to recognize the United Automobile Workers Union. The UAW was victorious in a strike against GM. GM recognized the union and agreed to a contract.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)(AP, 2/11/97)

1937        Feb 14, Austrian leader Schuschnigg threatened to restore the Hapsburg monarchy.
    (HN, 2/14/98)

1937        Feb 16, Wallace H. Carothers, a research chemist for Du Pont who invented nylon, received a patent for the synthetic fiber. It would replace silk in a number of products and reduce costs. [see 1930] In 2000 Susannah Handley authored "Nylon: The Story of a Fashion Revolution."
    (HN, 2/16/98)(AP, 2/16/98)(WSJ, 1/21/00, p.W8)

1937        Feb 17, Nearly at the end of the four years of construction of the Golden Gate Bridge, 10 construction workers lost their lives when a section of scaffold fell through a safety net. When construction began on the 35-million-dollar bridge spanning the Golden Gate Strait between San Francisco and Marin County, Chief Engineer Joseph B. Strauss was determined to use the most rigorous safety precautions available. Protective hardhats and glare-free goggles were required and special diets were developed to combat dizziness. But it was the safety net strung under the bridge during construction that saved the lives of 19 men who became known as the "Half-Way-to-Hell" Club. Until February 17, 1937, only one life had been lost during construction. The Golden Gate Bridge opened to vehicular traffic on May 28, 1937.
    (HNPD, 2/17/99)(SSFC, 2/12/12, DB p.42)

1937        Feb 22, Samuel Whitbread, English brewer, multi-millionaire, was born.
    (MC, 2/22/02)

1937        Feb 25, Basia Johnson, maid, was born. She later inherited the Johnson & Johnson fortune.
    (MC, 2/25/02)
1937        Feb 25, Bob Schieffer, newscaster (CBS Weekend News), was born in Austin, Tx.
    (MC, 2/25/02)

1937        Feb 26, C. Isherwood and W.H. Auden's "Ascent of F6" premiered in London.
    (SC, 2/26/02)

1937        Feb, More than 30,000 Ethiopians were reportedly massacred by Italian forces in Addis Ababa. Italian estimates numbered between 600 and 2,000. Later studies put the number at around 20,000.
    (http://nazret.com/history/)(Econ 7/22/17, p.66)

1937        Mar 1, The 1st US permanent automobile license plates was issued in Connecticut.
    (SC, 3/1/02)
1937        Mar 1, US Steel raises workers' wages to $5 a day.
    (SC, 3/1/02)
1937        Mar 1, Governor Wouters inaugurated a radio station on the Dutch Antilles.
    (SC, 3/1/02)

1937        Mar 6, The tanker ship Frank H. Buck sank off the coast of San Francisco. It was visible during low tide from between Point Vista and the Palace of the Legion of Honor.
    (http://www.wrecksite.eu/wreck.aspx?142746)(SFC, 9/17/14, p.A10)
1937        Mar 6, Jose Pena Gomez (d.1998 at 61), advocate for the poor and later mayor of Santo Domingo, was born in Valverde, Dominican Republic, to Haitian immigrants. According to Jose Pena Gomez, a Dominican massacre of Haitians forced his parents to flee back to Haiti. Jose was adopted by a Dominican family.
    (SFC, 5/12/98, p.A21)
1937        Mar 6, Valentina Nikolayeva-Tereshkova, Russian astronaut, was born. In 1963 she became the first women to orbit the Earth on Vostok 6.
    (HN, 3/6/99)(MC, 3/6/02)

1937        Mar 13, Elihu Thomson (b.1853, English-born engineer and inventor, died in Massachusetts. He was instrumental in the founding of major electrical companies in the United States, the United Kingdom and France. He and Edwin J. Houston had co-founded the Thomson-Houston Electric Company which merged with Edison General Electric to form General Electric in 1892. 

1937        Mar 15, The 1st state contraceptive clinic opened in Raleigh, NC.
    (MC, 3/15/02)
1937        Mar 15, H.P. Lovecraft (b.1890), author of horror tales whose works included "The Color out of Space," died in Providence, RI.
    (HN, 8/20/98)(SSFC, 2/27/05, p.B1)

1937        Mar 17, Amelia Earhart took off from Oakland, Ca., in an attempt to become the first pilot to fly around the globe at the equator.
    (SFC, 3/1/97, p.A8)

1937        Mar 18, Some 300 people, mostly children, were killed in a gas explosion at a school in New London, Texas.
    (AP, 3/18/08)
1937        Mar 18, In Missouri Jim the Wonder Dog died at age 12 at the Lake of the Ozarks. The dog had uncanny abilities that were verified but never explained.
    (SFC, 3/29/99, p.A3)

1937        Mar 20, Jerry Reed, singer, actor (Bat 21, Smokey & the Bandit), was born in Atlanta, GA.
    (MC, 3/20/02)
1937        Mar 20, A Franco offensive took place at Guadalajara, Spain.
    (MC, 3/20/02)

1937        Mar 21, Ponce massacre: police killed 19 at a Puerto Rican Nationalist parade.
    (MC, 3/21/02)

1937        Mar 22, Ray Woods, a professional diver from St. Louis, leaped from the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge in an attempt to set a new world record for high dive. He suffered 6 broken vertebrae, but survived.
    (SSFC, 3/18/12, DB p.42)(http://tinyurl.com/6nxsa69)

1937        Mar 23, Los Angeles Railway Co. started using PCC streetcars. PCC's are streetcars that were originally designed under the direction of the Electric Railway Presidents' Conference Committee, in an attempt by 25 U.S. and Canadian transit companies to develop a standardized streetcar whose many improvements would help to reverse the decline in transit use that had begun in the 1920's. The committee's efforts began in late 1929, and the first cars were put into service in New York in October 1936.
    (SS, 3/23/02)(Internet)

1937        Mar 24, A bus blew a tire, went out of control and 18 people were killed in Salem, Illinois.
    (MC, 3/24/02)

1937        Mar 26, a 6-foot-tall concrete statue of the cartoon character Popeye was unveiled during the Second Annual Spinach Festival in Crystal City, Texas.
    (AP, 3/26/97)
1937        Mar 26, William H. Hastie became the first black federal judge in the Virgin Islands.
    (HN, 3/25/98)(SS, 3/26/02)

1937        Mar 29, Billy Carter, brother of Pres Carter, was born in Plains, Georgia.
    (MC, 3/29/02)

1937        Mar 30, Warren Beatty, American actor and director, was born in Richmond, Va., as Henry Warren Beaty. His older sister became famous as actress Shirley MacLaine (b.1934). In 2010 Peter Biskind authored "How Warren Beatty Seduced America."
    (SSFC, 1/10/10, Books p.F1)

1937        Mar, Jack S. Liebowitz and Harry Donenfeld published their 1st issue of Detective Comics, later known as DC Comics. They later added Batman (1939) and Superman along with other super heroes.
    (SFC, 12/14/00, p.C9)

1937        Mar, The encyclical "With Burning Sorrow" (Mit brennender Sorge) was "smuggled" into Germany. Cardinal Eugenio Pacelli (later Pius XII) helped Pius XI draft the work which denounced Nazi paganism and racism. The Encyclical was "published" in Germany and read from the pulpits of every Catholic church on Palm Sunday.
    (WSJ, 4/25/97, p.A18)(WSJ, 5/8/97, p.A23)

1937               Apr 1,  Aden became a British colony.

1937        Apr 5, Colin Powell, U.S. Army general, was born in Bronx New York. He later became the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff during the Persian Gulf War and first African American to serve in the position. In 2000 Pres.-elect Bush appointed him to be Sec. of State.
    (HFA, '96, p.28)(HN, 4/5/99)(SSFC, 12/17/00, p.A14)

1937        Apr 6, Merle Haggard, American country musician, was born.
    (HN, 4/6/01)

1937        Apr 8, Seymour Hersh, award winning investigative reporter (NY Times), was born.
    (MC, 4/8/02)

1937        Apr 12, The US Supreme Court ruled that the 1935 National Labor Relations Act is unconstitutional.
    (SSFC, 1/18/09, p.D6)

1937        Apr 13, Edward Fox, actor (M-Never Say Never Again, The Day of the Jackal), was born in London, England.
    (MC, 4/13/02)
1937        Apr 13, Lanford Wilson, US playwright (Hot L Baltimore), was born.
    (MC, 4/13/02)

1937        Apr 17, Cartoon characters Daffy Duck, Elmer J. Fudd and Petunia Pig, debuted.

1937        Apr 18, Leon Trotsky called for the overthrow of Soviet leader Josef Stalin.
    (HN, 4/18/98)

1937        Apr 22, Jack Nicholson, actor (One Flew Over Cuckoo's Nest, Shining), was born in NJ.
    (MC, 4/22/02)

1937        Apr 25, Bo Brundin, actress (Rhinemann Exchange), was born in Stockholm, Sweden.
    (SS, 4/25/02)
1937        Apr 25, Clem Sohn (26), air show performer, died when his chute failed to open.
    (SS, 4/25/02)

1937        Apr 26, The radio show "Lorenzo Jones" began over NBC Radio with Karl Swenson in the lead role. It ran to 1955.
    (440 Int’l. Internet, 4/26/97, p.2)
1937        Apr 26, German planes from the Condor Legion--sent to Spain by Adolf Hitler to help fascist General Francisco Franco overthrow the communist Popular Front regime-- attacked the Basque town of Guernica in Spain. Bombs fell for three  hours and escaping villagers were shot down by machine-gun fire from the air. The attack killed as many as 1,600-1,650 Basque civilians and injured 900. Although the alleged target was a bridge of military significance some distance from the town, dazed survivors described a merciless four-hour bombing and strafing attack by German pilots directed toward the village and its inhabitants. The Guernica atrocity became synonymous with the horror of modern warfare and inspired one of the 20th century's greatest works of art, Guernica, by Spanish artist Pablo Picasso.
    (440 Int’l. internet, 4/26/97, p.2)(WSJ, 4/28/97, p.A1)(AP, 4/26/98)(HNPD, 4/26/99)

1937        Apr 27, Sandy Dennis, actress (Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?), was born in Nebraska.
    (MC, 4/27/02)
1937        Apr 27, The Franklin Roosevelt administration began distributing the nation’s first Social Security checks.
    (AP, 4/27/06)(AH, 4/07, p.14)
1937        Apr 27, Antonio Gramsci (b.1891), Italian communist, philosopher and political theorist, died. He said that to eliminate the bourgeois state one must seize the institutions that reproduce the dominant class’s thought patterns.
    (Econ, 8/22/09, p.33)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antonio_Gramsci)

1937        Apr 28, A ceremony marked the driving of the last rivet into the Golden Gate Bridge. A rivet gun destroyed a symbolic gold rivet and a steel rivet finished the job.
    (SSFC, 4/22/12, DB p.46)
1937        Apr 28, The 1st animated cartoon electric sign was displayed  in NYC.
    (MC, 4/28/02)
1937        Apr 28, Saddam Hussein, future president of Iraq, was born in the village of al-Oja near the desert town of Tikrit. His invasion of Kuwait prompted the Persian Gulf War. This became a state holiday under Hussein's rule and was abolished in 2003. He was executed in Dec 2006.
    (SFEC, 3/29/98, p.A12)(HN, 4/28/99)(WSJ, 1/20/02, p.A13)(AP, 7/13/07)
1937        Apr 28, Jean Redpath, Scottish folk singer, was born.
    (HN, 4/28/01)

1937        May 1, President Franklin Roosevelt signed an act of neutrality, keeping the United States out of World War II.
    (HN, 5/1/99)

1937        May 3, Margaret Mitchell won a Pulitzer Prize for her novel, "Gone with the Wind."
    (AP, 5/3/97)

1937        May 6, At 7:25 p.m. the giant German airship (dirigible or zeppelin) Hindenburg burst into flames and crashed to the ground as it attempted to dock with a mooring mast at Lakehurst Naval Air Station in New Jersey. Carrying 36 passengers and 61 crew, Hindenburg left Frankfurt on May 4 for its first transatlantic voyage of the 1937 season. A total of 36 died when the fire ignited the 16 hydrogen-filled cells and destroyed the zeppelin in only 34 seconds. This included 13 passengers, 22 crew members and one of the ground crew. The airship was 803 feet long and had private rooms for 50 passengers. It had an 11,000 mile range. A newsreel film of the Hindenburg Disaster was made. The true cause of the disaster remains a mystery, although crash investigators considered claims that Hindenburg was lost due to sabotage or an accidental charge of static electricity.
     (Hem., 1/96, p.108)(AP, 5/6/97)(SFC,11/21/97, p.C17)(ON, 8/12, p.11)

1937        May 8, Thomas Pynchon, novelist (Gravity's Rainbow), was born.
    (HN, 5/7/02)

1937        May 10, Arthur Kopit, American playwright, was born.
    (HN, 5/10/02)

1937        May 11, Spam, a canned ham by Hormel, was registered as a trademark. It was introduced to the public as Spam on July 5, 1937.
    (WSJ, 4/29/04, p.D10)(http://tinyurl.com/3soounh)

1937        May 12, George Carlin (d.2002), comedian, was born in the Bronx.
1937        May 12, In San Francisco over 1,000 tons of gold were moved from the old to the new US Mint. The Old Mint stopped being an actual mint and was just used for federal offices. It had once stored a third of the nation’s gold supply. The new mint opened on upper Market near the Castro District.
    (SFC, 8/2/01, p.A14)(SSFC, 1/28/03, p.E6)(SSFC, 5/13/12, p.42)
1937        May 12, The Duke of York was crowned Britain's King George VI at Westminster Abbey.
    (SFEM, 1/26/97, p.40)(AP, 5/12/97)

1937        May 13, Judith Somogi, conductor, was born in NYC.
    (MC, 5/13/02)
1937        May 13, Roger [Joseph] Zelazny, sci-fi author (6 Hugos, Chronicles of Amber), was born.
    (MC, 5/13/02)

1937        May 15, Trini Lopez, singer, guitarist (If I Had a Hammer), was born in Trinidad.
    (MC, 5/15/02)

1937        May 21, The San Francisco Theater Union premiered the first stage version of John Steinbeck’s “Of Mice and Men."   
    (SSFC, 5/13/12, p.42)

1937        May 23, John Davison Rockefeller (97), industrialist, died in Ormond Beach, Fla. In 1998 Ron Chernow published this biography: "Titan: The Life of John D, Rockefeller, Sr." His value in 1999 dollars totaled $190 billion.
    (AP, 5/23/97)(WSJ, 5/8/98, p.W1)(SFEC, 5/23/99, Par p.7)(MC, 5/23/02)

1937        May 24, The US Supreme Court ruled that the Social Security Act is constitutional.
    (SSFC, 1/18/09, p.D6)(www.ssa.gov/history/court.html)

1937        May 25, 1st airmail letter to circle the globe returned to New York.
    (SC, 5/25/02)
1937        May 25, Henry O. Tanner, artist, died. 
    (SC, 5/25/02)

1937        May 27, The newly completed Golden Gate Bridge connecting SF and Marin County, Calif., was opened to pedestrian traffic. The bridge, designed by Joseph Strauss (d.1938), was built to sway 13 feet six inches of center in either direction. Over 200,000 pedestrians walked across on opening day. The bridge towers stood a record 750 feet. In 2007 Frank Stahl and Daniel Mohn authored “The Golden Gate Bridge, Report of the Chief Engineer, Vol II." They gave credit to engineer Charles Ellis of the Univ. of Illinois for much of the technical and theoretical work that went into the bridge. He was fired by Strauss before construction began.
    (AP, 5/27/97)(SFEC, 10/5/97, Z1 p.6)(SFC, 10/30/99, p.C3)(SFC, 5/11/07, p.A1)(SSFC, 12/10/17, DB p.54)

1937        May 28, President Roosevelt pushed a button in Washington signaling that vehicular traffic could cross the just-opened Golden Gate Bridge in California. Cars were charged 50 cents each way.
    (AP, 5/28/97)(SSFC, 5/20/12, p.E10)
1937        May 28, Neville Chamberlain became prime minister of Britain.
    (AP, 5/28/97)
1937        May 28, Alfred Adler (67), Austria psychiatrist (Individual Psychology), died.
    (MC, 5/28/02)

1937        May 29, Peter Kolman, composer, was born.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1937        May 30, The Memorial Day Massacre took place. Ten union demonstrators were killed and 84 wounded when police opened fire in front of the South Chicago Republic Steel plant. Earlier in 1937 the Steel Workers’ Organizing Committee had secured recognition by U.S. Steel as the workers’ bargaining agency and had won a number of concessions. "Little Steel," under the leadership of Republic’s Tom Girdler firmly opposed the union demands, leading to the deadly demonstration. A newsreel film of the Republic Steel strike riots was made.
    (AP, 5/30/97)(SFC,11/21/97, p.C17)(HNQ, 5/25/98)

1937        May 31, German battleships shelled Almeria, Spain.
    (MC, 5/31/02)

1937        Jun 1, Amelia Earhart and navigator Fred Noonan departed from Miami Municipal airport in a Lockheed 10E Electra airplane. She was last heard from one month later trying to find tiny Howland Island in the middle of the Pacific Ocean.
    (Hem., 2/96, p.44)(SFC, 10/30/99, p.C3)

1937        Jun 3, The US Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937 was signed. It provided authority for federal marketing orders, and also reaffirmed the marketing agreements provisions of the Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1933.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agricultural_Marketing_Agreement_Act_of_1937)(Econ, 3/30/13, p.32)
1937        Jun 3, The Duke of Windsor, who had abdicated the British throne, married Wallis Warfield Simpson in Monts, France. In 2003 secret police records revealed that Simpson was also having an affair with Guy Marcus Trundle, a used car salesman.
    (AP, 6/3/97)(SFC, 1/30/03, p.A10)

1937        Jun 4, Robert Fulghrum, American author, was born. He wrote "All I Really need to Know I learned in Kindergarten" and "It Was on Fire When I Lay Down on It."
    (HN, 6/4/99)
1937        Jun 4, Freddy Fender, singer, was born as Baldemar Huerta. His songs included: Wasted Days and  Wasted Nights and Before the Next Teardrop Falls.

1937        Jun 5, Henry Ford initiated a 32 hour work week.
    (MC, 6/5/02)

1937        Jun 6, Ivan Papanin (1894-1986) raised the Soviet flag over the North Pole-1 station. For 234 days the 4-man Papanin team carried out a wide range of scientific observations in the near-polar zone.
    (Econ, 8/11/07, p.43)(www.mvk.ru/eng/about/press/publications/publication_105.shtm)

1937        Jun 7, Actress Jean Harlow died in Los Angeles at age 26.
    (AP, 6/7/07)

1937        Jun 8, Joan Rivers (comedienne, talk show host: Can We Talk), was born.
    (MC, 6/8/02)
1937        Jun 8, In Britain Stanley Baldwin accepted an earldom and retired from politics.

1937        Jun 10, San Francisco police began the destruction of some 400 slot machines seized in the past years. They planned to dump the destroyed machines in the SF Bay.
    (SSFC, 6/10/12, DB p.42)
1937        Jun 10, Luciana Paluzzi (Fiona Volpe), actress (Five Fingers, Thunderball), was born in Rome, Italy.

1937        Jun 11, Johnny Brown, comedian (Good Times, Leslie Uggams), was born in St Petersburg, Fla.
    (SC, 6/11/02)
1937        Jun 11, Marx Brothers' "A Day At The Races" was released.
    (SC, 6/11/02)
1937        Jun 11, Reginald Joseph Mitchell (b.1895), British aeronautical engineer and chief designer of the Spitfire fighter, died of cancer.
    (ON, 3/07, p.2)

1937        Jun 12, The Soviet Union executed eight army leaders as a purge under Josef Stalin continued.
    (AP, 6/12/97)(HN, 6/12/98)

1937        Jun 13, Stalin executed Russian officers Tuchachevski, Jakir, Putna & Uberevitch.
    (MC, 6/13/02)

1937        Jun 15, Waylon Jennings (d.2002), country singer, was born in Littlefield, Texas, where his father worked on a cotton farm.
    (SFC, 2/14/02, p.A2)

1937        Jun 16, August Busch III, CEO (Anheuser-Busch, St Louis Cards), was born.
    (MC, 6/16/02)
1937        Jun 16, Marx Brothers' "A Day At The Races" opened in LA. [see Jun 11]
    (MC, 6/16/02)

1937        Jun 18, Gail Godwin, writer (The Perfectionists, The Southern Family), was born.
    (HN, 6/18/01)
1937        Jun 18, John D. Rockefeller IV, U.S. Senator, was born.
    (HN, 6/18/98)

1937        Jun 19, The town of Bilbao, Spain, fell to the Nationalist forces.
    (HN, 6/19/98)
1937        Jun 19, James M. Barrie (b.1860), Scottish writer (Dear Brutus, Peter Pan), died. In 2004 the film "Finding Neverland," was based on Barrie’s life.
    (www.angus.gov.uk)(AP, 9/5/04)

1937        Jun 20, Immediately upon their landing in Vancouver, [Wa.?] after their daring 1937 transpolar flight from Moscow to America, three Soviet airmen were treated to breakfast in the home of Brigadier General George C. Marshall, commander of Vancouver Barracks. The record-setting, 5,507-mile, 60-hour flight made the unexpected early-morning landing on June 20 in Vancouver as the Tupelov ANT-25 ran low on fuel. Marshall, alerted to the landing, rushed to Pearson Field and escorted the crew of Valery Chkalov, Georgy Baidukov and Aleksandr Belyakov back to his home where his wife prepared a hearty breakfast for them. The Soviets were feted in the U.S. for their accomplishment and each honored as Heroes of the Soviet Union.
    (HNQ, 10/12/98)

1937        Jun 21, Wimbledon was televised for the first time.
    (Camelot, 6/21/99)

1937        Jun 22, Joe Louis began his reign as world heavyweight boxing champion by knocking out Jim Braddock in the eighth round of their fight in Chicago.
    (AP, 6/22/08)

1937        Jun 27, Joseph P. Allen IV, PhD, astronaut (STS-5, STS 51A), was born in Crawfordsville, Ind.
    (SC, 6/27/02)
1937        Jun 27, Robert Johnson, blues guitarist, recorded "Traveling Riverside Blues and 10 other songs in Dallas for the American Record Corp. He also did "Come On in My Kitchen."
    (SFC, 7/25/97, p.D5)(BS, 5/3/98, p.7E)

1937        Jun 29, Joseph-Armand Bombardier received notification that the Canadian government had granted his patent request for his snowmobile (une autoneige).
    (ON, 4/03, p.6)

1937        Jul 1, Rev. Martin Niemoeller (Bekennende Kirche) was arrested in Germany.
    (MC, 7/1/02)
1937        Jul 1, Spanish bishops supported Franco & fascists.
    (MC, 7/1/02)

1937        Jul 2, Polly Holliday, actress (Flo-Alice, Flo-Flo), was born in Jasper, Ala.
    (SC, 7/2/02)
1937        Jul 2, Richard Petty, auto race driver (Daytona 500-1979,81), was born.
    (SC, 7/2/02)
1937        Jul 2, Amelia Earhart and navigator Fred Noonan left Lae in Papua, New Guinea and disappeared over the Pacific Ocean while attempting to make the first round-the-world flight at the equator. The two had set out in Earhart's twin-engine Lockheed Electra, taking off from Oakland, Calif., for Miami on May 21. They flew across the Atlantic from Brazil to Africa, then reached Calcutta on June 17, having made 15 stops thus far. They failed to arrive at their scheduled stop at Howland Island. Radio operators received messages from Earhart saying that they had to be close and were circling, searching for land, but radio contact was lost and the two were never heard from again. Noonan was alcoholic and had been on a binge the night before. Radioman Leo Bellarts was the last person to communicate with Earhart. Errors from the US Coast Guard cutter Itasca were later identified as contributing to the disappearance.
    (SFC, 3/1/97, p.A8) (SFC, 5/20/97, p.A12) (AP, 7/2/97) (SFEC, 7/6/97, p.B10) (HNPD, 7/2/99)(SFC, 7/1/00, p.A1,11)
1937        Jul 2, C. Jackson discovered asteroids #1429, Pemba, & #1456, Saldanha.
    (SC, 7/2/02)

1937        Jul 3, Tom Stoppard, British author and dramatist, was born in Czechoslovakia as Tomas Strassler. His plays include "Rosencrantz and Gilderstern are Dead" and "The Real Thing." His family soon fled the Nazis to Singapore. In 2002 Ira Nadel authored the biography "Tom Stoppard: A Life."
    (HN, 7/3/99)(MC, 7/3/02)(SSFC, 9/1/02, p.M5)

1937        Jul 5, Joe DiMaggio hit his 1st grand slammer.
    (MC, 7/5/02)
1937        Jul 5, SPAM was unveiled by Hormel Foods. It was precooked pork and ham in a can, with a little potato starch, salt, and sugar. Sodium nitrate was added to keep it pink; without it, pork tends to turn gray. At 10 cents a can it was a big hit.
1937        Jul 5, There was a Republican offensive by Brunete in Spain.
    (MC, 7/5/02)

1937        Jul 6, Vladimir Ashkenazy, pianist, conductor (Tchakowsky-1961), was born in Gorki, Russia.
    (MC, 7/6/02)

1937        Jul 7, A conflict between troops of China and Japan came to be known as the Marco Polo Bridge Incident. The incident occurred near the Marco Polo Bridge outside of Beijing and eventually escalated into warfare between the two countries and was the prelude to the Pacific side of World War II.
    (HNQ, 9/22/99)

1937        Jul 8, In San Francisco a 3-month hotel strike continued as union members demonstrated in front of the Hotel Manx on Powell St. Owner Harvey M. Toy protested with a telegram to Mayor Rossi.
    (SSFC, 7/8/12, p.42)

1937        Jul 9, David Hockney, painter, was born in Bradford, England. He moved to LA in 1978.
    (HN, 7/9/01)(SFC, 8/18/01, p.B3)

1937        Jul 11, George Gershwin (b.1898 as Jacob Gershowitz), composer, died of a brain tumor at age 38 in Beverly Hills, Ca. His work included "Cuban Overture."  He wrote his first hit, "Swanee," in 1918 for the Broadway show, "Sinbad," starring Al Jolson. George Gershwin wrote the scores for such Broadway shows as "Funny Face," "Porgy and Bess" and "Of Thee I Sing" (his first musical to win a Pulitzer Prize [1932]). Gershwin played the piano at the premiere of his widely acclaimed "Rhapsody in Blue" in 1924, accompanied by the Paul Whiteman Orchestra. Gershwin’s song hits included "The Man I Love," "’S Wonderful," "Summertime" and "Love Is Here to Stay." The lyrics for many of his songs were written by his brother Ira. He was born September 26, 1898, in Brooklyn, NYC, NY. to Russian Jewish immigrants.
    (www.gershwin.com/)(SFC, 12/4/96, p.E1)(WSJ, 9/24/97, p.A20)(SFEC, 8/16/98, DB p.38)

1937        Jul 12, Bill Cosby, comedian, actor, was born.
    (HN, 7/12/98)

1937        Jul 15, Japanese attacked the Marco Polo Bridge and invaded China.
    (MC, 7/15/02)

1937        Jul 18, Hunter S. Thompson (d.2005), journalist, was born in Louisville, Ky.
    (SFC, 2/21/05, p.A8)(www.nndb.com/people/312/000022246/)

1937        Jul 20, Don Budge (22), American tennis player, defeated Baron Gottfried von Cram (28) of Germany at Wimbledon in a semi-final round to see who would face England. James Thurber later described the Budge-Cramm five-set marathon as “the greatest match in the history of the world."
    (WSJ, 4/25/09, p.W8)
1937        Jul 20, Guglielmo Marconi (b.1874), Italian engineer, inventor of wireless telegraphy, marquis (radio, Nobel 1909), died in Rome.
    (ON, 11/99, p.10)(MC, 7/20/02)

1937        Jul 22, The Senate rejected President Roosevelt’s proposal to add more justices to the Supreme Court.
    (AP, 7/22/97)
1937        Jul 22, Irish premier Eamon de Valera won elections. Valera served as prime minister of Ireland until 1948. he served again from 1951-1954, and again from 1957-1959.
    (MC, 7/22/02)(ON, 9/04, p.7)

1937        Jul 23, Isolation of pituitary hormone was announced by Yale University.
    (MC, 7/23/02)

1937        Jul 24, The state of Alabama dropped charges against 4 black men accused of raping two white women in the so-called Scottsboro case.
    (AP, 7/24/97)(www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/FTrials/scottsboro/SB_chron.html)

1937        Jul 28, Peter Duchin, pianist, bandleader (Peter Duchin Orch), was born in NYC.
    (SC, 7/28/02)
1937        Jul 28, Joseph Lee, father of Playgrounds movement, died.
    (SC, 7/28/02)

1937        Jul 29, Japanese troops occupied Peking and Tientsin. [see Aug 8]
    (MC, 7/29/02)

1937        Jul 31, The Russian Politburo enabled Operative Order 00447. This led to the execution of some 193,000 people.
    (MC, 7/31/02)

1937        Jul, “Marijuana, Assassin of Youth" by H.J. Anslinger, US Commissioner of Narcotics, was published in The American Magazine.
    (SSFC, 1/11/15, p.E7)

1937        Aug 1, The Buchenwald concentration camp, near Weimar, Germany, became operational. The hill on which it stood was called "Ettersberg," a place where Goethe often wrote and sketched, and that was the initial name for the camp, which the people of Weimar protested. The name was then changed to Buchenwald, Beech Forest. By April 11, 1945, an estimated 56,000 people were killed here, including approximately 11,000 Jews.
    (HN, 8/1/98)(SFC, 8/3/99, p.A10)(AP, 6/5/09)

1937        Aug 5, In Russia Stalin signed NKVD order no 00447 that mandated all prison camps across the Soviet Union to be emptied.
    (SFC, 7/17/97, p.A10)

1937        Aug 6, Franco's artillery opened fire on Madrid.
    (MC, 8/6/02)

1937        Aug 7, Harold Wobber (47), a WWI veteran, became the first person known to commit suicide by jumping off the Golden Gate Bridge.
    (SSFC, 5/20/12, p.E10)

1937        Aug 8, Dustin Hoffman, American actor, was born.
    (HN, 8//00)
1937        Aug 8, The Japanese Army occupied Beijing, China.
    (HN, 8/8/98)

1937        Aug 11, Edith Wharton (b.1862), American author, died in France. Her books included “The House of Mirth" (1905) and “Ethan Frome" (1911). In 1975 R.W.B. Lewis (d. 2002) authored the Pulitzer prize-winning "Edith Wharton: A Biography." In 2007 Hermione Lee authored “Edith Wharton."
    (SFC, 6/17/02, p.B5)(Econ, 1/27/07, p.85)(www.kirjasto.sci.fi/wharton.htm)

1937        Aug 12, Kenichie Horie (23), a Japanese auto parts salesman, sailed into the San Francisco Bay aboard a 19-foot sloop, “The Mermaid," after a 90 voyage from Japan. He hailed a Coast Guard patrol boat and was towed to the St. Francis Yacht Harbor.
    (SSFC, 8/12/12, DB p.42)

1937        Aug 13, Japanese attacked Shanghai.
    (MC, 8/13/02)

1937        Aug 14, The Appalachian Trail was dedicated. The 1990s book "A Walk in the Woods" described a writers journey on the trail.
1937        Aug 14, China declared war on Japan.
    (MC, 8/14/02)

1937        Aug 18, Robert Redford, actor (Sting, Candidate, Natural, Great Gatsby), was born in Calif.
    (MC, 8/18/02)

1937        Aug 19, Hugo Black (1886-1971), US Senator from Alabama, was sworn in as associate US Supreme Court Justice.
    (AP, 10/21/97)(www.oyez.org/oyez/resource/legal_entity/76/)

1937        Aug 23, Albert Charles Paul Marie Roussel (68), French composer, died.
    (MC, 8/23/02)

1937        Aug 24, Treasure Island in SF Bay was completed after 18½ months. All told 20 million cubic yards of sea bottom had been dredged, dug, dumped and poured inside the rocky walls.
1937        Aug 24, There was a Republican offensive near Belchite, Spain.
    (MC, 8/24/02)

1937        Aug 25, Pullman signed a contract with the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, one of the first substantive victories for black workers. [see Oct 1]
    (SFC, 12/3/98, p.A3)
1937        Aug 25, Japanese fleet blockaded the Chinese coast.
    (MC, 8/25/02)

1937        Aug 26, President Roosevelt signed the Judicial Procedure Reform Act, a compromise on his judicial reorganization plan.
    (SSFC, 1/18/09, p.D6)

1937        Aug 27, Andrew Mellon (b.1855), equity-fund capitalist and former US Treasury Secretary (1921-1932), died. In 2006 David Canadine authored the biography “Mellon."
    (www.ustreas.gov/education/history/secretaries/awmellon.shtml)(WSJ, 10/6/06, p.W4)

1937        Aug, Joseph Mitchell, writer for the New Yorker, placed third in a clam-eating tournament at Block Island after consuming 84 cherrystones.
    (SFC, 5/25/96, p.A19)

1937        Aug, A supernova flared up in the galaxy IC-4182 and stayed visible for 5 years.
    (SCTS, p.186)

1937        Sep 1, Ron O'Neal, actor (Superfly), was born in Utica, NY.
    (SC, 9/1/02)

1937        Sep 2, Peter Ueberroth, baseball commissioner, was born. He organized the 1984 LA Olympics.
    (MC, 9/2/01)
1937        Sep 2, Pierre de Coubertin (b.1863), French Baron and the major force behind the revival of the modern Olympics, died.
    (ON, 8/07, p.5)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pierre_de_Coubertin)

1937        Sep 6, The Soviet Union accused Italy of torpedoing two Russian ships in the Mediterranean.
    (HN, 9/6/98)

1937        Sep 8, The Pan Arab conference about Palestine opened.
    (MC, 9/8/01)

1937        Sep 14, TG Masaryk (b.1886), the first president of Czechoslovakia, died in Bohemia.

1937        Sep 15, Prime Minister of England Neville Chamberlain flew to Germany to discuss the future of Czechoslovakia with Adolf Hitler.
    (HN, 9/15/99)

1937        Sep 21, "The Hobbit," by J.R.R. Tolkien (b.1892), was first published.
    (WSJ,2/11/97, p.A18)(AP, 9/21/97)
1937        Sep 21, San Francisco’s worst fire since 1906 erupted in the plants of Standard Oil at 16th and Arkansas Streets. Buildings for blocks around were shaken as though by earthquakes.
    (SSFC, 9/16/12, DB p.46)
1937        Sep 21, The women’s airspeed record was set at 292 mph by American pilot Jacqueline Cochran.
    (HN, 9/21/98)

1937        Sep 25, In China Lin Biao masterminded the ambush and annihilation of more than 1,000 Japanese troops, at Pingxiangguan pass in Shanxi province.
    (AP, 7/16/07)
1937        Sep 25, German Chancellor Adolf Hitler met with Italian Premier Benito Mussolini in Munich.
    (HN, 9/25/98)

1937        Sep 26, Bessie Smith, known as the ‘Empress of the Blues,’ died in a car crash on Highway 61 near Clarksdale, Mississippi.
    (HN, 9/26/00)(HT, 5/97, p.40)

1937        Sep 27, The 1st Santa Claus Training School opened in Albion, NY.
    (MC, 9/27/01)

1937        Sep 28, Pres. Roosevelt dedicated Timberline Lodge at the foot of Palmer snowfield in Mt. Hood National Forest. It was constructed with public funds and WPA workers and did not open until Feb. 1938.
    (SFEM, 10/12/97, p.40)
1937        Sep 28, FDR dedicated Bonneville Dam on Columbia River in Oregon.
    (MC, 9/28/01)

1937        Oct 1, The US House of Representatives passed the "Marijuana Tax Act" after a debate of 90 seconds. It stipulated that pot could not be sold without a license. No licenses were ever issued, thus making the sale illegal. In 1970 Congress outlawed marijuana more precisely. The act included hemp in the ban.
    (SFEC, 10/18/98, Z1 p.8)(SFC, 5/28/99, p.A1)
1937        Oct 1, Pullman Co. formally recognized Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters. [see Aug 25]
    (MC, 10/1/01)

1937        Oct 5, Saying, "the epidemic of world lawlessness is spreading," President Roosevelt called for a "quarantine" of aggressor nations.
    (AP, 10/5/97)

1937        Oct 7, Igor Moiseyev (b.1906), founder of the Moiseyev folk-dance troupe, offered the troupe’s first public performance in Moscow.
    (WSJ, 1/12/98, p.A20)(www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G1-141047738.html)

1937        Oct 9, Brian Blessed, English actor (King Arthur, High Road to China, Hamlet, Henry V), was born.
    (MC, 10/9/01)

1937        Oct 15, The Ernest Hemingway novel "To Have and Have Not" was first published.
    (AP, 10/15/97)

1937        Oct 18, The DJIA dropped 7.8%
    (SFC,10/17/97, p.B2)

1937        Oct 19, Peter Max, psychedelic artist (Dynamite Chicken), was born.
    (MC, 10/19/01)

1937        Oct 21, Dmitri Shostakovitch's 5th Symphony premiered.
    (MC, 10/21/01)

1937        Oct 31, Michael Landon, actor (Bonanza, Highway to Heaven), was born in Forest Hills, NY.
    (MC, 10/31/01)
1937        Oct 31, Tom Paxton, folk singer and songwriter (Forest Lawn), was born in Chicago.
    (MC, 10/31/01)
1937        Oct 31, Spanish government moved from Valencia to Barcelona.
    (MC, 10/31/01)

1937        Oct, Amin al-Husseini, the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem, was exiled from Palestine. He sought fled to Iraq and in 1941 sought refuge in Iran.

1937        Oct-Nov, A 3-man panel, the "Osobaya Troika," signed death sentences that were sent to thousands of gulags across Russia and led to the massacre of 9,000 victims in the Karelia Forest at Medvezhyegorsk. The grave site was opened in Jul, 1997, and a monument was planned.
    (SFC, 7/17/97, p.A10)

1937        Nov 4, The Clifford Odets play "Golden Boy" opened at the Belasco Theatre in NYC.
    (WSJ, 12/6/95, p.A-18)(www.ibdb.com/production.php?id=12308)

1937        Nov 5, Hitler told his military advisors of his intentions of going to war.
    (MC, 11/5/01)

1937        Nov 7, Mary Travers, folk singer (Peter, Paul and Mary), was born in Louisville, Ky.
    (SSFC, 2/15/04, Par p.18)

1937        Nov 11, Messerschmidt ME-109V13 flew to a world record 610.4 kph.
    (MC, 11/11/01)

1937        Nov 13, NBC formed the first full-sized symphony orchestra exclusively for radio broadcasting for Arturo Toscanini.
    (AP, 11/13/98)(MC, 11/13/01)
1937        Nov 13, Edward Wutke (36), a convicted murderer serving a 27-year sentence  at Alcatraz prison, became the first suicide in the history of the rock. He slashed his jugular vein with a tiny pencil sharpener blade attached to the handle of a safety razor.
    (SSFC, 11/11/12, p.46)

1937        Nov 15, The 1st US congressional session in air-conditioned chambers took place.
    (MC, 11/15/01)
1937        Nov 15, Eighteen lawsuits were bought against the Tennessee Valley Authority, calling for its dissolution.
    (HN, 11/15/98)

1937        Nov 17, Peter Edward Cook, actor, comedian (Beyond the Fringe, Bedazzled), was born in Torquay, England.
    (MC, 11/17/01)
1937        Nov 17, Britain's Lord Halifax visited Germany and marked the beginning of appeasement.
    (MC, 11/17/01)

1937        Nov 21, Marlo Thomas, film and TV actress, was born in Detroit, Mich. In 1980 she married Phil Donohue.
    (SSFC, 11/21/04, Par p.28)

1937        Nov 23, John Steinbeck's "Of Mice & Men," premiered in NYC.
    (MC, 11/23/01)

1937        Nov 28, Franco blockaded the Spanish coast.
    (HN, 11/28/98)

1937        Nov 30, Paul Stookey, singer (Peter, Paul & Mary), was born in Baltimore, Md.
    (MC, 11/30/01)

1937        Nov, San Franciscans voted 65,725 to 32,449 to remove the Laurel Hill Cemetery. Over the next few years over 150,000 people were removed and reburied in Colma.
    (SFC, 4/14/18, p.C2)

1937        Dec 1, Japan recognized Spain’s Franco govt.
    (MC, 12/1/01)

1937        Dec 3, Stephen Rubin, English attorney and shoe manufacturer (Reebok, Adidas), was born.
    (MC, 12/3/01)

1937        Dec 5, The Lindberghs arrived in New York on a holiday visit after a two-year voluntary exile.
    (HN, 12/5/98)

1937        Dec 8, In San Francisco 5 men were sentenced to death at San Quentin for the Sep 19 Folsom Prison break that cost Warden Clarence Larkin his life.
    (www.odmp.org/officer/7907-warden-clarence-larkin)(SSFC, 12/9/12, p.46)

1937        Dec 11, Jim Harrison, novelist and poet (Legends of the Fall), was born.
    (HN, 12/11/00)
1937        Dec 11, Italy withdrew from the League of Nations.
    (AP, 12/11/97)

1937        Dec 12, Japanese aircraft sank the U.S. gunboat Panay on China's Yangtze River, during the battle for Nanking in the Sino-Japanese War. Japan later apologized and paid $2.2 million dollars in reparations.
    (AP, 12/12/97)(MC, 12/12/01)

1937        Dec 13, The Japanese army occupied Nanking, China. A group of Japanese soldiers forced their way into the family home of Xia Shuqin (8) in Nanjing, and killed seven of her family members. Xia and her 4-year-old sister were seriously injured but escaped. According to Chinese media, a US missionary then serving as the chairman of the International Commission of the Red Cross in Nanjing filmed the killings of Xia's family members. In 2006 a Chinese court has awarded Xia Shuqin $200,000 in compensation after ruling in her favor against two Japanese historians, who claimed she fabricated her account of the atrocity.
    (HN, 12/13/98)(AP, 8/23/06)

1937        Dec 14, Japanese troops conquered and plundered Nanjing. Japan established a puppet Chinese government at Peking, now called Beijing. In 1997 Iris Chang (1968-2004) authored "The Rape of Nanking: The Forgotten Holocaust of WW II."
    (AP, 12/14/02)(SFC, 11/11/04, p.A1)

1937        Dec 16, Two men from Oklahoma escaped from Alcatraz Island Federal Penitentiary. Warden Johnson suspected that Theodore Cole (26), a kidnapper serving 50 years, and Ralph Roe, a bank robber serving 99 years, had died in the bay.
    (SSFC, 12/16/12, DB p.42)

1937        Dec 20, Erich Ludendorff (72), German general (WW I), died.
    (MC, 12/20/01)

1937        Dec 21, Jane Fonda, actress (Barbarella, Klute), physical fitness fanatic, Vietnam Protestor, was born in NYC.
    (MC, 12/21/01)
1937        Dec 21, Walt Disney’s "Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs" premiered as the 1st feature-length color & sound cartoon.
1937        Dec 21, Frank Kellog (80), US foreign minister (Nobel 1929), died.
    (MC, 12/21/01)

1937        Dec 22, The NYC Lincoln Tunnel opened to traffic.
    (MC, 12/22/01)

1937        Dec 23, London warned Rome to stop the anti-British propaganda in Palestine.
    (HN, 12/23/98)

1937        Dec 27, Mae West performed an Adam and Eve skit that got her banned from NBC radio.
    (MC, 12/27/01)

1937        Dec 28, French composer Maurice Ravel (b.1875) died in Paris.
1937        Dec 28, In the Soviet Union Olimpiy Kvitkin, a statistician in charge of this year’s census, was shot for finding that the country contained fewer people than Dictator Joseph Stalin had announced. His younger brother Aristarch was killed in 1939.

1937        Dec 29, Mary Tyler Moore, actress (Mary Tyler Moore, Ordinary People), was born in Brooklyn.
    (MC, 12/29/01)
1937        Dec 29, Ireland’s new constitution came into force. The Irish Free State became Eire. The constitution included language that made blasphemy a criminal offense.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constitution_of_Ireland)(SFC, 1/4/10, p.A2)

1937        Dec 30, John Robb, actor, was born in Los Angeles.
    (Dylan's, 1/31/99)
1937        Dec 30, Paul Stookey, singer and musician (Peter, Paul, & Mary), was born.
    (MC, 12/30/01)

1937        Dec 31, Anthony Hopkins, actor (Elephant Man, QB VII, Magic, Bounty, Silence of the Lambs), was born in Wales.
    (MC, 12/31/01)

1937        Dec-Jan, John Rabe (1882-1950), a German businessman for Siemens living in China, recorded the 2-month terror of the Japanese "Rape of Nanking" in his diary. The Japanese sacked and pillaged the city. They raped at least 20,000 women and killed at least 50,000 people. Rabe established a neutral safe zone for hundreds of thousands of Chinese refugees. Noncombatant deaths may have reached 300,000. Reporter Tillman Durdin (d.1998 at 91) filed reports for the New York times. Later Iris Chang wrote "The Rape of Nanking." Rabe’s collected notes and diaries were published in 1998 as: "The Good Man of Nanking," translated by John. E. Woods and edited by Erwin Wickert.
    (SFC, 12/13/96, p.B1)(SFEC, 2/22/98, Z1 p.6)(SFC, 7/10/98, p.D3)(WSJ, 11/20/98, p.W6)

1937        Dec-Feb, In the Japanese "Rape of Nanjing" more than 200,000 people were killed. Japanese soldiers raped and killed tens of thousands of Chinese women during their invasion of China. [photo from Nanjing] In 1997 Iris Chang (29) published "The Rape of Nanking: the Forgotten Holocaust of world War II." The largest execution of prisoners took place north of Nanking near Mufu Mountain where 57,000 civilians and soldiers were gunned down.
    (WSJ,2/6/97,p.A14)(SFEC, 12/1/96, p.C4)(WSJ, 12/29/97, p.A9)(SFEC, 7/26/98, Z1 p.1,4)

1937        Merle Haggard was born in Oklahoma. He later became a popular country Western singer and was inducted into the Country Music Hall of Fame in 1994.
    (SSFC, 12/10/00, Par p.7)

1937        John Steuart Curry, American painter, began his work "Wisconsin Landscape," and completed it in 1938.
    (SFC, 6/13/98, p.E1)

1937        William Gropper painted "The Hunt." He used a setting by Breughel to depict a white posse’s pursuit of a black mother and child.
    (SFC, 2/5/97, p.E3)

1937        In San Francisco painter Reuben Kadish (1913-1992), under the auspices of the WPA, created “A Dissertation on Alchemy" in the science wing of San Francisco State Normal School at 55 Laguna. In 2013 the site was scheduled for demolition, but his mural was saved.
    (SFC, 8/1/13, p.E1)

1937        Rene Magritte painted "Not to be Reproduced," "The Black Flag," and La Reproduction Interdite," which pictured a gentleman gazing into a mirror in which he sees his back.
    (SFC, 8/14/97, p.E4)(SFC, 5/4/00, p.B5)(WSJ, 2/7/00, p.A24)

1937        Henri Matisse created his painting “L’Odalisque, Harmonie Bleue." In 2007 it was auctioned by Christie’s in NYC for a record $33.6 million.
    (SFC, 11/8/07, p.E3)

c1937    The painting "Dangers of the Mail" was created by Frank Albert Mechau of Colorado for the display in the Ariel Rios building of the Federal Triangle complex. The painting depicted the slaughter of Western settlers by native Indians and was later claimed as racist.
    (SFC, 12/4/00, p.A3)

1937        Pablo Picasso painted the black-and-white "Guernica" mural for the 1937 International Exposition in Paris. The Republican government commissioned the mural painting as part of the Spanish pavilion at the 1937 World`s Fair in Paris. Picasso managed to complete the huge work (11.5 by 25.5 feet) in just over three weeks, with the assistance of Dora Maar. Picasso never returned to his native Spain (he had last been there in 1934). Before his death in 1973, he directed that "Guernica" not be returned to Spain until the restoration of democracy there. Francisco Franco, leader of the Nationalist forces that overthrew the Republican government in the Spanish Civil War, remained the head of the Spanish government until 1973, dying in 1975. Economic initiatives and other reforms begun in the 1960s helped transform Spain into a democratic constitutional monarchy in the three years following his death. The painting "Guernica" was returned from New York City in 1981 and is now on exhibit, along with other 19th and 20th century works, at the Buen Retiro Palace in Madrid.
    (SFC, 4/26/00, p.C5)(HNQ, 7/18/01)
1937        Picasso painted his "Weeping Woman With Handkerchief."
    (SFC, 10/10/98, p.E8)

1937        Laszlo Moholy-Nagy (1895-1946), renowned photographer, was recruited to be the founding head of the New Bauhaus in Chicago. The design school reconstituted itself as the School of Design and then the Institute of Design.
    (SFC, 7/20/02, p.D10)

1937        Hal Foster began the Prince Valiant cartoon saga. He passed it on to John Cullen Murphy (d.2004) in 1970. Murphy passed it on to Gary Gianni in 2004.
    (SFC, 7/9/04, p.B7)

1937        Dale Carnegie (1888-1955) authored "How to win Friends and Influence People."
    (TMC, 1994, p.1937)(HN, 11/24/00)

1937        Eric Ambler authored his spy novel "A Coffin for Dimitrios.
    (NW, 8/20/01, p.56)

1937        Sir Gavin de Beer, zoologist, published "The Development of the Vertebrate Skull."
    (NH, 10/96, p.39)

1937        E.T. Bell authored “Men of Mathematics."
    (WSJ, 11/11/06, p.P10)

1937        Stephen Vincent Benet authored his short story "The Devil and Daniel Webster."
    (SFC, 10/23/00, p.F3)

1937        George Bernanos, French writer, authored “The Diary of a Country Priest."
    (WSJ, 3/18/06, p.P8)

1937        James M. Cain published "Seranade."
    (iUniv. 7/1/00)

1937        Walter Chrysler (d.1940), the founder of Chrysler Corporation, published his autobiography, "Life of an American Workman." Born in Kansas in 1875, Chrysler was an apprentice in a Union Pacific Railroad machine shop and later became a plant manager for the American Locomotive Company. He left there to become works manager for the Buick Motor Company, became Buick president in 1916. In 1919 he took over the Willys-Overland Company and Maxwell Motor Company, which became the Chrysler Corporation in 1925. Chrysler purchased the Dodge Brothers manufacturing Company in 1928.
    (HNQ, 8/21/99)

1937        Ronald Coase (b.1910), British economist, authored “The Nature of the Firm." It was based on a lecture he gave at Dundee in 1932. Here he pointed out that the standard model of economics did not fit with what goes on within companies.  
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ronald_Coase)(Econ, 9/7/13, p.13)(Econ 7/29/17, p.59)

1937        Carl Crow, journalist, publisher and executive in Shanghai, authored “Four Hundred Million Customers." The bestseller described how to sell to the Chinese.
    (Econ, 1/20/07, p.92)

1937        Theodore Geisel, Dr. Seuss, published his 1st book "To think I Saw it on Mulberry Street.
    (SFC, 5/27/02, p.A2)(SSFC, 2/15/04, Par p.5)

1937        Harriet Lane Levy published her memoir "920 O’Farrell Street." She had spent time in Paris and London with writers and artists and had introduced Gertrude Stein to Alice B. Toklas.
    (SFEC, 4/20/97, BR p.10)

1937        Hiram Percy Maxim, automotive engineer, authored "Horseless Carriage Days."
    (ON, 7/00, p.8)

1937        Able Meeropol authored the poem "Bitter Fruit," an anti-lynching anthem, under the pen name Lewis Allan. He later added music. Billie Holiday 1st sang it as "Strange Fruit" at the Café society nightclub in Greenwich Village.
    (SFC, 1/8/03, p.D1)

1937        Alexander du Toit, geologist, published his careful studies of South Africa and South America in "Our Wandering Continents" and gave support to the work of Alfred Wegener.
    (DD-EVTT, p.190)

1937        Leo Rosten (1908-1997) wrote "The Education of HYMAN KAPLAN" under the pseudonym Leonard Q. Ross. There were two sequels, one in 1959 and one in 1976. The original was turned into a Broadway production in 1968.
    (SFC, 2/21/97, p.A26)

1937        M.F.K. Fisher wrote "Serve It Forth," her first book on cooking. Her letters were published in 1997: "M.F.K. Fisher: A Life in Letters."
    (SFEC,12/21/97, BR p.4)

1937        C.S. Forester wrote "Captain Horatio Hornblower." Hornblower was loosely based on the life of Adm. Lord Nelson. Forester wrote 11 Hornblower books and also wrote "The African Queen." Hornblower was made into a 4-part A&E TV miniseries in 1999. The early Hornblower novels included "Beat to Quarters," "Ship of the Line," and "Flying Colours."
    (WSJ, 7/10/98, p.W10)(WSJ, 4/5/99, p.A20)

1937        Theodore Geisel (aka Dr. Seuss) published his book: "And to Think That I Saw It on Mulberry Street."
    (Hem., 2/97, p.13)

1937        Zora Neale Hurston (1903-1960) wrote her novel: "Their Eyes were Watching God." It is about a young black woman from Florida who survives a bad marriage and finds true love with a younger man named Tea Cake. Cassette recordings were made in 1991. She also wrote her collected folktales "Mules and Men." She made some films during research trips on life in the South in 1928 and 1929.
    (SFC, 4/5/96, p.D-1)(SFC, 12/13/96, p.C8)

1937        Somerset Maughan authored his novel “Theater." In 2004 it was adopted as the comedy film “Being Julia."
    (WSJ, 10/15/04, p.W1)

1937        George Orwell (1903-1950) authored "The Road to Wigan Pier." The first half of this work documents his sociological investigations of Lancashire and Yorkshire in the industrial north of England before World War II. The second half is a long essay of his upbringing, and the development of his political conscience. It marked his 1st disagreement with mainstream Socialists.
    (SFEC, 10/1/00, BR p.5)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Road_to_Wigan_Pier)

1937        "The Yearling" by Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings (1896-1953) was published. It was illustrated by Edward Shenton.
    (SFEC, 2/27/00, BR p.12)

1937        Olaf Stapledon (1886-1950), British philosopher and science fiction writer, authored “Star Maker."

1937        Jerome Weidman (24) published "I Can Get It for You Wholesale." It was transformed into a musical in 1962. He wrote 22 novels, and many short stories and screenplays before he died in 1998.
    (SFC, 10/8/98, p.C4)

1937        The Partisan Review quarterly journal of culture and politics began publishing under co-founder William Phillips (d.2003). The last issue was published in 2003.
    (SFC, 4/18/03, p.I7)

1937        The Rodgers and Hart  Broadway musical comedy “Babes in Arms" was choreographed by George Balanchine and featured the Nicholas Brothers tap dancing duo.
    (SFC, 8/19/97, p.A1)(SSFC, 1/29/06, p.B7)

1937        "Arms of Venus" was the first Broadway production by Randolph Carter. It was based on the "Satyricon" by Petronius.
    (SFC, 10/24/98, p.A22)

1937        Eugene O'Neill, playwright, built his Tao House in Danville, Ca., following his 1936 winning of the Nobel Prize in Literature.
    (SFC, 5/16/03, p.E8)

1937        Tenessee Williams wrote his play "Fugitive Kind" for the Mummers company in St. Louis.
    (SFC, 1/16/03, p.E3)

1937        Bronislava Nijinska created her legendary "Chopin Concerto Ballet" for the Paris Int’l. Expo.
    (SFC, 7/30/97, p.E5)

1937        The play "The Cradle Will Rock" by Marc Blitzstein was a part of the Federal Theatre Project. It was directed by Orson Welles and produced by John Houseman.
1937        Orson Welles (22) condensed "Les Miserables" by Victor Hugo into seven half-hour episodes for radio.
    (WSJ, 4/30/98, p.A17)
1937        Orson Welles produced a theater version of "Julius Caesar." Norman Lloyd (1914-2021) played the poet Cinna.
    (SSFC, 5/16/21, p.F1)

1937        The song "Blue Moon" was written by Richard Rogers and Lorenz Hart.
    (SI-WPC, 1997)

1937        The Rogers & Hart song "My Funny Valentine" was a hit song from a Broadway musical.
    (WSJ, 5/18/99, p.A24)

1937        Vivien Fine wrote her symphonic work "Elegiac Song" for muted strings.
    (SFC, 3/29/00, p.A23)

1937        Carl Orff composed "Carmina Burana" based on "saucy" medieval lyrics. The work premiered in Frankfurt.
    (SFC,11/6/97, p.C1)(SFC, 2/16/98, p.E5)

1937        Bass Player Beverly Peer (1913-1997) joined the Chick Webb Orchestra. He played behind Ella Fitzgerald on all her early hits.
    (SFC, 1/27/97, p.A20)

1937        Legendary American songwriter Cole Porter lost a leg as the result of a horse riding accident. He was seriously injured while horseback riding, and as a result his leg was eventually amputated. The writer of "I Concentrate on You," ‘I’ve Got You Under My Skin," "Night and Day" and many other classic songs refused to let his injuries prevent him from traveling and composing.
    (HNQ, 9/19/98)

1937        Pee Wee King (d.2000 at 86), born as Julius Frank Anthony Kuczynski, and his Golden West Cowboys joined the Grand Ole Opry. King was the composer of the classic "Tennessee Waltz."
    (SFC, 3/11/00, p.A17)

1937        Frank Lloyd Wright arrived in Arizona with his apprentices from their Wisconsin headquarters. He purchased an 800-acre tract for $3.50 an acre at Mariposa Mesa and began construction of Taliesin West.
    (SFEM, 4/19/98, p.21-23)

1937        Ventriloquist Edgar Bergen and his famously precocious dummy Charlie McCarthy  made an appearance on the Rudy Valley show, a radio variety program in the `30s, and secured the "Edgar Bergen-Charlie McCarthy Show." An early staple of the program was Charlie McCarthy’s ongoing feud with comedian and frequent guest W.C. Fields. During World War II, Edgar and Charlie entertained American servicemen around the country. The show ran with various sponsors until 1957, always being among the top seven rated programs on the air except for its last five years. (Bergen also did the voice for the slow-witted dummy, Mortimer Snerd and some other characters that were occasionally featured on the show). Bergen discovered an aptitude for vocal tricks at an early age and created the dummy Charlie McCarthy in high school (he had the head carved, but made the body himself). In college, he was able to support expenses through a combination of ventriloquism and magic tricks. Bergen died in 1978, after almost 60 years in vaudeville, radio and films. His daughter is Candice Bergen.
    (HNQ, 3/26/01)

1937        In California the Fresno Municipal Sanitary Landfill opened. It was the nation’s 1st true sanitary landfill, where garbage was compacted and buried each day. The waste later polluted groundwater. In 1987 145-acre dump was closed. In 1989 it was named a Superfund toxic site by the EPA.
    (SFC, 8/29/01, p.A3)
1937        In California the Caldecott Tunnel opened with 2 bores under the Oakland-Berkeley Hills.
    (SFC, 9/12/98, p.A21)
1937        In California the Devil’s Slide stretch of Highway 1 opened. A bypass tunnel opened in 2013.
    (SFC, 9/18/07, p.A1)(SFC, 3/14/13, p.D2)
1937        In California Highway 70 opened along the Feather River Canyon.
    (SSFC, 4/29/01, p.T9)

1937        Albert Kahn designed the Martin Aircraft factory in Baltimore which later inspired a Mies Vander Rohe concert hall.
    (WSJ, 12/12/96, p.A10)

1937        The 1st Bing Crosby golf tournament was played at Rancho Santa Fe Golf Club in San Diego County. This phase of the tournament lasted to 1942.
    (SSFC, 1/21/01, DB p.37)

1937        Sun Valley, Idaho, became the first ski resort in the US to provide lift-served skiing.
    (Hem, Dec. 94, p.78)

1937        Alta ski resort near Salt Lake City opened with a rope tow as the 2nd US ski resort. It was designed by Alf Engen (d.1997), ski-jump champion.
    (SFC, 7/22/97, p.A16)

1937        Look Magazine was founded by Gardner Cowles.
    (AH, 10/01, p.40)

1937        Women’s Day Magazine began to be sold at A&P food stores for 3 cents.
    (SFC, 9/14/96, p.B5)

1937        "Fruit, Gardener, and Home" magazine was started. It later became "Better Homes and Gardens."
    (SFEC, 9/28/97, Z1 p.2)

1937        Wickliffe Preston Draper (d.1972), heir to a Massachusetts manufacturing fortune, helped found the Pioneer Fund, a private, tax-exempt foundation in Maryland, devoted to supporting eugenics. The initial charter directed support for research aimed at race betterment. In 1985 the charter was amended to support programs aimed at "human race betterment." John Marshall Harlan II, appointed to the US Supreme Court in 1957, was one of the original fund directors.
    (WSJ, 6/11/99, p.A8)(WSJ, 8/17/99, p.A1)(AP, 8/24/18)

1937        The first drive-in bank opened in Los Angeles.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)

1937        Margaret Fogarty Rudkin installed an oven in her stable and began baking whole-wheat bread on the family’s 120-acre Pepperidge Farm.
    (SFC, 9/14/96, p.B5)

1937        Albert Szent-Gyorgyi von Nagyrapolt of the Mayo Clinic won the Nobel Prize for his work on vitamin C.
    (SFC, 7/5/96, PM, p.5)

1937        The US government passed the Reindeer Industry Act. The law made it illegal for anyone other than the Inupiat or other native tribal people in Alaska to possess reindeer.
    (WSJ, 12/14/95, p.A-1)

1937        The US Congress passed the Miller-Tydings Act Free Trade Act in order to exempt fair trade from antitrust legislation. It amended the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890 so as to legalize retail price maintenance, allowing manufacturers to maintain minimum prices for the sale of their goods. In 1975 Congress repealed the Miller-Tydings Act.
    (WSJ, 8/18/08, p.A12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Resale_price_maintenance)

1937        A government program was begun to provide American flags, certified to have flown over the capital, to the public. Each flag was provided a certificate with the date it was flown and the name of the person for whom it was flown. By 1998 the program average 250-300 flags per day with a peak of 10,471 flown on July 4, 1976, and a record of 154,224 flown in 1991.
    (SFC, 7/4/98, p.C2)

1937        The Federal Reserve, dominated by bankers who feared interstate banking, forced A.P. Giannini’s Transamerica Corp. to divest 58% of its ownership in BankAmerica stock.
    (SFC, 4/14/98, p.B1)

1937        In the US Southwest the 1882 Hopi reservation was divided into districts. The large District 6 was earmarked for the Hopi. The Navajo replaced the Hopi in other areas. [see 1882]
    (SFEC, 5/4/97, z1 p.4)

1937        Herman Phleger, chief council to the State dept. during the Eisenhower administration and a prosecutor of Nazi war criminals at Nuremberg, purchased an estate of 1,300 acres on the SF peninsula between SF watershed lands and San Mateo county’s Huddart Park. Phleger was also a founder of the Save-the-Redwoods League and died in 1984. The estate was later acquired for public use and added to the Golden Gate National Recreation Area.
    (SFC, 4/28/95, p.P-3)   

1937        The California -based Irvine Foundation was founded by agriculturalist James Irvine. By 2015 it was granting $69 million annually to youth arts and development programs in California from cultivated assets of $1.8 billion.
    (https://www.irvine.org/about)    (SFC, 2/10/15, p.E1)
1937        The state Legislature named the native redwood as the State Tree of California. In 1951 the coastal Sequoia sempervirens and the Sierra Sequoia gigantea were said to both qualify as the state tree.
    (SFC, 10/26/01, WB p.7)
1937        California’s San Quentin Prison opened its gas chamber for executions and hanging ceased at Folsom Prison.
    (SFEC, 1/26/97, p.B4)
1937        The first McDonald’s opened in Pasadena, Ca. [see 1955]
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)
1937        Jack and Teresa Harris founded their original Harris Ranch near Coalinga in the Central Valley of California. In 1987 they added the Inn with 88 rooms, which later expanded to 153 rooms. By 2006 the ranch had become a corporate operation covering 18,000 acres.
    (SSFC, 5/21/06, p.G10)
1937        Rollin P. Eckis (d.1999 at 94), geologist, discovered the Kern County oil field near Bakersfield, Ca.
    (SFC, 11/19/99, p.D8)
1937        In San Francisco George K. and Leo Whitney purchased the vacant Cliff House and turned it into a popular restaurant.
    (SFC, 10/19/02, p.A21)
1937        Alcatraz prison officials abandoned a silence rule in effect since the prison opened in 1934. The rule had forbidden prisoners to speak while working.
    (SSFC, 12/20/09, DB p.46)

1937        Vernon Rudolph (d.1973) launched Krispy Creme, a donut operation, in Winston-Salem, NC. Heirs sold the business to Beatrice Foods, which changed the recipe. Some 20 franchisees bought the company in 1982. the 1st shop outside the Southeast opened in Indianapolis in 1995. The company went public in 2000.
    (WSJ, 9/3/04, p.A5)

1937        Ruel Call opened a small filling station in Afton, Wyoming. He was one of the grandsons of Anson Vasco Call, who had 4 wives and 37 children. In the early 1960s Ruel launched his own gasoline brand, Maverik. In the mid-1960s his nephew, O. Jay Call, launched Flying J, a discount fuel retailer. In May, 2004, Kristen Call and her father Bill launched iFuel, a discount gasoline retailer that used the Internet for paying with bank transfers.
    (WSJ, 5/4/06, p.A10)

1937        General Mills introduced Kix cereal. It was made possible by the development of the “puffing gun" invented by Lester Borchardt Sr. (1907-2007).
    (WSJ, 1/27/07, p.A6)

1937        The Cord 812 was the first car without running boards.
    (SFC, 1/29/00, p.E3)

1937        Alfred P. Sloan became GM’s chairman.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)

1937        GM introduced the automatic transmission at Buick and Oldsmobile.
    (F, 10/7/96, p.69)

1937        McKesson & Robbins reported assets of over $87 million. The SEC later found that the amount was fake by some $19 million. An investigation revealed that president Frank Donald Coster was actually an ex-convict named Philip M. Musica, and that he and 3 brothers had faked inventory and stolen some $3 million from the company. The scandal prompted new rules for the accounting profession.
    (WSJ, 6/30/99, p.B1,4)

1937        Sir John Hicks invented the IS-LM framework as an interpretation Keynes’s “General Theory" of economics. It contrasted the investment/saving curve with the liquidity/money curve to account for bond yields.
    (Econ, 8/13/05, p.66)

1937        George Stibitz, American Bell Labs engineer, recognized that electrical switches had a simple numerical property (on and off) that constituted a binary system. He then began designing and building a two-bit adder. The term "bit" was coined by John Tulkey upon overhearing a conversation on the need to name "binary digits." The creation of digital logic circuitry was soon advanced by the realization of Claude Shannon at MIT that the actions of relay based machinery could be tied to analysis by Boolean algebra, invented in the 19th century by Charles Boole. Shannon is better known as the founder of information theory.
    (I&I, Penzias, p.99)

1937        Researchers at Bell labs invented xerography, but it was only commercialized by Xerox in 1950.
    (Econ., 1/16/21, p.15)

1937        Michael Sveda (d.1999 at 87), chemist, invented cyclamates, a non-caloric sweetener. In the US the Dept. of HEW banned cyclamates in 1969 due to suspected cancer risks, which were later contradicted.
    (SFC, 8/24/99, p.A22)

1937        Dr. Gerhard Fisher patented a metal detector. Alexander Graham Bell had developed a primitive forerunner in 1881 to try to remove an assassin’s bullet from Pres. Garfield.
    (ON, 5/02, p.9)

1937        Russell and Sigurd Varian invented the klystron tube, an early form of the driver for microwave power. In the 1940s Dr. Chodorow (1913-2005) of Stanford Univ. expanded on the invention and increased its power from a few hundred watts to millions of watts. Together with other physicists they later formed Varian Associates in Palo Alto.

1937        Technetium was the first element to be synthesized in the laboratory.
    (NH, 8/96, p.74)

c1937        The Fischer-Tropsch process was discovered to liquefy natural gas using a catalyst and pure oxygen.
    (WSJ, 12/8/97, p.B1)

1937        Dr. Leroy Burney set up the country’s first mobile venereal disease clinic in Brunswick, Ga.
    (SFC, 8/5/98, p.A17)

1937        "Musicogenic epilepsy" was first identified. It was a kind of brain seizure triggered by specific music.
    (SFEC, 5/25/97, Z1 p.7)

1937        The West Nile virus was 1st identified in the West Nile District of Uganda. It was able to cause fatal encephalitis in humans.
    (SFC, 9/15/00, p.D6)

1937        Medicines contaminated with diethylene glycol killed 105 Americans this year.
    (AP, 10/27/06)

1937        The Synthetic Theory of Theodosius Dobzhansky was pivotal in explaining evolution. The Russian-born American biologist fused the theories of natural selection and genetic variability in his 1937 work "Genetics and the Origin of Species." It is called the Synthetic Theory because it synthesizes previously existing ideas. Dobzhansky’s theory states that evolution is a two-step process whereby: first, genetic variations occur either by mutation or chance, and second, desirable variations that help the organism survive are passed on to the next generation and become permanently established. Dobzhansky is credited with founding the field of evolutionary genetics.
    (HNQ, 6/11/98)

1937        “Bill" Griffith P. Taylor, an Australian-Canadian, built his automatic block setting crane: the  "Meccano Robot Gargantua." An article describing the crane was published in the March 1938 issue of Meccano Magazine.

1937        Alan Turing published a paper showing that a universal machine could be designed to perform the functions and do the work of any device designed for problem-solving. More important, his paper showed that a digital computer could theoretically be designed to do the work of any analog computer. He is considered the founder of artificial intelligence.

1937        John Vincent Atanasoff at Iowa State College conceived one of the first electronic digital computing devices. The Atanasoff–Berry Computer (ABC), created in 1939, was not programmable, being designed only to solve systems of linear equations. It was successfully tested in 1942.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atanasoff%E2%80%93Berry_Computer)(SFC, 12/12/01, p.A27)

1937        Gunnar Myrdal, Swedish sociologist, was hired by the Carnegie Foundation to study America’s race relations. Seven years later he produced his work: "An American Dilemna: The Negro Problem and Modern Democracy. "
    (WSJ, 10/26/95, p.A-20)

1937        Nutria rodents were introduced to Louisiana from Argentina. They propagated rapidly and by 1997 were threatening acres of fragile wetlands due to their feeding on plant roots. The McIlhenny family, makers of Tabasco Sauce, imported 13 nutria from Argentina to study their fur-bearing potential. The animals escaped 3 years later during a flood and began to proliferate.
    (SFC,12/26/97, p.A5)

1937        US airman Jimmy Angel discovered the 3,312 foot Angel Falls on the Orinoco River.
    (SFEC, 4/16/00, p.T9)

1937        An asteroid was discovered and named Hermes. It disappeared and was not seen again until 2003 and found to actually be a pair of objects traveling together.
    (SFC, 10/27/03, p.A4)

1937        Heavy flooding hit along the valley of the Ohio River.
    (IS, 3/6/97, p.A12)

1937        Jean de Brunhoff (37), French painter, died of tuberculosis. He illustrated the Babar stories invented by his wife Cecille (d.2003).
    (SFC, 4/15/03, p.A16)

1937        Walter Gay (b.1856), American painter, died. He painted jewel-box-like interior scenes of French homes.
    (WSJ, 3/26/03, p.D8)

1937        In Australia the assimilation of mixed-blood Aborigines, by force if necessary, was adopted as official policy at a meeting of federal and state officials, while Aborigines living a "tribal life" are to stay on reserves.
    (AP, 1/30/08)

1937        Alban Berg (1885-1935), Austrian composer, wrote his opera "Lulu." It was based on two dramas by German fin-de-siecle playwright Frank Wedekind (1864-1918). It tells the story of a sexually attractive dancer who several men and women become obsessed with, often dying as a result, and who ends up as a prostitute murdered by Jack the Ripper.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alban_Berg)(AP, 2/5/10)

1937        Bolivia under the nationalist administration of General David Toro nationalized its energy sector. Toro cancelled the Standard Oil Company's oil contracts and seized the US company's holdings in exchange for a 1.7 million dollar indemnification.

1937        An English cricket team toured Germany. In 2014 Dan Waddell authored “Field of Shadows: The Remarkable True Story of the English Cricket Tour of Nazi Germany, 1937."
    (Econ, 5/10/14, p.82)

1937        Burma was made a crown colony of Britain. It had been administered as a province of India.
    (SFC, 5/7/02, p.A9)(SFC, 3/20/18, p.19)

1937        Americans Robert H. Bates and Bradford Washburn reached the summit of Mount Lucania in Canada’s Yukon Territory. At this time Lucania was the highest unscaled peak in North America. They were forced by weather to hike some 100 miles for their return. Bates had joined Washburn in 1935 to map the Yukon Territory for the National Geographic Society.  
    (WSJ, 9/29/07, p.A6)

1937        Ceylon (Sri Lanka) banned the capture of wild elephants. At the turn of the century some 10-15 thousand elephants roamed wild in Sri Lanka. By 2006 only some 3,000 were left.
    (SFC, 5/19/06, p.A2)

1937        The Bank of China in Shanghai was designed by Palmer and Turner in a melding of Chinese and Art-Deco elements. It was a 17 story, stone-clad tower capped by a distinct pagoda-like roof with upturned eaves.
    (Hem. 1/95, p. 84)
1937        In China Pamela Werner (19), the adopted daughter of Edward Theodore Chalmers Werner, was brutally murdered in Peking. The formal investigation was buried, first by the perpetrators, then by the Chinese and British authorities. In 2011 Paul French authored “Midnight in Peking," in which he describes and solves the crime.
    (Econ, 5/19/12, p.92)(http://tinyurl.com/6meqqoo)

1937        Orestes Lopez (Cuban pianist) and his brother bassist Israel (Cachao) Lopez (1918-2008) formalized an improvisation they called danzon mambo.
    (SFEC, 9/19/99, DB p.37)(SSFC, 3/23/08, p.A2)

1937        The Gayer-Anderson Museum was founded in Cairo, Egypt.
    (AM, 3/04, p.34)

1937        Mercedes- Benz developed an all-wheel-drive car, largely for military purposes.
    (WSJ, 9/16/05, p.W12)

1937        Japanese soldiers raped and killed tens of thousands of Chinese women during their invasion of China. [photo from Nanjing]
    (SFEC, 12/1/96, p.C4)

1937        England’s King Edward VIII, Duke of Windsor, abdicated to marry Wallis Warfield Simpson. [Chronicle says 1936]
    (Hem., 8/96, p.21)(SFC, 12/4/96, p.C3)

1937        In France the Eiffel Tower was embroidered with 10,000 meters of pink, blue and green neon to celebrate an int’l. exposition.
    (G&M, 7/31/97, p.A20)

1937        Heinrich Himmler, acting interior minister of Germany, revised the chimney-sweep law. His rules tied the sweeps to their districts and decreed that they need to be German, to enable him to use them as local spies. In 1969 the law was updated and in theory opened the profession to non-Germans.
    (Econ, 10/21/06, p.76)
1937        In Germany Dr. Ferdinand Sauerbruch, Hitler’s personal physician, said that Hitler was showing signs of growing megalomania and "was a border case between genius and insanity… (potentially) the craziest criminal the world ever saw."
    (SFC, 4/28/01, p.A10)
1937        The German explorer, Dr. Burkhart Waldecker, traced the southernmost source of the Nile river to a spring in Burundi. The river that feeds more water into Lake Victoria than any other is the Kagera, whose ultimate source is 500 miles southwest of its entrance to the lake.
    (NG, May 1985, R. Caputo, p.629,631)
1937        In Germany Hans J.P. von Ohain built and tested a laboratory model of a jet engine.
    (SFC, 8/10/96, p.A20)

1937        Thousands of Haitian immigrants were massacred in the Dominican Republic under dictator Rafael Leonidas Trujillo. An estimated 30,000 Haitians and black Dominicans were rounded up at gunpoint and executed, often by machetes (to give the impression that peasants had committed the murders). In 1998 the novel “The Farming of Bones" by Edwidge Danticat was based on this event.
    (SFEC, 12/13/98, BR p.3)(http://tinyurl.com/yhso9ty)

1937        A Hungarian brigade joined the Spanish civil war to fight the fascists.
    (MT, Fall. ‘97, p.4)

1937        In Iceland an airline was founded that developed into Icelandair.
    (WSJ, 10/14/08, p.B10)

1937        The All India Football Federation (AIFF) was established.
    (Econ, 6/7/14, p.27)

1937        Italy occupied Albania. [see Apr 8, 1939]
    (SFC, 4/5/97, p.A20)
1937        Mussolini helped inspire the Estado Novo of Brazil’s Pres. Getulio Vargas. The system of labor and industrial syndicates continued to influence labor relations to 2007.
    (Econ, 4/14/07, SR p.5)

1937        The 1,700 year-old Axum Obelisk was dismantled and removed from Ethiopia by Italian forces. Mussolini used it to commemorate the 15th anniversary of his march on Rome.
    (AM, 5/01, p.10)

1937        This year In Italy at the Fascioli Resort on lake Como is the setting for British writer H.E. Bates’ novella that was made into a 1996 film titled: "A Month by the Lake" with Vanessa Redgrave.
    (SFC, 5/17/96, p.E-1)

1937        An Italian Alfa Romeo 8C 2900B Cabriolet, later called one of the finest classic cars in existence, was produced. In 1999 it sold for $4 million.
    (SFC, 8/31/99, p.A26)

1937        The British rulers of India built a narrow gauge railroad to transport timber from Nepal to India. It quit operating in 2014.
    (SFC, 12/15/18, p.A4)

1937        In South Africa the vervet monkey was classified as vermin after one bit the daughter of the country’s finance minister. In 1976 the species was listed as threatened by the Convention on Int’l. Trade and Endangered Species.
    (SFC, 5/19/07, p.B6)

1937        Leon Trotsky fled the Soviet Union and went to Mexico where he moved in with Diego Rivera and Frida Kahlo.
    (WSJ, 1/4/95, p. A-10)
1937        Stalin ordered a major overhaul of Uzbek leadership and heads began to roll. The artist Alexander Rodchenko, who had designed the album "Ten Years of Uzbekistan," blotted out the photos of purged Uzbek leaders in his personal copy. It provided grist for the 1997 book by David King "The Commissar Vanishes," that describes how Stalin manipulated images for his benefit.
    (WSJ, 10/29/97, p.A20)
1937        Stalin deported some 180,000 Soviet Koreans from their homes and farms and sent them by cattle car to Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan.
    (LSA, Fall/06, p.28)
1937        The USSR census of this year reported a decline in the population to 162 million and Stalin had the officials responsible for the count shot. He had told officials a year earlier that the count would be 170 million, which ignored those who died in famines and purges.
    (WSJ, 12/1/99, p.A24)(Econ, 12/22/07, p.99)

1937        In Singapore the Haw Par Villa, a theme park dedicated to filial piety, was created by the brothers behind the Tiger Balm empire.
    (SSFC, 10/19/14, p.N2)
1937        Lee Kuan Yew became prime minister of Singapore.
    (SFC, 6/8/96, p.A11)

1937        Saab was founded as an aviation and defense company in Linkoping, Sweden. Its name was an acronym for "Svenska Aeroplan AB," where "AB" stands for "aktiebolaget" ("limited company"), thus written as 'SAAB'.
1937        Edvin Ohrstrom (1906-1994), artist and sculptor, and 2 others developed the Ariel technique at Orrefors in Orrefors, Sweden. This technique created a design by trapping air bubbles between two layers of glass. In 1990 Orrefors merged with Kosta Boda AB, which in turn became part of the New Wave Group in 2005.
    (SFC, 11/19/08, p.G6)

1937        The Alawite state, created under a French mandate, was incorporated into modern-day Syria. Under the French mandate, the Alawites had been granted an autonomous territory stretching in a band along the coast from the Lebanese border to the Turkish border.
    (AP, 7/25/12)

1937        In Tajikistan the city of Khodzhent established a university.
    (SFC, 4/30/97, p.A12)

1937-1938    In the US monetary contraction was later identified by economists Milton Friedman and Anna Schwartz as the central cause of this period’s recession.
    (Econ, 6/20/09, p.82)
1937-1938    There were sweeping purges across the Soviet Union. 14 million people across Russia were estimated to have died in the purges. At least 30,000 people were executed in Moscow. Several hundred Americans were arrested in Karelia, near the Finnish border. Several thousand Americans and Canadians had moved there to help develop the Soviet timber industry. 40,000 people a month were executed.
    (SFEC, 12/22/96, BR p.7)(SFC, 7/17/97, p.A10)(SFEC, 11/9/97, p.A12)(SFC, 4/17/99, p.B3)(Econ, 11/5/16, p.43)

1937-1939    Methadone was developed in Germany during this period by Gustav Ehrhart and Max Bockmühl. It was approved for use in the United States in 1947. The opioid is used to treat pain and as maintenance therapy or to help with tapering in people with opioid dependence.

1937-1941    Aug, A supernova flared up in the galaxy IC-4182 and stayed visible for 5 years.
    (SCTS, p.186)

1937-1941    In Belarus some 2 million people were killed during Stalinist purges on the outskirts of Minsk.
    (SSFC, 9/2/01, p.A14)

1937-1945    The Buchenwald Nazi concentration camp operated over this period. It was located near the city of Weimar where Germany’s Shakespeare Society and the Goethe-Schiller Archives are located.
    (Hem., Nov.’95, p.114)
1937-1945    Japan initiated a war with China that lasted to 1945. An estimated 15 million Chinese soldiers and civilians died in the war with 100 million made refugees. In 2013 Rana Mitter authored “China’s War With Japan, 1937-1945: The Struggle for Survival."
    (Econ, 6/22/13, p.83)(Econ, 8/15/15, p.35)

1937-1947    The Cazalet Chronicle by Elizabeth Jane Howard focused on an upper middle-class English family of this period. The four books include "The Light Years" (1990), "Marking Time," "Confusion" and "Casting Off" (1996).
    (WSJ, 8/2/96, p.A10)

1937-1995    Don Cherry, jazz trumpet player, died near Malaga, Spain of liver failure on Dec 19, 1995.
    (WSJ, 10/23/95, p.A-1)

1937-1996    Dr. Amos Tversky (b3/16 d6/2), cognitive psychologist. He studied how people make decisions about risks, benefits and probabilities.
    (SFC, 6/6/96, p.C6)

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