Return to home1900 At the
turn of the century 51% of the world’s oil came from Azerbaijan.
(SFC, 8/12/98, p.A10)
1900 Jan 1, Xavier Cugat
(d.1990), bandleader (married Abbe Lane, Charo), was born in
1900 Jan 1, A New York
editorialist wrote that the 20th century began in the United States
with “a sense of euphoria and self-satisfaction, a sure feeling that
America is the envy of the world."
(Hem, Dec. 94, p.70)
1900 Jan 1, The Royal Niger
Company sold all its possessions and concessions in Africa to the
British government for £865,000, considered to be a very low price.
1900 Jan 2, US Secretary
of State John Hay announced the Open Door Policy to prompt trade
with China. This policy rejected efforts to carve up China or
restrict its ports.
(AP, 1/2/98)(WSJ, 2/3/04, p.A12)
1900 Jan 2, The cargo steamship
Australia arrived in San Francisco at the end of a voyage from
Hawaii. Plague was known to have already hit Honolulu and rats
aboard the ship carried the disease. Wong Chut King became the
city’s first victim when he was found dead at the Globe Hotel at
Jackson and DuPont (later Grant Ave.). A short term rope quarantine
was created around the 6-by-2 block area of Chinatown.
(SFC, 9/20/14, p.C2)
1900 Jan 5, Dennis Gabor,
Hungarian-British physicist, inventor of 3D laser photography, was
born. He was awarded a Nobel Prize in 1971. [see Jan 5]
(HN, 6/5/98)(MC, 1/5/02)
1900 Jan 8, The Boers attacked
Ladysmith, but were turned back by General White in South Africa.
1900 Jan 13, To combat Czech
nationalism, Emperor Franz Joseph of Austria-Hungary decreed that
German would be the language of the imperial army.
1900 Jan 14, The Puccini opera
“Tosca" received a mixed reception at its Rome world premiere.
1900 Jan 16, The U.S. Senate
consented to the Anglo-German treaty of 1899 by which the UK
renounced its rights to the Samoan Islands.
1900 Jan 19, In Australia
Arthur Paine (33), a delivery man whose daily work brought him into
contact with Sidney’s Central Wharf, died of Bubonic plague. A
population of black rats had been likely introduced to Australia on
the first fleet of ships carrying white settlers.
1900 Jan 25, the US 56th
Congress refused to seat Brigham H. Roberts, Mormon Democrat from
Utah, because of his polygamy.
(AH, 2/05, p.16)
1900 Jan 27, Hyman Rickover
(d.1986), American admiral, was born. He is considered the "father"
of America's nuclear navy and the "Father of the Atomic
Submarine." "Great minds discuss ideas, average minds discuss
events, small minds discuss people."
(HN, 1/27/99)(AP, 5/5/00)
1900 Jan 27, Foreign diplomats
in Peking fear revolt and demanded that the Imperial Government
discipline the Boxer Rebels.
1900 Jan 30, John P. Parker
(b.1827), Ohio-based inventor and conductor on the Underground
Railway, died. His autobiography “His Promised Land: The
Autobiography of John P. Parker, Former Slave and Conductor on the
Underground Railway" was recounted in a series of interviews and
later edited by Stuart Seely Sprague and published in 1996.
1900 Jan 31, Scottish peer Sir
John Sholto Douglas (56), 8th Marquis of Queensberry, died. He
supervised the formulation by John Graham chambers of the rules of
boxing, which became known as the Queensberry Rules. In 1895 Irish
writer Oscar Wilde had unsuccessfully sued the Marquis for libel
following allegations of a homosexual relationship with
Queensberry’s son Lord Alfred Douglas, allegations which ultimately
led to Wilde’s imprisonment in Reading Gaol, England.
(HC, 2003, p.64)
1900 Feb 1, In Chicago Ada and
Minna Everleigh opened their Everleigh Club, a high-end brothel.
They closed operations in 1911.
(WSJ, 1/7/07, p.P8)
1900 Feb 2, Gustave
Charpentier's opera "Louise" premiered in Paris.
1900 Feb 4, Jacques Prevert,
French poet, screenwriter, was born. His work included “The Visitors
of the Evening" and “The Children of Paradise."
1900 Feb 5, Adlai E. Stevenson
II, Illinois governor and American diplomat, was born. He twice lost
to Dwight Eisenhower for presidency of the United States. "All
progress has resulted from people who took unpopular positions."
(HN, 2/5/99)(AP, 7/4/99)
1900 Feb 5, The United States
and Great Britain signed the Hay-Pauncefote Treaty, giving the
United States the right to build a canal in Nicaragua but not to
1900 Feb 6, President McKinley
appointed W.H. Taft commissioner to report on the Philippines.
1900 Feb 6, Battle at
Vaalkrans, South Africa (Boers vs. British army).
1900 Feb 8, British General
Buller was beaten at Ladysmith, South Africa as the British fled
over the Tugela River.
1900 Feb 14, General Roberts
invaded South Africa’s Orange Free State with 20,000 British troops.
1900 Feb 15, The British
threatened to use natives in the Boer War fight.
1900 Feb 18, Battle at
Paardeberg (Boer War), 1,270 British killed or injured.
1900 Feb 20, J.F. Pickering
patented his airship.
1900 Feb 22, Sean O’Faolain,
Irish short story writer, was born.
1900 Feb 22, Hawaii became a US
territory. [see Apr 30]
1900 Feb 23, William
Butterfield, architect of the Gothic revival, died.
1900 Feb 28, After a 119-day
siege by the Boers, the English defenders of Ladysmith, under
General Sir George White were relieved.
1900 Feb, In London, England,
129 socialists and union members gathered to secure parliamentary
representation for the labor movement. Automatic donations to Labour
by union members dates back to this founding event.
(Econ, 7/13/13, p.50)
1900 Mar 2, Kurt Weill,
composer (The Threepenny Opera), Brecht collaborator, was born in
(HN, 3/2/01)(SC, 3/2/02)
1900 Mar 3, US Steel
1900 Mar 6, Gottlieb Daimler
(65), designer of the 1st motorcycle, died.
1900 Mar 9, Aimone, duke of
Spoleta-Aosta, Italian king of Croatia (1941-43), was born.
1900 Mar 11, British Prime
Minister Lord Salisbury (1830-1903) rejected the peace overtures
offered from Boer leader Paul Kruger.
(HN, 3/11/98)(WUD, 1994, p.1262)
1900 Mar 13, George Seferis
(d.1991), Greek poet, was born.
1900 Mar 14, Congress ratified
the Gold Standard Act for U.S. currency.
(AP, 3/14/97)(HN, 3/14/98)
1900 Mar 19, [Jean] Frederic
Joliot-Curie, French physicist (Nobel 1935), was born.
1900 Mar 19, President McKinley
asserted the need for free trade with Puerto Rico.
1900 Mar 21, Paul Kletzki,
Polish violinist, composer, conductor, was born.
1900 Mar 23, Erich Fromm
(d.1980), German-American psychologist (Sane Society), was born in
Frankfurt, Germany. He wrote "The Sane Society." “Modern man thinks
he loses something, time, when he does not do things quickly. Yet he
does not know what to do with the time he gains, except kill it."
(AP, 4/21/97)(HN, 3/23/99)(SS, 3/23/02)
1900 Mar 24, Mayor Van Wyck of
New York broke ground for the New York subway tunnel that would link
Manhattan and Brooklyn.
1900 Mar 27, The London
Parliament passed the War Loan Act which gave 35 million pounds to
the Boer War cause.
1900 Apr 2, Heinrich Besseler,
German musicologist, was born.
1900 Apr 4, California pioneer
John Bidwell (b.1819), founder of Chico, Ca. died. In 2003 Michael
Jerome Gillis and Michael Magliari authored “John Bidwell and
California: The Life and Writings of a Pioneer, (1841-1900)."
1900 Apr 4, There was an
assassination attempt on Prince of Wales, King Edward VII.
1900 Apr 5, Spencer Tracy
(d.1967), film actor (Adam's Rib, Guess Who's Coming to Dinner), was
(SFEC, 4/2/00, DB p.56,58)(HN, 4/5/01)
1900 Apr 5, An assassination
attempt of Prince of Wales in Brussels failed.
1900 Apr 9, British forces
routed the Boers at Kroonstadt, South Africa.
1900 Apr 11, US Navy's 1st
submarine made its debut.
1900 Apr 14, Salvatore
Baccaloni, basso buffo (Barber of Seville, l'Eosir d'Amore) actor
(Merry Andrew, Rock-a-Bye Baby), was born in Rome.
1900 Apr 14, Gates opened to
the World Fair, the Great Exposition in Paris. For a few months 210
temporary pavilions from different countries and architectural
styles lined the Seine. The Exposition Universale included the
Exposition Decennale, an art show of painting and sculpture from the
previous decade. The first working escalator (patented in 1859), was
manufactured by the Otis Elevator Company for the Paris Exposition.
During the expo Rudolf Diesel demonstrated an engine that ran on
p.A14)(HN, 8/9/00)(Econ, 5/14/05, p.71)
1900 Apr 16, US Post Office
issued its 1st books of postage stamps.
1900 Apr 21, Heinrich Vogl
(55), composer, died.
1900 Apr 23, The 1st published
use of word "hillbilly" was in the NY Journal.
1900 Apr 24, Elizabeth Goudge,
English author, was born.
1900 Apr 25, Wolfgang Pauli,
physicist (Nobel 1945), was born in Austria.
1900 Apr 26, Charles Richter
(1985), seismologist, was born in Hamilton, Ohio. He developed the
Richter Scale for measuring the amplitude of earthquakes.
1900 Apr 26, Douglas Sirk
(Detlef Sierck), film director, was born. His work included:
“Imitation of Life," “A Time to Love & a Time to Die,"
“Tarnished Angels," “Written on the Wind," “Magnificent Obsession,"
and “First Legion."
(440 Int’l. Internet, 4/26/97, p.1)
1900 Apr 27, Walter Lantz,
cartoonist, creator of Woody Woodpecker, was born.
1900 Apr 30, Hawaii was
organized as a U.S. territory. [see Feb 22]
1900 Apr 30, Engineer John
Luther "Casey" Jones of the Illinois Central Railroad was killed in
a Cannonball Express wreck near Vaughan, Miss., after staying at the
controls in an effort to save the passengers.
1900 Apr, Swami Vivekananda
started the Vedanta Society of Northern California.
(SFC, 8/6/21, p.C2)
1900 May 5, Hans
Schmidt-Isserstedt, German composer, conductor (Hassan gewinnt), was
1900 May 5, "The Billboard"
began weekly publication.
1900 May 12, Mostly Black
fighters in Mafikeng repelled a Boer assault. Col. Robert
Baden-Powell, commander of the British troops in Mafikeng, armed
black fighters and many died during the 7-month siege.
(SFC, 10/8/99, p.D3)
1900 May 13, Jos Panhuysen,
author (Pornographer), was born.
1900 May 14, The Olympic games
opened in Paris, held as part of the 1900 World's Fair.
1900 May 17, Ayatollah Ruhollah
Khomeini (d.1989), Iran's spiritual and revolutionary leader
(1979-89), was born.
1900 May 18, Sarah Miriam
Peale, US portrait painter (General Lafayette-1825), was born.
1900 May 18, Andrew Putnam
Hill, encamped at Slippery Rock with a Subcommittee in the Big Basin
of the Santa Cruz Mountains, proposed the formation of an
organization to save the Big Basin redwoods. The next day he passed
a hat and collected $32. This was the birth of the Sempervirens Club
of California. "Save the Redwoods" became its official slogan.
(Ind, 4/24/99, p.5A)(SSFC, 10/19/03, p.C1)
1900 May 18, Britain proclaimed
a protectorate over kingdom of Tonga.
1900 May 19, Simplon Tunnel
opened as the world’s longest railroad tunnel at 12 miles; it linked
Italy & Switzerland through the Alps.
1900 May 22, The Associated
Press (founded in 1848) was incorporated in New York as a non-profit
1900 May 23, Civil War hero
Sgt. William H. Carney became the first African American to receive
the Medal of Honor, thirty-seven years after the Battle of Fort
1900 May 25, President William
McKinley signed the Lacey Act, 16 U.S.C. § 3371–3378, to defend
fauna from poachers. It banned the illegal commercial transportation
of wildlife. The conservation law was introduced by Iowa Rep. John
F. Lacey. It has been amended several times. The most significant
times were in 1969, 1981, and in 1989.
1900 May 28, Britain annexed
the Orange Free State in South Africa.
1900 May 29, Trademark
"Escalator" was registered by Otis Elevator Co.
1900 May 30, It was reported
that 9 deaths in Chinatown were caused by Bubonic plague and that
159 policemen had set up a quarantine. In 2003 Marilyn Chase
authored “The Barbary Plague: The Black Death in Victorian San
(SFEC, 12/26/99, p.W2)(SSFC, 1/12/03, p.M2)
1900 May 31, U.S. troops
arrived in Peking to help put down Boxer Rebellion.
1900 May 31, Chicago’s
Northwestern Elevated began operations, and Charles T. Yerkes, its
chief visionary was present to see his project come to fruition.
1900 Jun 5, Dennis Gabor,
Hungarian-British physicist, inventor of 3D laser photography, was
born. He was awarded a Nobel Prize in 1971. [see Jan 5]
(HN, 6/5/98)(MC, 1/5/02)
1900 Jun 5, Stephen Crane (28),
author (Red Badge of Courage), died.
1900 Jun 5, In South Africa,
British troops under Lord Roberts seized Pretoria from the Boers.
1900 Jun 7, Boxer rebels cut
the rail links between Peking and Tientsin in China.
1900 Jun 11, Lawrence E Spivak,
news panelist (Meet the Press), was born in Brooklyn, NY.
1900 Jun 11, Belle Boyd
(b.1844), former Confederate spy, died in Wisconsin. Her 1865
autobiography was titled “Belle Boyd in Camp and Prison." In 1944
Louis Sigaud authored “Belle Boyd: Confederate Spy."
1900 Jun 12, German Navy Law
called for a massive increase in sea power.
1900 Jun 13, China's Boxer
Rebellion against foreigners and Chinese Christians erupted into
violence. The Boxer Rebellion was a violent, anti-foreign uprising
that broke out in reaction to years of foreign interference with
Chinese affairs. Led by a Chinese secret society called Yi He
Tuan--"the Righteous, Harmonious Fists"--the Boxers were aided by
the Empress Dowager Ci Xi and pillaged the countryside, murdering
foreigners and Chinese Christians. 200-300 foreigners died in the
uprising but they were far outnumbered by Chinese victims.
(AP, 6/13/97)(HNPD, 6/20/98)(Econ,
1900 Jun 14, US Congress passed
a law granting citizenship to all persons who had been citizens of
the Republic of Hawaii at the time of annexation.
(ON, 11/02, p.7)
1900 Jun 17, Martin Bormann,
deputy Führer to Hitler, was born.
1900 Jun 18, Empress Douairisre
ordered I-Ho-Chuan (the Boxers) to kill all foreigners. [see Jun 21]
1900 Jun 19, Laura Hobson,
novelist (Gentleman's Agreement), was born.
1900 Jun 21, General Arthur
MacArthur offered amnesty to Filipinos rebelling against American
1900 Jun 21, After the Empress
declared war on all foreign powers, the Boxers began a two-month
assault on the legations in Beijing. An international force of
Japanese, Russian, German, American, British, Italian and
Austro-Hungarian troops put down the uprising by August 14. The
Boxer Rebellion was a violent, anti-foreign uprising that broke out
in reaction to years of foreign interference with Chinese affairs.
Led by a Chinese secret society called Yi He Tuan--"the Righteous,
Harmonious Fists"--the Boxers were aided by the Empress Dowager Ci
Xi and pillaged the countryside, murdering foreigners and Chinese
Christians. In 2000 Diana Preston authored “The Boxer Rebellion: The
Dramatic Story of China’s War on foreigners That Shook the World in
the Summer of 1900."
(HNPD, 6/21/99)(WSJ, 6/20/00, p.A24)
1900 Jun 25, Lord Louis
Mountbatten of Burma, the last British viceroy of India, was born.
He survived World War II only to be killed by an IRA bomb.
1900 Jun 26, The United States
announced it would send troops to fight against the Boxer rebellion
1900 Jun 26, A commission that
included Dr. Walter Reed began the fight against the deadly disease
yellow fever. Walter Reed (1851-1902), U.S. Army doctor, went to
Cuba and verified that yellow fever was caused by a mosquito.
(HN, 9/13/98)(WSJ, 10/22/99, p.B1)(AP, 6/26/97)
1900 Jun 27, Otto E. Passman
(Rep-D-La, 1947-77), was born.
1900 Jun 29, Antoine de
Saint-Exupery (d.1944), French aviator and writer, was born. In 1970
Curtis Cate published the biography: “Antoine de Saint-Exupery."
(WUD, 1994, p.1261)(SFEC, 6/15/97, p.A2)(SFEC,
5/28/00, p.A15)(HN, 6/29/01)
1900 Jul 2, Tyrone Guthrie,
English theater director, was born.
1900 Jul 2, Count Ferdinand
Adolf Heinrich August von Zeppelin (1838-1917) made the 1st
successful flight of his lighter-than-air ship LZ-1 in
Friedrichshafen, Germany. The 400 foot craft stayed aloft 17 minutes
before it crashed.
(AHM, 1/97)(WSJ, 2/120/00, p.A1)(ON, 3/03, p.11)
1900 Jul 9, Queen Victoria
signed The Commonwealth of Australia Constitution Act, uniting 6
separate colonies under a federal government, effective Jan 1, 1901.
1900 Jul 14, European Allies
retook Tientsin, China, from the rebelling Boxers.
1900 Jul 24, Zelda Sayre,
writer (Save me the Waltz) was born.
1900 Jul 28, The hamburger was
created by Louis Lassing in Connecticut.
1900 Jul 29, Owen Lattimore,
writer, was born.
1900 Jul 29, Italian King
Humbert I (b.1844) was assassinated by Gaetano Bresci, an
Italian-born anarchist who had resided in America before returning
to Italy to murder the king. The murder was believed to be due to
the king’s decision to fire cannon rounds into a crowd of starving
peasants and workers that had assembled asking the king for
assistance; 100s were killed; Bresci was arrested, found guilty, and
sentenced to a life of hard labor at Santo Stefano Prison on
Ventotene Island. Humbert was succeeded by his son, Victor Emmanuel
(AP, 7/29/00)(WSJ, 1/28/07,
1900 Jul, Mount Adatara erupted
and left 72 people dead.
(SFEC, 4/2/00, p.A17)
1900 Aug 3, Ernie Pyle
(d.1945), World War II correspondent who wrote about the common
soldier, was born. "One of the paradoxes of war is that those in the
rear want to get up into the fight, while those in the lines want to
(HN, 8/3/98)(AP, 4/18/99)
1900 Aug 3, John T. Scopes,
Tennessee teacher convicted for teaching evolution, was born.
1900 Aug 4, Elizabeth
Bowes-Lyon (d.2002), later known as the Queen Mum (mother of Queen
Elizabeth II), was born in Scotland as the daughter of Lord Glamis,
who became the 14th Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne. She later
became the wife of King George VI.
(SFC, 8/4/00, p.A18)(SFC, 8/5/00, p.A12)(WSJ,
8/10/00, p.A16)(MC, 8/4/02)
1900 Aug 12, Wilhelm Steinitz,
Chess champion (1866-1894), died in Prague.
1900 Aug 14, International
forces from 8 nations, including 2,000 US Marines and Japanese
troops, entered Beijing to put down the Boxer Rebellion, which was
aimed at purging China of foreigners and foreign influence.
(AP, 8/14/01)(Econ, 12/18/10, p.75)
1900 Aug 17, Quincy Howe,
newscaster (CBS Weekend News), was born in Boston, Mass.
1900 Aug 22, Gabriel Fauré’s
opera "Promethee," premiered in Beziers.
1900 Aug 23, Booker T.
Washington formed the National Negro Business League in Boston,
1900 Aug 25, Philosopher
Friedrich Nietzsche (55) died in Weimar, Germany. In 1999 Ronald
Taylor translated into English the book "Nietzsche and Wagner" by
Joachim Köhler. In 2002 Taylor translated Joachim Kohler’s
"Zarathustra’s Secret: The Interior Life of Friedrich Nietzsche." In
2004 Georges Liebert authored "Nietzsche and Music."
(WSJ, 2/4/99, p.A20)(AP, 8/25/00)(SSFC, 6/9/02,
p.M5)(WSJ, 1/28/04, p.D6)
1900 Aug 31, British troops
1900 Aug, David Hilbert, a
German mathematician, presented a challenge list of 23 equations at
a meeting of the Int’l. Congress of Mathematicians in Paris. In 2000
three of the equations still remained unsolved.
(SFC, 5/25/00, p.A2)(SFEC, 8/27/00, BR p.1)
1900 Sep 1, Richard Arlen,
actor (Alice in Wonderland) was born.
1900 Sep 1, Andrei Vlasov,
Russian general (Red Army, Wehrmacht), was born.
1900 Sep 7, Taylor Caldwell,
novelist, was born.
1900 Sep 8, Claude Pepper,
Democratic senator and congressman from Florida, champion of senior
citizens rights, was born.
1900 Sep 8, Some 6,000-8,000
people were killed in Galveston by flying debris, collapsing
buildings and drowning. The storm let up around midnight, leaving in
its wake $30 million in damage and thousands of bodies. Many of the
dead had to be hastily dumped in the ocean for fear of spreading
disease. Bishop's Palace in Galveston, Texas, remained standing amid
piles of rubble after the island city suffered the greatest natural
disaster in U.S. history. By nightfall, winds reached 125 mph and
the city was under 15 feet of water. The storm battered Galveston
for 18 hours and some 3,600 buildings were destroyed. Reports of the
storm failed to reach Galveston because the US Weather Service had
temporarily banned the cable transmission of Cuban weather reports.
In 1999 Erik Larson published "Isaac's Storm."
(AP, 9/8/97)(HNPD, 9/8/98)(SFC, 11/30/98,
p.A2)(WSJ, 9/3/99, p.W8)(SFC, 9/22/05, p.A17)
1900 Sep 9, James Hilton,
British novelist who authored "Lost Horizon" and "Goodbye Mr.
Chips," was born. In Lost Horizon he created the imaginary world of
1900 Sep 19, President Loubet
of France pardoned Jewish army captain Alfred Dreyfus, twice
court-martialed and wrongly convicted of spying for Germany.
1900 Sep, The Spreckels Temple
of Music was dedicated in San Francisco’s Golden Gate Park. Adolph
B. Spreckels convinced his father, sugar king Claus Spreckels, to
contribute $60,000 to transform the Grand Court of the 1884 fair
into a music concourse. The bandshell, damaged by the 1989
earthquake, was put up for a $2 million restoration in 1991 and set
to reopen in 1993.
(SFC, 5/19/96,City Guide, p.5)(SFC, 7/29/97,
p.A6)(SSFC, 7/31/16, DB p.50)
1900 Oct 1, Oldham, England,
announced that Winston Churchill had won the election as the town's
second MP, beginning Churchill's long career in the House of
1900 Oct 2, William A. ‘Bud’
Abbot, comedian, was born. He was the straight man to Lou Costello.
1900 Oct 3, Thomas Wolfe
(d.1938), American author (Look Homeward Angel), was born in
Ashville, NC. "All youth is bound to be 'misspent'; there is
something in its very nature that makes it so, and that is why all
men regret it." "Loneliness ... is and always has been the central
and inevitable experience of every man."--From "You Can't Go Home
(AP, 7/28/97)(AP, 9/18/98)(HN, 10/3/98)
1900 Oct 3, Edward Elgar,
Cardinal John Henry Newman's oratorium, premiered in Birmingham.
1900 Oct 7, Heinrich Himmler,
chicken farmer who became the head of the German Gestapo in Hitler's
Germany, was born. [see Oct 20, 1900]
1900 Oct 8, Maximilian Harden
was sentenced to six months in prison for publishing an article
critical of the German Kaiser.
1900 Oct 10, Helen Brown (later
Helen Hayes, d.1993), American actress, was born in Washington, D.C.
Her Tony Awards include: Best Dramatic Actress in 1947 for "Happy
Birthday", and again in 1958 for "Time Remembered". Her talents were
recognized on movie screens (Hayes appeared in films as early as
1927) as she received an Academy Award for Best Actress for her
first major role: "The Sin of Madelon Claudet" in 1931, and forty
years later for Best Supporting Actress in "Airport." “The truth
(is) that there is only one terminal dignity— love. And the story of
a love is not important—what is important is that one is capable of
love. It is perhaps the only glimpse we are permitted of eternity."
(HN, 10/10/98)(AP, 10/10/00)(MC, 10/10/01)
1900 Oct 10, Fred Holland Day
exhibited his work at the London Exhibition under the auspices of
the Royal Photographic Society.
(Civilization, July-Aug. 1995, p.40-47)
1900 Oct 15, Boston’s Symphony
Hall, one of the world's most highly regarded concert halls, was
inaugurated. It was the 1st to be built in known conformity with
acoustical laws described by Harvard physicist Wallace Sabine.
1900 Oct 20, Wayne Morse,
(Sen-R/D-Ore), was born.
1900 Oct 20, Heinrich Himmler,
head of SS, was born. [see Oct 7, 1900]
1900 Oct 26, After 4 years of
work the 1st section of NY subway opened. [see Feb 26, 1870]
1900 Oct, The Wright Brothers
began active flying experiments at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. Their
first glider was a biplane that soared for 300 feet.
(SSFC, 12/14/03, p.D3)(NPub, 2002, p.5)
1900 Nov 3, The first
automobile show in the United States opened at Madison Square Garden
in New York under the auspices of the Automobile Club of America.
(WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)(AP, 11/3/97)
1900 Nov 6, President McKinley
was re-elected, beating Democrat William Jennings Bryan.
(AP, 11/6/97)(HN, 11/6/98)
1900 Nov 7, Heinrich Himmler,
Head of the Nazi SS and organizer of extermination camps in Eastern
Europe, was born.
1900 Nov 7, Efrem Kurtz,
conductor (Houston Symph 1948-54), was born in St Petersburg,
1900 Nov 8, Margaret Mitchell
(d.1949), American writer, was born. She found success in her first
and only novel, “Gone With the Wind."
1900 Nov 8, Albert Friedrich
Frey-Wyssling, Swiss botanist and molecular biology pioneer, was
1900 Nov 8, Theodore Dreiser’s
first novel “Sister Carrie" was published by Doubleday, but was
recalled from stores shortly due to public sentiment.
1900 Nov 9, Russia completed
its occupation of Manchuria.
Nov 12, A World Fair, the Great Exposition in Paris, closed. 50
million visitors attended the fair, which included Art Nouveau
architecture, furniture, jewelry, ceramics, posters, glass,
textiles, and metalwork. Jewelry by René Lalique was also exhibited
at the fair. [see Apr 14]
1900 Nov 14, Aaron Copeland
(d.1990), American composer, was born. His works included
"Billy the Kidd," "Appalachian Spring" and "Fanfare for the Common
(DrEE, 9/28/96, p.1)(HN, 11/14/99)
1900 Nov 18, Dr. Howard
Thurman, theologian and first African American to hold a full time
position at Boston University, was born.
1900 Nov 19, Anna Seghers,
[Netty Radvanyi-Reiling], German author (7th Cross), was born.
1900 Nov 22, Sir Arthur
Sullivan (b.1842), English composer, died. His operas included
“H.M.S. Pinafore," “Iolanthe," “Patience," “The Pirates of
Penzance," “Princess Ida," “The Mikado," “Trial by Jury," and “The
Yeoman of the Guard."
(WSJ, 11/22/00, p.A20)
1900 Nov 25, Helen Gahagan
Douglas, Nixon's 1st opponent, (Rep-D-Ca), was born.
1900 Nov 29, Mildred Elizabeth
Sisk, the infamous American-born Axis Sally, was born. She broadcast
propaganda for Radio Berlin from Nazi Germany to Allied troops
during the Second World War.
1900 Nov 30, The French
government denounced the British government and declared sympathy
for the Boers.
1900 Nov 30, A German engineer
patented front-wheel drive for automobiles.
1900 Nov 30, Irish author Oscar
Wilde (b.1856) died in a Paris hotel room after saying of the room's
wallpaper: "One of us had to go." In 2000 “the Complete Letters of
Oscar Wilde," edited by Merlin Holland, Wilde’s grandson, was
(V.D.-H.K.p.279)(AP, 11/30/97)(HN, 11/30/00)(SFC,
1900 Nov, Henry Ford’s Detroit
Automobile Company failed. It was revived in 1901 as the Henry Ford
1900 Dec 1, Kaiser Wilhelm II
refused to meet with Boer leader Paul Kruger in Berlin.
1900 Dec 2, John Hossack
(b.1841), an Iowa farmer and a prosperous citizen of Warren County,
was killed in his bed from two blows with an ax. His wife was
accused of the murder. In 1927 Susan Gaspell (1876-1948), American
novelist and playwright, authored “A Jury of Her Peers," a short
story based on his murder trial.
1900 Dec 4, The French National
Assembly, successor to the States-General, rejected Nationalist
General Mercier’s proposal to plan an invasion of England.
1900 Dec 9, The Russian Czar
rejected Paul Kruger’s pleas for aid to the Boers in South Africa
against the British.
1900 Dec 14, Max Planck
(1858-1947), German physicist, presented the quantum theory at the
Physics Society in Berlin. Planck, demonstrated that energy,
in certain situations, can exhibit characteristics of physical
matter. Planck was rewarded the Nobel Prize (1918) in Physics for
his work on blackbody radiation.
(HN, 12/14/98)(MC, 12/14/01)
1900 Dec 16, V.S. Pritchett
(d.1997), English writer, was born in Ipswich. The first volume of
his autobiography was called “A Cab at the Door."
(SFC, 3/22/97, p.A21)
1900 Dec 17, Ellis Island
immigration center re-opened following an 1897 fire.
(SFEC, 6/20/99, p.T10)
1900 Dec 23, The Federal Party,
which recognized American sovereignty, was formed in the
1900 Dec 27, Militant
prohibitionist and temperance agitator Carry Nation, (Carrie
Nation), first used a hatchet to carry out her public smashings of a
bar, at the Carey Hotel in Wichita, Kan. As a result, the hatchet
soon became the symbol of her crusade against alcohol. Born in
Kentucky, Nation‘s first husband died of alcoholism and her second
marriage ended in divorce. She was often arrested, fined and jailed
for her actions. She published the Smasher in Topeka. Advertisers
boycotted and the paper failed.
(AP, 12/27/97)(SFEC, 3/8/98, BR p.6)(HNQ,
1900 Dec 31, In Mexico it was
rumored in San Jose de Gracia, Michoacan state, that the world would
come to an end on this date. A 1968 biography of this was recorded
in "Pueblo en Vilo" (Town on Edge) by Luis Gonzalez y Gonzales,
considered to be the founder of microhistory in Mexico.
(Econ., 10/3/20, p.71)
1900 Aaron Copland (d.1990),
composer, was born. In 1999 Howard Pollack published Aaron Copland:
The Life and Work of an Uncommon Man."
(WSJ, 3/10/99, p.A20)
1900 Elmo Roper, polster, was
born. He was the first to apply market research skills to measure
(SFC, 12/27/99, p.E3)
1900 Pierre Bonnard
(1867-1947), French artist, painted "Siesta."
1900 Edouard Vuillard, French
artist, painted a portrait of painter “Felix Valloton."
(SFC, 9/24/10, p.F5)
1900 Childe Hassan painted his
“Late Afternoon, New York, Winter."
(WSJ, 6/6/95, p.A-14)
1900 Picasso painted "Moilin de
(WSJ, 2/16/00, p.A14)
1900 In Russia Apollinarius
Vaznetsov painted a view of workmen building the 12th century wooden
ramparts of the Kremlin.
(AM, Jul/Aug ‘97 p.31)
1900 Vlaminck painted “The
(WSJ, 5/30/00, p.A24)
1900 Mary Austin (d.1934) wrote
her classic “The Land of Little Rain" in the town of Independence in
Inyo County, Ca. Her work included 30 published books
(SFEC, 5/7/00, p.T6)
1900 Frank Baum published “The
Wonderful Wizard of Oz." Baum, a playwright and former chicken
farmer wrote his Oz book in 1899.
(WSJ, 5/22/97, p.A13)(SFEC, 11/8/98, DB p.5)
1900 Willa Cather published
“Eric Hermannson’s Soul" in Cosmopolitan. In 1998 an opera based on
the story was composed by Libby Larson with libretto by Chas
Rader-Shieber. It was commissioned to celebrate the 40th anniversary
of the Omaha Opera.
(WSJ, 11/30/98, p.A20)
1900 Charles Chesnutt (b.1858),
African-American writer, authored his novel “The House Behind the
(HN, 6/20/01)(WSJ, 1/22/02, p.A11)
1900 Edith Wharton wrote seven
successful stories and her novel, “The Valley of Decision."
(Hem, Dec. 94, p.71)
1900 Freud published his
“Interpretation of Dreams."
1900 Cecil B. DeMille
began working on plays with his older brother William, enjoying
moderate success for 12 years.
1900 The opera "Louise" by
Gustave Charpentier, about a Parisien seamstress, was the
first new opera of the century.
(SFC, 9/15/99, p.B1)
1900 Edward Elgar put music to
the poem “The Dream of Gerontius" by Cardinal John Henry Newman, the
English convert to Catholicism.
(SFEC, 10/7/96, A20)
1900 The first Santas of the
Salvation Army stepped into the streets and were initially arrested
as public nuisances.
(SFC, 6/19/99, p.B7)
1900 Paul P. Harris met
attorney Bob Frank for dinner in a well-off neighborhood on the
North Side of Chicago. They took a walk around the area and stopped
at shops along the way. Harris was impressed by how Frank had made
friends with many of the shopkeepers. Eventually, Harris persuaded
other local businessmen to meet and discuss forming a club for
commercial trade, community, and fellowship. His vision laid the
foundation for the Rotary of today.
1900 Charles Comiskey, manager
of the National League’s Cincinnati Reds, bought the Western
League’s St. Paul team and moved it to Chicago as the White
(ON, 6/09, p.11)
1900 At the Olympics in Paris a
Belgian sharpshooter killed 21 live pigeons. The event was abolished
shortly thereafter. Separately the game of croquet was featured for
the first and last time.
(WSJ, 7/23/96, p.A6)
1900 Belgian horse rider
Constant van Langhendonck (1870-1944) won an Olympic gold medal in
Paris with a 6.1 meter jump in the equestrian long jump.
(Econ., 7/25/20, p.12)
1900 The sport of Cricket was
included at the Paris Olympics. France was the runner up to Britain.
(Econ, 5/9/15, p.16)
1900 At the turn of the 20th
century, small-town photographers in the Midwest and West turned out
thousands of "larger than life" postcards. Produced by piecing
together parts from several photographs, shooting the whole and
printing it on postcard paper, the cards were early efforts at trick
photography. The postcards humorously promoted the fruitfulness of
1900 The US Navy commissioned
its first submarine, the USS Holland, for $150,000. It was named
after the Irish inventor John Holland. His first sub was the Fenian
Ram, paid for by Irish rebels hoping to challenge British control of
(SFEC, 8/11/96, zone 1, p.6)(WSJ, 4/28/00, p.W17)
c1900 James J. Hill, a turn of
the century robber baron, planned to consolidate the Great Northern
and the Northern Pacific Railroads. His efforts were blocked by
anti-trust regulation and gave Teddy Roosevelt his reputation as a
trust buster. In 1996 Dr. Michael Malone authored “James J. Hill:
Empire Builder of the Northwest."
(WSJ, 10/1/98, p.B6)
1900 The 110-mile White Pass
& Yukon narrow-gauge railroad from Skagway to Whitehorse, the
Alaska-British Columbia border, was completed.
(SFEC,11/16/97, p.T5)(SFEC, 2/8/98, p.T3)
1900 In San Francisco a two
storey home was built at 145 Buena Vista Ave. East. In 2015 the
upper condo 3-bedroom unit was listed for $2.75 million.
(SFC, 5/1/15, p.C4)
1900 San Francisco Mayor James
Phelan spoke against Japanese immigration in the state’s first
large-scale public protest against the Japanese.
(SFC, 8/23/14, p.C2)
1900 California’s first car
race was held at the Ingleside Race Track in San Francisco.
(SFC, 8/28/00, p.A2)
c1900 The Ordonez cannon was
brought back from the Philippines to the Presidio in SF as a trophy
of war. It had been manufactured in Spain and was initially captured
by the Filipinos from the Spanish army. It suffered a direct hit
from US forces in an engagement near Subic Bay.
(SFC, 6/9/97, p.A15,16)
1900 Frenchman Georges de
Latour founded Beaulieu Vineyard near Rutherford in Napa Valley Ca.
(SFC, 10/10/08, p.F3)
1900 The Auto Club of
California was spawned by a meeting of 11 "automobilists" at the SF
(SFC, 3/21/00, p.A17,20)
1900 Rose Hill cemetery closed
on Mount Diablo, Ca., as the nearby coal mining town closed down.
The oldest grave there dated to 1865. The area later became part of
the Black Diamond Mines Regional Park in Antioch.
(SFC, 9/8/09, p.C5)
c1900 San Clemente, Ca., was
built and the 1st mayor, Ole Hanson, planned to make it look like a
Greek fishing village.
(SFEC, 8/1/99, p.T6)
c1900 Abbot Kinney bought some
marshland outside of Los Angeles and created a Venice of the West
with dredged canals, boardwalks and piers.
(SFEM, 6/18/00, p.8)
1900 Around this time San
Francisco Bay Area oil companies began using the copper ore and
later pyrite from Iron Mountain to produce sulfuric acid for use in
the oil refining process.
1900 About 16,000 Indians
remained in all of California.
(SFEC, 9/20/98, Z1 p.4)
1900 William L. Murphy of
Stockton, Ca., designed a folding bed for his SF apartment and
applied for a patent. [see 1909]
(SFC, 8/19/98, Z1 p.7)
c1900 Florida’s wineries were
wiped out by Pierce’s disease. Growers then switched to orange
1900 Efforts to eradiate
plague in Honolulu led to planned fires, one of which got out of
control and burned Chinatown. In 2004 James C. Mohr authored “Plague
and Fire: Battling Black Death and the 1900 Burning of Honolulu’s
(SSFC, 12/19/04, p.E2)
1900 The Hawaiian language was
officially banned from government offices in Hawaii, and was only
allowed to be taught in schools as a foreign language.
(Wired, 8/95, p.90)
1900 Chicago reversed the water
flow of the Chicago River so that it would flow in from Lake
Michigan and carry pollution out to drain into the Mississippi.
(SSFC, 8/18/02, p.C12)(Econ, 11/19/11, p.43)
1900 A group of hobos from
Chicago began convening on an annual basis in Britt, Iowa. They
called themselves Tourists Union No. 63. In 1933 the Britt Chamber
of Commerce began sponsoring their annual National Hobo Convention.
(SFC, 1/26/04, p.B4)
1900 Edward S. Curtis
(1868-1952) Seattle-based photographer, accompanied ethnographer
George bird Grinnell to a reservation Montana took photographs of
Blood, Blackfeet and Algonquin Indians gathered there for their
annual sun dance. In 1906 he announced plans for 20-volume work
documenting Western Indians, The North American Indian. His first
volume was published in 1907. The last two volumes appeared in 1930.
1900 Major silver and gold
deposits were found at Tonopoh, Nevada.
(SFEC, 7/9/00, DB p.67)
1900 The Victory Theater was
built on 42nd St between 7th and 8th, i.e. Broadway in NYC by Oscar
Hammerstein, the grandfather of the well-known lyricist. In the
1930s it became Minskys, the famous burlesque house. It was restored
in the 1990s and used for children’s theater productions.
(WSJ, 12/15/95, p.A-16)(SFC, 5/17/97, p.E1)
1900 Joshua Lionel Cowen
(1877-1965), inventor, along with some partners founded Lionel Corp
in NYC. Operation were later based outside Detroit and Lionel grew
to become the world’s largest toy maker in the 1950s. [see 1901]
1900 New York ornithologist
Frank Chapman launched his Christmas Bird Count as a bold new
alternative to what had been a longtime Christmas tradition of
1900 In Greensboro, NC, the
cotton processing Revolution Mill was established. By 1938 it was
the world’s largest factory exclusively making flannel. The mill
ceased production in 1982.
(Econ, 10/1/16, SR p.3)
1900 Frank Doernbecher (d.1921)
founded Doernbecher Manufacturing in Portland, Oregon. The company
was eventually taken over by Barker Furniture.
(SFC, 11/1/06, p.G2)
1900 The construction of the
rococo City Hall in Philadelphia was completed. The architect was
John McArthur Jr.
(SFEC, 8/16/98, p.T1)
1900 In Philadelphia, Pa., the
8-million, 110-room Lynnewood Hall, home to the uber-wealthy Widener
family, was completed. It came to be called "the last of the
American Versailles." French landscape architect Jacques Greber
designed the formal French gardens, which were graced by his brother
Henri-Louis Greber's fountain of bronze and marble statuary. P.A.B.
Widener's son, Joseph, died there in 1943 and the younger generation
deemed the property too large to maintain. Much of the acreage was
sold to developers and the opulent furnishings were auctioned. In
1952, the Rev. Carl McIntire of Collingswood, N.J., a controversial
fundamentalist preacher, bought the property for $190,000 and
established a Christian seminary. In 1993 New York physician Richard
Sei-Oung Yoon, a former student of McIntire and one-time chancellor
of the cash-strapped seminary, bought its mortgage for $1.6 million
with plans of establishing his own church there.
1900 Robert LeRoy Parker and
Harry Alonzo Longabaugh (aka Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid) and
their Wild Bunch went to Fort Worth after their last holdup of the
First National Bank at Winnemucca, Nevada. They posed for pictures
at John Swartz’s photo studio.
(HT, 4/97, p.45)(SFC, 1/19/98, p.A10)
1900 In Texas the Goodall
Wooten mansion was built in Austin. It was transformed into a hotel
(SSFC, 9/8/13, p.N3)
1900 The Dallas Symphony
Orchestra was founded.
(WSJ, 2/4/99, p.A20)
1900 Forestry student Benton
MacKaye dreamed up the idea of an Appalacian Trail during a hike in
Green Mountains of Vermont.
(Econ, 8/6/16, p.69)
1900 Harvey Firestone founded
the Firestone Tire & Rubber Co.
(SFC, 12/25/96, p.A22)
1900 Frank Brownell, creator of
Eastman’s Kodak camera, designed the Brownie camera.
(ON, 3/05, p.12)
1900 Ellsworth M. Statler,
hotel man, advertised “A room with a bath for a dollar and a half."
(SFC, 3/21/98, p.E3)
1900 Louis Bachelier
(1870-1946), financial economist, wrote a dissertation in
Paris, "Theorie de la Spéculation." This and his subsequent work
(esp. 1906, 1913) anticipated much of what was to become standard
fare in financial theory: efficient market hypothesis, random walk
of financial market prices, Brownian motion and martingales. He was
a student of French mathematician Henri Poincare. Bachelier’s
insights later underpinned the Black-Scholes option pricing model.
(WSJ, 7/16/03, p.D8)(Econ, 12/19/09, p.130)
1900 Frederick Weyerhaeuser, a
German immigrant, and 15 partners purchased 900,000 acres of land
from a railway company in Washington state.
(Econ, 6/10/06, p.30)
1900 Max Planck suggested that
energy is not exchanged in a continuous flow but by individual
packets, or quanta; energy moved not like a river but like
raindrops. Planck promulgated his Planck’s constant h, to solve
problems in quantum mechanics.
(NG, May 1985, p.642)(NH, 11/1/04, p.24)
1900 Johan Vaaler, a Norwegian
living in Germany, invented the paper clip.
(SFEC, 5/23/99, p.B7)
1900 Nickel-cadmium battery
cells were developed about this time.
(Econ, 3/8/08, TQ p.23)
1900 Einstein graduated with a
degree in mathematics.
1900 America had some 500
carmakers at this time. By 1908 the number fell to 200.
(Econ, 5/19/12, p.83)
1900 The population of the
world again doubled from what it was in 1800 to more than 1600
1900 In the US tuberculosis
killed 150,000 people.
(WSJ, 4/14/99, p.A1)
1900 Global life expectancy at
birth was about 32 years.
(Econ, 4/29/17, p.45)
1900 Clarence Warner and
“Tarantula Jack" Smith staked a claim for copper in Alaska. They
later sold it to Stephen Birch, who found financial backing for a
company that eventually became Kennecott Copper.
(AH, 10/01, HT p.30)
1900 Sir Arthur Evans excavated
at the Minoan palace of Cnossos [Knossos] and discovered Greek
writings known as Linear B dated to 1400 BC. In 1956 Michael Ventris
(d.1956) and John Chadwick (d.1998 at 78) published a translation of
the script as “Documents in Mycenaean Greek."
(SFC, 12/8/98, p.B6)
1900 Stephen Crane, American
writer, died of tuberculosis at age 28. He authored 5 novels. In
1998 Linda H. Davis published the biography “Badge of Courage." In
the early 1890s Crane lived in the Bowery area of New York City and,
resulting from his firsthand observation of poverty in the slums, he
wrote Maggie: A Girl of the Streets (1893), a book considered
shocking at the time. Crane covered the Greco-Turkish War in 1897
and the Spanish-American War in 1898 as a news correspondent. His
later short-story collections, such as “The Open Boat and Other
Tales of Adventure" (1898), are recognized as masterpieces of the
(WSJ, 8/6/98, p.A13)(HNQ, 11/16/98)
1900 In Australia Helena
Rubinstein (b.1871 in Cracow) opened a beauty shop and sold a cold
cream developed by a Hungarian chemist and relative, Jacob Lykusky.
(SFEM, 8/23/98, p.29)
1900 In Australia residents of
Roma, Queensland, struck natural gas while drilling deep for water.
(Econ, 6/2/12, p.50)
1900 Kensal Rise library in the
London borough of Brent was opened by Mark Twain. In 2011 it faced
closure due to government cuts.
c1900 Sir Arthur Conan Doyle
wrote numerous articles and pamphlets in defense of British
concentration camps during the Boer War, for which he was knighted.
(SFC, 9/5/98, p.E3)
1900 In Britain employees of
the Taff Vale Railway Co. in South Wales greased the tracks and cut
telegraph wires during a bitter strike. In 1901 the House of Lords
ruled that their union could be sued for damaging the company. The
shock to the union movement inspired the Labour Party and a 1906
Trade Disputes Act.
(Econ, 5/22/10, p.60)
c1900 Charles Spearman, an
English psychologist, hypothesized the g factor as a measure of
smartness based on correlations on how people performed on tests of
different mental abilities. He invented a mathematical technique
called factor analysis to measure the factor dubbed g, for general.
In 1998 Arthur R. Jenson published “The g Factor: The Science of
(WSJ, 6/2/98, p.A20)
1900 John Ruskin (b.1819),
Victorian art critic and social commentator, died. He was considered
in his time a colossus of esthetic, moral and social wisdom. In 1985
Tim Hilton authored “John Ruskin: The Early Years." In 2000 Tim
Hilton authored “John Ruskin: The Later Years."
(WSJ, 5/12/00, p.A24)
1900 Britain had 188 banks and
Canada had 35. Within 25 years half the banks in both countries had
(Econ, 11/10/12, p.78)
1900 American businessman
Charles Tyson Yerkes arrived in London, the world’s largest city
with 6.5 million inhabitants. Over the next five years he was
intrumental in expanding the London underground.
(Econ, 12/20/14, p.72)
1900 In London an estimated
300,000 horses pulled cabs and omnibuses as well as a variety of
transport wagons. NYC counted some 100,000 horses.
(Econ, 11/26/16, SR p.3)
c1900 Wang Yuanlu, a Chinese
monk, discovered a set of manuscripts in the Mogao caves near
Dunhuang in Gansu province. The “Library Cave" contained as many as
50,000 items, mostly Buddhist documents, from 400-1000AD.
(AM, 7/00, p.72)
1900 As artillery shells
crashed around their house during the siege of Tientsin, Lou Hoover
played solitaire. She and new husband Herbert Hoover had moved there
after their wedding in 1899. Herbert had been engaged as the
Director General of the Department of Mines of the Chinese
Government. News from China during the Boxer Rebellion was bleak,
and one New York newspaper had reported their deaths and printed
1900 The Lohner-Porsche was
introduced at the World’s Fair in Paris. The hybrid car relied on
batteries and a generator to produce electricity for its motors.
Ferdinand Porsche working for Jacob Lohner in Vienna put electric
motors into the hubs of the wheels of the Lohner-Porsche.
(Econ, 4/24/10, p.78)
1900 Greeks from the island of
Kefalonia began to migrate to Manchuria after 1900 and flourished in
the liquor and property business. Their world collapsed in 12949
when the Communists took power.
(Econ, 8/23/08, p.52)
1900 In India the Maharajah of
Patiala, Sir Bhupinder Singh, ascended the throne of Patiala at the
age of 8. Patiala was a prominent Sikh state in northwestern India.
He was known for his jeweled sarpech, a turban ornament.
(WSJ, 11/5/99, p.W16)
1900 Silvio Scandalli started
to produce accordions with the help of his family. In a few years
between 1915 and 1921, out of a small workshop in Camerano a small
company was created which was to become an industrial force, that in
1941 employed over 700 workers. After the end of the second world
war, the accordion became hugely popular in the USA and the factory
of the Scandalli brothers was amongst the most well known and
prestigious. Thanks to the genius of Silvio and his many inventions
and patents which were applied to his accordions, the Scandalli
brand became synonymous with quality and a bench mark for other
instruments. In 1946 to meet the challenges and opportunities of new
markets, F.lli Scandalli of Camerano and Settimio Soprani of
Castelfidardo combined to form Farfisa (from Fabbriche Riunite di
Fisarmoniche). This company in turn was to become one of the worlds'
biggest musical instrument factories and at this time was producing
180 accordions a day. The impetus of this new company led to the
formation of the CDMI (Centro Didattico Musicale Italiano ) and many
famous composers wrote pieces for the accordion and teaching methods
for the Edizioni Musicali Farfisa.
1900 Nepalese were recruited
into Bhutan as loggers.
(WSJ, 3/6/97, p.A8)
1900 Jose Eca de Queiroz,
Portuguese novelist, died. His novels included an 1875 satire about
a priest struggling with his vows of celibacy. It was made into a
Mexican film "El Crimen del Padre Amaro" (The Crime of Father
Amaro) in 2002.
1900 The Nobel Foundation was
established in Sweden in accord with the will of Alfred Nobel.
(ON, 4/07, p.7)
1900s The Blue Rider movement
of expressionist painting centered in Munich in the early 1900s.
1900-1901 Sai Jinhua (c1872-1936), Chinese
courtesan and the acquaintance of German field marshal Alfred von
Waldersee, was credited with influencing Waldersee to moderate the
harsh treatment of Beijing residents during the Boxer Rebellion.
Jinhua used her knowledge of German to save the Qing emperor from
1900-1902 US Colonel Leonard Wood served as
governor of Cuba. He cleaned up unsanitary conditions and supported
medical investigations that tied yellow fever and malaria to
(WSJ, 12/7/05, p.D12)
1900-1902 Lord Herbert Horatio Kitchener created
concentration camps in South Africa where hundreds of thousands of
Boer women, children and old men were herded. An estimated 16,000
died in the camps.
(WSJ, 2/27/00, p.A24)
1900-1903 San Francisco’s Union Square was
redesigned with the Dewey Memorial at its center. It was designed by
sculptor Robert J. Aitken and architect Newton J. Tharp. [see May
(SSFC, 7/21/02, p.F2)
1900-1910 In the early 1900s A.C. Williams Co. of
Ravenna, Ohio, became the world’s largest producer of toys and still
banks. The company had started out manufacturing stoves and tools.
(SFC, 3/1/06, p.G7)
1900-1914 Vincent Cronin, historian, depicts this
period in Paris, France, in his book: “Paris on the Eve, 1900-1914."
(WSJ, 11/21/95, p.A-12)
1900-1914 In 2008 Phillip Blom authored “The
Vertigo Years: Europe 1900-1914."
(Econ, 11/8/08, p.102)
1900-1920 Eugene V. Debs (d.1926) ran for
president five separate times on the Socialist ticket, twice earning
close to a million votes. [see 1926]
1900-1933 The first volume of “A History of the
Twentieth Century" by Sir Martin Gilbert was published in 1997.
(SFEC, 1/4/98, Par. p.6)
1900-1947 This period of India’s history is
covered in the 2007 book “Indian summer: The Secret History of the
End of an Empire," by Alex von Tunzelmann.
(SSFC, 8/12/07, p.M3)
1900-1948 Zelda Sayre Fitzgerald, American writer:
"Nobody has ever measured, even poets, how much a heart can hold."
"By the time a person has achieved years adequate for choosing a
direction, the die is cast and the moment has long passed which
determined the future."
(AP, 11/24/97)(AP, 1/25/99)
1900-1948 H.L. Mencken, Baltimore newspaperman,
chronicled the meetings of both US political parties over this
(Hem, 8/96, p.84)
1900-1949 The “Letters of Heirich and Thomas Mann"
of this period were translated to English and published in 1998.
(SFEC, 4/5/98, BR p.6)
1900-1950 “American Popular Song: The Great
Innovators," 1900-1950, was written by Alec Wilder.
(WSJ, 6/28/96, p.A7)
1900-1950 In 1999 Barbara Haskell, a curator at
the Whitney Museum, authored "The American Century Art and Culture
(WSJ, 4/23/99, W9C)
1900-1959 George Antheil, composer, was born in
(WSJ, 4/23/98, p.A16)
1900-1969 John Mason Brown, American essayist:
“Reasoning with a child is fine, if you can reach the child’s reason
without destroying your own."
1900-1973 Maria Martins, Brazilian sculptor. She
was portrayed in a 1934 painting by Marcel Duchamp “Given: 1. The
Waterfall, 2. The Illuminating Gas."
(SFC, 5/2/00, p.D1)
1900-1976 Richard Hughes, Welsh author and
dramatist: “Middle age snuffs out more talent than ever wars or
sudden deaths do."
1900-1977 Edward Dahlberg, American author and
critic: "The people who think they are happy should rummage through
their dreams." "It takes a long time to understand nothing."
(AP, 12/10/98)(AP, 4/28/99)
1900-1980 Helen Gahagan Douglas, U.S.
representative: “In trying to make something new, half the
undertaking lies in discovering whether it can be done. Once it has
been established that it can, duplication is inevitable."
1900-1986 The history of Jerusalem over this
period is covered by Martin Gilbert in his book: “Jerusalem in the
(SFC, 10/18/96, C8)
1900-1988 Louise Nevelson, Russian-American
artist: “I never liked the middle ground—the most boring place in
the world." "What we call reality is an agreement that people have
arrived at to make life more livable."
(AP, 7/25/97)(AP, 5/5/99)
1900-1993 Marion “Joe" Carstairs, cross-dressing
heiress of the Standard Oil fortune, bought and settled on the
Caribbean island of Whale Cay in 1933. In 1998 Kate Summerscale
published her biography: “The Queen of Whale Cay."
(SFEC, 6/28/98, BR p.9)
1900-2000 This period in French history was
covered by British Historian Rod Kedward in his 2005 work: “La Vie
en Bleu: France and the French Since 1900."
(Econ, 8/13/05, p.73)